WorldWideScience

Sample records for irregularly spaced calculation

  1. GARCH and Irregularly Spaced Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meddahi, N.; Renault, E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    An exact discretization of continuous time stochastic volatility processes observed at irregularly spaced times is used to give insights on how a coherent GARCH model can be specified for such data. The relation of our approach with those in the existing literature is studied.

  2. Multiresolution Analysis Adapted to Irregularly Spaced Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Mokraoui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mathematical background of multiresolution analysis in the specific context where the signal is represented by irregularly sampled data at known locations. The study is related to the construction of nested piecewise polynomial multiresolution spaces represented by their corresponding orthonormal bases. Using simple spline basis orthonormalization procedures involves the construction of a large family of orthonormal spline scaling bases defined on consecutive bounded intervals. However, if no more additional conditions than those coming from multiresolution are imposed on each bounded interval, the orthonormal basis is represented by a set of discontinuous scaling functions. The spline wavelet basis also has the same problem. Moreover, the dimension of the corresponding wavelet basis increases with the spline degree. An appropriate orthonormalization procedure of the basic spline space basis, whatever the degree of the spline, allows us to (i provide continuous scaling and wavelet functions, (ii reduce the number of wavelets to only one, and (iii reduce the complexity of the filter bank. Examples of the multiresolution implementations illustrate that the main important features of the traditional multiresolution are also satisfied.

  3. Comparison of different dose calculation methods for irregular photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, G.A.; Schuette, W.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, 4 calculation methods (Wrede method, Clarskon method of sector integration, beam-zone method of Quast and pencil-beam method of Ahnesjoe) are introduced to calculate point doses in different irregular photon fields. The calculations cover a typical mantle field, an inverted Y-field and different blocked fields for 4 and 10 MV photon energies. The results are compared to those of measurements in a water phantom. The Clarkson and the pencil-beam method have been proved to be the methods of equal standard in relation to accuracy. Both of these methods are being distinguished by minimum deviations and applied in our clinical routine work. The Wrede and beam-zone methods deliver useful results to central beam and yet provide larger deviations in calculating points beyond the central axis. (orig.) [de

  4. Kilometer-Spaced GNSS Array for Ionospheric Irregularity Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang

    This dissertation presents automated, systematic data collection, processing, and analysis methods for studying the spatial-temporal properties of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) scintillations produced by ionospheric irregularities at high latitudes using a closely spaced multi-receiver array deployed in the northern auroral zone. The main contributions include 1) automated scintillation monitoring, 2) estimation of drift and anisotropy of the irregularities, 3) error analysis of the drift estimates, and 4) multi-instrument study of the ionosphere. A radio wave propagating through the ionosphere, consisting of ionized plasma, may suffer from rapid signal amplitude and/or phase fluctuations known as scintillation. Caused by non-uniform structures in the ionosphere, intense scintillation can lead to GNSS navigation and high-frequency (HF) communication failures. With specialized GNSS receivers, scintillation can be studied to better understand the structure and dynamics of the ionospheric irregularities, which can be parameterized by altitude, drift motion, anisotropy of the shape, horizontal spatial extent and their time evolution. To study the structuring and motion of ionospheric irregularities at the sub-kilometer scale sizes that produce L-band scintillations, a closely-spaced GNSS array has been established in the auroral zone at Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska to investigate high latitude scintillation and irregularities. Routinely collecting low-rate scintillation statistics, the array database also provides 100 Hz power and phase data for each channel at L1/L2C frequency. In this work, a survey of seasonal and hourly dependence of L1 scintillation events over the course of a year is discussed. To efficiently and systematically study scintillation events, an automated low-rate scintillation detection routine is established and performed for each day by screening the phase scintillation index. The spaced-receiver technique is applied to cross

  5. Monte Carlo calculation of Dancoff factors in irregular geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Leege, P.F.A. de; Valko, J.

    1994-01-01

    A Monte Carlo program is described that calculates Dancoff factors in arbitrary arrangements of cylindrical or spherical fuel elements. The fuel elements can have different diameters and material compositions, and they are allowed to be black or partially transparent. Calculations of the Dancoff factor is based on its collision probability definition. The Monte Carlo approach is recommended because it is equally applicable in simple and in complicated geometries. It is shown that some of the commonly used algorithms are inaccurate even in infinite regular lattices. An example of application includes the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) 37-pin fuel bundle, which requires different Dancoff factors for the symmetrically different fuel pin positions

  6. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Ployzou, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most precise tools for studying the dynamics of nuclei. Our research program consists of a careful theoretical study of the nuclear few-body systems. During the past year we have completed several aspects of this program. We have continued our program of using the trinucleon system to investigate the validity of various realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. Also, the effects of meson-exchange currents in nuclear systems have been studied. Initial calculations using the configuration-space Faddeev equations for nucleon-deuteron scattering have been completed. With modifications to treat relativistic systems, few-body methods can be applied to phenomena that are sensitive to the structure of the individual hadrons. We have completed a review of Relativistic Hamiltonian Dynamics in Nuclear and Particle Physics for Advances in Nuclear Physics. Although it is called a review, it is a large document that contains a significant amount of new research

  7. Dose calculations for irregular fields using three-dimensional first-scatter integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesecke, R.; Scharfenberg, H.; Schlegel, W.; Hartmann, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a method of dose calculations for irregular fields which requires only the mean energy of the incident photons, the geometrical properties of the irregular field and of the therapy unit, and the attenuation coefficient of tissue. The method goes back to an approach including spatial aspects of photon scattering for inhomogeneities for the calculation of dose reduction factors as proposed by Sontag and Cunningham (1978). It is based on the separation of dose into a primary component and a scattered component. The scattered component can generally be calculated for each field by integration over dose contributions from scattering in neighbouring volume elements. The quotient of this scattering contribution in the irregular field and the scattering contribution in the equivalent open field is then the correction factor for scattering in an irregular field. A correction factor for the primary component can be calculated if the attenuation of the photons in the shielding block is properly taken into account. The correction factor is simply given by the quotient of primary photons of the irregular field and the primary photons of the open field. (author)

  8. A Novel Energy Yields Calculation Method for Irregular Wind Farm Layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing size of offshore wind farm, the impact of the wake effect on energy yields become more and more evident. The Seafloor topography would limit the layout of the wind farm so that irregular layout is usually adopted inlarge scale offshore wind farm. However, the calculation...

  9. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most effective means for studying nuclear physics at subnucleon distance scales. For few-body systems the model equations can be solved numerically with errors less than the experimental uncertainties. We have used such systems to investigate the size of relativistic effects, the role of meson-exchange currents, and the importance of quark degrees of freedom in the nucleus. Complete calculations for momentum-dependent potentials have been performed, and the properties of the three-body bound state for these potentials have been studied. Few-body calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron and pion have been carried out using a front-form formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. The decomposition of the operators transforming convariantly under the Poincare group into kinematical and dynamical parts has been studies. New ways for constructing interactions between particles, as well as interactions which lead to the production of particles, have been constructed in the context of a relativistic quantum mechanics. To compute scattering amplitudes in a nonperturbative way, classes of operators have been generated out of which the phase operator may be constructed. Finally, we have worked out procedures for computing Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients on a computer, as well as giving procedures for dealing with the multiplicity problem

  10. Fatigue damage estimation using irregularity factor. First report, irregularity factor calculations for narrow and broadband random time histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, I.

    1981-11-01

    The results of an analysis of the irregularity factors of stationary and Gaussian random processes which are generated by filtering the output of a pure or a band-limited white noise are presented. An ideal band pass filter, a trapezoidal filter, and a Butterworth type band pass filter were examined. It was found that the values of the irregularity factors were approximately equal among these filters if only the end-slopes were the same rates. As the band width of filters increases, irregularity factors increase monotonically and approach the respective constant values depending on the end-slopes. This implies that the noise characteristics relevant to the fatigue damage such as statistical aspects of the height of the rise and fall or the distribution of the peak values are not changed for a broad band random time history. It was also found that the effect of band limitation of input white noise on irregularity factors is negligibly small.

  11. Validation of AEGIS/SCOPE2 system through actual core follow calculations with irregular operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, M.; Tatsumi, M.; Ohoka, Y.; Nagano, H.; Ishizaki, K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes overview of AEGIS/SCOPE2 system, an advanced in-core fuel management system for pressurized water reactors, and its validation results of actual core follow calculations including irregular operational conditions. AEGIS and SCOPE2 codes adopt more detailed and accurate calculation models compared to the current core design codes while computational cost is minimized with various techniques on numerical and computational algorithms. Verification and validation of AEGIS/SCOPE2 has been intensively performed to confirm validity of the system. As a part of the validation, core follow calculations have been carried out mainly for typical operational conditions. After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, however, all the nuclear reactors in Japan suffered from long suspension and irregular operational conditions. In such situations, measured data in the restart and operation of the reactors should be good examinations for validation of the codes. Therefore, core follow calculations were carried out with AEGIS/SCOPE2 for various cases including zero power reactor physics tests with irregular operational conditions. Comparisons between measured data and predictions by AEGIS/SCOPE2 revealed the validity and robustness of the system. (author)

  12. The calculation of relative output factor and depth dose for irregular electron fields in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, Peter; McGhee, Peter; Chu, Terence

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: A technique, based on sector integration and interpolation, has been developed for the computation of both relative output factor and depth dose of irregular electron fields in water. The purpose of this study was to determine the minimum experimental data set required for the technique to yield results within accepted dosimetric tolerances. Materials and Methods: PC based software has been written to perform the calculations necessary to dosimetrically characterize irregular shaped electron fields. The field outline is entered via digitiser and the SSD and energy via the keyboard. The irregular field is segmented into sectors of specified angle (2 deg. was used for this study) and the radius of each sector computed. The central ray depth dose is reconstructed by summing the contributions from each sector deduced from calibration depth doses measured for circular fields. Relative output factors and depth doses at SSDs at which calibrations were not performed are found by interpolation. Calibration data were measured for circular fields from 2 to 9 cm diameter at 100, 105, 110, and 115 cm SSD. A clinical cut out can be characterized in less than 2 minutes including entry of the outline using this software. The performance of the technique was evaluated by comparing calculated relative output factors, surface dose and the locations of d 80 , d 50 and d 20 with experimental measurements on a variety of cut out shapes at 9 and 18 MeV. The calibration data set (derived from circular cut outs) was systematically reduced to identify the minimum required to yield an accuracy consistent with current recommendations. Results: The figure illustrates the ability of the technique to calculate the depth dose for an irregular field (shown in the insert). It was found that to achieve an accuracy of 2% in relative output factor and 2% or 2 mm (our criterion) in percentage depth dose, calibration data from five circular fields at the four SSDs spanning the range 100-115 cm

  13. Irregular Techniques for Controlling Under-Governed Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coburn, Matthew D

    2007-01-01

    The United States government has identified undergoverned areas in weakened or failed states as one of the threats faced by the United States and its allies because these spaces can provide safe havens for terrorists...

  14. Development of a calculation methodology for potential flow over irregular topographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Carmen, Alejandra F.; Ferreri, Juan C.; Boutet, Luis I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Computer codes for the calculation of potential flow fields over surfaces with irregular topographies have been developed. The flows past multiple simple obstacles and past the neighboring region of the Embalse Nuclear Power Station have been considered. The codes developed allow the calculation of velocities quite near the surface. It, in turn, imposed developing high accuracy techniques. The Boundary Element Method, using a linear approximation on triangular plane elements and an analytical integration methodology has been applied. A particular and quite efficient technique for the calculation of the solid angle at each node vertex was also considered. The results so obtained will be applied to predict the dispersion of passive pollutants coming from discontinuous emissions. (authors)

  15. Simultaneous radar and spaced receiver VHF scintillation observations of ESF irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tiwari

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous observations of equatorial spread F (ESF irregularities made on 10 nights during March-April 1998 and 1999, using an 18-MHz radar at Trivandrum (77° E, 8.5° N, dip 0.5° N and two spaced receivers recording scintillations on a 251-MHz signal at Tirunelveli (77.8° E, 8.7° N, dip 0.4° N, have been used to study the evolution of Equatorial Spread F (ESF irregularities. Case studies have been carried out on the day-to-day variability in ESF structure and dynamics, as observed by 18-MHz radar, and with spaced receiver measurements of average zonal drift Vo of the 251-MHz radio wave diffraction pattern on the ground, random velocity Vc, which is a measure of random changes in the characteristics of scintillation-producing irregularities, and maximum cross-correlation CI of the spaced receivers signals. Results show that in the initial phase of plasma bubble development, the greater the maximum height of ESF irregularities responsible for the radar backscatter, the greater the decorrelation is of the spaced receiver scintillation signals, indicating greater turbulence. The relationship of the maximum spectral width derived from the radar observations and CI also supports this result.

  16. Simultaneous radar and spaced receiver VHF scintillation observations of ESF irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tiwari

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous observations of equatorial spread F (ESF irregularities made on 10 nights during March-April 1998 and 1999, using an 18-MHz radar at Trivandrum (77° E, 8.5° N, dip 0.5° N and two spaced receivers recording scintillations on a 251-MHz signal at Tirunelveli (77.8° E, 8.7° N, dip 0.4° N, have been used to study the evolution of Equatorial Spread F (ESF irregularities. Case studies have been carried out on the day-to-day variability in ESF structure and dynamics, as observed by 18-MHz radar, and with spaced receiver measurements of average zonal drift Vo of the 251-MHz radio wave diffraction pattern on the ground, random velocity Vc, which is a measure of random changes in the characteristics of scintillation-producing irregularities, and maximum cross-correlation CI of the spaced receivers signals. Results show that in the initial phase of plasma bubble development, the greater the maximum height of ESF irregularities responsible for the radar backscatter, the greater the decorrelation is of the spaced receiver scintillation signals, indicating greater turbulence. The relationship of the maximum spectral width derived from the radar observations and CI also supports this result.

  17. Evaluation of the accuracy of the calculation of irregular photon fields in a radiotherapy planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, D.P.; Verlinde, P.H.; Storchi, P.; Woudstra, E.; Puurunen, H.

    1995-01-01

    In the Cadplan external beam planning system, irregular fields are calculated using the pencil beam convolution model. This model uses measured PDDs, profiles, and peak scatter factor data to extract pencil beam kernels. The scatter kernel is convolved with a matrix describing the field shape to calculate the PDD of the irregular field. The boundary kernel is used in the calculation of the off-axis ratios. The field matrix used in the convolution has a value of 1 in the open parts of the field a value of zero outside the field and equals the transmission in the blocked part. The evaluation of the model was done using two test cases. Both test cases are based on a 20x20 cm 2 field. In the first case, the central part of the field is blocked by an 8x8 cm 2 block. On one side this block is connected to the field edge by another block with a width of 3 cm. In the second case, two corners of the field are blocked by an 8x8.5 cm 2 block. There is a gap of 3 cm between the two blocks. The two cases were measured in a waterphantom for open and 45 deg. wedged beams of 4 different energies. 4, 6 and 23 MV were measured on conventional accelerators using customized blocks. 25 MV was measured on a scanned beam MM50 using a multileaf collimator. For all fields PDDs, and profiles were measured centrally and at 2 or more off-axis distances. All the measured doses are relative to the normalisation dose of a 20x20 cm 2 open field at d max . The PDDs and profiles measured for the two test cases were compared to results of the calculation of the pencil beam convolution model. The profiles were compared at four depths: d max , 5, 10, and 20 cm. The difference found between measurement and calculation was within acceptable limits, making it possible to use the model in routine clinical planning

  18. Assimilating irregularly spaced sparsely observed turbulent signals with hierarchical Bayesian reduced stochastic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Kristen A.; Harlim, John

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a practical filtering approach for assimilating irregularly spaced, sparsely observed turbulent signals through a hierarchical Bayesian reduced stochastic filtering framework. The proposed hierarchical Bayesian approach consists of two steps, blending a data-driven interpolation scheme and the Mean Stochastic Model (MSM) filter. We examine the potential of using the deterministic piecewise linear interpolation scheme and the ordinary kriging scheme in interpolating irregularly spaced raw data to regularly spaced processed data and the importance of dynamical constraint (through MSM) in filtering the processed data on a numerically stiff state estimation problem. In particular, we test this approach on a two-layer quasi-geostrophic model in a two-dimensional domain with a small radius of deformation to mimic ocean turbulence. Our numerical results suggest that the dynamical constraint becomes important when the observation noise variance is large. Second, we find that the filtered estimates with ordinary kriging are superior to those with linear interpolation when observation networks are not too sparse; such robust results are found from numerical simulations with many randomly simulated irregularly spaced observation networks, various observation time intervals, and observation error variances. Third, when the observation network is very sparse, we find that both the kriging and linear interpolations are comparable

  19. Irregular Polyomino-Shaped Subarrays for Space-Based Active Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Mailloux

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results showing the application of polyomino-based subarrays to limited field of view and wideband, wide-angle scanning. This technology can reduce the number of phase controls in arrays used for limited sector coverage or the number of time delay devices for wideband radar or communications, and so can reduce the cost of space-based active arrays. We concentrate on the wideband application. Results are presented by comparing the gain and peak sidelobe results of irregular polyomino subarray-based arrays with those of rectangular subarrays. It is shown that using irregular polyomino subarrays can result in a major decrease in sidelobes while presenting, in most cases, only a few tenths of a dB gain reduction compared to rectangular subarrays.

  20. Visualisations and Calculations of Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harty, Chris; Tryggestad, Kjell; Holm Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    There is a complex relationship between the use of visualisations, and the production of both designs and physical spaces. In the case of hospitals, technical, aesthetic and practice-based requirements are incorporated into negotiations around facilities, layout and operation, and a plethora...

  1. The calculation of CSF spaces in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, H.; Artmann, H.

    1978-01-01

    Objective digital determination of CSF spaces is discussed, with ventricular and subarachnoid spaces handled separately. This method avoids the difficulty of visual definition of ventricular borders in planimetric measurements. The principle is to count automatically all pixels corresponding to CSF in a given region with a Hounsfield unit and to multiply this number by the pixel size. This will give the total surface area of CSF spaces in square millimeters. The calculation of pixel values for CSF spaces and brain tissue is experimentally formulated taking the intersection of the Gaussian curves for ventricular content and brain tissue. In practice, the determination of CSF spaces is done by first calculating a histogram of the total brain in a given slice defining all CSF spaces. Next a histogram of a region including ventricles with adjoining tissue is calculated and the ventricular size is calculated. By subtraction of the ventricle value from the total CSF space value, the subarachnoid space size is obtained. The advantages of this mehtod will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Calculation of CSF spaces in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, H; Artmann, H [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    1978-01-01

    Objective digital determination of CSF spaces is discussed, with ventricular and subarachnoid spaces handled separately. This method avoids the difficulty of visual definition of ventricular borders in planimetric measurements. The principle is to count automatically all pixels corresponding to CSF in a given region with a Hounsfield unit and to multiply this number by the pixel size. This will give the total surface area of CSF spaces in square millimeters. The calculation of pixel values for CSF spaces and brain tissue is experimentally formulated taking the intersection of the Gaussian curves for ventricular content and brain tissue. In practice, the determination of CSF spaces is done by first calculating a histogram of the total brain in a given slice defining all CSF spaces. Next a histogram of a region including ventricles with adjoining tissue is calculated and the ventricular size is calculated. By subtraction of the ventricle value from the total CSF space value, the subarachnoid space size is obtained. The advantages of this mehtod will be discussed.

  3. Overcoming trends in irregularly spaced locations by regional polish - exemplified by estimation of the range of influence between Salmonella Dublin-seropositive cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a procedure to remove spatial trends in irregularly spaced data, with trends partly due to regional differences. Median polish is often used on regularly spaced (lattice) data where column and row medians are removed. For irregularly spaced data a low-resolutio...

  4. Calculating electronic tunnel currents in networks of disordered irregularly shaped nanoparticles by mapping networks to arrays of parallel nonlinear resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghili Yajadda, Mir Massoud [CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2014-10-21

    We have shown both theoretically and experimentally that tunnel currents in networks of disordered irregularly shaped nanoparticles (NPs) can be calculated by considering the networks as arrays of parallel nonlinear resistors. Each resistor is described by a one-dimensional or a two-dimensional array of equal size nanoparticles that the tunnel junction gaps between nanoparticles in each resistor is assumed to be equal. The number of tunnel junctions between two contact electrodes and the tunnel junction gaps between nanoparticles are found to be functions of Coulomb blockade energies. In addition, the tunnel barriers between nanoparticles were considered to be tilted at high voltages. Furthermore, the role of thermal expansion coefficient of the tunnel junction gaps on the tunnel current is taken into account. The model calculations fit very well to the experimental data of a network of disordered gold nanoparticles, a forest of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and a network of few-layer graphene nanoplates over a wide temperature range (5-300 K) at low and high DC bias voltages (0.001 mV–50 V). Our investigations indicate, although electron cotunneling in networks of disordered irregularly shaped NPs may occur, non-Arrhenius behavior at low temperatures cannot be described by the cotunneling model due to size distribution in the networks and irregular shape of nanoparticles. Non-Arrhenius behavior of the samples at zero bias voltage limit was attributed to the disorder in the samples. Unlike the electron cotunneling model, we found that the crossover from Arrhenius to non-Arrhenius behavior occurs at two temperatures, one at a high temperature and the other at a low temperature.

  5. Convergence of highly parallel stray field calculation using the fast multipole method on irregular meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmesi, P.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Suess, D.

    2018-05-01

    Fast stray field calculation is commonly considered of great importance for micromagnetic simulations, since it is the most time consuming part of the simulation. The Fast Multipole Method (FMM) has displayed linear O(N) parallelization behavior on many cores. This article investigates the error of a recent FMM approach approximating sources using linear—instead of constant—finite elements in the singular integral for calculating the stray field and the corresponding potential. After measuring performance in an earlier manuscript, this manuscript investigates the convergence of the relative L2 error for several FMM simulation parameters. Various scenarios either calculating the stray field directly or via potential are discussed.

  6. Influence of initial stress, irregularity and heterogeneity on Love-type wave propagation in double pre-stressed irregular layers lying over a pre-stressed half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Das, Amrita; Parween, Zeenat; Chattopadhyay, Amares

    2015-10-01

    The present paper deals with the propagation of Love-type wave in an initially stressed irregular vertically heterogeneous layer lying over an initially stressed isotropic layer and an initially stressed isotropic half-space. Two different types of irregularities, viz., rectangular and parabolic, are considered at the interface of uppermost initially stressed heterogeneous layer and intermediate initially stressed isotropic layer. Dispersion equations are obtained in closed form for both cases of irregularities, distinctly. The effect of size and shape of irregularity, horizontal compressive initial stress, horizontal tensile initial stress, heterogeneity of the uppermost layer and width ratio of the layers on phase velocity of Love-type wave are the major highlights of the study. Comparative study has been made to identify the effects of different shapes of irregularity, presence of heterogeneity and initial stresses. Numerical computations have been carried out and depicted by means of graphs for the present study.

  7. Effective hamiltonian calculations using incomplete model spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, S.; Mukherjee, D.

    1987-01-01

    It appears that the danger of encountering ''intruder states'' is substantially reduced if an effective hamiltonian formalism is developed for incomplete model spaces (IMS). In a Fock-space approach, the proof a ''connected diagram theorem'' is fairly straightforward with exponential-type of ansatze for the wave-operator W, provided the normalization chosen for W is separable. Operationally, one just needs a suitable categorization of the Fock-space operators into ''diagonal'' and ''non-diagonal'' parts that is generalization of the corresponding procedure for the complete model space. The formalism is applied to prototypical 2-electron systems. The calculations have been performed on the Cyber 205 super-computer. The authors paid special attention to an efficient vectorization for the construction and solution of the resulting coupled non-linear equations

  8. Three-dimensional space charge calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.; Wadlinger, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating space-charge forces suitable for use in a particle tracing code. Poisson's equation is solved in three dimensions with boundary conditions specified on an arbitrary surface by using a weighted residual method. Using a discrete particle distribution as our source input, examples are shown of off-axis, bunched beams of noncircular crosssection in radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and drift-tube linac geometries

  9. Space-charge calculations in synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, S.

    1993-05-01

    One obvious bottleneck of achieving high luminosity in hadron colliders, such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), is the beam emittance growth, due to space-charge effects in low energy injector synchrotrons. Although space-charge effects have been recognized since the alternating-gradient synchrotron was invented, and the Laslett tune shift usually calculated to quantify these effects, our understanding of the effects is limited, especially when the Laslett tune shift becomes a large fraction of the integer. Using the Simpsons tracking code, which we developed to study emittance preservation issues in proton synchrotrons, we investigated space-charge effects in the SSC Low Energy Booster (LEB). We observed detailed dependence on parameters such as beam intensity, initial emittance, injection energy, lattice function, and longitudinal motion. A summary of those findings, as well as the tracking technique we developed for the study, are presented.

  10. On the areas of various bodies in the Euclidean space: The case of irregular convex polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozoemena, P.C.

    1988-11-01

    A theorem is proposed for the areas of n-sided irregular convex polygons, of given length of sides. The theorem is illustrated as a simple but powerful one in estimating the areas of irregular polygons, being dependent only on the number of sides n (and not on any of the explicit angles) of the irregular polygon. Finally, because of the global symmetry shown by equilateral triangles, squares and circles under group (gauge) theory, the relationships governing their areas, when they are inscribed or escribed in one another are discussed as riders, and some areas of their applications in graph theory, ratios and maxima and minima problems of differential calculus briefly mentioned. (author). 11 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  11. Estimation of time averages from irregularly spaced observations - With application to coastal zone color scanner estimates of chlorophyll concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelton, Dudley B.; Schlax, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    The sampling error of an arbitrary linear estimate of a time-averaged quantity constructed from a time series of irregularly spaced observations at a fixed located is quantified through a formalism. The method is applied to satellite observations of chlorophyll from the coastal zone color scanner. The two specific linear estimates under consideration are the composite average formed from the simple average of all observations within the averaging period and the optimal estimate formed by minimizing the mean squared error of the temporal average based on all the observations in the time series. The resulting suboptimal estimates are shown to be more accurate than composite averages. Suboptimal estimates are also found to be nearly as accurate as optimal estimates using the correct signal and measurement error variances and correlation functions for realistic ranges of these parameters, which makes it a viable practical alternative to the composite average method generally employed at present.

  12. Delayed star formation in isolated dwarf galaxies: Hubble space telescope star formation history of the Aquarius dwarf irregular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Andrew A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001 Australia (Australia); Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55441 (United States); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 Canada (Canada); Brooks, Alyson M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Leaman, Ryan, E-mail: andrew.cole@utas.edu.au, E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: alan.mcconnachie@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: abrooks@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: rleaman@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    We have obtained deep images of the highly isolated (d = 1 Mpc) Aquarius dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 210) with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. The resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaches more than a magnitude below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, allowing us to derive the star formation history (SFH) over the entire lifetime of the galaxy with a timing precision of ≈10% of the lookback time. Using a maximum likelihood fit to the CMD we find that only ≈10% of all star formation in Aquarius took place more than 10 Gyr ago (lookback time equivalent to redshift z ≈ 2). The star formation rate increased dramatically ≈6-8 Gyr ago (z ≈ 0.7-1.1) and then declined until the present time. The only known galaxy with a more extreme confirmed delay in star formation is Leo A, a galaxy of similar M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}, dynamical mass, mean metallicity, and degree of isolation. The delayed stellar mass growth in these galaxies does not track the mean dark matter accretion rate from CDM simulations. The similarities between Leo A and Aquarius suggest that if gas is not removed from dwarf galaxies by interactions or feedback, it can linger for several gigayears without cooling in sufficient quantity to form stars efficiently. We discuss possible causes for the delay in star formation including suppression by reionization and late-time mergers. We find reasonable agreement between our measured SFHs and select cosmological simulations of isolated dwarfs. Because star formation and merger processes are both stochastic in nature, delayed star formation in various degrees is predicted to be a characteristic (but not a universal) feature of isolated small galaxies.

  13. A practical method to calculate head scatter factors in wedged rectangular and irregular MLC shaped beams for external and internal wedges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Olofsson, Joergen; Kuenzler, Thomas; Aiginger, Hannes; Karlsson, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    Factor based methods for absorbed dose or monitor unit calculations are often based on separate data sets for open and wedged beams. The determination of basic beam parameters can be rather time consuming, unless equivalent square methods are applied. When considering irregular wedged beams shaped with a multileaf collimator, parametrization methods for dosimetric quantities, e.g. output ratios or wedge factors as a function of field size and shape, become even more important. A practical method is presented to derive wedged output ratios in air (S c,w ) for any rectangular field and for any irregular MLC shaped beam. This method was based on open field output ratios in air (S c ) for a field with the same collimator setting, and a relation f w between S c,w and S c . The relation f w can be determined from measured output ratios in air for a few open and wedged fields including the maximum wedged field size. The function f w and its parametrization were dependent on wedge angle and treatment head design, i.e. they were different for internal and external wedges. The proposed method was tested for rectangular wedged fields on three accelerators with internal wedges (GE, Elekta, BBC) and two accelerators with external wedges (Varian). For symmetric regular beams the average deviation between calculated and measured S c,w /S c ratios was 0.3% for external wedges and about 0.6% for internal wedges. Maximum deviations of 1.8% were obtained for elongated rectangular fields on the GE and ELEKTA linacs with an internal wedge. The same accuracy was achieved for irregular MLC shaped wedged beams on the accelerators with MLC and internal wedges (GE and Elekta), with an average deviation <1% for the fields tested. The proposed method to determine output ratios in air for wedged beams from output ratios of open beams, combined with equivalent square approaches, can be easily integrated in empirical or semi-empirical methods for monitor unit calculations

  14. On the calculation of soft phase space integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hua Xing

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC attracts much attention to the precise calculation of its production cross section in quantum chromodynamics. In this work, we discuss the calculation of soft triple-emission phase space integral, which is an essential ingredient in the recently calculated soft-virtual corrections to Higgs boson production at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order. The main techniques used this calculation are method of differential equation for Feynman integral, and integration of harmonic polylogarithms.

  15. FUEL HANDLING FACILITY BACKUP CENTRAL COMMUNICATIONS ROOM SPACE REQUIREMENTS CALCULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SZALEWSKI, B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Fuel Handling Facility Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements Calculation is to determine a preliminary estimate of the space required to house the backup central communications room in the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF). This room provides backup communications capability to the primary communication systems located in the Central Control Center Facility. This calculation will help guide FHF designers in allocating adequate space for communications system equipment in the FHF. This is a preliminary calculation determining preliminary estimates based on the assumptions listed in Section 4. As such, there are currently no limitations on the use of this preliminary calculation. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Design and Engineering and are intended solely for the use of Design and Engineering in its work regarding the FHF Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from Design and Engineering should be consulted before the use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Design and Engineering

  16. Three-dimensional space-charge calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.; Wadlinger, E.A.

    1980-09-01

    A method is presented for calculating space-charge forces on individual particles in a particle tracing simulation code. Poisson's equation is solved in three dimensions with boundary conditions specified on an arbitrary surface. When the boundary condition is defined by an impressed radio-frequency field, the external electric fields as well as the space-charge fields are determined. A least squares fitting procedure is used to calculate the coefficients of expansion functions, which need not be orthogonal nor individually satisfy the boundary condition

  17. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos; Doulgeris, Panagiotis C.; Verschuur, Dirk Jacob Eric

    2011-01-01

    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from

  18. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function by constraining the $ell_1$ norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal.

  19. The Accuracy of Remapping Irregularly Spaced Velocity Data onto a Regular Grid and the Computation of Vorticity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohn, R

    1998-01-01

    .... This technique may be viewed as the molecular counterpart of PIV. To take advantage of standard data processing techniques, the MTV data need to be remapped onto a regular grid with a uniform spacing...

  20. The Accuracy of Remapping Irregularly Spaced Velocity Data onto a Regular Grid and the Computation of Vorticity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohn, Richard

    1999-01-01

    .... This technique may be viewed as the molecular counterpart of PIV. To take advantage of standard data processing techniques, the MTV data need to be remapped onto a regular grid with a uniform spacing...

  1. Irregular Applications: Architectures & Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, John T.; Villa, Oreste; Tumeo, Antonino; Secchi, Simone

    2012-02-06

    Irregular applications are characterized by irregular data structures, control and communication patterns. Novel irregular high performance applications which deal with large data sets and require have recently appeared. Unfortunately, current high performance systems and software infrastructures executes irregular algorithms poorly. Only coordinated efforts by end user, area specialists and computer scientists that consider both the architecture and the software stack may be able to provide solutions to the challenges of modern irregular applications.

  2. Calculational models of close-spaced thermionic converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Two new calculational models have been developed in conjunction with the SAVTEC experimental program. These models have been used to analyze data from experimental close-spaced converters, providing values for spacing, electrode work functions, and converter efficiency. They have also been used to make performance predictions for such converters over a wide range of conditions. Both models are intended for use in the collisionless (Knudsen) regime. They differ from each other in that the simpler one uses a Langmuir-type formulation which only considers electrons emitted from the emitter. This approach is implemented in the LVD (Langmuir Vacuum Diode) computer program, which has the virtue of being both simple and fast. The more complex model also includes both Saha-Langmuir emission of positive cesium ions from the emitter and collector back emission. Computer implementation is by the KMD1 (Knudsen Mode Diode) program. The KMD1 model derives the particle distribution functions from the Vlasov equation. From these the particle densities are found for various interelectrode motive shapes. Substituting the particle densities into Poisson's equation gives a second order differential equation for potential. This equation can be integrated once analytically. The second integration, which gives the interelectrode motive, is performed numerically by the KMD1 program. This is complicated by the fact that the integrand is often singular at one end point of the integration interval. The program performs a transformation on the integrand to make it finite over the entire interval. Once the motive has been computed, the output voltage, current density, power density, and efficiency are found. The program is presently unable to operate when the ion richness ratio β is between about .8 and 1.0, due to the occurrence of oscillatory motives

  3. State reconstruction and irregular wavefunctions for the hydrogen atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähmer, D. S.; Leonhardt, U.

    1997-07-01

    Inspired by a recently proposed procedure by Leonhardt and Raymer for wavepacket reconstruction, we calculate the irregular wavefunctions for the bound states of the Coulomb potential. We select the irregular solutions which have the simplest semiclassical limit.

  4. An Effective Method to Accurately Calculate the Phase Space Factors for β"-β"- Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horoi, Mihai; Neacsu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Accurate calculations of the electron phase space factors are necessary for reliable predictions of double-beta decay rates and for the analysis of the associated electron angular and energy distributions. We present an effective method to calculate these phase space factors that takes into account the distorted Coulomb field of the daughter nucleus, yet it allows one to easily calculate the phase space factors with good accuracy relative to the most exact methods available in the recent literature.

  5. Space trajectory calculation based on G-sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Biya; Zhan, Yinwei; Shao, Yang

    2017-08-01

    At present, without full use of the mobile phone around us, most of the research in human body posture recognition field is use camera or portable acceleration sensor to collect data. In this paper, G-sensor built-in mobile phone is use to collect data. After processing data with the way of moving average filter and acceleration integral, joint point's space three-dimensional coordinates can be abtained accurately.

  6. Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotto, D. [Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), Princeton, NJ (United States); Teschner, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S{sup 4}. (orig.)

  7. Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, D.; Teschner, J.

    2012-03-01

    Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S 4 . (orig.)

  8. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  9. Computing proton dose to irregularly moving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Justin; Gueorguiev, Gueorgui; Grassberger, Clemens; Dowdell, Stephen; Paganetti, Harald; Sharp, Gregory C; Shackleford, James A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: While four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and deformable registration can be used to assess the dose delivered to regularly moving targets, there are few methods available for irregularly moving targets. 4DCT captures an idealized waveform, but human respiration during treatment is characterized by gradual baseline shifts and other deviations from a periodic signal. This paper describes a method for computing the dose delivered to irregularly moving targets based on 1D or 3D waveforms captured at the time of delivery. Methods: The procedure uses CT or 4DCT images for dose calculation, and 1D or 3D respiratory waveforms of the target position at time of delivery. Dose volumes are converted from their Cartesian geometry into a beam-specific radiological depth space, parameterized in 2D by the beam aperture, and longitudinally by the radiological depth. In this new frame of reference, the proton doses are translated according to the motion found in the 1D or 3D trajectory. These translated dose volumes are weighted and summed, then transformed back into Cartesian space, yielding an estimate of the dose that includes the effect of the measured breathing motion. The method was validated using a synthetic lung phantom and a single representative patient CT. Simulated 4DCT was generated for the phantom with 2 cm peak-to-peak motion. Results: A passively-scattered proton treatment plan was generated using 6 mm and 5 mm smearing for the phantom and patient plans, respectively. The method was tested without motion, and with two simulated breathing signals: a 2 cm amplitude sinusoid, and a 2 cm amplitude sinusoid with 3 cm linear drift in the phantom. The tumor positions were equally weighted for the patient calculation. Motion-corrected dose was computed based on the mid-ventilation CT image in the phantom and the peak exhale position in the patient. Gamma evaluation was 97.8% without motion, 95.7% for 2 cm sinusoidal motion, 95.7% with 3 cm drift in

  10. A compressive sensing approach to the calculation of the inverse data space

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Babar Hasan; Saragiotis, Christos; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Seismic processing in the Inverse Data Space (IDS) has its advantages like the task of removing the multiples simply becomes muting the zero offset and zero time data in the inverse domain. Calculation of the Inverse Data Space by sparse inversion

  11. Quantum dynamics calculations using symmetrized, orthogonal Weyl-Heisenberg wavelets with a phase space truncation scheme. III. Representations and calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Bill; Salam, A

    2004-07-22

    In a previous paper [J. Theo. Comput. Chem. 2, 65 (2003)], one of the authors (B.P.) presented a method for solving the multidimensional Schrodinger equation, using modified Wilson-Daubechies wavelets, and a simple phase space truncation scheme. Unprecedented numerical efficiency was achieved, enabling a ten-dimensional calculation of nearly 600 eigenvalues to be performed using direct matrix diagonalization techniques. In a second paper [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 1690 (2004)], and in this paper, we extend and elaborate upon the previous work in several important ways. The second paper focuses on construction and optimization of the wavelength functions, from theoretical and numerical viewpoints, and also examines their localization. This paper deals with their use in representations and eigenproblem calculations, which are extended to 15-dimensional systems. Even higher dimensionalities are possible using more sophisticated linear algebra techniques. This approach is ideally suited to rovibrational spectroscopy applications, but can be used in any context where differential equations are involved.

  12. A new method for calculation of traces of Dirac γ-matrices in Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarev, Alexander L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents some relations for orthonormal bases in the Minkowski space and isotropic tetrads constructed from the vectors of these bases. As an example of an application of the obtained formulae, in particular recursion relations, a new method is proposed to calculate traces of Dirac γ-matrices in the Minkowski space. Compared to the classical algorithms, the new method results in more compact expressions for the traces. Specifically, it may be easily implemented as a simple yet efficient computer algorithm

  13. Simplified methodology for control cell constant calculations of the reactor cores for the space kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Rubens Souza dos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques

    2002-01-01

    In this work is presented a methodology which focuses the distribution of neutron absorber rods in nuclear reactor power plants, for utilizing in space kinetic calculations, principally in the cluster ejection transients of control rods. A numerical model for macroscopic constant calculations based on the knowledge of the neutron flux without the control rods is proposed, as alternative to the analytical models, based on the hypothesis of the null current on the cell super boundaries. The proposed model in this work has itself showed adequate to deal with problems with strong space dependence, once that the model showed consistence in the global average built in the analytical model. (author)

  14. Ion trajectories calculation in a three dimensional beam subjected to a space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauth, T.

    1978-04-01

    Physical and geometrical conditions allowing a first approximation of necessary sizes to numerical integration of the ions movement equations subjected to electrical and magnetic crossed fields and space charge action are investigated here. To take into consideration the effect of the last one, two artifices are put forward: replacing charged particles by equivalent particles in calculating the coulomb force, electrical field calculation produced in different points situated on the beam envelope by the uniform charges distribution [fr

  15. A compressive sensing approach to the calculation of the inverse data space

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Babar Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Seismic processing in the Inverse Data Space (IDS) has its advantages like the task of removing the multiples simply becomes muting the zero offset and zero time data in the inverse domain. Calculation of the Inverse Data Space by sparse inversion techniques has seen mitigation of some artifacts. We reformulate the problem by taking advantage of some of the developments from the field of Compressive Sensing. The seismic data is compressed at the sensor level by recording projections of the traces. We then process this compressed data directly to estimate the inverse data space. Due to the smaller number of data set we also gain in terms of computational complexity.

  16. A brief comparison between grid based real space algorithms and spectrum algorithms for electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-01-01

    Quantum mechanical ab initio calculation constitutes the biggest portion of the computer time in material science and chemical science simulations. As a computer center like NERSC, to better serve these communities, it will be very useful to have a prediction for the future trends of ab initio calculations in these areas. Such prediction can help us to decide what future computer architecture can be most useful for these communities, and what should be emphasized on in future supercomputer procurement. As the size of the computer and the size of the simulated physical systems increase, there is a renewed interest in using the real space grid method in electronic structure calculations. This is fueled by two factors. First, it is generally assumed that the real space grid method is more suitable for parallel computation for its limited communication requirement, compared with spectrum method where a global FFT is required. Second, as the size N of the calculated system increases together with the computer power, O(N) scaling approaches become more favorable than the traditional direct O(N 3 ) scaling methods. These O(N) methods are usually based on localized orbital in real space, which can be described more naturally by the real space basis. In this report, the author compares the real space methods versus the traditional plane wave (PW) spectrum methods, for their technical pros and cons, and the possible of future trends. For the real space method, the author focuses on the regular grid finite different (FD) method and the finite element (FE) method. These are the methods used mostly in material science simulation. As for chemical science, the predominant methods are still Gaussian basis method, and sometime the atomic orbital basis method. These two basis sets are localized in real space, and there is no indication that their roles in quantum chemical simulation will change anytime soon. The author focuses on the density functional theory (DFT), which is the

  17. Multigrid Algorithms for the Fast Calculation of Space-Charge Effects in Accelerator Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pöplau, G.; Rienen, van U.; Geer, van der S.B.; Loos, de M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical prediction of charged particle dynamics in accelerators is essential for the design and understanding of these machines. Methods to calculate the self-fields of the bunch, the so-called space-charge forces, become increasingly important as the demand for high-quality bunches increases. We

  18. Numerical Calculation of the Phase Space Density for the Strong-Strong Beam-Beam Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol, A.; Ellison, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a parallel code to calculate the evolution of the 4D phase space density of two colliding beams, which are coupled via the collective strong-strong beam-beam interaction, in the absence of diffusion and damping, using the Perron-Frobenius (PF) operator technique

  19. Advances in electron dosimetry of irregular fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez V, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it is presented an advance in Electron dosimetry of irregular fields for beams emitted by linear accelerators. At present diverse methods exist which are coming to apply in the Radiotherapy centers. In this work it is proposed a method for irregular fields dosimetry. It will be allow to calculate the dose rate absorbed required for evaluating the time for the treatment of cancer patients. Utilizing the results obtained by the dosimetric system, it has been possible to prove the validity of the method describe for 12 MeV energy and for square field 7.5 x 7.5 cm 2 with percentile error less than 1 % . (Author)

  20. Saturn's Irregular Moon Ymir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, S.

    2012-10-01

    Ymir (diameter 18 km), Saturn's second largest retrograde outer or irregular moon, has been observed six times by the Cassini narrow-angle camera (NAC) during the first 7 months in 2012. The observations span phase angles from 2° up to 102° and were taken at ranges between 15 and 18 million kilometers. From such a distance, Ymir is smaller than a pixel in the Cassini NAC. The data reveal a sidereal rotation period of 11.93 hrs, which is 1.6x longer than the previously reported value (Denk et al. 2011, EPSC/DPS #1452). Reason for this discrepancy is that the rotational light curve shows a rather uncommon 3-maxima and 3-minima shape at least in the phase angle range 50° to 100°, which was not recognizable in earlier data. The data cover several rotations from different viewing and illumination geometries and allow for a convex shape inversion with possibly a unique solution for the pole direction. The model reproduces the observed light curves to a very good accuracy without requiring albedo variegation, thereby suggesting that the lightcurve is dominated by the shape of Ymir. Among Saturn's irregular moons, the phenomenon of more than two maxima and minima at moderate to high phase angles is not unique to Ymir. At least Siarnaq and Paaliaq also show light curves with a strong deviation from a double-sine curve. Their rotation periods, however, remain unknown until more data can be taken. The light curve of Phoebe is fundamentally different to Ymir's because it is mainly shaped by local albedo differences and not by shape. Other reliable rotation periods of irregular satellites measured by Cassini include: Mundilfari 6.74 h; Kari 7.70 h; Albiorix 13.32 h; Kiviuq 21.82 h. More uncertain values are: Skathi 12 h; Bebhionn 16 h; Thrymr 27 h; Erriapus 28 h.

  1. Quantum phase space theory for the calculation of v·j vector correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    The quantum state-counting phase space theory commonly used to describe barrierless dissociation is recast in a helicity basis to calculate photofragment v·j correlations. Counting pairs of fragment states with specific angular momentum projection numbers on the relative velocity provides a simple connection between angular momentum conservation and the v·j correlation, which is not so evident in the conventional basis for phase space state counts. The upper bound on the orbital angular momentum, l, imposed by the centrifugal barrier cannot be included simply in the helicity basis, where l is not a good quantum number. Two approaches for a quantum calculation of the v·j correlation are described to address this point. An application to the photodissociation of NCCN is consistent with recent classical phase space calculations of Cline and Klippenstein. The observed vector correlation exceeds the phase space theory prediction. The authors take this as evidence of incomplete mixing of the K states of the linear parent molecule at the transition state, corresponding to an evolution of the body-fixed projection number K into the total helicity of the fragment pair state. The average over a thermal distribution of parent angular momentum in the special case of a linear molecule does not significantly reduce the v·j correlation below that computed for total J = 0

  2. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, D.; Rubin, J. E.; Diekman, C. O.

    2013-01-01

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects

  3. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terman, D., E-mail: terman@math.ohio-state.edu [Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rubin, J. E., E-mail: jonrubin@pitt.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Diekman, C. O., E-mail: diekman@njit.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  4. Unfolding and effective bandstructure calculations as discrete real- and reciprocal-space operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boykin, Timothy B., E-mail: boykin@ece.uah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Ajoy, Arvind [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard [Network for Computational Nanotechnology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In recent years, alloy electronic structure calculations based on supercell Brillouin zone unfolding have become popular. There are a number of formulations of the method which on the surface might appear different. Here we show that a discrete real-space description, based on discrete Fourier transforms, is fully general. Furthermore, such an approach can more easily show the effects of alloy scattering. We present such a method for treating the random alloy problem. This treatment features straightforward mathematics and a transparent physical interpretation of the calculated effective (i.e., approximate) energy bands.

  5. Space-charge calculation for bunched beams with 3-D ellipsoidal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, R.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1991-01-01

    A method for calculating 3-D space-charge forces has been developed that is suitable for bunched beams of either ions or relativistic electrons. The method is based on the analytic relations between charge-density and electric fields for a distribution with 3-D ellipsoidal symmetry in real space. At each step we use a Fourier-series representation for the smooth particle-density function obtained from the distribution of the macroparticles being tracked through the elements of the system. The resulting smooth electric fields reduce the problem of noise from artificial collisions, associated with small numbers of interacting macroparticles. Example calculations will be shown for comparison with other methods. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Calculation of the relative efficiency of thermoluminescent detectors to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.

    2011-01-01

    Thermoluminescent (TL) detectors are often used for measurements of radiation doses in space. While space radiation is composed of a mixture of heavy charged particles, the relative TL efficiency depends on ionization density. The question therefore arises: what is the relative efficiency of TLDs to the radiation present in space? In the attempt to answer this question, the relative TL efficiency of two types of lithium fluoride detectors for space radiation has been calculated, based on the theoretical space spectra and the experimental values of TL efficiency to ion beams. The TL efficiency of LiF:Mg,Ti detectors for radiation encountered at typical low-Earth’s orbit was found to be close to unity, justifying a common application of these TLDs to space dosimetry. The TL efficiency of LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors is significantly lower. It was found that a shielding may have a significant influence on the relative response of TLDs, due to changes caused in the radiation spectrum. In case of application of TLDs outside the Earth’s magnetosphere, one should expect lower relative efficiency than at the low-Earth’s orbit.

  7. Improvement of Thrust Bearing Calculation Considering the Convectional Heating within the Space between the Pads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Chmielowiec-Jablczyk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A modern thrust bearing tool is used to estimate the behavior of tilting pad thrust bearings not only in the oil film between pad and rotating collar, but also in the space between the pads. The oil flow in the space significantly influences the oil film inlet temperature and the heating of pad and collar. For that reason, it is necessary to define an oil mixing model for the space between the pads. In the bearing tool, the solutions of the Reynolds equation including a cavitation model, the energy equation and the heat transfer equation are done iteratively with the finite volume method by considering a constant flow rate. Both effects—laminar/turbulent flow and centrifugal force—are considered. The calculation results are compared with measurements done for a flooded thrust bearing with nominal eight tilting pads with an outer diameter of 180 mm. The heat convection coefficients for the pad surfaces mainly influence the pad temperature field and are adjusted to the measurement results. In the following paper, the calculation results for variable space distances, influence of different parameters on the bearing behavior and operating condition at high load are presented.

  8. Irregular Migrants and the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Azizah; Mat Zin, Ragayah Hj.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Malaysia`s policy on irregular migrants and its implementation, and discusses its impact. A survey and interview covering 404 respondents was conducted between July 2010 and June 2011 to ascertain the real situations surrounding irregular migrants in Malaysia, which is one of the major host countries of international migrants from developing nations. The policy on foreign workers was formulated in the mid-1980s to deal with the large number of irregular migrants and their ...

  9. A heterogeneous CPU+GPU Poisson solver for space charge calculations in beam dynamics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Dawei; Rienen, Ursula van [University of Rostock, Institute of General Electrical Engineering (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In beam dynamics studies in accelerator physics, space charge plays a central role in the low energy regime of an accelerator. Numerical space charge calculations are required, both, in the design phase and in the operation of the machines as well. Due to its efficiency, mostly the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is chosen for the space charge calculation. Then, the solution of Poisson's equation for the charge distribution in the rest frame is the most prominent part within the solution process. The Poisson solver directly affects the accuracy of the self-field applied on the charged particles when the equation of motion is solved in the laboratory frame. As the Poisson solver consumes the major part of the computing time in most simulations it has to be as fast as possible since it has to be carried out once per time step. In this work, we demonstrate a novel heterogeneous CPU+GPU routine for the Poisson solver. The novel solver also benefits from our new research results on the utilization of a discrete cosine transform within the classical Hockney and Eastwood's convolution routine.

  10. An application of sparse inversion on the calculation of the inverse data space of geophysical data

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2011-07-01

    Multiple reflections as observed in seismic reflection measurements often hide arrivals from the deeper target reflectors and need to be removed. The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function and by constraining the 1 norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Strategic Analysis of Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    the same mathematical equations used by Lanchester .10 Irregular Warfare Theory and Doctrine It is time to develop new analytical methods and models...basis on which to build, similar to what Lanchester provided almost 100 years ago. Figure 9 portrays both Lanchester’s approach and an irregular 17

  12. Lattice dynamics calculations based on density-functional perturbation theory in real space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Honghui; Carbogno, Christian; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    A real-space formalism for density-functional perturbation theory (DFPT) is derived and applied for the computation of harmonic vibrational properties in molecules and solids. The practical implementation using numeric atom-centered orbitals as basis functions is demonstrated exemplarily for the all-electron Fritz Haber Institute ab initio molecular simulations (FHI-aims) package. The convergence of the calculations with respect to numerical parameters is carefully investigated and a systematic comparison with finite-difference approaches is performed both for finite (molecules) and extended (periodic) systems. Finally, the scaling tests and scalability tests on massively parallel computer systems demonstrate the computational efficiency.

  13. Geant4 calculations for space radiation shielding material Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capali, Veli; Acar Yesil, Tolga; Kaya, Gokhan; Kaplan, Abdullah; Yavuz, Mustafa; Tilki, Tahir

    2015-07-01

    Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3 is the most widely used material in the engineering applications. It is significant aluminium metal, because of its hardness and as a refractory material owing to its high melting point. This material has several engineering applications in diverse fields such as, ballistic armour systems, wear components, electrical and electronic substrates, automotive parts, components for electric industry and aero-engine. As well, it is used as a dosimeter for radiation protection and therapy applications for its optically stimulated luminescence properties. In this study, stopping powers and penetrating distances have been calculated for the alpha, proton, electron and gamma particles in space radiation shielding material Al2O3 for incident energies 1 keV - 1 GeV using GEANT4 calculation code.

  14. Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Calculations Using the Modified Space-Time CESE Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chau-lyan

    2007-01-01

    The space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method is modified to address the robustness issues of high-aspect-ratio, viscous, near-wall meshes. In this new approach, the dependent variable gradients are evaluated using element edges and the corresponding neighboring solution elements while keeping the original flux integration procedure intact. As such, the excellent flux conservation property is retained and the new edge-based gradients evaluation significantly improves the robustness for high-aspect ratio meshes frequently encountered in three-dimensional, Navier-Stokes calculations. The order of accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated for oblique acoustic wave propagation, shock-wave interaction, and hypersonic flows over a blunt body. The confirmed second-order convergence along with the enhanced robustness in handling hypersonic blunt body flow calculations makes the proposed approach a very competitive CFD framework for 3D Navier-Stokes simulations.

  15. A massively-parallel electronic-structure calculations based on real-space density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Jun-Ichi; Takahashi, Daisuke; Oshiyama, Atsushi; Boku, Taisuke; Shiraishi, Kenji; Okada, Susumu; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Based on the real-space finite-difference method, we have developed a first-principles density functional program that efficiently performs large-scale calculations on massively-parallel computers. In addition to efficient parallel implementation, we also implemented several computational improvements, substantially reducing the computational costs of O(N 3 ) operations such as the Gram-Schmidt procedure and subspace diagonalization. Using the program on a massively-parallel computer cluster with a theoretical peak performance of several TFLOPS, we perform electronic-structure calculations for a system consisting of over 10,000 Si atoms, and obtain a self-consistent electronic-structure in a few hundred hours. We analyze in detail the costs of the program in terms of computation and of inter-node communications to clarify the efficiency, the applicability, and the possibility for further improvements.

  16. Geant4 calculations for space radiation shielding material Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capali Veli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3 is the most widely used material in the engineering applications. It is significant aluminium metal, because of its hardness and as a refractory material owing to its high melting point. This material has several engineering applications in diverse fields such as, ballistic armour systems, wear components, electrical and electronic substrates, automotive parts, components for electric industry and aero-engine. As well, it is used as a dosimeter for radiation protection and therapy applications for its optically stimulated luminescence properties. In this study, stopping powers and penetrating distances have been calculated for the alpha, proton, electron and gamma particles in space radiation shielding material Al2O3 for incident energies 1 keV – 1 GeV using GEANT4 calculation code.

  17. Utilization of MAX and FAX human phantoms for space radiation exposure calculations using HZETRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Garry; Slaba, Tony; Clowdsley, Martha; Blattnig, Steve; Walker, Steven; Simonsen, Lisa

    To estimate astronaut health risk due to space radiation, one must have the ability to calculate, for known radiation environments external to the body, particle spectra, LET spectra, dose, dose equivalent, or gray equivalent that are averaged over specific organs or tissue types. This may be accomplished using radiation transport software and computational human body tissue models. Historically, NASA scientists have used the HZETRN software to calculate radiation transport through both vehicle shielding materials and body tissue. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) and the Computerized Anatomical Female (CAF) body models, combined with the CAMERA software, have been used for body tissue self-shielding calculations. The CAM and CAF, which were developed in 1973 and 1992, respectively, model the 50th percentile U.S. Air Force male and female and are constructed using individual quadric surfaces that combine to form thousands of solid regions that represent specific tissues and structures within the body. In order to transport an external radiation environment to a point within one of the body models using HZETRN, a directional distribution of the tissues surrounding that point is needed. The CAMERA software is used to "ray trace" the CAM and CAF models, providing the thickness of each tissue type traversed along each of a large number of rays originating at a dose point. More recently, R. Kramer of the Departmento de Energia Nuclear, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco in Brazil and his co-workers developed the Male Adult voXel (MAX) model and the Female Adult voXel (FAX). These voxel-based body models were developed using segmented Computed Tomography (CT) scans of adult cadavers, and the quantities and distributions of various body tissues have been adjusted to match those specified in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference adult male and female. A new set of tools has been developed to facilitate space radiation exposure

  18. Mathematics without... Irregular Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeay, Heather

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on her session at the 2006 conference, including the learning styles and strategies she observed. In her session, they explored some of the more unusual aspects of convex polyhedra (with regular faces), including the notions of "valence" and "species". Although the session was about shape and space, there was…

  19. PERIODIC ORBIT FAMILIES IN THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF IRREGULAR-SHAPED BODIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, Xi’an Satellite Control Center, Xi’an 710043 (China); Baoyin, Hexi, E-mail: jiangyu_xian_china@163.com [School of Aerospace Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-11-01

    The discovery of binary and triple asteroids in addition to the execution of space missions to minor celestial bodies in the past several years have focused increasing attention on periodic orbits around irregular-shaped celestial bodies. In the present work, we adopt a polyhedron shape model for providing an accurate representation of irregular-shaped bodies and employ the model to calculate their corresponding gravitational and effective potentials. We also investigate the characteristics of periodic orbit families and the continuation of periodic orbits. We prove a fact, which provides a conserved quantity that permits restricting the number of periodic orbits in a fixed energy curved surface about an irregular-shaped body. The collisions of Floquet multipliers are maintained during the continuation of periodic orbits around the comet 1P/Halley. Multiple bifurcations in the periodic orbit families about irregular-shaped bodies are also discussed. Three bifurcations in the periodic orbit family have been found around the asteroid 216 Kleopatra, which include two real saddle bifurcations and one period-doubling bifurcation.

  20. PERIODIC ORBIT FAMILIES IN THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF IRREGULAR-SHAPED BODIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yu; Baoyin, Hexi

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of binary and triple asteroids in addition to the execution of space missions to minor celestial bodies in the past several years have focused increasing attention on periodic orbits around irregular-shaped celestial bodies. In the present work, we adopt a polyhedron shape model for providing an accurate representation of irregular-shaped bodies and employ the model to calculate their corresponding gravitational and effective potentials. We also investigate the characteristics of periodic orbit families and the continuation of periodic orbits. We prove a fact, which provides a conserved quantity that permits restricting the number of periodic orbits in a fixed energy curved surface about an irregular-shaped body. The collisions of Floquet multipliers are maintained during the continuation of periodic orbits around the comet 1P/Halley. Multiple bifurcations in the periodic orbit families about irregular-shaped bodies are also discussed. Three bifurcations in the periodic orbit family have been found around the asteroid 216 Kleopatra, which include two real saddle bifurcations and one period-doubling bifurcation.

  1. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  2. KOBRA 3 - a code for the calculation of space-charge-influenced trajectories in 3-dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaedtke, P.; Wipf, S.

    1989-06-01

    KOBRA3 is a three-dimensional multi-purpose program, written in standard FORTRAN77. The main purpose of the program is to calculate the trajectories of charged particles through a static electro-magnetic field in three dimensions. If space charge is not negligible its influence is taken into account by an iterative process. The Laplace equation is solved for the scalar potential. During the ray tracing, in which the equations of motion for charged particles are solved, the space charge term in the Poisson equation is distributed onto the mesh. By repeating this procedure the steady-state Vlasov equation is solved: ∇ 2 φ+∫∫∫f p dxdydz = 0, where φ is the electro-static potential and f p (r vector, v vector) describes the distribution of the charged particles in space. KOBRA3 can handle finite plasma boundaries, which are found by the program automatically. Special features are included within the program to investigate the beam quality (emittance, transverse energy), and to display the geometry, the trajectories and the potential and magnetic fields graphically. The modular structure of the program enables the user to create his (her) own diagnostic programs or interfaces to the main program. This report is intended to facilitate the use of KOBRA3 by describing the theory, structure and numerical methods used. At GSI (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung) the program runs on an IBM 3090-40E. The program has been installed on other machines e.g. CRAY XM-P, CRAY II, VAX 8600, IBM 3090-200, IBM 3033, ATARI ST, IBM-AT. (orig./HSI)

  3. Spectral element method for wave propagation on irregular domains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A spectral element approximation of acoustic propagation problems combined with a new mapping method on irregular domains is proposed. Following this method, the Gauss–Lobatto–Chebyshev nodes in the standard space are applied to the spectral element method (SEM). The nodes in the physical space are ...

  4. Determination of space-energy distribution of resonance neutrons in reactor lattice cell and calculation of resonance integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmijarevic, I.

    1980-01-01

    Space-energy distribution of resonance neutrons in reactor lattice cell was determined by solving the Boltzmann equation by spherical harmonics method applying P-3 approximation. Computer code SPLET used for these calculations is described. Resonance absorption and calculation of resonance integrals are described as well. Effective resonance integral values for U-238 resonance at 6.7 Ev are calculated for heavy water reactor cell with metal, oxide and carbide fuel elements

  5. First-principles real-space tight-binding LMTO calculation of electronic structures for atomic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.L.; Dy, K.S.; Wu, S.Y.

    1997-01-01

    A real-space scheme has been developed for a first-principles calculation of electronic structures and total energies of atomic clusters. The scheme is based on the combination of the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TBLMTO) method and the method of real-space Green close-quote s function. With this approach, the local electronic density of states can be conveniently determined from the real-space Green close-quote s function. Furthermore, the full electron density of a cluster can be directly calculated in real space. The scheme has been shown to be very efficient due to the incorporation of the method of real-space Green close-quote s function and Delley close-quote s method of evaluating multicenter integrals. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Traffic dispersion through a series of signals with irregular split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We study the traffic behavior of a group of vehicles moving through a sequence of signals with irregular splits on a roadway. We present the stochastic model of vehicular traffic controlled by signals. The dynamic behavior of vehicular traffic is clarified by analyzing traffic pattern and travel time numerically. The group of vehicles breaks up more and more by the irregularity of signal's split. The traffic dispersion is induced by the irregular split. We show that the traffic dispersion depends highly on the cycle time and the strength of split's irregularity. Also, we study the traffic behavior through the series of signals at the green-wave strategy. The dependence of the travel time on offset time is derived for various values of cycle time. The region map of the traffic dispersion is shown in (cycle time, offset time)-space.

  7. Configuration space Faddeev calculations: Progress report for period 1 January 1986-31 December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1987-01-01

    The detailed study of few-body nuclear systems provides a powerful tool to identify the relevant degrees of freedom in the nucleus. For these systems one can perform detailed and accurate numerical calculations which can be used to study the interactions between the various degrees of freedom. We have used these systems to investigate the size of the relativistic effects, the role of meson exchange currents, and the importance of the quark degrees of freedom in the nuclear system. New computational tools have been developed to treat relativistic operators. The effects of the Coulomb polarization potential on the low-energy scattering parameters have been investigated, and the effects of the Coulomb interaction on charge symmetry breaking have been studied. We have continued our project to find representations for multiparticle scattering amplitudes which satisfy certain physical properties. Finally, we have extended our work on the realization of the irreducible representations of compact groups as spaces of polynomials. These realizations can then be used in a symbolic manipulation program to generate Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients for groups important in nuclear physics applications. 37 refs

  8. Configuration space Faddeev calculations. Progress report, 1 January 1987-31 December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1988-01-01

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most sensitive tools for studying nuclear physics at subnucleon distance scales. For these systems the model equations can solved numerically with errors less than the experimental uncertainties. The author have used these systems to investigate the size of relativistic effects, the role of meson-exchange currents, and the importance of quark degrees of freedom in the nucleus. Detailed calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron have been done using a front-form formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. The structure of the most general Poincare covariant electromagnetic current operators and general tensor operators consistent with the dynamical constraints of special relativity was derived. The techniques for constructing scattering amplitudes for multiparticle production reactions have been developed. We have completed a detailed study of the properties of the bound trinucleon system. The solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger in configuration space has been studied. Finally, new computational and analytic tools have been developed

  9. Optimal auxiliary Hamiltonians for truncated boson-space calculations by means of a maximal-decoupling variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.

    1991-01-01

    A new method based on a maximal-decoupling variational principle is proposed to treat the Pauli-principle constraints for calculations of nuclear collective motion in a truncated boson space. The viability of the method is demonstrated through an application to the multipole form of boson Hamiltonians for the single-j and nondegenerate multi-j pairing interactions. While these boson Hamiltonians are Hermitian and contain only one- and two-boson terms, they are also the worst case for truncated boson-space calculations because they are not amenable to any boson truncations at all. By using auxiliary Hamiltonians optimally determined by the maximal-decoupling variational principle, however, truncations in the boson space become feasible and even yield reasonably accurate results. The method proposed here may thus be useful for doing realistic calculations of nuclear collective motion as well as for obtaining a viable interacting-boson-model type of boson Hamiltonian from the shell model

  10. SPLET - A program for calculating the space-lethargy distribution of epithermal neutrons in a reactor lattice cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.V.; Zmijatevic, I.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure to solve the space-single-lethargy dependent transport equation for epithermal neutrons in a cylindricised multi-region reactor lattice cell has been developed and proposed in the earlier papers. Here, the computational algorithm is comprised and the computing program SPLET, which calculates the space-lethargy distribution of the spherical harmonics neutron flux moments, as well as the related integral quantities as reaction rates and resonance integrals, is described. (author)

  11. Final Report for 'Design calculations for high-space-charge beam-to-RF conversion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithe, David N.

    2008-01-01

    Accelerator facility upgrades, new accelerator applications, and future design efforts are leading to novel klystron and IOT device concepts, including multiple beam, high-order mode operation, and new geometry configurations of old concepts. At the same time, a new simulation capability, based upon finite-difference 'cut-cell' boundaries, has emerged and is transforming the existing modeling and design capability with unparalleled realism, greater flexibility, and improved accuracy. This same new technology can also be brought to bear on a difficult-to-study aspect of the energy recovery linac (ERL), namely the accurate modeling of the exit beam, and design of the beam dump for optimum energy efficiency. We have developed new capability for design calculations and modeling of a broad class of devices which convert bunched beam kinetic energy to RF energy, including RF sources, as for example, klystrons, gyro-klystrons, IOT's, TWT's, and other devices in which space-charge effects are important. Recent advances in geometry representation now permits very accurate representation of the curved metallic surfaces common to RF sources, resulting in unprecedented simulation accuracy. In the Phase I work, we evaluated and demonstrated the capabilities of the new geometry representation technology as applied to modeling and design of output cavity components of klystron, IOT's, and energy recovery srf cavities. We identified and prioritized which aspects of the design study process to pursue and improve in Phase II. The development and use of the new accurate geometry modeling technology on RF sources for DOE accelerators will help spark a new generational modeling and design capability, free from many of the constraints and inaccuracy associated with the previous generation of 'stair-step' geometry modeling tools. This new capability is ultimately expected to impact all fields with high power RF sources, including DOE fusion research, communications, radar and other

  12. Geostatistical regularization operators for geophysical inverse problems on irregular meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, C.; Doetsch, J.; Günther, T.; Schmelzbach, C.; Robertsson, J. OA

    2018-05-01

    Irregular meshes allow to include complicated subsurface structures into geophysical modelling and inverse problems. The non-uniqueness of these inverse problems requires appropriate regularization that can incorporate a priori information. However, defining regularization operators for irregular discretizations is not trivial. Different schemes for calculating smoothness operators on irregular meshes have been proposed. In contrast to classical regularization constraints that are only defined using the nearest neighbours of a cell, geostatistical operators include a larger neighbourhood around a particular cell. A correlation model defines the extent of the neighbourhood and allows to incorporate information about geological structures. We propose an approach to calculate geostatistical operators for inverse problems on irregular meshes by eigendecomposition of a covariance matrix that contains the a priori geological information. Using our approach, the calculation of the operator matrix becomes tractable for 3-D inverse problems on irregular meshes. We tested the performance of the geostatistical regularization operators and compared them against the results of anisotropic smoothing in inversions of 2-D surface synthetic electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data as well as in the inversion of a realistic 3-D cross-well synthetic ERT scenario. The inversions of 2-D ERT and seismic traveltime field data with geostatistical regularization provide results that are in good accordance with the expected geology and thus facilitate their interpretation. In particular, for layered structures the geostatistical regularization provides geologically more plausible results compared to the anisotropic smoothness constraints.

  13. Advances in electron dosimetry of irregular fields; Avances en dosimetria de electrones de campos irregulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez V, J. [Departamento de Radioterapia, Instituto de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Avenida Angamos Este 2520, Lima 34 (Peru)

    1998-12-31

    In this work it is presented an advance in Electron dosimetry of irregular fields for beams emitted by linear accelerators. At present diverse methods exist which are coming to apply in the Radiotherapy centers. In this work it is proposed a method for irregular fields dosimetry. It will be allow to calculate the dose rate absorbed required for evaluating the time for the treatment of cancer patients. Utilizing the results obtained by the dosimetric system, it has been possible to prove the validity of the method describe for 12 MeV energy and for square field 7.5 x 7.5 cm{sup 2} with percentile error less than 1 % . (Author)

  14. Artificial periodic irregularities in the auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Rietveld

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial periodic irregularities (API are produced in the ionospheric plasma by a powerful standing electromagnetic wave reflected off the F region. The resulting electron-density irregularities can scatter other high-frequency waves if the Bragg scattering condition is met. Such measurements have been performed at mid-latitudes for two decades and have been developed into a useful ionospheric diagnostic technique. We report here the first measurements from a high-latitude station, using the EISCAT heating facility near Tromsø, Norway. Both F-region and lower-altitude ionospheric echoes have been obtained, but the bulk of the data has been in the E and D regions with echoes extending down to 52-km altitude. Examples of API are shown, mainly from the D region, together with simultaneous VHF incoherent-scatter-radar (ISR data. Vertical velocities derived from the rate of phase change during the irregularity decay are shown and compared with velocities derived from the ISR. Some of the API-derived velocities in the 75–115-km height range appear consistent with vertical neutral winds as shown by their magnitudes and by evidence of gravity waves, while other data in the 50–70-km range show an unrealistically large bias. For a comparison with ISR data it has proved difficult to get good quality data sets overlapping in height and time. The initial comparisons show some agreement, but discrepancies of several metres per second do not yet allow us to conclude that the two techniques are measuring the same quantity. The irregularity decay time-constants between about 53 and 70 km are compared with the results of an advanced ion-chemistry model, and height profiles of recorded signal power are compared with model estimates in the same altitude range. The calculated amplitude shows good agreement with the data in that the maximum occurs at about the same height as that of the measured amplitude. The calculated time-constant agrees very well with the

  15. Influence of cusps and intersections on the calculation of the Wilson loop in ν-dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    A discussion is given about the influence of cusps and intersections on the calculation of the Wilson Loop in ν-dimensional space. In particular, for the two-dimensional case, it is shown that there are no divergences. (Author) [pt

  16. Evaluating methods for estimating space-time paths of individuals in calculating long-term personal exposure to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oliver; Soenario, Ivan; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Strak, Maciek; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Dijst, Martin; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the major concerns for human health. Associations between air pollution and health are often calculated using long-term (i.e. years to decades) information on personal exposure for each individual in a cohort. Personal exposure is the air pollution aggregated along the space-time path visited by an individual. As air pollution may vary considerably in space and time, for instance due to motorised traffic, the estimation of the spatio-temporal location of a persons' space-time path is important to identify the personal exposure. However, long term exposure is mostly calculated using the air pollution concentration at the x, y location of someone's home which does not consider that individuals are mobile (commuting, recreation, relocation). This assumption is often made as it is a major challenge to estimate space-time paths for all individuals in large cohorts, mostly because limited information on mobility of individuals is available. We address this issue by evaluating multiple approaches for the calculation of space-time paths, thereby estimating the personal exposure along these space-time paths with hyper resolution air pollution maps at national scale. This allows us to evaluate the effect of the space-time path and resulting personal exposure. Air pollution (e.g. NO2, PM10) was mapped for the entire Netherlands at a resolution of 5×5 m2 using the land use regression models developed in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE, http://escapeproject.eu/) and the open source software PCRaster (http://www.pcraster.eu). The models use predictor variables like population density, land use, and traffic related data sets, and are able to model spatial variation and within-city variability of annual average concentration values. We approximated space-time paths for all individuals in a cohort using various aggregations, including those representing space-time paths as the outline of a persons' home or associated parcel

  17. Real-space local polynomial basis for solid-state electronic-structure calculations: A finite-element approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pask, J.E.; Klein, B.M.; Fong, C.Y.; Sterne, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    We present an approach to solid-state electronic-structure calculations based on the finite-element method. In this method, the basis functions are strictly local, piecewise polynomials. Because the basis is composed of polynomials, the method is completely general and its convergence can be controlled systematically. Because the basis functions are strictly local in real space, the method allows for variable resolution in real space; produces sparse, structured matrices, enabling the effective use of iterative solution methods; and is well suited to parallel implementation. The method thus combines the significant advantages of both real-space-grid and basis-oriented approaches and so promises to be particularly well suited for large, accurate ab initio calculations. We develop the theory of our approach in detail, discuss advantages and disadvantages, and report initial results, including electronic band structures and details of the convergence of the method. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. Normed Orlicz function spaces which can be quasi-renormed with easily calculable quasinorms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foralewski, P.; Hudzik, H.; Kaczmarek, R.; Krbec, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2017), s. 636-660 ISSN 1735-8787 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : embeddings into Lebesgue and weighted Lebesgue spaces * Orlicz spaces * quasinorms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.833, year: 2016 http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.bjma/1496973700

  19. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of

  20. Spectral element method for wave propagation on irregular domains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan Hui Geng

    2018-03-14

    Mar 14, 2018 ... Abstract. A spectral element approximation of acoustic propagation problems combined with a new mapping method on irregular domains is proposed. Following this method, the Gauss–Lobatto–Chebyshev nodes in the standard space are applied to the spectral element method (SEM). The nodes in the ...

  1. A real space calculation of absolutely unstable modes for two-plasmon decay in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, L.V.; Berger, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Growth rates for absolute modes of two-plasmon decay are obtained by solving for eigenmodes of the coupled mode equations for obliquely scattered Langmuir waves in real space. This analysis establishes a connection both to previous analysis in Fourier transform space and to other parametric instabilities, the analysis of which is commonly done in real space. The essential feature of the instability which admits absolute modes in an inhomogeneous plasma is the strong spatial dependence of the coupling coefficients. Landau damping limits the perpendicular wavenumbers of the most unstable modes and raises the instability thresholds for background plasma temperatures above 1 keV. (author)

  2. Improvement of Thrust Bearing Calculation Considering the Convectional Heating within the Space between the Pads

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Chmielowiec-Jablczyk; Andreas Schubert; Christian Kraft; Hubert Schwarze; Michal Wodtke; Michal Wasilczuk

    2018-01-01

    A modern thrust bearing tool is used to estimate the behavior of tilting pad thrust bearings not only in the oil film between pad and rotating collar, but also in the space between the pads. The oil flow in the space significantly influences the oil film inlet temperature and the heating of pad and collar. For that reason, it is necessary to define an oil mixing model for the space between the pads. In the bearing tool, the solutions of the Reynolds equation including a cavitation model, the ...

  3. An application of sparse inversion on the calculation of the inverse data space of geophysical data

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos; Doulgeris, Panagiotis C.; Verschuur, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Multiple reflections as observed in seismic reflection measurements often hide arrivals from the deeper target reflectors and need to be removed. The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples

  4. Steady-State Calculation of the ATLAS Test Facility Using the SPACE Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Tae; Choi, Ki Yong; Kim, Kyung Doo

    2011-01-01

    The Korean nuclear industry is developing a thermalhydraulic analysis code for safety analysis of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The new code is called the Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants (SPACE). Several research and industrial organizations including KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) are participating in the collaboration for the development of the SPACE code. One of the main tasks of KAERI is to carry out separate effect tests (SET) and integral effect tests (IET) for code verification and validation (V and V). The IET has been performed with ATLAS (Advanced Thermalhydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) based on the design features of the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor of 1400MWe). In the present work the SPACE code input-deck for ATLAS is developed and used for simulation of the steady-state conditions of ATLAS as a preliminary work for IET V and V of the SPACE code

  5. Characterizing spontaneous irregular behavior in coupled map lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobyns, York; Atmanspacher, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Two-dimensional coupled map lattices display, in a specific parameter range, a stable phase (quasi-) periodic in both space and time. With small changes to the model parameters, this stable phase develops spontaneous eruptions of non-periodic behavior. Although this behavior itself appears irregular, it can be characterized in a systematic fashion. In particular, parameter-independent features of the spontaneous eruptions may allow useful empirical characterizations of other phenomena that are intrinsically hard to predict and reproduce. Specific features of the distributions of lifetimes and emergence rates of irregular states display such parameter-independent properties

  6. Characterizing spontaneous irregular behavior in coupled map lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobyns, York [PEAR, Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States); Atmanspacher, Harald [Institut fuer Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene Wilhelmstrasse 3a, Freiburg 79098 (Germany)]. E-mail: haa@igpp.de

    2005-04-01

    Two-dimensional coupled map lattices display, in a specific parameter range, a stable phase (quasi-) periodic in both space and time. With small changes to the model parameters, this stable phase develops spontaneous eruptions of non-periodic behavior. Although this behavior itself appears irregular, it can be characterized in a systematic fashion. In particular, parameter-independent features of the spontaneous eruptions may allow useful empirical characterizations of other phenomena that are intrinsically hard to predict and reproduce. Specific features of the distributions of lifetimes and emergence rates of irregular states display such parameter-independent properties.

  7. Orbital and Collisional Evolution of the Irregular Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, David; Alvarellos, Jose L. A.; Dones, Luke; Levison, Harold F.

    2003-07-01

    instabilities operating on longer time spans. The average orbits calculated from this experiment were then used to probe the collisional evolution of the irregular satellite systems. We found that (1) the large irregular moons must have collisionally eliminated many small irregular moons, thus shaping their population to the currently observed structures; (2) some dynamical families of satellites could have been formed by catastrophic collisions among the irregular moons; and (3) Phoebe's surface must have been heavily cratered by impacts from an extinct population of Saturnian irregular moons, much larger than the present one. We therefore suggest that the Cassini imaging of Phoebe in 2004 can be used to determine the primordial population of small irregular moons of Saturn. In such a case, we will also better understand the overall efficiency of the formation process of the irregular satellites and the physical conditions that existed during planetary formation. We discovered two dynamical families of tightly clustered orbits within the Jovian retrograde group. We believe that these two clusters may be the remnants of two collisionally disrupted bodies. We found that the entire Jovian retrograde group and the Saturnian inclination groups were not produced by single breakups, because the ejection velocities derived from the orbital structures of these groups greatly exceed values calculated by modern numerical models of collisional breakups. Taken together, the evidence presented here suggests that many properties of the irregular moons previously assigned to their formation process may have resulted from their later dynamical and collisional evolution. Finally, we have found that several irregular moons, namely, Pasiphae, Sinope, S/2001 J10, S/2000 S5, S/2000 S6, and S/2000 S3, have orbits characterized by secular resonances. The orbits of some of these moons apparently evolved by some slow dissipative process in the past and became captured in tiny resonant volumes.

  8. Influence of initial stress, irregularity and heterogeneity on Love-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper deals with the propagation of Love-type wave in an initially stressed irregular vertically heterogeneous layer lying over an initially stressed isotropic layer and an initially stressed isotropic half- space. Two different types of irregularities, viz., rectangular and parabolic, are considered at the interface.

  9. Exploring Manycore Multinode Systems for Irregular Applications with FPGA Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceriani, Marco; Palermo, Gianluca; Secchi, Simone; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

    2013-04-29

    We present a prototype of a multi-core architecture implemented on FPGA, designed to enable efficient execution of irregular applications on distributed shared memory machines, while maintaining high performance on regular workloads. The architecture is composed of off-the-shelf soft-core cores, local interconnection and memory interface, integrated with custom components that optimize it for irregular applications. It relies on three key elements: a global address space, multithreading, and fine-grained synchronization. Global addresses are scrambled to reduce the formation of network hot-spots, while the latency of the transactions is covered by integrating an hardware scheduler within the custom load/store buffers to take advantage from the availability of multiple executions threads, increasing the efficiency in a transparent way to the application. We evaluated a dual node system irregular kernels showing scalability in the number of cores and threads.

  10. Reflected kinetics model for nuclear space reactor kinetics and control scoping calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a model that offers an alternative to the point kinetics (PK) modelling approach in the analysis of space reactor kinetics and control studies. Modelling effort will focus on the explicit treatment of control drums as reactivity input devices so that the transition to automatic control can be smoothly done. The proposed model is developed for the specific integration of automatic control and the solution of the servo mechanism problem. The integration of the kinetics model with an automatic controller will provide a useful tool for performing space reactor scoping studies for different designs and configurations. Such a tool should prove to be invaluable in the design phase of a space nuclear system from the point of view of kinetics and control limitations.

  11. Reflected kinetics model for nuclear space reactor kinetics and control scoping calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a model that offers an alternative to the point kinetics (PK) modelling approach in the analysis of space reactor kinetics and control studies. Modelling effort will focus on the explicit treatment of control drums as reactivity input devices so that the transition to automatic control can be smoothly done. The proposed model is developed for the specific integration of automatic control and the solution of the servo mechanism problem. The integration of the kinetics model with an automatic controller will provide a useful tool for performing space reactor scoping studies for different designs and configurations. Such a tool should prove to be invaluable in the design phase of a space nuclear system from the point of view of kinetics and control limitations

  12. Propagation and scattering of electromagnetic waves by the ionospheric irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, A.Y.; Kuo, S.P.; Lee, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of wave propagation and scattering in the ionosphere is particularly important in the areas of communications, remote-sensing and detection. The ionosphere is often perturbed with coherently structured (quasiperiodic) density irregularities. Experimental observations suggest that these irregularities could give rise to significant ionospheric effect on wave propagation such as causing spread-F of the probing HF sounding signals and scintillation of beacon satellite signals. It was show by the latter that scintillation index S 4 ∼ 0.5 and may be as high as 0.8. In this work a quasi-particle theory is developed to study the scintillation phenomenon. A Wigner distribution function for the wave intensity in the (k,r) space is introduced and its governing equation is derived with an effective collision term giving rise to the attenuation and scattering of the wave. This kinetic equation leads to a hierarchy of moment equations in r space. This systems of equations is then truncated to the second moment which is equivalent to assuming a cold quasi-particle distribution In this analysis, the irregularities are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on an uniform background plasma. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating, effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then contributes to the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals. Using the proper plasma parameters and equatorial measured data of irregularities, it is shown that the scintillation index defined by S4=( 2 >- 2 )/ 2 where stands for spatial average over an irregularity wavelength is in the range of the experimentally detected values

  13. Calculation and measurement of space charge in MV-size xxtruded cables systems under load conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshuis, P.H.F.; Bodega, R.; Fabiani, D.; Montanari, G.C.; Dissado, L.A.; Smit, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    A load current in dc high voltage cables results in a temperature drop across the insulation and hence a radial distribution of the insulation conductivity is found. Direct consequence is an accumulation of space charge in the bulk of the nsulation, that may significantly affect its reliability.

  14. Progress in 3D Space-charge Calculations in the GPT Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pöplau, G.; Rienen, van U.; Loos, de M.J.; Geer, van der S.B.

    2004-01-01

    The mesh-based 3D space-charge routine in the GPT (General Particle Tracer, Pulsar Physics) code scales linearly with the number of particles in terms of CPU time and allows a million particles to be tracked on a normal PC. The crucial ingredient of the routine is a non-equidistant multi-grid

  15. ColorFull: a C++ library for calculations in SU(Nc) color space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoedahl, Malin [Lund University, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    ColorFull, a C++ package for treating QCD color structure, is presented. ColorFull, which utilizes the trace basis approach, is intended for interfacing with event generators, but can also be used as a stand-alone package for squaring QCD amplitudes, calculating interferences, and describing the effect of gluon emission and gluon exchange. (orig.)

  16. Real-space calculations of nonspherically averaged charge densities for substitutionally disordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.P.; Gonis, A.

    1993-01-01

    Based on screening transformations of muffin-tin orbitals introduced by Andersen and Jepsen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2571 (1984)], we have developed a formalism for calculating the nonspherically averaged charge densities of substitutionally disordered alloys using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential-approximation (KKR CPA) method in the atomic-sphere approximation (ASA). We have validated our method by calculating charge densities for ordered structures, where we find that our approach yields charge densities that are essentially indistinguishable from the results of full-potential methods. Calculations and comparisons are reported for Si, Al, and Li. For substitutionally disordered alloys, where full-potential methods have not been implemented so far, our approach can be used to calculate reliable nonspherically averaged charge densities from spherically symmetric one-electron potentials obtained from the KKR-ASA CPA. We report on our study of differences in charge density between ordered AlLi in the L1 0 phase and substitutionally disordered Al 0.5 Li 0.5 on a face-centered-cubic lattice

  17. Simulation of Space Charge Effects in Electron Optical System Based on the Calculations of Current Density

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelinka, Jiří; Oral, Martin; Radlička, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S4 (2015), s. 246-251 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : electron optical system * calculations of current density Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  18. Boomerang project: structural calculations and verifications of mechanical support of space cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchini, A.; Orsi, R.

    1995-12-01

    The Boomerang (Ballon Observations of Millimetric Extragalactic radiation ANd Geophysics) experiment is an international effort to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy on angular scales of 20' to 4x, with unprecedent sensitivity, sky and spectral coverage. The telescope will be flown from Antarctica by NASA-NSBF with a long duration stratospheric balloon (1-3 weeks), and is scheduled for flight in 1996. Space cryogenic systems need adeguate mechanical support to survive the large accelerations and vibrations induced during launch and landing. Static and modal analyses were carried out in order to assist the design of the mechanical support of the space cryogenic system. This report describes the models and the results of the FEM analyses carried out for different design solutions (kevlar cords or fiber-glass cylinders) of the cryostat support structure

  19. Scattering in particle-hole space: simple approximations to nuclear RPA calculations in the continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1987-01-01

    The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) treatment of nuclear small amplitude vibrations including particle-hole continua is handled in terms of previously developed techniques to treat single-particle resonances in a reaction theoretical framework. A hierarchy of interpretable approximations is derived and a simple working approximation is proposed which involves a numerical effort no larger than that involved in standard, discrete RPA calculations. (Author) [pt

  20. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Calculating Electron Capture Cross Sections: A Space- Physics Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of electroncapture cross sections at energies relevant to the modeling of the transport, acceleration, and interaction of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) in space (approximately few MeV per nucleon) and especially for multi-electron ions must rely on detailed, but computationally expensive, quantum-mechanical description of the collision process. Kuang's semi-classical approach is an elegant and efficient way to arrive at these estimates. Motivated by ENA modeling efforts for apace applications, we shall briefly present this approach along with sample applications and report on current progress.

  1. Phase-space path-integral calculation of the Wigner function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J H

    2003-01-01

    The Wigner function W(q, p) is formulated as a phase-space path integral, whereby its sign oscillations can be seen to follow from interference between the geometrical phases of the paths. The approach has similarities to the path-centroid method in the configuration-space path integral. Paths can be classified by the midpoint of their ends; short paths where the midpoint is close to (q, p) and which lie in regions of low energy (low P function of the Hamiltonian) will dominate, and the enclosed area will determine the sign of the Wigner function. As a demonstration, the method is applied to a sequence of density matrices interpolating between a Poissonian number distribution and a number state, each member of which can be represented exactly by a discretized path integral with a finite number of vertices. Saddle-point evaluation of these integrals recovers (up to a constant factor) the WKB approximation to the Wigner function of a number state

  2. Calculation of charged fusion product distributions in space, energy, and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schivell, J.; Monticello, D.A.; Zweben, S.J.

    1992-02-01

    The equation for the radial diffusion and slowing down of fast ions in a plasma is solved by a finite-difference technique. The terms included are ion source, radial diffusion, electron and ion drag. From the ion density at the radial boundary, the loss flux is calculated and used to model the signals in a lost-ion diagnostic. The code is also used to model the density of α-particles in future DT experiments. This information is used to predict the features to be seen by alpha diagnostics

  3. Irregular Shaped Building Design Optimization with Building Information Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Xia Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is to recognise the function of Building Information Modelling (BIM in design optimization for irregular shaped buildings. The study focuses on a conceptual irregular shaped “twisted” building design similar to some existing sculpture-like architectures. Form and function are the two most important aspects of new buildings, which are becoming more sophisticated as parts of equally sophisticated “systems” that we are living in. Nowadays, it is common to have irregular shaped or sculpture-like buildings which are very different when compared to regular buildings. Construction industry stakeholders are facing stiff challenges in many aspects such as buildability, cost effectiveness, delivery time and facility management when dealing with irregular shaped building projects. Building Information Modelling (BIM is being utilized to enable architects, engineers and constructors to gain improved visualization for irregular shaped buildings; this has a purpose of identifying critical issues before initiating physical construction work. In this study, three variations of design options differing in rotating angle: 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees are created to conduct quantifiable comparisons. Discussions are focused on three major aspects including structural planning, usable building space, and structural constructability. This research concludes that Building Information Modelling is instrumental in facilitating design optimization for irregular shaped building. In the process of comparing different design variations, instead of just giving “yes or no” type of response, stakeholders can now easily visualize, evaluate and decide to achieve the right balance based on their own criteria. Therefore, construction project stakeholders are empowered with superior evaluation and decision making capability.

  4. Technique for sensitivity analysis of space- and energy-dependent burn-up calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.; White, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    A practical method is presented for sensitivity analysis of the very complex, space-energy dependent burn-up equations, in which the neutron and nuclide fields are coupled nonlinearly. The adjoint burn-up equations that are given are in a form which can be directly implemented into multi-dimensional depletion codes, such as VENTURE/BURNER. The data sensitivity coefficients can be used to determine the effect of data uncertainties on time-dependent depletion responses. Initial condition sensitivity coefficients provide a very effective method for computing the change in end of cycle parameters (such as k/sub eff/, fissile inventory, etc.) due to changes in nuclide concentrations at beginning of cycle

  5. Irregular Migration in Jordan, 1995-2007

    OpenAIRE

    AROURI, Fathi A.

    2008-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) This paper tackles the question of irregular migration in Jordan through its four main aspects. The first concerns irregular labour migrants and has been approached by using figures showing the socio-economic profile of non Jordanians working in Jordan and, additionally, unemployment in Jordan. This is done by assuming close similarities between legal and irregular labour migrants. The second is an attemp...

  6. Real-space, mean-field algorithm to numerically calculate long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhe, A.; Costa, B. V.

    2016-02-01

    Long-range interactions are known to be of difficult treatment in statistical mechanics models. There are some approaches that introduce a cutoff in the interactions or make use of reaction field approaches. However, those treatments suffer the illness of being of limited use, in particular close to phase transitions. The use of open boundary conditions allows the sum of the long-range interactions over the entire system to be done, however, this approach demands a sum over all degrees of freedom in the system, which makes a numerical treatment prohibitive. Techniques like the Ewald summation or fast multipole expansion account for the exact interactions but are still limited to a few thousands of particles. In this paper we introduce a novel mean-field approach to treat long-range interactions. The method is based in the division of the system in cells. In the inner cell, that contains the particle in sight, the 'local' interactions are computed exactly, the 'far' contributions are then computed as the average over the particles inside a given cell with the particle in sight for each of the remaining cells. Using this approach, the large and small cells limits are exact. At a fixed cell size, the method also becomes exact in the limit of large lattices. We have applied the procedure to the two-dimensional anisotropic dipolar Heisenberg model. A detailed comparison between our method, the exact calculation and the cutoff radius approximation were done. Our results show that the cutoff-cell approach outperforms any cutoff radius approach as it maintains the long-range memory present in these interactions, contrary to the cutoff radius approximation. Besides that, we calculated the critical temperature and the critical behavior of the specific heat of the anisotropic Heisenberg model using our method. The results are in excellent agreement with extensive Monte Carlo simulations using Ewald summation.

  7. Composite space charge density functions for the calculation of gamma sensitivity of self-powered neutron detectors, using Warren's model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahant, A. K.; Rao, P. S.; Misra, S. C.

    1994-07-01

    In the calculational model developed by Warren and Shah for the computation of the gamma sensitivity ( Sγ) it has been observed that the computed Sγ value is quite sensitive to the space charge distribution function assumed for the insulator region and the energy of the gamma photons. The Sγ of SPNDs with Pt, Co and V emitters (manufactured by Thermocoax, France) has been measured at 60Co photon energy and a good correlation between the measured and computed values has been obtained using a composite space charge density function (CSCD), the details of which are presented in this paper. The arguments are extended for evaluating the Sγ values of several SPNDs for which Warren and Shah reported the measured values for a prompt fission gamma spectrum obtained in a swimming pool reactor. These results are also discussed.

  8. Adjusted NIEL calculations for estimating proton-induced degradation of GaInP/GaAs/Ge space solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ming; Wang Rong; Liu Yunhong; Hu Wentao; Feng Zhao; Han Zhaolei

    2011-01-01

    The non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) values for protons in solar cells should be modified by taking into account the distribution of the Bragg damage peak in the active region to calculate the corresponding displacement damage dose. In this paper, based upon a thin target approximation, a new approach is presented to modify NIEL values for protons on a GaAs sub-cell. Adjusted NIEL values can be used to estimate the degradation induced by protons on GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction space solar cells.

  9. Effect of surface stress and irregularity of the interface on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surface stress; irregularity of the interface; magneto-elastic crustal ... stress plays a vital role in the propagation of waves due to the fact that the surface of a ...... Mumbai, for his computational help towards the numerical calculations and graphs.

  10. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  11. Simulation and Calibration of the ALICE TPC including innovative Space Charge Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Rossegger, S; Riegler, W; Betev, L

    2009-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four main particle detectors located around the LHC accelerator at CERN. It is particularly designed to study the physics of the quark-gluon plasma by means of nucleus--nucleus collisions at center-of-mass energies up to 5.5 TeV per nucleon pair. A Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) was chosen to be its central-sub-detector due to its low mass properties and its capabilities to provide a robust and accurate Particle Identification even within ultra-high multiplicity environments (up to 8000 tracks per unit of eta). To achieve the required physics performance, the space point resolution of the TPC must be in the order of 0.2 mm. Due to its gigantic size of 5~m in diameter and 5~m in length, corrections for static as well as dynamic effects are indispensable in order to accomplish the design goal. The research presented covers all major issues relevant for the final calibration and therefore the enhancement of the TPC performance in terms of resolution. The main focus was to distinguish between t...

  12. Configuration space Faddeev calculations. Progress report, 1 January 1983-31 December 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear three-body problem can be used as a tool to test our basic understanding of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Also, accurate three-body wave functions can be used to test various approximations used in nuclear reaction theories. During the past year we have developed the computer codes to solve the trinucleon problem with realistic potentials, both for the bound-state and the zero-energy scattering problem. We have demonstrated that our noncompact kernel equation can be used for three-body scattering for energies below the three-body breakup energy. The p-d scattering length calculated with realistic interactions showed that the experimental value for the doublet scattering length should be reevaluated. In order to interpret the results of new experiments in terms of quarks exchanging gluons, we have constructed a framework for constructing models of a baryon with a three-quark core and a quark-antiquark cloud. We have derived the properties of the interactions which ensure both a well-defined scattering theory and a mass spectrum with a finite number of physical baryons. Finally, we have shown that any multiparticle scattering amplitude can be related to the scattering amplitude for the crossed reaction, and as a consequence, derived functional equations for a single-particle production scattering amplitudes. Publications are listed

  13. Algorithm for calculating synthetic seismograms in a layered half-space with application of matrix impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    A new algorithm is proposed for calculating the complete synthetic seismograms from a point source in the form of the sum of a single force and a dipole with an arbitrary seismic moment tensor in a plane layered medium composed of homogenous elastic isotropic layers. Following the idea of (Alekseev and Mikhailenko, 1978), an artificial cylindrical boundary is introduced, on which the boundary conditions are specified. For this modified problem, the exact solution (in terms of the displacements and stresses on the horizontal plane areal element) in the frequency domain is derived and substantiated. The unknown depth-dependent coefficients form the motion-stress vector, whose components satisfy the known system of ordinary differential equations. This system is solved by the method that involves the matrix impedance and propagator for the vector of motion, as previously suggested by the author in (Pavlov, 2009). In relation to the initial problem, the reflections from the artificial boundary are noise, which, to a certain degree, can be suppressed by selecting a long enough distance to this boundary and owing to the presence of a purely imaginary addition to the frequency. The algorithm is not constrained by the thickness of the layers, is applicable for any frequency range, and is suitable for computing the static offset.

  14. On a new process for cusp irregularity production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Carlson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two plasma instability mechanisms were thought until 2007 to dominate the formation of plasma irregularities in the F region high latitude and polar ionosphere; the gradient-drift driven instability, and the velocity-shear driven instability. The former mechanism was accepted as accounting for plasma structuring in polar cap patches, the latter for plasma structuring in polar cap sun aligned arcs. Recent work has established the need to replace this view of the past two decades with a new patch plasma structuring process (not a new mechanism, whereby shear-driven instabilities first rapidly structure the entering plasma, after which gradient drift instabilities build on these large "seed" irregularities. Correct modeling of cusp and early polar cap patch structuring will not be accomplished without allowing for this compound process. This compound process explains several previously unexplained characteristics of cusp and early polar cap patch irregularities. Here we introduce additional data, coincident in time and space, to extend that work to smaller irregularity scale sizes and relate it to the structured cusp current system.

  15. SPANDE, Stress Analysis of General Space-frame and Pipework. SPATAM, Tilt Angle Calculation of Framework for Program SPANDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.C.; Enderby, J.A.; Knowles, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The programme is intended to analyse almost any type of space-frame. Members of the frame may be either straight or of constant curvature between nodes provided that, in the case of curved members, one of the principal axes of the cross-section of the member lies in the same plane as the member. Loading may comprise concentrated loads, distributed loads, thermal loads or may take the form of specified displacements. The programme calculates the forces and moments in all the members of the framework, the reactions at all external restraints and the displacements of all the nodes. For pipework problems, the maximum stress difference in the pipe, calculated in accordance with the code of practice, is also quoted. 2 - Method of solution: The framework is solved by displacement methods involving stiffness matrices, making it possible to analyse space-frames with virtually any number of redundancies. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: For ICL 4/70, the framework is limited to 1000 nodes, 2000 members, 100 different member types or 200 specified nodal displacements

  16. Restricted active space calculations of L-edge X-ray absorption spectra: from molecular orbitals to multiplet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2014-09-28

    The metal L-edge (2p → 3d) X-ray absorption spectra are affected by a number of different interactions: electron-electron repulsion, spin-orbit coupling, and charge transfer between metal and ligands, which makes the simulation of spectra challenging. The core restricted active space (RAS) method is an accurate and flexible approach that can be used to calculate X-ray spectra of a wide range of medium-sized systems without any symmetry constraints. Here, the applicability of the method is tested in detail by simulating three ferric (3d(5)) model systems with well-known electronic structure, viz., atomic Fe(3+), high-spin [FeCl6](3-) with ligand donor bonding, and low-spin [Fe(CN)6](3-) that also has metal backbonding. For these systems, the performance of the core RAS method, which does not require any system-dependent parameters, is comparable to that of the commonly used semi-empirical charge-transfer multiplet model. It handles orbitally degenerate ground states, accurately describes metal-ligand interactions, and includes both single and multiple excitations. The results are sensitive to the choice of orbitals in the active space and this sensitivity can be used to assign spectral features. A method has also been developed to analyze the calculated X-ray spectra using a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture.

  17. Ethical issues in irregular migration research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duvell, F.; Triandafyllidou, A.; Vollmer, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the ethical issues arising for researchers engaged in the study of irregular migration. Irregular migration is by definition an elusive phenomenon as it takes place in violation of the law and at the margins of society. This very nature of the phenomenon raises important

  18. Using Little's Irregularity Index in orthodontics: outdated and inaccurate?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macauley, Donal

    2012-12-01

    Little\\'s Irregularity Index (LII) was devised to objectively score mandibular incisor alignment for epidemiological studies but has been extended to assess the relative performance of orthodontic brackets, retainer or treatment modalities. Our aim was to examine the repeatability and precision of LII measurements of four independent examiners on the maxillary arch of orthodontic patients. The hypothesis was that the reproducibility of individual contact point displacement measurements, used to calculate the LII score, are inappropriate.

  19. On the Total Edge Irregularity Strength of Generalized Butterfly Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Wahyuna, Hafidhyah; Indriati, Diari

    2018-04-01

    Let G(V, E) be a connected, simple, and undirected graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A total k-labeling is a map that carries vertices and edges of a graph G into a set of positive integer labels {1, 2, …, k}. An edge irregular total k-labeling λ: V(G) ∪ E(G) → {1, 2, …, k} of a graph G is a total k-labeling such that the weights calculated for all edges are distinct. The weight of an edge uv in G, denoted by wt(uv), is defined as the sum of the label of u, the label of v, and the label of uv. The total edge irregularity strength of G, denoted by tes(G), is the minimum value of the largest label k over all such edge irregular total k-labelings. A generalized butterfly graph, BFn , obtained by inserting vertices to every wing with assumption that sum of inserting vertices to every wing are same then it has 2n + 1 vertices and 4n ‑ 2 edges. In this paper, we investigate the total edge irregularity strength of generalized butterfly graph, BFn , for n > 2. The result is tes(B{F}n)=\\lceil \\frac{4n}{3}\\rceil .

  20. Design strategies for irregularly adapting parallel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Shan, Hongzhang; Sing, Jaswinder Pal

    2000-01-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance of dynamically adapting computations. In this work, we examine two major classes of adaptive applications, under five competing programming methodologies and four leading parallel architectures. Results indicate that it is possible to achieve message-passing performance using shared-memory programming techniques by carefully following the same high level strategies. Adaptive applications have computational work loads and communication patterns which change unpredictably at runtime, requiring dynamic load balancing to achieve scalable performance on parallel machines. Efficient parallel implementations of such adaptive applications are therefore a challenging task. This work examines the implementation of two typical adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, across various programming paradigms and architectural platforms. We compare several critical factors of the parallel code development, including performance, programmability, scalability, algorithmic development, and portability

  1. Resolution optimization with irregularly sampled Fourier data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, Matthew; Parker, Jason T; Cheney, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Image acquisition systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and magnetic resonance imaging often measure irregularly spaced Fourier samples of the desired image. In this paper we show the relationship between sample locations, their associated backprojection weights, and image resolution as characterized by the resulting point spread function (PSF). Two new methods for computing data weights, based on different optimization criteria, are proposed. The first method, which solves a maximal-eigenvector problem, optimizes a PSF-derived resolution metric which is shown to be equivalent to the volume of the Cramer–Rao (positional) error ellipsoid in the uniform-weight case. The second approach utilizes as its performance metric the Frobenius error between the PSF operator and the ideal delta function, and is an extension of a previously reported algorithm. Our proposed extension appropriately regularizes the weight estimates in the presence of noisy data and eliminates the superfluous issue of image discretization in the choice of data weights. The Frobenius-error approach results in a Tikhonov-regularized inverse problem whose Tikhonov weights are dependent on the locations of the Fourier data as well as the noise variance. The two new methods are compared against several state-of-the-art weighting strategies for synthetic multistatic point-scatterer data, as well as an ‘interrupted SAR’ dataset representative of in-band interference commonly encountered in very high frequency radar applications. (paper)

  2. Calculation programs as a didactic generator of the discipline “Fundamentals of rocket and space techniques”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin P. Baslyk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of teaching the subject “Fundamentals of rocket and space techniques” was suggested in the paper. This method is using the specialized calculation programs as a didactic tool for forming the educational material not only for practical training, but for the theoretical course too. A brief review of the educational literature on rocket and space techniques, published over the past decades was made. Organizational and methodological problems, associated with the teaching discipline are indicated: to define the educational material volume and content, the need to establish interdisciplinary connections, the search of tasks, which have numerical initial data and solution.The overview of pedagogical technologies and the requirements for modern didactic tools is made. On the basis of this analysis the principles of developing a new didactic tool are formulated. The educational technology with the educational process formation on the ahead basis is used. The knowledge is represented in a collapsed form. The combination of procedures for modeling and analysis of the knowledge is realized. The visualization of knowledge is achieved by considering of numerical illustration. The inductive synthesis and deductive analysis are used as psychological and pedagogical methods, as well as the formation of problematic situations.Three specialized calculation programs are used in the implementation of this didactic tool. The programs are: TERRA (B.Trusov – the calculation of chemical and phase equilibrium of multicomponent systems; RK1 (N.Generalov – the calculation of flight characteristics and geometrical parameters of the single-stage ballistic missile with liquid rocket engine; TRIJ1 (N.Generalov – the calculation of trajectory for leading out the payload of the single-stage ballistic missile. The study of the subject begins with the programs interfaces studying and tests performing. After that, the content of programs TERRA, RK1 and TRIJ1

  3. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio

    2014-01-01

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10 –8 . This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  4. The structure and properties of vacancies in Si nano-crystals calculated by real space pseudopotential methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, S.P.; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The structure and properties of vacancies in a 2 nm Si nano-crystal are studied using a real space density functional theory/pseudopotential method. It is observed that a vacancy's electronic properties and energy of formation are directly related to the local symmetry of the vacancy site. The formation energy for vacancies and Frenkel pair are calculated. It is found that both defects have lower energy in smaller crystals. In a 2 nm nano-crystal the energy to form a Frenkel pair is 1.7 eV and the energy to form a vacancy is no larger than 2.3 eV. The energy barrier for vacancy diffusion is examined via a nudged elastic band algorithm

  5. On the Calculation of Quantum Mechanical Ground States from Classical Geodesic Motion on Certain Spaces of Constant Negative Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1989-01-01

    We consider geodesic motion on three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds of constant negative curvature, topologically equivalent to S x ]0,1[, S a compact surface of genus two. To those trajectories which are bounded and recurrent in both directions of the time evolution a fractal limit set is associated whose Hausdorff dimension is intimately connected with the quantum mechanical energy ground state, determined by the Schrodinger operator on the manifold. We give a rather detailed and pictorial description of the hyperbolic spaces we have in mind, discuss various aspects of classical and quantum mechanical motion on them as far as they are needed to establish the connection between energy ground state and Hausdorff dimension and give finally some examples of ground state calculations in terms of Hausdorff dimensions of limit sets of classical trajectories.

  6. Calculating the flow of two-phase mixture in the ring space of pump-compressor tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbanov, R S; Dadash-zade, M A

    1979-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for calculating tension deformation in pipelines manufactured from elastic material. This method takes into consideration the constructed pipeline weight with regard to both air and water suspension. A linear solution to these equations is found based on the assumption that the horizontal tube projection is equal to the tube length. A special test bench was constructed for measuring the actual gas content and pressure loss resulting from friction in components such as ejector-mixers, gas meters, separators, centrifugal pumps and gas air lines. The research results indicate that during very small expenditures of air in the ring space, small bubbles rise to the surface and cause gas charges. The air goes on to fill the ring area and, together with the mixture of bubbles, becomes non-opaque. Following this, the entire structure transfers over to a rachidal regime.

  7. On the calculation of quantum mechanical ground states from classical geodesic motion on certain spaces of constant negative curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschitz, R.

    1989-01-01

    We consider geodesic motion on three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds of constant negative curvature, topologically equivalent to S x ]0,1[, S a compact surface of genus two. To those trajectories which are recurrent in both directions of the time evolution t → +∞, t → -∞ a fractal limit set is associated whose Hausdorff dimension is intimately connected with the quantum mechanical energy ground state, determined by the Schroedinger operator on the manifold. We give a rather detailed and pictorial description of the hyperbolic spaces we have in mind, discuss various aspects of classical and quantum mechanical motion on them as far as they are needed to establish the connection between energy ground state and Hausdorff dimension and give finally some examples of ground state calculations in terms of Hausdorff dimensions of limit sets of classical trajectories. (orig.)

  8. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1992-12-01

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most precise tools for studying the dynamics of nuclei and nucleons. This research program consists of a careful theoretical study of few-body systems and methods for modeling these systems. During the past year several aspects of this program were completed. Brief summaries are given of work on the following topics: The relativistic three quark problem; the relativistic Balian-Brezin method; spin in light front quantum mechanical models; proton-deutron scattering and reactions; point form relativistic quantum mechanics of constituents; solutions of quantum mechanical anharmonic oscillators; shift operators and the U(N) multiplicity problem

  9. Scintillations associated with bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Valladares, C. E.; Dasgupta, A.; Whitney, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    Multisatellite scintillation observations and spaced receiver drift measurements are presented for a category of equatorial F region plasma irregularities characterized by nearly sinusoidal waveforms in the ion number density. The observations were made at Huancayo, Peru, and the measurements at Ancon, Peru, associated with irregularities observed by the Atmospheric-Explorer-E satellite on a few nights in December 1979. Utilizing ray paths to various geostationary satellites, it was found that the irregularities grow and decay almost simultaneously in long-lived patches extending at least 1000 km in the east-west direction.

  10. Cost and sensitivity of restricted active-space calculations of metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-02-15

    The restricted active-space (RAS) approach can accurately simulate metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra of first-row transition metal complexes without the use of any fitting parameters. These characteristics provide a unique capability to identify unknown chemical species and to analyze their electronic structure. To find the best balance between cost and accuracy, the sensitivity of the simulated spectra with respect to the method variables has been tested for two models, [FeCl6 ](3-) and [Fe(CN)6 ](3-) . For these systems, the reference calculations give deviations, when compared with experiment, of ≤1 eV in peak positions, ≤30% for the relative intensity of major peaks, and ≤50% for minor peaks. When compared with these deviations, the simulated spectra are sensitive to the number of final states, the inclusion of dynamical correlation, and the ionization potential electron affinity shift, in addition to the selection of the active space. The spectra are less sensitive to the quality of the basis set and even a double-ζ basis gives reasonable results. The inclusion of dynamical correlation through second-order perturbation theory can be done efficiently using the state-specific formalism without correlating the core orbitals. Although these observations are not directly transferable to other systems, they can, together with a cost analysis, aid in the design of RAS models and help to extend the use of this powerful approach to a wider range of transition metal systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Self-consistent DFT +U method for real-space time-dependent density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancogne-Dejean, Nicolas; Oliveira, Micael J. T.; Rubio, Angel

    2017-12-01

    We implemented various DFT+U schemes, including the Agapito, Curtarolo, and Buongiorno Nardelli functional (ACBN0) self-consistent density-functional version of the DFT +U method [Phys. Rev. X 5, 011006 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.011006] within the massively parallel real-space time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) code octopus. We further extended the method to the case of the calculation of response functions with real-time TDDFT+U and to the description of noncollinear spin systems. The implementation is tested by investigating the ground-state and optical properties of various transition-metal oxides, bulk topological insulators, and molecules. Our results are found to be in good agreement with previously published results for both the electronic band structure and structural properties. The self-consistent calculated values of U and J are also in good agreement with the values commonly used in the literature. We found that the time-dependent extension of the self-consistent DFT+U method yields improved optical properties when compared to the empirical TDDFT+U scheme. This work thus opens a different theoretical framework to address the nonequilibrium properties of correlated systems.

  12. A Monte Carlo simulation framework for electron beam dose calculations using Varian phase space files for TrueBeam Linacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anna; Sawkey, Daren; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Qiuwen

    2015-05-01

    To develop a framework for accurate electron Monte Carlo dose calculation. In this study, comprehensive validations of vendor provided electron beam phase space files for Varian TrueBeam Linacs against measurement data are presented. In this framework, the Monte Carlo generated phase space files were provided by the vendor and used as input to the downstream plan-specific simulations including jaws, electron applicators, and water phantom computed in the EGSnrc environment. The phase space files were generated based on open field commissioning data. A subset of electron energies of 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV and open and collimated field sizes 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 5 × 5, 6 × 6, 10 × 10, 15 × 15, 20 × 20, and 25 × 25 cm(2) were evaluated. Measurements acquired with a CC13 cylindrical ionization chamber and electron diode detector and simulations from this framework were compared for a water phantom geometry. The evaluation metrics include percent depth dose, orthogonal and diagonal profiles at depths R100, R50, Rp, and Rp+ for standard and extended source-to-surface distances (SSD), as well as cone and cut-out output factors. Agreement for the percent depth dose and orthogonal profiles between measurement and Monte Carlo was generally within 2% or 1 mm. The largest discrepancies were observed within depths of 5 mm from phantom surface. Differences in field size, penumbra, and flatness for the orthogonal profiles at depths R100, R50, and Rp were within 1 mm, 1 mm, and 2%, respectively. Orthogonal profiles at SSDs of 100 and 120 cm showed the same level of agreement. Cone and cut-out output factors agreed well with maximum differences within 2.5% for 6 MeV and 1% for all other energies. Cone output factors at extended SSDs of 105, 110, 115, and 120 cm exhibited similar levels of agreement. We have presented a Monte Carlo simulation framework for electron beam dose calculations for Varian TrueBeam Linacs. Electron beam energies of 6 to 20 MeV for open and collimated

  13. Identifying space for offshore wind energy in the North Sea. Consequences of scenario calculations for interactions with other marine uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongbloed, R.H.; Wal, J.T. van der; Lindeboom, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for renewable energy drives the development of offshore wind energy (OWE) leading to competing claims with other human and nature related uses of the North Sea. This paper investigates possibilities to identify space for new OWE while minimising effects on other uses. An inventory is made of the major uses in the Central and Southern North Sea, including the expected development towards 2030. The spatial distribution of non-wind uses is determined as well as the possibilities for differentiation based on density, economic value or nature value and co-existence. These possibilities are translated into calculation rules quantifying the relative importance. These calculation rules have been incorporated in a Decision Support System (DSS) to analyse how the priority of OWE development could impact non-wind uses. In a low OWE priority scenario consequences for other use was found to be very limited, with fisheries and wildlife affected most. In a high OWE priority scenario a considerable amount of OWE may be developed with substantial claims on sand extraction and military use areas and a shift towards higher value categories for shipping and fisheries. Relocation and co-existence of uses are important means to reduce the impact of increased OWE development. - Highlights: • A new method for minimising effects of new Offshore Wind Energy on other uses. • Calculation rules are based on density, economic or nature values of major marine activities. • Most activities are concentrated near the coast and expected to increase. • Increasing priority for OWE claims more and higher value area from other uses. • Relocation and co-use of areas reduce negative consequences

  14. Formation of dwarf ellipticals and dwarf irregular galaxies by interaction of giant galaxies under environmental influence

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Debsarma, Suma; Karmakar, Pradip; Davoust, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    A model is proposed for the formation of gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies and gas-poor, rotating dwarf elliptical galaxies following the interaction between two giant galaxies as a function of space density. The formation of dwarf galaxies is considered to depend on a random variable, the tidal index theta, an environmental parameter defined by Karachentsev et al. (2004), such that for theta less than zero, the formation of dwarf irregular galaxy is assured whereas for theta greater than zer...

  15. Examining U.S. Irregular Warfare Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimbrough, IV, James M

    2008-01-01

    ... of insurgency and terrorism. In response to the associated strategic challenges, a growing debate occurred among military historians, strategists, and leaders about the proper principles necessary for contemporary irregular...

  16. Target Tracking of a Linear Time Invariant System under Irregular Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xue-Bo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to event-triggered sampling in a system, or maybe with the aim of reducing data storage, tracking many applications will encounter irregular sampling time. By calculating the matrix exponential using an inverse Laplace transform, this paper transforms the irregular sampling tracking problem to the problem of tracking with time-varying parameters of a system. Using the common Kalman filter, the developed method is used to track a target for the simulated trajectory and video tracking. The results of simulation experiments have shown that it can obtain good estimation performance even at a very high irregular rate of measurement sampling time.

  17. New Opportunities for Remote Sensing Ionospheric Irregularities by Fitting Scintillation Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, C. S.; Rino, C. L.; Groves, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    In a recent paper, we presented a phase screen theory for the spectrum of intensity scintillations when the refractive index irregularities follow a two-component power law [Carrano and Rino, DOI: 10.1002/2015RS005903]. More recently we have investigated the inverse problem, whereby phase screen parameters are inferred from scintillation time series. This is accomplished by fitting the spectrum of intensity fluctuations with a parametrized theoretical model using Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods. The Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo technique provides a-posteriori errors and confidence intervals. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) provides justification for the use of one- or two-component irregularity models. We refer to this fitting as Irregularity Parameter Estimation (IPE) since it provides a statistical description of the irregularities from the scintillations they produce. In this talk, we explore some new opportunities for remote sensing ionospheric irregularities afforded by IPE. Statistical characterization of irregularities and the plasma bubbles in which they are embedded provides insight into the development of the underlying instability. In a companion paper by Rino et al., IPE is used to interpret scintillation due to simulated EPB structure. IPE can be used to reconcile multi-frequency scintillation observations and to construct high fidelity scintillation simulation tools. In space-to-ground propagation scenarios, for which an estimate of the distance to the scattering region is available a-priori, IPE enables retrieval of zonal irregularity drift. In radio occultation scenarios, the distance to the irregularities is generally unknown but IPE enables retrieval of Fresnel frequency. A geometric model for the effective scan velocity maps Fresnel frequency to Fresnel scale, yielding the distance to the irregularities. We demonstrate this approach by geolocating irregularities observed by the CORISS instrument onboard the C/NOFS satellite.

  18. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Yiannakoulias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease may take on irregular geographic shapes, especially when features of the physical environment influence risk. Identifying these patterns can be important for planning, and also identifying new environmental or social factors associated with high or low risk of illness. Until recently, cluster detection methods were limited in their ability to detect irregular spatial patterns, and limited to finding clusters that were roughly circular in shape. This approach has less power to detect irregularly-shaped, yet important spatial anomalies, particularly at high spatial resolutions. We employ a new method of finding irregularly-shaped spatial clusters at micro-geographical scales using both simulated and real data on Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection intensities. This method, which we refer to as the “greedy growth scan”, is a modification of the spatial scan method for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the “greedy growth scan” is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis of infection intensity data when irregular shapes are suspected, especially at micro-geographical scales.

  19. GENERATION OF IRREGULAR HEXAGONAL MESHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2012-07-01

    Decomposition is performed in a constructive way and, as option, it involves meshless representation. Further, this mapping method is used to generate the calculation mesh. In this paper, the authors analyze different cases of mapping onto simply connected and bi-connected canonical domains. They represent forward and backward mapping techniques. Their potential application for generation of nonuniform meshes within the framework of the asymptotic homogenization theory is also performed to assess and project effective characteristics of heterogeneous materials (composites.

  20. Symplectic approach to calculation of magnetic field line trajectories in physical space with realistic magnetic geometry in divertor tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

    2008-12-01

    A new approach to integration of magnetic field lines in divertor tokamaks is proposed. In this approach, an analytic equilibrium generating function (EGF) is constructed in natural canonical coordinates (ψ,θ) from experimental data from a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium solver for a tokamak. ψ is the toroidal magnetic flux and θ is the poloidal angle. Natural canonical coordinates (ψ,θ,φ) can be transformed to physical position (R,Z,φ) using a canonical transformation. (R,Z,φ) are cylindrical coordinates. Another canonical transformation is used to construct a symplectic map for integration of magnetic field lines. Trajectories of field lines calculated from this symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates can be transformed to trajectories in real physical space. Unlike in magnetic coordinates [O. Kerwin, A. Punjabi, and H. Ali, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072504 (2008)], the symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates can integrate trajectories across the separatrix surface, and at the same time, give trajectories in physical space. Unlike symplectic maps in physical coordinates (x,y) or (R,Z), the continuous analog of a symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates does not distort trajectories in toroidal planes intervening the discrete map. This approach is applied to the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. E. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The EGF for the DIII-D gives quite an accurate representation of equilibrium magnetic surfaces close to the separatrix surface. This new approach is applied to demonstrate the sensitivity of stochastic broadening using a set of perturbations that generically approximate the size of the field errors and statistical topological noise expected in a poloidally diverted tokamak. Plans for future application of this approach are discussed.

  1. Symplectic approach to calculation of magnetic field line trajectories in physical space with realistic magnetic geometry in divertor tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to integration of magnetic field lines in divertor tokamaks is proposed. In this approach, an analytic equilibrium generating function (EGF) is constructed in natural canonical coordinates (ψ,θ) from experimental data from a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium solver for a tokamak. ψ is the toroidal magnetic flux and θ is the poloidal angle. Natural canonical coordinates (ψ,θ,φ) can be transformed to physical position (R,Z,φ) using a canonical transformation. (R,Z,φ) are cylindrical coordinates. Another canonical transformation is used to construct a symplectic map for integration of magnetic field lines. Trajectories of field lines calculated from this symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates can be transformed to trajectories in real physical space. Unlike in magnetic coordinates [O. Kerwin, A. Punjabi, and H. Ali, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072504 (2008)], the symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates can integrate trajectories across the separatrix surface, and at the same time, give trajectories in physical space. Unlike symplectic maps in physical coordinates (x,y) or (R,Z), the continuous analog of a symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates does not distort trajectories in toroidal planes intervening the discrete map. This approach is applied to the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. E. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The EGF for the DIII-D gives quite an accurate representation of equilibrium magnetic surfaces close to the separatrix surface. This new approach is applied to demonstrate the sensitivity of stochastic broadening using a set of perturbations that generically approximate the size of the field errors and statistical topological noise expected in a poloidally diverted tokamak. Plans for future application of this approach are discussed.

  2. Shell model calculation of the nuclear moments of 9Li in a 2hω space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.; Meder, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    A recent measurement of the magnitude of quadrupole moment of the ground state of 9 Li, Q( 9 Li), finds that Vertical BarQ( 9 Li)/Q( 7 Li)Vertical Bar = 0.88 +- 0.18. A variety of shell-model calculations, using p-shell wave functions, predict Q( 9 Li)approx. =1.3Q( 7 Li) and yield quadrupole moments whose magnitudes are approximately half the experimental values. Agreement between theory and experiment is improved when effective charges are used, although the results are still not completely satisfactory. A calculation of the wave functions of the low-lying states of 7 Li and 9 Li using a modified version of the Sussex matrix elements in a model space, including all 0hω and 2hω excitations, has been performed. The resulting value for Q( 9 Li) was -3.46 fm 2 as ray transitions in /sup 52,53/Cr and /sup 54,55/Mn have been observed using 7 Li( 51 V,xn yp zα γ) fusion-evaporation reactions and γ-particle coincidence techniques. The experiment involved the same reaction at the same center-of-mass energy as the earlier work of Poletti et al., but with target and projectile interchanged. In the present work, eight additional transitions have been identified as occurring in 52 Cr. This provides corroboration of results obtained more recently via 50 Ti(α,2nγ) 52 Cr reaction studies. A simple, efficient approach to the spectroscopy of weakly populated nuclear states which provides for unambiguous isotopic assignments is thus demonstrated

  3. Detecting chaos in irregularly sampled time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, C W

    2013-09-01

    Recently, Wiebe and Virgin [Chaos 22, 013136 (2012)] developed an algorithm which detects chaos by analyzing a time series' power spectrum which is computed using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Their algorithm, like other time series characterization algorithms, requires that the time series be regularly sampled. Real-world data, however, are often irregularly sampled, thus, making the detection of chaotic behavior difficult or impossible with those methods. In this paper, a characterization algorithm is presented, which effectively detects chaos in irregularly sampled time series. The work presented here is a modification of Wiebe and Virgin's algorithm and uses the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) to compute a series' power spectrum instead of the DFT. The DFT is not appropriate for irregularly sampled time series. However, the LSP is capable of computing the frequency content of irregularly sampled data. Furthermore, a new method of analyzing the power spectrum is developed, which can be useful for differentiating between chaotic and non-chaotic behavior. The new characterization algorithm is successfully applied to irregularly sampled data generated by a model as well as data consisting of observations of variable stars.

  4. A computationally efficient software application for calculating vibration from underground railways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M F M; Hunt, H E M

    2009-01-01

    The PiP model is a software application with a user-friendly interface for calculating vibration from underground railways. This paper reports about the software with a focus on its latest version and the plans for future developments. The software calculates the Power Spectral Density of vibration due to a moving train on floating-slab track with track irregularity described by typical values of spectra for tracks with good, average and bad conditions. The latest version accounts for a tunnel embedded in a half space by employing a toolbox developed at K.U. Leuven which calculates Green's functions for a multi-layered half-space.

  5. Irregular menstruation according to occupational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yeunhee; Kim, Yoonjung

    2017-07-06

    This cross-sectional study explored associations of irregular menstruation with occupational characteristics, using secondary analyses of data from 4,731 women aged 19-54 years, collected from a nationally representative sample, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-V during 2010-2012. The associations between irregular menstruation and occupation were explored using multiple logistic regression. Compared to non-manual workers, service/sales workers had a greater odds of irregular menstruation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.44; 95percent confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.99) as did manual workers and unemployed women (aOR: 1.56; 95percent CI: 1.10-2.22, aOR: 1.46; 95percent CI: 1.14-1.89, respectively). Compared to regular workers, temporary workers and unemployed women had aORs of 1.52 (95percent CI: 1.08-2.13) and 1.33 (95percent CI: 1.05-1.69), respectively. Also, when compared to full-time workers, part-time workers and unemployed women had greater odds of irregular menstruation (aOR: 1.41; 95percent CI: 1.00-2.00 and aOR: 1.29; 95percent CI: 1.03-1.63, respectively). Furthermore, compared to daytime workers, shift workers and unemployed women had greater odds irregular menstruation (aOR: 1.39; 95percent CI: 1.03-1.88 and aOR: 1.28; 95percent CI: 1.04-1.59, respectively). Women with these occupational characteristics should be screened for early diagnosis and intervention for irregular menstruation.

  6. New Model for Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, M. J.

    2018-03-01

    A new model for ionospheric irregularities at Mars is presented. It is shown that wind-driven currents in the dynamo region of the Martian ionosphere can be unstable to the electromagnetic gradient drift instability. This plasma instability can generate ionospheric density and magnetic field irregularities with scale sizes of approximately 15-20 km down to a few kilometers. We show that the instability-driven magnetic field fluctuation amplitudes relative to background are correlated with the ionospheric density fluctuation amplitudes relative to background. Our results can explain recent observations made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft in the Martian ionosphere dynamo region.

  7. High energy model for irregular absorbing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappetta, Pierre.

    1979-05-01

    In the framework of a high energy formulation of relativistic quantum scattering a model is presented which describes the scattering functions and polarization of irregular absorbing particles, whose dimensions are greater than the incident wavelength. More precisely in the forward direction an amplitude parametrization of eikonal type is defined which generalizes the usual diffraction theory, and in the backward direction a reflective model is used including a shadow function. The model predictions are in good agreement with the scattering measurements off irregular compact and fluffy particles performed by Zerull, Giese and Weiss (1977)

  8. A model expansion criterion for treating surface topography in ray path calculations using the eikonal equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ting; Zhang, Zhongjie

    2014-01-01

    Irregular surface topography has revolutionized how seismic traveltime is calculated and the data are processed. There are two main schemes for dealing with an irregular surface in the seismic first-arrival traveltime calculation: (1) expanding the model and (2) flattening the surface irregularities. In the first scheme, a notional infill medium is added above the surface to expand the physical space into a regular space, as required by the eikonal equation solver. Here, we evaluate the chosen propagation velocity in the infill medium through ray path tracking with the eikonal equation-solved traveltime field, and observe that the ray paths will be physically unrealistic for some values of this propagation velocity. The choice of a suitable propagation velocity in the infill medium is crucial for seismic processing of irregular topography. Our model expansion criterion for dealing with surface topography in the calculation of traveltime and ray paths using the eikonal equation highlights the importance of both the propagation velocity of the infill physical medium and the topography gradient. (paper)

  9. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-09-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of archived MIPS observations of Phoebe reproduces Cassini results very accurately, thereby validating our method. For all targets, the geometric albedo is found to be low, probably below 10% and clearly below 15%. Irregular satellites are much darker than the large regular satellites. Their albedo is, however, quite similar to that of small bodies in the outer Solar System (such as cometary nuclei, Jupiter Trojans, or TNOs). This is consistent with color measurements as well as dynamical considerations which suggest a common origin of the said populations. There appear to be significant object-to-object albedo differences. Similar albedos found for some members of dynamical clusters support the idea that they may have originated in the breakup of a parent body. For three satellites, thermal data at two wavelengths are available, enabling us to constrain their thermal properties. Sub-solar temperatures are similar to that found from Cassini's Phoebe fly-by. This suggests a rather low thermal inertia, as expected for regolith-covered objects. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by JPL under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA.

  10. Synchronizing data from irregularly sampled sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluyol, Onder

    2017-07-11

    A system and method include receiving a set of sampled measurements for each of multiple sensors, wherein the sampled measurements are at irregular intervals or different rates, re-sampling the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors at a higher rate than one of the sensor's set of sampled measurements, and synchronizing the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors.

  11. Natural convection inside an irregular porous cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, Jorge I. LLagostera; Trevisan, Osvair Vidal

    1990-01-01

    Natural convection flow induced by heating from below in a irregular porous cavity is investigated numerically. The influence of the modified Rayleigh number and geometric ratios on heat transfer and fluid flow is studied. Global and local Nusselt for Rayleigh numbers covering the range 0 - 1600 and for several geometric ratios. The fluid flow and the temperature field are illustrated by contour maps. (author)

  12. Properties of the Irregular Satellite System around Uranus Inferred from K2 , Herschel , and Spitzer Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas-Takács, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pál, A.; Molnár, L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Hanyecz, O.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, R.; Marton, G.; Szakáts, R.; Kiss, L. L. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Mommert, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Müller, T., E-mail: farkas.aniko@csfk.mta.hu [Max-Plank-Institut für extraterrestrsiche Pyhsik, Garching (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present visible-range light curves of the irregular Uranian satellites Sycorax, Caliban, Prospero, Ferdinand, and Setebos taken with the Kepler Space Telescope over the course of the K2 mission. Thermal emission measurements obtained with the Herschel /PACS and Spitzer /MIPS instruments of Sycorax and Caliban were also analyzed and used to determine size, albedo, and surface characteristics of these bodies. We compare these properties with the rotational and surface characteristics of irregular satellites in other giant planet systems and also with those of main belt and Trojan asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects. Our results indicate that the Uranian irregular satellite system likely went through a more intense collisional evolution than the irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Surface characteristics of Uranian irregular satellites seem to resemble the Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects more than irregular satellites around other giant planets, suggesting the existence of a compositional discontinuity in the young solar system inside the orbit of Uranus.

  13. Properties of the Irregular Satellite System around Uranus Inferred from K2, Herschel, and Spitzer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas-Takács, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pál, A.; Molnár, L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Hanyecz, O.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, R.; Marton, G.; Mommert, M.; Szakáts, R.; Müller, T.; Kiss, L. L.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present visible-range light curves of the irregular Uranian satellites Sycorax, Caliban, Prospero, Ferdinand, and Setebos taken with the Kepler Space Telescope over the course of the K2 mission. Thermal emission measurements obtained with the Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS instruments of Sycorax and Caliban were also analyzed and used to determine size, albedo, and surface characteristics of these bodies. We compare these properties with the rotational and surface characteristics of irregular satellites in other giant planet systems and also with those of main belt and Trojan asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects. Our results indicate that the Uranian irregular satellite system likely went through a more intense collisional evolution than the irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Surface characteristics of Uranian irregular satellites seem to resemble the Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects more than irregular satellites around other giant planets, suggesting the existence of a compositional discontinuity in the young solar system inside the orbit of Uranus.

  14. Fitting Irregular Shape Figures into Irregular Shape Areas for the Nesting Problem in the Leather Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara-Palma Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nesting problem of irregular shapes within irregular areas has been studied from several approaches due to their application in different industries. The particular case of cutting leather involves several restrictions that add complexity to this problem, it is necessary to generate products that comply with the quality required by customers This paper presents a methodology for the accommodation of irregular shapes in an irregular area (leather considering the constraints set by the footwear industry, and the results of this methodology when applied by a computer system. The scope of the system is to develop a working prototype that operates under the guidelines of a commercial production line of a sponsor company. Preliminary results got a reduction of 70% of processing time and improvement of 5% to 7% of the area usage when compared with manual accommodation.

  15. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulinets, Sergey A.; Depuev, Victor H.

    2003-01-01

    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstorm electric fields onto the Earth's ionosphere. (author)

  16. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    CERN Document Server

    Pulinets, S A

    2002-01-01

    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstor...

  17. Development of Computer Program for Analysis of Irregular Non Homogenous Radiation Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang Rozali; Nina Kusumah; Hendro Tjahjono; Darlis

    2003-01-01

    A computer program for radiation shielding analysis has been developed to obtain radiation attenuation calculation in non-homogenous radiation shielding and irregular geometry. By determining radiation source strength, geometrical shape of radiation source, location, dimension and geometrical shape of radiation shielding, radiation level of a point at certain position from radiation source can be calculated. By using a computer program, calculation result of radiation distribution analysis can be obtained for some analytical points simultaneously. (author)

  18. Can crawl space temperature and moisture conditions be calculated with a whole-building hygrothermal simulation tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Morelli, Martin; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2017-01-01

    of measurements was compared with simulations of temperature and moisture condition in the floor structure and crawl space. The measurements showed that the extra 50 mm insulation placed below the beams reduced moisture content in the beams below 20 weight% all year. A reasonable agreement between......The hygrothermal behaviour of an outdoor ventilated crawl space with two different designs of the floor structure was investigated. The first design had 250 mm insulation and visible wooden beams towards the crawl space. The second design had 300 mm insulation and no visible wooden beams. One year...... the measurements and simulations was found; however, the evaporation from the soil was a dominant parameter affecting the hygrothermal response in the crawl space and floor structure....

  19. Generating Performance Models for Irregular Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Ryan D.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2017-05-30

    Many applications have irregular behavior --- non-uniform input data, input-dependent solvers, irregular memory accesses, unbiased branches --- that cannot be captured using today's automated performance modeling techniques. We describe new hierarchical critical path analyses for the \\Palm model generation tool. To create a model's structure, we capture tasks along representative MPI critical paths. We create a histogram of critical tasks with parameterized task arguments and instance counts. To model each task, we identify hot instruction-level sub-paths and model each sub-path based on data flow, instruction scheduling, and data locality. We describe application models that generate accurate predictions for strong scaling when varying CPU speed, cache speed, memory speed, and architecture. We present results for the Sweep3D neutron transport benchmark; Page Rank on multiple graphs; Support Vector Machine with pruning; and PFLOTRAN's reactive flow/transport solver with domain-induced load imbalance.

  20. Long wavelength irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    OpenAIRE

    Kudeki, E.; Farley, D. T.; Fejer, Bela G.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the radar interferometer technique at Jicamarca to study in detail irregularities with wavelengths of a few kilometers generated in the unstable equatorial electrojet plasma during strong type 1 conditions. In-situ rocket observations of the same instability process are discussed in a companion paper. These large scale primary waves travel essentially horizontally and have large amplitudes. The vertical electron drift velocities driven by the horizontal wave electric fields reach...

  1. Improving Transactional Memory Performance for Irregular Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrero, Manuel; Gutiérrez, Eladio; Romero, Sergio; Plata, Óscar

    2015-01-01

    Transactional memory (TM) offers optimistic concurrency support in modern multicore archi- tectures, helping the programmers to extract parallelism in irregular applications when data dependence information is not available before runtime. In fact, recent research focus on ex- ploiting thread-level parallelism using TM approaches. However, the proposed techniques are of general use, valid for any type of application. This work presents ReduxSTM, a software TM system specially d...

  2. Star formation histories of irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.S. III; Hunter, D.A.; Tutukov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    We explore the star formation histories of a selection of irregular and spiral galaxies by using three parameters that sample the star formation rate (SFR) at different epochs: (1) the mass of a galaxy in the form of stars measures the SFR integrated over a galaxy's lifetime; (2) the blue luminosity is dominated primarily by stars formed over the past few billion years; and (3) Lyman continuum photon fluxes derived from Hα luminosities give the current ( 8 yr) SFR

  3. Parallel Computing Strategies for Irregular Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Oliker, Leonid; Shan, Hongzhang; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Parallel computing promises several orders of magnitude increase in our ability to solve realistic computationally-intensive problems, but relies on their efficient mapping and execution on large-scale multiprocessor architectures. Unfortunately, many important applications are irregular and dynamic in nature, making their effective parallel implementation a daunting task. Moreover, with the proliferation of parallel architectures and programming paradigms, the typical scientist is faced with a plethora of questions that must be answered in order to obtain an acceptable parallel implementation of the solution algorithm. In this paper, we consider three representative irregular applications: unstructured remeshing, sparse matrix computations, and N-body problems, and parallelize them using various popular programming paradigms on a wide spectrum of computer platforms ranging from state-of-the-art supercomputers to PC clusters. We present the underlying problems, the solution algorithms, and the parallel implementation strategies. Smart load-balancing, partitioning, and ordering techniques are used to enhance parallel performance. Overall results demonstrate the complexity of efficiently parallelizing irregular algorithms.

  4. Calculation methods for estimating the prospects of a space experiment by means of impact by asteroid Apophis on the Moon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrik, A. V.; Kazantsev, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of principal change of asteroid 99952 (Apophis) orbit is formulated. Aim of this change is the termination of asteroid motion in Solar system. Instead of the passive rescue tactics from asteroid threat, an option is proposed for using the asteroid for setting up a large-scale space experiment on the impact interaction of the asteroid with the Moon. The scientific and methodical apparatus for calculating the possibility of realization, searching and justification the scientific uses of this space experiment is considered.

  5. KINETIC-J: A computational kernel for solving the linearized Vlasov equation applied to calculations of the kinetic, configuration space plasma current for time harmonic wave electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David L.; Berry, Lee A.; Simpson, Adam B.; Younkin, Timothy R.

    2018-04-01

    We present the KINETIC-J code, a computational kernel for evaluating the linearized Vlasov equation with application to calculating the kinetic plasma response (current) to an applied time harmonic wave electric field. This code addresses the need for a configuration space evaluation of the plasma current to enable kinetic full-wave solvers for waves in hot plasmas to move beyond the limitations of the traditional Fourier spectral methods. We benchmark the kernel via comparison with the standard k →-space forms of the hot plasma conductivity tensor.

  6. The Impact of Irregular Warfare on the US Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, III, Roger L

    2006-01-01

    Although the U.S. Army has yet to clearly define irregular warfare, it is imperative that the Army take near-term action to enhance the ability of Soldiers and units to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment...

  7. Colombia: la guerra irregular en el fin de siglo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo RANGEL SUÁREZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo analiza las transformaciones de la guerra irregular de las guerrillas colombianas en las últimas décadas. Para ello, se estudian los cambios que han afectado a distintos factores, como los objetivos estratégicos, los medios financieros, militares, las relaciones que mantienen con los partidos políticos tradicionales en el nivel local, sus parámetros ideológicos, el origen social de sus miembros. Con esta perspectiva, se analiza el cálculo político/temporal que la guerrilla hace en la actual coyuntura y sus consecuencias para el proceso de paz.ABSTRACT: This article examines the transformations of the irregular war of the colombian guerrillas, studying the changes of several factors such as the strategic goals, the financial and army resources, the relationship among the political parties in the local level, the evolution of their ideological parameters and of the social origin of their members. With this perspectiva, the author analyses temporal and political calculation that the guerrilla makes at this point, and its consequences for the peace process.

  8. On irregularity strength of disjoint union of friendship graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the vertex total and edge total modication of the well-known irregularity strength of graphs. We have determined the exact values of the total vertex irregularity strength and the total edge irregularity strength of a disjoint union of friendship graphs.

  9. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  10. Increasing Update Rates in the Building Walkthrough System with Automatic Model-Space Subdivision and Potentially Visible Set Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    34 ACM Computing Surveys. 6(1): 1- 55. [Syzmanski85] Syzmanski, T. G. and C. J. V. Wyk. (1985). " GOALIE : A Space Efficient System for VLSI Artwork...this. Essentially we initialize a stack with the root. We then pull an element of this stack and if it is a cell we run the occlusion operation on the

  11. [The model of geometrical human body phantom for calculating tissue doses in the service module of the International Space Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V A; Mitrikas, V G

    2007-01-01

    The model of a geometrical human body phantom developed for calculating the shielding functions of representative points of the body organs and systems is similar to the anthropomorphic phantom. This form of phantom can be integrated with the shielding model of the ISS Russian orbital segment to make analysis of radiation loading of crewmembers in different compartments of the vehicle. Calculation of doses absorbed by the body systems in terms of the representative points makes it clear that doses essentially depend on the phantom spatial orientation (eye direction). It also enables the absorbed dose evaluation from the shielding functions as the mean of the representative points and phantom orientation.

  12. Electronic structure calculations with GPAW: a real-space implementation of the projector augmented-wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkovaara, J.; Rostgaard, Carsten; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations have become an indispensable tool in many areas of materials science and quantum chemistry. Even though the Kohn-Sham formulation of the density-functional theory (DFT) simplifies the many-body problem significantly, one is still confronted with several numerical...

  13. Beam-envelope calculations of space-charge loaded beams in MeV dc ion-implantation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanus, W.H.; Bannenberg, J.G.; Doorn, S.; Saris, F.W.; Koudijs, R.; Dubbelman, P.; Koelewijn, W.

    1989-01-01

    MeV dc ion accelerators are being developed that can deliver a beam current up to several hundred micro-amperes. At the low-energy part of the accelerator, the beam transport is space-charge dominated rather than emittance dominated. A system of differential equations has been derived, based on the Kapchinski-Vladimirski equations, which describe the envelope of a space-charge loaded ion beam, taking a longitudinal electrical field in an accelerating tube into account. The equations have been used to design the accelerator of a high-current 1 MV heavy-ion implantation facility. Furthermore, the design of a 2 MV accelerator is presented, which is used for analyzing techniques such as RBS and PIXE. Both facilities are based on single-ended Van de Graaff accelerators. (orig.)

  14. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Wilson, Shona; Kariuki, H. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the "greedy growth scan" is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis...... for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis...

  15. Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities Study from ROCSAT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-20

    UNLIMITED: PB Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Ionospheric irregularity/scintillation occurrences can be caused by external driving ...Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan e-mail: chliu2@gate.sinica.edu.tw phone :886-3-4227151x34757 CoPI: Shin-Yi Su Institution: National Central...University, Chung-Li, Taiwan e-mail: sysu@csrsr.ncu.edu.tw phone :886-3-4227151x57643 CoPI: Lung-Chi Tsai Institution: National Central University, Chung-Li

  16. New Computational Approach to Electron Transport in Irregular Graphene Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Douglas; Heller, Eric; Prendergast, David; Neaton, Jeffrey

    2009-03-01

    For novel graphene devices of nanoscale-to-macroscopic scale, many aspects of their transport properties are not easily understood due to difficulties in fabricating devices with regular edges. Here we develop a framework to efficiently calculate and potentially screen electronic transport properties of arbitrary nanoscale graphene device structures. A generalization of the established recursive Green's function method is presented, providing access to arbitrary device and lead geometries with substantial computer-time savings. Using single-orbital nearest-neighbor tight-binding models and the Green's function-Landauer scattering formalism, we will explore the transmission function of irregular two-dimensional graphene-based nanostructures with arbitrary lead orientation. Prepared by LBNL under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 and supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy Computer Science Graduate Fellowship under grant DE-FG02-97ER25308.

  17. Legal aspects of the EU policy on irregular immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinikov Vadim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issues pertaining to the adoption and development of legislation on irregular migration in the context of uncontrolled growth in the number of immigrants from North Africa and the Middle East to the EU. The article attempts at studying the EU legislation on irregular migration, classifying it, and analysing the prospects of EU migration legislation in the light of an increase in irregular immigration into the EU. The author systematises, classifies the current EU legislation on irregular immigration, and analyses the conditions, in which this legislation was developed. Using the legislation analysis method, the author proposes the following system of EU legislation on irregular immigration: rules preventing assistance to irregular immigration, rules preventing employment of irregular immigrants, rules on the return of irregular migrants and readmission, rules on border control, and rules on collaboration with third countries. The author pays special attention to analysing the current state of irregular immigration to the EU, which was dubbed the ‘greatest migration crisis in Europe’. The conclusion is that the European Union succeeded in the development of pioneering legislation on irregular immigration, which can serve as the basis for reception by other states. However, changes in the political and economic situation in the EU’s southern borderlands made the current legal mechanisms incapable of withstanding new threats. It necessitates a radical reform of the legislation on irregular immigration.

  18. A practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wu; Xu, Wenjie; Bian, Xuecheng; Chen, Yunmin

    2017-11-01

    The settlement of any position of the municipal solid waste (MSW) body during the landfilling process and after its closure has effects on the integrity of the internal structure and storage capacity of the landfill. This paper proposes a practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process. The MSW body in the landfill was divided into independent column units, and the filling process of each column unit was determined by a simplified complete landfilling process. The settlement of a position in the landfill was calculated with the compression of each MSW layer in every column unit. Then, the simultaneous settlement of all the column units was integrated to obtain the settlement of the landfill and storage capacity of all the column units; this allowed to obtain the storage capacity of the landfill based on the layer-wise summation method. When the compression of each MSW layer was calculated, the effects of the fluctuation of the main leachate level and variation in the unit weight of the MSW on the overburdened effective stress were taken into consideration by introducing the main leachate level's proportion and the unit weight and buried depth curve. This approach is especially significant for MSW with a high kitchen waste content and landfills in developing countries. The stress-biodegradation compression model was used to calculate the compression of each MSW layer. A software program, Settlement and Storage Capacity Calculation System for Landfills, was developed by integrating the space and time discretization of the landfilling process and the settlement and storage capacity algorithms. The landfilling process of the phase IV of Shanghai Laogang Landfill was simulated using this software. The maximum geometric volume of the landfill error between the calculated and measured values is only 2.02%, and the accumulated filling weight error between the

  19. Quantum dynamics calculations using symmetrized, orthogonal Weyl-Heisenberg wavelets with a phase space truncation scheme. II. Construction and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, Bill; Salam, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we extend and elaborate upon a wavelet method first presented in a previous publication [B. Poirier, J. Theo. Comput. Chem. 2, 65 (2003)]. In particular, we focus on construction and optimization of the wavelet functions, from theoretical and numerical viewpoints, and also examine their localization properties. The wavelets used are modified Wilson-Daubechies wavelets, which in conjunction with a simple phase space truncation scheme, enable one to solve the multidimensional Schroedinger equation. This approach is ideally suited to rovibrational spectroscopy applications, but can be used in any context where differential equations are involved

  20. Distributed sensing of ionospheric irregularities with a GNSS receiver array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Datta-Barua, Seebany; Bust, Gary S.; Deshpande, Kshitija B.

    2017-08-01

    We present analysis methods for studying the structuring and motion of ionospheric irregularities at the subkilometer scale sizes that produce L band scintillations. Spaced-receiver methods are used for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers' phase measurements over approximately subkilometer to kilometer length baselines for the first time. The quantities estimated by these techniques are plasma drift velocity, diffraction anisotropy magnitude and orientation, and characteristic velocity. Uncertainties are quantified by ensemble simulation of noise on the phase signals carried through to the observations of the spaced-receiver linear system. These covariances are then propagated through to uncertainties on drifts through linearization about the estimated values of the state. Five receivers of SAGA, the Scintillation Auroral Global Positioning System (GPS) Array, provide 100 Hz power and phase data for each channel at L1 frequency. The array is sited in the auroral zone at Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska. A case study of a single scintillating satellite observed by the array is used to demonstrate the spaced-receiver and uncertainty estimation process. A second case study estimates drifts as measured by multiple scintillating channels. These scintillations are correlated with auroral activity, based on all-sky camera images. Measurements and uncertainty estimates made over a 30 min period are compared to a collocated incoherent scatter radar and show good agreement in horizontal drift speed and direction during periods of scintillation for which the characteristic velocity is less than the drift velocity.

  1. Some new features of electron density irregularities over SHAR during strong spread F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raizada

    Full Text Available An RH-560 rocket flight was conducted from Sriharikota rocket range (SHAR (14°N, 80°E, dip latitude 5.5°N to study electron density and electric field irregularities during spread F. The rocket was launched at 2130 local time (LT and it attained an apogee of 348 km. Results of electron density fluctuations are presented here. Two extremely sharp layers of very high electron density were observed at 105 and 130 km. The electron density increase in these layers was by a factor of 50 in a vertical extent of 10 km. Large depletions in electron density were observed around 175 and 238 km. Both sharp layers as well as depletions were observed also during the descent. The presence of sharp layers and depletions during the ascent and the descent of the rocket as well as an order of magnitude less electron density, in 150-300 km region during the descent, indicate the presence of strong large-scale horizontal gradients in the electron density. Some of the valley region irregularities (165-178 km, in the intermediate scale size range, observed during this flight, show spectral peaks at 2 km and can be interpreted in terms of the image striation theory suggested by Vickrey et al. The irregularities at 176 km do not exhibit any peak at kilometer scales and appear to be of new type. The growth rate of intermediate scale size irregularities, produced through generalized Rayleigh Taylor instability, was calculated for the 200-330 km altitude, using observed values of electron density gradients and an assumed vertically downward wind of 20 ms-1. These growth rate calculations suggest that the observed irregularities could be produced by the gradient drift instability.

    Key words: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities - Radio science (ionospheric physics

  2. Some new features of electron density irregularities over SHAR during strong spread F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raizada

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available An RH-560 rocket flight was conducted from Sriharikota rocket range (SHAR (14°N, 80°E, dip latitude 5.5°N to study electron density and electric field irregularities during spread F. The rocket was launched at 2130 local time (LT and it attained an apogee of 348 km. Results of electron density fluctuations are presented here. Two extremely sharp layers of very high electron density were observed at 105 and 130 km. The electron density increase in these layers was by a factor of 50 in a vertical extent of 10 km. Large depletions in electron density were observed around 175 and 238 km. Both sharp layers as well as depletions were observed also during the descent. The presence of sharp layers and depletions during the ascent and the descent of the rocket as well as an order of magnitude less electron density, in 150-300 km region during the descent, indicate the presence of strong large-scale horizontal gradients in the electron density. Some of the valley region irregularities (165-178 km, in the intermediate scale size range, observed during this flight, show spectral peaks at 2 km and can be interpreted in terms of the image striation theory suggested by Vickrey et al. The irregularities at 176 km do not exhibit any peak at kilometer scales and appear to be of new type. The growth rate of intermediate scale size irregularities, produced through generalized Rayleigh Taylor instability, was calculated for the 200-330 km altitude, using observed values of electron density gradients and an assumed vertically downward wind of 20 ms-1. These growth rate calculations suggest that the observed irregularities could be produced by the gradient drift instability.Key words: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities - Radio science (ionospheric physics

  3. Simulation analysis of impulse characteristics of space debris irradiated by multi-pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhengguo; Jin, Xing; Chang, Hao; You, Xiangyu

    2018-02-01

    Cleaning space debris with laser is a hot topic in the field of space security research. Impulse characteristics are the basis of cleaning space debris with laser. In order to study the impulse characteristics of rotating irregular space debris irradiated by multi-pulse laser, the impulse calculation method of rotating space debris irradiated by multi-pulse laser is established based on the area matrix method. The calculation method of impulse and impulsive moment under multi-pulse irradiation is given. The calculation process of total impulse under multi-pulse irradiation is analyzed. With a typical non-planar space debris (cube) as example, the impulse characteristics of space debris irradiated by multi-pulse laser are simulated and analyzed. The effects of initial angular velocity, spot size and pulse frequency on impulse characteristics are investigated.

  4. Numerically Calculated 3D Space-Weighting Functions to Image Crustal Volcanic Structures Using Diffuse Coda Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Del Pezzo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Seismic coda measurements retrieve parameters linked to the physical characteristics of rock volumes illuminated by high frequency scattered waves. Space weighting functions (SWF and kernels are different tools that model the spatial sensitivity of coda envelopes to scattering and absorption anomalies in these rock matrices, allowing coda-wave attenuation ( Q c o d a imaging. This note clarifies the difference between SWF and sensitivity kernels developed for coda wave imaging. It extends the SWF previously developed in 2D to the third dimension by using radiative transfer and the diffusion equation, based on the assumption that variations of Q c o d a depend solely on variations of the extinction length. When applied to active data (Deception Island, Antarctica, 3D SWF images strongly resemble 2D images, making this 3D extension redundant. On the other hand, diffusion does not efficiently model coda waveforms when using earthquake datasets spanning depths between 0 and 20 km, such as at Mount St. Helens volcano. In this setting, scattering attenuation and absorption suffer tradeoffs and cannot be separated by fitting a single seismogram energy envelope for SWF imaging. We propose that an approximate analytical 3D SWF, similar in shape to the common coda kernels used in literature, can still be used in a space weighted back-projection approach. While Q c o d a is not a physical parameter of the propagation medium, its spatially-dependent modeling allows improved reconstruction of crustal-scale tectonic and geological features. It is even more efficient as a velocity independent imaging tool for magma and fluid storage when applied to deep volcanism.

  5. Short-term magnetic field alignment variations of equatorial ionospheric irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The ionospheric irregularities that cause equatorial scintillation are elongated along the north-south magnetic field lines. During a 1981 field campaign at Ascension Island, 250-MHz receivers were spaced from 300 m to 1.6 km along the field lines, and the signals received from the Marisat satellite were cross correlated. Data collected during eight nights of fading showed a linear relationship between fading rate and cross correlation. The alignment of the antennas was adjusted to give a zero time lag between the widely spaced receivers with a measurement accuracy of 0.03 s. Since the average irregularity velocity was 125 m/s, this time accuracy translated to an angular measurement accuracy of 0.1 deg. During a 4-hour period of nightly fading, occasional differences in time of arrival were noted that corresponded to a tilt in the north-south alignment of + or - 1 deg. Data from several nights of fading were analyzed, and each night exhibited the same variance in the north-south irregularity alignment. It is postulated that the shift in the measured peak correlation may have been caused by patches of irregularities at different altitudes where the magnetic field lines have a slightly different direction. 13 references

  6. Modeling the TrueBeam linac using a CAD to Geant4 geometry implementation: Dose and IAEA-compliant phase space calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Magdalena; Perl, Joseph; LoSasso, Tom; Salop, Arthur; Whittum, David; Narula, Anisha; Svatos, Michelle; Keall, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To create an accurate 6 MV Monte Carlo simulation phase space for the Varian TrueBeam treatment head geometry imported from cad (computer aided design) without adjusting the input electron phase space parameters. Methods: geant4 v4.9.2.p01 was employed to simulate the 6 MV beam treatment head geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac. The electron tracks in the linear accelerator were simulated with Parmela, and the obtained electron phase space was used as an input to the Monte Carlo beam transport and dose calculations. The geometry components are tessellated solids included in geant4 as gdml (generalized dynamic markup language) files obtained via STEP (standard for the exchange of product) export from Pro/Engineering, followed by STEP import in Fastrad, a STEP-gdml converter. The linac has a compact treatment head and the small space between the shielding collimator and the divergent arc of the upper jaws forbids the implementation of a plane for storing the phase space. Instead, an IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) compliant phase space writer was implemented on a cylindrical surface. The simulation was run in parallel on a 1200 node Linux cluster. The 6 MV dose calculations were performed for field sizes varying from 4 x 4 to 40 x 40 cm 2 . The voxel size for the 60x60x40 cm 3 water phantom was 4x4x4 mm 3 . For the 10x10 cm 2 field, surface buildup calculations were performed using 4x4x2 mm 3 voxels within 20 mm of the surface. Results: For the depth dose curves, 98% of the calculated data points agree within 2% with the experimental measurements for depths between 2 and 40 cm. For depths between 5 and 30 cm, agreement within 1% is obtained for 99% (4x4), 95% (10x10), 94% (20x20 and 30x30), and 89% (40x40) of the data points, respectively. In the buildup region, the agreement is within 2%, except at 1 mm depth where the deviation is 5% for the 10x10 cm 2 open field. For the lateral dose profiles, within the field size for fields up to 30x30 cm 2

  7. Modeling the TrueBeam linac using a CAD to Geant4 geometry implementation: Dose and IAEA-compliant phase space calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, Magdalena; Perl, Joseph; LoSasso, Tom; Salop, Arthur; Whittum, David; Narula, Anisha; Svatos, Michelle; Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Physics Division, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94304 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York 10021 (United States); Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Physics Division, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94304 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To create an accurate 6 MV Monte Carlo simulation phase space for the Varian TrueBeam treatment head geometry imported from cad (computer aided design) without adjusting the input electron phase space parameters. Methods: geant4 v4.9.2.p01 was employed to simulate the 6 MV beam treatment head geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac. The electron tracks in the linear accelerator were simulated with Parmela, and the obtained electron phase space was used as an input to the Monte Carlo beam transport and dose calculations. The geometry components are tessellated solids included in geant4 as gdml (generalized dynamic markup language) files obtained via STEP (standard for the exchange of product) export from Pro/Engineering, followed by STEP import in Fastrad, a STEP-gdml converter. The linac has a compact treatment head and the small space between the shielding collimator and the divergent arc of the upper jaws forbids the implementation of a plane for storing the phase space. Instead, an IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) compliant phase space writer was implemented on a cylindrical surface. The simulation was run in parallel on a 1200 node Linux cluster. The 6 MV dose calculations were performed for field sizes varying from 4 x 4 to 40 x 40 cm{sup 2}. The voxel size for the 60x60x40 cm{sup 3} water phantom was 4x4x4 mm{sup 3}. For the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field, surface buildup calculations were performed using 4x4x2 mm{sup 3} voxels within 20 mm of the surface. Results: For the depth dose curves, 98% of the calculated data points agree within 2% with the experimental measurements for depths between 2 and 40 cm. For depths between 5 and 30 cm, agreement within 1% is obtained for 99% (4x4), 95% (10x10), 94% (20x20 and 30x30), and 89% (40x40) of the data points, respectively. In the buildup region, the agreement is within 2%, except at 1 mm depth where the deviation is 5% for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} open field. For the lateral dose profiles, within the field size

  8. SECTIONAL AREA CALCULATION OF MATERIAL REMOVED FROM BLANK WHILE FORMING SPACE BETWEEN TWO TEETH OF SATELLITE GEAR OF PLANETARY PIN TOOTH REDUCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Yankevich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important values while forming gear wheels is a material section area Sс which is to be removed by a tool in the process of forming a space between two teeth in one pass. Cutting resistance which is proportional  to section area of  the layer to be cut and, correspondingly, a thermodynamic intensity in the polishing zone depend on Sс value.The paper proposes relations for calculation of a material section area Sс which is to be removed from a blank while forming a space between two teeth of a satellite gear of a planetary pin tooth reducer.Measurements being made in the AutoCAD packet have shown that any corrections of the profile do not make a significant influence on a section area Sс.

  9. Long wavelength irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudeki, E.; Farley, D.T.; Fejer, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the radar interferometer technique at Jicamarca to study in detail irregularities with wavelengths of a few kilometers generated in the unstable equatorial electrojet plasma during strong type 1 conditions. In-situ rocket observations of the same instability process are discussed in a companion paper. These large scale primary waves travel essentially horizontally and have large amplitudes. The vertical electron drift velocities driven by the horizontal wave electric fields reach or exceed the ion-acoustic velocity even though the horizontal phase velocity of the wave is considerably smaller. A straightforward extension to the long wavelength regime of the usual linear theory of the electrojet instability explains this and several other observed features of these dominant primary waves

  10. Irregular employment amongst migrants in Spanish cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, C; Ribas, N; Bergalli, V; Parella, S

    1998-04-01

    This article presents the irregular employment situation of non-European union immigrants in Spanish cities. Foreign labor is remarkable for its heterogeneity in terms of country of origin, demographic characteristics, and the different ways in which immigrants have entered the job market. Legal immigrants tend to concentrate in five different branches of activity, such as domestic service (mostly women), hotel and restaurant industry, agriculture, building and retail trade. Migrants who work in agriculture suffer the worst labor conditions than all other migrants. However, all migrants experience difficulty in obtaining residency and labor permits. Four integration strategies among Moroccan immigrants in Catalonia are discussed and can be viewed as support networks of the immigrants.

  11. Evaluation of simplified two source model for relative electron output factor of irregular block shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Y. E.; Yi, B. Y.; Ahn, S. D.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, S. W.; Choi, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    A practical calculation algorithm which calculates the relative output factor (ROF) for electron irregular shaped-field has been developed and evaluated the accuracy and the effectiveness of the algorithm by comparing the measurements and the calculation results for irregular fields used in clinic. The algorithm assumes that the electron dose can be express as sum of the primary source component and the scattered component from the shielding block. The primary source is assumed to have Gaussian distribution, while the scattered component follows the inverse square law. Depth and angular dependency of the primary and the scattered are ignored for maximizing the practicability by reducing the number of parameters for the algorithm. Electron dose can be calculated with three parameters such as, the effective source distance, the variance of primary source, and the scattering power of the block. The coefficients are obtained from the square shaped-block measurements and these are confirmed from the rectangular or irregular shaped-fields. The results showed less than 1.5% difference between the calculation and measurements. The algorithm is proved to be practical, since one can acquire the full parameters with minimum measurements and generates accurate results within the clinically acceptable range

  12. Electronic structure and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene calculated via time evolution of states in real space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, H. Anh; Do, V. Nam

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene with arbitrary twist angles θ . Our results are based on a method of evolving in time quantum states in lattice space. We propose an efficient scheme of sampling lattice nodes that helps to reduce significantly computational cost, particularly for tiny twist angles. We demonstrate the continuous variation of the density of states and the optical conductivity with respect to the twist angle. It indicates that the commensurability between the two graphene layers does not play an essential role in governing the electronic and optical properties. We point out that, for the twist angles roughly in the range 0 .1∘energy exhibits the typical W shape with a small peak locating at the Fermi energy. This peak is formed as the merging of two van Hove peaks and reflects the appearance of states strongly localized in the AA-like region of moiré zones. When decreasing the twist angle to zero, the W shape is gradually transformed to the U shape, which is seen as the behavior of the density of states in the limit of θ →0∘ .

  13. The SPACE 1.0 model: a Landlab component for 2-D calculation of sediment transport, bedrock erosion, and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Charles M.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Barnhart, Katherine R.

    2017-12-01

    Models of landscape evolution by river erosion are often either transport-limited (sediment is always available but may or may not be transportable) or detachment-limited (sediment must be detached from the bed but is then always transportable). While several models incorporate elements of, or transition between, transport-limited and detachment-limited behavior, most require that either sediment or bedrock, but not both, are eroded at any given time. Modeling landscape evolution over large spatial and temporal scales requires a model that can (1) transition freely between transport-limited and detachment-limited behavior, (2) simultaneously treat sediment transport and bedrock erosion, and (3) run in 2-D over large grids and be coupled with other surface process models. We present SPACE (stream power with alluvium conservation and entrainment) 1.0, a new model for simultaneous evolution of an alluvium layer and a bedrock bed based on conservation of sediment mass both on the bed and in the water column. The model treats sediment transport and bedrock erosion simultaneously, embracing the reality that many rivers (even those commonly defined as bedrock rivers) flow over a partially alluviated bed. SPACE improves on previous models of bedrock-alluvial rivers by explicitly calculating sediment erosion and deposition rather than relying on a flux-divergence (Exner) approach. The SPACE model is a component of the Landlab modeling toolkit, a Python-language library used to create models of Earth surface processes. Landlab allows efficient coupling between the SPACE model and components simulating basin hydrology, hillslope evolution, weathering, lithospheric flexure, and other surface processes. Here, we first derive the governing equations of the SPACE model from existing sediment transport and bedrock erosion formulations and explore the behavior of local analytical solutions for sediment flux and alluvium thickness. We derive steady-state analytical solutions for

  14. Decomposing Oriented Graphs into Six Locally Irregular Oriented Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Renault, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    An undirected graph G is locally irregular if every two of its adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. We say that G is decomposable into k locally irregular graphs if there exists a partition E1∪E2∪⋯∪Ek of the edge set E(G) such that each Ei induces a locally irregular graph. It was recently co...

  15. Characteristics of ionospheric irregularities causing scintillations at VHF/UHF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vats, H.O.; Deshpande, M.R.; Rastogi, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Some properties of ionization irregularities using amplitude scintillation records of radio beacons from ATS-6 (phase II) at Ootacamund, India have been investigated. For the estimation of scale-size and strength of the irregularities a simple diffraction model has been used which explains only weak and moderate equatorial scintillation observations. It was found that the scale sizes of day time E-region irregularities are smaller than those in the F-region during night time in addition, irregularities are generated initially at large scale sizes which later break up into smaller scale sizes

  16. Extended Schmidt law holds for faint dwarf irregular galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Sambit; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Shi, Yong

    2017-12-01

    Context. The extended Schmidt law (ESL) is a variant of the Schmidt which relates the surface densities of gas and star formation, with the surface density of stellar mass added as an extra parameter. Although ESL has been shown to be valid for a wide range of galaxy properties, its validity in low-metallicity galaxies has not been comprehensively tested. This is important because metallicity affects the crucial atomic-to-molecular transition step in the process of conversion of gas to stars. Aims: We empirically investigate for the first time whether low metallicity faint dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs) from the local universe follow the ESL. Here we consider the "global" law where surface densities are averaged over the galactic discs. dIrrs are unique not only because they are at the lowest end of mass and star formation scales for galaxies, but also because they are metal-poor compared to the general population of galaxies. Methods: Our sample is drawn from the Faint Irregular Galaxy GMRT Survey (FIGGS) which is the largest survey of atomic hydrogen in such galaxies. The gas surface densities are determined using their atomic hydrogen content. The star formation rates are calculated using GALEX far ultraviolet fluxes after correcting for dust extinction, whereas the stellar surface densities are calculated using Spitzer 3.6 μm fluxes. The surface densities are calculated over the stellar discs defined by the 3.6 μm images. Results: We find dIrrs indeed follow the ESL. The mean deviation of the FIGGS galaxies from the relation is 0.01 dex, with a scatter around the relation of less than half that seen in the original relation. In comparison, we also show that the FIGGS galaxies are much more deviant when compared to the "canonical" Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. Conclusions: Our results help strengthen the universality of the ESL, especially for galaxies with low metallicities. We suggest that models of star formation in which feedback from previous generations

  17. The Wait Calculation: The Broader Consequences of the Minimum Time from Now to Interstellar Destinations and its Significance to the Space Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A.

    This paper summarises the wait calculation [1] of interstellar voyagers which finds the minimum time to destination given exponential growth in the rate of travel available to a civilisation. The minimum time obliges stellar system colonisers to consider departure times a significant risk factor in their voyages since a departure then to a destination will beat a departure made at any other time before or after. Generalised conclusions will be drawn about the significant impact that departures to interstellar destinations before, at, or after the minimum time will have on the economic potential of missions and on the inevitability of competition between them. There will be no international law operating in interstellar space and an ability to escape predatory actions en route, or at the destination, can only be done by precise calculations of departure times. Social and economic forces affecting the factors in the growth equation are discussed with reference to the probability of accelerating growth reaching the technological Singularity and strengthening the growth incentive trap. Islamic banking practices are discussed as a credible alternative to compounding interest bearing paper for funding the space economy in the long term and for supporting stakeholder investment in such long term mission development. The paper considers the essential free productivity of the Earth's biosphere and the capital accumulations made possible by land productivity are essential components to a viable long term space economy and that research into re-creating the costless productivity of the biosphere at a destination will determine both the mission's ultimate success and provide means of returns for stakeholders during the long build up. Conclusions of these arguments suggest that the Icarus project should ignore a robotic interstellar mission concept and develop a manned colonising mission from now.

  18. Characterization of the low latitude plasma density irregularities observed using C/NOFS and SCINDA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andima, Geoffrey; Amabayo, Emirant B.; Jurua, Edward; Cilliers, Pierre J.

    2018-01-01

    Complex electrodynamic processes over the low latitude region often result in post sunset plasma density irregularities which degrade satellite communication and navigation. In order to forecast the density irregularities, their occurrence time, duration and location need to be quantified. Data from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite was used to characterize the low latitude ion density irregularities from 2011 to 2013. This was supported by ground based data from the SCIntillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) receivers at Makerere (Geographic coordinate 32.6°E, 0.3°N, and dip latitude -9.3°N) and Nairobi (Geographic coordinate 36.8°E, -1.3°N, and dip latitude -10.8°N). The results show that irregularities in ion density have a daily pattern with peaks from 20:00 to 24:00 Local Time (LT). Scintillation activity at L band and VHF over East Africa peaked in 2011 and 2012 from 20:00 to 24:00 LT, though in many cases scintillation at VHF persisted longer than that at L band. A longitudinal pattern in ion density irregularity occurrence was observed with peaks over 135-180°E and 270-300°E. The likelihood of ion density irregularity occurrence decreased with increasing altitude. Analysis of C/NOFS zonal ion drift velocities showed that the largest nighttime and daytime drifts were in 270-300°E and 300-330°E longitude regions respectively. Zonal irregularity drift velocities over East Africa were for the first time estimated from L-band scintillation indices. The results show that the velocity of plasma density irregularities in 2011 and 2012 varied daily, and hourly in the range of 50-150 m s-1. The zonal drift velocity estimates from the L-band scintillation indices had good positive correlation with the zonal drift velocities derived from VHF receivers by the spaced receiver technique.

  19. Refraction traveltime tomography based on damped wave equation for irregular topographic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yunhui; Pyun, Sukjoon

    2018-03-01

    Land seismic data generally have time-static issues due to irregular topography and weathered layers at shallow depths. Unless the time static is handled appropriately, interpretation of the subsurface structures can be easily distorted. Therefore, static corrections are commonly applied to land seismic data. The near-surface velocity, which is required for static corrections, can be inferred from first-arrival traveltime tomography, which must consider the irregular topography, as the land seismic data are generally obtained in irregular topography. This paper proposes a refraction traveltime tomography technique that is applicable to an irregular topographic model. This technique uses unstructured meshes to express an irregular topography, and traveltimes calculated from the frequency-domain damped wavefields using the finite element method. The diagonal elements of the approximate Hessian matrix were adopted for preconditioning, and the principle of reciprocity was introduced to efficiently calculate the Fréchet derivative. We also included regularization to resolve the ill-posed inverse problem, and used the nonlinear conjugate gradient method to solve the inverse problem. As the damped wavefields were used, there were no issues associated with artificial reflections caused by unstructured meshes. In addition, the shadow zone problem could be circumvented because this method is based on the exact wave equation, which does not require a high-frequency assumption. Furthermore, the proposed method was both robust to an initial velocity model and efficient compared to full wavefield inversions. Through synthetic and field data examples, our method was shown to successfully reconstruct shallow velocity structures. To verify our method, static corrections were roughly applied to the field data using the estimated near-surface velocity. By comparing common shot gathers and stack sections with and without static corrections, we confirmed that the proposed tomography

  20. Analysis of Mid-Latitude Plasma Density Irregularities in the Presence of Finite Larmor Radius Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, V. I.; Kim, T. C.; Mishin, E. V.; Kil, H.; Kwak, Y. S.; Paraschiv, I.

    2017-12-01

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during space storms. At mid-latitudes the source of F-region Field Aligned Irregularities (FAI) is yet to be determined. They can be created in enhanced subauroral flow channels (SAI/SUBS), where strong gradients of electric field, density and plasma temperature are present. Another important source of FAI is connected with Medium-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). Related shear flows and plasma density troughs point to interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities as a possible source of plasma irregularities. A model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on the two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. This approach allows to resolve density irregularities on the meter scale. A numerical code in C language to solve the derived nonlinear equations for analysis of interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere was developed. This code will be used to analyze competition between interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the mid-latitude region. The high-resolution simulations with continuous density and velocity profiles will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the in situ data obtained during the 2016 Daejeon (Korea) and MU (Japan) radar campaign and data collected simultaneously by the Swarm satellites passed over Korea and Japan. PA approved #: 88ABW-2017-3641

  1. Rocket observation of electron density irregularities in the lower E region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yuzo; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Amemiya, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    Local ionospheric electron density irregularities in the scale size of 3 m to 300 m have been measured on the ascending path from 74 km to 93 km by a fix biased Langmuir probe on board the S-310-16 sounding rocket. The rocket was launched at 22:40:00 on February 1, 1986 from Kagoshima Space Center in Japan. It is found from frequency analysis of the data that the spectral index of the irregularities is 0.9 to 1.8 and the irregularity amplitude is 1 to 15 %. The altitude where the amplitude reaches its maximum is 88 km. The generation mechanism of these irregularities is explained by the neutral turbulence theory, which indicates that the spectral index is 5/3 and has been confirmed by a chemical release experiment using rockets over India to be valid up to about 110 km. From frequency analysis of the data observed during the descent in the lower E region, we have found that the rocket-wake effect becomes larger when the probe is situated near the edge of the rocket-wake, and that this is also the case even when the rocket-wake effect does not clearly appear in the DC current signal which approximately changes in proportion to the electron density, where the probe is completely situated inside the rocket-wake region. (author)

  2. Irregular radiation response of a chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, J.J.; Kember, N.F.; Shaw, J.E.H.

    1980-01-01

    The DC II mouse chondrosarcoma was shown to be a potentially valuable radiobiological tumour system since it recovered from radiation injury by regrowth from clones that could be counted in histological sections. Unfortunately, the normal growth of this tumour following s.c. implantation in the thigh was irregular both in the time before growth became evident and in the rate of growth. The response to radiation was also unreliable since tumours irradiated with the same dose (e.g. 30 Gy) showed a range of responses from shrinkage to no detectable change in growth rate. The delay in normal growth can be attributed largely to delays in vascularization while changes in growth rate may be explained by differences in tumour architecture. Radiation response may depend on variations in hypoxic fraction and in relative cellularity. Tumours having the same external dimensions may differ by a factor of 80 in the numbers of tumour cells they contain. This chondrosarcoma may prove a closer model to some human tumours than many transplantable tumours that display regular growth patterns. (author)

  3. Regularities and irregularities in order flow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, Martin; Krause, Sebastian M.; Guhr, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    We identify and analyze statistical regularities and irregularities in the recent order flow of different NASDAQ stocks, focusing on the positions where orders are placed in the order book. This includes limit orders being placed outside of the spread, inside the spread and (effective) market orders. Based on the pairwise comparison of the order flow of different stocks, we perform a clustering of stocks into groups with similar behavior. This is useful to assess systemic aspects of stock price dynamics. We find that limit order placement inside the spread is strongly determined by the dynamics of the spread size. Most orders, however, arrive outside of the spread. While for some stocks order placement on or next to the quotes is dominating, deeper price levels are more important for other stocks. As market orders are usually adjusted to the quote volume, the impact of market orders depends on the order book structure, which we find to be quite diverse among the analyzed stocks as a result of the way limit order placement takes place.

  4. Evaporation From Soil Containers With Irregular Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Narkis, Kfir

    2017-11-01

    Evaporation from bare soils under laboratory conditions is generally studied using containers of regular shapes where the vertical edges are parallel to the flow lines in the drying domain. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of irregular container shapes, for which the flow lines either converge or diverge toward the surface. Evaporation from initially saturated sand and sandy loam soils packed in cones and inverted cones was compared to evaporation from corresponding cylindrical columns. The initial evaporation rate was higher in the cones, and close to potential evaporation. At the end of the experiment, the cumulative evaporation depth in the sand cone was equal to that in the column but higher than in the inverted cone, while in the sandy loam, the order was cone > column > inverted cone. By comparison to the column, stage 1 evaporation was longer in the cones, and practically similar in the inverted cones. Stage 2 evaporation rate decreased with the increase of the evaporating surface area. These results were more pronounced in the sandy loam. For the sand column, the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 evaporation occurred when the depth of the saturation front was approximately equal to the characteristic length of the soil. However, for the cone and the inverted cone, it occurred for a shallower depth of the saturation front. It seems therefore that the concept of the characteristic length derived from the soil hydraulic properties is related to drying systems of regular shapes.

  5. 14 CFR 135.65 - Reporting mechanical irregularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... irregularities and their correction. (b) The pilot in command shall enter or have entered in the aircraft maintenance log each mechanical irregularity that comes to the pilot's attention during flight time. Before each flight, the pilot in command shall, if the pilot does not already know, determine the status of...

  6. Uniform irradiation of irregularly shaped cavities for photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, A. I.; van Gemert, M. J.; van der Meulen, F. W.; Gijsbers, G. H.; Beek, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    It is difficult to achieve a uniform light distribution in irregularly shaped cavities. We have conducted a study on the use of hollow 'integrating' moulds for more uniform light delivery of photodynamic therapy in irregularly shaped cavities such as the oral cavity. Simple geometries such as a

  7. Software support for irregular and loosely synchronous problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, A.; Fox, G.; Hiranandani, S.; Kennedy, K.; Koelbel, C.; Ranka, S.; Saltz, J.

    1992-01-01

    A large class of scientific and engineering applications may be classified as irregular and loosely synchronous from the perspective of parallel processing. We present a partial classification of such problems. This classification has motivated us to enhance FORTRAN D to provide language support for irregular, loosely synchronous problems. We present techniques for parallelization of such problems in the context of FORTRAN D.

  8. Regularisation of irregular verbs in child English second language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was collected from the language of English medium preschool children. The study concludes that when the Blocking Principle interferes, children resort to a novel interlanguage rule that regularises irregular verbs. This interlanguage rule applies in a similar way to all irregular verbs, thus children produce utterances ...

  9. ARCAD3-SAFARI coordinated study of auroral and polar F-region ionospheric irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villain, J.P.; Hanuise, C.; Beghin, C.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of F-region ionospheric irregularities have been performed with the SAFARI ground based HF radars and the ISOPROBE experiment on board the AUREOL-3 satellite. Among seven orbits during which the satellite trajectory was directly in the radar beam or in the vicinity, four of them have been analysed in detail. The spectral power of the electron density variations ΔNe/Ne has been calculated for wavelengths between 20 m and 1 km from the ISOPROBE high time resolution thermal plasma measurements. One spectrum is obtained every 1.2 sec., which corresponds to about 10 km along the satellite trajectory. The SAFARI experiment is a set of two HF coherent radars located at Lycksele (Sweden) and Oulu (Finland). These radars are sensitive to F-region ionospheric irregularities of 10 m wavelength in the polar and auroral ionosphere. The phase velocity of the irregularities obtained from the Doppler spectrum is related to the ambient plasma drift. The presence of echoes observed with the SAFARI radars is compared with the spectral power of the electron density variations deduced from the ISOPROBE in-situ measurements. A good agreement is found between the two sets of observations and a numerical value of the spectral power corresponding to detection of echoes by the radar is given. A synoptical view of the event is given and interpreted according to the existing theories on plasma irregularities

  10. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-01-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the μ determination. It consists of the μ determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of μ was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  11. Irregular conformal block, spectral curve and flow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Kwan; Rim, Chaiho; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Irregular conformal block is motivated by the Argyres-Douglas type of N=2 super conformal gauge theory. We investigate the classical/NS limit of irregular conformal block using the spectral curve on a Riemann surface with irregular punctures, which is equivalent to the loop equation of irregular matrix model. The spectral curve is reduced to the second order (Virasoro symmetry, SU(2) for the gauge theory) and third order (W_3 symmetry, SU(3)) differential equations of a polynomial with finite degree. The conformal and W symmetry generate the flow equations in the spectral curve and determine the irregular conformal block, hence the partition function of the Argyres-Douglas theory ala AGT conjecture.

  12. Calcul de trajectoires d'ions dans un faisceau a trois dimensions soumis a la charge d'space. Application aux sources d'ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauth, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the space charge effects suffered by an ionic beam of homogeneous density, composed with ions of various charges and submitted to crossed electric and magnetic fields. We consider the physical and geometric conditions in the region between an ion source and the extraction electrode. We propose two different methods that allow to reach a numerical solution of the problem. The first one is founded on the idea that the large number of particles of the beam can be replaced in the calculations by a reduced number of highly charged particles. The second one consists in considering the widening of the beam through the evolution of the beam envelope. We apply these two methods to physical situations found in published experimental data. (Author)

  13. On the calculation of complete dissociation curves of closed-shell pseudo-onedimensional systems via the complete active space method of increments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertitta, E.; Paulus, B. [Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Barcza, G.; Legeza, Ö. [Strongly Correlated Systems “Lendület” Research Group, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-09-21

    The method of increments (MoI) has been employed using the complete active space formalism in order to calculate the dissociation curve of beryllium ring-shaped clusters Be{sub n} of different sizes. Benchmarks obtained through different quantum chemical methods including the ab initio density matrix renormalization group were used to verify the validity of the MoI truncation which showed a reliable behavior for the whole dissociation curve. Moreover we investigated the size dependence of the correlation energy at different interatomic distances in order to extrapolate the values for the periodic chain and to discuss the transition from a metal-like to an insulator-like behavior of the wave function through quantum chemical considerations.

  14. Close coupling calculations of magnetic transitions for He + H/sub 2/ in an uncoupled space frame. [Cross sections, T matrices, orbital angular momentum, elastic and inelastic transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoni, Y; Kouri, D J; Kumar, A [Houston Univ., Tex. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1977-12-01

    Full close coupling calculations of magnetic transitions in He + H/sub 2/ collisions are reported. The results are analyzed using the coupling space frame approach of Kouri and Shimoni. This enables one to study the magnetic transition T-matrices as a function of orbital angular momentum number l. The results for transitions which are elastic in rotor state j are found to be dominated by j/sub z/-conserving transitions. Those which are inelastic in j are dominated by j/sub z/-conserving transitions for very low l but at higher l values, the non-j/sub z/-conserving transitions dominate. The results for He + H/sub 2/ are consistent with the recent studies of Shimoni and Kouri of the coupled states approximation.

  15. Transport dynamics calculated under the full Mie scattering theory for micron and submicron lunar ejecta in selenocentric, cislunar, and geocentric space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, T. W.; Alexander, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1967, Lunar Explorer 35 was launched from the earth and placed into a stable orbit around the moon. The data from the dust particle experiment on this spacecraft were essentially continuous over a 5-yr period from the time of insertion in lunar orbit. Analysis of this data has been interpreted to show that micron-sized lunar ejecta leave the moon and traverse through selenocentric and cislunar space and obtain either interplanetary/heliocentric orbits or intercept the earth's magnetosphere and move into geocentric orbits. Extensive studies of the orbital trajectories of lunar particles in this size range have now been conducted that include a calculation of the solar radiation force using the full Mie scattering theory. A significant flux of particles with radii less than 0.1 micron are found to intercept the earth's magnetopause surface. This flux is shown to be strongly dependent upon both the particle's density and its index of refraction.

  16. Exploring Hardware Support For Scaling Irregular Applications on Multi-node Multi-core Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, Simone; Ceriani, Marco; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Palermo, Gianluca; Raffo, Luigi

    2013-06-05

    With the recent emergence of large-scale knowledge dis- covery, data mining and social network analysis, irregular applications have gained renewed interest. Classic cache-based high-performance architectures do not provide optimal performances with such kind of workloads, mainly due to the very low spatial and temporal locality of the irregular control and memory access patterns. In this paper, we present a multi-node, multi-core, fine-grained multi-threaded shared-memory system architecture specifically designed for the execution of large-scale irregular applications, and built on top of three pillars, that we believe are fundamental to support these workloads. First, we offer transparent hardware support for Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) to provide a large globally-shared address space with no software library overhead. Second, we employ multi-threaded multi-core processing nodes to achieve the necessary latency tolerance required by accessing global memory, which potentially resides in a remote node. Finally, we devise hardware support for inter-thread synchronization on the whole global address space. We first model the performances by using an analytical model that takes into account the main architecture and application characteristics. We describe the hardware design of the proposed cus- tom architectural building blocks that provide support for the above- mentioned three pillars. Finally, we present a limited-scale evaluation of the system on a multi-board FPGA prototype with typical irregular kernels and benchmarks. The experimental evaluation demonstrates the architecture performance scalability for different configurations of the whole system.

  17. Star Formation Histories of Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Evan

    1995-07-01

    We propose to obtain deep WFPC2 `BVI' color-magnitude diagrams {CMDs} for the dwarf irregular {dI} Local Group galaxies GR 8, Leo A, Pegasus, and Sextans A. In addition to resolved stars, we will use star clusters, and especially any globulars, to probe the history of intense star formation. These data will allow us to map the Pop I and Pop II stellar components, and thereby construct the first detailed star formation histories for non-interacting dI galaxies. Our results will bear on a variety of astrophysical problems, including the evolution of small galaxies, distances in the Local Group, age-metallicity distributions in small galaxies, ages of dIs, and the physics of star formation. The four target galaxies are typical dI systems in terms of luminosity, gas content, and H II region abundance, and represent a range in current star forming activity. They are sufficiently near to allow us to reach to stars at M_V = 0, have 0.1 of the luminosity of the SMC and 0.25 of its oxygen abundance. Unlike the SMC, these dIs are not near giant galaxies. This project will allow the extension of our knowledge of stellar populations in star forming galaxies from the spirals in the Local Group down to its smallest members. We plan to take maximum advantage of the unique data which this project will provide. Our investigator team brings extensive and varied experience in studies of dwarf galaxies, stellar populations, imaging photometry, and stellar evolution to this project.

  18. Metallicity of Young and Old Stars in Irregular Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Based on archived images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, stellar photometry for 105 irregular galaxies has been conducted. We have shown the red supergiant and giant branches in the obtained Hertzsprung-Russel diagrams. Using the TRGB method, distances to galaxies and metallicity of red giants have been determined. The color index ( V - I) of the supergiant branch at the luminosity level M I = -7 was chosen as the metallicity index of red supergiants. For the galaxies under study, the diagrams have been built, in which the correlation can be seen between the luminosity of galaxies ( M B ) and metallicity of red giants and supergiants. The main source of variance of the results in the obtained diagrams is, in our opinion, uncertainty inmeasurements of galaxy luminosities and star-forming outburst. The relation between metallicity of young and old stars shows that main enrichment of galaxies with metals has taken place in the remote past. Deviations of some galaxies in the obtained relation can possibly be explained with the fall of the intergalactic gas on them, although, this inconsiderably affects metallicities of the stellar content.

  19. Climatic irregular staircases: generalized acceleration of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Saedeleer, Bernard

    2016-01-27

    Global warming rates mentioned in the literature are often restricted to a couple of arbitrary periods of time, or of isolated values of the starting year, lacking a global view. In this study, we perform on the contrary an exhaustive parametric analysis of the NASA GISS LOTI data, and also of the HadCRUT4 data. The starting year systematically varies between 1880 and 2002, and the averaging period from 5 to 30 yr - not only decades; the ending year also varies . In this way, we uncover a whole unexplored space of values for the global warming rate, and access the full picture. Additionally, stairstep averaging and linear least squares fitting to determine climatic trends have been sofar exclusive. We propose here an original hybrid method which combines both approaches in order to derive a new type of climatic trend. We find that there is an overall acceleration of the global warming whatever the value of the averaging period, and that 99.9% of the 3029 Earth's climatic irregular staircases are rising. Graphical evidence is also given that choosing an El Niño year as starting year gives lower global warming rates - except if there is a volcanic cooling in parallel. Our rates agree and generalize several results mentioned in the literature.

  20. Weighted statistical parameters for irregularly sampled time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldini, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Unevenly spaced time series are common in astronomy because of the day-night cycle, weather conditions, dependence on the source position in the sky, allocated telescope time and corrupt measurements, for example, or inherent to the scanning law of satellites like Hipparcos and the forthcoming Gaia. Irregular sampling often causes clumps of measurements and gaps with no data which can severely disrupt the values of estimators. This paper aims at improving the accuracy of common statistical parameters when linear interpolation (in time or phase) can be considered an acceptable approximation of a deterministic signal. A pragmatic solution is formulated in terms of a simple weighting scheme, adapting to the sampling density and noise level, applicable to large data volumes at minimal computational cost. Tests on time series from the Hipparcos periodic catalogue led to significant improvements in the overall accuracy and precision of the estimators with respect to the unweighted counterparts and those weighted by inverse-squared uncertainties. Automated classification procedures employing statistical parameters weighted by the suggested scheme confirmed the benefits of the improved input attributes. The classification of eclipsing binaries, Mira, RR Lyrae, Delta Cephei and Alpha2 Canum Venaticorum stars employing exclusively weighted descriptive statistics achieved an overall accuracy of 92 per cent, about 6 per cent higher than with unweighted estimators.

  1. Observation of superconducting fluxons by transmission electron microscopy: A Fourier space approach to calculate the electron optical phase shifts and images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beleggia, M.; Pozzi, G.

    2001-01-01

    An approach is presented for the calculation of the electron optical phase shift experienced by high-energy electrons in a transmission electron microscope, when they interact with the magnetic field associated with superconducting fluxons in a thin specimen tilted with respect to the beam. It is shown that by decomposing the vector potential in its Fourier components and by calculating the phase shift of each component separately, it is possible to obtain the Fourier transform of the electron optical phase shift, which can be inverted either analytically or numerically. It will be shown how this method can be used to recover the result, previously obtained by the real-space approach, relative to the case of a straight flux tube perpendicular to the specimen surfaces. Then the method is applied to the case of a London fluxon in a thin film, where the bending and the broadening of the magnetic-field lines due to the finite specimen thickness are now correctly taken into account and not treated approximately by means of a parabolic fit. Finally, it will be shown how simple models for the pancake structure of the fluxon can be analyzed within this framework and the main features of electron transmission images predicted

  2. Calculations on the development in space and time of the temperature field around a repository of medium and high active wastes in a salt formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delisle, G.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of nuclear waste disposal of th of the Federal Republic of Germany calls for the burial of the wastes within a salt formation. A small portion of the wastes will generate heat after the disposal procedure. A temperature rise within the salt formation, in space and time limited, will be the consequence. The temperature change at any point in the near or far field of the disporal area can be calculated with the aid of numerical models. The thermal parameters representative for the bulk material of the Zechstein formation in NW-Germany, on which the calculations are based, will be discussed in detail. The interrelation between the concentration of heat producing wastes in the disposal field and the maximum average temperature in the salt formation will be treated. By defining numerical models, which are based on assumed shapes of a salt dome and a disposal area, the temperature development in the near and far field of a nuclear repository are shown. (orig.) [de

  3. Irregular HF radio propagation on a subauroral path during magnetospheric substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Blagoveshchensky

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the main ionospheric trough, sporadic structures, gradients and inhomogeneities of the subpolar ionosphere during substorms on the signal amplitude, azimuthal angles of arrival, and propagation modes for the radio path Ottawa (Canada-St. Petersburg (Russia was considered. This subauroral path with the length of about 6600 km has approximately an east-west orientation. The main goals are to carry out numerical modeling of radio propagation for the path and to compare the model calculations with experimental results. Wave absorption and effects of focusing and divergence of rays were taken into consideration in the radio wave modeling process. The following basic results were obtained: The signal amplitude increases by 20–30 dB 1–1.5 h before the substorm expansion phase onset. At the same time the signal azimuth deviates towards north of the great circle arc for the propagation path. Compared with quiet periods there are effects due to irregularities and gradients in the area of the polar edge of the main ionospheric trough on the passing signals. Propagation mechanisms also change during substorms. The growth of signal amplitude before the substorm can be physically explained by both a decrease of the F2-layer ionization and a growth of the F2-layer height that leads to a decrease of the signal field divergence and to a drop of the collision frequency. Ionospheric gradients are also important. This increase of signal level prior to a substorm could be used for forecasting of space weather disturbed conditions.

  4. An experimental study of irregular wave forces on multiple quasi-ellipse caissons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaozhong; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Yuxiang; Meng, Yufan

    2014-09-01

    An experimental investigation of irregular wave forces on quasi-ellipse caisson structures is presented. Irregular waves were generated based on the Jonswap spectrum with two significant wave heights, and the spectrum peak periods range from 1.19 s to 1.81 s. Incident wave directions relative to the centre line of the multiple caissons are from 0° to 22.5°. The spacing between caissons ranges from 2 to 3 times that of the width of the caisson. The effects of these parameters on the wave forces of both the perforated and non-perforated caissons were compared and analyzed. It was found that the perforated caisson can reduce wave forces, especially in the transverse direction. Furthermore, the relative interval and incident wave direction have significant effects on the wave forces in the case of multiple caissons.

  5. Ionospheric irregularities at low latitudes in the American sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1981-10-01

    A detailed analysis of the atomic oxigem airglow emission at the wavelength of 6300 A observed at Cachoeira Paulista (22 0 41'S, 45 0 00'W) shows that intensity perturbations frequently occur and propagate from north to south and from west to east. Such irregularities originated in the ionospheric F region and occur essencially during the premidnight period. These perturbations have a high frequency of occurrence during spring and summer and are rare during winter and fall. The disturbances are correlated with range type spread F detected over Cachoeira Paulista, and have characteristics similar to equatorial ionospheric plasma bubbles (i.e., similar seazonal variation, time of occurrence, ionogram signatures, direction and speed of propagation, etc.). A numerical simulation is carried out for the generation and evolution of ionospheric bubbles based on the theory of the collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability for the equatorial and Cachoeira Paulista regions. Also a study was made of the, evolution of the bubble as a function of the electron density profile and as a function of the amplitude of the initial density perturbation. Assuming the electron density profile perturbed by the bubble, the [OI] 6300 A intensity was calculated for various latitudes arbitrarily taken within the photometer scanning range. The bubble was assumed to be aligned with the Earth's magnetic field and extending from higher altitudes at the equatorial region down to be arbitrary height of 150 Km at which a negligible conductivity is assumed. It was also assumed that the bubble was moving upwards with the velocity of 120 m/s, which in turn was estimated from initial numerical simulation results. The airglow calculation results show that as the bubble goes up, the disturbances in the airglow intensity propagate from north to south, in accord with observed experimental results. (Author) [pt

  6. GRUNCLE, 1. Collision Source Calculation for Program DOT. DOT-3.5, 2-D Neutron Transport, Gamma Transport Program DOT with New Space-Scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A - Nature of problem or function: DOT solves the Boltzmann transport equation in two-dimensional geometries. Principal applications are to neutron and/or photon transport, although the code can be applied to transport problems for any particles not subject to external force fields. Both homogeneous and external-source problems can be solved. Searches on multiplication factor, time absorption, nuclide concentration, and zone thickness are available for reactor problems. Numerous edits and output data sets for subsequent use are available. DOT-3.5 improves the space-scaling algorithm. DOT-3.5/CAB contains group by group UPSCATTER scaling method. DUCT calculates perturbations to the scalar flux caused by the presence of ducts filled with coolant. VIP is a program for cross section sensitivity analysis using two- dimensional discrete ordinates transport calculations. DGRAD calculates the directional flux gradients from DOT-3 diffusion theory flux tapes. In conjunction with VIP and TPERT, it allows the use of diffusion theory fluxes to obtain exact and first-order perturbation reactivity changes. In order to calculate the reactivity associated with changes in reactor compositions using diffusion theory, it is necessary to fold not only the scalar fluxes with the appropriate cross sections, but also the average flux gradients with the diffusion coefficients. Since DOT diffusion theory does not directly calculate these gradients, it was necessary to calculate the needed quantities external to the DOT code. TPERT is a perturbation code to obtain exact and first-order reactivity changes. TPERT is coupled to VIP which generates adjoint forward flux tables using DOT-3 scalar flux tape information. GRTUNCL calculates an analytical first-collision source for subsequent use in DOT. B - Method of solution: The method of discrete ordinates is used. Balance equations are solved for the density of particles moving along discrete directions in each cell of a two-dimensional spatial

  7. Evaluation of latent variances in Monte Carlo dose calculations with Varian TrueBeam photon phase-spaces used as a particle source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhakeem, Eyad; Zavgorodni, Sergei

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the latent variance (LV) of Varian TrueBeam photon phase-space files (PSF) for open 10  ×  10 cm2 and small stereotactic fields and estimate the number of phase spaces required to be summed up in order to maintain sub-percent LV in Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc software was used to transport particles from Varian phase-space files (PSFA) through the secondary collimators. Transported particles were scored into another phase-space located under the jaws (PSFB), or transported further through the cone collimators and scored straight below, forming PSFC. Phase-space files (PSFB) were scored for 6 MV-FFF, 6 MV, 10 MV-FFF, 10 MV and 15 MV beams with 10  ×  10 cm2 field size, and PSFC were scored for 6 MV beam under circular cones of 0.13, 0.25, 0.35, and 1 cm diameter. Both PSFB and PSFC were transported into a water phantom with particle recycling number ranging from 10 to 1000. For 10  ×  10 cm2 fields 0.5  ×  0.5  ×  0.5 cm3 voxels were used to score the dose, whereas the dose was scored in 0.1  ×  0.1  ×  0.5 cm3 voxels for beams collimated with small cones. In addition, for small 0.25 cm diameter cone-collimated 6 MV beam, phantom voxel size varied as 0.02  ×  0.02  ×  0.5 cm3, 0.05  ×  0.05  ×  0.5 cm3 and 0.1  ×  0.1  ×  0.5 cm3. Dose variances were scored in all cases and LV evaluated as per Sempau et al. For the 10  ×  10 cm2 fields calculated LVs were greatest at the phantom surface and decreased with depth until they reached a plateau at 5 cm depth. LVs were found to be 0.54%, 0.96%, 0.35%, 0.69% and 0.57% for the 6 MV-FFF, 6 MV, 10 MV-FFF, 10 MV and 15 MV energies, respectively at the depth of 10 cm. For the 6 MV phase-space collimated with cones of 0.13, 0.25, 0.35, 1.0 cm diameter, the LVs calculated at 1.5 cm depth were 75.6%, 25.4%, 17

  8. Numerical Investigation of the Influence of the Input Air Irregularity on the Performance of Turbofan Jet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Y.; Zubanov, V.

    2018-01-01

    The article describes the numerical investigation of the input air irregularity influence of turbofan engine on its characteristics. The investigated fan has a wide-blade, an inlet diameter about 2 meters, a pressure ratio about 1.6 and the bypass ratio about 4.8. The flow irregularity was simulated by the flap input in the fan inlet channel. Input of flap was carried out by an amount of 10 to 22,5% of the input channel diameter with increments of 2,5%. A nonlinear harmonic analysis (NLH-analysis) of NUMECA Fine/Turbo software was used to study the flow irregularity. The behavior of the calculated LPC characteristics repeats the experiment behavior, but there is a quantitative difference: the calculated efficiency and pressure ratio of booster consistent with the experimental data within 3% and 2% respectively, the calculated efficiency and pressure ratio of fan duct - within 4% and 2.5% respectively. An increasing the level of air irregularity in the input stage of the fan reduces the calculated mass flow, maximum pressure ratio and efficiency. With the value of flap input 12.5%, reducing the maximum air flow is 1.44%, lowering the maximum pressure ratio is 2.6%, efficiency decreasing is 3.1%.

  9. Stability Analysis Method for Rock Slope with an Irregular Shear Plane Based on Interface Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Qi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslide developed in rock mass usually has irregular shear plane. An approach for calculating distributed factor of safety of the irregular shear plane was put forward in this paper. The presented method can obtain not only the detailed stability status at any grid node of a complex shear plane but also the global safety of the slope. Thus, it is helpful to thoroughly understand the mechanism of slope failure. Comparing with the result obtained through the limit equilibrium method, the presented method was proved to be more accurate and suitable for stability analysis of rock slope with a thin shear plane. The stability of a potentially unstable rock slope was analyzed based on the presented method at the end of this paper. The detailed local stability, global stability, and the potential failure mechanism were provided.

  10. Irregularities and Forecast Studies of Equatorial Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    stations – one transmitting station at Ancon, two re- ceiving stations at Jicamarca, and one receiving station at Huancayo, Peru. The stations utilize two...ESF disrupts radio communication, navigation, and imaging systems including space- based synthetic aperture radars and over-the-horizon radars and...experimental capability. We designed, programmed, and deployed a network of HF beacons. The beacons employ software-defined transceivers and function as next

  11. Evaluation of statistical methods for quantifying fractal scaling in water-quality time series with irregular sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available River water-quality time series often exhibit fractal scaling, which here refers to autocorrelation that decays as a power law over some range of scales. Fractal scaling presents challenges to the identification of deterministic trends because (1 fractal scaling has the potential to lead to false inference about the statistical significance of trends and (2 the abundance of irregularly spaced data in water-quality monitoring networks complicates efforts to quantify fractal scaling. Traditional methods for estimating fractal scaling – in the form of spectral slope (β or other equivalent scaling parameters (e.g., Hurst exponent – are generally inapplicable to irregularly sampled data. Here we consider two types of estimation approaches for irregularly sampled data and evaluate their performance using synthetic time series. These time series were generated such that (1 they exhibit a wide range of prescribed fractal scaling behaviors, ranging from white noise (β  =  0 to Brown noise (β  =  2 and (2 their sampling gap intervals mimic the sampling irregularity (as quantified by both the skewness and mean of gap-interval lengths in real water-quality data. The results suggest that none of the existing methods fully account for the effects of sampling irregularity on β estimation. First, the results illustrate the danger of using interpolation for gap filling when examining autocorrelation, as the interpolation methods consistently underestimate or overestimate β under a wide range of prescribed β values and gap distributions. Second, the widely used Lomb–Scargle spectral method also consistently underestimates β. A previously published modified form, using only the lowest 5 % of the frequencies for spectral slope estimation, has very poor precision, although the overall bias is small. Third, a recent wavelet-based method, coupled with an aliasing filter, generally has the smallest bias and root-mean-squared error among

  12. Evaluation of statistical methods for quantifying fractal scaling in water-quality time series with irregular sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Harman, Ciaran J.; Kirchner, James W.

    2018-02-01

    River water-quality time series often exhibit fractal scaling, which here refers to autocorrelation that decays as a power law over some range of scales. Fractal scaling presents challenges to the identification of deterministic trends because (1) fractal scaling has the potential to lead to false inference about the statistical significance of trends and (2) the abundance of irregularly spaced data in water-quality monitoring networks complicates efforts to quantify fractal scaling. Traditional methods for estimating fractal scaling - in the form of spectral slope (β) or other equivalent scaling parameters (e.g., Hurst exponent) - are generally inapplicable to irregularly sampled data. Here we consider two types of estimation approaches for irregularly sampled data and evaluate their performance using synthetic time series. These time series were generated such that (1) they exhibit a wide range of prescribed fractal scaling behaviors, ranging from white noise (β = 0) to Brown noise (β = 2) and (2) their sampling gap intervals mimic the sampling irregularity (as quantified by both the skewness and mean of gap-interval lengths) in real water-quality data. The results suggest that none of the existing methods fully account for the effects of sampling irregularity on β estimation. First, the results illustrate the danger of using interpolation for gap filling when examining autocorrelation, as the interpolation methods consistently underestimate or overestimate β under a wide range of prescribed β values and gap distributions. Second, the widely used Lomb-Scargle spectral method also consistently underestimates β. A previously published modified form, using only the lowest 5 % of the frequencies for spectral slope estimation, has very poor precision, although the overall bias is small. Third, a recent wavelet-based method, coupled with an aliasing filter, generally has the smallest bias and root-mean-squared error among all methods for a wide range of

  13. Irregular Warfare: Impact on Future Professional Military Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paschal, David G

    2006-01-01

    ... to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment. The utility of a decisive war between nation states continues to decline and will eventually reach critical mass based upon the extreme imbalance of military power and a U.S. monopoly...

  14. Irregular Warfare: Special Operations Joint Professional Military Education Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannady, Bryan H

    2008-01-01

    ... on today's battlefront in Afghanistan and Iraq and in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). At the forefront of the GWOT and irregular warfare are the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM...

  15. Drug Intoxicated Irregular Fighters: Complications, Dangers, and Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    .... Drug consumption in contemporary wars has coincided with the use of child soldiers, has led to increased unpredictability among irregular fighters, provided the conditions for the breakdown of social...

  16. Justice: A Problem for Military Ethics during Irregular War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauer, John W

    2008-01-01

    ... is?" or "Justice according to whom?" The relative nature of the term "justice" creates a problem for military ethics, particularly when soldiers try to determine what actions are morally acceptable when they are engaged in irregular warfare...

  17. Irregular Warfare: New Challenges for Civil-Military Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Patrick M

    2008-01-01

    .... Irregular warfare introduces new complications to what Eliot Cohen has called an unequal dialogue between civilian and military leaders in which civilian leaders hold the true power but must modulate...

  18. Role of parametric decay instabilities in generating ionospheric irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.P.; Cheo, B.R.; Lee, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    We show that purely growing instabilities driven by the saturation spectrum of parametric decay instabilities can produce a broad spectrum of ionospheric irregularities. The threshold field Vertical BarE/sub th/Vertical Bar of the instabilities decreases with the scale lengths lambda of the ionospheric irregularities as Vertical BarE/sub th/Vertical Barproportionallambda -2 in the small-scale range ( -2 with scale lengths larger than a few kilometers. The excitation of kilometer-scale irregularities is strictly restricted by the instabilities themselves and by the spatial inhomogeneity of the medium. These results are drawn from the analyses of four-wave interaction. Ion-neutral collisions impose no net effect on the instabilities when the excited ionospheric irregularities have a field-aligned nature

  19. Edge irregular total labellings for graphs of linear size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Miškuf, J.

    2009-01-01

    As an edge variant of the well-known irregularity strength of a graph G = (V, E) we investigate edge irregular total labellings, i.e. functions f : V ∪ E → {1, 2, ..., k} such that f (u) + f (u v) + f (v) ≠ f (u) + f (u v) + f (v) for every pair of different edges u v, u v ∈ E. The smallest possi...

  20. Effects from fully nonlinear irregular wave forcing on the fatigue life of an offshore wind turbine and its monopile foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    The effect from fully nonlinear irregular wave forcing on the fatigue life of the foundation and tower of an offshore wind turbine is investigated through aeroelastic calculations. Five representative sea states with increasing significant wave height are considered in a water depth of 40 m....... The waves are both linear and fully nonlinear irregular 2D waves. The wind turbine is the NREL 5-MW reference wind turbine. Fatigue analysis is performed in relation to analysis of the sectional forces in the tower and monopile. Impulsive excitation of the sectional force at the bottom of the tower is seen...

  1. Design Optimization of Irregular Cellular Structure for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Hua; Jing, Shi-Kai; Zhao, Fang-Lei; Wang, Ye-Dong; Xing, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Tao

    2017-09-01

    Irregularcellular structurehas great potential to be considered in light-weight design field. However, the research on optimizing irregular cellular structures has not yet been reporteddue to the difficulties in their modeling technology. Based on the variable density topology optimization theory, an efficient method for optimizing the topology of irregular cellular structures fabricated through additive manufacturing processes is proposed. The proposed method utilizes tangent circles to automatically generate the main outline of irregular cellular structure. The topological layoutof each cellstructure is optimized using the relative density informationobtained from the proposed modified SIMP method. A mapping relationship between cell structure and relative densityelement is builtto determine the diameter of each cell structure. The results show that the irregular cellular structure can be optimized with the proposed method. The results of simulation and experimental test are similar for irregular cellular structure, which indicate that the maximum deformation value obtained using the modified Solid Isotropic Microstructures with Penalization (SIMP) approach is lower 5.4×10-5 mm than that using the SIMP approach under the same under the same external load. The proposed research provides the instruction to design the other irregular cellular structure.

  2. Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars Probed by MARSIS Topside Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Y.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kopf, A. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Ruhunusiri, S.

    2018-01-01

    The upper ionosphere of Mars contains a variety of perturbations driven by solar wind forcing from above and upward propagating atmospheric waves from below. Here we explore the global distribution and variability of ionospheric irregularities around the exobase at Mars by analyzing topside sounding data from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) instrument on board Mars Express. As irregular structure gives rise to off-vertical echoes with excess propagation time, the diffuseness of ionospheric echo traces can be used as a diagnostic tool for perturbed reflection surfaces. The observed properties of diffuse echoes above unmagnetized regions suggest that ionospheric irregularities with horizontal wavelengths of tens to hundreds of kilometers are particularly enhanced in the winter hemisphere and at high solar zenith angles. Given the known inverse dependence of neutral gravity wave amplitudes on the background atmospheric temperature, the ionospheric irregularities probed by MARSIS are most likely associated with plasma perturbations driven by atmospheric gravity waves. Though extreme events with unusually diffuse echoes are more frequently observed for high solar wind dynamic pressures during some time intervals, the vast majority of the diffuse echo events are unaffected by varying solar wind conditions, implying limited influence of solar wind forcing on the generation of ionospheric irregularities. Combination of remote and in situ measurements of ionospheric irregularities would offer the opportunity for a better understanding of the ionospheric dynamics at Mars.

  3. Irregular Morphing for Real-Time Rendering of Large Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The following paper proposes an alternative approach to the real-time adaptive triangulation problem. A new region-based multi-resolution approach for terrain rendering is described which improves on-the-fly the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile after selecting appropriate Level-Of-Detail by an adaptive sampling. This proposed approach organizes the heightmap into a QuadTree of tiles that are processed independently. This technique combines the benefits of both Triangular Irregular Network approach and region-based multi-resolution approach by improving the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile. Our technique morphs the initial regular grid of the tile to deformed grid in order to minimize approximation error. The proposed technique strives to combine large tile size and real-time processing while guaranteeing an upper bound on the screen space error. Thus, this approach adapts terrain rendering process to local surface characteristics and enables on-the-fly handling of large amount of terrain data. Morphing is based-on the multi-resolution wavelet analysis. The use of the D2WT multi-resolution analysis of the terrain height-map speeds up processing and permits to satisfy an interactive terrain rendering. Tests and experiments demonstrate that Haar B-Spline wavelet, well known for its properties of localization and its compact support, is suitable for fast and accurate redistribution. Such technique could be exploited in client-server architecture for supporting interactive high-quality remote visualization of very large terrain.

  4. A Highly Accurate Regular Domain Collocation Method for Solving Potential Problems in the Irregular Doubly Connected Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Qing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedding the irregular doubly connected domain into an annular regular region, the unknown functions can be approximated by the barycentric Lagrange interpolation in the regular region. A highly accurate regular domain collocation method is proposed for solving potential problems on the irregular doubly connected domain in polar coordinate system. The formulations of regular domain collocation method are constructed by using barycentric Lagrange interpolation collocation method on the regular domain in polar coordinate system. The boundary conditions are discretized by barycentric Lagrange interpolation within the regular domain. An additional method is used to impose the boundary conditions. The least square method can be used to solve the overconstrained equations. The function values of points in the irregular doubly connected domain can be calculated by barycentric Lagrange interpolation within the regular domain. Some numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the presented method.

  5. Electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves scattering from planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.F.; Ngo, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent satellite observations demonstrate that high amplitude, short wavelength (5 m ≤ λ ≤ 100 m) electrostatic waves are commonly excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. A new theoretical model of this phenomenon is presented, based upon passive linear scattering in a cold magnetoplasma. In this model the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. The excited short wavelength waves are quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves, a type of lower hybrid wave, whose wave normal lies near the whistler mode resonance cone where the wave refractive index becomes very large. The amplitude of the excited electrostatic lower hybrid waves is calculated for a wide range of values of input electromagnetic wave frequency, wave normal direction, electron plasma frequency, gyrofrequency, ion composition, and irregularity scale and density enhancement. Results indicate that high amplitude lower hybrid waves can be excited over a wide range of parameters for irregularity density enhancements as low as 5% whenever the scale of the irregularity is of the same order as the lower hybrid wavelength

  6. THE MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF THE HORIZONTAL IRREGULARITIES IN PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Patlasov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Across the track superstructure (TSS there are structures where standard approach to the decision on the future of their operation is not entirely correct or acceptable. In particular, it concerns the track sections which are sufficiently quickly change their geometric parameters: the radius of curvature, angle of rotation, and the like. As an example, such portions of TSS may include crossovers where their component is within the so-called connecting part, which at a sufficiently short length, substantially changes curvature. The estimation of the position in terms of a design on the basis of the existing technique (by the difference in the adjacent arrows bending is virtually impossible. Therefore it is proposed to complement and improve the methodology for assessing the situation of the curve in plan upon difference in the adjacent versine. Methodology. The possible options for measuring horizontal curves in the plan were analyzed. The most adequate method, which does not contradict existing on the criterion of the possibility of using established standards was determined. The ease of measurement and calculation was took into account. Findings. Qualitative and quantitative verification of the proposed and existing methods showed very good agreement of the measurement results. This gives grounds to assert that this methodology can be recommended to the workers of track facilities in the assessment of horizontal irregularities in plan not only curves, but also within the connecting part of switch congresses. Originality. The existing method of valuation of the geometric position of the curves in the plan was improved. It does not create new regulations, and all results are evaluated by existing norms. Practical value. The proposed technique makes it possible, without creating a new regulatory framework, to be attached to existing one, and expanding the boundaries of its application. This method can be used not only for ordinary curves

  7. Systematic design of active spaces for multi-reference calculations of singlet-triplet gaps of organic diradicals, with benchmarks against doubly electron-attached coupled-cluster data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneburner, Samuel J.; Shen, Jun; Ajala, Adeayo O.; Piecuch, Piotr; Truhlar, Donald G.; Gagliardi, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Singlet-triplet gaps in diradical organic π-systems are of interest in many applications. In this study, we calculate them in a series of molecules, including cyclobutadiene and its derivatives and cyclopentadienyl cation, by using correlated participating orbitals within the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) self-consistent field frameworks, followed by second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2 and RASPT2). These calculations are evaluated by comparison with the results of doubly electron-attached (DEA) equation-of-motion (EOM) coupled-cluster (CC) calculations with up to 4-particle-2-hole (4p-2h) excitations. We find active spaces that can accurately reproduce the DEA-EOMCC(4p-2h) data while being small enough to be applicable to larger organic diradicals.

  8. Zonal drifts of ionospheric irregularities at temperate latitude in the Indian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The systematic time differences observed in the onset of postsunset VHF scintillations recorded simultaneously at Ujjain (Geogr. lat. 23.2°N, Geogr. long. 75.6°E and Bhopal (Geogr. lat. 23.2°N, Geogr. long. 77.6°E, situated at the peak of the anomaly crest in the Indian region, have been analysed to determine the zonal drifts of scintillation-producing irregularities. The method is based on the assumption that the horizontal movement of irregularities does not change while crossing the F-region cross-over points of these stations. The calculated velocities of irregularities indicate an eastward drift decreasing from about 180 m s–1 to 55 m s–1 during the course of night. In the premidnight period, the drifts are reduced under the magnetically disturbed conditions. The average east-west extension of irregularites is found to be in the range of 200–500 km.

  9. Simplified methodology for control cell constant calculations of the reactor cores for the space kinetics; Metodologia simplificada para calculos das constantes das celulas de controles dos nucleos de reatores para a cinetica espacial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rubens Souza dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    In this work is presented a methodology which focuses the distribution of neutron absorber rods in nuclear reactor power plants, for utilizing in space kinetic calculations, principally in the cluster ejection transients of control rods. A numerical model for macroscopic constant calculations based on the knowledge of the neutron flux without the control rods is proposed, as alternative to the analytical models, based on the hypothesis of the null current on the cell super boundaries. The proposed model in this work has itself showed adequate to deal with problems with strong space dependence, once that the model showed consistence in the global average built in the analytical model. (author)

  10. Total edge irregularity strength of (n,t)-kite graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarsih, Tri; Indriati, Diari

    2018-04-01

    Let G(V, E) be a simple, connected, and undirected graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A total k-labeling is a map that carries vertices and edges of a graph G into a set of positive integer labels {1, 2, …, k}. An edge irregular total k-labeling λ :V(G)\\cup E(G)\\to \\{1,2,\\ldots,k\\} of a graph G is a labeling of vertices and edges of G in such a way that for any different edges e and f, weights wt(e) and wt(f) are distinct. The weight wt(e) of an edge e = xy is the sum of the labels of vertices x and y and the label of the edge e. The total edge irregularity strength of G, tes(G), is defined as the minimum k for which a graph G has an edge irregular total k-labeling. An (n, t)-kite graph consist of a cycle of length n with a t-edge path (the tail) attached to one vertex of a cycle. In this paper, we investigate the total edge irregularity strength of the (n, t)-kite graph, with n > 3 and t > 1. We obtain the total edge irregularity strength of the (n, t)-kite graph is tes((n, t)-kite) = \\lceil \\frac{n+t+2}{3}\\rceil .

  11. Achievable capacity design for irregular and clustered high performance mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available interference, it is assumed that no any two HPNs are placed within a radius less than 400 m at the edge and less than 700 m toward the centre of the deployment area. However, between any two HPNs the largest separation distance is allowed as much possible... q mc p bit-meters/sec when cm = O(n). Proof : Let us consider that in irregular and static networks, the node den- sity varies over space (i.e., an area) but stays constant over time. Suppose the regularity rate (probability) of HPN...

  12. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Bing; Xue, Jia-Dan; Zheng, Xuming; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2014-01-01

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S 2 (A′), S 6 (A′), and S 7 (A′) excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S 2 (A′), S 6 (A′), and S 7 (A′) excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S 2 /S 1 ) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S 2 (A′) state: the radiative S 2,min → S 0 transition and the nonradiative S 2 → S 1 internal conversion via CI(S 2 /S 1 ). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S 1 /T 1 ) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated

  13. Very high latitude F-region irregularities observed by HF-radar backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.B.; Greenwald, R.A.; Tsunoda, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    In February and March, 1982, a coherent scatter HF radar was operated from Cleary, Alaska to observe 7- to 15-m wavelength F-region plasma irregularities near the poleward edge of the auroral zone and in the polar cap. The radar operated for five days from February 25 to March 1 and produced approximately 700,000 Doppler spectra during that time. Of those nearly 700,000 spectra, approximately 10% showed backscattered power 3 dB or more above the noise level. A ray tracing technique using electron densities determined by the Chatanika incoherent scatter radar was used to predict locations where the HF waves were approximately normal to the magnetic field. If those locations were also to contain small scale electron density structure, then one would expect them to backscatter the HF waves. Several comparisons were made between predicted and observed locations of radiowave backscatter and excellent agreement was obtained. In addition, comparisons of the Doppler velocities observed by the coherent scatter HF radar and those observed by the Chatanika radar showed good agreement, suggesting that the plasma irregularities observed by the HF radar drift with the ambient plasma. In addition, average vector velocities calculated for the entire 5-day period show a flow pattern consistent with polar cap convection models. This again indicates that the irregularities drift with the plasma, as is predicted by a number of theories of F-region plasma irregularities. In the summer of 1983, the research program begun with those measurements will be continued with a steerable phased-array HF radar located at Goose Bay, Labrador, that will view the same ionospheric region as does the Sondre Stromfjord incoherent scatter radar

  14. Dynamic stability of passive dynamic walking on an irregular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jimmy Li-Shin; Dingwell, Jonathan B

    2007-12-01

    Falls that occur during walking are a significant health problem. One of the greatest impediments to solve this problem is that there is no single obviously "correct" way to quantify walking stability. While many people use variability as a proxy for stability, measures of variability do not quantify how the locomotor system responds to perturbations. The purpose of this study was to determine how changes in walking surface variability affect changes in both locomotor variability and stability. We modified an irreducibly simple model of walking to apply random perturbations that simulated walking over an irregular surface. Because the model's global basin of attraction remained fixed, increasing the amplitude of the applied perturbations directly increased the risk of falling in the model. We generated ten simulations of 300 consecutive strides of walking at each of six perturbation amplitudes ranging from zero (i.e., a smooth continuous surface) up to the maximum level the model could tolerate without falling over. Orbital stability defines how a system responds to small (i.e., "local") perturbations from one cycle to the next and was quantified by calculating the maximum Floquet multipliers for the model. Local stability defines how a system responds to similar perturbations in real time and was quantified by calculating short-term and long-term local exponential rates of divergence for the model. As perturbation amplitudes increased, no changes were seen in orbital stability (r(2)=2.43%; p=0.280) or long-term local instability (r(2)=1.0%; p=0.441). These measures essentially reflected the fact that the model never actually "fell" during any of our simulations. Conversely, the variability of the walker's kinematics increased exponentially (r(2)>or=99.6%; psimulated conditions, the walker remained orbitally stable, while exhibiting substantial local instability. This was because very small initial perturbations diverged away from the limit cycle, while larger

  15. On the Automatic Parallelization of Sparse and Irregular Fortran Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Lin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic parallelization is usually believed to be less effective at exploiting implicit parallelism in sparse/irregular programs than in their dense/regular counterparts. However, not much is really known because there have been few research reports on this topic. In this work, we have studied the possibility of using an automatic parallelizing compiler to detect the parallelism in sparse/irregular programs. The study with a collection of sparse/irregular programs led us to some common loop patterns. Based on these patterns new techniques were derived that produced good speedups when manually applied to our benchmark codes. More importantly, these parallelization methods can be implemented in a parallelizing compiler and can be applied automatically.

  16. Measurement of Dynamic Friction Coefficient on the Irregular Free Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, S. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    A spent fuel storage cask must be estimated for a structural integrity when an earthquake occurs because it freely stands on ground surface without a restriction condition. Usually the integrity estimation for a seismic load is performed by a FEM analysis, the friction coefficient for a standing surface is an important parameter in seismic analysis when a sliding happens. When a storage cask is placed on an irregular ground surface, measuring a friction coefficient of an irregular surface is very difficult because the friction coefficient is affected by the surface condition. In this research, dynamic friction coefficients on the irregular surfaces between a concrete cylinder block and a flat concrete slab are measured with two methods by one direction actuator

  17. NEOWISE: OBSERVATIONS OF THE IRREGULAR SATELLITES OF JUPITER AND SATURN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bauer, J. M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Masiero, J. R.; Sonnett, S.; Kramer, E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M., E-mail: tgrav@psi.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    We present thermal model fits for 11 Jovian and 3 Saturnian irregular satellites based on measurements from the WISE/NEOWISE data set. Our fits confirm spacecraft-measured diameters for the objects with in situ observations (Himalia and Phoebe) and provide diameters and albedo for 12 previously unmeasured objects, 10 Jovian and 2 Saturnian irregular satellites. The best-fit thermal model beaming parameters are comparable to what is observed for other small bodies in the outer solar system, while the visible, W1, and W2 albedos trace the taxonomic classifications previously established in the literature. Reflectance properties for the irregular satellites measured are similar to the Jovian Trojan and Hilda Populations, implying common origins.

  18. Bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, C. E.; Hanson, W. B.; Mcclure, J. P.; Cragin, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    By using the Ogo 6 satellite, McClure and Hanson (1973) have discovered sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region ion number density. In the present investigation, a description is provided of the properties of a distinct category of sinusoidal irregularities found in equatorial data from the AE-C and AE-E satellites. The observed scale sizes vary from about 300 m to 3 km in the direction perpendicular to B, overlapping with and extending the range observed by using Ogo 6. Attention is given to low and high resolution data, a comparison with Huancayo ionograms, the confinement of 'bottomside sinusoidal' (BSS) irregularities essentially to the bottomside of the F layer, spectral characteristics, and BSS, scintillation, and ionosonde observations.

  19. Irregular flowering patterns in terrestrial orchids: theories vs. empirical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kindlmann

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical data on many species of terrestrial orchids suggest that their between-year flowering pattern is extremely irregular and unpredictable. A long search for the reason has hitherto proved inconclusive. Here we summarise and critically review the hypotheses that were put forward as explanations of this phenomenon: irregular flowering was attributed to costs associated with sexual reproduction, to herbivory, or to the chaotic behaviour of the system represented by difference equations describing growth of the vegetative and reproductive organs. None of these seems to explain fully the events of a transition from flowering one year to sterility or absence the next year. Data on the seasonal growth of leaves and inflorescence of two terrestrial orchid species, Epipactis albensis and Dactylorhiza fuchsii and our previous results are then used here to fill gaps in what has been published until now and to test alternative explanations of the irregular flowering patterns of orchids.

  20. Track Irregularity Time Series Analysis and Trend Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chaolong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of linear and nonlinear methods is widely used in the prediction of time series data. This paper analyzes track irregularity time series data by using gray incidence degree models and methods of data transformation, trying to find the connotative relationship between the time series data. In this paper, GM (1,1 is based on first-order, single variable linear differential equations; after an adaptive improvement and error correction, it is used to predict the long-term changing trend of track irregularity at a fixed measuring point; the stochastic linear AR, Kalman filtering model, and artificial neural network model are applied to predict the short-term changing trend of track irregularity at unit section. Both long-term and short-term changes prove that the model is effective and can achieve the expected accuracy.

  1. A program to compute the area of an irregular polygon on a spheroidal surface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivakholundu, K.M.; Prabaharan, N.

    (MATLAB). Short Note824 lar shapes. The analytical integrations were carried out with the software package MATLAB on a SUN workstation. The comparisons were made to check: 1. The eC128ect of varying strip width for integration. 2. Variation of accuracy... this program can be used to calculate the area on the spheroidal surface for irregular shapes without losing accuracy. REFERENCES Bomford, G. (1977) Geodesy. Oxford University Press, 731 pp. Larkin, B. J. (1988) A FORTRAN 77 program to calcu- late areas...

  2. Criticality predicts maximum irregularity in recurrent networks of excitatory nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Karimipanah

    Full Text Available A rigorous understanding of brain dynamics and function requires a conceptual bridge between multiple levels of organization, including neural spiking and network-level population activity. Mounting evidence suggests that neural networks of cerebral cortex operate at a critical regime, which is defined as a transition point between two phases of short lasting and chaotic activity. However, despite the fact that criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing, its supporting evidence is still far from conclusive, as it has been mostly based on power law scaling of size and durations of cascades of activity. Moreover, to what degree such hypothesis could explain some fundamental features of neural activity is still largely unknown. One of the most prevalent features of cortical activity in vivo is known to be spike irregularity of spike trains, which is measured in terms of the coefficient of variation (CV larger than one. Here, using a minimal computational model of excitatory nodes, we show that irregular spiking (CV > 1 naturally emerges in a recurrent network operating at criticality. More importantly, we show that even at the presence of other sources of spike irregularity, being at criticality maximizes the mean coefficient of variation of neurons, thereby maximizing their spike irregularity. Furthermore, we also show that such a maximized irregularity results in maximum correlation between neuronal firing rates and their corresponding spike irregularity (measured in terms of CV. On the one hand, using a model in the universality class of directed percolation, we propose new hallmarks of criticality at single-unit level, which could be applicable to any network of excitable nodes. On the other hand, given the controversy of the neural criticality hypothesis, we discuss the limitation of this approach to neural systems and to what degree they support the criticality hypothesis in real neural networks. Finally

  3. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    of an irregular room model using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method has been presented. CABS has been simulated in the irregular room model. Measurements of CABS in a real irregular room have been performed. The performance of CABS was affected by the irregular shape of the room due to the corner...

  4. Accuracy limits of the equivalent field method for irregular photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, Dario Esteban

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical approach is developed to evaluate the accuracy of the equivalent field method using basic clinical photon beam data. This paper presents an analytical calculation of dose errors arising when field equivalencies, calculated at a certain reference depth, are translated to other depths. The phantom scatter summation is expressed as a Riemann-Stieltjes integral and two categories of irregular fields are introduced: uniform and multiform. It is shown that multiform fields produce errors whose magnitudes are nearly twice those corresponding to uniform fields in extreme situations. For uniform field shapes, the maximum, local, relative dose errors, when the equivalencies are calculated at 10 cm depth on the central axis and translated to a depth of 30 cm, are 3.8% and 8.8% for 6 MV and cobalt-60 photon beams, respectively. In terms of maximum dose those errors are within 1-2%. This supports the conclusion that the equivalencies between rectangular fields, which are examples of uniform fields, are applicable to dose ratio functions irrespective of beam energy. However, the magnitude of such errors could be of importance when assessing the exit dose for in vivo monitoring. This work provides a better understanding of the influence of the irregular field shapes on the accuracy of the equivalent field method. (author)

  5. [Artificial cycle therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion for irregular menstruation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Yang, Lijie; Chen, Yajie; Li, Qing; Chen, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Through the discussion on TCM physiological characters of females in follicular, ovulatory, luteal and menstrual phases and treatment principles, the clinical application of artificial cycle therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion was introduced for irregular menstruation and the typical cases were attached. It is suggested that the menstrual cycle follows the growth-consumption rule of yin, yang, qi and blood. The corresponding treatment principles should be applied in accordance with the change rule of menstrual cycle. Hence, it is worth to adopt the artificial cycle therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion for irregular menstruation in clinical application.

  6. Uniform irradiation of irregularly shaped cavities for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rem, A I; van Gemert, M J; van der Meulen, F W; Gijsbers, G H; Beek, J F

    1997-03-01

    It is difficult to achieve a uniform light distribution in irregularly shaped cavities. We have conducted a study on the use of hollow 'integrating' moulds for more uniform light delivery of photodynamic therapy in irregularly shaped cavities such as the oral cavity. Simple geometries such as a cubical box, a sphere, a cylinder and a 'bottle-neck' geometry have been investigated experimentally and the results have been compared with computed light distributions obtained using the 'radiosity method'. A high reflection coefficient of the mould and the best uniform direct irradiance possible on the inside of the mould were found to be important determinants for achieving a uniform light distribution.

  7. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Min; Han, Kyungdo; Chung, Youn Jee; Yoon, Kun Ho; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2017-06-01

    Menstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women. A total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity. Significantly higher ORs (95% CI) were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48) and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86) after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity. We found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  8. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Min Ko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMenstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women.MethodsA total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity.ResultsSignificantly higher ORs (95% CI were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48 and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86 after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity.ConclusionWe found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle.

  9. Proper Elements and Secular Resonances for Irregular Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugé, C.; Nesvorný, D.

    2007-06-01

    We present results of an analytical study of proper elements and secular resonances for the irregular satellites of the outer planets. In the case of the Jovian system we identify three satellite families, two of them previously known (Carme and Ananke), plus a new agglomeration of four bodies that includes Pasiphae as its largest member. While the distribution of proper elements for Saturn's moons seems to be more random, a small cluster was found for the direct moons formed by Albiorix, Erriapo, and 2004 S1, slightly different from the so-called Gaulish cluster. No significant families are detected in the present study for the Uranian or Neptunian satellite systems. For each satellite system we determine the location of several secular resonances in the proper element space. Apart from the well-known resonance locks of Pasiphae, Sinope, and Siarnaq, a comparison between the resonance locations and proper elements shows that Saturn's satellite Narvi also exhibits temporary librations in the ϖ-ϖsolar resonance. However, unlike the resonant Jovian moons that are located in the same configuration, Narvi's critical argument librates alternately around values near 90° and 270°. Neither the Uranian nor Neptunian systems seem to have resonant moons. The resonant dynamics of the real satellites in the vicinity of ϖ˙-ϖ˙solar=0 is studied with a simple model for secular resonances based on the restricted three-body problem. Depending on the initial conditions, we show the existence of one or two modes of libration that can occur at different values of the critical angle, showing a good correspondence with the observed behavior of all the resonant moons. Finally, we discuss the global distribution of the real satellites with respect to the secular resonances, as compared with synthetic populations of bodies drawn solely from stability conditions. For Saturn, we find that the present satellite population appears compatible with simple random distributions. Although

  10. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  11. Reconstruction in PET cameras with irregular sampling and depth of interaction capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virador, P.R.G.; Moses, W.W.; Huesman, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The authors present 2D reconstruction algorithms for a rectangular PET camera capable of measuring depth of interaction (DOI). The camera geometry leads to irregular radial and angular sampling of the tomographic data. DOI information increases sampling density, allowing the use of evenly spaced quarter-crystal width radial bins with minimal interpolation of irregularly spaced data. In the regions where DOI does not increase sampling density (chords normal to crystal faces), fine radial sinogram binning leads to zero efficiency bins if uniform angular binning is used. These zero efficiency sinogram bins lead to streak artifacts if not corrected. To minimize these unnormalizable sinogram bins the authors use two angular binning schemes: Fixed Width and Natural Width. Fixed Width uses a fixed angular width except in the problem regions where appropriately chosen widths are applied. Natural Width uses angle widths which are derived from intrinsic detector sampling. Using a modified filtered-backprojection algorithm to accommodate these angular binning schemes, the authors reconstruct artifact free images with nearly isotropic and position independent spatial resolution. Results from Monte Carlo data indicate that they have nearly eliminated image degradation due to crystal penetration

  12. Runtime buffer management to improve the performance in irregular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S¯adhan¯a Vol. 40, Part 4, June 2015, pp. 1117–1137. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Runtime buffer management to improve the performance in irregular Network-on-Chip architecture. UMAMAHESWARI S1,∗, MEGANATHAN D2 and. RAJA PAUL PERINBAM J3. 1Department of Information Technology, Anna University, ...

  13. Structure Irregularity Impedes Drop Roll-Off at Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard; Søgaard, Emil

    2014-01-01

    -off angles is found to be caused by a decrease of the receding contact angle, which in turn is caused by an increase of the triple phase contact line of the drops for those more irregular surfaces. To understand the observation, we propose to treat the microdrops as rigid bodies and apply a torque balance...

  14. The regularized monotonicity method: detecting irregular indefinite inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Henrik; Staboulis, Stratos

    2018-01-01

    inclusions, where the conductivity distribution has both more and less conductive parts relative to the background conductivity; one such method is the monotonicity method of Harrach, Seo, and Ullrich. We formulate the method for irregular indefinite inclusions, meaning that we make no regularity assumptions...

  15. Interagency Cooperation for Irregular Warfare at the Combatant Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    enemy’s command capability.16 Salamoni argued that the term “irregular warfare” belies an ethnocentric perspective of conflict that will limit military...duty military staffing to form the nucleus of the organization, which would receive augmentation from additional assigned reservists and interagency

  16. Convection-diffusion lattice Boltzmann scheme for irregular lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Ernst, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) scheme for convection diffusion on irregular lattices is presented, which is free of any interpolation or coarse graining step. The scheme is derived using the axioma that the velocity moments of the equilibrium distribution equal those of the

  17. Swiveling Lathe Jaw Concept for Holding Irregular Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J.

    1966-01-01

    Clamp holds irregularly shaped pieces in lathe chuck without damage and eliminates excessive time in selecting optimum mounting. Interchangeable jaws ride in standard jaw slots but swivel so that the jaw face bears evenly against the workpiece regardless of contour. The jaws can be used on both engine and turret lathes.

  18. Why type 2 supernovae do not explode in irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklovskij, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    The conclusion is drawn that reason for an absence of type 2 supernovae explosions in irregular galaxies is their peculiar chemical composition. The observed lack of stellar wind from massive hot giants is due to relatively low heavy element abundance. For this reason evolving massive stars do not form an extended dense envelopes that is a necessary condition for the type 2 supernova phenomenon

  19. First stellar abundances in the dwarf irregular galaxy Sextans A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufer, A; Venn, KA; Tolstoy, E; Pinte, C; Kudritzki, RP

    We present the abundance analyses of three isolated A-type supergiant stars in the dwarf irregular galaxy Sextans A (= DDO 75) from high-resolution spectra obtained with the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on the Kueyen telescope (UT2) of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Detailed

  20. Irregular ionization and scintillation of the ionosphere in equator region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinno, Kenji

    1974-01-01

    The latest studies on the scintillation in satellite communication and its related irregularities of ionosphere are reviewed. They were made clear by means of spread-F, the direct measurement with scientific satellites, VHF radar observation, and radio wave propagation in equator region. The fundamental occurrence mechanism may be instability of plasma caused by the interaction of movement of neutral atmosphere and magnetic field. Comparison of the main characteristics of scintillation, namely the dependence on region, solar activity, season, local time, geomagnetic activity, movement in ionosphere, scattering source, frequency and transmission mode, was made and the correlation among spread-F, TEP and scintillation was summarized. The latest principal studies were the observations made by Intelsat and by ATS. Scintillation of Syncom-3 and Intelsat-II-F2 and spread-F by ionosphere observation were compared by Huang. It is reasonable to consider that the occurrence of scintillation is caused by the irregularities in ionosphere which are particular in equator region, because of the similar characteristics of spread-F and VHF propagation in the equator region. These three phenomena may occur in relation to the irregularities of ionosphere. Interpretation of spread-F and the abnormal propagation wave across the equator are given. The study using VHF radar and the movement of irregular ionization by the direct observation with artificial satellites are reviewd. (Iwakiri, K.)

  1. Third-order theory for multi-directional irregular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2012-01-01

    A new third-order solution for multi-directional irregular water waves in finite water depth is presented. The solution includes explicit expressions for the surface elevation, the amplitude dispersion and the vertical variation of the velocity potential. Expressions for the velocity potential at...

  2. Irregular menses: an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haver, Mary Claire; Locksmith, Gregory J; Emmet, Emily

    2003-05-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether a history of irregular menses predicts gestational diabetes mellitus independently of traditional risk factors. We analyzed demographic characteristics, body mass index, and menstrual history of 85 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and compared them with 85 systematically selected control subjects who were matched for age, race, and delivery year. Subjects with pregestational diabetes mellitus, previous gestational diabetes mellitus, family history of diabetes mellitus, weight >200 pounds, previous macrosomic infants, or previous stillbirth were excluded. Demographic characteristics between case and control groups were similar. Mean body mass index was higher among cases (26.5 kg/m(2)) versus control subjects (24.5 kg/m(2), P =.004). Irregular cycles were more prevalent in the cases (24% vs 7%, P =.006). With the use of body mass index as a stratification factor, menstrual irregularity maintained a strong association with gestational diabetes mellitus (P =.014). A history of irregular menstrual cycles was a significant independent predictor of gestational diabetes mellitus. If selective screening is implemented for gestational diabetes mellitus, such history should be considered in the decision of whom to test.

  3. Characteristics of low latitude ionospheric E-region irregularities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    154°E, dip angle = 37.3°, sub-ionospheric dip = 34°) have been analyzed to study the behaviour of ionospheric E-region irregularities during the active solar and magnetic periods. The autocorrelation functions, power spectral densities, signal de-correlation times are computed to study the temporal features of ionospheric ...

  4. General Case in Determining Center-To-Center Spacing Between the Screw and the Roller in a Roller Drive, and Initial Contact Point of Their Mating Thread Turns. Development of Calculation Method and Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Blinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important trends in development of machine engineering is to improve load capacity of mechanisms, assemblies and parts without increasing their overall dimensions and weight. This is also relevant to the most promising items so far, i.e. orbital roller drives (ORD, which are the rotational-to-progressive motion converters widely used in vehicles. The previously published article suggested increasing a load capacity (by about 15% through reducing a thread turn section angle of the threaded ORD components and change of the radius of roller thread turn section outline. Due to such ORD modification, a number of the most critical ORD parameters are to be changed thereby demanding further research. Further, the article published suggests a method considering the abovementioned changes to calculate the dimensions of ORD main components and their tolerance ranges.Though this method being not complete as the increment of ORD center-to-center spacing in relation to its rated value, required for assembly, is unknown; and to determine the ORD center-to-center spacing increment, outer diameters of the roller and screw threads are to be known. Hence, these two methods are interconnected.This article presents the numerical calculation method, mathematical support and method to determine the increment of ORD center-to-center spacing and initial contact point of the mating roller and screw thread turns. Due to considerable scope of calculations, the method was turned into the software.Similar calculation methods and techniques were developed to a particular case, where the thread turn section angle of the threaded components was of 90°, and the roller thread turn section outline was a circular arc centered to the roller axis. Hence the developed numerical calculation method, mathematical support and technique refer to the general case which is to determine the ORD center-to-center spacing increment and initial contact point of the mating roller

  5. Classical limit of irregular blocks and Mathieu functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piątek, Marcin; Pietrykowski, Artur R.

    2016-01-01

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the N = 2 SU(2) pure gauge (Ω-deformed) super Yang-Mills theory encodes the information about the spectrum of the Mathieu operator. On the other hand, the Mathieu equation emerges entirely within the frame of two-dimensional conformal field theory (2d CFT) as the classical limit of the null vector decoupling equation for some degenerate irregular block. Therefore, it seems to be possible to investigate the spectrum of the Mathieu operator employing the techniques of 2d CFT. To exploit this strategy, a full correspondence between the Mathieu equation and its realization within 2d CFT has to be established. In our previous paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)032, we have found that the expression of the Mathieu eigenvalue given in terms of the classical irregular block exactly coincides with the well known weak coupling expansion of this eigenvalue in the case in which the auxiliary parameter is the noninteger Floquet exponent. In the present work we verify that the formula for the corresponding eigenfunction obtained from the irregular block reproduces the so-called Mathieu exponent from which the noninteger order elliptic cosine and sine functions may be constructed. The derivation of the Mathieu equation within the formalism of 2d CFT is based on conjectures concerning the asymptotic behaviour of irregular blocks in the classical limit. A proof of these hypotheses is sketched. Finally, we speculate on how it could be possible to use the methods of 2d CFT in order to get from the irregular block the eigenvalues of the Mathieu operator in other regions of the coupling constant.

  6. Comparison of correlation analysis techniques for irregularly sampled time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rehfeld

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geoscientific measurements often provide time series with irregular time sampling, requiring either data reconstruction (interpolation or sophisticated methods to handle irregular sampling. We compare the linear interpolation technique and different approaches for analyzing the correlation functions and persistence of irregularly sampled time series, as Lomb-Scargle Fourier transformation and kernel-based methods. In a thorough benchmark test we investigate the performance of these techniques.

    All methods have comparable root mean square errors (RMSEs for low skewness of the inter-observation time distribution. For high skewness, very irregular data, interpolation bias and RMSE increase strongly. We find a 40 % lower RMSE for the lag-1 autocorrelation function (ACF for the Gaussian kernel method vs. the linear interpolation scheme,in the analysis of highly irregular time series. For the cross correlation function (CCF the RMSE is then lower by 60 %. The application of the Lomb-Scargle technique gave results comparable to the kernel methods for the univariate, but poorer results in the bivariate case. Especially the high-frequency components of the signal, where classical methods show a strong bias in ACF and CCF magnitude, are preserved when using the kernel methods.

    We illustrate the performances of interpolation vs. Gaussian kernel method by applying both to paleo-data from four locations, reflecting late Holocene Asian monsoon variability as derived from speleothem δ18O measurements. Cross correlation results are similar for both methods, which we attribute to the long time scales of the common variability. The persistence time (memory is strongly overestimated when using the standard, interpolation-based, approach. Hence, the Gaussian kernel is a reliable and more robust estimator with significant advantages compared to other techniques and suitable for large scale application to paleo-data.

  7. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples; Metodo dos dois meios para a determinacao do coeficiente de atenuacao linear de amostras irregulares de solos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-07-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient ({mu}) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the {mu} determination. It consists of the {mu} determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of {mu} was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  8. Suspension system vibration analysis with regard to variable type ability to smooth road irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykov, S. P.; Rykova, O. A.; Koval, V. S.; Makhno, D. E.; Fedotov, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper aims to analyze vibrations of the dynamic system equivalent of the suspension system with regard to tyre ability to smooth road irregularities. The research is based on static dynamics for linear systems of automated control, methods of correlation, spectral and numerical analysis. Input of new data on the smoothing effect of the pneumatic tyre reflecting changes of a contact area between the wheel and road under vibrations of the suspension makes the system non-linear which requires using numerical analysis methods. Taking into account the variable smoothing ability of the tyre when calculating suspension vibrations, one can approximate calculation and experimental results and improve the constant smoothing ability of the tyre.

  9. Theoretical and experimental study about dose distribution in irregular fields used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feld de Lindenboim, D.B.; Lopez de Gomez, C.M.

    1979-02-01

    Considering the broad use of irregular fields in treatments with teletherapy machines, it is necessary to have simple calculation methods. The purpose of this work is to verify, through measures made with a water phantom, the reliability of a particular calculation method based on measures made in airand the use of the Tables of scatter-air ratio. Based on the values obtained, we may conclude that the method is acceptable for points distant from the lead blocks. Simultaneously, it was proved that secondary radiation in points under lead protections is so important that it becomes of small effectiveness to increase the lead block thickness in order to diminish the total dose in those points. (author) [es

  10. Wettability measurements of irregular shapes with Wilhelmy plate method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyung; Pasaogullari, Ugur; Bonville, Leonard

    2018-01-01

    One of the most accurate methods for measuring the dynamic contact angle of liquids on solid surfaces is the Wilhelmy plate method. This method generally requires the use of rectangular samples having a constant perimeter in the liquid during advancing and receding cycles. A new formulation based on the Wilhelmy force balance equation to determine the contact angle for plate samples with irregular shapes has been developed. This method employs a profile plot obtained from an optical image to determine the perimeter (i.e. wetted length) of the sample as a function of the immersion depth. The raw force data measured by the force tensiometer is manipulated using the profile plot and the Wilhelmy equation to determine the wetting force and consequently advancing and the receding contact angle. This method is verified with both triangular and irregular PTFE samples in water, and measured contact angles are in good agreement with results from conventional regular shaped samples with a constant perimeter.

  11. Rocket measurements of electron density irregularities during MAC/SINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulwick, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Four Super Arcas rockets were launched at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, as part of the MAC/SINE campaign to measure electron density irregularities with high spatial resolution in the cold summer polar mesosphere. They were launched as part of two salvos: the turbulent/gravity wave salvo (3 rockets) and the EISCAT/SOUSY radar salvo (one rocket). In both salvos meteorological rockets, measuring temperature and winds, were also launched and the SOUSY radar, located near the launch site, measured mesospheric turbulence. Electron density irregularities and strong gradients were measured by the rocket probes in the region of most intense backscatter observed by the radar. The electron density profiles (8 to 4 on ascent and 4 on descent) show very different characteristics in the peak scattering region and show marked spatial and temporal variability. These data are intercompared and discussed.

  12. The scholarly rebellion of the early Baker Street Irregulars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mills

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work provides and analyzes an early institutional history of the pioneering Sherlock Holmes American fan club, the Baker Street Irregulars (BSI. Using the publications and records of these devoted Sherlockians, I track the BSI's development from a speakeasy gathering in 1934 to a national organization by the mid-1940s. This growth was built on a foundation of Victorian nostalgia and playful humor. Yet at the same time the members of the Irregulars took their fandom seriously, producing Sherlockian scholarship and creating an infrastructure of journals, conferences, and credentialing that directly mimicked the academy. They positioned themselves in contrast to prevailing scholarly practices of the period, such as New Criticism. I trace both how their fan practices developed over time and how this conflict with the academy led to many of the BSI's defining characteristics.

  13. Constructing C1 Continuous Surface on Irregular Quad Meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jun; GUO Qiang

    2013-01-01

    A new method is proposed for surface construction on irregular quad meshes as extensions to uniform B-spline surfaces. Given a number of control points, which form a regular or irregular quad mesh, a weight function is constructed for each control point. The weight function is defined on a local domain and is C1 continuous. Then the whole surface is constructed by the weighted combination of all the control points. The property of the new method is that the surface is defined by piecewise C1 bi-cubic rational parametric polynomial with each quad face. It is an extension to uniform B-spline surfaces in the sense that its definition is an analogy of the B-spline surface, and it produces a uniform bi-cubic B-spline surface if the control mesh is a regular quad mesh. Examples produced by the new method are also included.

  14. Evaluation of head movement periodicity and irregularity during locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuzo eShingai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans is suitable for studying the nervous system, which controls behavior. C. elegans shows sinusoidal locomotion on an agar plate. The head moves not only sinusoidally but also more complexly, which reflects regulation of the head muscles by the nervous system. The head movement becomes more irregular with senescence. To date, the head movement complexity has not been quantitatively analyzed. We propose two simple methods for evaluation of the head movement regularity on an agar plate using image analysis. The methods calculate metrics that are a measure of how the head end movement is correlated with body movement. In the first method, the length along the trace of the head end on the agar plate between adjacent intersecting points of the head trace and the quasi-midline of the head trace, which was made by sliding an averaging window of 1/2 the body wavelength, was obtained. Histograms of the lengths showed periodic movement of the head and deviation from it. In the second method, the intersections between the trace of the head end and the trace of the 5 (near the pharynx or 50% (the mid-body point from the head end in the centerline length of the worm image were marked. The length of the head trace between adjacent intersections was measured, and a histogram of the lengths was produced. The histogram for the 5% point showed deviation of the head end movement from the movement near the pharynx. The histogram for the 50% point showed deviation of the head movement from the sinusoidal movement of the body center. Application of these methods to wild type and several mutant strains enabled evaluation of their head movement periodicity and irregularity, and revealed a difference in the age-dependence of head movement irregularity between the strains. A set of five parameters obtained from the histograms reliably identifies differences in head movement between strains.

  15. Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    the body,” and the Geneva Protocol of 1925, bans the use of chemical and biological weapons .11 On 8 April 1975, President Ford issued Executive...E Funding – PE 63851M) (accessed 15 December 2006). The American Journal of Bioethics . “Medical Ethics and Non-Lethal Weapons .” Bioethics.net...CASUALTIES: NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN IRREGULAR WARFARE by Richard L. Scott September 2007 Thesis Advisor: Robert McNab Second Reader

  16. Active Absorption of Irregular Gravity Waves in BEM-Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The boundary element method is applied to the computation of irregular gravity waves. The boundary conditions at the open boundaries are obtained by a digital filtering technique, where the surface elevations in front of the open boundary are filtered numerically yielding the velocity to be presc...... to be prescribed at the boundary. By numerical examples it is shown that well designed filters can reduce the wave reflection to a few per cent over a frequency range corresponding to a Jonswap spectrum....

  17. Computing Homology Group Generators of Images Using Irregular Graph Pyramids

    OpenAIRE

    Peltier , Samuel; Ion , Adrian; Haxhimusa , Yll; Kropatsch , Walter; Damiand , Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a method for computing homology groups and their generators of a 2D image, using a hierarchical structure i.e. irregular graph pyramid. Starting from an image, a hierarchy of the image is built, by two operations that preserve homology of each region. Instead of computing homology generators in the base where the number of entities (cells) is large, we first reduce the number of cells by a graph pyramid. Then homology generators are computed efficiently on...

  18. Analysis of irregular opacities of silicosis using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Atsushi; Shida, Hisao; Chiyotani, Keizo; Saito, Kenichi; Mishina, Michihito

    1983-01-01

    Classification in used to codify Chest CT images of abnormalities of the lung in a simple reproducible manner. Simbols to record CT features of importance are listed. We applied CT to 92 cases of silicosis and roentgenological analysis was performed. Bullae, honeycombing, cavity, emphysema, pleural thickning and calcification were more clearly demonstrated in CT images than routine chest roentgenograms. Irregular opacities were considered to be a combined profusion of small round and streak or strand. (author)

  19. Evaluation of irregular menses in perimenarcheal girls: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browner-Elhanan, Karen J; Epstein, Jonathan; Alderman, Elizabeth M

    2003-12-01

    Acyclic vaginal bleeding in girls within three years of menarche is most commonly attributed to an immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Assuming this diagnosis may preclude the practitioner from performing more definitive studies and thereby diagnosing other, treatable causes of menstrual irregularities. A retrospective chart review of 178 girls presenting to an inner-city hospital-based adolescent clinic within three years of menarche was performed. Personal and family medical and menarcheal history was assessed, and findings on physical and laboratory examination performed were evaluated. Of the 178 girls still perimenarcheal at presentation, 47 were the focus of this study. Of these, 39 had no significant findings on physical examination, while 3 had signs of functional ovarian hyperandrogenism (FOH) including obesity, hirsutism, and moderate acne with corresponding LH/FSH ratios>3, although pelvic ultrasound examination revealed normal ovaries. Four of the 39 patients with normal physical exams had LH/FSH testing done, and 1 of the 4 had an abnormal LH/FSH ratio, indicating possible FOH. Two of the 47 patients were pregnant. Other laboratory abnormalities included microcytic, hypochromic anemia in patients, and an elevated Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in a patient later diagnosed with a rheumatologic disorder. Those perimenarcheal girls presenting with irregular menses and findings including obesity, acne, or pallor, were likely to have treatable causes of menstrual irregularities. In one of the four girls with a normal physical examination, hormonal testing indicated possible FOH, thus suggesting that hormonal evaluation of perimenarcheal girls with menstrual irregularities may be justified, as it may reveal previously unsuspected pathology.

  20. Calculation of exact vibrational spectra for P{sub 2}O and CH{sub 2}NH using a phase space wavelet basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Thomas, E-mail: tom.halverson@ttu.edu; Poirier, Bill [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 41061, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    ‘‘Exact” quantum dynamics calculations of vibrational spectra are performed for two molecular systems of widely varying dimensionality (P{sub 2}O and CH{sub 2}NH), using a momentum-symmetrized Gaussian basis. This basis has been previously shown to defeat exponential scaling of computational cost with system dimensionality. The calculations were performed using the new “SWITCHBLADE” black-box code, which utilizes both dimensionally independent algorithms and massive parallelization to compute very large numbers of eigenstates for any fourth-order force field potential, in a single calculation. For both molecules considered here, many thousands of vibrationally excited states were computed, to at least an “intermediate” level of accuracy (tens of wavenumbers). Future modifications to increase the accuracy to “spectroscopic” levels, along with other potential future improvements of the new code, are also discussed.

  1. Backscatter measurements of 11-cm equatorial spread-F irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    In the equatorial F-region ionosphere, a turbulent cascade process has been found to exist that extends from irregularity spatial wavelengths longer than tens of kilometers down to wavelengths as short as 36 cm. To investigate the small-scale regime of wavelengths less than 36 cm, an equatorial radar experiment was conducted using a frequency of 1320 MHz that corresponds to an irregularity wavelength of 11 cm. The first observations of radar backscatter from 11-cm field-aligned irregularities (FAI) are described. These measurements extend the spatial wavelength regime of F-region FAI to lengths that approach both electron gyroradius and the Debye length. Agreement of these results with the theory of high-frequency drift waves suggests that these observations may be unique to the equatorial ionosphere. That is, the requirement of low electron densities for which the theroy calls may preclude the existence of 11-cm FAI elsewhere in the F-region ionosphere, except in equatorial plasma bubbles

  2. [Comparision of Different Methods of Area Measurement in Irregular Scar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, D; Li, W J; Sun, Q G; Li, J Q; Xia, Q

    2016-10-01

    To determine a measurement standard of irregular scar area by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different measurement methods in measuring same irregular scar area. Irregular scar area was scanned by digital scanning and measured by coordinate reading method, AutoCAD pixel method, Photoshop lasso pixel method, Photoshop magic bar filled pixel method and Foxit PDF reading software, and some aspects of these methods such as measurement time, repeatability, whether could be recorded and whether could be traced were compared and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the scar areas by the measurement methods above. However, there was statistical difference in the measurement time and repeatability by one or multi performers and only Foxit PDF reading software could be traced back. The methods above can be used for measuring scar area, but each one has its advantages and disadvantages. It is necessary to develop new measurement software for forensic identification. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  3. Seismic performance for vertical geometric irregularity frame structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Mahmud, N. A.; Ishak, I. S.

    2018-04-01

    This research highlights the result of vertical geometric irregularity frame structures. The aid of finite element analysis software, LUSAS was used to analyse seismic performance by focusing particularly on type of irregular frame on the differences in height floors and continued in the middle of the building. Malaysia’s building structures were affected once the earthquake took place in the neighbouring country such as Indonesia (Sumatera Island). In Malaysia, concrete is widely used in building construction and limited tension resistance to prevent it. Analysing structural behavior with horizontal and vertical static load is commonly analyses by using the Plane Frame Analysis. The case study of this research is to determine the stress and displacement in the seismic response under this type of irregular frame structures. This study is based on seven-storey building of Clinical Training Centre located in Sungai Buloh, Selayang, Selangor. Since the largest earthquake occurs in Acheh, Indonesia on December 26, 2004, the data was recorded and used in conducting this research. The result of stress and displacement using IMPlus seismic analysis in LUSAS Modeller Software under the seismic response of a formwork frame system states that the building is safe to withstand the ground and in good condition under the variation of seismic performance.

  4. Monte Carlo Method with Heuristic Adjustment for Irregularly Shaped Food Product Volume Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Siswantoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method.

  5. Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment for irregularly shaped food product volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswantoro, Joko; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Abdullah, Azizi; Idrus, Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method.

  6. Irregular analytical errors in diagnostic testing - a novel concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeser, Michael; Seger, Christoph

    2018-02-23

    In laboratory medicine, routine periodic analyses for internal and external quality control measurements interpreted by statistical methods are mandatory for batch clearance. Data analysis of these process-oriented measurements allows for insight into random analytical variation and systematic calibration bias over time. However, in such a setting, any individual sample is not under individual quality control. The quality control measurements act only at the batch level. Quantitative or qualitative data derived for many effects and interferences associated with an individual diagnostic sample can compromise any analyte. It is obvious that a process for a quality-control-sample-based approach of quality assurance is not sensitive to such errors. To address the potential causes and nature of such analytical interference in individual samples more systematically, we suggest the introduction of a new term called the irregular (individual) analytical error. Practically, this term can be applied in any analytical assay that is traceable to a reference measurement system. For an individual sample an irregular analytical error is defined as an inaccuracy (which is the deviation from a reference measurement procedure result) of a test result that is so high it cannot be explained by measurement uncertainty of the utilized routine assay operating within the accepted limitations of the associated process quality control measurements. The deviation can be defined as the linear combination of the process measurement uncertainty and the method bias for the reference measurement system. Such errors should be coined irregular analytical errors of the individual sample. The measurement result is compromised either by an irregular effect associated with the individual composition (matrix) of the sample or an individual single sample associated processing error in the analytical process. Currently, the availability of reference measurement procedures is still highly limited, but LC

  7. Stromal haze, myofibroblasts, and surface irregularity after PRK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Marcelo V; Mohan, Rajiv R; Sinha, Sunilima; Sharma, Ajay; Dupps, William; Wilson, Steven E

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the level of stromal surface irregularity after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and myofibroblast generation along with the development of corneal haze. Variable levels of stromal surface irregularity were generated in rabbit corneas by positioning a fine mesh screen in the path of excimer laser during ablation for a variable percentage of the terminal pulses of the treatment for myopia that does not otherwise generate significant opacity. Ninety-six rabbits were divided into eight groups: [see table in text]. Slit lamp analysis and haze grading were performed in all groups. Rabbits were sacrificed at 4 hr or 4 weeks after surgery and histochemical analysis was performed on corneas for apoptosis (TUNEL assay), myofibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA), and integrin alpha4 to delineate the epithelial basement membrane. Slit-lamp grading revealed severe haze formation in corneas in groups IV and VI, with significantly less haze in groups II, III, and VII and insignificant haze compared with the unwounded control in groups I and V. Analysis of SMA staining at 4 weeks after surgery, the approximate peak of haze formation in rabbits, revealed low myofibroblast formation in group I (1.2+/-0.2 cells/400x field) and group V (1.8+/-0.4), with significantly more in groups II (3.5+/-1.8), III (6.8+/-1.6), VII (7.9+/-3.8), IV (12.4+/-4.2) and VI (14.6+/-5.1). The screened groups were significantly different from each other (p PRK groups. The -9.0 diopter PRK group VI had significantly more myofibroblast generation than the -9.0 diopter PRK with PTK-smoothing group VII (p PRK and the level of stromal surface irregularity. PTK-smoothing with methylcellulose was an effective method to reduce stromal surface irregularity and decreased both haze and associated myofibroblast density. We hypothesize that stromal surface irregularity after PRK for high myopia results in defective basement membrane

  8. Women with minor menstrual irregularities have increased risk of preeclampsia and low birthweight in spontaneous pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, Barbara; Oddgeirsdóttir, Hanna L; Naver, Klara Vinsand

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Very few studies describe the obstetric and neonatal outcome of spontaneous pregnancies in women with irregular menstrual cycles. However, menstrual cycle irregularities are common and may be associated with increased risk, and women who develop pregnancy complications more frequent...

  9. ZOCO VI - a computer code to calculate the time- and space-dependent pressure distribution in full pressure containments of water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfeld, G.

    1974-12-01

    ZOCO VI is a computer code to investigate the time and space dependent pressure distribution in full pressure containment of water cooled nuclear power reactors following a loss-of-coolant accident, which is caused by the rupture of a main coolant or steam line. ZOCO VI is an improved version of the computer code ZOCO V with enlarged description of condensing events. (orig.) [de

  10. Visual nesting system for irregular cutting-stock problem based on rubber band packing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Liao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the packing problem of irregular items allocated into a rectangular sheet to minimize the waste. Conventional solution is not visual during the packing process. It obtains a reasonable and relatively satisfactory solution between the nesting time and nesting solution. This article adopts a physical method that uses rubber band packing algorithm to simulate a rubber band wrapping those packing irregular items. The simulation shows a visual and fast packing process. The resultant rubber band force is applied in the packing items to translate, rotate, and slide them to make the area decrease and obtain a high packing density. An improved analogy QuickHull algorithm is presented to obtain extreme points of rubber band convex hull. An adaptive module could set a variable rubber band force and a variable time step to make a proper convergence and no intersection. A quick convex decomposition method is used to solve the problem of concave polygon. A plural vector expression approach is adopted to calculate the resultant vector of the rubber band force. Several cases are compared with the benchmark problems to prove rubber band packing algorithm performance.

  11. Helical wire stress analysis of unbonded flexible riser under irregular response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Ji, Chunyan

    2017-06-01

    A helical wire is a critical component of an unbonded flexible riser prone to fatigue failure. The helical wire has been the focus of much research work in recent years because of the complex multilayer construction of the flexible riser. The present study establishes an analytical model for the axisymmetric and bending analyses of an unbonded flexible riser. The interlayer contact under axisymmetric loads in this model is modeled by setting radial dummy springs between adjacent layers. The contact pressure is constant during the bending response and applied to determine the slipping friction force per unit helical wire. The model tracks the axial stress around the angular position at each time step to calculate the axial force gradient, then compares the axial force gradient with the slipping friction force to judge the helical wire slipping region, which would be applied to determine the bending stiffness for the next time step. The proposed model is verified against the experimental data in the literature. The bending moment-curvature relationship under irregular response is also qualitatively discussed. The stress at the critical point of the helical wire is investigated based on the model by considering the local flexure. The results indicate that the present model can well simulate the bending stiffness variation during irregular response, which has significant effect on the stress of helical wire.

  12. ARCAD3-SAFARI coordinated study of auroral and polar F-region ionospheric irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villain, J.P.; Hanuise, C.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of F-region ionospheric irregularities have been performed with the SAFARI ground-based HF radars and the ISOPROBE experiment on board the AUREOL-3 satellite. Among seven orbits during which the satellite trajectory was directly in the radar beam or in the vicinity, four of them have been analyzed in detail. The spectral power of the electron density variations ΔNsub(e)/Nsub(e) has been calculated for wavelengths between 20 m and 1 km from the isoprobe high time resolution thermal plasma measurements. One spectrum is obtained every 1.2 s, a time which corresponds to about 10 km along the satellite trajectory. The presence of echoes observed in the F-region with the SAFARI radars is compared with the spectral power of the electron density variations deduced from the ISOPROBE ''in situ'' measurements. A good agreement is found between the two sets of observations and a numerical value of the spectral power corresponding to detection of echoes by the radar is given. A synoptical view of the event is given and interpreted according to the existing theories of plasma irregularities

  13. Design of a smart haptic system for repulsive force control under irregular manipulation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Rock; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Bok; Cho, Myeong-Woo

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how to make an operator feel the desired repulsive force in a haptic system. When an operator manipulates a haptic system, the repulsive force of the operator varies significantly, depending on many factors such as position, velocity and force. In order to reflect the desired repulsive force to the operator, it is commonly known that a haptic system must compensate for irregularly changing forces. The irregularity of the forces, however, has discouraged many researchers from establishing a clear principle on how to make the operator feel the desired repulsive force. To resolve this problem, we introduce a smart haptic framework that can reflect the desired repulsive force to the operator, regardless of the operator’s movement. A dummy governing equation technique is introduced and used to calculate the proper actuating force in real time. The actuating force is generated by a PID controller. To verify the proposed method, a mathematical proof is offered to show that the repulsive force converges to the desired repulsive force. Additionally, to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method, simulational and experimental tests are implemented. (paper)

  14. Regularities And Irregularities Of The Stark Parameters For Single Ionized Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, R. J.; Djurovic, S.; Cirišan, M.; Aparicio, J. A.; Mar S.

    2010-07-01

    Spectroscopy of ionized noble gases has a great importance for the laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Generally, spectra of inert gases are important for many physics areas, for example laser physics, fusion diagnostics, photoelectron spectroscopy, collision physics, astrophysics etc. Stark halfwidths as well as shifts of spectral lines are usually employed for plasma diagnostic purposes. For example atomic data of argon krypton and xenon will be useful for the spectral diagnostic of ITER. In addition, the software used for stellar atmosphere simulation like TMAP, and SMART require a large amount of atomic and spectroscopic data. Availability of these parameters will be useful for a further development of stellar atmosphere and evolution models. Stark parameters data of spectral lines can also be useful for verification of theoretical calculations and investigation of regularities and systematic trends of these parameters within a multiplet, supermultiplet or transition array. In the last years, different trends and regularities of Stark parameters (halwidths and shifts of spectral lines) have been analyzed. The conditions related with atomic structure of the element as well as plasma conditions are responsible for regular or irregular behaviors of the Stark parameters. The absence of very close perturbing levels makes Ne II as a good candidate for analysis of the regularities. Other two considered elements Kr II and Xe II with complex spectra present strong perturbations and in some cases an irregularities in Stark parameters appear. In this work we analyze the influence of the perturbations to Stark parameters within the multiplets.

  15. Study of Track Irregularity Time Series Calibration and Variation Pattern at Unit Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaolong Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on problems existing in track irregularity time series data quality, this paper first presents abnormal data identification, data offset correction algorithm, local outlier data identification, and noise cancellation algorithms. And then proposes track irregularity time series decomposition and reconstruction through the wavelet decomposition and reconstruction approach. Finally, the patterns and features of track irregularity standard deviation data sequence in unit sections are studied, and the changing trend of track irregularity time series is discovered and described.

  16. Comparison of models and measurements of angle-resolved scatter from irregular aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milstein, Adam B.; Richardson, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed and validated a method for modeling the elastic scattering properties of biological and inert aerosols of irregular shape at near- and mid-wave infrared wavelengths. The method, based on Gaussian random particles, calculates the ensemble-average optical cross section and Mueller scattering matrix, using the measured aerodynamic size distribution and previously-reported refractive index as inputs. The utility of the Gaussian particle model is that it is controlled by only two parameters (σ and Γ) which we have optimized such that the model best reproduces the full angle-resolved Mueller scattering matrices measured at λ=1.55 µm in the Standoff Aerosol Active Signature Testbed (SAAST). The method has been applied to wet-generated singlet biological spore samples, dry-generated biological spore clusters, and kaolin. The scattering computation is performed using the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA), which requires significant computational resources, and is thus implemented on LLGrid, a large parallel grid computer. For the cases presented, the best fit Gaussian particle model is in good qualitative correspondence with microscopy images of the corresponding class of particles. The measured and computed cross sections agree well within a factor of two overall, with certain cases bearing closer correspondence. In particular, the DDA reproduces the shape of the measured scatter function more accurately than Mie predictions. The DDA-computed depolarization factors are also in good agreement with measurement. - Highlights: • We model elastic scattering of biological and inert aerosols of irregular shape. • We calculate cross sections and Mueller matrix using random particle shape model. • Scatter models employ refractive index and measured size distribution as inputs. • Discrete dipole approximation (DDA) with parallelization enables model calculations. • DDA-modeled cross section and Mueller matrix agree well with measurements at 1.55 μm

  17. Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  18. Dose calculations at high altitudes and in deep space with GEANT4 using BIC and JQMD models for nucleus-nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihver, L; Mancusi, D; Matthiae, D; Koi, T

    2008-01-01

    Radiation exposure of aircrew is more and more recognized as an occupational hazard. The ionizing environment at standard commercial aircraft flight altitudes consists mainly of secondary particles, of which the neutrons give a major contribution to the dose equivalent. Accurate estimations of neutron spectra in the atmosphere are therefore essential for correct calculations of aircrew doses. Energetic solar particle events (SPE) could also lead to significantly increased dose rates, especially at routes close to the North Pole, e.g. for flights between Europe and USA. It is also well known that the radiation environment encountered by personnel aboard low Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft or aboard a spacecraft traveling outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere is much harsher compared with that within the atmosphere since the personnel are exposed to radiation from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and SPE. The relative contribution to the dose from GCR when traveling outside the Earth's magnetosphere, e.g. to the Moon or Mars, is even greater, and reliable and accurate particle and heavy ion transport codes are essential to calculate the radiation risks for both aircrew and personnel on spacecraft. We have therefore performed calculations of neutron distributions in the atmosphere, total dose equivalents, and quality factors at different depths in a water sphere in an imaginary spacecraft during solar minimum in a geosynchronous orbit. The calculations were performed with the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) code using both the binary cascade (BIC) model, which is part of the standard GEANT4 package, and the JQMD model, which is used in the particle and heavy ion transport code PHITS GEANT4.

  19. Dose calculations at high altitudes and in deep space with GEANT4 using BIC and JQMD models for nucleus nucleus reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihver, L.; Matthiä, D.; Koi, T.; Mancusi, D.

    2008-10-01

    Radiation exposure of aircrew is more and more recognized as an occupational hazard. The ionizing environment at standard commercial aircraft flight altitudes consists mainly of secondary particles, of which the neutrons give a major contribution to the dose equivalent. Accurate estimations of neutron spectra in the atmosphere are therefore essential for correct calculations of aircrew doses. Energetic solar particle events (SPE) could also lead to significantly increased dose rates, especially at routes close to the North Pole, e.g. for flights between Europe and USA. It is also well known that the radiation environment encountered by personnel aboard low Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft or aboard a spacecraft traveling outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere is much harsher compared with that within the atmosphere since the personnel are exposed to radiation from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and SPE. The relative contribution to the dose from GCR when traveling outside the Earth's magnetosphere, e.g. to the Moon or Mars, is even greater, and reliable and accurate particle and heavy ion transport codes are essential to calculate the radiation risks for both aircrew and personnel on spacecraft. We have therefore performed calculations of neutron distributions in the atmosphere, total dose equivalents, and quality factors at different depths in a water sphere in an imaginary spacecraft during solar minimum in a geosynchronous orbit. The calculations were performed with the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) code using both the binary cascade (BIC) model, which is part of the standard GEANT4 package, and the JQMD model, which is used in the particle and heavy ion transport code PHITS GEANT4.

  20. Lagrangian Investigation of Auto-ignition in a Hydrogen Jet Flame in a Vitiated Co-flow: Animations of Particle Trajectories in Composition Space from PDF Model Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haifeng; Pope, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    PDF model calculations have been performed of the Cabra lifted hydrogen flame in a vitiated co-flow. Particle trajectories are extracted from the Lagrangian particle method used to solve the modeled PDF equation. The particle trajectories in the mixture fraction-temperature plane reveal (at successive downstream locations): essentially inert mixing between the cold fuel jet and the hot co-flow; the auto-ignition of very lean particles; and, subsequent mixing and reaction, leading to near-equi...

  1. Assessment of time-dependent density functional theory with the restricted excitation space approximation for excited state calculations of large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; George, Michael W.; Besley, Nicholas A.

    2018-06-01

    The restricted excitation subspace approximation is explored as a basis to reduce the memory storage required in linear response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is shown that excluding the core orbitals and up to 70% of the virtual orbitals in the construction of the excitation subspace does not result in significant changes in computed UV/vis spectra for large molecules. The reduced size of the excitation subspace greatly reduces the size of the subspace vectors that need to be stored when using the Davidson procedure to determine the eigenvalues of the TDDFT equations. Furthermore, additional screening of the two-electron integrals in combination with a reduction in the size of the numerical integration grid used in the TDDFT calculation leads to significant computational savings. The use of these approximations represents a simple approach to extend TDDFT to the study of large systems and make the calculations increasingly tractable using modest computing resources.

  2. Localization in small fcc-particles with surface irregularities and disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, J.P.; Bloomfield, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical eigenvector analysis is used to investigate Anderson localization in small fcc-particles of N = 309 and N = 147 atoms. Special attention is given to the way size and surface roughness of the particles influence the localization behavior. States begin to localize in a non-exponential regime several lattice spacings from the center of localization and finally converge to a fully exponentially-localized regime for strong disorder. For smooth surface particles, it is found that the states localize first at the band bottom and a mobility edge can clearly be defined for increasing disorder. This doesn't seem to be the case for the rougher particles, where the band middle and the band bottom show similar behavior towards localization. Although particles with surface irregularities show an onset of localization for smaller values of the disorder than smooth particles, the localization length is greater. (orig.)

  3. TRAJ - a FORTRAN 77 computer program for the calculation of trajectories on the basis of space and time varying velocity fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, J.

    1986-09-01

    The computation of three dimensional trajectories is described in this report. Since measurements of the position and velocity of individual fluid parcels are difficult to be carried out and analytic solutions applicable to the trajectory problem are not available, trajectories have to be calculated by successive observations of the corresponding velocity fields using a method of successive approximation. The application is restricted to cartesian grid coordinate system with equidistant grid points. This model was developed for meteorological purposes (transport of pollutants) but can also be used for other fluids and scales. (orig./PW) [de

  4. Model calculations of the space and time distribution of cooling tower clouds on the basis of aerological data delivered by the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolf, B.

    1983-01-01

    Based on a large amount of aerological data, the simulation model for cooling tower cloud propagation Smoka has been used to allow for a statistical evaluation of the influence of cooling towers. In addition to local differences, the annual and daily variations in the formation of clouds can be obtained together with the dependence on the cloud coverage conditions and the cooling tower characteristics. With these model calculations of the cooling tower clouds, the respective decrease in sunshine duration can be evaluated. (orig.) [de

  5. Calculation of the Local Free Energy Landscape in the Restricted Region by the Modified Tomographic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changjun

    2016-03-31

    The free energy landscape is the most important information in the study of the reaction mechanisms of the molecules. However, it is difficult to calculate. In a large collective variable space, a molecule must take a long time to obtain the sufficient sampling during the simulation. To save the calculation quantity, decreasing the sampling region and constructing the local free energy landscape is required in practice. However, the restricted region in the collective variable space may have an irregular shape. Simply restricting one or more collective variables of the molecule cannot satisfy the requirement. In this paper, we propose a modified tomographic method to perform the simulation. First, it divides the restricted region by some hyperplanes and connects the centers of hyperplanes together by a curve. Second, it forces the molecule to sample on the curve and the hyperplanes in the simulation and calculates the free energy data on them. Finally, all the free energy data are combined together to form the local free energy landscape. Without consideration of the area outside the restricted region, this free energy calculation can be more efficient. By this method, one can further optimize the path quickly in the collective variable space.

  6. Similarity estimators for irregular and age uncertain time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, K.; Kurths, J.

    2013-09-01

    Paleoclimate time series are often irregularly sampled and age uncertain, which is an important technical challenge to overcome for successful reconstruction of past climate variability and dynamics. Visual comparison and interpolation-based linear correlation approaches have been used to infer dependencies from such proxy time series. While the first is subjective, not measurable and not suitable for the comparison of many datasets at a time, the latter introduces interpolation bias, and both face difficulties if the underlying dependencies are nonlinear. In this paper we investigate similarity estimators that could be suitable for the quantitative investigation of dependencies in irregular and age uncertain time series. We compare the Gaussian-kernel based cross correlation (gXCF, Rehfeld et al., 2011) and mutual information (gMI, Rehfeld et al., 2013) against their interpolation-based counterparts and the new event synchronization function (ESF). We test the efficiency of the methods in estimating coupling strength and coupling lag numerically, using ensembles of synthetic stalagmites with short, autocorrelated, linear and nonlinearly coupled proxy time series, and in the application to real stalagmite time series. In the linear test case coupling strength increases are identified consistently for all estimators, while in the nonlinear test case the correlation-based approaches fail. The lag at which the time series are coupled is identified correctly as the maximum of the similarity functions in around 60-55% (in the linear case) to 53-42% (for the nonlinear processes) of the cases when the dating of the synthetic stalagmite is perfectly precise. If the age uncertainty increases beyond 5% of the time series length, however, the true coupling lag is not identified more often than the others for which the similarity function was estimated. Age uncertainty contributes up to half of the uncertainty in the similarity estimation process. Time series irregularity

  7. Similarity estimators for irregular and age-uncertain time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, K.; Kurths, J.

    2014-01-01

    Paleoclimate time series are often irregularly sampled and age uncertain, which is an important technical challenge to overcome for successful reconstruction of past climate variability and dynamics. Visual comparison and interpolation-based linear correlation approaches have been used to infer dependencies from such proxy time series. While the first is subjective, not measurable and not suitable for the comparison of many data sets at a time, the latter introduces interpolation bias, and both face difficulties if the underlying dependencies are nonlinear. In this paper we investigate similarity estimators that could be suitable for the quantitative investigation of dependencies in irregular and age-uncertain time series. We compare the Gaussian-kernel-based cross-correlation (gXCF, Rehfeld et al., 2011) and mutual information (gMI, Rehfeld et al., 2013) against their interpolation-based counterparts and the new event synchronization function (ESF). We test the efficiency of the methods in estimating coupling strength and coupling lag numerically, using ensembles of synthetic stalagmites with short, autocorrelated, linear and nonlinearly coupled proxy time series, and in the application to real stalagmite time series. In the linear test case, coupling strength increases are identified consistently for all estimators, while in the nonlinear test case the correlation-based approaches fail. The lag at which the time series are coupled is identified correctly as the maximum of the similarity functions in around 60-55% (in the linear case) to 53-42% (for the nonlinear processes) of the cases when the dating of the synthetic stalagmite is perfectly precise. If the age uncertainty increases beyond 5% of the time series length, however, the true coupling lag is not identified more often than the others for which the similarity function was estimated. Age uncertainty contributes up to half of the uncertainty in the similarity estimation process. Time series irregularity

  8. Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, W.C.; Mahoney, M.J.; Jacobson, A.R.; Knowles, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities. 10 references

  9. Analysis of an Irregular RC Multi-storeyed Building Subjected to Dynamic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    AkashRaut; Pachpor, Prabodh; Dautkhani, Sanket

    2018-03-01

    Many buildings in the present scenario have irregular configurations both in plan and elevation. This in future may subject to devastating earthquakes. So it is necessary to analyze the structure. The present paper is made to study three type of irregularity wiz vertical, mass and plan irregularity as per clause 7.1 of IS 1893 (part1)2002 code. The paper discusses the analysis of RC (Reinforced Concrete) Buildings with vertical irregularity. The study as a whole makes an effort to evaluate the effect of vertical irregularity on RC buildings for which comparison of three parameters namely shear force, bending moment and deflection are taken into account.

  10. Errors in determination of irregularity factor for distributed parameters in a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, V.A.; Zajtsev, M.P.; Il'ina, L.I.; Postnikov, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    Two types errors (measurement error and error of regulation of reactor core distributed parameters), offen met during high-power density reactor operation, are analyzed. Consideration is given to errors in determination of irregularity factor for radial power distribution for a hot channel under conditions of its minimization and for the conditions when the regulation of relative power distribution is absent. The first regime is investigated by the method of statistic experiment using the program of neutron-physical calculation optimization taking as an example a large channel water cooled graphite moderated reactor. It is concluded that it is necessary, to take into account the complex interaction of measurement error with the error of parameter profiling over the core both for conditions of continuous manual or automatic parameter regulation (optimization) and for the conditions without regulation namely at a priore equalized distribution. When evaluating the error of distributed parameter control

  11. Hydrostatic models of gas in clusters in an unsteady state in the irregular field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    A study is made of the hydrostatic distribution of gas in a system in a steady state in the regular field but an unsteady one in the irregular field. Such a system has a velocity distribution with mean square of the radial velocity greater than the mean square of the transversal. Clusters of galaxies probably have such a structure. It is found that the connection between the densities of the gas and the galaxies established by Cavaliere and Fusco-Femiano also holds for isothermal gas in the considered system. Hydrostatic equilibrium of the gas does not hold for clusters with very large asymmetry of the velocity distribution function of the galaxies. The surface brightness of the x-ray emission of the gas is calculated

  12. Experimental and theoretical study of the onset of the growth of an irregular metal electrodeposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Graciela [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Laboratorio de Sistemas Complejos, Departamento de Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias, Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosso, Michel; Chazalviel, Jean-Noel [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Chassaing, Elisabeth [IRDEP, EDF R and D, 6 Quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2007-11-20

    Electrodeposition of a metal can produce aggregates with very irregular morphologies, in particular dendrites. In order to better understand these phenomena, we studied the preliminary stage of copper growth from copper sulfate by in situ optical experiments and impedance spectroscopy. Experiments were performed in a thin layer cell put in a vertical position, with cathode on top. Using a vertical cell instead of a horizontal one tends to stabilize the electrochemical system. The concentration measured by optical absorption is in agreement with theoretical prediction at the onset of polarization. Close to the limiting current density, oscillations were observed in the cell voltage. Impedance spectra could be fitted either using a simple equivalent circuit at low current density, or more complex calculations at high current density. (author)

  13. A Novel Respiratory Motion Perturbation Model Adaptable to Patient Breathing Irregularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Amy [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wei, Jie [Department of Computer Science, City College of New York, New York, New York (United States); Gaebler, Carl P.; Huang, Hailiang; Olek, Devin [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To develop a physical, adaptive motion perturbation model to predict tumor motion using feedback from dynamic measurement of breathing conditions to compensate for breathing irregularities. Methods and Materials: A novel respiratory motion perturbation (RMP) model was developed to predict tumor motion variations caused by breathing irregularities. This model contained 2 terms: the initial tumor motion trajectory, measured from 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images, and motion perturbation, calculated from breathing variations in tidal volume (TV) and breathing pattern (BP). The motion perturbation was derived from the patient-specific anatomy, tumor-specific location, and time-dependent breathing variations. Ten patients were studied, and 2 amplitude-binned 4DCT images for each patient were acquired within 2 weeks. The motion trajectories of 40 corresponding bifurcation points in both 4DCT images of each patient were obtained using deformable image registration. An in-house 4D data processing toolbox was developed to calculate the TV and BP as functions of the breathing phase. The motion was predicted from the simulation 4DCT scan to the treatment 4DCT scan, and vice versa, resulting in 800 predictions. For comparison, noncorrected motion differences and the predictions from a published 5-dimensional model were used. Results: The average motion range in the superoinferior direction was 9.4 ± 4.4 mm, the average ΔTV ranged from 10 to 248 mm{sup 3} (−26% to 61%), and the ΔBP ranged from 0 to 0.2 (−71% to 333%) between the 2 4DCT scans. The mean noncorrected motion difference was 2.0 ± 2.8 mm between 2 4DCT motion trajectories. After applying the RMP model, the mean motion difference was reduced significantly to 1.2 ± 1.8 mm (P=.0018), a 40% improvement, similar to the 1.2 ± 1.8 mm (P=.72) predicted with the 5-dimensional model. Conclusions: A novel physical RMP model was developed with an average accuracy of 1.2 ± 1.8 mm for

  14. Real space pseudopotential calculations for size trends in Ga- and Al-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals with wurtzite and zincblende structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbitt, N. Scott; Kim, Minjung [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Sai, Na [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Marom, Noa [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, 70118 (United States); Chelikowsky, James R. [Center for Computational Materials, Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, Departments of Physics and Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-09-07

    Zinc oxide is often used as a popular inexpensive transparent conducting oxide. Here, we employ density functional theory and local density approximation to examine the effects of quantum confinement in doped nanocrystals of this material. Specifically, we examine the addition of Ga and Al dopants to ZnO nanocrystals on the order of 1.0 nm. We find that the inclusion of these dopants is energetically less favorable in smaller particles and that the electron binding energy, which is associated with the dopant activation, decreases with the nanocrystal size. We find that the introduction of impurities does not alter significantly the Kohn-Sham eigenspectrum for small nanocrystals of ZnO. The added electron occupies the lowest existing state, i.e., no new bound state is introduced in the gap. We verify this assertion with hybrid functional calculations.

  15. Large-space cluster model calculations for the 3He(3He,2p)4He and 3H(3H,2n)4He reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoto, Attila; Langanke, Karlheinz

    1999-01-01

    The 3 He( 3 He, 2p) 4 He and 3 H( 3 H, 2n) 4 He reactions are studied in a microscopic cluster model. We search for resonances in the 3 He+ 3 He and 4 He + p + p channels using methods that treat the two- and three-body resonance asymptotics correctly. Our results show that the existence of a low-energy resonance or virtual state, which could influence the 7 Be and 8 B solar neutrino fluxes, is rather unlikely. Our calculated 3 He( 3 He, 2p) 4 He and 3 H( 3 H, 2n) 4 He cross sections are in a good general agreement with the experimental data

  16. Real space pseudopotential calculations for size trends in Ga- and Al-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals with wurtzite and zincblende structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbitt, N. Scott; Kim, Minjung; Sai, Na; Marom, Noa; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide is often used as a popular inexpensive transparent conducting oxide. Here, we employ density functional theory and local density approximation to examine the effects of quantum confinement in doped nanocrystals of this material. Specifically, we examine the addition of Ga and Al dopants to ZnO nanocrystals on the order of 1.0 nm. We find that the inclusion of these dopants is energetically less favorable in smaller particles and that the electron binding energy, which is associated with the dopant activation, decreases with the nanocrystal size. We find that the introduction of impurities does not alter significantly the Kohn-Sham eigenspectrum for small nanocrystals of ZnO. The added electron occupies the lowest existing state, i.e., no new bound state is introduced in the gap. We verify this assertion with hybrid functional calculations

  17. An Optimization Algorithm for the Design of an Irregularly-Shaped Bridge Based on the Orthogonal Test and Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Irregularly-shaped bridges are usually adopted to connect the main bridge and ramps in urban overpasses, which are under significant flexion-torsion coupling effects and in complicated stress states. In irregular-shaped bridge design, the parameters such as ramp radius, bifurcation diaphragm stiffness, box girder height, and supporting condition could affect structural performance in different manners. In this paper, the influence of various parameters on three indices, including maximum stress, the stress variation coefficient, and the fundamental frequency of torsional vibration, is investigated and analyzed based on orthogonal test method. Through orthogonal analysis, the major influence parameters and corresponding optimal values for these indices are achieved. Combining with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, the hierarchical structure model of the multi-indices orthogonal test is established and a comprehensive weight analysis method is proposed to reflect the parameter influence on overall mechanical properties of an irregularly-shaped bridge. Influence order and optimal values of parameters for overall mechanical properties are determined based on the weight of factors and levels calculated by the comprehensive weight analysis method. The results indicate that the comprehensive weight analysis method is superior to the overall balance method, which verifies the effectiveness and accuracy of the comprehensive weight analysis in the parameter optimization of the multi-indices orthogonal test for an irregularly-shaped bridge. Optimal parameters obtained in this paper can provide reference and guidance for parameter control in irregularly-shaped bridge design.

  18. The Biosynthetic Origin of Irregular Monoterpenes in Lavandula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zerihun A.; Erland, Lauren A. E.; Rheault, Mark R.; Mahmoud, Soheil S.

    2013-01-01

    Lavender essential oils are constituted predominantly of regular monoterpenes, for example linalool, 1,8-cineole, and camphor. However, they also contain irregular monoterpenes including lavandulol and lavandulyl acetate. Although the majority of genes responsible for the production of regular monoterpenes in lavenders are now known, enzymes (including lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LPPS)) catalyzing the biosynthesis of irregular monoterpenes in these plants have not been described. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase cDNA, termed Lavandula x intermedia lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LiLPPS), through a homology-based cloning strategy. The LiLPPS ORF, encoding for a 305-amino acid long protein, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. The approximately 34.5-kDa bacterially produced protein specifically catalyzed the head-to-middle condensation of two dimethylallyl diphosphate units to LPP in vitro with apparent Km and kcat values of 208 ± 12 μm and 0.1 s−1, respectively. LiLPPS is a homodimeric enzyme with a sigmoidal saturation curve and Hill coefficient of 2.7, suggesting a positive co-operative interaction among its catalytic sites. LiLPPS could be used to modulate the production of lavandulol and its derivatives in plants through metabolic engineering. PMID:23306202

  19. Non-storm irregular variation of the Dst index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nakano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dst index has a long-term variation that is not associated with magnetic storms. We estimated the long-term non-storm component of the Dst variation by removing the short-term variation related to magnetic storms. The results indicate that the variation of the non-storm component includes not only a seasonal variation but also an irregular variation. The irregular long-term variation is likely to be due to an anti-correlation with the long-term variation of solar-wind activity. In particular, a clear anti-correlation is observed between the non-storm component of Dst and the long-term variation of the solar-wind dynamic pressure. This means that in the long term, the Dst index tends to increase when the solar-wind dynamic pressure decreases. We interpret this anti-correlation as an indication that the long-term non-storm variation of Dst is influenced by the tail current variation. The long-term variation of the solar-wind dynamic pressure controls the plasma sheet thermal pressure, and the change of the plasma sheet thermal pressure would cause the non-storm tail current variation, resulting in the non-storm variation of Dst.

  20. Irregular working hours and fatigue of cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marta; Carvalhais, José; Teles, Júlia

    2015-01-01

    Beyond workload and specific environmental factors, flight attendants can be exposed to irregular working hours, conflicting with their circadian rhythms and having a negative impact in sleep, fatigue, health, social and family life, and performance which is critical to both safety and security in flight operations. This study focuses on the irregular schedules of cabin crew as a trigger of fatigue symptoms in a wet lease Portuguese airline. The aim was to analyze: what are the requirements of the cabin crew work; whether the schedules being observed and effective resting timeouts are triggering factors of fatigue; and the existence of fatigue symptoms in the cabin crew. A questionnaire has been adapted and applied to a sample of 73 cabin crew-members (representing 61.9% of the population), 39 females and 34 males, with an average age of 27.68 ± 4.27 years. Our data indicate the presence of fatigue and corresponding health symptoms among the airline cabin crew, despite of the sample favorable characteristics. Senior workers and women are more affected. Countermeasures are required. Recommendations can be made regarding the fatigue risk management, including work organization, education and awareness training programmes and specific countermeasures.

  1. Model tracking dual stochastic controller design under irregular internal noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Bok; Heo, Hoon; Cho, Yun Hyun; Ji, Tae Young

    2006-01-01

    Although many methods about the control of irregular external noise have been introduced and implemented, it is still necessary to design a controller that will be more effective and efficient methods to exclude for various noises. Accumulation of errors due to model tracking, internal noises (thermal noise, shot noise and l/f noise) that come from elements such as resistor, diode and transistor etc. in the circuit system and numerical errors due to digital process often destabilize the system and reduce the system performance. New stochastic controller is adopted to remove those noises using conventional controller simultaneously. Design method of a model tracking dual controller is proposed to improve the stability of system while removing external and internal noises. In the study, design process of the model tracking dual stochastic controller is introduced that improves system performance and guarantees robustness under irregular internal noises which can be created internally. The model tracking dual stochastic controller utilizing F-P-K stochastic control technique developed earlier is implemented to reveal its performance via simulation

  2. Using Radio Irregularity for Increasing Residential Energy Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Miljković

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Radio irregularity phenomenon is often considered as a shortcoming of wireless networks. In this paper, the method of using radio irregularity as an efficient human presence detection sensor in smart homes is presented. The method is mainly based on monitoring variations of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI within the messages used for the communication between wireless smart power outlets. The radio signals used for the inter-outlets communication can be absorbed, diffracted or reflected by objects in their propagation paths. When a human enters the existing radio communication field, the variation of the signal strength at the receiver is even more expressed. Based on the detected changes and compared to the initial thresholds set during the initialization phase, the system detects human presence. The proposed solution increases user awareness and automates the power control in households, with the primary goal to contribute in residential energy savings. Compared to conventional sensor networks, this approach preserves the sensorial intelligence, simplicity and low installation costs, without the need for additional sensors integration.

  3. Nonadiabatic two-electron transfer mediated by an irregular bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, E.G.; Shevchenko, Ye.V.; May, V.

    2004-01-01

    Nonadiabatic two-electron transfer (TET) mediated by a linear molecular bridge is studied theoretically. Special attention is put on the case of a irregular distribution of bridge site energies as well as on the inter-site Coulomb interaction. Based on the unified description of electron transfer reactions [J. Chem. Phys. 115 (2001) 7107] a closed set of kinetic equations describing the TET process is derived. A reduction of this set to a single exponential donor-acceptor (D-A) TET is performed together with a derivation of an overall D-A TET rate. The latter contains a contribution of the stepwise as well as of the concerted route of D-A TET. The stepwise contribution is determined by two single-electron steps each of them associated with a sequential and a superexchange pathway. A two-electron unistep superexchange transition between the D and A forms the concerted contribution to the overall rate. Both contributions are analyzed in their dependency on the bridge length. The irregular distribution of the bridge site energies as well as the influence of the Coulomb interaction facilitates the D-A TET via a modification of the stepwise and the concerted part of the overall rate. At low temperatures and for short bridges with a single or two units the concerted contribution exceeds the stepwise contribution. If the bridge contains more than two units, the stepwise contribution dominates the overall rate

  4. Designing Next Generation Massively Multithreaded Architectures for Irregular Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumeo, Antonino; Secchi, Simone; Villa, Oreste

    2012-08-31

    Irregular applications, such as data mining or graph-based computations, show unpredictable memory/network access patterns and control structures. Massively multi-threaded architectures with large node count, like the Cray XMT, have been shown to address their requirements better than commodity clusters. In this paper we present the approaches that we are currently pursuing to design future generations of these architectures. First, we introduce the Cray XMT and compare it to other multithreaded architectures. We then propose an evolution of the architecture, integrating multiple cores per node and next generation network interconnect. We advocate the use of hardware support for remote memory reference aggregation to optimize network utilization. For this evaluation we developed a highly parallel, custom simulation infrastructure for multi-threaded systems. Our simulator executes unmodified XMT binaries with very large datasets, capturing effects due to contention and hot-spotting, while predicting execution times with greater than 90% accuracy. We also discuss the FPGA prototyping approach that we are employing to study efficient support for irregular applications in next generation manycore processors.

  5. Poincaré surfaces of section around a 3D irregular body: the case of asteroid 4179 Toutatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borderes-Motta, G.; Winter, O. C.

    2018-02-01

    In general, small bodies of the Solar system, e.g. asteroids and comets, have a very irregular shape. This feature affects significantly the gravitational potential around these irregular bodies, which hinders dynamical studies. The Poincaré surface of section technique is often used to look for stable and chaotic regions in two-dimensional dynamic cases. In this work, we show that this tool can be useful for exploring the surroundings of irregular bodies such as the asteroid 4179 Toutatis. Considering a rotating system with a particle, under the effect of the gravitational field computed three dimensionally, we define a plane in the phase space to build the Poincaré surface of section. Despite the extra dimension, the sections created allow us to find trajectories and classify their stabilities. Thus, we have also been able to map stable and chaotic regions, as well as to find correlations between those regions and the contribution of the third dimension of the system to the trajectory dynamics as well. As examples, we show details of periodic (resonant or not) and quasi-periodic trajectories.

  6. Obtaining source current density related to irregularly structured electromagnetic target field inside human body using hybrid inverse/FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jijun; Yang, Deqiang; Sun, Houjun; Xin, Sherman Xuegang

    2017-01-01

    Inverse method is inherently suitable for calculating the distribution of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field. However, the present form of inverse method cannot calculate complex field-tissue interactions. A novel hybrid inverse/finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method that can calculate the complex field-tissue interactions for the inverse design of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field is proposed. A Huygens' equivalent surface is established as a bridge to combine the inverse and FDTD method. Distribution of the radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field on the Huygens' equivalent surface is obtained using the FDTD method by considering the complex field-tissue interactions within the human body model. The obtained magnetic field distributed on the Huygens' equivalent surface is regarded as the next target. The current density on the designated source surface is derived using the inverse method. The homogeneity of target magnetic field and specific energy absorption rate are calculated to verify the proposed method.

  7. Observational study of ionospheric irregularities and GPS scintillations associated with the 2012 tropical cyclone Tembin passing Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhe; Liu, Zhizhao

    2016-05-01

    This study presents the ionospheric responses observed in Hong Kong to a Typhoon, namely, Tembin, from the aspects of the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities and scintillations, using Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from a ground-based GPS scintillation monitoring station in Hong Kong and from GPS receivers on board the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites. The ionospheric irregularities and scintillations are characterized by the rate of total electron content variation index (ROTI) and the amplitude scintillation index S4, respectively. The typhoon Tembin formed over the western North Pacific during 18-30 August 2012 and approached Hong Kong during 24-27 August 2012 with the closest distance 290 km from Hong Kong at around 17 universal time (UT) on 25 August 2012. The ground-based observations indicate that in the nighttime period of 20:00-02:00 local time (LT = UT + 8 h) on 26 August when Tembin passed closely to Hong Kong, the ionospheric irregularities and scintillations of GPS signals were observed in the south of Hong Kong, over the area of 13°N ~ 23°N in latitude and 110°E ~ 120°E in longitude. From the COSMIC observations, it shows that the number of radio occultation scintillation events peaks on 26 August 2012 during the passage of Tembin. Without the presence of strong geomagnetic or solar activity, it is suspected that gravity waves might be generated in the lower atmosphere and likely seed the formation of ionospheric plasma irregularities. This work for the first time from Hong Kong observes the sign of coupling between the lower atmosphere and ionosphere in a tropical cyclone event, combining both ground- and space-based GPS observation data.

  8. Strain-rate effect on initial crush stress of irregular honeycomb under dynamic loading and its deformation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zheng, Zhijun; Liao, Shenfei; Yu, Jilin

    2018-02-01

    The seemingly contradictory understandings of the initial crush stress of cellular materials under dynamic loadings exist in the literature, and a comprehensive analysis of this issue is carried out with using direct information of local stress and strain. Local stress/strain calculation methods are applied to determine the initial crush stresses and the strain rates at initial crush from a cell-based finite element model of irregular honeycomb under dynamic loadings. The initial crush stress under constant-velocity compression is identical to the quasi-static one, but less than the one under direct impact, i.e. the initial crush stresses under different dynamic loadings could be very different even though there is no strain-rate effect of matrix material. A power-law relation between the initial crush stress and the strain rate is explored to describe the strain-rate effect on the initial crush stress of irregular honeycomb when the local strain rate exceeds a critical value, below which there is no strain-rate effect of irregular honeycomb. Deformation mechanisms of the initial crush behavior under dynamic loadings are also explored. The deformation modes of the initial crush region in the front of plastic compaction wave are different under different dynamic loadings.

  9. Compensation for unfavorable characteristics of irregular individual shift rotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauth, Peter; Jung, Detlev; Bopp, Winfried; Gauderer, Patric C; Gissel, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Some employees of TV companies, such as those who produce remote TV programs, have to cope with very irregular rotas and many short-term schedule deviations. Many of these employees complain about the negative effects of such on their wellbeing and private life. Therefore, a working group of employers, council representatives, and researchers developed a so-called bonus system. Based on the criteria of the BESIAK system, the following list of criteria for the ergonomic assessment of irregular shift systems was developed: proportion of night hours worked between 22 : 00 and 01 : 00 h and between 06 : 00 and 07 : 00 h, proportion of night hours worked between 01 : 00 and 06 : 00 h, number of successive night shifts, number of successive working days, number of shifts longer than 9 h, proportion of phase advances, off hours on weekends, work hours between 17 : 00 and 23 : 00 h from Monday to Friday, number of working days with leisure time at remote places, and sudden deviations from the planned shift rota. Each individual rota was evaluated in retrospect. If pre-defined thresholds of criteria were surpassed, bonus points were added to the worker's account. In general, more bonus points add up to more free time. Only in particular cases was monetary compensation possible for some criteria. The bonus point system, which was implemented in the year 2002 for about 850 employees of the TV company, has the advantages of more transparency concerning the unfavorable characteristics of working-time arrangements, incentive for superiors to design "good" rosters that avoid the bonus point thresholds (to reduce costs), positive short-term effects on the employee social life, and expected positive long-term effects on the employee health. In general, the most promising approach to cope with the problems of shift workers in irregular and flexible shift systems seems to be to increase their influence on the arrangement of working times. If this is not possible, bonus point systems

  10. Validity of autorefractor based screening method for irregular astigmatism compared to the corneal topography- a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To present a method of screening for irregular astigmatism with an autorefractor and its determinants compared to corneal topography. METHODS: This cross-sectional validity study was conducted in 2013 at an eye hospital in Spain. A tabletop autorefractor (test 1 was used to measure the refractive status of the anterior surface of the cornea at two corneal meridians of each eye. Then corneal topography (test 2 and Bogan’s classification was used to group eyes into those with regular or no astigmatism (GRI and irregular astigmatism (GRII. Test 1 provided a single absolute value for the greatest cylinder difference (Vr. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC were plotted for the Vr values measured by test 1 for GRI and GRII eyes. On the basis a Vr value of 1.25 D as cut off, sensitivity, specificity were also calculated. RESULTS: The study sample was comprised of 260 eyes (135 patients. The prevalence of irregular astigmatism was 42% [95% confidence interval (CI: 36, 48]. Based on test 2, there were 151 eyes in GRI and 109 eyes in GRII. The median Vr was 0.75 D (25% quartile, 0.5 D for GRI and 1.75 D (25% quartile, 1.25 D for GRII. The area under curve was 0.171 for GRI and 0.83 for GRII. The sensitivity of test I was 78.1% and the specificity was 76.1%. CONCLUSION: A conventional autorefractor can be effective as a first level screening method to detect irregular corneal astigmatism in places where corneal topography facilities are not available.

  11. Variations in tumor size and position due to irregular breathing in 4D-CT: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Joyatee; Chu, Alan; Mui, Kit; Wolfgang, John A.; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Chen, George T. Y.; Sharp, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the position and volume errors in 4D-CT caused by irregular breathing. Methods: A virtual 4D-CT scanner was designed to reproduce axial mode scans with retrospective resorting. This virtual scanner creates an artificial spherical tumor based on the specifications of the user, and recreates images that might be produced by a 4D-CT scanner using a patient breathing waveform. 155 respiratory waveforms of patients were used to test the variability of 4D-CT scans. Each breathing waveform was normalized and scaled to 1, 2, and 3 cm peak-to-peak motion, and artificial tumors with 2 and 4 cm radius were simulated for each scaled waveform. The center of mass and volume of resorted 4D-CT images were calculated and compared to the expected values of center of mass and volume for the artificial tumor. Intrasubject variability was investigated by running the virtual scanner over different subintervals of each patient's breathing waveform. Results: The average error in the center of mass location of an artificial tumor was less than 2 mm standard deviation for 2 cm motion. The corresponding average error in volume was less than 4%. In the worst-case scenarios, a center of mass error of 1.0 cm standard deviation and volume errors of 30%-60% at inhale were found. Systematic errors were observed in a subset of patients due to irregular breathing, and these errors were more pronounced when the tumor volume is smaller. Conclusions: Irregular breathing during 4D-CT simulation causes systematic errors in volume and center of mass measurements. These errors are small but depend on the tumor size, motion amplitude, and degree of breathing irregularity.

  12. CONTAIN calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident 'medium-sized leak in the cold leg', especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  13. Airway surface irregularities promote particle diffusion in the human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martonen, T.; North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC; Zhang, Z.; Yang, Y.; Bottei, G.

    1995-01-01

    Current NCRP and ICRP particle deposition models employed in risk assessment analyses treat the airways of the human lung as smooth-walled tubes. However, the upper airways of the tracheobronchial (TB) tree are line with cartilaginous rings. Recent supercomputer simulations of in vivo conditions (cited herein), where cartilaginous ring morphologies were based upon fibre-optic bronchoscope examinations, have clearly demonstrated their profound effects upon fluid dynamics. A physiologically based analytical model of fluid dynamics is presented, focusing upon applications to particle diffusion within the TB tree. The new model is the first to describe particle motion while simultaneously simulating effects of wall irregularities, entrance conditions and tube curvatures. This study may explain the enhanced deposition by particle diffusion detected in replica case experiments and have salient implications for the clinically observed preferential distributions of bronchogenic carcinomas associated with inhaled radionuclides. (author)

  14. Massive stars in the Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Miriam

    2018-02-01

    Low metallicity massive stars hold the key to interpret numerous processes in the past Universe including re-ionization, starburst galaxies, high-redshift supernovae, and γ-ray bursts. The Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy [SagDIG, 12+log(O/H) = 7.37] represents an important landmark in the quest for analogues accessible with 10-m class telescopes. This Letter presents low-resolution spectroscopy executed with the Gran Telescopio Canarias that confirms that SagDIG hosts massive stars. The observations unveiled three OBA-type stars and one red supergiant candidate. Pending confirmation from high-resolution follow-up studies, these could be the most metal-poor massive stars of the Local Group.

  15. Evaluation of Surface Slope Irregularity in Linear Parabolic Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Francini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology, very simple in its application, for measuring surface irregularities of linear parabolic collectors. This technique was principally developed to be applied in cases where it is difficult to use cumbersome instruments and to facilitate logistic management. The instruments to be employed are a digital camera and a grating. If the reflector surface is defective, the image of the grating, reflected on the solar collector, appears distorted. Analyzing the reflected image, we can obtain the local slope of the defective surface. These profilometric tests are useful to identify and monitor the mirror portions under mechanical stress and to estimate the losses caused by the light rays deflected outside the absorber.

  16. Constructing a logical, regular axis topology from an irregular topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Daniel A.

    2014-07-01

    Constructing a logical regular topology from an irregular topology including, for each axial dimension and recursively, for each compute node in a subcommunicator until returning to a first node: adding to a logical line of the axial dimension a neighbor specified in a nearest neighbor list; calling the added compute node; determining, by the called node, whether any neighbor in the node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line; if a neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, adding, by the called compute node to the logical line, any neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list for the axial dimension not already added to the logical line; and, if no neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, returning to the calling compute node.

  17. Irregularities of ionospheric VTEC during lightning activity over Antarctic Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparta, W; Wan Mohd Nor, W N A

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the irregularities of vertical total electron content (VTEC) during lightning activity and geomagnetic quiet days over Antarctic Peninsula in year 2014. During the lightning event, the ionosphere may be disturbed which may cause disruption in the radio signal. Thus, it is important to understand the influence of lightning on VTEC in the study of upper-lower interaction. The lightning data is obtained from World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and the VTEC data has analyzed from Global Positioning System (GPS) for O’Higgins (OHI3), Palmer (PALV), and Rothera (ROTH). The results demonstrate the VTEC variation of ∼0.2 TECU during low lightning activity which could be caused by energy dissipation through lightning discharges from troposphere into the thermosphere. (paper)

  18. Asymmetry and irregularity border as discrimination factor between melanocytic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbrissa, David; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvadori; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2015-06-01

    Image processing tools have been widely used in systems supporting medical diagnosis. The use of mobile devices for the diagnosis of melanoma can assist doctors and improve their diagnosis of a melanocytic lesion. This study proposes a method of image analysis for melanoma discrimination from other types of melanocytic lesions, such as regular and atypical nevi. The process is based on extracting features related with asymmetry and border irregularity. It were collected 104 images, from medical database of two years. The images were obtained with standard digital cameras without lighting and scale control. Metrics relating to the characteristics of shape, asymmetry and curvature of the contour were extracted from segmented images. Linear Discriminant Analysis was performed for dimensionality reduction and data visualization. Segmentation results showed good efficiency in the process, with approximately 88:5% accuracy. Validation results presents sensibility and specificity 85% and 70% for melanoma detection, respectively.

  19. Manufacturing of Cast Metal Foams with Irregular Cell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupová I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallic foams are materials of which the research is still on-going, with the broad applicability in many different areas (e.g. automotive industry, building industry, medicine, etc.. These metallic materials have specific properties, such as large rigidity at low density, high thermal conductivity, capability to absorb energy, etc. The work is focused on the preparation of these materials using conventional casting technology (infiltration method, which ensures rapid and economically feasible method for production of shaped components. In the experimental part we studied conditions of casting of metallic foams with open pores and irregular cell structure made of ferrous and nonferrous alloys by use of various types of filler material (precursors.

  20. Method for hot pressing irregularly shaped refractory articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, William E.; Ballard, Ambrose H.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for hot pressing irregularly haped refractory articles with these articles of varying thickness being provided with high uniform density and dimensional accuracy. Two partially pressed compacts of the refractory material are placed in a die cavity between displaceable die punches having compact-contacting surfaces of the desired article configuration. A floating, rotatable block is disposed between the compacts. The displacement of the die punches towards one another causes the block to rotate about an axis normal to the direction of movement of the die punches to uniformly distribute the pressure loading upon the compacts for maintaining substantially equal volume displacement of the powder material during the hot pressing operation.

  1. Irregular Migration - between legal status and social practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Arnfinn H. and Rogstad, Jon 2.Book reviews by null 3.INVISIBLE IMMIGRANTS, VISIBLE EXPATS? Americans in Finnish discourses on immigration and internationalization by Leinonen, Johanna 4.Migrants in the Scandinavian Welfare State by Brochmann, Grete and Hagelund, Anniken 5.TOWARD AN IDENTITY STRESS....... Language and religious affiliations of an immigrant adolescent in Norway by Haque, Shahzaman View Top 20 Most Downloaded Articles Previous Article Next Article Go to table of contents Download full text pdf (PDF, 425 KB) Irregular Migration – Between Legal Status and Social Practices Narratives of Polish...... connected to the specific area of activity and to the accumulated capital of the individual. The aim is to identify how opportunity structures affect the migration process and how migrants react to them depending on the available capital and biographical knowledge and experiences. The horizon of experience...

  2. Kriging for interpolation of sparse and irregularly distributed geologic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, K.

    1986-12-31

    For many geologic problems, subsurface observations are available only from a small number of irregularly distributed locations, for example from a handful of drill holes in the region of interest. These observations will be interpolated one way or another, for example by hand-drawn stratigraphic cross-sections, by trend-fitting techniques, or by simple averaging which ignores spatial correlation. In this paper we consider an interpolation technique for such situations which provides, in addition to point estimates, the error estimates which are lacking from other ad hoc methods. The proposed estimator is like a kriging estimator in form, but because direct estimation of the spatial covariance function is not possible the parameters of the estimator are selected by cross-validation. Its use in estimating subsurface stratigraphy at a candidate site for geologic waste repository provides an example.

  3. Towards intrinsic magnetism of graphene sheets with irregular zigzag edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianlian; Guo, Liwei; Li, Zhilin; Zhang, Han; Lin, Jingjing; Huang, Jiao; Jin, Shifeng; Chen, Xiaolong

    2013-01-01

    The magnetism of graphene has remained divergent and controversial due to absence of reliable experimental results. Here we show the intrinsic magnetism of graphene edge states revealed based on unidirectional aligned graphene sheets derived from completely carbonized SiC crystals. It is found that ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and diamagnetism along with a probable superconductivity exist in the graphene with irregular zigzag edges. A phase diagram is constructed to show the evolution of the magnetism. The ferromagnetic ordering curie-temperature of the fundamental magnetic order unit (FMOU) is 820 ± 80 K. The antiferromagnetic ordering Neel temperature of the FMOUs belonging to different sublattices is about 54 ± 2 K. The diamagnetism is similar to that of graphite and can be well described by the Kotosonov's equation. Our experimental results provide new evidences to clarify the controversial experimental phenomena observed in graphene and contribute to a deeper insight into the nature of magnetism in graphene based system.

  4. Combined radar observations of equatorial electrojet irregularities at Jicamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Daytime equatorial electrojet plasma irregularities were investigated using five distinct radar diagnostics at Jicamarca including range-time-intensity (RTI mapping, Faraday rotation, radar imaging, oblique scattering, and multiple-frequency scattering using the new AMISR prototype UHF radar. Data suggest the existence of plasma density striations separated by 3–5 km and propagating slowly downward. The striations may be caused by neutral atmospheric turbulence, and a possible scenario for their formation is discussed. The Doppler shifts of type 1 echoes observed at VHF and UHF frequencies are compared and interpreted in light of a model of Farley Buneman waves based on kinetic ions and fluid electrons with thermal effects included. Finally, the up-down and east-west asymmetries evident in the radar observations are described and quantified.

  5. Experimental Study of Irregular Waves on a Gravel Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nai-Ren; Wu, Yun-Ta; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Yang, Ray-Yeng

    2017-04-01

    In the east coast of Taiwan, the sort grain size more belongs to cobble or gravel, which is physically distinct compared to the sandy beach in the west coast of Taiwan. Although gravel beaches can dissipate more of wave energy, gravel beaches were eroded and coastal road were damaged especially during typhoons. The purpose of this study is to investigate the geomorphological response of gravel beach due to irregular waves. This experiment was carry out in a 21m long, 50 cm wide, 70 cm high wave tank at Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan. To simulate of the geometry in the east coast of Taiwan, a physical model with 1/36 scale-down was used, in which the seawall was 10cm built upon a 1:10 slope and gravel grains with D50 being 3.87 mm was nourished in front of the seawall. In terms of typhoon-scale wave condition, irregular waves with scale-down conditions were generated for 600 s for each scenarios and, three different water levels with respect to the gravel beach are designed. Application of laser combined with image processing to produce 3D topographic map, the erosion zone and accretion zone would be found. The resulting morphological change of gravel beach will be measured using an integrated laser and image processing tool to have 3D topographic maps. It is expected to have more understanding about under what conditions the gravel coasts suffer the least damage. In particular, the relation between erosion rates of gravel beach, the angle of gravel slope and the length of the plane on the gravel slope will be achieved

  6. Tamoxifen treatment of bleeding irregularities associated with Norplant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aleem, Hany; Shaaban, Omar M; Amin, Ahmed F; Abdel-Aleem, Aly M

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the possible role of tamoxifen (selective estrogen receptor modulators, SERM) in treating bleeding irregularities associated with Norplant contraceptive use. Randomized clinical trial including 100 Norplant users complaining of vaginal bleeding irregularities. The trial was conducted in the Family Planning Clinic of Assiut University Hospital. Women were assigned at random to receive tamoxifen tablets (10 mg) twice daily for 10 days or similar placebo. Women were followed-up for 3 months. The end points were percentage of women who stopped bleeding during treatment, bleeding/spotting days during the period of follow-up, effect of treatment on their lifestyle, and side effects and discontinuation of contraception. There was good compliance with treatment. At the end of treatment, a significantly higher percentage of tamoxifen users stopped bleeding in comparison to the control group (88% vs. 68%, respectively; p=.016). Women who used tamoxifen had significantly less bleeding and/or spotting days than women who used placebo, during the first and second months. During the third month, there were no significant differences between the two groups. Women who used tamoxifen reported improvement in performing household activities, religious duties and in sexual life, during the first 2 months. In the third month, there were no differences between the two groups. There were no significant differences between tamoxifen and placebo groups in reporting side effects. In the group who used tamoxifen, two women discontinued Norplant use because of bleeding vs. nine women in the placebo group. Tamoxifen use at a dose of 10 mg twice daily orally, for 10 days, has a beneficial effect on vaginal bleeding associated with Norplant use. In addition, the bleeding pattern was better in women who used tamoxifen for the following 2 months after treatment. However, these results have to be confirmed in a larger trial before advocating this line of treatment.

  7. ESA' s novel gravitational modeling of irregular planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    A detailed understanding and modeling of the gravitational modeling is required for realistic investigation of the dynamics of orbits close to irregularly shaped bodies. Gravity field modelling up to a certain maximum spherical harmonic degree N involves N2 unkown spherical harmonic coefficients or complex harmonics. The corresponding number of matrix entries reaches till N4 . For missions like CHAMP, GRACE or GOCE, the maximum degree of resolution is 75, 150 and 300 respectively. Therefore, the number of unknowns for a satellite like GOCE will be around 100.000. Since these missions usually fly for a period of time of several years, the number of observations is huge. Hence, gravity field recovery from these missions is a high demanding task. The classical approaches like spherical expansion of the potential lead generally to a high number of coefficients, which reduce the software computational efficiency of the orbit propagation and which have mostly a limited physical meaning. One of the main targets of the activity is the modelling of asteroids, small moons, and cometary bodies. All celestial bodies are irregular by definition. However, the scope of the activity is broad enough as to be able to use the models and the software in quasy-regular bodies as well. Therefore the models and tools could be used for bodies such as the Moon, Mars, Venus, Deimos, Europa, Eros, Mathilda, and Churyumov-Gerasimenko, etc., being these applications relevant for scientific (Rosetta, Bepi Colombo), exploration (Exo-Mars), NEO mitigation (Don Quijote) and Earth observation (GOCE) missions of ESA.

  8. Volume determination of irregularly-shaped quasi-spherical nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Liu, Eileen Cherry

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in diverse application areas, such as medicine, engineering, and cosmetics. The size (or volume) of NPs is one of the most important parameters for their successful application. It is relatively straightforward to determine the volume of regular NPs such as spheres and cubes from a one-dimensional or two-dimensional measurement. However, due to the three-dimensional nature of NPs, it is challenging to determine the proper physical size of many types of regularly and irregularly-shaped quasi-spherical NPs at high-throughput using a single tool. Here, we present a relatively simple method that determines a better volume estimate of NPs by combining measurements from their top-down projection areas and peak heights using two tools. The proposed method is significantly faster and more economical than the electron tomography method. We demonstrate the improved accuracy of the combined method over scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or atomic force microscopy (AFM) alone by using modeling, simulations, and measurements. This study also exposes the existence of inherent measurement biases for both SEM and AFM, which usually produce larger measured diameters with SEM than with AFM. However, in some cases SEM measured diameters appear to have less error compared to AFM measured diameters, especially for widely used IS-NPs such as of gold, and silver. The method provides a much needed, proper high-throughput volumetric measurement method useful for many applications. Graphical Abstract The combined method for volume determination of irregularly-shaped quasi-spherical nanoparticles.

  9. Reproducibility of irregular radiation fields for malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, U.; Dieckmann, K.; Poetter, R.; Molitor, A.M.; Haverkamp, U.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation treatment for malignant lymphoma requires large field irradiation with irregular blocks according to the individual anatomy and tumor configuration. For determination of safety margins (PTV) we quantitatively analysed the accuracy of field and block placement with regard to different anatomical regions. Patients and Methods: Forty patients with malignant lymphoma were irradiated using the classical supra-/infradiaphragmatic field arrangements. Treatment was performed with 10-MeV photons and irregularly shaped, large opposing fields. We evaluated the accuracy of field and block placements during the treatment courses by comparing the regularly performed verification - with the simulation films. Deviations were determined with respect to the field edges and the central axis, along the x- and z-axis. Results: With regard to the field edges, mean deviations of 2.0 mm and 3.4 mm were found along the x- and z-axis. The corresponding standard deviations were 3.4 mm and 5.5 mm, respectively. With regard to the shielding blocks, mean displacement along the x- and z-axis was 2.2 mm and 3.8 mm. In addition, overall standard deviations of 5.7 mm (x-axis) and 7.1 mm (z-axis) were determined. During the course of time an improved accuracy of block placement was notable. Conclusion: Systematic analysis of port films gives information for a better defining safety margins in external radiotherapy. Evaluation of verification films on a regular basis improves set-up accuracy by reducing displacements. (orig.) [de

  10. New advantages of the combined GPS and GLONASS observations for high-latitude ionospheric irregularities monitoring: case study of June 2015 geomagnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring, tracking and nowcasting of the ionospheric plasma density disturbances using dual-frequency measurements of the Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are effectively carried out during several decades. Recent rapid growth and modernization of the ground-based segment gives an opportunity to establish a great database consisting of more than 6000 stations worldwide which provide GPS signals measurements with an open access. Apart of the GPS signals, at least two-third of these stations receive simultaneously signals transmitted by another Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)—the Russian system GLONASS. Today, GLONASS signal measurements are mainly used in navigation and geodesy only and very rarely for ionosphere research. We present the first results demonstrating advantages of using several independent but compatible GNSS systems like GPS and GLONASS for improvement of the permanent monitoring of the high-latitude ionospheric irregularities. For the first time, the high-resolution two-dimensional maps of ROTI perturbation were made using not only GPS but also GLONASS measurements. We extend the use of the ROTI maps for analyzing ionospheric irregularities distribution. We demonstrate that the meridional slices of the ROTI maps can be effectively used to study the occurrence and temporal evolution of the ionospheric irregularities. The meridional slices of the geographical sectors with a high density of the GPS and GLONASS measurements can represent spatio-temporal dynamics of the intense ionospheric plasma density irregularities with very high resolution, and they can be effectively used for detailed study of the space weather drivers on the processes of the ionospheric irregularities generation, development and their lifetimes. Using a representative database of 5800 ground-based GNSS stations located worldwide, we have investigated the occurrence of the high-latitude ionospheric plasma density irregularities during the geomagnetic storm of

  11. Validation of 3D documentation of palatal soft tissue shape, color, and irregularity with intraoral scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deferm, Julie T; Schreurs, Ruud; Baan, Frank; Bruggink, Robin; Merkx, Matthijs A W; Xi, Tong; Bergé, Stefaan J; Maal, Thomas J J

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of 3D intraoral scanning for documentation of palatal soft tissue by evaluating the accuracy of shape, color, and curvature. Intraoral scans of ten participants' upper dentition and palate were acquired with the TRIOS® 3D intraoral scanner by two observers. Conventional impressions were taken and digitized as a gold standard. The resulting surface models were aligned using an Iterative Closest Point approach. The absolute distance measurements between the intraoral models and the digitized impression were used to quantify the trueness and precision of intraoral scanning. The mean color of the palatal soft tissue was extracted in HSV (hue, saturation, value) format to establish the color precision. Finally, the mean curvature of the surface models was calculated and used for surface irregularity. Mean average distance error between the conventional impression models and the intraoral models was 0.02 ± 0.07 mm (p = 0.30). Mean interobserver color difference was - 0.08 ± 1.49° (p = 0.864), 0.28 ± 0.78% (p = 0.286), and 0.30 ± 1.14% (p = 0.426) for respectively hue, saturation, and value. The interobserver differences for overall and maximum surface irregularity were 0.01 ± 0.03 and 0.00 ± 0.05 mm. This study supports the hypothesis that the intraoral scan can perform a 3D documentation of palatal soft tissue in terms of shape, color, and curvature. An intraoral scanner can be an objective tool, adjunctive to the clinical examination of the palatal tissue.

  12. Measurements of electron density irregularities in the ionosphere of Jupiter by Pioneer 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, R.; Yang, F.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that when the frequency spectrum of the log amplitude fluctuations is used, the radio occultation experiment is a powerful tool for detecting, identifying, and studying ionospheric irregularities. Analysis of the Pioneer 10 radio occultation measurements reveals that the Jovian ionosphere possesses electron density irregularities which are very similar to those found in the earth's ionosphere. This is the first time such irregularities have been found in a planetary ionosphere other than that of earth. The Pioneer 10 results indicate that the spatial wave number spectrum of the electron density irregularities is close to the Kolmogorov spectrum and that the outer scale size is greater than the Fresnel size (6.15 km). This type of spectrum suggests that the irregularities are probably produced by the turbulent dissipation of irregularities larger than the outer scale size

  13. Hierarchical Bayesian modelling of gene expression time series across irregularly sampled replicates and clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensman, James; Lawrence, Neil D; Rattray, Magnus

    2013-08-20

    Time course data from microarrays and high-throughput sequencing experiments require simple, computationally efficient and powerful statistical models to extract meaningful biological signal, and for tasks such as data fusion and clustering. Existing methodologies fail to capture either the temporal or replicated nature of the experiments, and often impose constraints on the data collection process, such as regularly spaced samples, or similar sampling schema across replications. We propose hierarchical Gaussian processes as a general model of gene expression time-series, with application to a variety of problems. In particular, we illustrate the method's capacity for missing data imputation, data fusion and clustering.The method can impute data which is missing both systematically and at random: in a hold-out test on real data, performance is significantly better than commonly used imputation methods. The method's ability to model inter- and intra-cluster variance leads to more biologically meaningful clusters. The approach removes the necessity for evenly spaced samples, an advantage illustrated on a developmental Drosophila dataset with irregular replications. The hierarchical Gaussian process model provides an excellent statistical basis for several gene-expression time-series tasks. It has only a few additional parameters over a regular GP, has negligible additional complexity, is easily implemented and can be integrated into several existing algorithms. Our experiments were implemented in python, and are available from the authors' website: http://staffwww.dcs.shef.ac.uk/people/J.Hensman/.

  14. Crime among irregular immigrants and the influence of internal border control

    OpenAIRE

    Leerkes, Arjen; Engbersen, Godfried; Leun, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBoth the number of crime suspects without legal status and the number of irregular or undocumented immigrants held in detention facilities increased substantially in theNetherlands between 1997 and 2003. In this period, theDutch state increasingly attempted to exclude irregular immigrants from the formal labour market and public provisions. At the same time the registered crime among irregular migrants rose. The 'marginalisation thesis' asserts that a larger number of migrants hav...

  15. Effects of magnetic storm phases on F layer irregularities below the auroral oval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarons, J.; Gurgiolo, C.; Rodger, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of F-layer irregularity development and intensity were obtained between September and October 1981, primarily over subauroral latitudes in the area of the plasmapause. The results reveal the descent of the auroral irregularity region to include subauroral latitudes in the general area of the plasmapause during the main phases of a series of magnetic storms. Irregularities were found primarily at lower latitudes during the subauroral or plasmapause storm. A model for the subauroral irregularities in recovery phases of magnetic storms is proposed in which energy stored in the ring current is slowly released. 27 references

  16. Dependence on zenith angle of the strength of 3-meter equatorial electrojet irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ierkic, H.M.; Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    Radar measurements in Peru were used to deduce the zenith angle dependence of the scattering cross section of plasma irregularities generated by instabilities in the equatorial electrojet. The irregularities probed by the 50 MHz Jicamarca radar had a wavelength of 3m. The cross section for the type 2 irregularities was isotopic in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field, while the cross section for the stronger type 1 irregularities varied with zenith angle at a rate of approximately 0.3 dB/degree; the horizontally traveling waves were more than 100 times stronger than those traveling vertically

  17. Spatial irregularities in Jupiter's upper ionosphere observed by Voyager radio occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    Radio scintillations (at 3.6 and 13 cm) produced by scattering from ionospheric irregularities during the Voyager occultations are interpreted using a weak-scattering theory. Least squares solutions for ionospheric parameters derived from the observed fluctuation spectra yield estimates of (1) the axial ratio, (2) angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities, (3) the power law exponent of the spatial spectrum of irregularities, and (4) the magnitude of the spatial variations in electron density. It is shown that the measured angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities indicates magnetic field direction and may provide a basis for refining Jovian magnetic field models.

  18. Spatial redistribution of irregularly-spaced Pareto fronts for more intuitive navigation and solution selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bouter (Anton); K. Pirpinia (Kleopatra); T. Alderliesten (Tanja); P.A.N. Bosman (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractA multi-objective optimization approach is o.en followed by an a posteriori decision-making process, during which the most appropriate solution of the Pareto set is selected by a professional in the .eld. Conventional visualization methods do not correct for Pareto fronts with

  19. Irregular Saturnian Moon Lightcurves from Cassini-ISS Observations: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, S.

    2013-10-01

    Cassini ISS-NAC observations of the irregular moons of Saturn revealed various physical information on these objects. 16 synodic rotational periods: Hati (S43): 5.45 h; Mundilfari (S25): 6.74 h; Suttungr (S23): ~7.4 h; Kari (S45): 7.70 h; Siarnaq (S29): 10.14 h; Tarvos (S21): 10.66 h; Ymir (S19, sidereal period): 11.92220 h ± 0.1 s; Skathi (S27): ~12 h; Hyrrokkin (S44): 12.76 h; Ijiraq (S22): 13.03 h; Albiorix (S26): 13.32 h; Bestla (S39): 14.64 h; Bebhionn (S37): ~15.8 h; Kiviuq (S24): 21.82 h; Thrymr (S30): ~27 h; Erriapus (S28): ~28 h. The average period for the prograde-orbiting moons is ~16 h, for the retrograde moons ~11½ h (includes Phoebe's 9.2735 h from Bauer et al., AJ, 2004). Phase-angle dependent behavior of lightcurves: The phase angles of the observations range from 2° to 105°. The lightcurves which were obtained at low phase (<40°) show the 2-maxima/ 2-minima pattern expected for this kind of objects. At higher phases, more complicated lightcurves emerge, giving rough indications on shapes. Ymir pole and shape: For satellite Ymir, a convex-hull shape model and the pole-axis orientation have been derived. Ymir's north pole points toward λ = 230°±180°, β = -85°±10°, or RA = 100°±20°, Dec = -70°±10°. This is anti-parallel to the rotation axes of the major planets, indicating that Ymir not just orbits, but also rotates in a retrograde sense. The shape of Ymir resembles a triangular prism with edge lengths of ~20, ~24, and ~25 km. The ratio between the longest 25 km) and shortest axis (pole axis, ~15 km) is ~1.7. Erriapus seasons: The pole direction of object Erriapus has probably a low ecliptic latitude. This gives this moon seasons similar to the Uranian regular moons with periods where the sun stands very high in the sky over many years, and with years-long periods of permanent night. Hati density: The rotational frequency of the fastest rotator (Hati) is close to the frequency where the object would lose material from the surface if

  20. Soil Erosion Risk Map based on irregularity of the vegetative activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Martín-Sotoca, Juan J.; Valencia, Jose L.; Gobin, Anne; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor

    2016-04-01

    Because of the difficulties to build on both daily rainfall and base shorter time, we explored the possibilities of building indexes based on land cover, which also provide us the opportunity to evaluate their evolution over time. We consider the Fournier index (Fournier, 1960) which is used to assess the rainfall erosivity based on monthly rainfall, alternatively to use of the rainfall intensity in time bases under one hour (eg., van der Knijff et al., 1999; Shamshad et al, 2008). This index can also be interpreted as an index of irregularity and representing a ratio between maximum monthly precipitation and annual rainfall. We propose to calculate this irregularity in terms of irregularity of the vegetative activity. This activity is related to precipitation, but also with the availability of water in the soil reservoir and land use. Therefore, we propose a kind of Fournier index on the effective use of water, which is also closely related to variations in infiltration. Higher is the presence of vegetation higher is the effective use of water. For this "modified Fourier index" we used the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) as index of available vegetative activity, which is widely reported in the literature (Jensen, 2000). Initial calculations have been done with MODIS 500 x 500 m satellite data. The selected area was Cega-Eresma-Adaja subbasin during the period from 2009 to 2012. We selected 8 days composite images product. The calculation of the valid values to eliminate areas with clouds or snow is performed according to the criteria of Martinez Sotoca (2014), ie with a Saturation (based on HSL color model) greater or equal to 0.15. Then, an average of these values was estimated to represent each month of the year. The results are very interesting when we compare Modified Fournier Index on NDVIs with the map of potential soil loss. We have found surprisingly similar patterns and practical equivalence between several classes. Therefore, the Modified

  1. Burnout calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.

    1980-01-01

    Reviewed is the effect of heat flux of different system parameters on critical density in order to give an initial view on the value of several parameters. A thorough analysis of different equations is carried out to calculate burnout is steam-water flows in uniformly heated tubes, annular, and rectangular channels and rod bundles. Effect of heat flux density distribution and flux twisting on burnout and storage determination according to burnout are commended [ru

  2. Effects of transionospheric signal decorrelation on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) performance studied from irregularity dynamics around the northern crest of the EIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T.; Roy, B.; Paul, A.

    2014-10-01

    Transionospheric satellite navigation links operate primarily at L band and are frequently subject to severe degradation of performances arising out of ionospheric irregularities. Various characteristic features of equatorial ionospheric irregularity bubbles like the drift velocity, characteristic velocity, decorrelation time, and decorrelation distance can be determined using spaced aerial measurements at VHF. These parameters measured at VHF from a station Calcutta situated near the northern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) in the geophysically sensitive Indian longitude sector have been correlated with L band scintillation indices and GPS position accuracy parameters for identifying possible proxies to L band scintillations. Good correspondences have been observed between decorrelation times and distances at VHF with GPS S4 and Position Dilution of Precision during periods of GPS scintillations (S4 > 0.3) for February-April 2011, August-October 2011, and February-April 2012. A functional relation has been developed between irregularity drift velocity measured at VHF and S4 at L band during February-April 2011, and validation of measured S4 and predicted values performed during August-October 2011 and February-April 2012. Significant improvement in L band scintillation prediction and consequent navigational accuracy will result using such relations derived from VHF irregularity measurements which are much simpler and inexpensive.

  3. ON THE STAR FORMATION LAW FOR SPIRAL AND IRREGULAR GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A dynamical model for star formation on a galactic scale is proposed in which the interstellar medium is constantly condensing to star-forming clouds on the dynamical time of the average midplane density, and the clouds are constantly being disrupted on the dynamical timescale appropriate for their higher density. In this model, the areal star formation rate scales with the 1.5 power of the total gas column density throughout the main regions of spiral galaxies, and with a steeper power, 2, in the far outer regions and in dwarf irregular galaxies because of the flaring disks. At the same time, there is a molecular star formation law that is linear in the main and outer parts of disks and in dIrrs because the duration of individual structures in the molecular phase is also the dynamical timescale, canceling the additional 0.5 power of surface density. The total gas consumption time scales directly with the midplane dynamical time, quenching star formation in the inner regions if there is no accretion, and sustaining star formation for ∼100 Gyr or more in the outer regions with no qualitative change in gas stability or molecular cloud properties. The ULIRG track follows from high densities in galaxy collisions.

  4. Influence of Ionospheric Irregularities on GNSS Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used numerical simulation to study the effects of ionospheric irregularities on accuracy of global navigation satellite system (GNSS measurements, using ionosphere-free (in atmospheric research and geometry-free (in ionospheric research dual-frequency phase combinations. It is known that elimination of these effects from multifrequency GNSS measurements is handi-capped by diffraction effects during signal propagation through turbulent ionospheric plasma with the inner scale being smaller than the Fresnel radius. We demonstrated the possibility of reducing the residual ionospheric error in dual-frequency GNSS remote sensing in ionosphere-free combination by Fresnel inversion. The inversion parameter, the distance to the virtual screen, may be selected from the minimum of amplitude fluctuations. This suggests the possibility of improving the accuracy of GNSS remote sensing in meteorology. In the study of ionospheric disturbances with the aid of geometry-free combination, the Fresnel inversion eliminates only the third-order error. To eliminate the random TEC component which, like the measured average TEC, is the first-order correction, we should use temporal filtering (averaging.

  5. Timing irregularities of PSR J1705-1906

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. L.; Yuan, J. P.; Wang, J. B.; Liu, X. W.; Wang, N.; Yuen, R.

    2018-05-01

    Timing analysis of PSR J1705-1906 using data from Nanshan 25-m and Parkes 64-m radio telescopes, which span over fourteen years, shows that the pulsar exhibits significant proper motion, and rotation instability. We updated the astrometry parameters and the spin parameters of the pulsar. In order to minimize the effect of timing irregularities on measuring its position, we employ the Cholesky method to analyse the timing noise. We obtain the proper motion of -77(3) mas yr-1 in right ascension and -38(29) mas yr-1 in declination. The power spectrum of timing noise is analyzed for the first time, which gives the spectral exponent α =-5.2 for the power-law model indicating that the fluctuations in spin frequency and spin-down rate dominate the red noise. We detect two small glitches from this pulsar with fractional jump in spin frequency of Δ ν /ν ˜ 2.9 × 10^{-10} around MJD 55199 and Δ ν /ν ˜ 2.7× 10^{-10} around MJD 55953. Investigations of pulse profile at different time segments suggest no significant changes in the pulse profiles around the two glitches.

  6. Propagating star formation and irregular structure in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.W.; Arnett, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    A simple model is proposed which describes the irregular optical appearance often seen in late-type spiral galaxies. If high-mass stars produce spherical shock waves which induce star formation, new high-mass stars will be born which, in turn, produce new shock waves. When this process operates in a differentially rotating disk, our numerical model shows that large-scale spiral-shaped regions of star formation are built up. The structure is seen to be most sensitive to a parameter which governs how often a region of the interstellar medium can undergo star formation. For a proper choice of this parameter, large-scale features disappear before differential rotation winds them up. New spiral features continuously form, so some spiral structure is seen indefinitely. The structure is not the classical two-armed symmetric spiral pattern which the density-wave theory attempts to explain, but it is asymmetric and disorderly.The mechanism of propagating star formation used in our model is consistent with observations which connect young OB associations with expanding shells of gas. We discuss the possible interaction of this mechanism with density waves

  7. Effects of Irregular Bridge Columns and Feasibility of Seismic Regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Abey E.

    2018-05-01

    Bridges with unequal column height is one of the main irregularities in bridge design particularly while negotiating steep valleys, making the bridges vulnerable to seismic action. The desirable behaviour of bridge columns towards seismic loading is that, they should perform in a regular fashion, i.e. the capacity of each column should be utilized evenly. But, this type of behaviour is often missing when the column heights are unequal along the length of the bridge, allowing short columns to bear the maximum lateral load. In the present study, the effects of unequal column height on the global seismic performance of bridges are studied using pushover analysis. Codes such as CalTrans (Engineering service center, earthquake engineering branch, 2013) and EC-8 (EN 1998-2: design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part 2: bridges, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, 2005) suggests seismic regularity criterion for achieving regular seismic performance level at all the bridge columns. The feasibility of adopting these seismic regularity criterions along with those mentioned in literatures will be assessed for bridges designed as per the Indian Standards in the present study.

  8. Irregular persistent activity induced by synaptic excitatory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Barbieri

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological experiments on monkeys have reported highly irregular persistent activity during the performance of an oculomotor delayed-response task. These experiments show that during the delay period the coefficient of variation (CV of interspike intervals (ISI of prefrontal neurons is above 1, on average, and larger than during the fixation period. In the present paper, we show that this feature can be reproduced in a network in which persistent activity is induced by excitatory feedback, provided that (i the post-spike reset is close enough to threshold , (ii synaptic efficacies are a non-linear function of the pre-synaptic firing rate. Non-linearity between presynaptic rate and effective synaptic strength is implemented by a standard short-term depression mechanism (STD. First, we consider the simplest possible network with excitatory feedback: a fully connected homogeneous network of excitatory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, using both numerical simulations and analytical techniques. The results are then confirmed in a network with selective excitatory neurons and inhibition. In both the cases there is a large range of values of the synaptic efficacies for which the statistics of firing of single cells is similar to experimental data.

  9. Ombud's corner: space invaders

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2015-01-01

    When normal communication breaks down and there is no sharing anymore, office-mates can become ‘space invaders’. Very often, the situation can be resolved effectively by taking just a few simple steps...   The lack of office space at CERN is a permanent issue that the various departments regularly have to address. As a result, very often this precious space where we spend the entire day has to be shared with other colleagues. Office-mates may come from different backgrounds and cultures and may have very different habits and behaviours; they may also have different activities during the day, sometimes requiring unusual, (perhaps even strange?) interactions with the space they occupy; finally, their presence might be irregular, making it very difficult for us to establish a stable relationship. Mark and Claire share an office as well as some professional activities. In the beginning, the relationship seems to work normally but, over time, the communication between them ste...

  10. "Needed Not Wanted": An Interdisciplinary Examination of the Work-Related Challenges Faced by Irregular Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfleet, Philip; Blustein, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Using an integrative perspective drawn from vocational psychology and migration studies, this article explores the lives of irregular migrants, which represents a unique aspect of work-based migration. Irregular migrants are those individuals who travel from regions without much work to states that offer some means of employment, without formal…

  11. Lateralized effects of orthographical irregularity and auditory memory load on the kinematics of transciption typewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemsaat, J.G.; Galen, G.P. van; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the combined effects of orthographical irregularity and auditory memory load on the kinematics of finger movements in a transcription-typewriting task. Eight right-handed touch-typists were asked to type 80 strings of ten seven-letter words. In half the trials an irregularly

  12. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  13. Crime among irregular immigrants and the influence of internal border control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerkes, A.S.; Engbersen, G.; Leun, van der J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Both the number of crime suspects without legal status and the number of irregular or undocumented immigrants held in detention facilities increased substantially in theNetherlands between 1997 and 2003. In this period, theDutch state increasingly attempted to exclude irregular immigrants

  14. Crime among irregular immigrants and the influence of internal border control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Leerkes (Arjen); G.B.M. Engbersen (Godfried); J.P. van der Leun (Joanne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBoth the number of crime suspects without legal status and the number of irregular or undocumented immigrants held in detention facilities increased substantially in theNetherlands between 1997 and 2003. In this period, theDutch state increasingly attempted to exclude irregular

  15. Breaking Down Anonymity: Digital surveillance on irregular migrants in Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.J. Broeders (Dennis)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of irregular migrants causes a tough problem for policy makers. Political and popular aversion against the presence of irregular migrants has mounted in most West-European societies for years, yet their presence remains. Their exact numbers are obviously unknown - only

  16. Dynamics of long-period irregular pulsations in high latitudes during strong magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurazhkovskaya, N.A.; Klajn, B.I.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of strong magnetic storms within np type high-latitudinal long-period irregular pulsations at Mirny studied using data obtained at observatory of the magnetosphere south hemisphere. Variation of long-period irregular pulsation amplitude is shown to depend essentially on duration of storm initial phase and on the nature of solar wind heterogeneity enabling growth of strong storm. 14 refs

  17. Spectral classification of medium-scale high-latitude F region plasma density irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Szuszczewicz, E.P.; Sachs Freeman Associates, Bowie, MD)

    1985-01-01

    The high-latitude ionosphere represents a highly structured plasma. Rodriguez and Szuszczewicz (1984) reported a wide range of plasma density irregularities (150 km to 75 m) at high latitudes near 200 km. They have shown that the small-scale irregularities (7.5 km to 75 m) populated the dayside oval more often than the other phenomenological regions. It was suggested that in the lower F region the chemical recombination is fast enough to remove small-scale irregularities before convection can transport them large distances, leaving structured particle precipitation as the dominant source term for irregularities. The present paper provides the results of spectral analyses of pulsed plasma probe data collected in situ aboard the STP/S3-4 satellite during the period March-September 1978. A quantitative description of irregularity spectra in the high-latitude lower F region plasma density is given. 22 references

  18. Significance of scatter radar studies of E and F region irregularities at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter considers the mechanisms by which electron density irregularities may be generated in the high latitude ionosphere and the techniques through which they are observed with ground base radars. The capabilities of radars used for studying these irregularities are compared with the capabilities of radars used for incoherent scatter measurements. The use of irregularity scatter techniques for dynamic studies of larger scale structured phenomena is discussed. Topics considered include E-region irregularities, observations with auroral radars, plasma drifts associated with a westward travelling surge, and ionospheric plasma motions associated with resonant waves. It is shown why high latitude F-region irregularity studies must be made in the HF frequency band (3-30 MHz). The joint use of the European Incoherent Scatter Association (EISCAT), STARE and SAFARI facilities is examined, and it is concluded that the various techniques will enhance each other and provide a better understanding of the various processes being studied

  19. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  20. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  1. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  2. Exploring performance and energy tradeoffs for irregular applications: A case study on the Tilera many-core architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panyala, Ajay; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Manzano, Joseph B.; Tumeo, Antonino; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2017-06-01

    High performance, parallel applications with irregular data accesses are becoming a critical workload class for modern systems. In particular, the execution of such workloads on emerging many-core systems is expected to be a significant component of applications in data mining, machine learning, scientific computing and graph analytics. However, power and energy constraints limit the capabilities of individual cores, memory hierarchy and on-chip interconnect of such systems, thus leading to architectural and software trade-os that must be understood in the context of the intended application’s behavior. Irregular applications are notoriously hard to optimize given their data-dependent access patterns, lack of structured locality and complex data structures and code patterns. We have ported two irregular applications, graph community detection using the Louvain method (Grappolo) and high-performance conjugate gradient (HPCCG), to the Tilera many-core system and have conducted a detailed study of platform-independent and platform-specific optimizations that improve their performance as well as reduce their overall energy consumption. To conduct this study, we employ an auto-tuning based approach that explores the optimization design space along three dimensions - memory layout schemes, GCC compiler flag choices and OpenMP loop scheduling options. We leverage MIT’s OpenTuner auto-tuning framework to explore and recommend energy optimal choices for different combinations of parameters. We then conduct an in-depth architectural characterization to understand the memory behavior of the selected workloads. Finally, we perform a correlation study to demonstrate the interplay between the hardware behavior and application characteristics. Using auto-tuning, we demonstrate whole-node energy savings and performance improvements of up to 49:6% and 60% relative to a baseline instantiation, and up to 31% and 45:4% relative to manually optimized variants.

  3. Feedback Limiting the Coastal Response to Irregularities in Shelf Bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, J. H.; Benedet, L.

    2007-12-01

    Observations and engineering studies have shown that non-uniform inner shelf bathymetry can influence longshore sediment transport gradients and create patterns of shoreline change. One classic example is from Grand Isle, Louisiana, where two offshore borrow pits caused two zones of shoreline accretion landward of the pits. In addition to anthropogenic cases, many natural situations exist in which irregularities in coastal planform are thought to result from offshore shoals or depressions. Recent studies using the hydrodynamic model Delft3D have successfully simulated the observed nearshore erosion and accretion patterns landward of an inner shelf borrow pit. An analysis of the momentum balance in a steady-state simulation has demonstrated that both alongshore pressure gradients (due to alongshore variations in wave setup) and radiation stress gradients (terms relevant to alongshore forcing) are important for forcing the initial pattern of nearshore sedimentation in response to the borrow pit. The response of the coast to non-uniform inner shelf bathymetry appears to be limited, however, because observed shoreline undulations are often rather subtle. (An exception may exist in the case of a very high angle wave climate.) Therefore, feedbacks in processes must exist such that growth of the shoreline salient itself modifies the transport processes in a way that limits further growth (assuming the perturbation in inner shelf bathymetry itself remains unchanged). Examination of the Delft3D momentum balance for an inner shelf pit test case demonstrates that after a certain degree of morphologic development the forcing associated with the well-known shoreline smoothing process (a.k.a., diffusion) counteracts the forcing associated with the inner shelf pit, producing a negative feedback which arrests further growth of the shoreline salient. These results provide insights into the physical processes that control shoreline changes behind inner shelf bathymetric anomalies (i

  4. TINITALY/01: a new Triangular Irregular Network of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Pareschi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the natural landforms of Italy is presented. A methodology is discussed to build a DEM over wide areas where elevation data from non-homogeneous (in density and accuracy input sources are available. The input elevation data include contour lines and spot heights derived from the Italian Regional topographic maps, satellite-based global positioning system points, ground based and radar altimetry data. Owing to the great heterogeneity of the input data density, the DEM format that better preserves the original accuracy is a Triangular Irregular Network (TIN. A Delaunay-based TIN structure is improved by using the DEST algorithm that enhances input data by evaluating inferred break-lines. Accordingly to this approach, biased distributions in slopes and elevations are absent. To prevent discontinuities at the boundary between regions characterized by data with different resolution a cubic Hermite blending weight S-shaped function is adopted. The TIN of Italy consists of 1.39×109 triangles. The average triangle area ranges from 12 to about 13000 m2 accordingly to different morphologies and different sources. About 50% of the model has a local average triangle area <500 m2. The vertical accuracy of the obtained DEM is evaluated by more than 200000 sparse control points. The overall Root Mean Square Error (RMSE is less than 3.5 m. The obtained national-scale DEM constitutes an useful support to carry out accurate geomorphological and geological investigations over large areas. The problem of choosing the best step size in deriving a grid from a TIN is then discussed and a method to quantify the loss of vertical information is presented as a function of the grid step. Some examples of DEM application are outlined. Under request, an high resolution stereo image database of the whole Italian territory (derived from the presented DEM is available to browse via internet.

  5. Periods, poles, and shapes of Saturn's irregular moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    We report rotational-lightcurve observations of irregular moons of Saturn based on disk-integrated observations with the Narrow-Angle Camera of the Cassini spacecraft. From 24 measured rotation periods, 20 are now known with an accuracy of ~2% or better. The numbers are as follows (in hours; an '*' marks the less reliable periods): Hati 5.42; Mundilfari 6.74; Loge 6.94*; Skoll 7.26; Kari 7.70; Suttungr 7.82*, Bergelmir 8.13; Phoebe 9.274; Siarnaq 10.188; Narvi 10.21; Tarvos 10.69; Skathi 11.30; Ymir 11.922; Hyrrokkin 12.76; Greip 12.79*; Ijiraq 13.03; Albiorix 13.32; Bestla 14.624; Bebhionn 16.40; Paaliaq 18.75; Kiviuq 21.96; Erriapus 28.15; Thrymr 35 or >45* Tarqeq 76.8.More recent data strengthen the notion that objects in orbits with an inclination supplemental angle i' > 27° have significantly slower spin rates than those at i' 27°, Siarnaq, stands opposed to at least eight objects with faster spins and i' 27° bin contains all nine known prograde moons and four retrograde objects.A total of 25 out of 38 known outer moons has been observed with Cassini, and there is no chance to observe the 13 missing objects until end-of-mission. However, all unobserved objects are part of the i' 27° are known, and none of them is a fast rotator, with no exception.Several objects were observed repeatedly to determine pole directions, sidereal periods, and convex shapes. A few lightcurves have been observed to show three maxima and three minima even at low phase angles, suggesting objects with a triangular equatorial cross-section. Some objects with 2 maxima/ 2 minima are probably quite elongated. One moon even shows lightcurves with 4 maxima/ 4 minima.

  6. Contribution of tropical instability waves to ENSO irregularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ryan M.; McGregor, Shayne; Santoso, Agus; England, Matthew H.

    2018-05-01

    Tropical instability waves (TIWs) are a major source of internally-generated oceanic variability in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. These non-linear phenomena play an important role in the sea surface temperature (SST) budget in a region critical for low-frequency modes of variability such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, the direct contribution of TIW-driven stochastic variability to ENSO has received little attention. Here, we investigate the influence of TIWs on ENSO using a 1/4° ocean model coupled to a simple atmosphere. The use of a simple atmosphere removes complex intrinsic atmospheric variability while allowing the dominant mode of air-sea coupling to be represented as a statistical relationship between SST and wind stress anomalies. Using this hybrid coupled model, we perform a suite of coupled ensemble forecast experiments initiated with wind bursts in the western Pacific, where individual ensemble members differ only due to internal oceanic variability. We find that TIWs can induce a spread in the forecast amplitude of the Niño 3 SST anomaly 6-months after a given sequence of WWBs of approximately ± 45% the size of the ensemble mean anomaly. Further, when various estimates of stochastic atmospheric forcing are added, oceanic internal variability is found to contribute between about 20% and 70% of the ensemble forecast spread, with the remainder attributable to the atmospheric variability. While the oceanic contribution to ENSO stochastic forcing requires further quantification beyond the idealized approach used here, our results nevertheless suggest that TIWs may impact ENSO irregularity and predictability. This has implications for ENSO representation in low-resolution coupled models.

  7. METAL ABUNDANCES OF 12 DWARF IRREGULARS FROM THE ADBS SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 E. Third St., Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Rosenberg, Jessica, E-mail: nhaurber@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: jrosenb4@gmu.edu [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Science, George Mason University, MS 3F3, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We have analyzed long-slit spectra of 12 dwarf irregular galaxies from the Arecibo Dual Beam Survey (ADBS). These galaxies represent a heterogeneous sample of objects detected by ADBS, but on average are relatively gas-rich, low-surface-brightness, and low-mass, thus represent a region of the galaxian population that is not commonly included in optical surveys. The metallicity-luminosity relationship for these galaxies is analyzed; the galaxies discussed in this paper appear to be under-abundant at a given luminosity when compared to a sample from the literature. We attempt to identify a 'second parameter' responsible for the intrinsic scatter and apparent under-abundance of our galaxies. We do not find a definitive second parameter but note the possible indication that infall or mixing of pristine gas may be responsible. We derive oxygen abundances for multiple H II regions in many of our galaxies but do not find any strong indications of metallicity variation within the galaxies except in one case where we see variation between an isolated H II region and the rest of the galaxy. Our data set includes the galaxy with the largest known H I-to-optical size ratio, ADBS 113845+2008. Our abundance analysis of this galaxy reveals that it is strongly over-enriched compared to galaxies of similar luminosity, indicating it is not a young object and confirming the result from Cannon et al. that this galaxy appears to be intrinsically rare in the local universe.

  8. An efficient algorithm for global periodic orbits generation near irregular-shaped asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Haibin; Wu, Xiaoyu; Ren, Yuan; Shan, Jinjun

    2017-07-01

    Periodic orbits (POs) play an important role in understanding dynamical behaviors around natural celestial bodies. In this study, an efficient algorithm was presented to generate the global POs around irregular-shaped uniformly rotating asteroids. The algorithm was performed in three steps, namely global search, local refinement, and model continuation. First, a mascon model with a low number of particles and optimized mass distribution was constructed to remodel the exterior gravitational potential of the asteroid. Using this model, a multi-start differential evolution enhanced with a deflection strategy with strong global exploration and bypassing abilities was adopted. This algorithm can be regarded as a search engine to find multiple globally optimal regions in which potential POs were located. This was followed by applying a differential correction to locally refine global search solutions and generate the accurate POs in the mascon model in which an analytical Jacobian matrix was derived to improve convergence. Finally, the concept of numerical model continuation was introduced and used to convert the POs from the mascon model into a high-fidelity polyhedron model by sequentially correcting the initial states. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was substantiated by computing the global POs around an elongated shoe-shaped asteroid 433 Eros. Various global POs with different topological structures in the configuration space were successfully located. Specifically, the proposed algorithm was generic and could be conveniently extended to explore periodic motions in other gravitational systems.

  9. Investigating Irregularly Patterned Deep Brain Stimulation Signal Design Using Biophysical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Rose Summerson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder which follows from cell loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc, a nucleus in the basal ganglia (BG. Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an electrical therapy that modulates the pathological activity to treat the motor symptoms of PD. Although this therapy is currently used in clinical practice, the sufficient conditions for therapeutic efficacy are unknown. In this work we develop a model of critical motor circuit structures in the brain using biophysical cell models as the base components and then evaluate performance of different DBS signals in this model to perform comparative studies of their efficacy. Biological models are an important tool for gaining insights into neural function and, in this case, serve as effective tools for investigating innovative new DBS paradigms. Experiments were performed using the hemi-parkinsonian rodent model to test the same set of signals, verifying the obedience of the model to physiological trends. We show that antidromic spiking from DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN has a significant impact on cortical neural activity, which is frequency dependent and additionally modulated by the regularity of the stimulus pulse train used. Irregular spacing between stimulus pulses, where the amount of variability added is bounded, is shown to increase diversification of response of basal ganglia neurons and reduce entropic noise in cortical neurons, which may be fundamentally important to restoration of information flow in the motor circuit.

  10. Plasma Irregularity Production in the Polar Cap F-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Leslie

    Plasma in the Earth's ionosphere is highly irregular on scales ranging between a few centimeters and hundreds of kilometers. Small-scale irregularities or plasma waves can scatter radio waves resulting in a loss of signal for navigation and communication networks. The polar region is particularly susceptible to strong disturbances due to its direct connection with the Sun's magnetic field and energetic particles. In this thesis, factors that contribute to the production of decameter-scale plasma irregularities in the polar F region ionosphere are investigated. Both global and local control of irregularity production are studied, i.e. we consider global solar control through solar illumination and solar wind as well as much more local control by plasma density gradients and convection electric field. In the first experimental study, solar control of irregularity production is investigated using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar at McMurdo, Antarctica. The occurrence trends for irregularities are analyzed statistically and a model is developed that describes the location of radar echoes within the radar's field-of-view. The trends are explained through variations in background plasma density with solar illumination affecting radar beam propagation. However, it is found that the irregularity occurrence during the night is higher than expected from ray tracing simulations based on a standard ionospheric density model. The high occurrence at night implies an additional source of plasma density and it is proposed that large-scale density enhancements called polar patches may be the source of this density. Additionally, occurrence maximizes around the terminator due to different competing irregularity production processes that favor a more or less sunlit ionosphere. The second study is concerned with modeling irregularity characteristics near a large-scale density gradient reversal, such as those expected near polar patches, with a particular focus on

  11. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  12. Low and Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Irregularities Studies Using TEC and Radio Scintillation Data from the CITRIS Radio Beacon Receiver in Low-Earth-Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J.; Krall, J.; Roddy, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Unique data on ionospheric plasma irregularities from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) CITRIS (Scintillation and TEC Receiver in Space) instrument will be presented. CITRIS is a multi-band receiver that recorded TEC (Total Electron Content) and radio scintillations from Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) on STPSat1. The 555+/5 km altitude 35° inclination orbit covers low and mid-latitudes. The measurements require propagation from a transmitter to a receiver through the F-region plasma. CITRIS used both 1) satellite beacons in LEO, such as the NRL CERTO (Coherent Electromagnetic Radio TOmography) beacons and 2) the global network of ground-based DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) beacons. The TEC measurements allow for tracking of ionospheric disturbances and irregularities while the measurements of scintillations can simultaneously characterize their effects. CITRIS was operated in a complementary fashion with the C/NOFS (Communication/Navigations Outages Forecasting System) satellite during most of its first year of operations. C/NOFS carries a three-frequency 150/400/1067 MHz CERTO beacon and is dedicated to the study of Spread-F. In the case of Spread-F, ionospheric irregularities start with large scale size density gradients (100s of km) and cascade through complex processes to short scale sizes (10s of meters). It is typically the 100m-1km scale features that harm communication and navigation systems through scintillations. A multi-sensor approach is needed to completely understand this complex system, such as, the combination of CITRIS remote radio sensing and C/NOFS in-situ data. Several types of irregularities have been studied including Spread-F and the newly discovered dawn-side depletions. Comparisons with the physics based SAMI3 model are being performed to help our understanding of the morphology of the irregularities.

  13. Irregular eating of meals in adolescence and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood: results from a 27-year prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Maria; Gustafsson, Per E; Wennberg, Patrik; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-03-01

    The objective was to investigate whether irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicts the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood, and if any specific meal is of particular importance. Prospective cohort study with 27 years of follow-up. Information on meals (breakfast, school lunch and dinner with family), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, smoking habits, physical activity, consumption of sweets and pastries) at age 16 years was assessed from questionnaires, and presence or not of the metabolic syndrome and its components were defined at age 43 years in 889 participants (82·1% of total cohort). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals. The Northern Swedish Cohort; all school-leavers of the 9th grade in the town Luleå in 1981. Adolescents (age 16 years). Irregular eating of meals at age 16 years was associated with higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years (OR=1·74; 95% CI 1·12, 2·71), but this was explained by concurrent unhealthy lifestyle at age 16 years. Poor breakfast at age 16 years was the only meal associated with the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years, independent of other meals, BMI (kg/m2) and lifestyle at age 16 years (OR=1·67; 95% CI 1·00, 2·80). Irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicted the metabolic syndrome in adulthood, but not independently of BMI and lifestyle in adolescence. Poor breakfast in adolescence was the only specific meal associated with future metabolic syndrome, even after adjustments. Breakfast eating should be encouraged in adolescence.

  14. Scattering Properties of Large Irregular Cosmic Dust Particles at Visible Wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar-Cerezo, J.; Palmer, C.; Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Penttilä, A.; Muinonen, K.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of internal inhomogeneities and surface roughness on the scattering behavior of large cosmic dust particles is studied by comparing model simulations with laboratory measurements. The present work shows the results of an attempt to model a dust sample measured in the laboratory with simulations performed by a ray-optics model code. We consider this dust sample as a good analogue for interplanetary and interstellar dust as it shares its refractive index with known materials in these media. Several sensitivity tests have been performed for both structural cases (internal inclusions and surface roughness). Three different samples have been selected to mimic inclusion/coating inhomogeneities: two measured scattering matrices of hematite and white clay, and a simulated matrix for water ice. These three matrices are selected to cover a wide range of imaginary refractive indices. The selection of these materials also seeks to study astrophysical environments of interest such as Mars, where hematite and clays have been detected, and comets. Based on the results of the sensitivity tests shown in this work, we perform calculations for a size distribution of a silicate-type host particle model with inclusions and surface roughness to reproduce the experimental measurements of a dust sample. The model fits the measurements quite well, proving that surface roughness and internal structure play a role in the scattering pattern of irregular cosmic dust particles.

  15. The Nature of Turbulence in the LITTLE THINGS Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Erin; Chien, Li-Hsin; Hollyday, Gigja [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, NAU Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York, NY 10598 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Simpson, Caroline E. [Department of Physics, Florida International University, CP 204, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present probability density functions and higher order (skewness and kurtosis) analyses of the galaxy-wide and spatially resolved distributions of H i column density in the LITTLE THINGS sample of dwarf irregular galaxies. This analysis follows that of Burkhart et al. for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). About 60% of our sample have galaxy-wide values of kurtosis that are similar to that found for the SMC, with a range up to much higher values, and kurtosis increases with integrated star formation rate. Kurtosis and skewness were calculated for radial annuli and for a grid of 32 pixel × 32 pixel kernels across each galaxy. For most galaxies, kurtosis correlates with skewness. For about half of the galaxies, there is a trend of increasing kurtosis with radius. The range of kurtosis and skewness values is modeled by small variations in the Mach number close to the sonic limit and by conversion of H i to molecules at high column density. The maximum H i column densities decrease with increasing radius in a way that suggests molecules are forming in the weak-field limit, where H{sub 2} formation balances photodissociation in optically thin gas at the edges of clouds.

  16. Scattering Properties of Large Irregular Cosmic Dust Particles at Visible Wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar-Cerezo, J.; Palmer, C.; Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F. [Instituto de Astrofìsica de Andalucìa, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomìa s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Penttilä, A.; Muinonen, K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-03-20

    The effect of internal inhomogeneities and surface roughness on the scattering behavior of large cosmic dust particles is studied by comparing model simulations with laboratory measurements. The present work shows the results of an attempt to model a dust sample measured in the laboratory with simulations performed by a ray-optics model code. We consider this dust sample as a good analogue for interplanetary and interstellar dust as it shares its refractive index with known materials in these media. Several sensitivity tests have been performed for both structural cases (internal inclusions and surface roughness). Three different samples have been selected to mimic inclusion/coating inhomogeneities: two measured scattering matrices of hematite and white clay, and a simulated matrix for water ice. These three matrices are selected to cover a wide range of imaginary refractive indices. The selection of these materials also seeks to study astrophysical environments of interest such as Mars, where hematite and clays have been detected, and comets. Based on the results of the sensitivity tests shown in this work, we perform calculations for a size distribution of a silicate-type host particle model with inclusions and surface roughness to reproduce the experimental measurements of a dust sample. The model fits the measurements quite well, proving that surface roughness and internal structure play a role in the scattering pattern of irregular cosmic dust particles.

  17. Serum lipid levels and steroidal hormones in women runners with irregular menses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D L; Snead, D B; Seip, R L; Weltman, J Y; Rogol, A D; Weltman, A

    1997-02-01

    This study compared the lipid profile of women runners with menstrual cycle irregularities with their normally menstruating counterparts. Relationships among selected steroid hormones and serum lipid levels in 10 eumenorrheic (EU) and 8 oligo-/amenorrheic (O/A) women runners and 6 eumenorrheic controls (CON) were examined. Serum 17 beta-estradiol (E2), progesterone (Prog), and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations were determined in daily blood samples for 21 days, and integrated concentrations were calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2, HDL3, triglycerides (Trig), and apolipoproteins A-1, A-II, and B. The O/A group had significantly lower E2 and Prog than EU or CON groups. Women in the CON group had lower HDL-C and HDL3 than the runners. With all women grouped together, E2 was not significantly correlated with any measured blood lipid parameters. On the other hand, DHEAS was significantly correlated with HDL-C, HDL2, and apolipoprotein A-I. These data demonstrate that women runners, regardless of menstrual cycle status, exhibit higher HDL-C concentrations than CON and supports previous research reporting a positive association between DHEAS and HDL-C.

  18. The analysis of impact of irregularity in radionuclide coating of scaffold on the distribution of absorbed dose produced by grid of microsources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Nerosin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of irregularity in radionuclide coating of scaffold on the distribution of absorbed dose produced by grid of microsources was analyzed. On engineering software MATHCAD the program for calculation of absorbed dose produced by grid of microsources was created. To verify this algorithm the calculation model for MCNP code was established and represented the area consisted of soft biological tissue or any other tissue in which the grid of microsources was incorporated. Using the developed system the value of possible systematic irregular coating of radioactivity on the microsource’s core was analyzed. The distribution of activity along the surface of microsource was simulated to create distribution of absorbed dose rate corresponding to experimental data on radiation injury. The obtained model of microsource with irregular distribution of activity was compared to conventional microsource with core coated regularly along the entire area of the silver stem by main dosimetry characteristics. The results showed that even for extremely irregular distribution of activity the distribution of dose rate produced by microsource in the tumor area was not substantially different from dose-rate field obtained for microsource with regularly coated activity. The differences in dose rates (up to 10% in areas which were the nearest to the center of the grid were significantly lower than its decline from center to periphery of the grid. For spatial distribution of absorbed dose for specific configuration of microsource set and tracing of curves of equal level by selected cut-off the program SEEDPLAN was developed. The developed program represents precisely enough the spatial distribution of selected configuration set of microsources using results of calculation data for absorbed dose around the single microsource as basic data and may be used for optimal planning of brachytherapy with microsources. 

  19. Numerical method for estimating the size of chaotic regions of phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henyey, F.S.; Pomphrey, N.

    1987-10-01

    A numerical method for estimating irregular volumes of phase space is derived. The estimate weights the irregular area on a surface of section with the average return time to the section. We illustrate the method by application to the stadium and oval billiard systems and also apply the method to the continuous Henon-Heiles system. 15 refs., 10 figs

  20. Spatial irregularities in Jupiter's upper ionosphere observed by voyager radio occultations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, D.P.; Tyler, G.L.

    1982-07-01

    Dual frequency radio occultation experiments carried out with Voyagers 1 and 2 provided data on the spatial irregularities in Jupiter's ionosphere at four different locations. Sample spectra of weak fluctuations in amplitude and phase of the 3.6-cm and 13-cm wavelength radio signals can be interpreted by using the theory for scattering from an anisotropic power law phase screen. Least squares solutions for ionospheric parameters derived from the observed fluctuation spectra yielded estimates of (1) the axial ratio, (2) angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities, (3) the power law exponent of the spatial spectrum of irregularities, and (4) the magnitude of the spatial variations in electron density. Equipment limitations and the method of analysis constrain the observations to irregularities of approximate size 1--200 km. No evidence of the inner or outer scale of the irregularities was found. For length scales in the range given, the three-dimensional spatial spectrum obeys a power law with exponent varying from -3.0 to -3.7, and the root mean square fractional variations in electron density are 1--15%. All observed irregularities appear to be anisotropic with axial ratios between 2:1 and 10:1. Ionospheric parameters vary with altitude and latitude. We conclude that the measured angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities indicates magnetic field direction and may provide a basis for refining Jovian magnetic field models.

  1. Parallel processing of dose calculation for external photon beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Etsuo; Ando, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro; Ito, Hisao; Kubo, Atsushi

    1994-01-01

    We implemented external photon beam dose calculation programs into a parallel processor system consisting of Transputers, 32-bit processors especially suitable for multi-processor configuration. Two network conformations, binary-tree and pipeline, were evaluated for rectangular and irregular field dose calculation algorithms. Although computation speed increased in proportion to the number of CPU, substantial overhead caused by inter-processor communication occurred when a smaller computation load was delivered to each processor. On the other hand, for irregular field calculation, which requires more computation capability for each calculation point, the communication overhead was still less even when more than 50 processors were involved. Real-time responses could be expected for more complex algorithms by increasing the number of processors. (author)

  2. Metaheuristics-Assisted Combinatorial Screening of Eu2+-Doped Ca-Sr-Ba-Li-Mg-Al-Si-Ge-N Compositional Space in Search of a Narrow-Band Green Emitting Phosphor and Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Woong; Singh, Satendra Pal; Kim, Minseuk; Hong, Sung Un; Park, Woon Bae; Sohn, Kee-Sun

    2017-08-21

    A metaheuristics-based design would be of great help in relieving the enormous experimental burdens faced during the combinatorial screening of a huge, multidimensional search space, while providing the same effect as total enumeration. In order to tackle the high-throughput powder processing complications and to secure practical phosphors, metaheuristics, an elitism-reinforced nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), was employed in this study. The NSGA-II iteration targeted two objective functions. The first was to search for a higher emission efficacy. The second was to search for narrow-band green color emissions. The NSGA-II iteration finally converged on BaLi 2 Al 2 Si 2 N 6 :Eu 2+ phosphors in the Eu 2+ -doped Ca-Sr-Ba-Li-Mg-Al-Si-Ge-N compositional search space. The BaLi 2 Al 2 Si 2 N 6 :Eu 2+ phosphor, which was synthesized with no human intervention via the assistance of NSGA-II, was a clear single phase and gave an acceptable luminescence. The BaLi 2 Al 2 Si 2 N 6 :Eu 2+ phosphor as well as all other phosphors that appeared during the NSGA-II iterations were examined in detail by employing powder X-ray diffraction-based Rietveld refinement, X-ray absorption near edge structure, density functional theory calculation, and time-resolved photoluminescence. The thermodynamic stability and the band structure plausibility were confirmed, and more importantly a novel approach to the energy transfer analysis was also introduced for BaLi 2 Al 2 Si 2 N 6 :Eu 2+ phosphors.

  3. The dynamics of rings around small, irregular bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardy, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    Stellar occultations revealed the presence of two dense rings around the Centaur object (10199) Chariklo (Braga-Ribas et al., Nature 508, 72, 2014). This is the first ring system discovered around an object that is not a giant planet, suggesting that rings may exist around numerous bodies in the solar system. Chariklo's rings roughly reside at the outer limit of the Roche zone of the body. Moreover, the main ring has sharp edges, which call for the presence of putative shepherd satellites. Those characteristics give an image of Chariklo's rings that are rather similar, in terms of dynamics, to those surrounding the gaseous planets.An important difference exists, however, between giant planets and small bodies: the formers are highly axisymmetric, while the latters can support mass anomalies (eg surface topographic features) or non-spherical shapes (eg an ellipsoidal figure of equilibrium) that involve masses, relative to the body itself, as large as 10-4-10-3.We investigate the effect of non-axisymmetric terms in the potential of the body upon a collisional debris disk that initially surrounds a small irregular body. We show that the corotation points being maxima of energy, dissipative collisions remove the particles from the corotation zone over short time scales (< 106 years). Moreover, the Lindblad resonances inside the corotation radius create torques that drive the particles onto the surface of the central body. Conversely, the outer Lindblad resonances push the disk material beyond the outer 3/2 and 2/1 Lindblad resonances.Taking as an example Chariklo's ring system, for which recent data have been obtained from stellar occultations, we show that the Lindblad resonant torques actuate over short time scales (< 106 years). This general picture offers a natural explanation of the presence of dense rings at the outer limit of Chariklo's Roche zone, and their absence closer to the body.The work leading to this results has received funding from the European

  4. X-ray pulsars in nearby irregular galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Irregular Galaxy IC 10 are valuable laboratories to study the physical, temporal and statistical properties of the X-ray pulsar population with multi-satellite observations, in order to probe fundamental physics. The known distance of these galaxies can help us easily categorize the luminosity of the pulsars and their age difference can be helpful for for studying the origin and evolution of compact objects. Therefore, a complete archive of 116 XMM-Newton PN, 151 Chandra (Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer) ACIS, and 952 RXTE PCA observations for the pulsars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) were collected and analyzed, along with 42 XMM-Newton and 30 Chandra observations for the Large Magellanic Cloud, spanning 1997-2014. From a sample of 67 SMC pulsars we generate a suite of products for each pulsar detection: spin period, flux, event list, high time-resolution light-curve, pulse-profile, periodogram, and X-ray spectrum. Combining all three satellites, I generated complete histories of the spin periods, pulse amplitudes, pulsed fractions and X-ray luminosities. Many of the pulsars show variations in pulse period due to the combination of orbital motion and accretion torques. Long-term spin-up/down trends are seen in 28/25 pulsars respectively, pointing to sustained transfer of mass and angular momentum to the neutron star on decadal timescales. The distributions of pulse detection and flux as functions of spin period provide interesting findings: mapping boundaries of accretion-driven X-ray luminosity, and showing that fast pulsars (P<10 s) are rarely detected, which yet are more prone to giant outbursts. In parallel we compare the observed pulse profiles to our general relativity (GR) model of X-ray emission in order to constrain the physical parameters of the pulsars.In addition, we conduct a search for optical counterparts to X-ray sources in the local dwarf galaxy IC 10 to form a comparison

  5. Shape of the nuclear magnetic resonance line in anisotropic superconductors with an irregular vortex lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkin, A.V.; Tsarevskij, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    For high-temperature superconductors the shape of a NMR spectrum line is built regarding for variation of inhomogeneity of irregular vortex lattice magnetic field near superconductor surface. It is shown that the shape of a NMR line is not simply widened but noticeably varies depending on the degree of irregularity of a superconductor vortex lattice. This variation is associated with a local symmetry decrease in an irregular vortex lattice of the superconductor. Taking into account these circumstances may considerably change conclusions about the type of a vortex lattice and superconductor parameters which are commonly gained from NMR line shape analysis [ru

  6. Randomness control of vehicular motion through a sequence of traffic signals at irregular intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We study the regularization of irregular motion of a vehicle moving through the sequence of traffic signals with a disordered configuration. Each traffic signal is controlled by both cycle time and phase shift. The cycle time is the same for all signals, while the phase shift varies from signal to signal by synchronizing with intervals between a signal and the next signal. The nonlinear dynamic model of the vehicular motion is presented by the stochastic nonlinear map. The vehicle exhibits the very complex behavior with varying both cycle time and strength of irregular intervals. The irregular motion induced by the disordered configuration is regularized by adjusting the phase shift within the regularization regions.

  7. An investigation into design of fair surfaces over irregular domains ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    data using spaces of parametric splines defined on 2 triangulation. ... r. A unique plane can be defined which passes through the vertices of the triangle and this ... used this objective function (i.e. elastic energy of a thin plate) because it can be ...

  8. The second-order decomposition model of nonlinear irregular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhi Wen; Bingham, Harry B.; Li, Jin Xuan

    2013-01-01

    into the first- and the second-order super-harmonic as well as the second-order sub-harmonic components by transferring them into an identical Fourier frequency-space and using a Newton-Raphson iteration method. In order to evaluate the present model, a variety of monochromatic waves and the second...

  9. Dosimetric evaluation of the conformation of the multileaf collimator to irregularly shaped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, Arthur; Du, Maria; Wong, John; Vicini, Frank; Taylor, Roy; Yu, Cedric; Matter, Richard; Martinez, Alvaro; Yan Di

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of geometric MLC prescription strategies and compare them to those of conventional shielding block. Methods and Materials: Circular fields, square fields, and 12 irregular fields for patients with cancer of the head and neck, lung, and pelvis were included in this study. All fields were shaped using the MLC and conventional blocks. A geometric criterion was defined as the amount of area discrepancy between the MLC and the prescription outline. The 'least area discrepancy' (LAD) of the MLC conformation was searched by selecting the collimator angle, meanwhile keeping a preselected position along the width of the leaf into the prescribed field. Five LAD conventions were studied. These included the LAD-0, LAD-(1(3)), LAD-(1(2)), and LAD-(2(3)) that inserted the leaves at the 0, (1(3)), (1(2)), and (2(3)) of the leaf end into the prescription field, respectively. In addition, the LAD optimization was applied to the transecting (TRN) approach for leaf conformation that prescribed an equal area of overblocking and underblocking under each leaf. Film dosimetry was performed in a 20 cm polystyrene phantom at 10 cm depth 100 cm from source to axis distance (SAD) for both 6 and 18 MV photons with each of the above MLC conformations and conventional blocks. The field penumbra width, defined as the mean of the separation between the 20% and 80% isodose lines along the normal of the prescription field edge, was calculated using both the MLC and conventional block film dosimetry and compared. In a similar way, the d20 is defined as the mean separation between the 20% isodose line and the prescription field edge, and the d80 is defined as the mean separation between the 80% isodose line and the prescription field edge. Results: The field penumbra width for all MLC conventions was approximately 2 mm larger than that of the conventional block. However, there was a larger variation of the separation

  10. Spectral analysis of uneven time series of geological variables; Analisis espectral de series temporales de variables geologicas con muestreo irregular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo-Iguzquiza, E.; Rodriguez-Tovar, F. J.

    2013-06-01

    In geosciences the sampling of a time series tends to afford uneven results, sometimes because the sampling itself is random or because of hiatuses or even completely missing data or due to difficulties involved in the conversion of data from a spatial to a time scale when the sedimentation rate was not constant. Whatever the case, the best solution does not lie in interpolation but rather in resorting to a method that deals with the irregular data. We show here how the use of the smoothed Lomb-Scargle periodogram is both a practical and efficient choice. We describe the effects on the estimated power spectrum of the type of irregular sampling, the number of data, interpolation, and the presence of drift. We propose the permutation test as being an efficient way of calculating statistical confidence levels. By applying the Lomb-Scargle periodogram to a synthetic series with a known spectral content we are able to confirm the validity of this method in the face of the difficulties mentioned above. A case study with real data, including hiatuses, representing the thickness of the annual banding in a stalagmite, is chosen to demonstrate an application using the statistical and physical interpretation of spectral peaks. (Author)

  11. Time and latitudinal distribution of the ionospheric irregularities in Brazil, through the VHF-scintillation and ionogram data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, O.R.

    1984-01-01

    Equatorial ionospheric irregularity distribution morphology, and dynamics, and the dynamics of the ambient ionosphere were investigated. Spread F data from ionograms over Fortaleza (4 0 S; 38 0 O) and Cachoeira Paulista (22,7 0 S; 45 0 O), and simultaneous VHF scintillations of geoestationary satellite beacon received over Natal (5,6 0 S; 33,7 0 O) were used to determine the irregularity local time versus seasonal distribution, over the equatorial and low latitude location, during the solar activity maximum as well as minimum epochs. Concept of flux tube alignment properties of the transequatorial plasma bubbles were used to determine statistical features of the plasma bubble rise velocities. Calculations of plasma bubble rise velocities were then carried out for different solar activity epochs and compared with prereversal enhancement amplitude in the F-layer vertical rise velocities, for the same epochs. Using theoretical considerations on the development of plasma bubble based on flux tube integrated properties, the observed dependence of the plasma bubble rise velocities and the F-region dynamo electric field has been analysed to estimate the average ionizations depletions in the plasma bubble. Possible causes for the lack of correlation often observed between bubble rise velocities and F-Layer velocities also are discussed. (Author) [pt

  12. A Convex Hull-Based New Metric for Quantification of Bladder Wall Irregularity in Pediatric Patients With Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stember, Joseph N; Newhouse, Jeffrey; Behr, Gerald; Alam, Shumyle

    2017-11-01

    Early identification and quantification of bladder damage in pediatric patients with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) is crucial to guiding effective treatment and may affect the eventual clinical outcome, including progression of renal disease. We have developed a novel approach based on the convex hull to calculate bladder wall trabecularity in pediatric patients with CAKUT. The objective of this study was to test whether our approach can accurately predict bladder wall irregularity. Twenty pediatric patients, half with renal compromise and CAKUT and half with normal renal function, were evaluated. We applied the convex hull approach to calculate T, a metric proposed to reflect the degree of trabeculation/bladder wall irregularity, in this set of patients. The average T value was roughly 3 times higher for diseased than healthy patients (0.14 [95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.17] versus 0.05 [95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.07] for normal bladders). This disparity was statistically significant (P hull-based procedure can measure bladder wall irregularity. Because bladder damage is a reversible precursor to irreversible renal parenchymal damage, applying such a measure to at-risk pediatric patients can help guide prompt interventions to avert disease progression. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Spelling pronunciation and visual preview both facilitate learning to spell irregular word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilte, M.; Reitsma, P.

    2006-01-01

    Spelling pronunciations are hypothesized to be helpful in building up relatively stable phonologically underpinned orthographic representations, particularly for learning words with irregular phoneme-grapheme correspondences. In a four-week computer-based training, the efficacy of spelling

  14. On Impulsive Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Differential Equations with Irregular Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guotao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study nonlinear impulsive differential equations of fractional order with irregular boundary conditions. Some existence and uniqueness results are obtained by applying standard fixed-point theorems. For illustration of the results, some examples are discussed.

  15. Inter-hospital Cross-validation of Irregular Discharge Patterns for Young vs. Old Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdzierz, Gerald J.; Davis, William E.

    1975-01-01

    Type of discharge (irregular vs. regular) and length of time hospitalized were used as unobtrusive measures of psychiatric patient acceptance of hospital treatment regime among two groups (18-27 years and 45 years and above) of patients. (Author)

  16. Conflict management among irregular immigrants: the micro politics of intercultural respect.

    OpenAIRE

    Clough, Paul; Works in Progress Seminars Series

    2010-01-01

    A talk in the Works in Progress Seminars Series with the title of "Conflict management among irregular immigrants: the micro politics of intercultural respect". This talk is given by Prof Paul Clough.

  17. Dynamics of landslides on comets of irregular shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2017-04-01

    Landslides were observed on a few comet's nuclei, e.g. [1], [2]. The mechanism of their origin is not obvious because of very low gravity. According to [2] fluidization and multiphase transport of cometary material could be an explanation. We investigate here motion of the mass on a comet of irregular shape. The mechanism responsible for the low friction is not considered here. In fact, mass motion often occurs without contact with the surface. The motion could be triggered by meteoroids impacts or by the tidal forces. Comets nuclei are believed to be built of soft materials like snow and dust. The landing of Philae on the comet 67P/Czuriumow-Gierasimienko indicates a different situation. According to [1]: "thermal probe did not fully penetrate the near-surface layers, suggesting a local resistance of the ground to penetration of >4 megapascals, equivalent to >2 megapascal uniaxial compressive strength". Here we assume that elastic properties of comet's nuclei could be similar to elastic properties of dry snow, namely Young modulus is assumed to be 1 - 100 MPa, see [3] and [4]. We consider nucleus of the shape of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with density 470 kg/m3. The impact or tidal forces result in changing of rotation of the comet. In general, the vector of angular velocity will be a subject to nutation that results in changing of centrifugal force, and consequently could be a factor triggering landslides. Note that nucleus' shape does not resemble the shape of surface of constant value of gravitational potential (i.e. 'geoid'). Our numerical models indicate the parts of the nucleus where landslides start and other parts where landslides stop. Of course, the regolith from the first type of regions would be removed to the regions of the second class. The motion of the mass is often complicated because of complicated distribution of the gravity and complicated shape of the nucleus. Acknowledgement: The research is partly supported by Polish National Science Centre

  18. Efficient irregular wavefront propagation algorithms on Intel® Xeon Phi™

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Jeremias M.; Teodoro, George; de Melo, Alba; Kong, Jun; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel H.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the execution of the Irregular Wavefront Propagation Pattern (IWPP), a fundamental computing structure used in several image analysis operations, on the Intel® Xeon Phi™ co-processor. An efficient implementation of IWPP on the Xeon Phi is a challenging problem because of IWPP’s irregularity and the use of atomic instructions in the original IWPP algorithm to resolve race conditions. On the Xeon Phi, the use of SIMD and vectorization instructions is critical to attain high perfo...

  19. SUB-SAHARAN IRREGULAR MIGRANTS IN MOROCCO & THE EXCEPTIONAL REGULARISATION PROGRAMME IN 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Naama, Mbarek

    2017-01-01

    Naama, Mbarek. Sub-Saharan Irregular Migrants in Morocco and the Exceptional Regularisation Programme in 2014. Diak South Helsinki Finland. Spring 2017. 43 Pages. Language: English. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Social Services, Option in Community Development, Bachelor of Social Services (UAS). After decades of ignoring irregular migration and refusing to acknowledge that Morocco is no longer just a transit but also a host country for increasing complex mig...

  20. Modalities of Tonometry and their Accuracy with Respect to Corneal Thickness and Irregularities

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Gustavo V. De Moraes; Tiago S. Prata; Jeffrey Liebmann; Robert Ritch

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in tonometry have led to the development of a number of devices with differing clinical applications. Their role in cases of abnormal corneal thickness and surface irregularities is particularly important, as inaccurate estimation of the true intraocular pressure (IOP) in such cases may lead to suboptimal evaluation. The purpose of the present review was to evaluate the accuracy of the most widely used devices in cases of corneal thickness and surface irregularities, based ...

  1. A Generalized FDM for solving the Poisson's Equation on 3D Irregular Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Izadian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new method for solving the Poisson's equation with Dirichlet conditions on irregular domains is presented. For this purpose a generalized finite differences method is applied for numerical differentiation on irregular meshes. Three examples on cylindrical and spherical domains are considered. The numerical results are compared with analytical solution. These results show the performance and efficiency of the proposed method.

  2. Characterizing neural activities evoked by manual acupuncture through spiking irregularity measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Ming; Wang Jiang; Deng Bin; Wei Xi-Le; Yu Hai-Tao; Chen Ying-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The neural system characterizes information in external stimulations by different spiking patterns. In order to examine how neural spiking patterns are related to acupuncture manipulations, experiments are designed in such a way that different types of manual acupuncture (MA) manipulations are taken at the ‘Zusanli’ point of experimental rats, and the induced electrical signals in the spinal dorsal root ganglion are detected and recorded. The interspike interval (ISI) statistical histogram is fitted by the gamma distribution, which has two parameters: one is the time-dependent firing rate and the other is a shape parameter characterizing the spiking irregularities. The shape parameter is the measure of spiking irregularities and can be used to identify the type of MA manipulations. The coefficient of variation is mostly used to measure the spike time irregularity, but it overestimates the irregularity in the case of pronounced firing rate changes. However, experiments show that each acupuncture manipulation will lead to changes in the firing rate. So we combine four relatively rate-independent measures to study the irregularity of spike trains evoked by different types of MA manipulations. Results suggest that the MA manipulations possess unique spiking statistics and characteristics and can be distinguished according to the spiking irregularity measures. These studies have offered new insights into the coding processes and information transfer of acupuncture. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  3. Effects of surface irregularities on intensity data from laser scanning: an experimental approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Teza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experiment carried out with the aim to investigate the role of surface irregularities on the intensity data provided by a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS survey are reported here. Depending on surface roughness, the interaction between an electromagnetic wave and microscopic irregularities leads to a Lambertian-like diffusive light reflection, allowing the TLS to receive the backscattered component of the signal. The described experiment consists in a series of TLS-based acquisitions of a rotating artificial target specifically conceived in order to highlight the effects on the intensity data due to surface irregularity. This target is articulated in a flat plate and in an irregular surface, whose macro-roughness has a characteristic length with the same order of the spot size. Results point out the different behavior of the plates. The intensity of the signal backscattered by the planar element decreases if the incidence angle increases, whereas the intensity of the signal backscattered by the irregular surface is almost constant if the incidence angle varies. Since the typical surfaces acquired in a geological/geophysical survey are generally irregular, these results imply that the intensity data can be easily used in order to evaluate the reflectance of the material at the considered wavelength, e.g. for pattern recognition purposes.

  4. Radar Observations of 8.3-m scale equatorial spread F irregularities over Trivandrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tiwari

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present observations of equatorial spread F (ESF irregularities made using a newly installed 18MHz radar located at Trivandrum. We characterize the morphology and the spectral parameters of the 8.3-m ESF irregularities which are found to be remarkably different from that observed so extensively at the 3-m scale size. We also present statistical results of the irregularities in the form of percentage occurrence of the echoes and spectral parameters (SNR, Doppler velocity, Spectral width. The Doppler spectra are narrower, less structured and less variable in time as compared to those observed for 3-m scale size. We have never observed the ESF irregularity velocities to be supersonic here unlike those at Jicamarca, and the velocities are found to be within ±200ms–1. The spectral widths are found to be less than 150ms–1. Hence, the velocities and spectral width both are smaller than those reported for 3-m scale size. The velocities and spectral widths are further found to be much smaller than those of the American sector. These observations are compared with those reported elsewhere and discussed in the light of present understanding on the ESF irregularities at different wavelengths.

    Key words. Ionoshphere (equatorial ionosphere, plasma waves and instabilities; ionospheric irregularities

  5. Radar Observations of 8.3-m scale equatorial spread F irregularities over Trivandrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tiwari

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present observations of equatorial spread F (ESF irregularities made using a newly installed 18MHz radar located at Trivandrum. We characterize the morphology and the spectral parameters of the 8.3-m ESF irregularities which are found to be remarkably different from that observed so extensively at the 3-m scale size. We also present statistical results of the irregularities in the form of percentage occurrence of the echoes and spectral parameters (SNR, Doppler velocity, Spectral width. The Doppler spectra are narrower, less structured and less variable in time as compared to those observed for 3-m scale size. We have never observed the ESF irregularity velocities to be supersonic here unlike those at Jicamarca, and the velocities are found to be within ±200ms–1. The spectral widths are found to be less than 150ms–1. Hence, the velocities and spectral width both are smaller than those reported for 3-m scale size. The velocities and spectral widths are further found to be much smaller than those of the American sector. These observations are compared with those reported elsewhere and discussed in the light of present understanding on the ESF irregularities at different wavelengths. Key words. Ionoshphere (equatorial ionosphere, plasma waves and instabilities; ionospheric irregularities

  6. Study of electromagnetic wave scattering by periodic density irregularities in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyle, R.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1995-01-01

    A quasi-particle approach is used to formulate wave propagation and scattering in a periodically structured plasma. The theory is then applied to study the effect of bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellites signals through the ionosphere. In this approach, the radio wave is treated as a distribution of quasi-particles described by a Wigner distribution function governed by a transport equation. The irregularities providing the collisional effect are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on a uniform background plasma. The present work generalizes the previous work by including the spectral bandwidth (Δk/k) effect of the spatially periodic irregularities on the transionospheric signal propagation. The collision of quasi-particles with the irregularities modifies the quasi-particle distribution and give rise to the wave scattering phenomenon. The multiple scattering process is generally considered in this deterministic analysis of radio wave scattering off the ionospheric density irregularities. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then results in the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals

  7. New prospective 4D-CT for mitigating the effects of irregular respiratory motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tinsu; Martin, Rachael M.; Luo, Dershan

    2017-08-01

    Artifact caused by irregular respiration is a major source of error in 4D-CT imaging. We propose a new prospective 4D-CT to mitigate this source of error without new hardware, software or off-line data-processing on the GE CT scanner. We utilize the cine CT scan in the design of the new prospective 4D-CT. The cine CT scan at each position can be stopped by the operator when an irregular respiration occurs, and resumed when the respiration becomes regular. This process can be repeated at one or multiple scan positions. After the scan, a retrospective reconstruction is initiated on the CT console to reconstruct only the images corresponding to the regular respiratory cycles. The end result is a 4D-CT free of irregular respiration. To prove feasibility, we conducted a phantom and six patient studies. The artifacts associated with the irregular respiratory cycles could be removed from both the phantom and patient studies. A new prospective 4D-CT scanning and processing technique to mitigate the impact of irregular respiration in 4D-CT has been demonstrated. This technique can save radiation dose because the repeat scans are only at the scan positions where an irregular respiration occurs. Current practice is to repeat the scans at all positions. There is no cost to apply this technique because it is applicable on the GE CT scanner without new hardware, software or off-line data-processing.

  8. Influence of long-wavelength track irregularities on the motion of a high-speed train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C. F.; Hsu, W. L.

    2018-01-01

    Vertical track irregularities over viaducts in high-speed rail systems could be possibly caused by concrete creep if pre-stressed concrete bridges are used. For bridge spans that are almost uniformly distributed, track irregularity exhibits a near-regular wave profile that excites car bodies as a high-speed train moves over the bridge system. A long-wavelength irregularity induces low-frequency excitation that may be close to the natural frequencies of the train suspension system, thereby causing significant vibration of the car body. This paper investigates the relationship between the levels of car vibration, bridge vibration, track irregularity, and the train speed. First, this study investigates the vibration levels of a high-speed train and bridge system using 3D finite-element (FE) transient dynamic analysis, before and after adjustment of vertical track irregularities by means of installing shimming plates under rail pads. The analysis models are validated by in situ measurements and on-board measurement. Parametric studies of car body vibration and bridge vibration under three different levels of track irregularity at five train speeds and over two bridge span lengths are conducted using the FE model. Finally, a discontinuous shimming pattern is proposed to avoid vehicle suspension resonance.

  9. Modification of transmission dose algorithm for irregularly shaped radiation field and tissue deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hyong Geon; Shin, Kyo Chul [Dankook Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Soon Nyung; Woo, Hong Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan [Seoul National Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyoung Koo [The Catholic Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Algorithm for estimation of transmission dose was modified for use in partially blocked radiation fields and in cases with tissue deficit. The beam data was measured with flat solid phantom in various conditions of beam block. And an algorithm for correction of transmission dose in cases of partially blocked radiation field was developed from the measured data. The algorithm was tested in some clinical settings with irregular shaped field. Also, another algorithm for correction of transmission dose for tissue deficit was developed by physical reasoning. This algorithm was tested in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer patients by using multiple sheets of solid phantoms. The algorithm for correction of beam block could accurately reflect the effect of beam block, with error within {+-}1.0%, both with square fields and irregularly shaped fields. The correction algorithm for tissue deficit could accurately reflect the effect of tissue deficit with errors within {+-}1.0% in most situations and within {+-}3.0% in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer treatment set-up. Developed algorithms could accurately estimate the transmission dose in most radiation treatment settings including irregularly shaped field and irregularly shaped body contour with tissue deficit in transmission dosimetry.

  10. Modification of transmission dose algorithm for irregularly shaped radiation field and tissue deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geon; Shin, Kyo Chul; Huh, Soon Nyung; Woo, Hong Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan; Lee, Hyoung Koo

    2002-01-01

    Algorithm for estimation of transmission dose was modified for use in partially blocked radiation fields and in cases with tissue deficit. The beam data was measured with flat solid phantom in various conditions of beam block. And an algorithm for correction of transmission dose in cases of partially blocked radiation field was developed from the measured data. The algorithm was tested in some clinical settings with irregular shaped field. Also, another algorithm for correction of transmission dose for tissue deficit was developed by physical reasoning. This algorithm was tested in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer patients by using multiple sheets of solid phantoms. The algorithm for correction of beam block could accurately reflect the effect of beam block, with error within ±1.0%, both with square fields and irregularly shaped fields. The correction algorithm for tissue deficit could accurately reflect the effect of tissue deficit with errors within ±1.0% in most situations and within ±3.0% in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer treatment set-up. Developed algorithms could accurately estimate the transmission dose in most radiation treatment settings including irregularly shaped field and irregularly shaped body contour with tissue deficit in transmission dosimetry

  11. Irregular menses predicts ovarian cancer: Prospective evidence from the Child Health and Development Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Piera M; Wang, Erica T; Cedars, Marcelle I; Chen, Lee-May; Cohn, Barbara A

    2016-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that irregular menstruation predicts lower risk for ovarian cancer, possibly due to less frequent ovulation. We conducted a 50-year prospective study of 15,528 mothers in the Child Health and Development Studies cohort recruited from the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan from 1959 to 1966. Irregular menstruation was classified via medical record and self-report at age 26. We identified 116 cases and 84 deaths due to ovarian cancer through 2011 via linkage to the California Cancer Registry and Vital Statistics. Contrary to expectation, women with irregular menstrual cycles had a higher risk of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality over the 50-year follow-up. Associations increased with age (p irregular menstruation and ovarian cancer-we unexpectedly found higher risk for women with irregular cycles. These women are easy to identify and many may have polycystic ovarian syndrome. Classifying high-risk phenotypes such as irregular menstruation creates opportunities to find novel early biomarkers, refine clinical screening protocols and potentially develop new risk reduction strategies. These efforts can lead to earlier detection and better survival for ovarian cancer. © 2016 UICC.

  12. Vitali systems in R^n with irregular sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlbro, Leif; Topsøe, Flemming

    1996-01-01

    Vitali type theorems are results stating that out of a given family of sets one can select pairwise disjoint sets which fill out a "large" region. Usually one works with "regular" sets such as balls. We shall establish results with sets of a more complicated geometrical structure, e.g., Cantor......-like sets are allowed. The results are related to a generalisation of the classical notion of a differentiation basis.l They concern real n-space R^n and Lebesgue measure....

  13. Constructing irregular surfaces to enclose macromolecular complexes for mesoscale modeling using the discrete surface charge optimization (DISCO) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Beard, Daniel A; Schlick, Tamar

    2003-12-01

    Salt-mediated electrostatics interactions play an essential role in biomolecular structures and dynamics. Because macromolecular systems modeled at atomic resolution contain thousands of solute atoms, the electrostatic computations constitute an expensive part of the force and energy calculations. Implicit solvent models are one way to simplify the model and associated calculations, but they are generally used in combination with standard atomic models for the solute. To approximate electrostatics interactions in models on the polymer level (e.g., supercoiled DNA) that are simulated over long times (e.g., milliseconds) using Brownian dynamics, Beard and Schlick have developed the DiSCO (Discrete Surface Charge Optimization) algorithm. DiSCO represents a macromolecular complex by a few hundred discrete charges on a surface enclosing the system modeled by the Debye-Hückel (screened Coulombic) approximation to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and treats the salt solution as continuum solvation. DiSCO can represent the nucleosome core particle (>12,000 atoms), for example, by 353 discrete surface charges distributed on the surfaces of a large disk for the nucleosome core particle and a slender cylinder for the histone tail; the charges are optimized with respect to the Poisson-Boltzmann solution for the electric field, yielding a approximately 5.5% residual. Because regular surfaces enclosing macromolecules are not sufficiently general and may be suboptimal for certain systems, we develop a general method to construct irregular models tailored to the geometry of macromolecules. We also compare charge optimization based on both the electric field and electrostatic potential refinement. Results indicate that irregular surfaces can lead to a more accurate approximation (lower residuals), and the refinement in terms of the electric field is more robust. We also show that surface smoothing for irregular models is important, that the charge optimization (by the TNPACK

  14. Dosimetry of irregular shaped fields of β rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Datta, S.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of using various shapes and sizes of field limiting devices and collimators with β-ray eye applicators has necessitated the study of dosimetry for these fields. A method of calculating surface and depth doses for any shaped field from the data for circular fields is presented. The depth dose evaluation is based on a measured dose function which is defined as the dose rate at a particular depth for a particular circular field. The evaluated values for the surface and depth dose were compared with experimentally obtained values for three non-circular fields. The good agreement in these data indicates the practicability of the method suggested. (author)

  15. Invert Effective Thermal Conductivity Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.J. Anderson; H.M. Wade; T.L. Mitchell

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the temperature-dependent effective thermal conductivities of a repository-emplaced invert steel set and surrounding ballast material. The scope of this calculation analyzes a ballast-material thermal conductivity range of 0.10 to 0.70 W/m · K, a transverse beam spacing range of 0.75 to 1.50 meters, and beam compositions of A 516 carbon steel and plain carbon steel. Results from this calculation are intended to support calculations that identify waste package and repository thermal characteristics for Site Recommendation (SR). This calculation was developed by Waste Package Department (WPD) under Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 1, ICN 0, Calculations

  16. Reformulation of a stochastic action principle for irregular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.A.; Bangoup, S.; Dzangue, F.; Jeatsa, A.; Tsobnang, F.; Le Mehaute, A.

    2009-01-01

    A stochastic action principle for random dynamics is revisited. Numerical diffusion experiments are carried out to show that the diffusion path probability depends exponentially on the Lagrangian action A=∫ a b Ldt. This result is then used to derive the Shannon measure for path uncertainty. It is shown that the maximum entropy principle and the least action principle of classical mechanics can be unified into δA-bar=0 where the average is calculated over all possible paths of the stochastic motion between two configuration points a and b. It is argued that this action principle and the maximum entropy principle are a consequence of the mechanical equilibrium condition extended to the case of stochastic dynamics.

  17. Acceleration of Upper Trunk Coordination in Young Versus old Adults During Walking on the Level and Irregular Floor Surface Using MTx Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Soleimanifar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the reliability of head and trunk acceleration measured by MTx sensors during walking on Level and Irregular surfaces and to compare the differences between healthy young and old adults. Methods: Participants were 20 young female university students and 20 non-faller elderly women in Iran, 2013. Two MTX sensors were used to measure head and trunk accelerations in the vertical (VT, anterior-posterior (AP, and medial-lateral (ML directions while participants walked on a 7-meter walkway.  Results: ICC values in young group were higher as compared to non- faller elderly group; ICC was greater than 0.7 for 89.47%(34.38 of variables in young group and for 60.52%(23.38 in non- faller. Intersession reliability for upper trunk coordination indices in regular surface and in young group showed highest values as compared with other conditions in both groups, whereas the lowest intersession reliability was found in irregular floor surface indices in non-faller elderly group. Discussion: The calculated ICC, SEM, CV%, MDC values suggest that the MTX sensors provide precise recordings and detect small changes in upper  trunk accelerometric parameters. ICC values were influenced by the age and the floor condition. In healthy young, all ICC values in regular surface were higher than 0.7. Floor condition effect was noticeable in elderly especially in ML direction. During walking on irregular surface, ML acceleration, velocity and harmonic  ratio in elderly showed lower repeatability.

  18. Observations of inner plasmasphere irregularities with a satellite-beacon radio-interferometer array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.; Hoogeveen, G.; Carlos, R.C.; Wu, G.; Fejer, B.G.; Kelley, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    A radio-interferometer array illuminated by 136-MHz beacons of several geosynchronous satellites has been used to study small (≥10 13 m -2 ) transient disturbances in the total electron content along the lines of sight to the satellites. High-frequency (f>3 mHz) electron content oscillations are persistently observed, particularly during night and particularly during geomagnetically disturbed periods. The oscillations move across the array plane at speeds in the range 200 endash 2000 m/s, with propagation azimuths that are strongly peaked in lobes toward the western half-plane. Detailed analysis of this azimuth behavior, involving comparison between observations on various satellite positions, indicates compellingly that the phase oscillations originate in radio refraction due to geomagnetically aligned plasma density perturbations in the inner plasmasphere. The motion of the phase perturbations across the array plane is caused by EXB drift of the plasma medium in which the irregularities are embedded. We review the statistics of 2.5 years of around-the-clock data on the local time, magnetic disturbance, seasonal, and line-of-sight variations of these observed irregularities. We compare the irregularities close-quote inferred electrodynamic drifts to what is known about midlatitude plasma drift from incoherent scatter. Finally, we show in detail how the observation of these irregularities provides a unique and complementary monitor of inner plasmasphere irregularity incidence and zonal drift.copyright 1996 American Geophysical Union

  19. Method of determining effects of heat-induced irregular refractive index on an optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xifa; Li, Lin; Huang, Yifan

    2015-09-01

    The effects of an irregular refractive index on optical performance are examined. A method was developed to express a lens's irregular refractive index distribution. An optical system and its mountings were modeled by a thermomechanical finite element (FE) program in the predicted operating temperature range, -45°C-50°C. FE outputs were elaborated using a MATLAB optimization routine; a nonlinear least squares algorithm was adopted to determine which gradient equation best fit each lens's refractive index distribution. The obtained gradient data were imported into Zemax for sequential ray-tracing analysis. The root mean square spot diameter, modulation transfer function, and diffraction ensquared energy were computed for an optical system under an irregular refractive index and under thermoelastic deformation. These properties are greatly reduced by the irregular refractive index effect, which is one-third to five-sevenths the size of the thermoelastic deformation effect. Thus, thermal analyses of optical systems should consider not only thermoelastic deformation but also refractive index irregularities caused by inhomogeneous temperature.

  20. The nature and source of irregular discharges to stormwater entering Sydney estuary, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, H.J.; Birch, G.F.

    2014-01-01

    Irregular discharges of polluted stormwater into drainage systems during base flow (no rainfall) result in acute ecological impacts within fluvial and estuarine environments. In this study, metal and TSS concentrations were significantly more variable during business hours of weekdays (i.e. high-business activity) than weekends/public holidays (i.e. low-business activity) within three highly-urbanised catchments of Sydney estuary (Australia), as determined by analysing multivariate dispersion (PERMDISP). Concentrations of TSS and all metals analysed (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Pb and Zn) were also significantly greater during high- than low-business periods within at least one of the three catchments. In no case were concentrations significantly higher during low- than high-business periods. This pattern of contamination supports the hypothesis that commercial and industrial sources are major contributors of irregular discharges of contamination to Sydney estuary. Irregular discharges and consequential ecological impacts may be effectively reduced in this environment by focussing management efforts on these activities. - Highlights: • Irregular discharges of pollution have acute impacts on aquatic ecosystems. • These discharges were thought to be made during low activity periods, such as night. • Pollution was more concentrated and erratic during high- than low-business periods. • Timing of pollution suggests commercial and industrial activities are major sources. • Discharges effectively reduced by managing commercial and industrial activities. - Previously unreported irregular, illegal discharges of polluted stormwater released to estuaries result in acute ecological impacts and are potentially related to commercial/industrial activities

  1. 30 MHz radar observations of artificial E region field-aligned plasma irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial E region field aligned irregularities (FAIs have been observed during heating experiments at the HAARP facility using a new 30 MHz coherent scatter radar imager deployed near Homer, Alaska. Irregularities were observed during brief experiments on three quiet days in July and August, 2007, when the daytime E region critical frequency was close to 3 MHz. Irregularities were consistently generated and detected during experiments with O-mode HF pumping on zenith with a 1-min on, 1-min off CW modulation. The scattering cross sections, rise, and fall times of the echoes were observed as well as their spectral properties. Results were found to be mainly in agreement with observations from other mid- and high-latitude sites with some discrepancies. Radar images of the irregularity-filled volume on one case exhibited clear variations in backscatter power and Doppler shift across the volume. The images furthermore show the emergence of a small irregularity-filled region to the south southwest of the main region in the approximate direction of magnetic zenith.

  2. Using forbidden ordinal patterns to detect determinism in irregularly sampled time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, C W; Chobot, J M; Niskala, B J; Needhammer, C J

    2016-02-01

    It is known that when symbolizing a time series into ordinal patterns using the Bandt-Pompe (BP) methodology, there will be ordinal patterns called forbidden patterns that do not occur in a deterministic series. The existence of forbidden patterns can be used to identify deterministic dynamics. In this paper, the ability to use forbidden patterns to detect determinism in irregularly sampled time series is tested on data generated from a continuous model system. The study is done in three parts. First, the effects of sampling time on the number of forbidden patterns are studied on regularly sampled time series. The next two parts focus on two types of irregular-sampling, missing data and timing jitter. It is shown that forbidden patterns can be used to detect determinism in irregularly sampled time series for low degrees of sampling irregularity (as defined in the paper). In addition, comments are made about the appropriateness of using the BP methodology to symbolize irregularly sampled time series.

  3. On the total irregularity strength of caterpillar with each internal vertex has degree three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriati, Diari; Rosyida, Isnaini; Widodo

    2018-04-01

    Let G be a simple, connected and undirected graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A total k-labeling f:V \\cup E\\to \\{1,2,\\ldots,k\\} is defined as totally irregular total k-labeling if the weights of any two different both vertices and edges are distinct. The weight of vertex x is defined as wt(x)=f(x)+{\\sum }xy\\in Ef(xy), while the weight of edge xy is wt(xy)=f(x)+f(xy)+f(y). A minimum k for which G has totally irregular total k-labeling is mentioned as total irregularity strength of G and denoted by ts(G). This paper contains investigation of totally irregular total k-labeling and determination of their total irregularity strengths for caterpillar graphs with each internal vertex between two stars has degree three. The results are ts({S}n,3,n)=\\lceil \\frac{2n}{2}\\rceil, ts({S}n,3,3,n)=\\lceil \\frac{2n+1}{2}\\rceil and ts({S}n,3,3,3,n)=\\lceil \\frac{2n+2}{2}\\rceil for n > 4:

  4. Simulating Seismic Wave Propagation in Viscoelastic Media with an Irregular Free Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingyi; Zhao, Zhencong; Lan, Haiqiang; Liu, Fuping

    2018-05-01

    In seismic numerical simulations of wave propagation, it is very important for us to consider surface topography and attenuation, which both have large effects (e.g., wave diffractions, conversion, amplitude/phase change) on seismic imaging and inversion. An irregular free surface provides significant information for interpreting the characteristics of seismic wave propagation in areas with rugged or rapidly varying topography, and viscoelastic media are a better representation of the earth's properties than acoustic/elastic media. In this study, we develop an approach for seismic wavefield simulation in 2D viscoelastic isotropic media with an irregular free surface. Based on the boundary-conforming grid method, the 2D time-domain second-order viscoelastic isotropic equations and irregular free surface boundary conditions are transferred from a Cartesian coordinate system to a curvilinear coordinate system. Finite difference operators with second-order accuracy are applied to discretize the viscoelastic wave equations and the irregular free surface in the curvilinear coordinate system. In addition, we select the convolutional perfectly matched layer boundary condition in order to effectively suppress artificial reflections from the edges of the model. The snapshot and seismogram results from numerical tests show that our algorithm successfully simulates seismic wavefields (e.g., P-wave, Rayleigh wave and converted waves) in viscoelastic isotropic media with an irregular free surface.

  5. Morning Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Irregular Shift Workers Compared with Regular Daytime Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24/7 work environment and irregular shifts may markedly enhance the psychological pressure of media work. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect adaptation to stress. We analysed the correlation between subjective stress, sleep, salivary cortisol, and melatonin hormones among Finnish media workers with regular daytime work (RDW and with irregular shift work (ISW while controlling confounders. From 874 employees with regular daytime work or with irregular shift work, 70 employees from both groups were randomly selected. The final number of employees with a complete salivary cortisol profile was 66 in the RDW group and 65 in the ISW group. Five saliva samples were gathered from each subject before and during a working day. The salivary cortisol level of the sample taken 60 minutes after awakening (T1 was compared to the salivary cortisol level taken immediately after awakening (T0, T1/T0 ratio. The ratio was higher in the ISW group than in RDW group. Irregular shift work (P<0.001, severe stress (P<0.05, and less sleep (P<0.05 were independently associated with an augmented cortisol response after awakening. A stressful work environment and irregular shift work enhance cortisol excretion after waking. In the long run, this may become detrimental to health.

  6. Application of the pothole DAF method to vehicles traversing periodic roadway irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesterev, A. V.; Bergman, L. A.; Tan, C. A.; Yang, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a sequel to the work discussed in Pesterev et al. (Journal of Sound and Vibration, in press). In that paper, it was suggested that the technique to determine the effect of a local road surface irregularity on the dynamics of a vehicle modelled as a linear multi-degree-of-freedom system relies on the so-called pothole dynamic amplification factor (DAF), which is a complex-valued function specific to the irregularity shape. This paper discusses the companion problem of how to determine the DAF function for an irregularity represented as a superposition of simpler ones. Another purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the pothole DAF functions technique to finding a priori estimates of the effect of irregularities with a repeated structure. Specifically, we solve the problem of finding the conditions under which the dynamic effect of two identical potholes located one after another is greater than that due to the single pothole. We also find the estimate for the number of periods of a periodic irregularity that are sufficient in order to consider the oscillator response as steady state. The discussions are illustrated by numerical examples.

  7. Long and irregular menstrual cycles, polycystic ovary syndrome, and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, H R; Titus, L J; Cramer, D W; Terry, K L

    2017-01-15

    Long and irregular menstrual cycles, a hallmark of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), have been associated with higher androgen and lower sex hormone binding globulin levels and this altered hormonal environment may increase the risk of specific histologic subtypes of ovarian cancer. We investigated whether menstrual cycle characteristics and self-reported PCOS were associated with ovarian cancer risk among 2,041 women with epithelial ovarian cancer and 2,100 controls in the New England Case-Control Study (1992-2008). Menstrual cycle irregularity, menstrual cycle length, and PCOS were collected through in-person interview. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for ovarian cancer risk overall, and polytomous logistic regression to evaluate whether risk differed between histologic subtypes. Overall, we observed no elevation in ovarian cancer risk for women who reported periods that were never regular or for those reporting a menstrual cycle length of >35 days with ORs of 0.87 (95% CI = 0.69-1.10) and 0.83 (95% CI = 0.44-1.54), respectively. We observed no overall association between self-reported PCOS and ovarian cancer (OR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.61-1.56). However, we observed significant differences in the association with menstrual cycle irregularity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes (p heterogeneity  = 0.03) as well as by BMI and OC use (p interaction  < 0.01). Most notable, menstrual cycle irregularity was associated with a decreased risk of high grade serous tumors but an increased risk of serous borderline tumors among women who had never used OCs and those who were overweight. Future research in a large collaborative consortium may help clarify these associations. © 2016 UICC.

  8. The relationship between small-scale and large-scale ionospheric electron density irregularities generated by powerful HF electromagnetic waves at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Tereshchenko

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Satellite radio beacons were used in June 2001 to probe the ionosphere modified by a radio beam produced by the EISCAT high-power, high-frequency (HF transmitter located near Tromsø (Norway. Amplitude scintillations and variations of the phase of 150- and 400-MHz signals from Russian navigational satellites passing over the modified region were observed at three receiver sites. In several papers it has been stressed that in the polar ionosphere the thermal self-focusing on striations during ionospheric modification is the main mechanism resulting in the formation of large-scale (hundreds of meters to kilometers nonlinear structures aligned along the geomagnetic field (magnetic zenith effect. It has also been claimed that the maximum effects caused by small-scale (tens of meters irregularities detected in satellite signals are also observed in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. Contrary to those studies, the present paper shows that the maximum in amplitude scintillations does not correspond strictly to the magnetic zenith direction because high latitude drifts typically cause a considerable anisotropy of small-scale irregularities in a plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field resulting in a deviation of the amplitude-scintillation peak relative to the minimum angle between the line-of-sight to the satellite and direction of the geomagnetic field lines. The variance of the logarithmic relative amplitude fluctuations is considered here, which is a useful quantity in such studies. The experimental values of the variance are compared with model calculations and good agreement has been found. It is also shown from the experimental data that in most of the satellite passes a variance maximum occurs at a minimum in the phase fluctuations indicating that the artificial excitation of large-scale irregularities is minimum when the excitation of small-scale irregularities is maximum.

  9. Actors and factors in the governance of irregular migration : a comparative analysis of Albanian, Georgian, Ukrainian, Pakistani and Afghani irregular flows to Greece

    OpenAIRE

    TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings from the conference "Governing Irregular Migration : States, Actors and Intermediaries", Athens 8-9 July 2015 The loss of over a thousand human lives in the effort to cross the Mediterranean during April 2015 has once again drawn media and political attention to the challenges that the EU is facing in its efforts to govern migration and asylum. However, what seems to be still far from complete is our (the experts and the politicians) understanding of what drives people to put t...

  10. Self-similar slip distributions on irregular shaped faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A.; Murphy, S.

    2018-06-01

    We propose a strategy to place a self-similar slip distribution on a complex fault surface that is represented by an unstructured mesh. This is possible by applying a strategy based on the composite source model where a hierarchical set of asperities, each with its own slip function which is dependent on the distance from the asperity centre. Central to this technique is the efficient, accurate computation of distance between two points on the fault surface. This is known as the geodetic distance problem. We propose a method to compute the distance across complex non-planar surfaces based on a corollary of the Huygens' principle. The difference between this method compared to others sample-based algorithms which precede it is the use of a curved front at a local level to calculate the distance. This technique produces a highly accurate computation of the distance as the curvature of the front is linked to the distance from the source. Our local scheme is based on a sequence of two trilaterations, producing a robust algorithm which is highly precise. We test the strategy on a planar surface in order to assess its ability to keep the self-similarity properties of a slip distribution. We also present a synthetic self-similar slip distribution on a real slab topography for a M8.5 event. This method for computing distance may be extended to the estimation of first arrival times in both complex 3D surfaces or 3D volumes.

  11. Prices and costs of irregularity in renewable resources in the liberalized electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.

    2004-01-01

    The problems raised by incorporating irregular production are of a technical nature (risk of non-availability during peak demand, the requirements for additional reserves) but the electricity markets methods of operation impose economic penalties, which greatly exceed these additional technical costs. In this document, the authors examine the nature of the technical problems posed by irregularity of production and the additional costs resulting from this, and then analyse the origins of the economic penalties that the operation of liberalized electricity markets impose, taking in particular the example of the British market, the New Energy Trading Arrangement (NETA). It would appear that the markets' operating rules may conflict, in certain cases, with the targets for promoting electricity generation from renewable resources. Two types of solutions can therefore be envisaged: a set of rules to limit the impact on irregular production or collective handling of the adjustment to production from renewable resources as already exists in the Nordic electricity markets. (authors)

  12. Working irregular shift patterns is associated with functional constipation among healthy trainee nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The circadian system has a role in regulating gastrointestinal physiology. Perturbation of this system is associated with gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. Shiftwork and poor sleep quality are associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders among many professional groups. This study compared bowel habits between trainee nurses with regular and irregular patterns of shiftwork. Male and female nursing students, enrolled on the first year (regular shifts; n=49 and the fourth year (irregular shifts, n=48 of a nursing degree course were surveyed. Questionnaires were used to assess functional diarrhea and constipation over a three month period. The prevalence of functional constipation among regular shift workers was lower than that found among irregular shift workers; 31.3% and 61.2%, respectively. There was no difference between the two groups in relation to the prevalence of diarrhea. This suggests an association between shiftwork and functional constipation, but not with functional diarrhea.

  13. Spiking irregularity and frequency modulate the behavioral report of single-neuron stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Guy; von Heimendahl, Moritz; Schlattmann, Peter; Houweling, Arthur R; Brecht, Michael

    2014-02-05

    The action potential activity of single cortical neurons can evoke measurable sensory effects, but it is not known how spiking parameters and neuronal subtypes affect the evoked sensations. Here, we examined the effects of spike train irregularity, spike frequency, and spike number on the detectability of single-neuron stimulation in rat somatosensory cortex. For regular-spiking, putative excitatory neurons, detectability increased with spike train irregularity and decreasing spike frequencies but was not affected by spike number. Stimulation of single, fast-spiking, putative inhibitory neurons led to a larger sensory effect compared to regular-spiking neurons, and the effect size depended only on spike irregularity. An ideal-observer analysis suggests that, under our experimental conditions, rats were using integration windows of a few hundred milliseconds or more. Our data imply that the behaving animal is sensitive to single neurons' spikes and even to their temporal patterning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. VHF and UHF radar observations of equatorial F region ionospheric irregularities and background densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, D. M.

    1980-02-01

    A series of measurements of the properties of equatorial ionospheric irregularities were made at Kwajalein, Marshall Islands (M.I.) in August 1977 and July-August 1978. These measurements, sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), involved coordinated ground-based and in situ sensors. The ARPA Long-Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar (ALTAIR), operated by Lincoln Laboratory, obtained backscatter and transmission data during five nights in August 1977 and eight nights in July-August 1978. This report describes the ALTAIR data from the night of August 11, 1978, which yield direct quantitative measurements of 1-m and 3/8-m irregularities and of plasma depleted regions. These plasma depleted regions, previously predicted on the basis of theoretical analysis and in situ data, were observed during the decay phase and not the generative phase of the field-aligned irregularities.

  15. Application of Wuhan Ionospheric Oblique Backscattering Sounding System (WIOBSS) for the investigation of midlatitude ionospheric irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Qiao, Lei; Gong, Wanlin

    2018-03-01

    An upgrade of Wuhan Ionospheric Backscattering Sounding System (WIOBSS) was developed in 2015. Based on the Universal Serial Bus (USB), and a high performance FPGA, the newly designed WIOBSS has a completely digital structure, which makes it portable and flexible. Two identical WIOBSSs, which were situated at Mile (24.31°N, 103.39°E) and Puer (22.74°N, 101.05°E) respectively, were used to investigate the ionospheric irregularities. The comparisons of group distance, Doppler shift and width between Mile-Puer and Puer-Mile VHF ionospheric propagation paths indicate that the reciprocity of the irregularities is satisfied at midlatitude region. The WIOBSS is robust in the detection of ionospheric irregularities.

  16. Institutional Root Cause of the Irregularity of Social Security Funds in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingwen Zheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes institutional defects in the Chinese social security system, based on irregularities in social security funds revealed in the Audit Report by the China National Audit Office. The author divides the irregularities into five categories according to the nature of fund use. The results show that the institutional root cause of the irregularities lies in the unreasonable design and operation of the social security system, which currently faces management and institutional risks. This paper argues that simple rhetoric about strengthening regulation and supervision cannot help to reduce illegal practices, or to realize risk control. The only solution is to reform the social security system. Specifically, the Chinese Government should regulate the administrative cost of the social security system,and the behavior of its agencies, through legislation, reform the investment regime to increase rate of return of pension assets, and adjust and reshape the existing social security system, so as to elevate its pooling level.

  17. Geological and historical evidence of irregular recurrent earthquakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Kenji

    2015-10-28

    Great (M∼8) earthquakes repeatedly occur along the subduction zones around Japan and cause fault slip of a few to several metres releasing strains accumulated from decades to centuries of plate motions. Assuming a simple 'characteristic earthquake' model that similar earthquakes repeat at regular intervals, probabilities of future earthquake occurrence have been calculated by a government committee. However, recent studies on past earthquakes including geological traces from giant (M∼9) earthquakes indicate a variety of size and recurrence interval of interplate earthquakes. Along the Kuril Trench off Hokkaido, limited historical records indicate that average recurrence interval of great earthquakes is approximately 100 years, but the tsunami deposits show that giant earthquakes occurred at a much longer interval of approximately 400 years. Along the Japan Trench off northern Honshu, recurrence of giant earthquakes similar to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake with an interval of approximately 600 years is inferred from historical records and tsunami deposits. Along the Sagami Trough near Tokyo, two types of Kanto earthquakes with recurrence interval of a few hundred years and a few thousand years had been recognized, but studies show that the recent three Kanto earthquakes had different source extents. Along the Nankai Trough off western Japan, recurrence of great earthquakes with an interval of approximately 100 years has been identified from historical literature, but tsunami deposits indicate that the sizes of the recurrent earthquakes are variable. Such variability makes it difficult to apply a simple 'characteristic earthquake' model for the long-term forecast, and several attempts such as use of geological data for the evaluation of future earthquake probabilities or the estimation of maximum earthquake size in each subduction zone are being conducted by government committees. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Multiple frequency radar observations of high-latitude E region irregularities in the HF modified ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, S.T.; Djuth, F.T.; Jost, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    In September 1983, experiments were conducted in Scandinavia using the high-power heating facility near Tromso, Norway. The purpose of the HF ionospheric modification experiments was to investigate the behavior of artificially produced E region irregularities at auroral latitudes. The majority of observations were made with backscatter radars operating at 46.9 and 143.8 MHz, but limited observations were also made at 21.4 and 140.0 MHz. These radars are sensitive to irregularities having scale lengths of between 1 and 7 m across the geomagnetic field lines. The growth and decay of the irregularities are scale length dependent with the shorter lengths growing and dissipating more rapidly than the longer lengths (e-folding growth times = 10 1 --10 2 ms; decay times = 10 2 --10 3 ms). During periods of full power ordinary mode heating, irregularities having peak cross sections of 10 4 m 2 at 46.9 MHz and 10 5 m 2 at 143.8 MHz are observed. However, the cross sections normally measured are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the peak values. The cross sections are nonlinearly dependent on the HF power and begin to saturate at levels greater than 50--75 percent of full power. Past E and F region data from Arecibo are used in conjunction with the Tromso measurements to ascertain the relative roles played by various mechanisms in exciting irregularities. In the E region, the results tend to favor those instability processes which operate at the upper hybrid resonance level (e.g., thermal parametric and resonance instabilities) over those that operate at the reflection level (e.g., parametric decay instability). However, it is likely that anyh of the mechanisms studied could at times contribute to irregularity production in the E regions

  19. The majority of irregular menstrual cycles in adolescence are ovulatory: results of a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Alexia S; Doherty, Dorota A; Atkinson, Helen C; Hickey, Martha; Norman, Robert J; Hart, Roger

    2018-03-01

    While ovulation is most likely to occur in adolescent girls with regular menstrual cycles, there are limited data on the incidence of ovulation in girls with irregular menstrual cycles in early postmenarcheal years. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of ovulation in healthy postmenarcheal girls with irregular menstrual cycles. Prospective cohort study over 12 weeks including 40 healthy postmenarcheal girls recruited from the population-based cohort of adolescents from Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study with irregular menstrual cycles defined by either menstrual cycles 35 days in duration or cycle length that varied from month to month by >4 days according to menstrual diaries. Ovulation defined by urinary pregnanediol-3α-glucuronide/creatinine measurements higher than three times above minimum value obtained from 12 samples (1 per week). Forty girls (37 Caucasians) with irregular menstrual cycles aged 15.1 (median (IQR) 14.9-15.4) years who were 2.3 (1.9-3.3) years postmenarche were assessed. Urinary pregnanediol-3α-glucuronide/creatinine values identified that 33 girls (82.5%) ovulated during the 3 months of observation and 7 girls had anovulatory cycles. Menstrual diaries collected for a median (IQR) of 159 (137.5-188.2) days showed median minimal and maximum menstrual cycle duration of 24 (11.5-29) and 38.5 (35-48) days, respectively. A large proportion of healthy adolescent girls with irregular menstrual cycles are still ovulating despite irregular and infrequent menses. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Sweeping the State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    The thesis describes the sweep-line method, a newly developed reduction method for alleviating the state explosion problem inherent in explicit-state state space exploration. The basic idea underlying the sweep-line method is, when calculating the state space, to recognise and delete states...... that are not reachable from the currently unprocessed states. Intuitively we drag a sweep-line through the state space with the invariant that all states behind the sweep-line have been processed and are unreachable from the states in front of the sweep-line. When calculating the state space of a system we iteratively...