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Sample records for irregular-shaped residuum isospora

  1. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Yiannakoulias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease may take on irregular geographic shapes, especially when features of the physical environment influence risk. Identifying these patterns can be important for planning, and also identifying new environmental or social factors associated with high or low risk of illness. Until recently, cluster detection methods were limited in their ability to detect irregular spatial patterns, and limited to finding clusters that were roughly circular in shape. This approach has less power to detect irregularly-shaped, yet important spatial anomalies, particularly at high spatial resolutions. We employ a new method of finding irregularly-shaped spatial clusters at micro-geographical scales using both simulated and real data on Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection intensities. This method, which we refer to as the “greedy growth scan”, is a modification of the spatial scan method for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the “greedy growth scan” is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis of infection intensity data when irregular shapes are suspected, especially at micro-geographical scales.

  2. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Wilson, Shona; Kariuki, H. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the "greedy growth scan" is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis...... for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis...

  3. Fitting Irregular Shape Figures into Irregular Shape Areas for the Nesting Problem in the Leather Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara-Palma Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nesting problem of irregular shapes within irregular areas has been studied from several approaches due to their application in different industries. The particular case of cutting leather involves several restrictions that add complexity to this problem, it is necessary to generate products that comply with the quality required by customers This paper presents a methodology for the accommodation of irregular shapes in an irregular area (leather considering the constraints set by the footwear industry, and the results of this methodology when applied by a computer system. The scope of the system is to develop a working prototype that operates under the guidelines of a commercial production line of a sponsor company. Preliminary results got a reduction of 70% of processing time and improvement of 5% to 7% of the area usage when compared with manual accommodation.

  4. Uniform irradiation of irregularly shaped cavities for photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, A. I.; van Gemert, M. J.; van der Meulen, F. W.; Gijsbers, G. H.; Beek, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    It is difficult to achieve a uniform light distribution in irregularly shaped cavities. We have conducted a study on the use of hollow 'integrating' moulds for more uniform light delivery of photodynamic therapy in irregularly shaped cavities such as the oral cavity. Simple geometries such as a

  5. Detection and molecular status of Isospora sp. from the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Ryuma; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Murakoshi, Fumi; Nomura, Osamu; Suzuki, Toru; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-10-01

    The domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica, is reared for meat production, as a pet, or for racing. Few reports have characterized the parasitic protists from the genus Isospora isolated from Columbiformes. We detected Isospora-like oocysts from C. livia reared for racing. The oocyst contained two sporocysts, and each sporocyst included four sporozoites. The sporulated oocysts (n=4) were spherical; their mean diameters were 25.6 (24.0-27.2)×24.7 (23.4-26.0) μm. Micropyles, polar granules, and oocyst residuum were absent. The mean length and width of the sporocysts (n=8) were 19.5 (18.5-20.5) and 11.2 (10.2-12.1) μm, respectively. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were observed. Single-oocyst PCR revealed two different 18S rRNA gene sequences and one 28S rRNA gene sequence in a single oocyst of Isospora sp. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene, the two sequences made a group which fell within a cluster of known avian Isospora species. A tree based on the 28S rRNA gene sequence indicated that sequences from the pigeon Isospora sp. fell within a cluster of avian Isospora species. Both trees failed to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among the avian Isospora species due to limited resolution. Because the morphological description of Isospora sp. is based on only four oocysts, Isospora sp. is not proposed as a novel species here. This is the first description of Isospora sp. isolated from the domestic pigeon C. livia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Irregular Shaped Building Design Optimization with Building Information Modelling

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    Lee Xia Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is to recognise the function of Building Information Modelling (BIM in design optimization for irregular shaped buildings. The study focuses on a conceptual irregular shaped “twisted” building design similar to some existing sculpture-like architectures. Form and function are the two most important aspects of new buildings, which are becoming more sophisticated as parts of equally sophisticated “systems” that we are living in. Nowadays, it is common to have irregular shaped or sculpture-like buildings which are very different when compared to regular buildings. Construction industry stakeholders are facing stiff challenges in many aspects such as buildability, cost effectiveness, delivery time and facility management when dealing with irregular shaped building projects. Building Information Modelling (BIM is being utilized to enable architects, engineers and constructors to gain improved visualization for irregular shaped buildings; this has a purpose of identifying critical issues before initiating physical construction work. In this study, three variations of design options differing in rotating angle: 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees are created to conduct quantifiable comparisons. Discussions are focused on three major aspects including structural planning, usable building space, and structural constructability. This research concludes that Building Information Modelling is instrumental in facilitating design optimization for irregular shaped building. In the process of comparing different design variations, instead of just giving “yes or no” type of response, stakeholders can now easily visualize, evaluate and decide to achieve the right balance based on their own criteria. Therefore, construction project stakeholders are empowered with superior evaluation and decision making capability.

  7. Uniform irradiation of irregularly shaped cavities for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rem, A I; van Gemert, M J; van der Meulen, F W; Gijsbers, G H; Beek, J F

    1997-03-01

    It is difficult to achieve a uniform light distribution in irregularly shaped cavities. We have conducted a study on the use of hollow 'integrating' moulds for more uniform light delivery of photodynamic therapy in irregularly shaped cavities such as the oral cavity. Simple geometries such as a cubical box, a sphere, a cylinder and a 'bottle-neck' geometry have been investigated experimentally and the results have been compared with computed light distributions obtained using the 'radiosity method'. A high reflection coefficient of the mould and the best uniform direct irradiance possible on the inside of the mould were found to be important determinants for achieving a uniform light distribution.

  8. Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks, Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Fisher, Robert N

    2013-08-01

    Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17-20 × 14-16) μm, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10-11 × 7-8) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28-35 × 18-24) μm, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14-16 × 10-12) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

  9. Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17–20 × 14–16) μm, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10–11 × 7–8) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28–35 × 18–24) μm, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14–16 × 10–12) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

  10. Wettability measurements of irregular shapes with Wilhelmy plate method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyung; Pasaogullari, Ugur; Bonville, Leonard

    2018-01-01

    One of the most accurate methods for measuring the dynamic contact angle of liquids on solid surfaces is the Wilhelmy plate method. This method generally requires the use of rectangular samples having a constant perimeter in the liquid during advancing and receding cycles. A new formulation based on the Wilhelmy force balance equation to determine the contact angle for plate samples with irregular shapes has been developed. This method employs a profile plot obtained from an optical image to determine the perimeter (i.e. wetted length) of the sample as a function of the immersion depth. The raw force data measured by the force tensiometer is manipulated using the profile plot and the Wilhelmy equation to determine the wetting force and consequently advancing and the receding contact angle. This method is verified with both triangular and irregular PTFE samples in water, and measured contact angles are in good agreement with results from conventional regular shaped samples with a constant perimeter.

  11. Volume determination of irregularly-shaped quasi-spherical nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Liu, Eileen Cherry

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in diverse application areas, such as medicine, engineering, and cosmetics. The size (or volume) of NPs is one of the most important parameters for their successful application. It is relatively straightforward to determine the volume of regular NPs such as spheres and cubes from a one-dimensional or two-dimensional measurement. However, due to the three-dimensional nature of NPs, it is challenging to determine the proper physical size of many types of regularly and irregularly-shaped quasi-spherical NPs at high-throughput using a single tool. Here, we present a relatively simple method that determines a better volume estimate of NPs by combining measurements from their top-down projection areas and peak heights using two tools. The proposed method is significantly faster and more economical than the electron tomography method. We demonstrate the improved accuracy of the combined method over scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or atomic force microscopy (AFM) alone by using modeling, simulations, and measurements. This study also exposes the existence of inherent measurement biases for both SEM and AFM, which usually produce larger measured diameters with SEM than with AFM. However, in some cases SEM measured diameters appear to have less error compared to AFM measured diameters, especially for widely used IS-NPs such as of gold, and silver. The method provides a much needed, proper high-throughput volumetric measurement method useful for many applications. Graphical Abstract The combined method for volume determination of irregularly-shaped quasi-spherical nanoparticles.

  12. A new coccidian, Isospora rheae sp. nov. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae, from Rhea americana (Aves, Rheidae from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira S.M. Gallo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of coccidian (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae obtained from rheas, Rhea americana, is reported in Brazil. Oocysts of Isospora rheae sp. nov. are spherical to subspheroidal, measuring 22.6 × 21.0 µm, and have a double and smooth wall that is approximately 1.7 µm thick. The micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are slightly ovoid, measuring 13.9 × 9.6 µm. The Stieda body is flattened, the substieda body is pointed, irregular and wavy and the sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered granules of varying sizes. Sporozoites have an oblong refractile body and one nucleus. This is the first description of an isosporid coccidian infecting birds of the family Rheidae.

  13. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Medina, Juan Pablo; Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla Patricia; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2016-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) is reported from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. has subspherical oöcysts, measuring on average 26.6 × 25.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall, c.1.3 μm thick. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, measuring on average 19.0 × 12.0 µm, with a knob-like Stieda body, a trapezoidal sub-Stieda body and sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  14. Isospora celata n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the orange-crowned warbler Oreothlypis celata (Say) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Bruno Pereira; Medina, Juan Pablo; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; García-Conejo, Michele; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-11-01

    A new coccidian species (Protista: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from the orange-crowned warbler Oreothlypis celata (Say) collected in the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico at 3,000 metres above sea level. Isospora celata n. sp. has subspheroidal oöcysts, measuring 28.4 × 26.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.2 μm thick. Micropyle and polar granule are absent, but oöcyst residuum is present as a compact mass. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 18.2 × 12.8 µm. Stieda body knob-like and sub-Stieda body irregular and barely discernible. Sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the third description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  15. Dynamics of landslides on comets of irregular shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2017-04-01

    Landslides were observed on a few comet's nuclei, e.g. [1], [2]. The mechanism of their origin is not obvious because of very low gravity. According to [2] fluidization and multiphase transport of cometary material could be an explanation. We investigate here motion of the mass on a comet of irregular shape. The mechanism responsible for the low friction is not considered here. In fact, mass motion often occurs without contact with the surface. The motion could be triggered by meteoroids impacts or by the tidal forces. Comets nuclei are believed to be built of soft materials like snow and dust. The landing of Philae on the comet 67P/Czuriumow-Gierasimienko indicates a different situation. According to [1]: "thermal probe did not fully penetrate the near-surface layers, suggesting a local resistance of the ground to penetration of >4 megapascals, equivalent to >2 megapascal uniaxial compressive strength". Here we assume that elastic properties of comet's nuclei could be similar to elastic properties of dry snow, namely Young modulus is assumed to be 1 - 100 MPa, see [3] and [4]. We consider nucleus of the shape of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with density 470 kg/m3. The impact or tidal forces result in changing of rotation of the comet. In general, the vector of angular velocity will be a subject to nutation that results in changing of centrifugal force, and consequently could be a factor triggering landslides. Note that nucleus' shape does not resemble the shape of surface of constant value of gravitational potential (i.e. 'geoid'). Our numerical models indicate the parts of the nucleus where landslides start and other parts where landslides stop. Of course, the regolith from the first type of regions would be removed to the regions of the second class. The motion of the mass is often complicated because of complicated distribution of the gravity and complicated shape of the nucleus. Acknowledgement: The research is partly supported by Polish National Science Centre

  16. PERIODIC ORBIT FAMILIES IN THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF IRREGULAR-SHAPED BODIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, Xi’an Satellite Control Center, Xi’an 710043 (China); Baoyin, Hexi, E-mail: jiangyu_xian_china@163.com [School of Aerospace Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-11-01

    The discovery of binary and triple asteroids in addition to the execution of space missions to minor celestial bodies in the past several years have focused increasing attention on periodic orbits around irregular-shaped celestial bodies. In the present work, we adopt a polyhedron shape model for providing an accurate representation of irregular-shaped bodies and employ the model to calculate their corresponding gravitational and effective potentials. We also investigate the characteristics of periodic orbit families and the continuation of periodic orbits. We prove a fact, which provides a conserved quantity that permits restricting the number of periodic orbits in a fixed energy curved surface about an irregular-shaped body. The collisions of Floquet multipliers are maintained during the continuation of periodic orbits around the comet 1P/Halley. Multiple bifurcations in the periodic orbit families about irregular-shaped bodies are also discussed. Three bifurcations in the periodic orbit family have been found around the asteroid 216 Kleopatra, which include two real saddle bifurcations and one period-doubling bifurcation.

  17. Eddy current heating of irregularly shaped plates by slow ramped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1979-01-01

    Theorems are presented for estimating eddy current heating of irregularly shaped plates by a perpendicular ramped field. The theorems, which are derived from two complementary variational principles, give upper and lower bounds to the eddy current heating. Illustrative results are given for rectangles, isosceles triangles, sectors of circular annuli, rhombuses, and L-shaped plates. A comparison is made with earlier work

  18. Modification of transmission dose algorithm for irregularly shaped radiation field and tissue deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hyong Geon; Shin, Kyo Chul [Dankook Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Soon Nyung; Woo, Hong Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan [Seoul National Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyoung Koo [The Catholic Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Algorithm for estimation of transmission dose was modified for use in partially blocked radiation fields and in cases with tissue deficit. The beam data was measured with flat solid phantom in various conditions of beam block. And an algorithm for correction of transmission dose in cases of partially blocked radiation field was developed from the measured data. The algorithm was tested in some clinical settings with irregular shaped field. Also, another algorithm for correction of transmission dose for tissue deficit was developed by physical reasoning. This algorithm was tested in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer patients by using multiple sheets of solid phantoms. The algorithm for correction of beam block could accurately reflect the effect of beam block, with error within {+-}1.0%, both with square fields and irregularly shaped fields. The correction algorithm for tissue deficit could accurately reflect the effect of tissue deficit with errors within {+-}1.0% in most situations and within {+-}3.0% in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer treatment set-up. Developed algorithms could accurately estimate the transmission dose in most radiation treatment settings including irregularly shaped field and irregularly shaped body contour with tissue deficit in transmission dosimetry.

  19. Modification of transmission dose algorithm for irregularly shaped radiation field and tissue deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geon; Shin, Kyo Chul; Huh, Soon Nyung; Woo, Hong Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan; Lee, Hyoung Koo

    2002-01-01

    Algorithm for estimation of transmission dose was modified for use in partially blocked radiation fields and in cases with tissue deficit. The beam data was measured with flat solid phantom in various conditions of beam block. And an algorithm for correction of transmission dose in cases of partially blocked radiation field was developed from the measured data. The algorithm was tested in some clinical settings with irregular shaped field. Also, another algorithm for correction of transmission dose for tissue deficit was developed by physical reasoning. This algorithm was tested in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer patients by using multiple sheets of solid phantoms. The algorithm for correction of beam block could accurately reflect the effect of beam block, with error within ±1.0%, both with square fields and irregularly shaped fields. The correction algorithm for tissue deficit could accurately reflect the effect of tissue deficit with errors within ±1.0% in most situations and within ±3.0% in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer treatment set-up. Developed algorithms could accurately estimate the transmission dose in most radiation treatment settings including irregularly shaped field and irregularly shaped body contour with tissue deficit in transmission dosimetry

  20. PERIODIC ORBIT FAMILIES IN THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF IRREGULAR-SHAPED BODIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yu; Baoyin, Hexi

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of binary and triple asteroids in addition to the execution of space missions to minor celestial bodies in the past several years have focused increasing attention on periodic orbits around irregular-shaped celestial bodies. In the present work, we adopt a polyhedron shape model for providing an accurate representation of irregular-shaped bodies and employ the model to calculate their corresponding gravitational and effective potentials. We also investigate the characteristics of periodic orbit families and the continuation of periodic orbits. We prove a fact, which provides a conserved quantity that permits restricting the number of periodic orbits in a fixed energy curved surface about an irregular-shaped body. The collisions of Floquet multipliers are maintained during the continuation of periodic orbits around the comet 1P/Halley. Multiple bifurcations in the periodic orbit families about irregular-shaped bodies are also discussed. Three bifurcations in the periodic orbit family have been found around the asteroid 216 Kleopatra, which include two real saddle bifurcations and one period-doubling bifurcation.

  1. Two new species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the flap-necked chameleon Chamaeleo dilepis (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) in the Republic of Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T

    2012-09-01

    Two new species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 from flap-necked chameleons Chamaeleo dilepis Leach are described from the faeces of specimens collected in the Republic of Namibia. Oöcysts of Isospora freedi n. sp. from one of four (25%) C. dilepis collected in the East Caprivi District are spherical to subspherical, with a smooth, colourless, bilayered wall, measure 23.7 × 21.2 μm and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. The micropyle and the oöcyst residuum are absent but a polar granule is sometimes present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal and 13.9 × 10.3 μm in size with prominent Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies; and the sporocyst residuum is composed of a compact mass of large globules. The sporozoites contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. Oöcysts of Isopora mandelai n. sp. from three of seven (43%) C. dilepis collected in the Outjo District are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal, with a smooth, colourless, bilayered wall, measure 36.9 × 31.0 μm and have an L/W ratio of 1.2. The micropyle, oöcyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 15.3 × 11.1 μm in size and contain Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies; and the non-membranous sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of various sizes. The sporozoites contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. These two new taxa represent the third and fourth coccidian species reported from C. dilepis.

  2. Measurements of linear attenuation coefficients of irregular shaped samples by two media method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficient values of regular and irregular shaped flyash materials have been measured without knowing the thickness of a sample using a new technique namely 'two media method'. These values have also been measured with a standard gamma ray transmission method and obtained theoretically with winXCOM computer code. From the comparison it is reported that the two media method has given accurate results of attenuation coefficients of flyash materials

  3. Photopolymerization of complex emulsions with irregular shapes fabricated by multiplex coaxial flow focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Yang, Chaoyu; Yang, Jianxin; Huang, Fangsheng; Liu, Guangli; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Si, Ting; Xu, Ronald X.

    2018-02-01

    We fabricate complex emulsions with irregular shapes in the microscale by a simple but effective multiplex coaxial flow focusing process. A multiphase cone-jet structure is steadily formed, and the compound liquid jet eventually breaks up into Janus microdroplets due to the perturbations propagating along the jet interfaces. The microdroplet shapes can be exclusively controlled by interfacial tensions of adjacent phases. Crescent-moon-shaped microparticles and microcapsules with designated structural characteristics are further produced under ultraviolet light of photopolymerization after removing one hemisphere of the Janus microdroplets. These complex emulsions have potential applications in bioscience, food, functional materials, and controlled drug delivery.

  4. Monte Carlo Method with Heuristic Adjustment for Irregularly Shaped Food Product Volume Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Siswantoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method.

  5. Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment for irregularly shaped food product volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswantoro, Joko; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Abdullah, Azizi; Idrus, Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method.

  6. Laser cutting of irregular shape object based on stereo vision laser galvanometric scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Shun; Tang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-05-01

    Irregular shape objects with different 3-dimensional (3D) appearances are difficult to be shaped into customized uniform pattern by current laser machining approaches. A laser galvanometric scanning system (LGS) could be a potential candidate since it can easily achieve path-adjustable laser shaping. However, without knowing the actual 3D topography of the object, the processing result may still suffer from 3D shape distortion. It is desirable to have a versatile auxiliary tool that is capable of generating 3D-adjusted laser processing path by measuring the 3D geometry of those irregular shape objects. This paper proposed the stereo vision laser galvanometric scanning system (SLGS), which takes the advantages of both the stereo vision solution and conventional LGS system. The 3D geometry of the object obtained by the stereo cameras is used to guide the scanning galvanometers for 3D-shape-adjusted laser processing. In order to achieve precise visual-servoed laser fabrication, these two independent components are integrated through a system calibration method using plastic thin film target. The flexibility of SLGS has been experimentally demonstrated by cutting duck feathers for badminton shuttle manufacture.

  7. Identifying irregularly shaped crime hot-spots using a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolan; Grubesic, Tony H.

    2010-12-01

    Spatial cluster detection techniques are widely used in criminology, geography, epidemiology, and other fields. In particular, spatial scan statistics are popular and efficient techniques for detecting areas of elevated crime or disease events. The majority of spatial scan approaches attempt to delineate geographic zones by evaluating the significance of clusters using likelihood ratio statistics tested with the Poisson distribution. While this can be effective, many scan statistics give preference to circular clusters, diminishing their ability to identify elongated and/or irregular shaped clusters. Although adjusting the shape of the scan window can mitigate some of these problems, both the significance of irregular clusters and their spatial structure must be accounted for in a meaningful way. This paper utilizes a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm to find clusters with maximum significance while quantitatively tracking their geographic structure. Crime data for the city of Cincinnati are utilized to demonstrate the advantages of the new approach and highlight its benefits versus more traditional scan statistics.

  8. On the interpolation of light-scattering responses from irregularly shaped particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videen, Gorden; Zubko, Evgenij; Arnold, Jessica A.; MacCall, Benjamin; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Muñoz, Olga

    2018-05-01

    Common particle characteristics needed for many applications may include size, eccentricity, porosity and refractive index. Determining such characteristics from scattered light is a primary goal of remote sensing. For other applications, like differentiating a hazardous particle from the natural background, information about higher fidelity particle characteristics may be required, including specific shape or chemical composition. While a complete characterization of a particle system from its scattered light through the inversion process remains unachievable, great strides have been made in providing information in the form of constraints on particle characteristics. Recent advances have been made in quantifying the characteristics of polydispersions of irregularly shaped particles by making comparisons of the light-scattering signals from model simulant particles. We show that when the refractive index is changed, the light-scattering characteristics from polydispersions of such particles behave monotonically over relatively large parameter ranges compared with those of monodisperse distributions of particles having regular shapes, like spheres, spheroids, etc. This allows for their properties to be interpolated, which results in a significant reduction of the computational load when performing inversions.

  9. An efficient algorithm for global periodic orbits generation near irregular-shaped asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Haibin; Wu, Xiaoyu; Ren, Yuan; Shan, Jinjun

    2017-07-01

    Periodic orbits (POs) play an important role in understanding dynamical behaviors around natural celestial bodies. In this study, an efficient algorithm was presented to generate the global POs around irregular-shaped uniformly rotating asteroids. The algorithm was performed in three steps, namely global search, local refinement, and model continuation. First, a mascon model with a low number of particles and optimized mass distribution was constructed to remodel the exterior gravitational potential of the asteroid. Using this model, a multi-start differential evolution enhanced with a deflection strategy with strong global exploration and bypassing abilities was adopted. This algorithm can be regarded as a search engine to find multiple globally optimal regions in which potential POs were located. This was followed by applying a differential correction to locally refine global search solutions and generate the accurate POs in the mascon model in which an analytical Jacobian matrix was derived to improve convergence. Finally, the concept of numerical model continuation was introduced and used to convert the POs from the mascon model into a high-fidelity polyhedron model by sequentially correcting the initial states. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was substantiated by computing the global POs around an elongated shoe-shaped asteroid 433 Eros. Various global POs with different topological structures in the configuration space were successfully located. Specifically, the proposed algorithm was generic and could be conveniently extended to explore periodic motions in other gravitational systems.

  10. Transformation of irregular shaped silver nanostructures into nanoparticles by under water pulsed laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadavali, S.; Sandireddy, V. P.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2016-05-01

    The ability to easily manufacture nanostructures with a desirable attribute, such as well-defined size and shape, especially from any given initial shapes or sizes of the material, will be helpful towards accelerating the use of nanomaterials in various applications. In this work we report the transformation of discontinuous irregular nanostructures (DIN) of silver metal by rapid heating under a bulk fluid layer. Ag films were changed into DIN by dewetting in air and subsequently heated by nanosecond laser pulses under water. Our findings show that the DIN first ripens into elongated structures and then breaks up into nanoparticles. From the dependence of this behavior on laser fluence we found that under water irradiation reduced the rate of ripening and also decreased the characteristic break-up length scale of the elongated structures. This latter result was qualitatively interpreted as arising from a Rayleigh-Plateau instability modified to yield significantly smaller length scales than the classical process due to pressure gradients arising from the rapid evaporation of water during laser melting. These results demonstrate that it is possible to fabricate a dense collection of monomodally sized Ag nanoparticles with significantly enhanced plasmonic quality starting from the irregular shaped materials. This can be beneficial towards transforming discontinuous Ag films into nanostructures with useful plasmonic properties, that are relevant for biosensing applications.

  11. Experimental investigation of coolability behaviour of irregularly shaped particulate debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.P.; Rashid, M.; Kulenovic, R.; Nayak, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    In case of a severe nuclear reactor accident, the core can melt and form a particulate debris bed in the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Due to the decay heat, the particle bed, if not cooled properly, can cause failure of the RPV. In order to avoid further propagation of the accident, complete coolability of the debris bed is necessary. For that, understanding of various phenomena taking place during the quenching is important. In the frame of the reactor safety research, fundamental experiments on the coolability of debris beds are carried out at IKE with the test facility 'DEBRIS'. In the present paper, the boiling and dry-out experimental results on a particle bed with irregularly shaped particles mixed with stainless steel balls have been reported. The pressure drops and dry-out heat fluxes of the irregular-particle bed are very similar to those for the single-sized 3 mm spheres bed, despite the fact that the irregular-particle bed is composed of particles with equivalent diameters ranging from 2 to 10 mm. Under top-flooding conditions, the pressure gradients are all smaller than the hydrostatic pressure gradient of water, indicating an important role of the counter-current interfacial drag force. For bottom-flooding with a liquid inflow velocity higher than about 2.7 mm/s, the pressure gradient generally increases consistently with the vapour velocity and the fluid-particle drag becomes important. The system pressures (1 and 3 bar) have negligible effects on qualitative behaviour of the pressure gradients. The coolability of debris beds is mainly limited by the counter-current flooding limit (CCFL) even under bottom-flooding conditions with low flow rates. The system pressure and the flow rate are found to have a distinct effect on the dry-out heat flux. Different classical models have been used to predict the pressure drop characteristics and the dry-out heat flux (DHF). Comparisons are made among the models and experimental results for

  12. Calculating electronic tunnel currents in networks of disordered irregularly shaped nanoparticles by mapping networks to arrays of parallel nonlinear resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghili Yajadda, Mir Massoud [CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2014-10-21

    We have shown both theoretically and experimentally that tunnel currents in networks of disordered irregularly shaped nanoparticles (NPs) can be calculated by considering the networks as arrays of parallel nonlinear resistors. Each resistor is described by a one-dimensional or a two-dimensional array of equal size nanoparticles that the tunnel junction gaps between nanoparticles in each resistor is assumed to be equal. The number of tunnel junctions between two contact electrodes and the tunnel junction gaps between nanoparticles are found to be functions of Coulomb blockade energies. In addition, the tunnel barriers between nanoparticles were considered to be tilted at high voltages. Furthermore, the role of thermal expansion coefficient of the tunnel junction gaps on the tunnel current is taken into account. The model calculations fit very well to the experimental data of a network of disordered gold nanoparticles, a forest of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and a network of few-layer graphene nanoplates over a wide temperature range (5-300 K) at low and high DC bias voltages (0.001 mV–50 V). Our investigations indicate, although electron cotunneling in networks of disordered irregularly shaped NPs may occur, non-Arrhenius behavior at low temperatures cannot be described by the cotunneling model due to size distribution in the networks and irregular shape of nanoparticles. Non-Arrhenius behavior of the samples at zero bias voltage limit was attributed to the disorder in the samples. Unlike the electron cotunneling model, we found that the crossover from Arrhenius to non-Arrhenius behavior occurs at two temperatures, one at a high temperature and the other at a low temperature.

  13. Distribution of metals in vacuum residuums, asphaltenes and maltenes by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero G, E.T.; Camacho M, V.; Sanchez B, A.C.; Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Villasenor S, P.; Aspiazu F, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The PIXE technique for determining directly the distribution and abundance of trace metals in vacuum residuum, asphaltenes and maltenes separated with n-alkanes (C 5 -C 8 ) is used. The metal content of petroleum derivatives revealed that the vacuum residuum contains iron, aluminium, vanadium and nickel mainly, while that the asphaltenes and maltenes maintain inside of their composition only preferably the vanadium and nickel as majority elements. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of two intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy devices for irradiating additional and irregularly shaped volumes of breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Sharon M.; Scanderbeg, Daniel J.; Barna, Patrick; Yashar, William; Yashar, Catheryn

    2012-01-01

    The SAVI and Contura breast brachytherapy applicators represent 2 recent advancements in brachytherapy technology that have expanded the number of women eligible for accelerated partial breast irradiation in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Early clinical experience with these 2 single-entry, multichannel high-dose-rate brachytherapy devices confirms their ease of use and dosimetric versatility. However, current clinical guidelines for SAVI and Contura brachytherapy may result in a smaller or less optimal volume of treated tissue compared with traditional interstitial brachytherapy. This study evaluates the feasibility of using the SAVI and Contura to irradiate larger and irregularly shaped target volumes, approaching what is treatable with the interstitial technique. To investigate whether additional tissue can be treated, 17 patients treated with the SAVI and 3 with the Contura were selected. For each patient, the planning target volume (PTV) was modified to extend 1.1 cm, 1.3 cm, and 1.5 cm beyond the tumor bed cavity. To evaluate dose conformance to an irregularly shaped target volume, 9 patients treated with the SAVI and 3 with the Contura were selected from the original 20 patients. The following asymmetric PTV margin combinations were assessed for each patient: 1.5/0.3, 1.3/0.3, and 1.1/0.3 cm. For all patients, treatment planning was performed, adopting the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project guidelines, and dosimetric comparisons were made. The 6–1 and 8–1 SAVI devices can theoretically treat a maximal tissue margin of 1.5 cm and an asymmetric PTV with margins ranging from 0.3 to 1.5 cm. The 10–1 SAVI and Contura can treat a maximal margin of 1.3 cm and 1.1 cm, respectively, and asymmetric PTV with margins ranging from 0.3–1.3 cm. Compared with the Contura, the SAVI demonstrated greater dosimetric flexibility. Risk of developing excessive hot spots increased with the size of the SAVI device. Both the SAVI and Contura

  15. An Optimization Algorithm for the Design of an Irregularly-Shaped Bridge Based on the Orthogonal Test and Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Irregularly-shaped bridges are usually adopted to connect the main bridge and ramps in urban overpasses, which are under significant flexion-torsion coupling effects and in complicated stress states. In irregular-shaped bridge design, the parameters such as ramp radius, bifurcation diaphragm stiffness, box girder height, and supporting condition could affect structural performance in different manners. In this paper, the influence of various parameters on three indices, including maximum stress, the stress variation coefficient, and the fundamental frequency of torsional vibration, is investigated and analyzed based on orthogonal test method. Through orthogonal analysis, the major influence parameters and corresponding optimal values for these indices are achieved. Combining with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, the hierarchical structure model of the multi-indices orthogonal test is established and a comprehensive weight analysis method is proposed to reflect the parameter influence on overall mechanical properties of an irregularly-shaped bridge. Influence order and optimal values of parameters for overall mechanical properties are determined based on the weight of factors and levels calculated by the comprehensive weight analysis method. The results indicate that the comprehensive weight analysis method is superior to the overall balance method, which verifies the effectiveness and accuracy of the comprehensive weight analysis in the parameter optimization of the multi-indices orthogonal test for an irregularly-shaped bridge. Optimal parameters obtained in this paper can provide reference and guidance for parameter control in irregularly-shaped bridge design.

  16. Volume Measurement Algorithm for Food Product with Irregular Shape using Computer Vision based on Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Siswantoro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Volume is one of important issues in the production and processing of food product. Traditionally, volume measurement can be performed using water displacement method based on Archimedes’ principle. Water displacement method is inaccurate and considered as destructive method. Computer vision offers an accurate and nondestructive method in measuring volume of food product. This paper proposes algorithm for volume measurement of irregular shape food product using computer vision based on Monte Carlo method. Five images of object were acquired from five different views and then processed to obtain the silhouettes of object. From the silhouettes of object, Monte Carlo method was performed to approximate the volume of object. The simulation result shows that the algorithm produced high accuracy and precision for volume measurement.

  17. Adaptive striping watershed segmentation method for processing microscopic images of overlapping irregular-shaped and multicentre particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X; Bai, B; Xu, N; Wu, K

    2015-04-01

    Oversegmentation is a major drawback of the morphological watershed algorithm. Here, we study and reveal that the oversegmentation is not only because of the irregular shapes of the particle images, which people are familiar with, but also because of some particles, such as ellipses, with more than one centre. A new parameter, the striping level, is introduced and the criterion for striping parameter is built to help find the right markers prior to segmentation. An adaptive striping watershed algorithm is established by applying a procedure, called the marker searching algorithm, to find the markers, which can effectively suppress the oversegmentation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by analysing some typical particle images including the images of gold nanorod ensembles. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. Dissolution and transport of coal tar compounds in fractured clay-rich residuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulava, Vijay M.; McKay, Larry D.; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2012-01-01

    the importance of rapid dissolution and transport through the fracture networks. The concentrations continued to rise but did not reach the corresponding effective solubility limit in most cases. Compounds that were less soluble and those that were more susceptible to sorption or matrix diffusion eluted...... at a much slower rate. Analysis of contaminant concentrations in microcore residuum samples indicated that all 10 compounds had spread throughout the entire monolith and had diffused into the fine-grained matrix between fractures. These data suggest that the predominantly fine pore structure did not appear......We investigated the dissolution and transport of organic contaminants from a crude coal tar mixture in a monolith of fractured clay-rich residuum. An electrolyte solution was eluted through the residuum monolith containing a small emplaced source of coal tar under biologically inhibited and mildly...

  19. Dosimetric effects of sectional adjustments of collimator angles on volumetric modulated arc therapy for irregularly-shaped targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Seok Ahn

    Full Text Available To calculate an optimal collimator angle at each of sectional arcs in a full-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT plan and evaluate dosimetric quality of these VMAT plans comparing full-arc VMAT plans with a fixed collimator angle.Seventeen patients who had irregularly-shaped target in abdominal, head and neck, and chest cases were selected retrospectively. To calculate an optimal collimator angle at each of sectional arcs in VMAT, integrated MLC apertures which could cover all shapes of target determined by beam's-eye view (BEV within angular sections were obtained for each VMAT plan. The angular sections were 40°, 60°, 90° and 120°. When the collimator settings were rotated at intervals of 2°, we obtained the optimal collimator angle to minimize area size difference between the integrated MLC aperture and collimator settings with 5 mm-margins to the integrated MLC aperture. The VMAT plans with the optimal collimator angles (Colli-VMAT were generated in the EclipseTM. For comparison purposes, one full-arc VMAT plans with a fixed collimator angles (Std-VMAT were generated. The dose-volumetric parameters and total MUs were evaluated.The mean dose-volumetric parameters for target volume of Colli-VMAT were comparable to Std-VMAT. Colli-VMAT improved sparing of most normal organs but for brain stem, compared to Std-VMAT for all cases. There were decreasing tendencies in mean total MUs with decreasing angular section. The mean total MUs for Colli-VMAT with the angular section of 40° (434 ± 95 MU, 317 ± 81 MU, and 371 ± 43 MU for abdominal, head and neck, and chest cases, respectively were lower than those for Std-VMAT (654 ± 182 MU, 517 ± 116 MU, and 533 ± 25 MU, respectively.For an irregularly-shaped target, Colli-VMAT with the angular section of 40° reduced total MUs and improved sparing of normal organs, compared to Std-VMAT.

  20. Toxicological effects of irregularly shaped and spherical microplastics in a marine teleost, the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Soo; Jung, Youn-Joo; Hong, Nam-Hui; Hong, Sang Hee; Park, June-Woo

    2018-04-01

    The increasing global contamination of plastics in marine environments is raising public concerns about the potential hazards of microplastics to environmental and human health. Microplastics formed by the breakdown of larger plastics are typically irregular in shape. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of spherical or irregular shapes of microplastics on changes in organ distribution, swimming behaviors, gene expression, and enzyme activities in sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus). Both types of microplastics accumulated in the digestive system, causing intestinal distention. However, when compared to spherical microplastics, irregular microplastics decreased swimming behavior (i.e., total distance travelled and maximum velocity) of sheepshead minnow. Both microplastics generated cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), while ROS-related molecular changes (i.e., transcriptional and enzymatic characteristics) differed. This study provides toxicological insights into the impacts of environmentally relevant (fragmented) microplastics on fish and improves our understanding of the environmental effects of microplastics in the ecosystem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nasopharyngeal Cancers: Which Method Should be Used to Measure these Irregularly Shaped Tumors on Cross-Sectional Imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Ann D.; Zee, Benny; Yuen, Edmund H.Y.; Leung Singfai; Yeung, David K.W.; Ma, Brigette B.; Wong, Jeffrey K.T.; Kam, Michael K.M.; Ahuja, Anil T.; Chan, Anthony T.C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the standard techniques of measuring tumor size and change in size after treatment could be applied to the measurement of nasopharyngeal cancers, which are often irregular in shape. Methods and Materials: The standard measurements of bidimensional (BDM) (World Health Organization criteria) and unidimensional (UDM) (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] criteria), together with the maximum depth of the tumor perpendicular to the pharyngeal wall (DM), were acquired from axial magnetic resonance images of primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 44 patients at diagnosis and in 29 of these patients after treatment. Tumor volume measurements (VM), acquired from the summation of areas from the axial magnetic resonance images, were used as the reference standard. Results: There was a significant association between VM and BDM with respect to tumor size at diagnosis (p = 0.002), absolute change in tumor size after treatment (p < 0.001), and percentage change in tumor size after treatment (p = 0.044), but not between VM and UDM. There was also a significant association between VM and DM with respect to percentage change in tumor size after treatment (p = <0.0001) but not absolute change (p = 0.222). Conclusion: When using simple measurements to assess irregularly shaped nasopharyngeal cancers, the BDM should be used to measure size at diagnosis and the BDM and percentage change in size with treatment. Unidimensional measurement does not reflect size or change in size, and therefore the RECIST criteria may not be applicable to all tumor shapes. The use of DM requires further evaluation

  2. Evaluation of coat uniformity and taste-masking efficiency of irregular-shaped drug particles coated in a modified tangential spray fluidized bed processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2015-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of coating irregular-shaped drug particles in a modified tangential spray fluidized bed processor (FS processor) and evaluate the coated particles for their coat uniformity and taste-masking efficiency. Paracetamol particles were coated to 20%, w/w weight gain using a taste-masking polymer insoluble in neutral and basic pH but soluble in acidic pH. In-process samples (5, 10 and 15%, w/w coat) and the resultant coated particles (20%, w/w coat) were collected to monitor the changes in their physicochemical attributes. After coating to 20%, w/w coat weight gain, the usable yield was 81% with minimal agglomeration (coat compared with the uncoated particles. A 15%, w/w coat was optimal for inhibiting drug release in salivary pH with subsequent fast dissolution in simulated gastric pH. The FS processor shows promise for direct coating of irregular-shaped drug particles with wide size distribution. The coated particles with 15% coat were sufficiently taste masked and could be useful for further application in orally disintegrating tablet platforms.

  3. Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa in captive yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa em cardeais-amarelo Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Quinto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata is a passerine found in southern Brazil, especially along the border with Uruguay and Argentina. It is an endangered species and its population is decreasing. Among the parasites that affect passerines, the genus Isospora is the most easily found in both captive and free-living birds. This parasite commonly causes injury to the intestinal tissue and could occasionally affect other organs. In this work we examined the occurrence of coccidiosis in captive yellow cardinals and its association with factors such as sex, use of parasiticides, type of enclosure, contact with feces, type of food and cleaning frequency. We collected fecal samples of 45 yellow cardinals, healthy and kept in captivity, in late afternoon at the end of the reproductive period. The examination showed parasitic infection by Isospora bocamontensis in 44.5% of the birds. This infection is not influenced by the sex of birds, but is significantly affected by the type of enclosure, contact with the feces, use of parasiticides, type of food and cleaning frequency. The results indicate that to keep yellow cardinals captive, these factors must be observed.O cardeal-amarelo (Gubernatrix cristata é um pássaro que ocorre no sul do Brasil, principalmente na fronteira com Uruguai e Argentina. É uma ave ameaçada de extinção e sua população está decrescendo. Dentre, os parasitas que afetam a ordem Passeriformes, o gênero Isospora está entre o mais encontrado, tanto em aves de cativeiro quanto em aves de vida-livre. Comumente causam injúrias no tecido intestinal, podendo ocasionalmente afetar outros órgãos. Neste trabalho examinamos a ocorrência de coccidiose em cardeais mantidos em cativeiro e verificamos sua associação com fatores como sexo, uso de produtos parasiticidas, tipo de recinto, contato com fezes, tipo de alimentação e frequência de limpeza. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes, ao entardecer, de 45 cardeais-amarelos, h

  4. Oocyst shedding by green-winged-saltator (Saltator similis in the diagnostic of coccidiosis and Isospora similisi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae Eliminação de oocistos por trinca-ferro-verdadeiro (Saltator similis no diagnóstico da coccidiose e Isospora similisi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Domingues Coelho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal periodicity is a phenomenon that has been observed in coccidian of Isospora parasites of passerines, which have been eliminated great number of oocysts at dusk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of periodicity of oocysts presence in the green-winged-saltator Saltator similis, and its use in the diagnosis of coccidiosis in wild birds in captivity. A total of 220 fecal samples were collected from birds, apprehended from illegal trading and kept in quarantine in CETAS∕IBAMA, in the morning and late afternoon, from May to November 2010. It was observed that 1.82% of the samples collected in the morning were positive, while 31.36% of samples were positive in the late afternoon. In addition, the number of oocysts shed was greater in the afternoon. Therefore, it was concluded that the sampling in the late afternoon provided greater reliability for the diagnosis of coccidiosis in green-winged-saltators. Moreover, in this study a new isosporoid coccidian parasite from the green-winged-saltator S. similis was observed and is herein described. Isospora similisi n. sp. oocysts are spheroidal to sub-spheroidal, 27.5 × 25.9 µm, with a smooth and bi-layered wall, ∼1.2 mm. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but splinter-like or comma-like granules are present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal or slightly ovoidal, 17.4 × 12.2 mm. A stieda body and substieda body are present. The sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with a single refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidium infecting S. similis and the sixth description from Cardinalidae.A periodicidade diurna é um fenômeno que tem sido observado em coccídios do gênero Isospora parasitas de pássaros, os quais eliminam uma maior quantidade de oocistos ao entardecer. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a periodicidade de eliminação de oocistos pelas fezes no trinca

  5. Introducing a novel method to estimate the total heat transfer coefficient inside irregular-shape cavities utilizing thermoelectric modules; Special application in solar engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Rahbar, Nader; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza

    The main objective of the present study is to introduce a novel method to measure the total heat transfer coefficient inside irregular-shape cavities, used in solar applications, utilizing thermoelectric modules. Applying mathematical and thermodynamics modeling, the governing equations related...... to the total heat transfer coefficient between thermoelectric and glass cover as a function of ambient temperature, glass temperature, and output voltage has been derived. Investigating the accuracy of the proposed equation, an experimental case study has been performed. The experimental setup consists...... of three parts; a heat sink, a thermoelectric module, and a glass cover. All the experiments have been performed on the typical winter day and under the real climatic conditions of Semnan (35° 33′ N, 53° 23′ E), Iran. The results showed that the proposed method has the ability to measure the total heat...

  6. Optimal design approach for heating irregular-shaped objects in three-dimensional radiant furnaces using a hybrid genetic algorithm-artificial neural network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishvand, Leila; Kamkari, Babak; Kowsary, Farshad

    2018-03-01

    In this article, a new hybrid method based on the combination of the genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network (ANN) is developed to optimize the design of three-dimensional (3-D) radiant furnaces. A 3-D irregular shape design body (DB) heated inside a 3-D radiant furnace is considered as a case study. The uniform thermal conditions on the DB surfaces are obtained by minimizing an objective function. An ANN is developed to predict the objective function value which is trained through the data produced by applying the Monte Carlo method. The trained ANN is used in conjunction with the GA to find the optimal design variables. The results show that the computational time using the GA-ANN approach is significantly less than that of the conventional method. It is concluded that the integration of the ANN with GA is an efficient technique for optimization of the radiant furnaces.

  7. Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa in captive yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Quinto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata is a passerine found in southern Brazil, especially along the border with Uruguay and Argentina. It is an endangered species and its population is decreasing. Among the parasites that affect passerines, the genus Isospora is the most easily found in both captive and free-living birds. This parasite commonly causes injury to the intestinal tissue and could occasionally affect other organs. In this work we examined the occurrence of coccidiosis in captive yellow cardinals and its association with factors such as sex, use of parasiticides, type of enclosure, contact with feces, type of food and cleaning frequency. We collected fecal samples of 45 yellow cardinals, healthy and kept in captivity, in late afternoon at the end of the reproductive period. The examination showed parasitic infection by Isospora bocamontensis in 44.5% of the birds. This infection is not influenced by the sex of birds, but is significantly affected by the type of enclosure, contact with the feces, use of parasiticides, type of food and cleaning frequency. The results indicate that to keep yellow cardinals captive, these factors must be observed.

  8. Contribution on the study of Isospora hemidactyli Carini, 1936 and a report of an adeleid pseudoparasite of the house gecko Hemidactylus mabouia, from the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region, Brazil Contribuição para o estudo de Isospora hemidactyli Carini, 1936 e relato de um pseudoparasita adelídeo da lagartixa doméstica Hemidactylus mabouia da região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Berto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of the coccidium Isospora hemidactyli from the house gecko Hemidactylus mabouia, a very common at dwellings in Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region, was made in this study. Histograms and linear regression were made for this species and determined the homogeneity of these oocysts despite of large range. Besides it, polysporocystid oocysts also were recovered from feces of the H. mabouia house gecko and they were similar to those described previously as the genus Adelina. This species should be parasitizing an invertebrate ingested by house gecko, and for that reason, is a pseudoparasite. Oocysts of I. hemidactyli were subspherical to ellipsoidal, 24.4 × 22.3μm, with single-layered wall and one polar granule. Sporocysts were subspherical to ellipsoidal, 11.8 × 9.8μm with Stieda and substieda bodies, residuum and sporozoites with refractile body. Oocysts of the pseudoparasite Adelina sp. were ellipsoidal, 36.3 × 30.9μm, with bi-layered wall and without micropyle, residuum and polar granule. Eight to 15 sporocysts were presents and were subspherical to broadly ellipsoidal, 12.4 × 11.2μm. Stieda and substieda bodies were absent. Sporozoites present refractile bodies at both ends.Uma descrição do coccídio Isospora hemidactyli da lagartixa doméstica Hemidactylus mabouia, muito comum em residências da região metropolotana do Rio de Janeiro, foi feita neste estudo. Os histogramas e a regressão linear para esta espécie confirmaram a homogeneidade de seus oocistos apesar da grande amplitude de variação. Além disto, oocistos polisporocísticos também foram recuperados das fezes de H. mabouia e foram semelhantes aos descritos anteriormente no gênero Adelina. Esta espécie devia estar parasitando um invertebrado ingerido pela lagartixa doméstica, e por essa razão, é um pseudoparasita. Oocistos de I. hemidactyli foram sub-esféricos a elipsóides, 24,4 × 22,3μm, com parede simples e um grânulo polar. Os esporocistos

  9. Properties and application of magnetite-bearing leaching residuum in metals ions removal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hredzak, S.; Vaclavikova, M.; Jakabsky, S.; Lovas, M.; Macasek, F.; Kufcakova, J.; Rajec, P.; Kopunec, R.

    2003-01-01

    The utility of magnetic sorbents is their potential application in heterogeneous systems like suspensions and body liquids, where they can be specifically removed in a magnetic field. Last not least, also the residues of leached iron-nickel laterite ores at the former Sered (Slovakia) hydrometallurgical plant were found to be a suitable magnetic sorbent for the removal of radionuclides and toxic elements from suspensions. Thus, the promising field of utilising of a stock of six million tons, which represents a local environmental problem because of the resulting spread of the so called black dusts, and the chromium contamination of underground waters, is the application in the decontamination of soils. The properties of the Sered residuum (further: SOR) are introduced. SOR, the raw and mechano-chemically activated by the grinding in potassium ferrocyanide solution in vibrating, ball or attrition mills, were used as a semi-natural magnetic sorbent. The parameters of raw and activated SOR are presented. The vibrating mill activation appears as the most efficient in respect of its activation, though the biggest increase of specific surface was achieved by attrition grinding. The soil in vicinity of nuclear facilities is generally contaminated by caesium-137, cobalt-60 and strontium-90 and should be decontaminated down the level of radiocaesium of about 1 kBq/kg. For this reason the sorption properties for Cs + , Sr 2+ , Pb 2+ and Eu 3+ ions were evaluated. The Toth sorption isotherm was used. Speciation by the Tessier and BCR standard leaching procedures indicates differences between the ions. Raw and activated SOR have convenient sorption properties for caesium, strontium, lead and partially also for trivalent lanthanides. That, together with SOR magnetic properties makes them promising for treatment of radioactive contaminated soils and sediments. Sorption of anions was demonstrated by TcO 4- sorption as a result of secondary ion-exchange mechanism. The results of

  10. Conclusive experimental study of prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition. Run-F9-1, Run-F9-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Ohno, Shuji; Miyahara, Shinya

    2004-04-01

    Nitrogen gas can be an extinguisher or a mitigating material in the case of sodium leak and fire accident in an air atmosphere, which may occur at a liquid metal cooled nuclear power plant. However, sodium combustion residuum sometimes reignites in the air atmosphere even at room temperature when it was produced by nitrogen gas injection to the burning sodium. Then, in this study we executed conclusive experiments of prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition by a mixture of carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) gas, humidity and nitrogen gas. The experiments were carried out with the FRAT-1 test equipment; the humidity conditions were changed in air which were used to sodium combustion atmosphere and exposure air for confirmation of prevented combustion residue reignition. First of all, the sodium of about 2.5 kg was leaked in air atmosphere, and next, the sodium combustion was stopped by nitrogen gas injection. Next, the combustion residuum was cooled in the nitrogen atmosphere, and then the combustion residuum was exposed to atmosphere of carbon-dioxide (4%); humidity (6000vppm); oxygen (3%)-nitrogen (based gas) mixture. It was confirmed that the combustion residuum was not reignition even if exposed to the air atmosphere again at the end of experiment. We had confirmed that the prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition to establish by this research were effective. (author)

  11. Presença extra-intestinal de cistos unizóicos de Isospora belli em paciente com SIDA: relato de caso Extraintestinal finding of Isospora belli unizoic cysts in a patient with AIDS: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob K. Frenkel

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a presença de cistos unizóicos de Isospora belli em linfonodos mesentéricos e de gametócitos no epitélio da vesícula biliar de um paciente brasileiro de 26 anos de idade, com a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida que recebeu tratamento, por diversas vezes, com sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim. Discute-se a importância dos cistos teciduais de I. belli como possíveis focos de resistência do parasita e a associação destes a episódios de recidivas da infecção mesmo após tratamento com medicação anticoccídios.This report describes the presence of Isospora belli unizoic cysts in mesenteric lymph nodes and of gametocytes in the gallbladder epitelium of a 26 year-old Brazilian male patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. This patient had received treatment for several times with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. It is discussed the significance of I. belli tissue cysts as possible foci of resistance of the parasite and their association with the infection relapse even post-treatment with anticoccidian medication.

  12. Efficacy of sulfonamides and Baycox(®) against Isospora suis in experimental infections of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Anja; Mundt, Hans-Christian

    2011-12-01

    Sulfonamide treatment of piglets against neonatal coccidiosis has frequently been suggested in the literature. In order to evaluate the efficacy of sulfonamides against experimental Isospora suis infections in suckling piglets (oral infection with 1,500 sporulated oocysts of I. suis per piglet on the fourth day of life), two trials were conducted. In trial I, oral sulfadimidine (group Sulfa-Oral) was applied in doses of 100 mg/kg of body weight (BW) 1 day before infection and 75 mg/kg BW daily for the following 5 days, and sulfamethoxypyrimidine (SMP) was applied parenterally in daily doses of 75 mg/kg BW for the same time period. In trial II, SMP was applied parenterally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW (a) from the day of infection daily for 7 days (SMP-Standard), (b) for 2 days starting on the day of infection (SMP-Early), (c) for 3 days starting 2 days post-infection (d.p.i.; SMP-Middle), (d) for 2 days starting 5 d.p.i. (SMP-Late), and (e) every other day from the day of infection until 6 d.p.i. (SMP-Alternating), as well as (f) orally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW from the day of infection for 7 days (SMP-Oral). The sulfonamide-treated groups were compared to a toltrazuril-treated group (single oral treatment with Baycox® 5% suspension, 20 mg/kg BW 2 d.p.i.) and to a water-treated Control group. Each group consisted of seven to nine piglets. The parameters evaluated were oocyst excretion and fecal consistency/diarrhea from 4 to 15 d.p.i. Sulfa-Oral, SMP-Early, and SMP-Late had no significant effect in reduction of oocyst excretion and diarrhea, whereas treatment for 3-7 days with SMP reduced both parasite shedding and diarrhea significantly. Oral treatment with SMP was comparable to parenteral application. Baycox® in a single application had the most pronounced effect and completely suppressed oocyst excretion and diarrhea during the examination period. It could be shown that repeated application of sulfonamides, provided that the appropriate time period after infection

  13. Evaporation From Soil Containers With Irregular Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Narkis, Kfir

    2017-11-01

    Evaporation from bare soils under laboratory conditions is generally studied using containers of regular shapes where the vertical edges are parallel to the flow lines in the drying domain. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of irregular container shapes, for which the flow lines either converge or diverge toward the surface. Evaporation from initially saturated sand and sandy loam soils packed in cones and inverted cones was compared to evaporation from corresponding cylindrical columns. The initial evaporation rate was higher in the cones, and close to potential evaporation. At the end of the experiment, the cumulative evaporation depth in the sand cone was equal to that in the column but higher than in the inverted cone, while in the sandy loam, the order was cone > column > inverted cone. By comparison to the column, stage 1 evaporation was longer in the cones, and practically similar in the inverted cones. Stage 2 evaporation rate decreased with the increase of the evaporating surface area. These results were more pronounced in the sandy loam. For the sand column, the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 evaporation occurred when the depth of the saturation front was approximately equal to the characteristic length of the soil. However, for the cone and the inverted cone, it occurred for a shallower depth of the saturation front. It seems therefore that the concept of the characteristic length derived from the soil hydraulic properties is related to drying systems of regular shapes.

  14. Prevalência de Isospora em cães de diferentes áreas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Jansen Franken

    1975-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi examinado um total de 222 cães, sendo que 197 eram cães de rua apreendidos nas áreas suburbanas e rurais do Rio de Janeiro e 25 eram animais de estimação, mantidos em residências (apartamentos nas zonas Centro e Sul da cidade. Do total de 197 cães de rua, foram encontrados 49 (24,87% parasitados por coccidios do gênero Isospora, sendo que 6 deles (3,04% eram parasitados por I. canis e 43 (21,83% por I. rivolta. Nos 43 casos de parasitismo por I. rivolta foi encontrada nas fezes uma alta percentagem de esporocistos livres com 4 esporozoitos (35 casos, representando 81,4%. As fezes foram coletadas diretamente do reto e a técnica empregada para o exame do material foi a centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco. Entre os 25 cães de estimação não foi encontrado nenhum caso de parasitismo por Isospora sp. Os valores médios para os diâmetros maior e menor das formas de Isospora sp. encontradas foram de 38,63μ x 31,93μ. para oocistos de I. canis; 23μ x 18,94μ. para oocistos de I. rivolta e, 19,94μ x 10,05μ para os esporocistos de I. rivolta, encontrados livres nas fezes. Não foi diagnosticado nenhum caso de I. bigemina. Entre todos os casos positivos foram encontrados apenas 3 casos de infecção maciça nos animais. Nos 3 casos, tratavam-se de animais jovens parasitados por I. rivolta. O teste estatístico de diferença de proporções demonstrou que o sexo e a idade dos animais não tiveram influência na maior ou menor percentagem de cães positivos para Isospora sp, na presente casuística.A survey was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of coccidia of the genus Isospora in dogs in Rio de Janeiro. The collection of faecal samples was performed directly in the rectum. Stools were prepared for examination using the zinc sulphate centrifuge flotation technique. Out of 222 animais examined, 25 were pet dogs kept in apartments in the central and southem areas of the city. None of them was found to be infected by

  15. Severe Isospora (Cystoisospora belli Diarrhea Preceding the Diagnosis of Human T-Cell-Leukemia-Virus-1-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ud Din

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isospora (Cystoisospora belli diarrhea can sometimes be fulminant in immunocompromised patients. It is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, and sporadic episodes have been reported in nonendemic areas in nursing homes, day-care centers, and psychiatric institutions. We describe isosporiasis in an HIV-negative Sudanese-American female who presented with a debilitating diarrheal illness and profound weight loss. Isospora belli was detected in her stool by modified acid-fast staining. Serologic testing was negative for HIV but positive for HTLV-1 infection. Treatment with TMP-SMZ led to improvement in her diarrhea which recurred after stopping antibiotics. Subsequently, she developed generalized lymphadenopathy which was diagnosed as ATLL on immunohistochemical staining. Chemotherapy was initiated, but her condition continued to worsen due to persistent diarrhea and resulting profound electrolyte abnormalities. The patient opted for comfort measures and died a few weeks later at a nursing facility. This case emphasizes that the detection of I. belli should trigger testing for HIV, HTLV-1, and other causes of immunocompromise. We suggest that treatment with TMP-SMZ should be initiated and continued for a prolonged period of time in immunocompromised patients with I. belli diarrhea.

  16. A new species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in Ruppell's agama Agama rueppelli (Vaillant) (Sauria: Agamidae) from East Africa, with a review of this genus in agamid lizards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihalca, A. D.; Jirků, Miloslav; Malonza, P. K.; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 3 (2009), s. 219-223 ISSN 0165-5752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Isospora * Agama * Kenya * coccidium * Apicomplexa Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.911, year: 2009

  17. Self-similar slip distributions on irregular shaped faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A.; Murphy, S.

    2018-06-01

    We propose a strategy to place a self-similar slip distribution on a complex fault surface that is represented by an unstructured mesh. This is possible by applying a strategy based on the composite source model where a hierarchical set of asperities, each with its own slip function which is dependent on the distance from the asperity centre. Central to this technique is the efficient, accurate computation of distance between two points on the fault surface. This is known as the geodetic distance problem. We propose a method to compute the distance across complex non-planar surfaces based on a corollary of the Huygens' principle. The difference between this method compared to others sample-based algorithms which precede it is the use of a curved front at a local level to calculate the distance. This technique produces a highly accurate computation of the distance as the curvature of the front is linked to the distance from the source. Our local scheme is based on a sequence of two trilaterations, producing a robust algorithm which is highly precise. We test the strategy on a planar surface in order to assess its ability to keep the self-similarity properties of a slip distribution. We also present a synthetic self-similar slip distribution on a real slab topography for a M8.5 event. This method for computing distance may be extended to the estimation of first arrival times in both complex 3D surfaces or 3D volumes.

  18. Method for hot pressing irregularly shaped refractory articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, William E.; Ballard, Ambrose H.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for hot pressing irregularly haped refractory articles with these articles of varying thickness being provided with high uniform density and dimensional accuracy. Two partially pressed compacts of the refractory material are placed in a die cavity between displaceable die punches having compact-contacting surfaces of the desired article configuration. A floating, rotatable block is disposed between the compacts. The displacement of the die punches towards one another causes the block to rotate about an axis normal to the direction of movement of the die punches to uniformly distribute the pressure loading upon the compacts for maintaining substantially equal volume displacement of the powder material during the hot pressing operation.

  19. Dosimetry of irregular shaped fields of β rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Datta, S.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of using various shapes and sizes of field limiting devices and collimators with β-ray eye applicators has necessitated the study of dosimetry for these fields. A method of calculating surface and depth doses for any shaped field from the data for circular fields is presented. The depth dose evaluation is based on a measured dose function which is defined as the dose rate at a particular depth for a particular circular field. The evaluated values for the surface and depth dose were compared with experimentally obtained values for three non-circular fields. The good agreement in these data indicates the practicability of the method suggested. (author)

  20. Periodicidade e intensidade de oocistos do gênero Isospora Schneider, 1881 eliminados nas fezes de passeriformes oriundos do tráfico de animais silvestres e mantidos em quarentena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Domingues Coelho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Frequência diurna tem sido observada em espécies de parasitos intestinais, especialmente no gênero Isospora Schneider, 1881 em aves selvagens, que eliminam oocistos nas fezes mais frequentemente no final da tarde. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a periodicidade e a eliminação de oocistos por pássaros mantidos no Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil triagem. Amostras de uma defecação foram coletadas de 602 pássaros, no período da manhã entre 9 e 12h e à tarde entre 15 e 17h, de maio a novembro de 2010. As amostras foram diluídas em dicromato de potássio a 2,5% 1: 6 (v/v e incubou-se à temperatura ambiente durante sete dias. De cada amostra foi também determinada a OoPD (número de oocistos por defecação, onde observou –se que as amostras fecais coletadas na parte da manhã tiveram um número menor de amostras positivas (12/2% em comparação com àquelas coletadas no fim da tarde os quais apresentaram um maior número de amostras positivas (136/23%, da mesma forma, que os OoPDs de pássaros das famílias Cardinalidae, Emberizidae e Thraupidae também foram diferentes em intensidade. Ambos os resultados indicaram que a periodicidade e a intensidade de oocistos em passeriformes foram extremamente significativas (p<0,0001, quando eles foram determinados usando amostras coletadas no período da tarde.

  1. Capillary pressure at irregularly shaped pore throats: Implications for water retention characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyoung Suk; Kang, Dong Hun; Jang, Jaewon; Kim, Kwang Yeom; Yun, Tae Sup

    2017-12-01

    The random shapes of pore throats in geomaterials hinder accurate estimation of capillary pressure, and conventional pore network models that simply use the Young-Laplace equation assuming circular pore throats overestimate the capillary pressure. As a solution to this problem that does not complicate the pore network model or slow its implementation, we propose a new morphological analysis method to correlate the capillary pressure at an irregular pore channel with its cross-sectional geometry using lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulation and Mayer and Stowe-Princen theory. Geometry-based shape factors for pore throats are shown here to correlate strongly with the capillary pressure obtained by LB simulation. Water retention curves obtained by incorporating the morphological calibration into conventional pore network simulation and their correlative scheme agree well with experimental data. The suggested method is relevant to pore-scale processes such as geological CO2 sequestration, methane bubbling from wetlands, and enhanced carbon recovery.

  2. Dosimetric evaluation of the conformation of the multileaf collimator to irregularly shaped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, Arthur; Du, Maria; Wong, John; Vicini, Frank; Taylor, Roy; Yu, Cedric; Matter, Richard; Martinez, Alvaro; Yan Di

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of geometric MLC prescription strategies and compare them to those of conventional shielding block. Methods and Materials: Circular fields, square fields, and 12 irregular fields for patients with cancer of the head and neck, lung, and pelvis were included in this study. All fields were shaped using the MLC and conventional blocks. A geometric criterion was defined as the amount of area discrepancy between the MLC and the prescription outline. The 'least area discrepancy' (LAD) of the MLC conformation was searched by selecting the collimator angle, meanwhile keeping a preselected position along the width of the leaf into the prescribed field. Five LAD conventions were studied. These included the LAD-0, LAD-(1(3)), LAD-(1(2)), and LAD-(2(3)) that inserted the leaves at the 0, (1(3)), (1(2)), and (2(3)) of the leaf end into the prescription field, respectively. In addition, the LAD optimization was applied to the transecting (TRN) approach for leaf conformation that prescribed an equal area of overblocking and underblocking under each leaf. Film dosimetry was performed in a 20 cm polystyrene phantom at 10 cm depth 100 cm from source to axis distance (SAD) for both 6 and 18 MV photons with each of the above MLC conformations and conventional blocks. The field penumbra width, defined as the mean of the separation between the 20% and 80% isodose lines along the normal of the prescription field edge, was calculated using both the MLC and conventional block film dosimetry and compared. In a similar way, the d20 is defined as the mean separation between the 20% isodose line and the prescription field edge, and the d80 is defined as the mean separation between the 80% isodose line and the prescription field edge. Results: The field penumbra width for all MLC conventions was approximately 2 mm larger than that of the conventional block. However, there was a larger variation of the separation distribution in the penumbra region of the irregular fields for the MLC, which had a standard deviation of 1 mm (a factor of 5 larger than the conventional block). The dosimetry for the circular fields showed that the LAD-TRN, LAD-(1(2)), and LAD-(1(3)) approximated the conventional blocking well in terms of d20 and d80; however, no single convention produced the best conformation for both measures. The dosimetric result of the patient treatment fields was similar for all sites. The LAD-(1(3)), LAD-(1(2)), and LAD-TRN strategies conformed to within 1 to 1.5 mm of the d80 of the conventional block for both 6 MV and 18 MV, respectively. The LAD-(1(2)) and LAD-TRN conformations were virtually identical, although it is proven analytically that the LAD-(1(2)) convention has the least overall area discrepancy of all conventions. Conclusions: The five MLC conformation conventions resulted in similar dosimetric penumbrae for all field shapes studied. The LAD-(1(3)), LAD-TRN, and LAD-(1(2)) produced the more favorable approximation to conventional block. The field penumbra width, although useful for evaluating irregular field shapes, could not describe the large local variations in the penumbra along the field edge for the MLC. These local variations could be of clinical concern when they appear near vital organs. However, the variation in a local region can potentially be reduced by minimizing the jaggedness of the leaf steps in that local region. The dosimetric results were useful as guidelines for the clinicians in the evaluation and adjustment of MLC leaf positions

  3. The role of polar aromatics in residuum hydrocracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benham, N.K.; Pruden, B.B.

    1997-01-01

    The CANMET hydrocracking process was developed to convert the heavy pitch fraction in bitumen into salable products. Some of the defining features of the CANMET technology were described. A 5000 BPD demonstration unit was built for Petro-Canada's Montreal Refinery in 1985. The CANMET slurry hydrocracking process uses a solid additive to inhibit coke formation and is capable of 975+ degrees F conversion levels in excess of 90 per cent. The process can be used for a wide range of refinery residues including conventional crudes and residues from refinery conversion units. The CANMET process has the capability of upgrading FCCU slurry, visbreaker vacuum tower bottoms, deasphalter bottoms residue, and poor quality gas oils from cokers and visbreakers. The current practices of the Petro-Canada commercial operation were discussed in the context of adapting the process to handle higher levels of asphaltenes. Pilot plant projects are being considered for ROSE R deasphalter bottoms. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 21 figs

  4. Precision casting into disposable ceramic mold – a high efficiency method of production of castings of irregular shape

    OpenAIRE

    Уваров, Б. И.; Лущик, П. Е.; Андриц, А. А.; Долгий, Л. П.; Заблоцкий, А. В.

    2016-01-01

    The article shows the advantages and disadvantages of precision casting into disposable ceramic molds. The high quality shaped castings produced by modernized ceramic molding process are proved the reliability and prospects of this advanced technology.

  5. PRECISION CASTING INTO DISPOSABLE CERAMIC MOLD – A HIGH EFFICIENCY METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF CASTINGS OF IRREGULAR SHAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Uvarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages and disadvantages of precision casting into disposable ceramic molds. The high quality shaped castings produced by modernized ceramic molding process are proved the reliability and prospects of this advanced technology.

  6. Estimation methods for sound levels and reverberation time in a room with irregular shape or absorption distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerretsen, E.

    2006-01-01

    The reverberation time of an enclosed space is an important parameter to describe the acoustic quality in enclosed spaces. Mainly due to its simplicity Sabine’s equation is normally used even though the considered situations seldom comply with its preconditions: regular room shape, regular

  7. Irradiation of malignant lymphonuos with irregularly shaped fields (Yesterday gammatron-3, today theratron 780C cobalt unit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Rasonyi, J.; Pecsenye, B.

    1995-01-01

    The authors compare the technique of shaping irregular (Mantle) field irradiation using Gammatron-3 and Theratron 780C Co-60 units. Patients can be treated from both directions on the treating coach without changing their position as the collimator of Theratron 780C unit makes it possible. Earlier patients could be treated with large field irradiation in prone and supine position on the ground with the old Gammatron-3 unit. The authors prefer using individually casted shielding blocks to manufactured ones. These blocks make personal treatment possible. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  8. Quality inspection guided laser processing of irregular shape objects by stereo vision measurement: application in badminton shuttle manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Wang, Shun; Zhang, Yixin; Sun, Yingying; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-11-01

    The quality inspection process is usually carried out after first processing of the raw materials such as cutting and milling. This is because the parts of the materials to be used are unidentified until they have been trimmed. If the quality of the material is assessed before the laser process, then the energy and efforts wasted on defected materials can be saved. We proposed a new production scheme that can achieve quantitative quality inspection prior to primitive laser cutting by means of three-dimensional (3-D) vision measurement. First, the 3-D model of the object is reconstructed by the stereo cameras, from which the spatial cutting path is derived. Second, collaborating with another rear camera, the 3-D cutting path is reprojected to both the frontal and rear views of the object and thus generates the regions-of-interest (ROIs) for surface defect analysis. An accurate visual guided laser process and reprojection-based ROI segmentation are enabled by a global-optimization-based trinocular calibration method. The prototype system was built and tested with the processing of raw duck feathers for high-quality badminton shuttle manufacture. Incorporating with a two-dimensional wavelet-decomposition-based defect analysis algorithm, both the geometrical and appearance features of the raw feathers are quantified before they are cut into small patches, which result in fully automatic feather cutting and sorting.

  9. Endogenous stages of Isospora acanthodactyli from sandy fringed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mrt

    2012-10-10

    Acanthodactylus schmidti) in. Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Ibrahim S. Al Nasr1,2. 1Biology Department, Arts and Sciences College at Onaizah, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. 2Research Unit, Applied Health Science College in Al ...

  10. Endogenous stages of Isospora acanthodactyli from sandy fringed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acanthodactylus schmidti) were described for the first time, in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Merogony and gamogony took place inside the host cell's cytoplasm, in the distal part of the small intestine. Multinucleated meronts, microgamonts and ...

  11. Determination of the water insoluble residuum in potassium salts using gamma logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishin, G.T.; Gavrilova, L.I.

    1976-01-01

    For potassium salts the relationship has been established between the concentration of heavy radioelements (the uranium-radium and thorium series) and the content of the water-insoluble, residue which is mainly represented by the clay-iodine fraction. A method is described for determining the content of the insoluble residue with the aid of PRKS-2 equipment. The results are given of experimental investigations aimed at studying the content of the insoluble residue in salts along the section of rising production wells. The results of the determination of the insoluble residue in potassium salts define their quality with an accuracy sufficient for industrial purposes

  12. Predicted fate of tritium residuum from groundwater tracer experiments in the Amargosa Desert, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikowski, T.

    1993-07-01

    Analytic solutions are used in this study to evaluate potential groundwater transport of tritium used in goundwater tracer tests southwest of the Nevada Test Site. Possible transport from this site is of interest because initial radionuclide concentrations were high and the site is close to goundwater discharge points (12 km). Anecdotal evidence indicates that 90 percent of these tracers were removed by pumping at the completion of the tests; this study examines the probable transport of the tracers with and without the removal. Classical dispersive transport analytic solutions are used, treating the tracer test as a point slug injection. Input parameters for the solutions were measured at the site, and consideration of parameter uncertainty is incorporated in the results. With removal of the tracer, the maximum expected region with above-Safe Drinking Water Act (40 CFR 121) concentrations of tritium extends 5 km from the injection point, and does not reach any sites of public access. Detectable tritium from the tests is likely to have reached the Ash Meadows fault zone, but flow along the fault probably diluted the tracer to below detection limits before arrival at springs along the fault. Arrival at the springs would have occurred 20 to 25 years after the tests. Without removal of the tracer, the solutions indicate that tritium concentrations just above Safe Drinking Water Act standards would have reached the Ash Meadows fault zone. In this case, detectable tritium might have been found in Devil's Hole or Longstreet Spring, the nearest points of possible public exposure

  13. Numerical Models for Exact Description of in-situ Digital In-Line Holography Experiments with Irregularly-Shaped Arbitrarily-Located Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Brunel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the development of a numerical simulator for digital in-line holography applications. In-line holograms of arbitrarily shaped and arbitrarily located objects are calculated using generalized Huygens-Fresnel integrals. The objects are 2D opaque or phase objects. The optical set-up is described by its optical transfer matrix. A wide variety of optical systems, involving windows, spherical or cylindrical lenses, can thus be taken into account. It makes the simulator applicable for design and description of in situ experiments. We discuss future applications of this simulator for detection of nanoparticles in droplets, or calibration of airborne instruments that detect and measure ice crystals in the atmosphere.

  14. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria labbeana-like (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica, Gmelin, 1789) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2016-07-01

    An Eimeria species is described from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Sporulated oocysts (n = 35) were subspherical, with a smooth bi-layered oocyst wall (1.0 μm thick). Oocysts measured 20.2 × 16.1 (22.0-18.9 × 15.7-18.9) μm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.38. Oocyst residuum and a polar granule were present. The micropyle was absent. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 13.0 × 6.1 (14.5-12.5 × 5.5-7.0) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 2.13 (2.0-2.2), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass. Each sporocyst contained 2 banana-shaped sporozoites, 12.3 × 3.5 (11.8-13.0 × 3.3-3.6) μm. A spherical-ellipsoid posterior refractile body was found in the sporozoites. A nucleus was located immediately anterior to the posterior refractile body. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18S locus, the new isolate shared 98.0% genetic similarity with three Isospora isolates from Japan from the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). At the 28S locus, it grouped separately and shared 92.4% and 92.5% genetic similarity with Isospora anthochaerae (KF766053) from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) from Australia and an Isospora sp. (MS-2003 - AY283845) from a Himalayan grey-headed bullfinch (Pyrrhula erythaca) respectively. At COI locus, this new isolate was in a separate clade and shared 95.6% and 90.0% similarity respectively with Eimeria tiliquae n. sp. from a shingleback skink in Australia and an Eimeria sp. from a common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) from America. Based on the morphological data, this isolate is most similar to Eimeria labbeana. As no molecular data for E. labbeana is available and previous morphological data is incomplete, we refer to the current isolate as E. labbeana-like. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Two new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus spp. (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Madagascar, including a new host of Eimeria brygooi Upton and Barnard, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Seville, R. Scott; Hartdegen, Ruston

    2016-01-01

    During May and June 2015, four common leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus fimbriatus (Schneider), five satanic leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus phantasticus (Boulenger), and four mossy leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus sikorae Boettger originally collected from Madagascar and housed at the Dallas Zoo, USA, had their faeces examined for coccidian parasites. Eight (62%) geckos were found to be passing oöcysts, including a new eimerian, a new isosporan and a previously described eimerian. Three of four (75%) U. fimbratus (type host) and one of five (20%) U. phantasticus were infected with Eimeria schneideri n. sp.; oöcysts were subspheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bi-layered wall and measured (length × width, L × W) 15.1 × 13.5 µm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. A micropyle and oöcyst residuum were absent but 1–many polar granules were present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 6.9 × 5.3 µm, L/W 1.3. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. A globular sporocyst residuum was present as dispersed granules. Four of five (80%) U. phantasticus harbored Isospora boulengeri n. sp.; oöcysts were subpheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bi-layered wall and measured 17.3 × 16.0 µm, L/W 1.1. A micropyle and oöcyst residuum were absent but a polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.5 × 6.9 µm, L/W 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present but a para-Stieda body was absent. A globular sporocyst residuum was present with dispersed granules. In addition, one of four (25%) U. sikorae was infected with an eimerian indistinguishable from Eimeria brygooi Upton and Barnard, 1987, previously reported from Madagascar day gecko, Phelsuma grandis Gray and golddust day gecko, Phelsuma laticauda (Boettger) from Madagascar. These are the first coccidians described from Uroplatus spp. PMID:27638735

  16. Two new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus spp. (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Madagascar, including a new host of Eimeria brygooi Upton & Barnard, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Scott Seville, R; Hartdegen, Ruston

    2016-10-01

    During May and June 2015, four common leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus fimbriatus (Schneider), five satanic leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus phantasticus (Boulenger), and four mossy leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus sikorae Boettger originally collected from Madagascar and housed at the Dallas Zoo, USA, had their faeces examined for coccidian parasites. Eight (62%) geckos were found to be passing oöcysts, including a new eimerian, a new isosporan and a previously described eimerian. Three of four (75%) U. fimbratus (type-host) and one of five (20%) U. phantasticus were infected with Eimeria schneideri n. sp.; oöcysts were subspheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bi-layered wall and measured (mean length × width, L × W) 15.1 × 13.5 µm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. A micropyle and oöcyst residuum were absent but one to many polar granules were present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 6.9 × 5.3 µm, L/W = 1.3. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. A globular sporocyst residuum was present as dispersed granules. Four of five (80%) U. phantasticus harboured Isospora boulengeri n. sp.; oöcysts were subpheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bi-layered wall and measured 17.3 × 16.0 µm, L/W = 1.1. A micropyle and oöcyst residuum were absent but a polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.5 × 6.9 µm, L/W = 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present but a para-Stieda body was absent. A globular sporocyst residuum was present with dispersed granules. In addition, one of four (25%) U. sikorae was infected with an eimerian indistinguishable from Eimeria brygooi Upton & Barnard, 1987, previously reported from Madagascar day gecko, Phelsuma grandis Gray and golddust day gecko, Phelsuma laticauda (Boettger) from Madagascar. These are the first coccidians described from Uroplatus spp.

  17. Rações orgânicas suplementadas com farinha de resíduos de peixe para juvenis da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Organic diet supplemented with fish residuum flour for Nile tilapia juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduo da indústria de filetagem de peixes em rações orgânicas para tilápias do Nilo (O. niloticus na fase de crescimento, sobre o desempenho zootécnico (ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e sobrevivência, características de carcaça (rendimento de carcaça, tronco limpo, filé, gordura visceral, e índice hepatossomático e composição química (umidade, proteína bruta, matéria mineral e extrato etéreo dos peixes. Utilizaram-se 440 tilápias com média inicial de 84,11 ± 11,56 g de peso e 16,7 ± 0,80 cm de comprimento distribuídas em 20 tanques de 8 m³, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram elaboradas cinco rações com níveis de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de inclusão de farinha de resíduos com 28% de proteína digestível e 3.100 kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Houve aumento linear nas médias de ganho de peso e redução linear na conversão alimentar com a inclusão da farinha. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05 nos parametros de rendimento corporal, na umidade e proteína bruta dos filés, porém, a matéria mineral e o extrato etéreo apresentaram diferenças (P This work was carried out to evaluate the inclusion of fish by-product from the filleting industry in organic food for Nile tilapia (O. niloticus in the phase of growth, on livestock performance (weight gain, food conversion and survival, characteristics of carcass (carcass yield, clear trunk, fillet, visceral fat and hepatosomatic index and chemical composition (humidity, gross protein, mineral matter and ethereal extract of fish. A total of 440 tilapias with 84.11 ± 11.56 g average initial weight and 16.7 ± 0.80 cm in length, assigned into 20 8m³-aquaria, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. Four diets were prepared with levels of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of fish by-product meal, with 28% in digestible protein and 3,100 kcal kg-1 in digestible energy. There was a linear increase in the average of weight gain. However, no differences were observed (P 0.05 for the treatments of body yield, humidity and gross protein of fillets. The mineral matter and the ethereal extract, on the other hand, showed differences (P<0.05 among the treatments. The inclusion of 16% in fish by-product wastes from the filleting industry in diets formulated with ingredients certificated from organic origin improves livestock performance, does not impair body yield, but it alters the parameters of mineral matter and ethereal extract of tilapia in the phase of growth.

  18. Description of the Oocysts of Three New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from Iguanid Lizards (Sauria: Iguanidae of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daszak P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Eimeria are described from iguanid lizards of Central and South America. The oocysts of each species have no micropyles or residua and the sporocysts lack Stieda bodies, but all have a sporocyst residuum. Eimeria sanctaluciae n.sp. was found in the St. Lucia tree lizard, Anolis luciae, collected from the Maria Islands, Lesser Antilles. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, averaging 17.3 x 16.5 µm, with a single layered colourless wall; about 60% contain polar granules. The sporocysts are ellipsoidal and average 7.7 x 5.5 µm. Eimeria liolaemi n.sp. was recovered from the blue-gold swift, Liolaemus taenius, from Chile. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, measuring 21 x 20.1 µm with a single-layered colourless wall. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 7.4 x 6.8 µm. Eimeria caesicia n.sp. is described from the Brazilian collared iguanid, Tropidurus torquatus. The oocysts measure 27.4 x 23.7 µm, are spherical to subspherical, with a bilayered wall, the outer surface of which appears pale blue in colour, the thin, inner wall appearing brown, when viewed by direct light under the optical microscope. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 9.4 x 7.2 µm. Unnamed polysporocystid oocysts with dizoic sporocysts are reported from the faeces of the lesser St. Vincent tree lizard, Anolis trinitatis and the possibility of spurious parasitism briefly discussed. In addition, oocysts of an unnamed Isospora sp. with a smooth oocyst wall which closely resembles I. reui were recovered from A. trinitatis.

  19. Parasites and parasite stages of free-ranging wild lions (Panthera leo) of northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, K E; Averbeck, G A; Stromberg, B E

    2000-03-01

    Fecal samples from 33 lions (Panthera leo) in Serengeti National Park and Ngorongoro Crater Conservation Area in northern Tanzania contained 19 different parasites, 12 of which, including Aelurostrongylus sp., a species of Acanthocephala, a species of Anoplocephalidae, Capillaria sp., Demodex sp., Eimeria sp., Habronema sp., Isospora felis, Isospora rivolta, one species of Isospora that was previously undescribed from lions, one species of Trematoda that was previously undescribed from lions, and Trichuris sp., were new reports for lions. Seven other species had been previously reported from lions.

  20. 76 FR 11464 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Open Commission Meeting; Thursday, March 3, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... functional equivalent of Tribal Lands and to Tribal Lands that are small or irregularly shaped; and to adjust... Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People who are Blind, Deaf-Blind, or Have Low Vision (CG Docket No. 10...

  1. Effect of Pyrodextrinization, Crosslinking and Heat- Moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    than HMT starch which was irregularly-shaped formed. Conclusion: Native parkia ... properties of the native modified starches were ... oven, then ground into powder using a mortar and pestle .... Figure 1: Effect of pyrodextrinization (PD), cross-.

  2. Microwave absorbing properties of activated carbon fibre polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cations in the field of radar and electromagnetic compatibility. (Singh et al ... fibres have irregular-shaped cross sections (shown in fig- ure 1) ... Microwave absorbing properties of activated carbon fibre polymer composites. 77. 2. 4. 6. 8. 10. 12.

  3. Coccidia infections in Danish farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann

    day (April-October 2016) from bitches and cups on 30 farms (n=335 mink) from South- or North Jutland, or Zealand. Minimum once, 60.9% (n=204) mink excreted Eimeria, 56.7% (n=190) Isospora and 20.9% (n=70) excreted both coccidia. Positive mink were identified on all farms. Eimeria prevalence was higher...... on the Zealand farms (25.4±2.2%, PEimeria prevalence peaked in June-July (12.6%-24.9%), while Isospora prevalence peaked in July-August (12.......1%-27.6%). More cups (19.5%) than bitches (4.6%) were Isospora positive, while Eimeria prevalence was similar for cups (15.7%) and bitches (10.5%). For cups, Eimeria prevalence peaked when cups were 7-11 weeks old and again when 18-24 weeks old. Isospora prevalence peaked in cups 13-15 weeks old. Three Eimeria...

  4. Acalculous cholecystitis in malaria: Complication or accomplice?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (3). AAC has been described in patients in association with a number of conditions like trauma, burns, abdominal surgery, prolonged parenteral nutrition and infections. Common infections associated with AAC include dengue fever, salmonellosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, staphylococcal infection , isospora sp, cyclospora.

  5. 3.3.1. Filtration properties of hydrochloride-acid pulps at reprocessingof nepheline syenites by baking method with calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, Sh.B.; Safiev, Kh.S.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2008-01-01

    At hydrochloride-acid decomposition of solid residuum from the waterprocessing of cake obtained at baking of nepheline with calcium chloride into the liquid phase pass hydrochloride-acid of aluminium and iron

  6. REVIEWS OF BOOKS : BOEKRFSENSIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ill. Examination and Diagnosis. IV. Methods of Treatment. V. Techniques of Treatment. VI. ... C. drugs, y tematicaUy pr nted under indi idual tit! , ..... 265), wrong vowels in residuum and vitamin (pages 268 and 279), .... Cancer of the Stomach.

  7. Paraquat induced lung injury: long-term follow-up of HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young; Im, Han Hyek [Soonchunhyang Univ., Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-01

    To determine the long-term follow-up CT findings of paraquat-induced lung injury. Six patients who ingested paraquat underwent sequential follow-up CT scanning during a period of at least six months, and the results were analysed. Scans were obtained 1-6 (mean, 3.3) time during a 7-84 (mean, 25.7) months period, and the findings at 1-2 months, 3-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and more than above 7 years after poisoning were analyzed. We observed irregular-shaped areas of consolidation with traction bronchiectasis at 1-2 months (5/5), irregular-shaped consolidation and ground-glass opacity (5/5) at 3-12 months, and irregular-shaped consolidations/ground-glass opacity (4/5) and focal honeycombing (1/5) one year later. In the same patients, follow-up CT scans showed that some areas of focal consolidation could not be visualized and the radio-opacity of the lesions had decreased. The HRCT findings of paraquat-induced lung injury were irregular shaped areas of consolidation 1-2 months after ingestion, and irregular-shaped consolidation and ground-glass opacity or focal honeycombing 3-12 months later. At this thim slight improvement was observed.

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  9. Blueberry necrotic ring blotch, a new blueberry disease caused by a virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel symptoms have been observed on southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in several southeastern states. Affected plants show irregularly shaped circular spots or blotches with green centers on the top and bottoms of leaves. Diagnostic tests failed to isolate a...

  10. An emerging disease in blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new disorder was observed on southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in several southeastern states. Symptoms included irregularly shaped circular spots or blotches with green centers on the top and bottom of leaves. The disease was reported initially in the state ...

  11. An emerging disease in blueberry caused by a novel RNA virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new disorder was observed on southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in several southeastern states. Symptoms included irregularly shaped circular spots or blotches with green centers on the top and bottom of leaves. The disease was reported initially in the state ...

  12. Three rules suffice for good label placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Wolff, A.; Kapoor, V.; Strijk, T.

    2001-01-01

    The general label-placement problem consists in labeling a set of features (points, lines, regions) given a set of candidates (rectangles, circles, ellipses, irregularly shaped labels) for each feature. The problem arises when annotating classical cartographical maps, diagrams, or graph drawings.

  13. A combinatorial framework for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Wolff, A.; Whitesides, S.

    1998-01-01

    The general map labeling problem consists in labeling a set of sites (points, lines, regions) given a set of candidates (rectangles, circles, ellipses, irregularly shaped labels) for each site. A map can be a classical cartographical map, a diagram, a graph or any other figure that needs to be

  14. Liquid volumes measurements by isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera M, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    By the nuclear technique, isotopic dilution industrial liquid volumes may be measured in large size recipients of irregular shapes using radiotracers. In the present work laboratory and pilot test are made with 2 radiotracers for optimizing the technique and later done on an industrial scale, obtaining a maximum deviation of +-2%, some recommendations are given to improve the performance of the technique. (author)

  15. Manganese nodule morphology as indicators for oceanic processes in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vineesh, T.C; Nath, B.N.; Banerjee, R.; Jaisankar, S.; Lekshmi, V.

    are found in the CIB with spheroidal, oblong, triangular, rounded, sub-rounded or irregular shapes, with irregular nodules being most common. The most common nucleus is altered basalt, while pumice, shark teeth, clay and older nodule nuclei are also present...

  16. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    It then turned to the various physical agencies that could ... experimental data from irregularly shaped and variably .... temperatures commonly run between 0°C and – 40°C. ..... Philpott J 1956 Blade tissue organization of foliage leaves of.

  17. A case of transitional cell carcinoma associated with pericalyceal diverticulum diagnosed by CT guided percutaneous cystgraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Fumio; Koga, Sukehiko; Takeuchi, Akira; Anno, Hirofumi; Hujita, Tamio

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) performed on a 42-year-old male patient with a chief complaint of hematuria revealed a renal cyst with a thickened and irregularly shaped wall. CT with contrast medium injected into the cyst by puncture under CT guide detected tumors on the cystic wall preoperatively. (Ueda, J.)

  18. Swiveling Lathe Jaw Concept for Holding Irregular Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J.

    1966-01-01

    Clamp holds irregularly shaped pieces in lathe chuck without damage and eliminates excessive time in selecting optimum mounting. Interchangeable jaws ride in standard jaw slots but swivel so that the jaw face bears evenly against the workpiece regardless of contour. The jaws can be used on both engine and turret lathes.

  19. Nickel powders shape effect upon their isostatic compaction behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytermann, R.; Auguin, B.; Defresne, A.; Gilles, P.

    1975-01-01

    Two carbonyl nickel powders of the same purity, one spherical, the other of very irregular shape, were isostatically compacted at pressures from 0.5 to 13Kbars with two compacting speeds: 1Kbar/s and 1Kbar/15s. The influence of the powder shapes on the electrical resistivity, tensile strength and microcalorimetric measurements was studied [fr

  20. Planet Hunters IX. KIC 8462852 - where's the flux?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyajian, T. S.; LaCourse, D. M.; Rappaport, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the duration of the Kepler mission, KIC 8462852 was observed to undergo irregularly shaped, aperiodic dips in flux of up to ˜20 per cent. The dipping activity can last for between 5 and 80 d. We characterize the object with high-resolution spectroscopy, spectral energy distribution fitting, ...

  1. Low Vision Rehabilitation Intervention for People with Ring Scotomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoessow, Kimberly A.; Gilbert, Leah M.; Jackson, Mary Lou

    2010-01-01

    Central scotomas--areas of the nonseeing retina within the central 20 degrees of the visual field--are present in approximately 90% of vision rehabilitation patients. They vary in size and shape and can be small or large, symmetrical or asymmetrical, round or irregularly shaped. Most central scotomas border fixation on one side and can be overcome…

  2. Efficient Interior NSI based on Various BeamformingMethods for Overview and Conformal Mapping usingSONAH Holography for Details on Selected Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jørgen; Mørkholt, Jakob; Gomes, Jesper Skovhus

    of problematic areas is performed with a small planar single-layer or double-layer array in combination with SONAH holography. Using the SONAH algorithm for patch near-field acoustic holography, all sound field parameters can be estimated directly on the irregularly shaped panel surfaces. All the array...

  3. Random packing of digitized particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    The random packing of regularly and irregularly shaped particles has been studied extensively. Within this paper, packing is studied from the perspective of digitized particles. These digitized particles are developed for and used in cellular automata systems, which are employed for the simple

  4. 78 FR 77662 - Notice of Availability (NOA) for General Purpose Warehouse and Information Technology Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...,500 square feet and would include a 360,000 square feet active bulk warehouse and a 5,500 square feet... parking lot (approximately 295,000 square feet) and new laydown area (approximately 240,000 square feet.... The laydown area would be constructed in an unimproved, irregularly shaped open lot that is...

  5. Density and shape factor of sodium aerosol. Progress report, January 1, 1976--March 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinds, W.; First, M.W.

    1976-05-01

    Several approaches for characterizing the physical and aerodynamic properties of irregularly shaped aerosol particles are reviewed. Measurements of density modification factor, dynamic shape factor, and particle density using an aerosol centrifuge and a scanning electron microscope are described. Calibration procedures for this characterization method are described and preliminary results reported

  6. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    of an irregular room model using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method has been presented. CABS has been simulated in the irregular room model. Measurements of CABS in a real irregular room have been performed. The performance of CABS was affected by the irregular shape of the room due to the corner...

  7. Atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast : pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Kim, Myung Sook; Pae, Won Kil [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To correlate the atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast with the pathologic findings. Among 203 surgically proven 43 which were sonographically atypical fibroadenomas, were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for atypical variety, as seen on sonography, were an ill-defined margin, microlobulated or irregular shape, heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, microcalcification, and clefts. The atypical sonographic patterns of these 43 fibroadenomas were analysed and compared with the pathologic findings. Among 43 lesions, ill-defined margins or irregular shapes were seen in 15 cases, heterogeneous internal echo-patterns in 27, posterior attenuation in nine, and clefts in seven. Thirty-seven (86%) of the 43 were predominantly ductal or had a mixed ductal and stromal component. Eleven (73.3%) of fifteen ill-defined margin or irregular shaped lesions were caused by interdigitation of surrounding normal breast parenchyma and mass. Twenty two (81.5%) of 27 heterogeneous internal echo-pat-terns were related to dilated ducts, phyllodes features, collagen bundles, adenosis, microcalcification, or fat vacuoles. Eight (88.9%) of nine posterior attenuations were caused by collagen bundles, microcalcification, ductal proliferation or dilatation. All seven cases showing clefts revealed phyllodes features and dilated ducts. Most atypical fibroadenomas had a predominantly ductal or mixed component. Ill-defined margin or irregular shape was mainly due to interdigitation of normal surrounding parenchyma. Variable histologic features were related to the heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, and the clefts revealed by atypical sonographic findings.

  8. Atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast : pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Kim, Myung Sook; Pae, Won Kil

    1999-01-01

    To correlate the atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast with the pathologic findings. Among 203 surgically proven 43 which were sonographically atypical fibroadenomas, were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for atypical variety, as seen on sonography, were an ill-defined margin, microlobulated or irregular shape, heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, microcalcification, and clefts. The atypical sonographic patterns of these 43 fibroadenomas were analysed and compared with the pathologic findings. Among 43 lesions, ill-defined margins or irregular shapes were seen in 15 cases, heterogeneous internal echo-patterns in 27, posterior attenuation in nine, and clefts in seven. Thirty-seven (86%) of the 43 were predominantly ductal or had a mixed ductal and stromal component. Eleven (73.3%) of fifteen ill-defined margin or irregular shaped lesions were caused by interdigitation of surrounding normal breast parenchyma and mass. Twenty two (81.5%) of 27 heterogeneous internal echo-pat-terns were related to dilated ducts, phyllodes features, collagen bundles, adenosis, microcalcification, or fat vacuoles. Eight (88.9%) of nine posterior attenuations were caused by collagen bundles, microcalcification, ductal proliferation or dilatation. All seven cases showing clefts revealed phyllodes features and dilated ducts. Most atypical fibroadenomas had a predominantly ductal or mixed component. Ill-defined margin or irregular shape was mainly due to interdigitation of normal surrounding parenchyma. Variable histologic features were related to the heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, and the clefts revealed by atypical sonographic findings

  9. A simulation-based attempt to quantify the morphological component of size selection of Nephrops norvegicus in trawl codends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rikke; Herrmann, Bent; Madsen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The selectivity for Nephrops (Nephrops norvegicus) in trawl codends generally is poor and the lack of steepness of the selection curve results in high discard rates and/or loss of legal-sized catch. This poor codend selectivity often is attributed to the irregular shape of Nephrops, which to some...

  10. Cultural Resources Investigations for Libby Reservoir, Lincoln County, Northwest, Montana. Volume 1. Environment, Archaeology, and Land Use Patterns in the Middle Kootenai River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Childrens grow fat upon, mothers like, and physicians recommend Castoria. It regulates the bowels, cures wind colic , allays feverishness and destroys worms...from a smooth lightweight drinking glass (with a raised, irregular shaped, point design in cream color on the exterior surface), and a thick, flat

  11. The new 'Angeli di San Giuliano' School: a significant example of seismic isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, P.; Buffarini, G.; Dolce, M.; Parducci, A.

    2009-01-01

    The new school in San Giuliano di Puglia has been built with a seismic base isolation system ensuring a safety degree that otherwise could not be obtained with traditional techniques. Due to its complex and irregular shape, the building also gives rise to some considerations about the design in seismic areas. [it

  12. Random packing of digitized particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2012-01-01

    The random packing of regularly and irregularly shaped particles has been studied extensively. Within this paper, packing is studied from the perspective of digitized particles. These digitized particles are developed for and used in cellular automata systems, which are employed for the simple

  13. Microscopic analysis of electroerozyon chrome-containing powders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The particles, formed during the crystallization of the boiling material (vapor phase), have an irregular shape, the size of an order of magnitude smaller, than the particles, formed from the liquid phase, and usually agglomerate with each other and on the surface of other particles. In the EES process, such particles are most ...

  14. A Rare Case of Primary Mucocutaneous Histoplasmosis Presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    ulcer. Her blood pressure, pulse and temperature were normal. She had mobile cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy. Her Cardiovascular and Respiratory examination were normal, as were the rest of the systems. There was an irregularly- shaped ulcer involving more than. 50% of her upper lip. The edges were punched ...

  15. performance characteristics of a cam turning attachment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. A modification of a cylindrical turning unit has been done to give a non- cylindrical turning attachment for production of irregular shapes, like cams on the lathe machine. To assess the performance of the attachment, cutting forces have been measured using a 'Sigma' Cutting Tool. Dynamometer. Furthermore ...

  16. The gravitational potential of a homogeneous polyhedron or don't cut corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    A polyhedron can model irregularly shaped objects such as asteroids, comet nuclei, and small planetary satellites. With minor effort, such a model can incorporate important surface features such as large craters. Here we develop closed-form expressions for the exterior gravitational potential and acceleration components due to a constant-density polyhedron. An equipotential surface of Phobos is illustrated.

  17. Nanodiamond particles forming photonic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grichko, Varvara; Tyler, Talmage; Grishko, Victor I; Shenderova, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Colloid suspensions of irregularly shaped, highly charged detonation nanodiamond particles are found to have unexpected optical properties, similar to those of photonic crystals. This finding is all the more surprising since the particles used in this work are far more polydisperse than those typically forming photonic crystals. Intensely iridescent structures have been fabricated using the centrifugation of aqueous suspensions of nanodiamonds

  18. Nanodiamond particles forming photonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grichko, Varvara; Tyler, Talmage; Grishko, Victor I; Shenderova, Olga [International Technology Center, 8100 Brownleigh Drive, Suite 120, Raleigh, NC 27617 (United States)], E-mail: oshenderova@itc-inc.org

    2008-06-04

    Colloid suspensions of irregularly shaped, highly charged detonation nanodiamond particles are found to have unexpected optical properties, similar to those of photonic crystals. This finding is all the more surprising since the particles used in this work are far more polydisperse than those typically forming photonic crystals. Intensely iridescent structures have been fabricated using the centrifugation of aqueous suspensions of nanodiamonds.

  19. Cryptosporidium parvum and Isopora belli infections among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the importance of Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli infections as a cause of diarrhoea among patients admitted to the Medical Wards in Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi. Design: Prospective case control study. Subjects: One hundred and twenty one patients with ...

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation in HIV seropositive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opportunistic parasites such as Cryptosporidium,. Cyclospora and Isospora species. It is also important to note that this report will be the first documentation on HIV/AIDS and intestinal parasites from this center. And it aims to determine the frequency and pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation, including protozoan species ...

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to CD4 counts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stool samples were processed using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to microscopically identify the oocysts of Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora species and spores of Microsporidium species while saline and iodine preparations were used for identifying the ova, cysts and parasites of ...

  2. Cryptosporidiosis and Isosporiasis among HIV/AIDS patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives: Cryptosporidosis and isosporiasis are becoming common in subjects with AIDS. Thus a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the magnitude of Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli infections among HIV/AIDS patients in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. Patients and methods: One ...

  3. Gastrointestinal helminths of resident wildlife at the Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of feeding category, carnivorous species namely the (Aquila spilogaster) and Royal python (P. regius) have the highest species richness count of parasites. Non-nematode helminths detected include protozoons (Isospora and Eimeria) and Cestodes segments suspected to be Echinococcus proglotids. Knowledge ...

  4. Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae of podocnemis expansa (Schweigger and geochelone denticulata (LINN. from Amazonian Brazil (Reptilia: Chelonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lainson

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria lagunculata, Eimeria mammiformis and Eimeria podocnemis n. spp., are described from the faeces of the fresh-water turtle Podocnemis expansa, in Pará State, north Brasil. Oocysts of E. lagunculata are ellipsoidal, 19.2 x 12.8 (17.0-20.7 x 11.8-14.1 mum, shape-index (= length/ width 1.5 (1.4-1.7. Oocyst wall about 0.5-0.7 mum thick, with a prominent stopper-like micropyle at one pole. No oocyst residuum and no polar body. Sporocysts elongate ellipsoidal, 11.0 x 5.4 (10.4-11.8 x 5.2-6.0 mum, shape-index 2.0 (1.8-2.1: no Stieda body. A compact, ellipsoidal sporocyst residuum lies between the two sporozoites, which possess a posterior and an anterior refractile body. Oocysts of E. mammiformis broadly ellipsoidal, 30.0 x 19.4 (23.0-37.0 x 16.3-21.5 mum, shape-index 1.5 (1.1-1.9. Oocyst wall about 0.7 mum thick, with a prominent micropyle: no oocyst residuum and rarely a single polar body. Sporocysts ellipsoidal, 15.3 x 7.9 (14.8-17.0 x 7.4-9.6 mum, shape-index 2.0 (1.8-2.2, with a tiny Stieda body. Sporocyst residuum bulky, ellipsoidal: sporozoites with two conspicuous refractile bodies. E. podocnemis has broadly ellipsoidal oocysts, 17.0 x 12.8 (14.8-19.2 x 11.8-14.1 mum, shape-index 1.3 (1.1-1.4. Oocyst wall about 0.5-0.7 mum thick, with no micropyle. No oocyst residuum, but always a single polar body. Sporocysts ellipsoidal, 9.7 x 5.2 (8.9-10.4 x 4.4-6.0 mum, shape-index 1.9 (1.6-2.0, with no Stieda body. Sporocyst residuum bulky, ellipsoidal: sporocysts with 2 refractile bodies. Eimeria carinii n. sp., is recorded from the tortoise Geochelone denticulata, also from Pará. Oocyst wall about 1.2 mum thicl. No micropyle. Oocyst residuum limited to a number (about 10-20 of scattered granules: no polar body. Sporocysts broadly ellipsoidal, and with no Stieda body: they measure 8,8 x 7.3 (8.0-9.0 x 7.0-7.5 mum, shape-index 1.2 (1.1-1.3. Sporocyst residuum bulky, spherical to ellipsoidal: sporozoites possess both posterior and anterior

  5. Four new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Owen Stanley Skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September and November 1991, 12 Owen Stanley skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Booulenger) were collected from various localities on Papua New Guinea and examined for coccidians. Six (50%) were found to harbour four eimerians that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria burseyi sp. n. were elongate to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (length x width, L x W) 36.0 x 24.0 microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.5. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria goldbergi sp. n. were ellipsoidal, with a bilayered wall, and measured 21.4 x 16.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.3. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria boulengeri sp. n. were spheroidal to slightly subspheroidal, with a thin, single-layered wall that readily collapses, and measured 16.0 microm, L/W ratio was 1.0. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but usually one (sometimes two) polar granule(s) were present. Oocysts of Eimeria niuginiensis sp. n. were oblong to tapered with a bilayered wall, and measured 20.0 x 13.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.5. A micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. To our knowledge, these represent the only coccidians ever described from P. stanleyanus.

  6. The Effects of Occipitalization of the Atlas on Facial Skeletal Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    cells form about the notochord very early; lighter staining cells in front and darker ones in the caudal part of each segment or sclerotome. In the...of four or six years a separate ossicle forms about that portion of the notochord residuum, within the terminal ligament, just cephalic to the odontoid

  7. Two new Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, P G; Kawazoe, U

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we describe 2 new species of Eimeria associated with the yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala. Eimeria amazonae n. sp. has bilayered, ellipsoidal, and smooth oocysts that measure 48.9 × 36.2 µm; the length/width ratio is 1.35. The micropyle and oocyst residuum are both absent, but the polar granule is present. Ovoidal sporocysts are 22.2 × 11.9 µm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies and sporocyst residuum are present. The 2 elongate sporozoites are curved and measure 18.1 × 3.4 µm; both have 2 refractile bodies. Eimeria ochrocephalae n. sp. has bilayered, ellipsoidal, and smooth oocysts that measure 43.8 × 27.7 µm; the length/width ratio is 1.58. The micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but the polar granule is present; ovoidal sporocysts are 20.6 × 10.1 µm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies and sporocyst residuum are present; 2 elongate and curved sporozoites are 15.8 × 3.4 µm, each of which has 2 refractile bodies.

  8. A study of erosion rates on salt diapir surfaces in the Zagros Mountains, SE Iran

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Asadi, N.; Filippi, Michal; Wilhelm, Z.; Zare, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2008), s. 1079-1089 ISSN 0943-0105 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB301110501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : salt diapir * weathering residuum * erosion rate Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.026, year: 2008

  9. Parameters assessment of the inductively-coupled circuit for wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, Yu N.; Vasileva, O. V.; Budko, A. A.; Lefebvre, S.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a wireless power transfer model through the example of inductively-coupled coils of irregular shape in software package COMSOL Multiphysics is studied. Circuit parameters, such as inductance, coil resistance and self-capacitance were defined through electromagnetic energy by the finite-element method. The study was carried out according to Helmholtz equation. Spatial distribution of current per unit depending on frequency and the coupling coefficient for analysis of resonant frequency and spatial distribution of the vector magnetic potential at different distances between coils were presented. The resulting algorithm allows simulating the wireless power transfer between the inductively coupled coils of irregular shape with the assessment of the optimal parameters.

  10. Selection of stationary phase particle geometry using X-ray computed tomography and computational fluid dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Irma; Minceva, Mirjana; Arlt, Wolfgang

    2012-02-17

    The X-ray computed tomography (CT) is used to determine local parameters related to the column packing homogeneity and hydrodynamics in columns packed with spherically and irregularly shaped particles of same size. The results showed that the variation of porosity and axial dispersion coefficient along the column axis is insignificant, compared to their radial distribution. The methodology of using the data attained by CT measurements to perform a CFD simulation of a batch separation of model binary mixtures, with different concentration and separation factors is demonstrated. The results of the CFD simulation study show that columns packed with spherically shaped particles provide higher yield in comparison to columns packed with irregularly shaped particles only below a certain value of the separation factor. The presented methodology can be used for selecting a suited packing material for a particular separation task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Helmintos e protozoários em fezes de javalis (Sus scrofa scrofa criados em cativeiro Helminths and protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa feces raised in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.S. Mundim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Faecal samples from 79 wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa were examined by sedimentation method, zinc sulfate flotation method, and centrifugal flotation in sugar solution for endoparasites research. The results showed that 97.5% of the samples were positive for helminths and/or protozoa as follows: strongilides (70.9%, Ascaris suum (46.9%, Trichuris suis (29.1%, Metastrongylus sp. (12.6%, Strongyloides ransomi (3.8%, Balantidium coli (38.0%, Entamoeba spp. (15.2%, Giardia spp. (1.3%, Blastocystis sp. (12.6%. The frequency of Entamoeba was higher in young animals. Coccidian oocysts were observed in 59.5% samples and five species of Eimeria and one Isospora were recovered: Eimeria scabra (31.9%, E. deblieck (31.9%, E. perminuta (23.4%, E. cerdonis (17.0%, E. scrofae (12.8% and Isospora suis (12.8%.

  12. Ocorrência de protozoários e helmintos em amostras de fezes de cães errantes da Cidade de Itapema, Santa Catarina Occurrence of protozoa and helminthes in faecal samples of stray dogs from Itapema City, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Darela Blazius

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas amostras fecais de cães apreendidos em logradouros públicos, pela vigilância sanitária de Itapema, SC. De 158 amostras examinadas, 121 (76,6% foram positivas, com uma prevalência maior para Ancylostoma spp (70,9%, seguida por Toxocara canis (14,5%, Trichuris vulpis (13,9%, Isospora spp. (6,3% e Dipylidium caninum (1,9%.Samples of feces from dogs seized by the health surveillance program of Itapema city, SC, were studied. From 158 samples examined 121 (76.6% were positive, with a prevalence of Ancylostoma spp (70.9%, followed by Toxocara canis (14.5%, Trichuris vulpis (13.9%, Isospora spp (6.3% and Dipylidium caninum (1.9%.

  13. Breast nocardiosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Jeong Mi

    2003-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection occurring in immunocompromised patients. Worldwidely, about four cases of nocardiosis of the breast have been previously reported, but none of these were in Korea. We describe a case of breast nocardiosis associated with pulmonary infection in a patient with Cushing's disease. In our patient, multiple, well-defined, conglomerated, tubular-shaped, isodense mass was revealed at mammography, and an irregular-shaped, ill-defined, heterogeneous echoic mass with movable debris at ultrasonography

  14. Bier spots

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Yorulmaz,; Seray Kulcu Cakmak; Esra Ar?; Ferda Artuz

    2015-01-01

    Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elu...

  15. Optical visualization of electric and magnetic field perturbations in tokamak discharges by hydrogen pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawin, H.W.; Dubois, M.A.

    1992-04-01

    Two-dimensional intensity distribution mappings of photographs of pellet ablation cloud trajectories in the TFR and TS tokamaks reveal irregular shapes of the luminous striations. The observed features are not well understood, but can be described and interpreted as the first direct visual observation of pre-existing electric and/or magnetic field perturbations in the hot core of tokamak plasmas. It is suggested to use pellet injection as a diagnostic tool for the study of plasma structures and transport phenomena

  16. Clinical dosimetry of large shaped 60Co irradiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.

    1979-01-01

    The determination is described of absorbed doses in the Alderson-Rando phantom by thermoluminescent dosemeters in patients irradiated with irregularly shaped large-surface fields of Co 60 . In a range of 3 to 5% the measured values correspond to the values calculated with the aid of relations presented by Bukowitz. Non-homogeneity of irradiation when two supradiaphragmatic fields are used and its improvement are discussed. (author)

  17. Amyloidoma of Retroperitoneal Lymph Nodes: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wee Kyoung; Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byoung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Jung, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Min Yeong; Park, Moon Hyang

    2011-01-01

    Herein we report a case of retroperitoneal amyloidoma in a 56-year-old man and to describe its imaging findings and pathologic features. Abdomen computed tomography showed multiple nodular masses with amorphous calcifications in the retroperitoneum. On histologic review, these masses were composed of extensive nodular deposition of irregularly shaped amorphous eosinophilic material that was strongly positive on Congo red staining and apple green birefringence under polarizing microscopy, which is diagnostic for amyloidosis.

  18. Amyloidoma of Retroperitoneal Lymph Nodes: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wee Kyoung; Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byoung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo; Jung, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Min Yeong [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Hyang [Dept. of Pathology, Hanyang University Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Herein we report a case of retroperitoneal amyloidoma in a 56-year-old man and to describe its imaging findings and pathologic features. Abdomen computed tomography showed multiple nodular masses with amorphous calcifications in the retroperitoneum. On histologic review, these masses were composed of extensive nodular deposition of irregularly shaped amorphous eosinophilic material that was strongly positive on Congo red staining and apple green birefringence under polarizing microscopy, which is diagnostic for amyloidosis.

  19. The actin regulator coronin-1A is mutated in a thymic egress deficient mouse strain and in a T?B+NK+ SCID patient

    OpenAIRE

    Shiow, Lawrence R.; Roadcap, David W.; Paris, Kenneth; Watson, Susan R.; Grigorova, Irina L.; Lebet, Tonya; An, Jinping; Xu, Ying; Jenne, Craig N.; F?ger, Niko; Sorensen, Ricardo U.; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Bear, James E.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Cyster, Jason G.

    2008-01-01

    Mice carrying the recessive peripheral T cell deficiency (Ptcd) locus have a block in thymic egress but the mechanism responsible is undefined. Here we found that Ptcd T cells have an intrinsic migration defect, impaired lymphoid tissue trafficking and irregularly shaped protrusions. Characterization of the Ptcd locus revealed an E26K point mutation within the actin regulator coronin-1A (Coro1a) that enhanced its inhibition of the actin regulator Arp2/3 and resulted in its mislocalization fro...

  20. A Low-Operating-Power and Flexible Active-Matrix Organic-Transistor Temperature-Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaochen; Pei, Ke; Peng, Boyu; Zhang, Zhichao; Wang, Zongrong; Wang, Xinyu; Chan, Paddy K L

    2016-06-01

    An organic flexible temperature-sensor array exhibits great potential in health monitoring and other biomedical applications. The actively addressed 16 × 16 temperature sensor array reaches 100% yield rate and provides 2D temperature information of the objects placed in contact, even if the object has an irregular shape. The current device allows defect predictions of electronic devices, remote sensing of harsh environments, and e-skin applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Quantum chaos and conductivity in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.; Matsutani, S.

    2001-01-01

    The hopping conductivity in a disordered system which is composed of small (semi-) metallic granules is presented. Due to the irregular shape of each granule, the level statistics of a free electron in granule is expressed by a random matrix, and a formula for the temperature-dependent conductivity (TDC) is obtained for such a disordered system. This TDC shows an apparent metal-insulator transition and is in good agreement with experimental results for disordered carbons

  2. Graphical Acoustic Liner Design and Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Jones, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An interactive liner design and impedance modeling tool comprises software utilized to design acoustic liners for use in constrained spaces, both regularly and irregularly shaped. A graphical user interface allows the acoustic channel geometry to be drawn in a liner volume while the surface impedance calculations are updated and displayed in real-time. A one-dimensional transmission line model may be used as the basis for the impedance calculations.

  3. Thoracoscopic Surgery in a Patient with Multiple Esophageal Carcinomas after Surgery for Esophageal Achalasia

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki, Yuki; Tsukada, Tomoya; Aoki, Tatsuya; Haba, Yusuke; Hirano, Katsuhisa; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Kaji, Masahide; Shimizu, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    We present a case in which we used a thoracoscopic approach for resection of multiple esophageal carcinomas diagnosed 33 years after surgery for esophageal achalasia. A 68-year-old Japanese man had been diagnosed with esophageal achalasia and underwent surgical treatment 33 years earlier. He was examined at our hospital for annual routine checkup in which upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a “0-IIb+IIa” lesion in the middle esophagus. Iodine staining revealed multiple irregularly shaped ...

  4. Penalized likelihood and multi-objective spatial scans for the detection and inference of irregular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Carlos M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irregularly shaped spatial clusters are difficult to delineate. A cluster found by an algorithm often spreads through large portions of the map, impacting its geographical meaning. Penalized likelihood methods for Kulldorff's spatial scan statistics have been used to control the excessive freedom of the shape of clusters. Penalty functions based on cluster geometry and non-connectivity have been proposed recently. Another approach involves the use of a multi-objective algorithm to maximize two objectives: the spatial scan statistics and the geometric penalty function. Results & Discussion We present a novel scan statistic algorithm employing a function based on the graph topology to penalize the presence of under-populated disconnection nodes in candidate clusters, the disconnection nodes cohesion function. A disconnection node is defined as a region within a cluster, such that its removal disconnects the cluster. By applying this function, the most geographically meaningful clusters are sifted through the immense set of possible irregularly shaped candidate cluster solutions. To evaluate the statistical significance of solutions for multi-objective scans, a statistical approach based on the concept of attainment function is used. In this paper we compared different penalized likelihoods employing the geometric and non-connectivity regularity functions and the novel disconnection nodes cohesion function. We also build multi-objective scans using those three functions and compare them with the previous penalized likelihood scans. An application is presented using comprehensive state-wide data for Chagas' disease in puerperal women in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Conclusions We show that, compared to the other single-objective algorithms, multi-objective scans present better performance, regarding power, sensitivity and positive predicted value. The multi-objective non-connectivity scan is faster and better suited for the

  5. Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.

  6. Internal Tidal Hydrodynamics and Ambient Characteristics of the Adriatic (ITHACA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-31

    document atmospheric conditions along the line extending from the coast to the open sea. 2.1. Measuring sites Position of meteorological measuring sites...idealized case, they are perpendicular to the straight shoreline. However, along the eastern Adriatic irregularly shaped coast there is a number of...Cvitan, 2003; Belusic et al., 2004; Belusic and Klaic, 2004, 2006), southwestward, downslope windstorm , which frequently blows over the Adriatic

  7. Breast nocardiosis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Jeong Mi [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-11-01

    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection occurring in immunocompromised patients. Worldwidely, about four cases of nocardiosis of the breast have been previously reported, but none of these were in Korea. We describe a case of breast nocardiosis associated with pulmonary infection in a patient with Cushing's disease. In our patient, multiple, well-defined, conglomerated, tubular-shaped, isodense mass was revealed at mammography, and an irregular-shaped, ill-defined, heterogeneous echoic mass with movable debris at ultrasonography.

  8. AHP 45: REVIEW: FOUNDING AN EMPIRE ON INDIA'S NORTH-EASTERN FRONTIERS 1790-1840

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Howes

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly researched and carefully constructed monograph focuses on what is now north-eastern India, an irregularly-shaped region joined only by a narrow neck of land to the remainder of the Indian subcontinent and jostled (or nestled, depending on one's point of view) between Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and Tibet. Crucially, author Gunnel Cederlöf argues, this representation of northeast India on modern maps - an island in constant danger of drifting away from mainland India, h...

  9. Renal oncocytoma in a cat with chronic renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Sora Lee; Hyun-Ji Choi; Han-Byul Lee; Sung-Min Jo; Ji-hye Mun; Woo-Chan Son

    2017-01-01

    Case summary A 9-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat presented with anorexia. Ultrasonography showed an irregularly shaped hypoechoic mass in the cranial pole of the right kidney. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the renal mass was performed. Cytology revealed moderate cellularity smears composed of epithelial cell clusters, which consisted of an exclusive population of oncocytic cells seen in sheets and papillary clusters along with abundant single cells. A moderate-to-a...

  10. Techniques for ceramic sintering using microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimrey, H.D.; Janney, M.A.; Becher, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of microwave energy for ceramic sintering offers exciting new possibilities for materials processing. Based on experience gathered in microwave processing associated with the heating of fusion plasmas, we have developed hardware and methods for uniformly heating ceramic parts of large volume and irregular shape to temperatures in excess of 1600 0 C, in vacuum or pressurized atmosphere. Microwave processing at 28 GHz yields enhanced densification rates with a corresponding reduction in sintering temperatures. 6 refs

  11. kMucormicosys due to Saksenaea vasiformis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaldi, Francisco J; Giacoboni, Gabriela; Córdoba, Susana B; Romero, Julián; Reinoso, Enso H; Abrantes, Ruben

    2017-06-01

    A 2-year-old female Border collie was examined for dermatitis with a partial alopecic zone around her left front member. Six months later the lesion became swollen, alopecic with ulcerated areas. Microscopy analysis of samples showed numerous non-septate, branching, thin-walled and irregular shaped hyphal elements. Fungal cultures and molecular studies identified Saksenaea vasiformis. Treatments with griseofulvin, itraconazole and surgical debridement were used, however, fourteen months later the dog was euthanatized because of the unfavorable clinical outcome.

  12. Clinical, morphological, and hemodynamic independent characteristic factors for rupture of posterior communicating artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Jing, Linkai; Liu, Jian; Li, Chuanhui; Fan, Jixing; Wang, Shengzhang; Li, Haiyun; Yang, Xinjian

    2016-08-01

    To identify clinical, morphological, and hemodynamic independent characteristic factors that discriminate posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm rupture status. 173 patients with single PCoA aneurysms (108 ruptured, 65 unruptured) between January 2012 and June 2014 were retrospectively collected. Patient-specific models based on their three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography images were constructed and analyzed by a computational fluid dynamic method. All variables were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Two clinical factors (younger age and atherosclerosis), three morphological factors (higher aspect ratio, bifurcation type, and irregular shape), and six hemodynamic factors (lower mean and minimum wall shear stress, higher oscillatory shear index, a greater portion of area under low wall shear stress, unstable and complex flow pattern) were significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm rupture. Independent factors characterizing the rupture status were identified as age (OR 0.956, p=0.015), irregular shape (OR 6.709, pPCoA aneurysm rupture were younger age, irregular shape, and low minimum wall shear stress. This may be useful for guiding risk assessments and subsequent treatment decisions for PCoA aneurysms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Determination of Slake Durability Index (Sdi) Values on Different Shape of Laminated Marl Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankara, Hüseyin; Çiçek, Fatma; Talha Deniz, İsmail; Uçak, Emre; Yerel Kandemir, Süheyla

    2016-10-01

    The slake durability index (SDI) test is widely used to determine the disintegration characteristic of the weak and clay-bearing rocks in geo-engineering problems. However, due to the different shapes of sample pieces, such as, irregular shapes displayed mechanical breakages in the slaking process, the SDI test has some limitations that affect the index values. In addition, shape and surface roughness of laminated marl samples have a severe influence on the SDI. In this study, a new sample preparation method called Pasha Method was used to prepare spherical specimens from the laminated marl collected from Seyitomer collar (SLI). Moreover the SDI tests were performed on equal size and weight specimens: three sets with different shapes were used. The three different sets were prepared as the test samples which had sphere shape, parallel to the layers in irregular shape, and vertical to the layers in irregular shape. Index values were determined for the three different sets subjected to the SDI test for 4 cycles. The index values at the end of fourth cycle were found to be 98.43, 98.39 and 97.20 %, respectively. As seen, the index values of the sphere sample set were found to be higher than irregular sample sets.

  14. Element Free Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid-Flow Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Hho Jhung; Kwon, Young Kwon

    2007-01-01

    The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has been developed for application to thermal-fluid problems. Most of the those studies considered a regular shape of lattice or mesh like square and cubic grids. In order to apply the LBM to more practical cases, it is necessary to be able to solve complex or irregular shapes of problem domains. Some techniques were based on the finite element method. Generally, the finite element method is very powerful for solving two or three-dimensional complex or irregular shapes of domains using the iso-parametric element formulation which is based on a mathematical mapping from a regular shape of element in an imaginary domain to a more general and irregular shape of element in the physical domain. In addition, the element free technique is also quite useful to analyze a complex shape of domain because there is no need to divide a domain by a compatible finite element mesh. This paper presents a new finite element and element free formulations for the lattice Boltzmann equation using the general weighted residual technique. Then, a series of validation examples are presented

  15. Element Free Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid-Flow Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Hho Jhung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young Kwon [US Naval Postgraduate School, New York (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has been developed for application to thermal-fluid problems. Most of the those studies considered a regular shape of lattice or mesh like square and cubic grids. In order to apply the LBM to more practical cases, it is necessary to be able to solve complex or irregular shapes of problem domains. Some techniques were based on the finite element method. Generally, the finite element method is very powerful for solving two or three-dimensional complex or irregular shapes of domains using the iso-parametric element formulation which is based on a mathematical mapping from a regular shape of element in an imaginary domain to a more general and irregular shape of element in the physical domain. In addition, the element free technique is also quite useful to analyze a complex shape of domain because there is no need to divide a domain by a compatible finite element mesh. This paper presents a new finite element and element free formulations for the lattice Boltzmann equation using the general weighted residual technique. Then, a series of validation examples are presented.

  16. The Umov effect in application to an optically thin two-component cloud of cosmic dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Videen, Gorden; Zubko, Nataliya; Shkuratov, Yuriy

    2018-04-01

    The Umov effect is an inverse correlation between linear polarization of the sunlight scattered by an object and its geometric albedo. The Umov effect has been observed in particulate surfaces, such as planetary regoliths, and recently it also was found in single-scattering small dust particles. Using numerical modeling, we study the Umov effect in a two-component mixture of small irregularly shaped particles. Such a complex chemical composition is suggested in cometary comae and other types of optically thin clouds of cosmic dust. We find that the two-component mixtures of small particles also reveal the Umov effect regardless of the chemical composition of their end-member components. The interrelation between log(Pmax) and log(A) in a two-component mixture of small irregularly shaped particles appears either in a straight linear form or in a slightly curved form. This curvature tends to decrease while the index n in a power-law size distribution r-n grows; at n > 2.5, the log(Pmax)-log(A) diagrams are almost straight linear in appearance. The curvature also noticeably decreases with the packing density of constituent material in irregularly shaped particles forming the mixture. That such a relation exists suggest the Umov effect may also be observed in more complex mixtures.

  17. Eimeria atlapetesi nom. nov., a replacement name for Eimeria pileata Soriano-Vargas et al., 2015 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), preoccupied by Eimeria pileata Straneva and Kelley, 1979 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), with observations on histopathology and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; Medina, Juan Pablo; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; González-Gómez, Maricruz; Flores-Valle, Izanami Tereira; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2017-01-31

    Eimeria pileata Soriano-Vargas, Medina, Salgado-Miranda, García-Conejo, Galindo-Sánchez, Janczur, Berto and Lopes, 2015 is a junior homonym of Eimeria pileata Straneva and Kelley, 1979 and needs to be replaced. This coccidium was described from a rufous-capped brush finch Atlapetes pileatus Wagler in the Nevado de Toluca Natural Protected Area, Mexico. Thus, to maintain the original intent of the specific epithet derived from the scientific name of the type-host, the name Eimeria atlapetesi nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name. Additionally, the current work reports another rufous-capped brush finch A. pileatus parasitized by E. atlapetesi in co-infection with an Isospora sp., providing observations of histopathology and phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene from E. atlapetesi. Endogenous forms of E. atlapetesi and Isospora sp. were observed in intestinal sections. Few oocysts of Isospora sp. were observed; therefore they were not morphologically or molecularly identified. In return, E. atlapetesi was identified and it was phylogenetically close to Eimeria dispersa Tyzzer, 1929 from the domestic turkey Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus.

  18. Prevalence of Intestinal Coccidial Infections among Different Groups of Immunocompromised Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodratollah SALEHI SANGANI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryptosporidium and Isospora are known as one of the main cause of diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, all over the world. Incidence of enteropathogens such as Cryptosporidium spp. and Isospora belli considerably has increased, since immunodeficiency virus (HIV rapidly disseminated. In addition, cancer patients are highly susceptible to opportunistic infections. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and isosporiasis in immunocompromised patients in Tehran.Methods: This study carried out on patients admitted to Imam Khomeini hospital during 2013-2014. Stool samples collected from 350 immunocompromised patients. Formol-ether concentration was performed for all stool samples. Zeil-Neelsen technique was applied to stain the prepared smears and finally, all slides were examined by light microscope.Results: Out of 350 patients, 195 (55.7% and 155 (44.3% were male and female, respectively. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 3 (0.9% samples including one sample from HIV+/AIDS patients and 2 samples from organ transplant recipients. Isospora oocysts were detected in 4 (1.1% samples consisting 2 HIV+/AIDS patients, one patients suffering from malignancy and one patients with other immunodeficiency diseases.Conclusion: Cryptosporidium sp, and I. belli are the most prevalent gastrointestinal parasitic protozoans that infect a broad range of individuals, particularly those patients who have a suppressed or deficient immunity system.

  19. Output calculation of electron therapy at extended SSD using an improved LBR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhatib, Hassaan A.; Gebreamlak, Wondesen T., E-mail: wondtassew@gmail.com; Wright, Ben W.; Neglia, William J. [South Carolina Oncology Associates, Columbia, South Carolina 29210 (United States); Tedeschi, David J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States); Mihailidis, Dimitris [CAMC Cancer Center and Alliance Oncology, Charleston, West Virginia 25304 (United States); Sobash, Philip T. [The Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States); Fontenot, Jonas D. [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To calculate the output factor (OPF) of any irregularly shaped electron beam at extended SSD. Methods: Circular cutouts were prepared from 2.0 cm diameter to the maximum possible size for 15 × 15 applicator cone. In addition, two irregular cutouts were prepared. For each cutout, percentage depth dose (PDD) at the standard SSD and doses at different SSD values were measured using 6, 9, 12, and 16 MeV electron beam energies on a Varian 2100C LINAC and the distance at which the central axis electron fluence becomes independent of cutout size was determined. The measurements were repeated with an ELEKTA Synergy LINAC using 14 × 14 applicator cone and electron beam energies of 6, 9, 12, and 15 MeV. The PDD measurements were performed using a scanning system and two diodes—one for the signal and the other a stationary reference outside the tank. The doses of the circular cutouts at different SSDs were measured using PTW 0.125 cm{sup 3} Semiflex ion-chamber and EDR2 films. The electron fluence was measured using EDR2 films. Results: For each circular cutout, the lateral buildup ratio (LBR) was calculated from the measured PDD curve using the open applicator cone as the reference field. The effective SSD (SSD{sub eff}) of each circular cutout was calculated from the measured doses at different SSD values. Using the LBR value and the radius of the circular cutout, the corresponding lateral spread parameter [σ{sub R}(z)] was calculated. Taking the cutout size dependence of σ{sub R}(z) into account, the PDD curves of the irregularly shaped cutouts at the standard SSD were calculated. Using the calculated PDD curve of the irregularly shaped cutout along with the LBR and SSD{sub eff} values of the circular cutouts, the output factor of the irregularly shaped cutout at extended SSD was calculated. Finally, both the calculated PDD curves and output factor values were compared with the measured values. Conclusions: The improved LBR method has been generalized to

  20. Development of volume-reduction system for ion exchange resin using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Katagiri, Genichi

    2002-01-01

    The spent ion exchange resin generated as radioactive waste in water purifying system at nuclear power stations or related facilities of nuclear power has been stored in the site, and its volume has been increasing year by year. We had developed a full-scale system of IC plasma volume-reduction system for the spent resin, and have performed basic performance test using some samples imitating the spent resin. As the results, the imitation of the resin can be reduced in volume by more than 90% so that the processing performance in actual scale was proved to be effective. In addition, it was clarified that the residuum after volume-reduction process is easy to mix with cement, and solidity containing 30wt% residuum provides high strength of 68 MPa. Therefore, we evaluate the application of this process to stabilization of the disposal to be very effective. (author)

  1. Eimeria jayakaris sp. n. (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) from the snake, Eryx jayakari (Serpentes: Boidae) in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyousif, Mohamed S; AlShawa, Yaser R

    2007-01-01

    A new coccidian parasite of the genus Eimeria is described from the gall bladder of the boid snake, Eryx jayakari collected from Althumamah, central region, Saudi Arabia. Oocysts of Eimeria jayakaris sp. n. are ellipsoid, measuring 31x19.5 (28.7-33.5 x 18.5-20.8) micron meter, with a smooth greenish-yellow bilayered oocyst wall of 1.1 (0.9-1.2) micron meter. Micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring 12 x 9.3 (10.7-12.8x8-10) micron meter. Sporocyst residuum is present as a granulated compact mass. Sporocysts lack a Stieda body. Sporozoites are banana-shaped, laying head to tail in the sporocysts, each with one spherical refractile globule. (author)

  2. Eimeria pileata n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the rufous-capped brush finch Atlapetes pileatus Wagler (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Medina, Juan Pablo; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla Patrícia; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2015-11-01

    A new coccidian species (Protista: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the rufous-capped brush finch Atlapetes pileatus Wagler in the Nevado de Toluca Natural Protected Area, Mexico. Oöcysts of Eimeria pileata n. sp. are ellipsoidal, measuring on average 16.5 × 14.1 μm, with a smooth, bi-layered wall. Micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring on average 9.0 × 5.4 μm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies are both present. A sporocyst residuum is present as a compact mass of granules. This is the third description of an eimeriid coccidian infecting passerines.

  3. Copyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of coal suspended in waste oil under pressure; Copirolisis e hidropirolisis a presion de mezclas de carbon y aceites pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliner, R. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica

    1998-12-31

    The present work studies the copyrolysis of a coal suspended in a waste oil under pressure, with short contact times. The main objective is to show the technical feasibility of the copyrolysis of coal and waste material slurries, in a fluidized bed and to evaluate the efficiency of the copyrolysis to improve quality and quantity of the products in relation to those obtained from the pyrolysis of coal. The work was started with three coals: Samca (subbituminous), HT51 (high-volatile bituminous) and Figaredo (low-volatile bituminous) and four aliphatic wastes from different origins: industrial hydraulic oils (AHU), lube oils (AMU), petroleum vacuum residuum (RP) and solutions of this residuum in vacuum gas-oil, RPG.

  4. Improvements in the production of petrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinker, F

    1918-12-19

    The production of petrol from crude mineral oils by means including a still and a superheating or cracking chamber is described whereby a quantity of vapor is generated for subsequent mixture with the crude oil, mixing the superheated vapor and crude oil in a pipe or chamber so that the process of heat interchange is complete before the final product to be collected is delivered to a fractionating column and the residuum passed into the still.

  5. Integration of the Residual Limb with Prostheses via Direct Skin-Bone-Peripheral Nerve Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0791 TITLE: Integration of the Residual Limb with Prostheses via Direct Skin- Bone-Peripheral Nerve Interface...ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2016 - 29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Integration of the...translational study to develop Skin and Bone Integrated Pylon with Peripheral Neural Interface (SBIP-PNI) directly attached to the residuum and the

  6. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1991 and June 1992, feces from 4 species of tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. from Papua New Guinea, were collected and examined for coccidia. Two species, P. flavipes and P. prehensicauda were found to harbor eimerians which are described as new. Oocysts of Eimeria krausi sp. nov. from P. flavipes were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a smooth bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 19.2 × 16.9 μm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 6.7 μm, L/W of 1.5. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many small granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, 11.7 × 2.7 μm, in situ, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. Oocysts of Eimeria greeri sp. nov. from P. prehensicauda were ellipsoidal with a smooth bilayered wall, (L × W) 23.0 × 18.3 μm, with a L/W of 1.3. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 8.4 μm, with a L/W of 1.2. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many large granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. We document here the first report of coccidia from skinks of the genus Prasinohaema.

  7. Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Seville, R. Scott; Duszynski, Donald W.; Bush, Sarah E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875, from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) are described from specimens collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Philippines. Oöcysts of Eimeria nuiailan n. sp. from the only L. smaragdina from PNG are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 23.7 × 19.1 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 11.9 × 7.0 μm, L/W 1.7, and the wall is composed of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is present as a compact mass of granules. Sporozoites are elongate, 14.6 × 2.6 μm, and contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. Oöcysts of Eimeria auffenbergi n. sp. from L. smaragdina collected in the Philippines are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 19.9 × 15.8 μm, L/W 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but one to four polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 10.3 × 5.8 μm, L/W 1.8, and the wall is composed of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is composed of dispersed granules.

  8. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Seville, R. Scott; Duszynski, Donald W.; Bush, Sarah E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875, from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) are described from specimens collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Philippines. Oöcysts of Eimeria nuiailan sp. n. from the only L. smaragdina from PNG are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bilayered wall, measure 23.7 × 19.1 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 11.9 × 7.0 μm, L/W 1.7, and the wall is composed of 2 valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is present as a compact mass of granules. Sporozoites are elongate, 14.6 × 2.6 μm, and contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. Oöcysts of Eimeria auffenbergi sp. n. from both L. smaragdina we collected in the Philippines are ovoidal, with a smooth, colorless, bilayered wall, measure 19.9 × 15.8 μm, L/W 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but 1–4 polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 10.3 × 5.8 μm, L/W 1.8, and the wall is composed of 2 valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is composed of dispersed granules. PMID:24048748

  9. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the mountain beaver, Aplodontia rufa (Rodentia: Aplodontiidae), from Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; McKown, Richard D

    2013-06-01

    Two mountain beavers, Aplodontia rufa , were collected in Lincoln County, Oregon, and examined for coccidia. Both were infected with 2 new species of Eimeria. Oocysts of Eimeria chitkoae n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 24.5 × 20.2 μm, with a shape index (SI) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule of several fragments was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 12.5 × 7.9 μm, SI was 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies were present, but a parastieda body was absent; a sporocyst residuum was present, composed of a cluster of moderately coarse granules with many scattered fine granules. Stout sporozoites were 14.7 × 2.9 μm in situ, with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Oocysts of Eimeria lewisi n. sp. were ovoidal, with a smooth single-layered wall, and measured 13.7 × 7.8 μm, SI was 1.7. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but 1-2 polar granule(s) were present. Sporocysts were 6.6 × 4.2 μm, with SI of 1.6. A Stieda body was present, but substieda and parastieda bodies were absent; a sporocyst residuum was present, composed of a small cluster of several granules. Sporozoites were granular, 8.2 × 1.8 μm in situ, with a posterior refractile body. These are the first coccidians reported from the mountain beaver.

  10. Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Duszynski, Donald W; Bush, Sarah E; Fisher, Robert N; Austin, Christopher C

    2013-10-01

    Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875, from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) are described from specimens collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Philippines. Oöcysts of Eimeria nuiailan n. sp. from the only L. smaragdina from PNG are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 23.7 × 19.1 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 11.9 × 7.0 μm, L/W 1.7, and the wall is composed of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is present as a compact mass of granules. Sporozoites are elongate, 14.6 × 2.6 μm, and contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. Oöcysts of Eimeria auffenbergi n. sp. from L. smaragdina collected in the Philippines are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 19.9 × 15.8 μm, L/W 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but one to four polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 10.3 × 5.8 μm, L/W 1.8, and the wall is composed of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is composed of dispersed granules.

  11. Two new species of Eimeria from peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoudi, M A

    1988-11-01

    Fifteen fecal samples from peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in Saudi Arabia contained oocysts of Eimeria riyadhae n. sp. in two peacocks and oocysts of E. arabica n. sp. in one peacock. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria riyadhae are ellipsoidal, 27-30.5 x 20.5-25 (28.8 +/- 1.3 x 22.4 +/- 1.6) micron, with a two-layered wall and bilobed polar body, but without a micropyle or residuum. The sporocysts are ovoid, 11-14.5 x 6.5-8 (13.2 +/- 1.2 x 7.2 +/- 0.6) micron with a thick, knob-like Stieda body and a residuum. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria arabica are spheroidal, 17.5-21.5 x 17.5-21.5 (19.2 +/- 1.6 x 19.2 +/- 1.6) micron, with a two-layered wall and two refractile polar bodies, but without a micropyle or residuum. The sporocyts are elongate ovoid, 9.5-12 x 4-6.5 (11.2 +/- 0.9 x 5.5 +/- 0.88), with a small crescent-shaped Stieda body. The host bird belongs to the order Galliformis.

  12. Paving asphalt products exhibit a lack of carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyak, Katy O; McKee, Richard H; Minsavage, Gary D; McGowan, Claude; Daughtrey, Wayne C; Freeman, James J

    2011-10-01

    A paving asphalt and a vacuum residuum (derived from crude oil by atmospheric and subsequent vacuum distillation and used as a blend stock for asphalt) were tested in skin carcinogenesis assays in mice and in optimized Ames assays for mutagenic activity. In the skin cancer tests, each substance was applied twice weekly for 104 weeks to the clipped backs of groups of 50 male C3H mice. Neither the paving asphalt nor the vacuum residuum (30% weight/volume and 75% weight/weight in US Pharmacopeia mineral oil, respectively) produced any tumors. The positive control benzo[a]pyrene (0.05% w/v in toluene) induced tumors in 46 of 50 mice, demonstrating the effectiveness of the test method. Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 was used in the optimized Ames assay to evaluate mutagenic potential. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) extractions of the substances were not mutagenic when tested up to toxic limits. Thus, under the conditions of these studies, neither the paving asphalt nor the vacuum residuum was carcinogenic or mutagenic.

  13. Seguimiento anual de la parasitosis gastrointestinal de venados cola blanca Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae en cautiverio en Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén C. Montes Pérez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los géneros y estimar la cantidad de huevecillos y ooquistes de parásitos gastrointestinales (PGI excretados durante un año en heces de venados cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus yucatenensis mantenidos en cautiverio en Yucatán, México. Se recolectaron muestras fecales en tres confinamientos ubicados en la zona centro del estado de Yucatán, de enero a diciembre de 1995. Diez muestras fueron colectadas de cada confinamiento cada dos semanas. Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante la técnica de Flotación Centrifugada y McMaster. Se realizaron cultivos de heces para obtener larvas infectantes L3 mediante la técnica de Corticelli-Lai. Las heces positivas a ooquistes fueron cultivados en dicromato de potasio al 2%. Se determinaron siete géneros (Haemonchus spp, Cooperia spp, Isospora spp, Eimeria spp, Trichuris spp, Strongyloides spp y Moniezia spp correspondientes a cinco órdenes. Haemonchus spp, Isospora spp y Eimeria spp fueron los géneros más frecuentes. El género Isospora se reporta por primera vez en venados de la región, aunque no fue posible explicar el origen de este hallazgo. La frecuencia y nivel de excresión de huevecillos y ooquistes de PGI fue variable durante el año, con incremento en la época de lluvia. Se encontró correlación positiva entre humedad relativa, temperatura ambiente y precipitación pluvial con los órdenes Coccidia y Strongylida. En la zona centro del estado de Yucatán, México, las condiciones meteorológicas en la época de lluvia son propicias para el desarrollo del parasitismo gastrointestinal, lo que permite mayor riesgo de infección en los venados.Gastrointestinal parasites, and egg and oocyst output in the faeces of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus yucatanensis were recorded in Yucatan, Mexico. Feces were obtained from from January through December 1995 (ten samples every two weeks per place. Samples were processed by

  14. OCORRÊNCIA DE ENTEROPARASITOS EM CÃES DO MUNICÍPIO DE GOIÂNIA, GOIÁS: COMPARAÇÃO DE TÉCNICAS DE DIAGNÓSTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Caetano da Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a freqüência de enteroparasitos e comparar técnicas de diagnóstico, foram examinadas 434 amostras de fezes de cães do município de Goiânia, Goiás, no período de agosto-2001 a março-2002. Destas, 384 (88,5% foram provenientes de cães domiciliados e 50 (11,5% de cães vadios. Foi feito um estudo comparativo entre as técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação em solução saturada em açúcar (Sheather e flutuação com sulfato de zinco (Faust em 150 amostras de fezes de cães domiciliados. A técnica utilizando solução de Sheather foi significativamente melhor do que a de Faust, para o diagnóstico de ovos, cistos e oocistos de parasitos intestinais. Com base nisto, as demais amostras foram analisadas pelas técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação em solução saturada em açúcar (Sheather e Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. Das 434 amostras examinadas, 94 (21,65% foram positivas para um ou mais enteroparasitos, sendo 21 (42% dos cães vadios e 73 (19% dos cães domiciliados. Os parasitos mais freqüentes para cães vadios foram ancilostomídeos (22,0%, Isospora spp (10,0%, Cryptosporidium parvum (6,0% e Toxocara canis (4,0%. Nos cães domiciliados foram ancilostomídeos (9,9%, Isospora spp (2,6%, T. canis (2,34%, C. parvum (2,08%, Giardia sp (1,6%, Sarcocystis sp (0,26% e Dipylidium caninum (0,26%. Foram observadas associações entre T. canis e C. parvum (4,0%; Isospora spp e C. parvum (4,0%, nos cães vadios e entre ancilostomídeos e T. canis (0,5%, ancilostomídeos e Isospora spp (0,8%, ancilostomídeos e D. caninum (0,3%, ancilostomídeos, T. canis e Isospora spp (0,3%, ancilostomídeos e C. parvum (0,3%, T. canis e Isospora spp (0,3%, nos cães domiciliados. Em relação ao sexo, foram encontradas 14,93% e 15,19% de amostras positivas para cães machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. Em relação à faixa etária, 38,35% dos cães parasitados tinham idade menor que um ano; 27,39% entre um e três anos e 34,24% maior que

  15. Morphology and composition of gold in a lateritic profile, Fazenda Pison “Garimpo”, Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larizzatti, J. H.; Oliveira, S. M. B.; Butt, C. R. M.

    2008-05-01

    This study describes the morphological evolution of gold grains in a lateritic weathering profile in an equatorial rainforest climate. Primary sources of gold are quartz veins associated with shallow granophyric intrusion. Gold grains were found in fresh ore, saprolite, transition zones, ferruginous duricrust, red latosol, and yellow latosol. Irregularly shaped grains predominate, with smaller proportions of dendritic and prismatic forms. Gold grains are weathered in the uppermost 10 m of the regolith. Mean gold grain size is maximum in the duricrust (>125 μm) and decreases progressively upward into the yellow latosol (duricrust formation may preserve some grains as large aggregates, but subsequent transformation into latosol further modifies them.

  16. Simple ectopic kidney in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Lee, Heechun; Lee, Youngwon; Choi, Hojung

    2012-10-01

    Simple ectopic kidney was diagnosed in three dogs by means of radiography and ultrasonography. A 2-year-old castrated male Schnauzer, a 13-year-old female Schnauzer and a 9-year-old male Jindo were referred with vomiting, hematuria and ocular discharge, respectively. In all three dogs, oval-shaped masses with soft tissue density were observed in the mid to caudal abdomen bilaterally or unilaterally, and kidney silhouettes were not identified at the proper anatomic places on abdominal radiographs. Ultrasonography confirmed the masses were malpositioned kidney. The ectopic kidneys had relatively small size, irregular shape and short ureter but showed normal function on excretory urography.

  17. Free-Standing, Flexible, Superomniphobic Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Hamed; Wang, Wei; Movafaghi, Sanli; Kota, Arun K

    2016-08-31

    Fabrication of most superomniphobic surfaces requires complex process conditions or specialized and expensive equipment or skilled personnel. In order to circumvent these issues and make them end-user-friendly, we developed the free-standing, flexible, superomniphobic films. These films can be stored and delivered to the end-users, who can readily attach them to virtually any surface (even irregular shapes) and impart superomniphobicity. The hierarchical structure, the re-entrant texture, and the low solid surface energy render our films superomniphobic for a wide variety of liquids. We demonstrate that our free-standing, flexible, superomniphobic films have applications in enhanced chemical resistance and enhanced weight bearing.

  18. Discontinuous Galerkin time-domain analysis of power/ground plate pairs with wave port excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping; Jiang, Li Jun; Bagci, Hakan

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method is developed to analyze the power/ground plate pairs taking into account arbitrarily shaped antipads. To implement proper source excitations over the antipads, the magnetic surface current expanded by the electric eigen-modes supported by the corresponding antipad is employed as the excitation. For irregularly shaped antipads, the eigen-modes are obtained by numerical approach. Accordingly, the methodology for the S-parameter extraction is derived based on the orthogonal properties of the different modes. Based on the approach, the transformation between different modes can be readily evaluated.

  19. Severe Hemorrhage from Cervical Cancer Managed with Foley Catheter Balloon Tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Sonoo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old woman complaining of continuous fresh vaginal hemorrhage came to our emergency department in a pre-shock state. Examinations revealed an irregularly shaped mass in the uterus and active arterial bleeding. Emergent hysterectomy and interventional radiology were not immediately available. Foley catheter with 20mL water was inserted into the uterine cavity, then the balloon was pulled to obstruct the uterus output (Figure. Her vital signs became stabilized, and she was transferred to another hospital two days later.

  20. Electroerosion micro- and nanopowders for the production of hard alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, R. A.; Ageeva, E. V.; Kruglyakov, O. V.; Latypova, G. R.

    2016-06-01

    The shape and the surface morphology of the powder particles fabricated by the electroerosion dispersion of tungsten-containing wastes in illuminating oil are studied. The hard alloy fabricated from these powder particles is analyzed by electron-probe microanalysis. The powder synthesized by the electroerosion dispersion of the wastes of sintered hard alloys is found to consist of particles of a spherical or elliptical shape, an irregular shape (conglomerates), and a fragment shape. It is shown that W, Ti, and Co are the main elements in the hard alloy fabricated from the powder synthesized by electroerosion dispersion in illuminating oil.

  1. Heuristics for container loading of furniture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens; Garavelli, Claudio; Lisi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    . In the studied company, the problem arises hundreds of times daily during transport planning. Instances may contain more than one hundred different items with irregular shapes. To solve this complex problem we apply a set of heuristics successively that each solve one part of the problem. Large items...... are combined in specific structures to ensure proper protection of the items during transportation and to simplify the problem. The solutions generated by the heuristic has an average loading utilization of 91.3% for the most general instances with average running times around 100 seconds....

  2. Alternaria Leaf Spot on Mealycup Sage (Salvia farinacea Benth.) Caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromitsu, NEGISHI; Kazuo, SUYAMA; Faculty of Agriculture,Tokyo University of Agriculture; Faculty of Agriculture,Tokyo University of Agriculture

    2002-01-01

    In June 1995, a disease causing round to irregular-shaped, water-soaked, brown to blackish brown spots on mealycup sage (Salvia farinacea Benth.) was found in Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The symptoms were seen only on leaves, not on neither flower petals or stems. The disease was also found in Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Memambetsu-cho, Hokkaido and Shimoda-shi and Matsuzaki-cho, Shizuoka. An Alternaria sp. was frequently isolated from these diseased plants. The isolates were severely pat...

  3. Real-space mapping of a disordered two-dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K; Hirayama, Y; Wiebe, J; Wiesendanger, R; Inaoka, T; Morgenstern, M

    2011-01-01

    By using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, we study the influence of potential disorder on an adsorbate-induced two-dimensional electron system in the integer quantum Hall regime. The real-space imaged local density of states exhibits transition from localized drift states encircling the potential minima to another type of localized drift states encircling the potential maxima. While the former states show regular round shapes, the latter have irregular-shaped patterns. This difference is induced by different sources for the potential minima and maxima, i.e., substrate donors and an inhomogeneous distribution of the adsorbates, respectively.

  4. Absolute vibrational numbering from isotope shifts in fragmentary spectroscopic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashov, A.; Kowalczyk, P.; Jastrzebski, W.

    2018-05-01

    We discuss application of the isotope effect to establish the absolute vibrational numbering in electronic states of diatomic molecules. This is illustrated by examples of states with potential energy curves of both regular and irregular shape, with one or two potential minima. The minimum number of spectroscopic data (either term values or spectral line positions) necessary to provide a unique numbering is considered. We show that at favourable conditions just four term energies (or spectral lines) in one isotopologue and one term energy in the other suffice.

  5. Optimisation of Offshore Wind Farm Cable Connection Layout Considering Levelised Production Cost Using Dynamic Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The approach in this paper hads been developed to optimize the cable connection layout of large scale offshore wind farms. The objective is to minimize the Levelised Production Cost (LPC) og an offshore wind farm by optimizing the cable connection configuration. Based on the minimum spanning tree...... (MST) algorithm, an improved algorithm, the Dynamic Minimum Spanning Tree (DMST) algorithm is proposed. The current carrying capacity of the cable is considered to be the main constraint and the cable sectional area is changed dynamically. An irregular shaped wind farm is chosen as the studie case...

  6. A Simple Device for Lens-to-Sample Distance Adjustment in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Juliana; Farias Filho, Benedito B; Fontes, Laiane M; Pasquini, Celio; Raimundo, Ivo M; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; de Souza Lins Borba, Flávia

    2017-04-01

    A simple device based on two commercial laser pointers is described to assist in the analysis of samples that present uneven surfaces and/or irregular shapes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The device allows for easy positioning of the sample surface at a reproducible distance from the focusing lens that conveys the laser pulse to generate the micro-plasma in a LIBS system, with reproducibility better than ±0.2 mm. In this way, fluctuations in the fluence (J cm -2 ) are minimized and the LIBS analytical signals can be obtained with a better precision even when samples with irregular surfaces are probed.

  7. A thermal impact assessment model with measured field data applied to the tidal river Weser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.; Eppel, D.; Mueller, A.; Nehlsen, A.; Tanzer, F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the fundamental principles, the general outline, and a specific application of the model UTRANS (unified transport system) with emphasis on the results of application. The model simulates the temperature distribution, generated by the nuclear power plant KKU (1300 MWsub(e)), in the lower Weser river (within tidal cycle) for october 3, 1979. The model was run for a period of 24 hours. The solution area of some 15 kilometers (km 44 to km 59) consists of about 1100 discrete elements (DE) of variable size and irregular shape. (orig.) [de

  8. A program to compute the area of an irregular polygon on a spheroidal surface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivakholundu, K.M.; Prabaharan, N.

    (MATLAB). Short Note824 lar shapes. The analytical integrations were carried out with the software package MATLAB on a SUN workstation. The comparisons were made to check: 1. The eC128ect of varying strip width for integration. 2. Variation of accuracy... this program can be used to calculate the area on the spheroidal surface for irregular shapes without losing accuracy. REFERENCES Bomford, G. (1977) Geodesy. Oxford University Press, 731 pp. Larkin, B. J. (1988) A FORTRAN 77 program to calcu- late areas...

  9. Effect of shot peening on the residual stress and mechanical behaviour of low-temperature and high-temperature annealed martensitic gear steel 18CrNiMo7-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, R.; Zhang, X.; Mallipeddi, D.

    2017-01-01

    A martensitic gear steel (18CrNiMo7-6) was annealed at 180 degrees C for 2h and at similar to 750 degrees C for 1h to design two different starting microstructures for shot peening. One maintains the original as-transformed martensite while the other contains irregular-shaped sorbite together...... with ferrite. These two materials were shot peened using two different peening conditions. The softer sorbite + ferrite microstructure was shot peened using 0.6 mm conditioned cut steel shots at an average speed of 25 m/s in a conventional shot peening machine, while the harder tempered martensite steel...

  10. Report of the advisory group meeting on the utilization of particle accelerators for proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    Accelerated protons and light ions, being electrically charged and much heavier than electrons, have definite ranges in tissue with distinct Bragg peak with sharp distal falloffs and sharp lateral dose penumbra. Radiations oncologists could take advantage of these characteristics to deposit a high dose in an irregularly shaped tumor volume while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues and critical organs. This could lead to enhanced tumor control with reduced complications. The Advisory Group has recommended a number of measures to promote and support the spread of medically dedicated particle accelerator facilities and technology

  11. Bilateral Hydronephrosis and Cystitis Resulting from Chronic Ketamine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Huy Tran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine associated urinary dysfunction has become increasingly more common worldwide. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS is an established modality for diagnosing hydronephrosis in the emergency department. We describe a case of a young male ketamine abuser with severe urinary urgency and frequency in which POCUS performed by the emergency physician demonstrated bilateral hydronephrosis and a focally thickened irregular shaped bladder. Emergency physicians should consider using POCUS evaluate for hydronephrosis and bladder changes in ketamine abusers with lower urinary tract symptoms. The mainstay of treatment is discontinuing ketamine abuse. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:382-384.

  12. Bilateral fibrous dysplasia of the mandible in a 7-year-old male patient-A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar V

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia is a disturbance of bone metabolism that is classified as a benign fibro-osseous lesion. Fibrous connective tissue, containing abnormal bone, replaces normal bone. The etiology of fibrous dysplasia is unknown. The radiographic appearance of the irregularly shaped trabeculae aids in the differential diagnosis. Occurring most commonly in the second decade of life, the lesions of fibrous dysplasia can be surgically recontoured for esthetic or functional purposes once they become dormant. Here, we report a case of bilateral fibrous dysplasia in a 7 year old male patient and its diagnostic work-up.

  13. Plasma-implantation-based surface modification of metals with single-implantation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X. B.; Cui, J. T.; Yang, S. Q.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2004-12-01

    Plasma ion implantation has proven to be an effective surface modification technique. Its biggest advantage is the capability to treat the objects with irregular shapes without complex manipulation of target holder. Many metal materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, tool steel, titanium, magnesium etc, has been treated using this technique to improve their wear-resistance, corrosion-resistance, fatigue-resistance, oxidation-resistance, bio-compatiblity etc. However in order to achieve thicker modified layers, hybrid processes combining plasma ion implantation with other techniques have been frequently employed. In this paper plasma implantation based surface modification of metals using single-implantation mode is reviewed.

  14. Scattering by non-spherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength - A new semi-empirical theory. [atmospheric radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, J. B.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    Mie theory, which is generally used to describe the scattering behavior of particles at a certain wavelength, is only rigorously correct for spherical particles. Particles found as atmospheric constituents, with the exception of cloud droplets, are, however, decidedly nonspherical. An investigation is, therefore, conducted regarding the significant ways in which the scattering behavior of irregularly shaped particles differs from that of spheres. A systematic method is formulated for treating the real scalar scattering behavior. A description is presented of a new semiempirical theory based on simple physical principles and data obtained in laboratory measurements, which successfully reproduces the single scattering phase function for a wide range of particle shapes, sizes, and refractive indices.

  15. Discontinuous Galerkin time-domain analysis of power/ground plate pairs with wave port excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2018-04-06

    In this work, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method is developed to analyze the power/ground plate pairs taking into account arbitrarily shaped antipads. To implement proper source excitations over the antipads, the magnetic surface current expanded by the electric eigen-modes supported by the corresponding antipad is employed as the excitation. For irregularly shaped antipads, the eigen-modes are obtained by numerical approach. Accordingly, the methodology for the S-parameter extraction is derived based on the orthogonal properties of the different modes. Based on the approach, the transformation between different modes can be readily evaluated.

  16. Modeling and conduct of turbine missile concrete impact experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodfin, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of the subject experiments was to provide full scale data on the response of reinforced concrete containment walls to impact and penetration by postulated turbine-produced missiles. These data can be used to validate analytical or scale modeling methods and to assess the applicability of current design formulas to penetration by large, irregularly shaped missiles. These data and results will be used in providing more realistic estimates of turbine missile damage probability in nuclear power plants with a non-peninsula arrangement. This paper describes the derivation of the test matrix and the method of conducting the experiments. (orig./HP)

  17. Destructive Cholangitis in an Adult Jack Russell Terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kodama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old female Jack Russell terrier dog exhibited vomiting and severe jaundice of the visible mucous membranes and skin. Ultrasonography revealed diffuse areas of high echogenicity and focal areas of low echogenicity in the left lobe of the liver. On macroscopic observation of the biopsied liver specimen, many scattered irregularly shaped red spots were observed on the liver surface and on the cut surface. Histopathologically, there was loss of the interlobular bile duct and cholangitis accompanied by infiltration of pigment-laden macrophages in the Glisson’s capsule. Therefore, in the present case the dog was diagnosed with destructive cholangitis.

  18. A new species of Microglanis(Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the upper rio Tocantins basin, Goiás State, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Akio Shibatta

    Full Text Available A new species of Microglanis is described from the upper rio Tocantins basin, Barro Alto, Goiás State, Brazil. This species is distinguished from the others by presenting a unique color pattern, consisting of round spots in the flank between the larger dark brown blotches. Moreover, it can be distinguished by the combination of the following features: caudal fin emarginate, the upper lobe slightly larger than the lower, lateral line relatively long, reaching vertical through posterior margin of the pelvic fin, and light stripe on supra-occipital region absent or very narrow and with irregular shape.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation and experimental verification of radiotherapy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.; Deloar, H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Based on fundamental physics and statistics, the Monte Carlo technique is generally accepted as the accurate method for modelling radiation therapy treatments. A Monte Carlo simulation system has been installed, and models of linear accelerators in the more commonly used electron beam modes have been built and commissioned. A novel technique for radiation dosimetry is also being investigated. Combining the advantages of both water tank and solid phantom dosimetry, a hollow, thin walled shell or mask is filled with water and then raised above the natural water surface to produce a volume of water with the desired irregular shape.

  20. Groundwater recharge: Accurately representing evapotranspiration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available of solutes in unsaturated, partially saturated and fully saturated porous media (Simunek et al., 1999). It uses Richards' equation for variably-saturated water flow and the convection-dispersion equations for heat and solute transport, based on Fick?s Law... be of irregular shape and having non-uniform soil with a prescribed degree of anisotropy. Water flow can occur in the vertical plane, horizontal plane or radially on both sides of a vertical axis of symmetry. The boundaries of the system can be set at constant...

  1. Mucormicosys due to Saksenaea vasiformis in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Reynaldi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old female Border collie was examined for dermatitis with a partial alopecic zone around her left front member. Six months later the lesion became swollen, alopecic with ulcerated areas. Microscopy analysis of samples showed numerous non-septate, branching, thin-walled and irregular shaped hyphal elements. Fungal cultures and molecular studies identified Saksenaea vasiformis. Treatments with griseofulvin, itraconazole and surgical debridement were used, however, fourteen months later the dog was euthanatized because of the unfavorable clinical outcome.

  2. Caracterización molecular de parásitos que infectan lagartos y su influencia sobre los ornamentos de color

    OpenAIRE

    Megía-Palma, Rodrigo M.

    2015-01-01

    [ES] La presente tesis doctoral ha abordado dos objetivos principales: 1) La caracterización de los géneros de protozoos eimeriorinos (Apicomplexa) más prevalentes en lagartos (Schellackia, Lankesterella, Acroeimeria, Choleoeimeria, Caryospora e Isospora) desde una aproximación morfológica, molecular y filogenética, con el fin de situarlos en un contexto evolutivo dentro del suborden Eimeriorina. 2) Entender la relación de los parásitos encontrados comúnmente en poblaciones naturales de lagar...

  3. Endoparasitic infections in Indian peacocks (Pavo cristatus) of Veterinary College Campus, Mathura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Shanker, Daya; Kumar, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    A survey was made to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in free range blue peacocks living in and around the premises of College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Mathura. Faecal samples of peacocks were collected randomly and brought to the divisional laboratory for faecal sample examination. During the coprological examination, eggs and oocysts of cestodes and coccidia belonging to Eimeria and Isospora species were identified, respectively based on the morphology and micrometry of these parasitic stages. The present study has generated an important data regarding the else while parasitologically neglected national bird of India.

  4. Molecular characterization of lizard parasites and their influence on colour ornaments

    OpenAIRE

    Megía Palma, Rodrigo Manuel

    2016-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral ha abordado dos objetivos principales: 1) la caracterización morfológica y molecular de los protozoos eimeriorinos más prevalentes en lagartos (Schellackia, Lankesterella, Acroeimeria, Choleoeimeria, Caryospora e Isospora), así como su análisis filogenético y 2) el efecto que ejercen sobre la expresión de los ornamentos de color en diferentes sistemas parásito-hospedador. Para llevar a cabo el primer objetivo se tomaron muestras de heces y tejido sanguíneo de lagart...

  5. A survey of blood and other tissue parasites of leopard frogs Rana pipiens in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N D; Nye, R R

    1977-01-01

    In a survey of blood and other tissue parasites from 137 leopard frogs, Rana pipiens complex, purchased from 13 commercial vendors in 8 states in the United States, Trypanosoma pipientis was found in 2 R. p. berlandieri, Toxoplasma ranae in 1 R. pipiens, Isospora lieberkuehni in 1 leopard frog, Haemogregarina magna in 44, Lankesterella minima in 3, Leptotheca ohlmacheri in 3 and microfilariae of Foleyella sp. in 6. The report of I. lieberkuehni is presumably a new host record. Haemogregarina temporariae (Nöller,, 1920) nov. comb. is established as a new combination for Nematopsis temporariae.

  6. Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan [Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan

    2008-01-01

    The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment

  8. Application of Intraoperative Ultrasonography for Guiding Microneurosurgical Resection of Small Subcortical Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia; Duan, Yun You; Liu, Xi; Wang, Yu; Gao, Guo Dong; Qin, Huai Zhou; Wang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the clinical value of intraoperative ultrasonography for real-time guidance when performing microneurosurgical resection of small subcortical lesions. Fifty-two patients with small subcortical lesions were involved in this study. The pathological diagnoses were cavernous hemangioma in 25 cases, cerebral glioma in eight cases, abscess in eight cases, small inflammatory lesion in five cases, brain parasite infection in four cases and the presence of an intracranial foreign body in two cases. An ultrasonic probe was sterilized and lightly placed on the surface of the brain during the operation. The location, extent, characteristics and adjacent tissue of the lesion were observed by high frequency ultrasonography during the operation. All the lesions were located in the cortex and their mean size was 1.3 ± 0.2 cm. Intraoperative ultrasonography accurately located all the small subcortical lesions, and so the neurosurgeon could provide appropriate treatment. Different lesion pathologies presented with different ultrasonic appearances. Cavernous hemangioma exhibited irregular shapes with distinct margins and it was mildly hyperechoic or hyperechoic. The majority of the cerebral gliomas displayed irregular shapes with indistinct margins, and they often showed cystic and solid mixed echoes. Postoperative imaging identified that the lesions had completely disappeared, and the original symptoms of all the patients were significantly alleviated. Intraoperative ultrasonography can help accurately locate small subcortical lesions and it is helpful for selecting the proper approach and guiding thorough resection of these lesions.

  9. Application of Intraoperative Ultrasonography for Guiding Microneurosurgical Resection of Small Subcortical Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia; Duan, Yun You; Liu, Xi; Wang, Yu; Gao, Guo Dong; Qin, Huai Zhou; Wang, Liang [Tangdu Hospital of the Fourth Military Medicine University, Xi an (China)

    2011-10-15

    We wanted to evaluate the clinical value of intraoperative ultrasonography for real-time guidance when performing microneurosurgical resection of small subcortical lesions. Fifty-two patients with small subcortical lesions were involved in this study. The pathological diagnoses were cavernous hemangioma in 25 cases, cerebral glioma in eight cases, abscess in eight cases, small inflammatory lesion in five cases, brain parasite infection in four cases and the presence of an intracranial foreign body in two cases. An ultrasonic probe was sterilized and lightly placed on the surface of the brain during the operation. The location, extent, characteristics and adjacent tissue of the lesion were observed by high frequency ultrasonography during the operation. All the lesions were located in the cortex and their mean size was 1.3 {+-} 0.2 cm. Intraoperative ultrasonography accurately located all the small subcortical lesions, and so the neurosurgeon could provide appropriate treatment. Different lesion pathologies presented with different ultrasonic appearances. Cavernous hemangioma exhibited irregular shapes with distinct margins and it was mildly hyperechoic or hyperechoic. The majority of the cerebral gliomas displayed irregular shapes with indistinct margins, and they often showed cystic and solid mixed echoes. Postoperative imaging identified that the lesions had completely disappeared, and the original symptoms of all the patients were significantly alleviated. Intraoperative ultrasonography can help accurately locate small subcortical lesions and it is helpful for selecting the proper approach and guiding thorough resection of these lesions.

  10. Networks of ultra-fine Ag nanocrystals in a Teflon AF (registered) matrix by vapour phase e-beam-assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, A; Bayer, I S; Marken, B; Pounds, T D; Norton, M G

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated nanocomposite thin films comprising silver (Ag) nanoparticles dispersed in a Teflon AF (registered) polymer matrix using electron-beam-assisted physical vapour deposition. Four different Ag nanoparticle volume fillings (20%, 35%, 70% and 75%) were achieved by varying the relative metal-polymer evaporation rates with the formation of highly crystalline Ag nanoparticles regardless of the filling ratio. The present fabrication technique allowed full control over dispersion uniformity of nanoparticles in the polymer network. At 20% and 35% metal volume fillings, the nanocomposite film morphology consists of a uniformly dispersed assembly of equiaxed isolated Ag nanoparticles. At higher metal volume fractions the nanocomposite structures displayed two different and unique Ag nanoparticle arrangements within the polymer matrix. In particular, at 70% metal filling, the formation of irregularly shaped clusters of individually assembled nanocrystals was observed. At a slightly higher volume filling (75%), larger irregularly shaped Ag nanocrystals that appeared to be the result of coalescence and grain growth were observed. Finally, a composite theory developed by Tandon and Weng was used to estimate various elastic properties of the nanocomposite films. At high metal filling, the reinforcing effect of the Ag nanoparticles was reflected as approximately a sixfold increase in the elastic modulus compared to the virgin polymer film. Possible applications of such ultra-fine metal nanoparticles networks are discussed

  11. Multifocal Langerhans cell sarcoma involving epidermis: a case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Changsong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To study the clinico-pathological characteristics of Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS which involving epidermis. Methods A case of primary multifocal LCS was analyzed in histopathology and immunophenotype. Results A 41-year-old man with multifocal cutaneous LCS involving the inguina and waist was reported. Clinical and pathology data were available. Neoplastic cells with markedly malignant cytological features were observed. Tumor cells exhibited irregular shape with abundant and eosinophilic red staining cytoplasm; large, irregular-shaped, showing lobulated or dented nucleus and some cells with a longitudinal nuclear groove and prominent nucleoli. The tumor cells expressed CD1a, Langerin (CD207, S-100 protein, CD68 and vimentin, and did not express pan-T or B cell markers and epithelial markers. The patient died less than 1 year after diagnosis due to local recurrence and metastasis to the lung, despite the administration of local radiation and chemotherapy. Conclusions LCS is a tumor with markedly malignant cytological features that originates from Langerhans cells. Primary multifocal neoplasms involving epidermis is even rare. Accurate diagnosis is based on the histopathological and immunohistochemical of the tumor cells. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1182345104754765.

  12. Clinical features and CT scan findings of supratentorial ependymomas and ependymoblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanakita, Junya; Handa, Hajime

    1984-01-01

    The clinical courses and CT scan findings of 12 cases of supratentorial ependymoma and ependymoblastoma were reviewed. The age of the patient of ependymoma ranged from 3 years to 34 years, with an average age of 16 years. The follow-up time ranged from 2 months to 9 years and 10 months. All of the six patients are still alive. The age of the patients of ependymoblastoma ranged from 7 months to 34 years, with an average age of 17 years. During the follow-up period from 2 weeks to 6 years and 4 months, four patients died. Supratentorial ependymomas and ependymoblastomas show the following characteristic features of CT scans: 1. Calcification: The incidence of calcification was 50% in ependymoma-group, and 100% in ependymoblastoma-group. 2. Cyst formation, ring-enhancement: The cyst formation was noticed in both groups. In ependymoma-group a smooth ring-enhancement pattern and the strongly enhanced mural nodule-like contour were found, but in ependymoblastoma-group, the cyst wall was enhanced in irregular shape. 3. Perifocal edema and mass effect: Considerable mass effect was noticed in both groups. Perifocal edema was slight in many cases of ependymoma-group, but mostly prominent in ependymoblastoma-group. 4. CT scan findings of recurrent tumor: In ependymoma-group, recurrent tumor showed the same characteristics of CT scan as the initial ones. In ependymoblastoma-group, cystic portion decreased in size and irregular shaped solid portion increased in recurrence. (author)

  13. flowPeaks: a fast unsupervised clustering for flow cytometry data via K-means and density peak finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yongchao; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2012-08-01

    For flow cytometry data, there are two common approaches to the unsupervised clustering problem: one is based on the finite mixture model and the other on spatial exploration of the histograms. The former is computationally slow and has difficulty to identify clusters of irregular shapes. The latter approach cannot be applied directly to high-dimensional data as the computational time and memory become unmanageable and the estimated histogram is unreliable. An algorithm without these two problems would be very useful. In this article, we combine ideas from the finite mixture model and histogram spatial exploration. This new algorithm, which we call flowPeaks, can be applied directly to high-dimensional data and identify irregular shape clusters. The algorithm first uses K-means algorithm with a large K to partition the cell population into many small clusters. These partitioned data allow the generation of a smoothed density function using the finite mixture model. All local peaks are exhaustively searched by exploring the density function and the cells are clustered by the associated local peak. The algorithm flowPeaks is automatic, fast and reliable and robust to cluster shape and outliers. This algorithm has been applied to flow cytometry data and it has been compared with state of the art algorithms, including Misty Mountain, FLOCK, flowMeans, flowMerge and FLAME. The R package flowPeaks is available at https://github.com/yongchao/flowPeaks. yongchao.ge@mssm.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Nucleoli in human early erythroblasts (K2, K1, K1/2 cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, K; Jirásková, I; Klamová, H

    2005-01-01

    Human early erythroid precursors classified according to the nuclear size were studied to provide information on nucleoli in these cells using simple cytochemical procedures for demonstration of RNA and proteins of silver-stained nucleolar organizers. K2 cells with nuclear diameter larger than 13 microm and K1 cells with nuclear diameter larger than 9 microm corresponding to proerythroblasts and macroblasts (large basophilic erythroblasts) mostly possessed large irregularly shaped nucleoli with multiple fibrillar centres representing "active nucleoli". K1/2 cells with nuclear diameter smaller than 9 microm corresponding to small basophilic erythroblasts were usually characterized by the presence of micronucleoli representing "inactive nucleolar types". On the other hand, a few K1/2 cells contained large nucleoli with multiple fibrillar centres similar to those present in K2 cells and thus appeared as "microproerythroblasts". The nucleolar asynchrony expressed by the presence of large irregularly shaped nucleoli with multiple nucleoli (active nucleoli) and ring-shaped nucleoli (resting nucleoli) in one and the same nucleus of K2 or K1 cells was not exceptional and might reflect a larger resistance of these cells to negative factors influencing the erythropoiesis. The intranucleolar translocation of silver-stained nucleolus organized regions was noted in K2 cells and might indicate the premature aging of these cells without further differentiation. More studies, however, are required in this direction.

  15. Comments on comet shapes and aggregation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    An important question for a comet mission is whether comet nuclei preserve information clarifying aggregation processes of planetary matter. New observational evidence shows that Trojan asteroids, as a group, display a higher fraction of highly-elongated objects than the belt. More recently evidence has accumulated that comet nuclei, as a group, also display highly-elongated shapes at macro-scale. This evidence comes from the several comets whose nuclear lightcurves or shapes have been well studied. Trojans and comet nuclei share other properties. Both groups have extremely low albedos and reddish-to neutral-black colors typical of asteroids of spectral class D, P, and C. Both groups may have had relatively low collision frequencies. An important problem to resolve with spacecraft imaging is whether these elongated shapes are primordial, or due to evolution of the objects. Two hypotheses that might be tested by a combination of global-scale and close-up imaging from various directions are: (1) The irregular shapes are primordial and related to the fact that these bodies have had lower collision frequencies than belt asteroids; or (2) The irregular shapes may be due to volatile loss

  16. Extended Multiscale Image Segmentation for Castellated Wall Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, M.; Tsuguchi, M.; Chhatkuli, S.; Satoh, T.

    2018-05-01

    Castellated walls are positioned as tangible cultural heritage, which require regular maintenance to preserve their original state. For the demolition and repair work of the castellated wall, it is necessary to identify the individual stones constituting the wall. However, conventional approaches using laser scanning or integrated circuits (IC) tags were very time-consuming and cumbersome. Therefore, we herein propose an efficient approach for castellated wall management based on an extended multiscale image segmentation technique. In this approach, individual stone polygons are extracted from the castellated wall image and are associated with a stone management database. First, to improve the performance of the extraction of individual stone polygons having a convex shape, we developed a new shape criterion named convex hull fitness in the image segmentation process and confirmed its effectiveness. Next, we discussed the stone management database and its beneficial utilization in the repair work of castellated walls. Subsequently, we proposed irregular-shape indexes that are helpful for evaluating the stone shape and the stability of the stone arrangement state in castellated walls. Finally, we demonstrated an application of the proposed method for a typical castellated wall in Japan. Consequently, we confirmed that the stone polygons can be extracted with an acceptable level. Further, the condition of the shapes and the layout of the stones could be visually judged with the proposed irregular-shape indexes.

  17. Computed Tomography Angiography Evaluation of Risk Factors for Unstable Intracranial Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Xian; Gong, Ming-Fu; Wen, Li; Liu, Lan-Lan; Yin, Jin-Bo; Duan, Chun-Mei; Zhang, Dong

    2018-03-19

    To evaluate risk factors for instability in intracranial aneurysms (IAs) using computed tomography angiography (CTA). A total of 614 consecutive patients diagnosed with 661 IAs between August 2011 and February 2016 were reviewed. Patients and IAs were divided into stable and unstable groups. Along with clinical characteristics, IA characteristics were evaluated by CTA. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent risk factors associated with unstable IAs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed on the final model, and optimal thresholds were obtained. Patient age (odds ratio [OR], 0.946), cerebral atherosclerosis (CA; OR, 0.525), and IAs located at the middle cerebral artery (OR, 0.473) or internal carotid artery (OR, 0.512) were negatively correlated with instability, whereas IAs with irregular shape (OR, 2.157), deep depth (OR, 1.557), or large flow angle (FA; OR, 1.015) were more likely to be unstable. ROC analysis revealed threshold values of age, depth, and FA of 59.5 years, 4.25 mm, and 87.8°, respectively. The stability of IAs is significantly affected by several factors, including patient age and the presence of CA. IA shape and location also have an impact on the stability of IAs. Growth into an irregular shape, with a deep depth, and a large FA are risk factors for a change in IAs from stable to unstable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characteristics of pulmonary cysts in Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome: Thin-section CT findings of the chest in 12 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobino, Kazunori; Gunji, Yoko; Kurihara, Masatoshi; Kunogi, Makiko; Koike, Kengo; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Johkoh, Takeshi; Kodama, Yuzo; Iwakami, Shin-ichiro; Kikkawa, Mika; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe in detail the characteristic chest computed tomography (CT) findings of Birt-Hogg-Dube (BHD) syndrome. Materials and methods: Thin-section chest CT scans of consecutive 12 patients with genetically diagnosed BHD syndrome were retrospectively evaluated by two observers, especially about the characteristics (distribution, number, size, shape and relation to pleura) of pulmonary cysts. Interobserver agreement in the identification of abnormalities on the CT images was achieved using the κ statistic, and the degree of interobserver correlation for the characterization of pulmonary cysts was assessed using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results: Multiple pulmonary cysts were seen in all patients. The number of cysts in each patient was various (range, 29-407), and cysts of various sizes (from a few mm to 2 cm or more) were seen in all patient. 76.6% (mean) of cysts were irregular-shaped, and 40.5% (mean) of cysts were located along the pleura. The mean extent score of cysts was 13% of the whole lung, and the distribution of cysts was predominantly in the lower medial zone. Finally, cysts abutting or including the proximal portions of lower pulmonary arteries or veins were also seen in all patients. Conclusion: Multiple, irregular-shaped cysts of various sizes with lower medial lung zone predominance are characteristic CT findings of BHD syndrome. Cysts abutting or including the proximal portions of lower pulmonary arteries or veins may also exist in this syndrome in a high probability.

  19. Tritium release from advanced beryllium materials after loading by tritium/hydrogen gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, Rolf; Moeslang, Anton; Kurinskiy, Petr; Vladimirov, Pavel [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dorn, Christopher [Materion Beryllium & Composites, 6070 Parkland Boulevard, Mayfield Heights, OH 44124-4191 (United States); Kupriyanov, Igor [Bochvar Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova str., 5, 123098 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • A major tritium release peak for beryllium samples occurs at temperatures higher than 1250 K. • A beryllium grade with comparatively smaller grain size has a comparatively higher tritium release compared to the grade with larger grain size. • The pebbles of irregular shape with the grain size of 10–30 μm produced by the crushing method demonstrate the highest tritium release rate. - Abstract: Comparison of different beryllium samples on tritium release and retention properties after high-temperature loading by tritium/hydrogen gas mixture and following temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) tests has been performed. The I-220-H grade produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) having the smallest grain size, the pebbles of irregular shape with the smallest grain size (10–30 μm) produced by the crushing method (CM), and the pebbles with 1 mm diameter produced by the fluoride reduction method (FRM) having a highly developed inherent porosity show the highest release rate. Grain size and porosity are considered as key structural parameters for comparison and ranking of different beryllium materials on tritium release and retention properties.

  20. Characteristics of pulmonary cysts in Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome: Thin-section CT findings of the chest in 12 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobino, Kazunori, E-mail: tobino@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Gunji, Yoko [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Kurihara, Masatoshi [Pneumothorax Center, Nissan Tamagawa Hospital, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Kunogi, Makiko; Koike, Kengo [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Kurumazuka 3-1, Itami, Hyogo 664-0872 (Japan); Kodama, Yuzo [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Iwakami, Shin-ichiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University, Shizuoka Hospital, 1129 Nagaoka, Izunokuni, Shizuoka 410-2295 (Japan); Kikkawa, Mika [Biochemical Research Center, Division of Proteomics and Biomolecular Sciences, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, Kazuhisa [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Seyama, Kuniaki [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To describe in detail the characteristic chest computed tomography (CT) findings of Birt-Hogg-Dube (BHD) syndrome. Materials and methods: Thin-section chest CT scans of consecutive 12 patients with genetically diagnosed BHD syndrome were retrospectively evaluated by two observers, especially about the characteristics (distribution, number, size, shape and relation to pleura) of pulmonary cysts. Interobserver agreement in the identification of abnormalities on the CT images was achieved using the {kappa} statistic, and the degree of interobserver correlation for the characterization of pulmonary cysts was assessed using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results: Multiple pulmonary cysts were seen in all patients. The number of cysts in each patient was various (range, 29-407), and cysts of various sizes (from a few mm to 2 cm or more) were seen in all patient. 76.6% (mean) of cysts were irregular-shaped, and 40.5% (mean) of cysts were located along the pleura. The mean extent score of cysts was 13% of the whole lung, and the distribution of cysts was predominantly in the lower medial zone. Finally, cysts abutting or including the proximal portions of lower pulmonary arteries or veins were also seen in all patients. Conclusion: Multiple, irregular-shaped cysts of various sizes with lower medial lung zone predominance are characteristic CT findings of BHD syndrome. Cysts abutting or including the proximal portions of lower pulmonary arteries or veins may also exist in this syndrome in a high probability.

  1. Particle shape accounts for instrumental discrepancy in ice core dust size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folden Simonsen, Marius; Cremonesi, Llorenç; Baccolo, Giovanni; Bosch, Samuel; Delmonte, Barbara; Erhardt, Tobias; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Potenza, Marco; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2018-05-01

    The Klotz Abakus laser sensor and the Coulter counter are both used for measuring the size distribution of insoluble mineral dust particles in ice cores. While the Coulter counter measures particle volume accurately, the equivalent Abakus instrument measurement deviates substantially from the Coulter counter. We show that the difference between the Abakus and the Coulter counter measurements is mainly caused by the irregular shape of dust particles in ice core samples. The irregular shape means that a new calibration routine based on standard spheres is necessary for obtaining fully comparable data. This new calibration routine gives an increased accuracy to Abakus measurements, which may improve future ice core record intercomparisons. We derived an analytical model for extracting the aspect ratio of dust particles from the difference between Abakus and Coulter counter data. For verification, we measured the aspect ratio of the same samples directly using a single-particle extinction and scattering instrument. The results demonstrate that the model is accurate enough to discern between samples of aspect ratio 0.3 and 0.4 using only the comparison of Abakus and Coulter counter data.

  2. Method for producing ceramic particles and agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Gleiman, Seth S.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2001-01-01

    A method for generating spherical and irregularly shaped dense particles of ceramic oxides having a controlled particle size and particle size distribution. An aerosol containing precursor particles of oxide ceramics is directed into a plasma. As the particles flow through the hot zone of the plasma, they melt, collide, and join to form larger particles. If these larger particles remain in the hot zone, they continue melting and acquire a spherical shape that is retained after they exit the hot zone, cool down, and solidify. If they exit the hot zone before melting completely, their irregular shape persists and agglomerates are produced. The size and size distribution of the dense product particles can be controlled by adjusting several parameters, the most important in the case of powder precursors appears to be the density of powder in the aerosol stream that enters the plasma hot zone. This suggests that particle collision rate is responsible for determining ultimate size of the resulting sphere or agglomerate. Other parameters, particularly the gas flow rates and the microwave power, are also adjusted to control the particle size distribution.

  3. Multi-objective genetic algorithm based innovative wind farm layout optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying; Li, Hua; He, Bang; Wang, Pengcheng; Jin, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative optimization procedures for both regular and irregular shape wind farm. • Using real wind condition and commercial wind turbine parameters. • Using multiple-objective genetic algorithm optimization method. • Optimize the selection of different wind turbine types and their hub heights. - Abstract: Layout optimization has become one of the critical approaches to increase power output and decrease total cost of a wind farm. Previous researches have applied intelligent algorithms to optimizing the wind farm layout. However, those wind conditions used in most of previous research are simplified and not accurate enough to match the real world wind conditions. In this paper, the authors propose an innovative optimization method based on multi-objective genetic algorithm, and test it with real wind condition and commercial wind turbine parameters. Four case studies are conducted to investigate the number of wind turbines needed in the given wind farm. Different cost models are also considered in the case studies. The results clearly demonstrate that the new method is able to optimize the layout of a given wind farm with real commercial data and wind conditions in both regular and irregular shapes, and achieve a better result by selecting different type and hub height wind turbines.

  4. Evaluation of simplified two source model for relative electron output factor of irregular block shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Y. E.; Yi, B. Y.; Ahn, S. D.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, S. W.; Choi, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    A practical calculation algorithm which calculates the relative output factor (ROF) for electron irregular shaped-field has been developed and evaluated the accuracy and the effectiveness of the algorithm by comparing the measurements and the calculation results for irregular fields used in clinic. The algorithm assumes that the electron dose can be express as sum of the primary source component and the scattered component from the shielding block. The primary source is assumed to have Gaussian distribution, while the scattered component follows the inverse square law. Depth and angular dependency of the primary and the scattered are ignored for maximizing the practicability by reducing the number of parameters for the algorithm. Electron dose can be calculated with three parameters such as, the effective source distance, the variance of primary source, and the scattering power of the block. The coefficients are obtained from the square shaped-block measurements and these are confirmed from the rectangular or irregular shaped-fields. The results showed less than 1.5% difference between the calculation and measurements. The algorithm is proved to be practical, since one can acquire the full parameters with minimum measurements and generates accurate results within the clinically acceptable range

  5. Gelatin-carboxymethyl tamarind gum biocomposites: In vitro characterization & anti-inflammatory pharmacodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Sougata, E-mail: janapharmacy@rediffmail.com; Banerjee, Abhisek; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Maiti, Sabyasachi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, gelatin and carboxymethyl tamarind gum (CTG) were chemically cross-linked to control the delivery of aceclofenac from their interpenetrating network (IPNs). Infrared spectra, thermal and X-ray data supported that drug and polymer was compatible in the composite hydrogels. Irregularly shaped IPN microstructures were seen under field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). IPN system was capable of entrapping about 96% of the drug fed. CTG in IPN structures suppressed the drug release rate in HCl solution (pH 1.2); however extended the same in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8). The drug release was controlled by polymer chain relaxation/swelling and simple diffusion in vitro. The anti-inflammatory activity of drug-loaded biocomposites lasted over 7 h in albino rats, thus suggesting their potential as an anti-inflammatory therapeutics. - Highlights: • Novel gelatin-carboxymethyl tamarind gum biocomposites was synthesized. • FTIR, thermal and X-ray study ensured compatibility between drug and polymers. • FE-SEM image revealed irregular shape of the IPN microstructures. • In vivo anti-inflammatory pharmacodynamics in rat model was encouraging.

  6. Imaging and the clinical-pathologic features of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Sik; Cho, Nariya; Ko, En Sook; Kim, Do Youn; Yang, Sang Kyu; Kim, Seung Ja; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the mammographic and sonographic appearances and the clinical-pathologic features of invasive micropapillary carcinoma. Between December 1999 and March 2005, among the 3,109 patients who underwent operation for breast cancer, 25 patients proved to have invasive micropaillary carcinoma. Among the 25 patients, we included 22 patients (mean age: 48, range: 26-77 years) who had undergone preoperative mammography and ultrasound. The mammographic and sonographic findings of the lesions were analyzed retrospectively. The pathologic findings were analyzed via the clinical records and pathology reports. Patients manifested with a palpable mass (77%, 17/22), bloody nipple discharge (14%, 3/22) or incidental lesion on the screening mammography (9%, 2/22). On mammography, a mass with an irregular (86%, 12/14) shape and an indistinct (43%, 6/14) or spiculated (43%, 6/14) margin was the most common findings on mammography. On sonography, a hypoechoic (91%, 20/22) mass with irregular shape (73%, 16/22) and an indistinct (32%, 7/22) or microlobulated (32%, 7/22) margin was the most common findings. Pathologically, axillary lymph node metastasis was present in 73% (16/22) of the patients. Invasive micropapillary carcinoma appeared an irregular shaped mass with an indistinct margin mass or microcalcifications on mammography and/or sonography. The tumors were frequently associated with axillary lymph node metastasis

  7. A flexible spatial scan statistic with a restricted likelihood ratio for detecting disease clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Toshiro; Takahashi, Kunihiko

    2012-12-30

    Spatial scan statistics are widely used tools for detection of disease clusters. Especially, the circular spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff (1997) has been utilized in a wide variety of epidemiological studies and disease surveillance. However, as it cannot detect noncircular, irregularly shaped clusters, many authors have proposed different spatial scan statistics, including the elliptic version of Kulldorff's scan statistic. The flexible spatial scan statistic proposed by Tango and Takahashi (2005) has also been used for detecting irregularly shaped clusters. However, this method sets a feasible limitation of a maximum of 30 nearest neighbors for searching candidate clusters because of heavy computational load. In this paper, we show a flexible spatial scan statistic implemented with a restricted likelihood ratio proposed by Tango (2008) to (1) eliminate the limitation of 30 nearest neighbors and (2) to have surprisingly much less computational time than the original flexible spatial scan statistic. As a side effect, it is shown to be able to detect clusters with any shape reasonably well as the relative risk of the cluster becomes large via Monte Carlo simulation. We illustrate the proposed spatial scan statistic with data on mortality from cerebrovascular disease in the Tokyo Metropolitan area, Japan. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Usefulness and biological background of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images in patients with primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yutaka; Kurebayashi, Junichi; Sonoo, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images were obtained between September 1998 and May 2000 from 44 primary breast cancer patients who were scheduled to undergo breast-conserving surgery. The MR images and clinico-pathological findings were analyzed to investigate the risk factors for histologically positive margins and histologically positive lymph node metastases. We elucidated the relationship between MR images and the biological background of breast cancer. The following interesting findings were made from these analyses. An irregular shape and unclear border of the tumor mass and the coexistence of daughter nodule(s) were significant risk factors for positive-surgical margins; an irregularly shaped tumor mass and spiculated tumor mass were significant risk factors for positive lymph node metastases; breast tumors with a strand-like appearance had a significantly lower histological grade; breast tumors with high contrast enhancement ratios had a significantly higher nuclear grade and progesterone receptor negativity; and breast tumors showing a ring-like enhancement expressed a low level of VEGF. These findings suggest that preoperative MR images of primary breast cancer provide not only useful information on the extent of breast tumors and the possibility of lymph node metastasis but also on the malignant potency and hormone responsiveness of breast tumors. (author)

  9. Modeling the variability of shapes of a human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolsky, M; Salafia, C M; Shlakhter, O; Haas, D; Eucker, B; Thorp, J

    2008-09-01

    Placentas are generally round/oval in shape, but "irregular" shapes are common. In the Collaborative Perinatal Project data, irregular shapes were associated with lower birth weight for placental weight, suggesting variably shaped placentas have altered function. (I) Using a 3D one-parameter model of placental vascular growth based on Diffusion Limited Aggregation (an accepted model for generating highly branched fractals), models were run with a branching density growth parameter either fixed or perturbed at either 5-7% or 50% of model growth. (II) In a data set with detailed measures of 1207 placental perimeters, radial standard deviations of placental shapes were calculated from the umbilical cord insertion, and from the centroid of the shape (a biologically arbitrary point). These two were compared to the difference between the observed scaling exponent and the Kleiber scaling exponent (0.75), considered optimal for vascular fractal transport systems. Spearman's rank correlation considered pcentroid) was associated with differences from the Kleiber exponent (p=0.006). A dynamical DLA model recapitulates multilobate and "star" placental shapes via changing fractal branching density. We suggest that (1) irregular placental outlines reflect deformation of the underlying placental fractal vascular network, (2) such irregularities in placental outline indicate sub-optimal branching structure of the vascular tree, and (3) this accounts for the lower birth weight observed in non-round/oval placentas in the Collaborative Perinatal Project.

  10. Gastrointestinal Parasites of Ecuadorian Mantled Howler Monkeys (Alouatta palliata aequatorialis) Based on Fecal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenbrook, William D; Wade, Susan E; Shields, William M; Stehman, Stephen V; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-06-01

    An analysis of gastrointestinal parasites of Ecuadorian mantled howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata aequatorialis, was conducted based on examination of fecal smears, flotations, and sedimentations. At least 1 type of parasite was detected in 97% of the 96 fecal samples screened across 19 howler monkey groups using these techniques. Samples averaged 3.6 parasite species per individual (±1.4 SD). Parasites included species representing genera of 2 apicomplexans: Cyclospora sp. (18% of individual samples) and Isospora sp. (3%); 6 other protozoa: Balantidium sp. (9%), Blastocystis sp. (60%), Chilomastix sp. (4%), Dientamoeba sp. (3%), Entamoeba species (56%), Iodamoeba sp. (5%); 4 nematodes: Enterobius sp. (3%), Capillaria sp. (78%), Strongyloides spp. (88%) which included 2 morphotypes, Trypanoxyuris sp. (12%); and the platyhelminth Controrchis sp. (15%). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between group size and each of 3 different estimators of parasite species richness adjusted for sampling effort (ICE: r(2) = 0.24, P = 0.05; Chao2: r(2) = 0.25, P = 0.05, and Jackknife: r(2) = 0.31, P = 0.03). Two significant associations between co-infecting parasites were identified. Based on the prevalence data, individuals infected with Balantidium sp. were more likely to also be infected with Isospora sp. (χ(2) = 6.02, P = 0.01), while individuals harboring Chilomastix sp. were less likely to have Capillaria sp. present (χ(2) = 4.03, P = 0.04).

  11. Ecology of the gastrointestinal parasites of Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema, Ghana: possible anthropozoonotic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichroeb, Julie A; Kutz, Susan J; Parkar, Unaiza; Thompson, R C Andrew; Sicotte, Pascale

    2009-11-01

    Parasite richness and prevalence in wild animals can be used as indicators of population and ecosystem health. In this study, the gastrointestinal parasites of ursine colobus monkeys (Colobus vellerosus) at the Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary (BFMS), Ghana, were investigated. BFMS is a sacred grove where monkeys and humans have long lived in relatively peaceful proximity. Fecal samples (n = 109) were collected opportunistically from >27 adult and subadult males in six bisexual groups and one all-male band from July 2004 to August 2005. Using fecal floatation, we detected three protozoans (two Entamoeba sp., Isospora sp.), five nematodes (Ascaris sp., Enterobius sp., Trichuris sp., two strongyle sp.), and one digenean trematode. Using fluorescein labeled antibodies, we detected an additional protozoan (Giardia sp.), and with PCR techniques, we characterized this as G. duodenalis Assemblage B and also identified a protistan (Blastocystis sp., subtype 2). The most prevalent parasite species were G. duodenalis and Trichuris sp. Parasites were more prevalent in the long wet season than the long dry. Parasite prevalence did not vary by age, and average parasite richness did not differ by rank for males whose status remained unchanged. However, males that changed rank tended to show higher average parasite richness when they were lower ranked. Individuals that spent more time near human settlements had a higher prevalence of Isospora sp. that morphologically resembled the human species I. belli. The presence of this parasite and G. duodenalis Assemblage B indicates possible anthropozoonotic and/or zoonotic transmission between humans and colobus monkeys at this site.

  12. A study on protozoan infections (Giardia, Entamoeba, Isoapora and Cryptosporidium in stray dogs in Ilam province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kakekhani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Giardia, Entamoeba, Isospora and Cryptosporidium are important protozoan parastites that caused diarrhea in human and animals. In the present study, fecal samples were collected fresh, directly from the rectum of 112 stray dogs in Ilam province. Giardia and Entamoeba were concentrated by using the formalin ether sedimentation method followed by the trichrome and iodine staining technique andCryptosporidium  oocysts  were  concentrated  by  using  the  formalin  ether  sedimentation  method  followed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Of 112 stray dogs, protozoan infections were detected from feces of 46 dogs (41.07% that Giardia infection was detected from feces of 21 dogs (18.75%, Isospora 17 (15.17%, Cryptosporidium 8 (7.14% and synchronization infection to 2 protozoan in 9 dogs (8.03% and to 3 protozoan in 3 (2.67%. In the present study not observed to Entamoeba. No statistically significant differences in prevalence of protozoan parasites occurred between female (34.21 % and male (55.5 % stray dogs (p>0/05. But statistically significant differences in prevalence occurred between 1≥0 and 0 ≥1 stray dogs (p>0/05. So that stray dogs of Ilam province can cause infection of human water and food sources.

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasites in Cats from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China was largely unknown prior to this study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of intestinal parasites in cats from central China and also identify risk factors for parasitism. Fecal samples from 360 cats were examined using sugar flotation procedure and fecal smear test by microscope. Cats had mixed two or three kinds of parasites infections. Of the 360 cats feces, intestinal parasites positive feces were 149 (41.39%. 64 (17.78% were infected with Toxocara cati, 61 (16.94% with Isospora felis, 41 (11.39% with Isospora rivolta, 33 (9.17% with Paragonimus, 23 (6.39% with hookworms, 11 (3.06% with Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 10 (2.78% with Trichuris, 4 (1.11% with lungworm, 2 (0.56% with Sarcocystis, and 1 (0.28% with Trematode. The cats’ living outdoor was identified as risk factor by statistical analysis. These results provide relevant basic data for assessing the infection of intestinal parasites in cats from central region of China. In conclusion, there was high prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China.

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasites in Cats from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yurong; Liang, Hongde

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China was largely unknown prior to this study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of intestinal parasites in cats from central China and also identify risk factors for parasitism. Fecal samples from 360 cats were examined using sugar flotation procedure and fecal smear test by microscope. Cats had mixed two or three kinds of parasites infections. Of the 360 cats feces, intestinal parasites positive feces were 149 (41.39%). 64 (17.78%) were infected with Toxocara cati, 61 (16.94%) with Isospora felis, 41 (11.39%) with Isospora rivolta, 33 (9.17%) with Paragonimus, 23 (6.39%) with hookworms, 11 (3.06%) with Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 10 (2.78%) with Trichuris, 4 (1.11%) with lungworm, 2 (0.56%) with Sarcocystis, and 1 (0.28%) with Trematode. The cats' living outdoor was identified as risk factor by statistical analysis. These results provide relevant basic data for assessing the infection of intestinal parasites in cats from central region of China. In conclusion, there was high prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China.

  15. Three new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Skinks, Lipinia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Oceania

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Austin, Christopher C.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between September 1991 and March 1993, 25 moth skinks (Lipinia noctua) were collected from various localities on the Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and Vanuatu and examined for coccidians. In addition, a single Roux's lipinia skink (Lipinia rouxi) was collected from PNG and examined for coccidia. Sixteen (64%) L. noctua were found to harbor 2 new eimerians, and L. rouxi harbored another new Eimeria sp. Oocysts of Eimeria lipinia n. sp. from 9 (36%) L. noctua from the Cook Islands, Fiji, and PNG were subspherical with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 18.6 × 16.9 μm, with a L/W ratio of 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria melanesia n. sp. from 6 (24%) L. noctua from Fiji and Vanuatu and a single L. rouxi from PNG were subspherical to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 19.8 × 17.5 μm, and L/W was 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria lessoni n. sp. from 1 (4%) L. noctua from PNG were cylindroidal with a bilayered wall and measured 28.1 × 15.7 μm, and L/W was 1.8. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single polar granule was present. These represent the third report of Eimeria spp. reported from any host on PNG and the only coccidians, to our knowledge, ever described from L. noctua and L. rouxi and from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu.

  16. Field demonstration of improved shallow land burial practices for low-level radioactive solid wastes: preliminary site characterization and progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.

    1982-12-01

    A 5-year field demonstration (ETF) of improved shallow land burial practices for low-level radioactive solid wastes in a humid environment evaluates the use of a trench liner and grout as alternate trench treatments for improving shallow land burial site performance in the humid East. The ETF is located within the Copper Creek thrust block of the Valley and Ridge Province of east Tennessee and is underlain by strata of the Middle to Late Cambrian Conasauga Group. The Maryville Limestone formation, which is composed of ribbon-bedded and interclastic limestones and dark grey shales and mudstones, comprises the bedrock immediately beneath the site. The bedrock and residuum structure are characterized by anticlinal folds with numerous joints and fractures, some of which are filled with calcite. Seismic and electrical resistivity geophysical methods were useful in characterizing the thickness of residuum and presence of structural features. Soils are illitic and range from podzolic to lithosols to alluvial in the vicinity of the ETF, but the original soil solum was removed in 1975 when the mixed hardwood forest was cleared and the site was planted in grasses. The remaining residuum consists of acidic soil aggregate and extensively weathered siltstone and sandstone which exhibit the original rock structure. Mean annual precipitation at the site is 1500 mm, although during the initial study period (10-1-80 to 9-30-81) the annual total was 939 mm. Runoff was estimated to be about 50% of the precipitation total, based on observations at two Parshall flumes installed at the site. Storm runoff is quite responsive to rainfall, and the lag time between peak rainfall and runoff is less than 15 min during winter storms. Tracer studies of the ground-water system, suggest that ground-water flow has two distinct components, one associated with fracture flow and the other with intergranular flow

  17. Petrogenesis, U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Furna Azul Migmatite: partial melting evidence during the San Ignacio Orogeny, Paragua Terrane, SW Amazon Craton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Newton Diego Couto do; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Pierosan, Ronaldo; Lima, Gabrielle Aparecida de; Matos, Joao Batista; Lafon, Jean-Michel; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso, E-mail: newtongeologia@hotmail.com, E-mail: asruiz@gmail.com, E-mail: ronaldo.pierosan@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gabilimagel@gmail.com, E-mail: lafonjm@ufpa.br, E-mail: prof.jmatos@gmail.com, E-mail: candido@ufpa.br [Universidade Federal do Para (GEOCIAM/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Geociencias da Amazonia

    2016-11-01

    The Furna Azul Migmatite is a ∼10 km{sup 2} complex located in Pontes e Lacerda city, Mato Grosso, Brazil. It belongs to Paragua Terrane, limit with Rio Alegre Terrane, southeast of San Ignacio Province, in Amazon Craton. It consists of transitional metatexites with amphibolite enclaves and dioritic injections. The rocks were divided in residuum rich and leucosome rich; both have three deformation phases marked by folded stromatic layers affected by spaced foliation and metamorphosed in amphibolite facies, represented by garnet, biotite, sillimanite, and by the clinopyroxene in the enclaves. The metamorphic retrograde to greenschist is marked by formation of chlorite, muscovite and prehnite. Residuum-rich metatexites show higher CaO and Na{sub 2}O contents, separating them from K{sub 2}O, Ba and Rb enriched transitional metatexites. U-Pb on zircon and Sm-Nd whole-rocks dating indicates that the residuum-rich metatexite crystallized at 1436 ± 11 Ma, with a T{sub DM} age of 1.90 Ga and ε{sub Nd(1.43)} of -0.54, whereas the dioritic injection crystallized at 1341,7 ± 17 Ma with a T{sub DM} age of 1.47 Ga and ε{sub Nd(1.34)} of 3.39. These results indicate that the Furna Azul Migmatite protolith was formed during the San Ignacio Orogeny and was reworked during the same orogeny, as basement for collisional to post-magmatic granites from Pensamiento Intrusive Suite. (author)

  18. Deformational mass transport and invasive processes in soil evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, George H.; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Lewis, Chris J.; Compston, William; Williams, Ian S.; Danti, Kathy J.; Dietrich, William E.; Power, Mary E.; Hendricks, David; Bratt, James

    1992-01-01

    Channels left in soil by decayed roots and burrowing animals allow organic and inorganic precipitates and detritus to move through soil from above, to depths at which the minuteness of pores restricts further passage. Consecutive translocation-and-root-growth phases stir the soil, constituting an invasive, dilatational process which generates cumulative strains. Below the depths thus affected, mineral dissolution by descending organic acids leads to internal collapse; this softened/condensed precursor horizon is then transformed into soil via biological activity that mixes and expands the evolving residuum through root and micropore-network invasion.

  19. Four New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Emoia spp. Skinks (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea and the Insular Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Austin, Christopher C; Fisher, Robert N

    2017-02-01

    Between September and November 1991, 54 adult skinks from 15 species were collected by hand or blowpipe from several localities on Rarotonga, Cook Islands, Ovalau Island, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea (PNG), and their feces were examined for coccidians. Species included 5 seaside skinks (Emoia atrocostata), 1 Pacific blue-tailed skink (Emoia caeroleocauda), 2 Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor), 15 white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), 1 Bulolo River forest skink (Emoia guttata), 6 dark-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia impar), 5 Papua five-striped skinks (Emoia jakati), 2 Papua slender treeskinks (Emoia kordoana), 3 Papua robust treeskinks (Emoia longicauda), 1 brown-backed forest skink (Emoia loveridgei), 3 Papua black-sided skinks (Emoia pallidiceps), 2 Papua white-spotted skinks (Emoia physicae), 2 Papua yellow-head skinks (Emoia popei), 1 Papua brown forest skink (Emoia submetallica), and 5 Fiji barred treeskinks (Emoia trossula) Species of Eimeria (Ei.) were detected from these Emoia (Em.) spp. and are described here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria iovai n. sp. from Em. pallidiceps from PNG were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall (L × W) 26.5 × 18.1 μm, with a length/width ratio (L/W) of 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a fragmented polar granule was present. This eimerian also was found in Em. atrocostata from PNG. Oocysts of Eimeria kirkpatricki n. sp. from Em. atrocostata from PNG were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall, 18.6 × 13.5 μm, L/W 1.4. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a fragmented polar granule was present. This eimerian was also shared by Em. cyanura from the Cook Islands and Fiji, Em. impar from the Cook Islands, Em. loveridgei from PNG, Em. pallidiceps from PNG, Em. popei from PNG, and Em. submetallica from PNG. Oocysts of Eimeria stevejayuptoni n. sp. from Em. longicauda were subspheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall, 18.7 × 16.6 μm, L/W 1.1. A micropyle and oocyst residuum

  20. Features of E-Z-photoisomerization reversible reaction of 4-styrylpyridine crown-containing complexes with different cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, Yu.V.; Shepel', N.Eh.; Chernikova, E.Yu.; Fedorova, O.A.; Gulakova, E.N.; Avakyan, V.G.; Jonushauskas, G.

    2008-01-01

    E-Z-Photoisomerization reversible reaction of crown-containing 4-styrylpyridine in the presence of alkali metal perchlorates (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Ba 2+ ) gifted in the formation of complexes with crown-ether fragments, as well as heavy metal perchlorates (Hg 2+ , Cd 2+ ) gifted in the coordination with nitrogen atom of heterocyclic residuum has been studied. Effect of complexing on the photoisomerization is determined by electron spectroscopy and NMR 1 H, structures of the formed Z-isomers are established. The possibility of the E-Z-isomerization control with the use of supramolecular complexing is confirmed by the investigations [ru

  1. Thermal decomposition of calcium aluminium phosphate of Thies. [Vaporization of uranium and phosphorus pentoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaf, K; Rouanet, A

    1984-01-01

    This study is related to the work on beneficiation of raw phosphates by thermal processing (selective vaporization). More precisely it deals with the ability of a calcium-aluminium phosphate (ores from Thies) to vaporize selectively as phosphorus pentoxide and uranium contents. Experiments are performed on liquid samples at Tsub(f)residuum.

  2. Eimeria minasensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in the Domestic Goat Capra hircus, from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Andréa C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria minasensis n. sp. is described in the domestic goat Capra hircus from Brazil. Oocysts ellipsoidal are 35 x 24.5 (32-37.7 x 20.9-27.9 mm. Sporocysts elongate-ellipsoid are 15.2 x 9 (12.3-18.4 x 7.8-10.2 mm, with a Stieda body at the narrow end. Oocyst wall smooth and bilayered; outer layer about 1.2 (0.8-1.6 mm and colorless; inner layer about 0.5 (0.4-0.8 mm and dark-brown. Micropyle, a mound-shaped micropylar cap 1,6 x 8,9 (0,8-2 x7-10,2 easily dislodged; one or more oocyst polar granules present. Oocyst residuum absent. Sporocyst residuum present, composed of many scattered granules. Sporozoites elongate, lying lengthwise, "head to tail" in the sporocysts; one or two refractile globules are usually visible. Sporulation time was 120 hr at 27oC, prepatent period, 19 to 20 days and patent period 15 to 25 days. Gamonts, gametes and oocysts present in cecum and colon. Prevalence was 12.8% (6/47 in goats from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  3. A new species of Choleoeimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Meller's chameleon, Trioceros melleri (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T

    2012-10-01

    A captive specimen of Meller's chameleon, Trioceros melleri (Gray), originally from Tanzania and housed at the Oklahoma City Zoological Park Herpetarium, Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, was found to be passing an undescribed species of Choleoeimeria in its feces. Oocysts of Choleoeimeria steveuptoni n. sp. were cylindroidal, 38.5 × 17.8 (36-42 × 17-19) µm with a bilayered wall and a shape index (length/width) of 2.2. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a fragmented polar granule was often present. Ovoidal sporocysts were composed of 2 valves joined by a suture and measured 11.3 × 9.1 (11-12 × 9-10) µm; shape index of 1.3. Stieda, sub-Stieda, and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consists of multiple globules dispersed along the perimeter of the sporocyst and between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate, 13.1 × 2.9 (12-15 × 2.6-3.2) µm with an elongate posterior refractile body. The new species represents the second coccidian documented from this lizard.

  4. A new species of Choleoeimeria (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from oustalet's chameleon, Furcifer oustaleti (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T

    2012-02-01

    One of three (33%) captive specimens of Oustalet's chameleon, Furcifer oustaleti (Mocquard) originally from Madagascar and housed at the Oklahoma City Zoological Park Herpetarium, Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, USA, was found to be passing an undescribed species of Choleoeimeria in its faeces. Oocysts of Choleoeimeria fischeri sp. n. were cylindroidal, 30.3 x 16.8 (28-34 x 15-18) microm, with a smooth, bilayered wall and a length/width ratio (L/W) of 1.8. A micropyle and oocyst residuum was absent but a fragmented polar granule was often present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 9.6 x 8.0 (9-10 x 7-9) jm, with an L/W of 1.2. Stieda, sub-Stieda, and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consists of large globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate, 8.6 x 2.9 (8-10 x 2-3) microm, with an elongate posterior refractile body. The new species represents the second coccidian described from this lizard.

  5. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Solomon ground skink, Sphenomorphus solomonis (Boulenger) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1990 and November 1991, 19 Sphenomorphus spp. skinks, including nine S. jobiense, three S. simus, and seven Solomon ground skinks, S. solomonis (Boulenger), were collected from Madang and Morobe Provinces, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and examined for coccidia. A single S. solomonis was found to be infected with a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. Oöcysts of Eimeria perkinsae n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 18.6 × 14.7 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 × 6.4 μm, L/W 1.4; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum consisted of a loose cluster of granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites are comma-shaped with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the first report of coccidia from this skink genus.

  6. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria haematodi, coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in a rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Ryan, Una

    2015-06-01

    Eimeria haematodi was first described in 1977 from the rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus) in Papua New Guinea. In the present study, we re-describe this coccidian species morphologically and molecularly from a rainbow lorikeet bird in Western Australia (WA). The oocysts were ovoid to slightly piriform and measured 28.5-37.8 by 25.8-33.0 µm (33.3 by 28.1 µm). Oocyst wall was approximately 1.5 µm thick and bilayered. Micropyle (5-7 µm) and oocyst residuum (8.0-10.0 µm) present; polar granule was absent. Sporocysts ellipsoidal, 11.8-13.6 by 8.0-9.6 µm (12.2 by 8.3 µm), with thin convex Stieda body and granular sporocyst residuum (4.0-5.0 µm). Molecular characterization of E. haematodi was conducted at 18S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI) loci. At the 18S ribosomal RNA locus, E. haematodi shared 98.1% genetic similarity to E. alabamensis from cattle in New South Wales, Australia. At COI locus, E. haematodi was closest (92.3% similarity) to E. praecox from domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from Canada and China. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A NEW SPECIES OF EIMERIA (APICOMPLEXA: EIMERIIDAE) FROM THE NORTHERN MYOTIS, MYOTIS SEPTENTRIONALIS (CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE), IN OKLAHOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Seville, R. Scott; Roehrs, Zachary P.

    2012-01-01

    During September 2004, 4 adult northern myotis, Myotis septentrionalis, were collected from LeFlore County, Oklahoma (n = 2), and Logan (n = 1) and Yell (n = 1) counties, Arkansas, and their feces examined for coccidian parasites. Three of 4 bats (75%) were passing oocysts of Eimeria spp. Oocysts of Eimeria tumlisoni n. sp. were ovoidal, 17.6 × 16.8 (16–19 × 14–18) μm with a shape index of 1.0 (1.0–1.1). A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, although 1–2 bilobed polar granules were often present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.5 × 5.9 (9–12 × 5–7) μm with a shape index of 1.8 (1.6–2.0). A Stieda body was present, but sub–Stieda and para–Stieda bodies were absent. A sporocyst residuum was present consisting of compact to dispersed granules between the sporozoites. The sporozoites were elongate, with subspherical anterior refractile body and spherical posterior refractile body; a nucleus was not discernable. This is the second coccidian reported from this host and the first instance of a bat coccidian reported from Oklahoma. We also document a new geographic record for Eimeria catronensis in Oklahoma, and provide an emended description. PMID:22509940

  8. A NEW SPECIES OF EIMERIA (APICOMPLEXA: EIMERIIDAE) FROM THE EASTERN PIPISTRELLE, PERIMYOTIS SUBFLAVUS (CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE), IN ARKANSAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Burt, Scott; Seville, R. Scott; Robison, Henry W.

    2011-01-01

    During November 2009 and March 2010, 20 adult eastern pipistrelles, Perimyotis (=Pipistrellus) subflavus were collected from Polk County, Arkansas, and their feces examined for coccidian parasites. Two (10%) of the bats were found to be passing oocysts of an undescribed species of Eimeria. Oocysts of Eimeria heidti n. sp. were ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 26.1 × 20.5 (23-31 × 18-23) μm, with a bilayered wall, externally rough, internally smooth, and with a shape index of 1.3. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a subspherical polar granule was often present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 13.0 × 8.8 (11-15 × 7-13) μm, the shape index was 1.6, a Stieda body was present and sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. A sporocyst residuum consisting of multiple globules dispersed along the perimeter of the sporocyst and between the sporozoites were present, sporozoites were elongate, with a subspherical anterior refractile body and elongate posterior refractile body; a nucleus not discernable. This is the second coccidian reported from this host and the fourth instance of a coccidian species reported from an Arkansas bat. PMID:21506799

  9. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Carlia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 from rainbow skinks, Carlia ailanpalai Zug and Carlia eothen Zug is described from specimens collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Oöcysts of Eimeria zugi n. sp. from one of one (100%) C. eothen are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 25.1 × 15.5 μm and have a length/width ratio of 1.6. The micropyle and the oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. The sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal and 10.3 × 7.1 μm in size and do not contain Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies; and the sporocyst residuum is composed of a compact mass of large globules. The sporozoites are elongate, 12.8 × 2.9 μm in size, and contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. This is the ninth species of coccidium described from skinks from PNG, and the new species described herein is apparently endemic to the skink genus Carlia (Gray).

  10. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Coal-oil coprocessing at HTI - development and improvement of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalzer, R.H.; Lee, L.K.; Hu, J.; Comolli, A. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Co-Processing refers to the combined processing of coal and petroleum-derived heavy oil feedstocks. The coal feedstocks used are those typically utilized in direct coal liquefaction: bituminous, subbituminous, and lignites. Petroleum-derived oil, is typically a petroleum residuum, containing at least 70 W% material boiling above 525{degrees}C. The combined coal and oil feedstocks are processed simultaneously with the dual objective of liquefying the coal and upgrading the petroleum-derived residuum to lower boiling (<525{degrees}C) premium products. HTI`s investigation of the Co-Processing technology has included work performed in laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The concept of co-processing technology is quite simple and a natural outgrowth of the work done with direct coal liquefaction. A 36 month program to evaluate new process concepts in coal-oil coprocessing at the bench-scale was begun in September 1994 and runs until September 1997. Included in this continuous bench-scale program are provisions to examine new improvements in areas such as: interstage product separation, feedstock concentrations (coal/oil), improved supported/dispersed catalysts, optimization of reactor temperature sequencing, and in-line hydrotreating. This does not preclude other ideas from DOE contracts and other sources that can lead to improved product quality and economics. This research work has led to important findings which significantly increased liquid yields, improved product quality, and improved process economics.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Seismological and Gravimetric Crustal Thicknesses below the Andean Region with Flat Subduction of the Nazca Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. Gimenez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A gravimetric study was carried out in a region of the Central Andean Range between 28∘ and 32∘ south latitudes and from 72∘ and 66∘ west longitudes. The seismological and gravimetrical Moho models were compared in a sector which coincides with the seismological stations of the CHARGE project. The comparison reveals discrepancies between the gravity Moho depths and those obtained from seismological investigations (CHARGE project, the latter giving deeper values than those resulting from the gravimetric inversion. These discrepancies are attenuated when the positive gravimetric effect of the Nazca plate is considered. Nonetheless, a small residuum of about 5 km remains beneath the Cuyania terrane region, to the east of the main Andean chain. This residuum could be gravimetrically justified if the existence of a high density or eclogitized portion of the lower crust is considered. This result differed from the interpretations from Project “CHARGE” which revealed that the entire inferior crust extending from the Precordillera to the occidental “Sierras Pampeanas” could be “eclogitized”. In this same sector, we calculated the effective elastic thickness (Te of the crust. These results indicated an anomalous value of Te = 30 km below the Cuyania terrane. This is further conclusive evidence of the fact that the Cuyania terrane is allochthonous, for which also geological evidences exist.

  13. Avispora mochogalegoi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae in the little owl, Athene noctua (Strigiformes: Strigidae, in mainland Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergian Vianna Cardozo

    Full Text Available Abstract The little owl Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769 is a small raptor that is widely distributed from northern to southern Portugal and several other countries in Europe, Asia and North Africa, and which has been introduced into New Zealand. In the current study, 18 fecal samples were collected from little owls kept at the Lisbon Center for Wild Animal Recovery, which is located in Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, Portugal. Twelve (67% of them were found to be passing an undescribed species of Avispora in their feces. The oocysts of Avispora mochogalegoi n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 38.9 × 32.9 µm, with a shape index of 1.18. No micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule was present. The sporocysts were subspherical, measuring 21.1 × 20.1 µm. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of a compact subspherical mass of granules. This is the fourth species of Avispora reported in Strigiformes.

  14. Can we apply the MRI BI-RADS lexicon morphology descriptors on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Rasha M; Helal, Maha H; Mansour, Sahar M; Haggag, Marwa A; Nada, Omniya M; Farahat, Iman G; Alieldin, Nelly H

    2016-07-12

    To assess the feasibility of using the MRI breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon morphology descriptors to characterize enhancing breast lesions identified on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). The study is a retrospective analysis of the morphology descriptors of 261 enhancing breast lesions identified on CESM in 239 patients. We presented the morphological categorization of the included lesions into focus, mass and non-mass. Further classifications included (1) the multiplicity for "focus" category, (2) the shape, margin and internal enhancement for "mass" category and (3) the distribution and internal enhancement for "non-mass" category. Each morphology descriptor was evaluated individually (irrespective of all other descriptors) by calculating its sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value (PPV) and negative-predictive value (NPV) and likelihood ratios (LRs). The study included 68/261 (26.1%) benign lesions and 193/261 (73.9%) malignant lesions. Intensely enhancing foci, whether single (7/12, 58.3%) or multiple (2/12, 16.7%), were malignant. Descriptors of "irregular"-shape (PPV: 92.4%) and "non-circumscribed" margin (odds ratio: 55.2, LR positive: 4.77; p-value: <0.001) were more compatible with malignancy. Internal mass enhancement patterns showed a very low specificity (58.0%) and NPV (40.0%). Non-mass enhancement (NME) was detected in 81/261 lesions. Asymmetrical NME in 81% (n = 52/81) lesions was malignant lesions and internal enhancement patterns indicative of malignancy were the heterogeneous and clumped ones. We can apply the MRI morphology descriptors to characterize lesions on CESM, but with few expectations. In many situations, irregular-shaped, non-circumscribed masses and NME with focal, ductal or segmental distribution and heterogeneous or clumped enhancement are the most suggestive descriptors of malignant pathologies. (1) The MRI BI-RADS lexicon morphology descriptors can be applied in the

  15. Zoonotic gastrointestinal parasite burden of local dogs in Zaria, Northern Nigeria: Implications for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher I. Ogbaje

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs are of the global problem particularly in the developing countries. Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide and have been reported to be hosts of many intestinal parasites of zoonotic importance globally. In Nigeria, gastrointestinal helminthes of dogs is currently endemic in 20 of the 36 states. Aim: In general, dogs are the closest animals to humans and for that reason we decided to carry out a survey study to check the incidence of these parasites in dogs and to ascertain the level of environmental contamination in the study area. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from dog patients presented to small animal clinic of Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, dog’s fecal droppings from the streets, and residential Quarters of the University and gastrointestinal tracts (GIT of dogs from dogs slaughtering house at Basawa Barrack, Zaria. Three methods were used in the analysis of the samples; simple flotation, sedimentation, and GIT processing methods within 48 h of collection. Results: Out of 224 samples analyzed 76(33.9% were positive of at least one of the parasites. Of the 101 samples from streets and residential quarters of ABU, Zaria, Isospora spp. 12(11.9% recorded the highest prevalence rate followed by Taenia spp. 6(5.9%, then Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, and Dipylidium caninum were 5.0%, 4.0%, and 1.0%, respectively. Isospora spp. (19.0% recorded the highest prevalence rate for the 100 samples collected from small animal clinic. Other parasites encountered were T. canis (8.0%, A. caninum (8.0% and Taenia spp. (5.0%. Parasites observed from the 23 gastrointestinal contents from “dog slaughtered houses” were T. canis (17.3%, Isospora spp.(13.1% and A. caninum (4.3. Conclusion: The study revealed that zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs are endemic in Zaria and the general public in the

  16. Validation of Computer Models for Homeland Security Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweppe, John E.; Ely, James; Kouzes, Richard T.; McConn, Ronald J.; Pagh, Richard T.; Robinson, Sean M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Borgardt, James D.; Bender, Sarah E.; Earnhart, Alison H.

    2005-01-01

    At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we are developing computer models of radiation portal monitors for screening vehicles and cargo. Detailed models of the radiation detection equipment, vehicles, cargo containers, cargos, and radioactive sources have been created. These are used to determine the optimal configuration of detectors and the best alarm algorithms for the detection of items of interest while minimizing nuisance alarms due to the presence of legitimate radioactive material in the commerce stream. Most of the modeling is done with the Monte Carlo code MCNP to describe the transport of gammas and neutrons from extended sources through large, irregularly shaped absorbers to large detectors. A fundamental prerequisite is the validation of the computational models against field measurements. We describe the first step of this validation process, the comparison of the models to measurements with bare static sources

  17. Polycrystalline oxides formation during transient oxidation of (001) Cu-Ni binary alloys studied by in situ TEM and XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.C.; Li, Z.Q.; Sun, L.; Zhou, G.W.; Eastman, J.A.; Fong, D.D.; Fuoss, P.H.; Baldo, P.M.; Rehn, L.E.; Thompson, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of Cu 2 O and NiO islands due to oxidation of Cu x Ni 1-x (001) films were monitored, at various temperatures, by in situ ultra-high vacuum (UHV) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). In remarkable contrast to our previous observations of Cu and Cu-Au oxidation, irregular-shaped polycrystalline oxide islands formed with respect to the Cu-Ni alloy film, and an unusual second oxide nucleation stage was noted. In situ XRD experiments revealed that NiO formed first epitaxially, then other orientations appeared, and finally polycrystalline Cu 2 O developed as the oxidation pressure was increased. The segregation of Ni and Cu towards or away, respectively, from the alloy surface during oxidation could disrupt the surface and cause polycrystalline oxide formation.

  18. Conductive Au nanowires regulated by silk fibroin nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo-Ju; Lu, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Conductive Au-biopolymer composites have promising applications in tissue engineering such as nerve tissue regeneration. In this study, silk fibroin nanofibers were formed in aqueous solution by regulating silk self-assembly process and then used as template for Au nanowire fabrication. We performed the synthesis of Au seeds by repeating the seeding cycles for several times in order to increase the density of Au seeds on the nanofibers. After electroless plating, densely decorated Au seeds grew into irregularly shaped particles following silk nanofiber to fill the gaps between particles and finally form uniform continuous nanowires. The conductive property of the Au-silk fibroin nanowires was studied with current-voltage ( I-V) measurement. A typical ohmic behavior was observed, which highlighted their potential applications in nerve tissue regeneration.

  19. Assessment of statistical uncertainty in the quantitative analysis of solid samples in motion using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalin, L.M.; Gonzalez, A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Malaga, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Ruiz, J. [Department of Applied Physics I, University of Malaga, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Laserna, J.J., E-mail: laserna@uma.e [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Malaga, E-29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Statistical uncertainty in the quantitative analysis of solid samples in motion by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been assessed. For this purpose, a LIBS demonstrator was designed and constructed in our laboratory. The LIBS system consisted of a laboratory-scale conveyor belt, a compact optical module and a Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm. The speed of the conveyor belt was variable and could be adjusted up to a maximum speed of 2 m s{sup -1}. Statistical uncertainty in the analytical measurements was estimated in terms of precision (reproducibility and repeatability) and accuracy. The results obtained by LIBS on shredded scrap samples under real conditions have demonstrated that the analytical precision and accuracy of LIBS is dependent on the sample geometry, position on the conveyor belt and surface cleanliness. Flat, relatively clean scrap samples exhibited acceptable reproducibility and repeatability; by contrast, samples with an irregular shape or a dirty surface exhibited a poor relative standard deviation.

  20. Effect of noble metal doping on the structural properties of lanthanum cobaltite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmadhikari, Dipti V.; Athawal, Anjali A.

    2016-01-01

    Pristine and Noble metal (Ag and Pd) doped lanthanum cobaltite samples have been synthesised by Hydrothermal method. Lanthanum in the A-Site and Co at B-site of Lanthanum cobaltite (LaCoO 3 ) perovskites were partially doped by silver and palladium (4%). Crystal structure analysis revealed that the hydrothermal synthesis led to the formation of pure nanocrystalline perovskite structure. Morphological analysis of the samples shows that the noble metal doping affects the morphology of the samples. Pristine sample shows spherical to oval shaped particles while the doping results in the formation of irregular shaped, spherical and rod shaped particles. Silver doping results in the agglomeration of particles. The particles were observed to be fused with each other to form rod shaped structures in case of palladium doped samples. (author)

  1. Atom-probe field-ion microscopy investigation of CMSX-4 Ni-base superalloy laser beam welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Miller, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    CMSX-4 superalloy laser beam welds were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM). The weld microstructure consisted of fine (10- to 50-nm) irregularly shaped γ' precipitates (0.65 to 0.75 volume fraction) within the γ matrix. APFIM compositions of the γ and γ' phases were found to be different from those in the base metal. Concentration profiles across the γ and γ' phases showed extensive variations of Cr, Co and Al concentrations as a function of distance within the γ phase. Calculated lattice misfits near the γ/γ' interface in the welds are positive values compared to the negative values for base metal. (orig.)

  2. Unusual ultrasonography findings of recurred mammary fibermatosis mimicking subareolar mastitis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Hwa Sung; Kim, Young Seon; Bae, Young Kyung [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Fibromatosis, also known as an extra-abdominal desmoid tumor, rarely occurs in the breast and is often mistaken for carcinoma, clinically and radiologically. Desmoid tumor is a monoclonal myofibroblastic neoplasm which is locally aggressive, but rarely metastasizes. We herein report a case of a 64-year-old woman who experienced two episodes of recurrence of mammary fibromatosis. The mass was initially detected by screening mammography. It appeared as an irregularly shaped mass which was confined within the mammary zone. Recurrences were excised from the right breast 10 and 17 months later. The second recurrence occurred in the subareolar area accompanied by skin thickening and showed an anechoic component on ultrasonography, which mimicked subareolar mastitis with an abscess.

  3. Unusual ultrasonography findings of recurred mammary fibermatosis mimicking subareolar mastitis: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Hwa Sung; Kim, Young Seon; Bae, Young Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Fibromatosis, also known as an extra-abdominal desmoid tumor, rarely occurs in the breast and is often mistaken for carcinoma, clinically and radiologically. Desmoid tumor is a monoclonal myofibroblastic neoplasm which is locally aggressive, but rarely metastasizes. We herein report a case of a 64-year-old woman who experienced two episodes of recurrence of mammary fibromatosis. The mass was initially detected by screening mammography. It appeared as an irregularly shaped mass which was confined within the mammary zone. Recurrences were excised from the right breast 10 and 17 months later. The second recurrence occurred in the subareolar area accompanied by skin thickening and showed an anechoic component on ultrasonography, which mimicked subareolar mastitis with an abscess

  4. Ameloblastic Fibroodontoma: Uncommon Case Presentation in a 6-Year-Old Child with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshad Mohamed Abdulla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastic fibroodontoma is a benign mixed odontogenic neoplasm considered in patients with asymptomatic swelling and unerupted teeth that exhibit histologic features between ameloblastic fibroma and complex odontoma. Radiographically, this lesion appears as radiolucency admixed with focal radio opaque masses of irregular shapes and sizes. This lesion is confirmed by the presence of proliferating odontogenic epithelium, ectomesenchyme, and dental hard tissue formation on pathological analysis supplementing clinical and radiographic findings. As this tumour is less commonly seen in routine clinical practice, ameloblastic fibroodontoma with detailed orofacial features and periodic approach to its diagnosis is discussed. This paper reports a case of ameloblastic fibroodontoma of the mandible in a 6-year-old male patient with an uncommon case presentation and review of the literature.

  5. DSMC Simulations of Io's Pele Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDoniel, William; Goldstein, D.; Varghese, P.; Trafton, L.

    2012-10-01

    Io’s Pele plume rises over 300km in altitude and leaves a deposition ring 1200km across on the surface of the moon. Material emerges from an irregularly-shaped vent, and this geometry gives rise to complex 3D flow features. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method is used to model the gas flow in the rarefied plume, demonstrating how the geometry of the source region is responsible for the asymmetric structure of the deposition ring and illustrating the importance of very small-scale vent geometry in explaining large observed features of interest. Simulations of small particles in the plume and comparisons to the black “butterfly wings” seen at Pele are used to constrain particle sizes and entrainment mechanisms. Preliminary results for the effects of plasma energy and momentum transfer to the plume will also be presented.

  6. Finite-Time Spacecraft’s Soft Landing on Asteroids Using PD and Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keping Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a continuous control law of probe, which consists of PD (proportional-derivative controller and nonsingular terminal sliding mode controller for probe descending and landing phases, respectively, in the case of the asteroid irregular shape and low gravity. The probe dynamic model is deduced in the landing site coordinate system firstly. Then the reference trajectory based on optimal polynomial in open-loop state is designed, with the suboptimal fuel consumption. Taking into account different characteristics of phases, PD controller and nonsingular terminal sliding mode controller can be employed in the descending phase and the landing phase, respectively, to track the designed reference trajectory. The controller which used the corresponding control methods can meet the motion characteristics and requirements of each stage. Finally simulation experiments are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, which can ensure the safe landing of probe and achieve continuous control.

  7. Path integration guided with a quality map for shape reconstruction in the fringe reflection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaoli; Cheng, Haobo; Wen, Yongfu

    2018-04-01

    A new local integration algorithm called quality map path integration (QMPI) is reported for shape reconstruction in the fringe reflection technique. A quality map is proposed to evaluate the quality of gradient data locally, and functions as a guideline for the integrated path. The presented method can be employed in wavefront estimation from its slopes over the general shaped surface with slope noise equivalent to that in practical measurements. Moreover, QMPI is much better at handling the slope data with local noise, which may be caused by the irregular shapes of the surface under test. The performance of QMPI is discussed by simulations and experiment. It is shown that QMPI not only improves the accuracy of local integration, but can also be easily implemented with no iteration compared to Southwell zonal reconstruction (SZR). From an engineering point-of-view, the proposed method may also provide an efficient and stable approach for different shapes with high-precise demand.

  8. Orbital and Landing Operations at Near-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    Orbital and landing operations about near-Earth asteroids are different than classical orbital operations about large bodies. The major differences lie with the small mass of the asteroid, the lower orbital velocities, the larger Solar tide and radiation pressure perturbations, the irregular shape of the asteroid and the potential for non-uniform rotation of the asteroid. These differences change the nature of orbits about an asteroid to where it is often common to find trajectories that evolve from stable, near-circular orbits to crashing or escaping orbits in a matter of days. The understanding and control of such orbits is important if a human or robotic presence at asteroids is to be commonplace in the future.

  9. Myoepithelial carcinoma arising within an adenomyoepithelioma of the breast: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, You Yeon; Cho, Kyu Ran; Song, Sung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Bo Kyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast is a rare tumor. A myoepithelial carcinoma arising within an adenomyoepithelioma is even more unusual. There are a limited number of reports discussing myoepithelial carcinoma; most of them describe pathological findings, but not imaging findings. We present a case of a 55-year-old woman who had a screen-detected myoepithelial carcinoma arising within an adenomyoepithelioma in her right breast. Upon the completion of a mammography and sonography an oval shaped mass with an indistinct margin in the upper portion of the right breast had been seen. It as appeared to be a spiculated, irregular-shaped, peripheral-enhancing mass on an MRI. On sonography-guided biopsy, an epithelial-myothelial tumor was confirmed, and the possibility of myoepithelial carcinoma was suggested. Breast-conserving surgery with a sentinel lymph node dissection was performed, and a pathological examination revealed a myoepithelial carcinoma arising within an adenomyoepithelioma.

  10. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  11. Metallography of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser weld in a RS/PM Al-8Fe-2Mo alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, S.; Baeslack, W.A. III

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the microstructure of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser weld in a rapid solidification/powder metallurgy (RS/PM) Al-8.0 wt.% Fe-2.3 wt.% Mo (Al-8Fe-2Mo) alloy investigated using light microcopy, canning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. This analysis revealed significant microstructure variations across the weld fusion zone (FZ). Near the fusion boundary, a light-etching FZ microstructure was observed to contain submicron dispersoids entrapped in a matrix of fine-sized dendritic alpha aluminum. At the center of the FZ, the presence of relatively coarse-sized intermetallic particles that served as growth centers for coarser dendritic alpha aluminum promoted a dark-etching microstructure. In the boundary between successive melt zones, both a heat-affected zone (HAZ) containing acicular dispersoids and a fusion boundary region (FBR) containing irregular-shaped particles in a coarse-grained dendritic alpha aluminum matrix were observed

  12. A General Contact Force Analysis of an Under-Actuated Finger in Robot Hand Grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Vinh Ha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a mathematical analysis of contact forces for the under-actuated finger in a general under-actuated robotic hand during grasping. The concept of under-actuation in robotic grasping with fewer actuators than degrees of freedom (DOF, through the use of springs and mechanical limits, allows the hand to adjust itself to an irregularly shaped object without complex control strategies and sensors. Here the main concern is the contact forces, which are important elements in grasping tasks, based on the proposed mathematical analysis of their distributions of the n-DOF under-actuated finger. The simulation results, along with the 3-DOF finger from the ADAMS model, show the effectiveness of the mathematical analysis method, while comparing them with the measured results. The system can find magnitudes of the contact forces at the contact positions between the phalanges and the object.

  13. Evaluation of computed tomography for the diagnosis of malignant lesions in the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, S; Hamano, H; Kitamura, K [Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    1980-01-01

    Thirty seven cases with malignant lesions in the liver underwent computed tomography and diagnostic evaluation was studied comparing with liver scanning, echogram and blood biochemistry. 1) In the cases with hepatocellular carcinoma, irregular shaped, low density area was detected in 94%. CT was superior to liver scanning and echogram in detection of space occupying lesion in the liver. 2) Remarkable dilatation of the intra-hepatic bile duct was observed in the cases with intra-hepatic biliary carcinoma and the visualization of the tumor was rather difficult. 3) Round shaped, low density area with various size were detected in the cases with metastatic liver carcinoma in 94%. The CT number of the tumors were significantly lower than that of hepatocellular carcinoma. Almost all cases accompanied remarkable hepatomegaly.

  14. Study of the spheronization process of glass particles by the gravitational falling process for internal selective radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Filho, E.C.; Martinelli, J.R.; Sene, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    The internal selective radiotherapy is an alternative to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. Glass microspheres containing β - emitter radionuclide are introduced in the liver, and they are housed preferentially in the region where the cancer cells are located. The microspheres are trapped in the arterioles which feed the tumors, and the β - particles annihilate the cancer cells. The glass particles must be spherical to avoid unnecessary bleeding, and the particle size must be restricted to a range which optimizes the blocking effect and avoid the migration to other parts of the human body. The particle size distribution of microspheres is not easily predicted since the variation of the aspect ratio and the presence of agglomerates can influence the resulting particle size distribution. In the present work, the spheronization process to obtain microspheres from irregular shape glass particles with suitable diameter and shape for radiotherapy treatment is studied. (author)

  15. Study of the spheronization process of glass particles by the gravitational falling process for internal selective radiotherapy; Estudo do processo de esferolizacao por queda gravitacional de particulas vitreas visando a aplicacao em radioterapia interna seletiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Filho, E.C.; Martinelli, J.R., E-mail: eraldo.filho@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil); Sene, F.F. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The internal selective radiotherapy is an alternative to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. Glass microspheres containing β{sup -} emitter radionuclide are introduced in the liver, and they are housed preferentially in the region where the cancer cells are located. The microspheres are trapped in the arterioles which feed the tumors, and the β{sup -} particles annihilate the cancer cells. The glass particles must be spherical to avoid unnecessary bleeding, and the particle size must be restricted to a range which optimizes the blocking effect and avoid the migration to other parts of the human body. The particle size distribution of microspheres is not easily predicted since the variation of the aspect ratio and the presence of agglomerates can influence the resulting particle size distribution. In the present work, the spheronization process to obtain microspheres from irregular shape glass particles with suitable diameter and shape for radiotherapy treatment is studied. (author)

  16. Diversity among galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Rood, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The classification of galaxy clusters is discussed. Consideration is given to the classification scheme of Abell (1950's), Zwicky (1950's), Morgan, Matthews, and Schmidt (1964), and Morgan-Bautz (1970). Galaxies can be classified based on morphology, chemical composition, spatial distribution, and motion. The correlation between a galaxy's environment and morphology is examined. The classification scheme of Rood-Sastry (1971), which is based on clusters's morphology and galaxy population, is described. The six types of clusters they define include: (1) a cD-cluster dominated by a single large galaxy, (2) a cluster dominated by a binary, (3) a core-halo cluster, (4) a cluster dominated by several bright galaxies, (5) a cluster appearing flattened, and (6) an irregularly shaped cluster. Attention is also given to the evolution of cluster structures, which is related to initial density and cluster motion

  17. The Effect of the Kind of Sands and Additions on the Mechanical Behaviour of S.C.C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeghichi, L.; Benghazi, Z.; Baali, L.

    The sand is an inert element essential in the composition of concrete; its use ensures granular continuity between the cement and gravel for better cohesion of concrete. This paper presents the results of a study that investigated the influence of sand quality on the properties of fresh and hardened self-compacting concrete (SCC). The dune sands are very fine materials characterized by a high intergranular porosity, high surface area and low fineness modulus; on the other hand crushed (manufactured) sand has a high rate into thin and irregular shapes which are influencing the workability of concrete. The amount of dune sand varies from (0% 50%, to 100%) by weight of fine aggregates. The effect of additions is also treated (blast furnace slag and lime stone) The results show that the rheological properties favour the use of dune sands; however the mechanical properties support the use of crushed sand.

  18. Synthesis of silver nano-materials from Grevillea robusta A Cunn (Silver-oak tree) leaves extract and shape directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Rabia; Faisal, Qamer; Hussain, Sajjad [Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Grevillea robusta (Silver-oak tree) tree is a medicinal tree. Conventional UV-visible spectrophotometric and transmission electron microscopic technique were used to determine the morphology of silver nanoplates (AgNP) using Grevillea robusta (Silver-oak tree) aqueous leaves extract for the first time. The visible spectra showed the presence of three well defined surface plasmon absorption (SPR) bands at 500, 550 and 675 nm which was attributed to the anisotropic growth of Ag-nanoplates. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis of AgNP showed formation of truncated triangular, polyhedral with some irregular shapes nanoplates in the size range 8-20 nm. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has no significant effect on the shape of the spectra, position of SPR bands, size and size distribution of AgNP.

  19. Analysis of the ultrasonic image of adrenal metastasis in primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Ling; Yang Tao; Tang Ying; Mao Jingning; Chen Wei; Wang Yong; Zhang Yan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ultrasonic image of adrenal metastasis in primary lung cancer. Methods: The ultrasonic imaging characteristics of fourteen patients with adrenal metastasis in primary lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed. In all the cases, US-guided percutaneous biopsy was performed for pathological evaluation during the clinical diagnosis. Results and Conclusion: In ultrasonography the adrenal metastatic tumors were manifested as solitary in all the cases, well-defined in 10 cases, irregularly shaped in 10 cases, hypoechoic in 13 cases, and 1 case showed cystoid structure in the tumor. The maximum diameter of the tumor was 3.0-15.3 cm. 9 cases were metastatic adenocarcinoma. The sonographic appearance of adrenal metastasis in primary lung cancer has its characteristics. Ultrasonography can find adrenal metastalic tumors easily and contribute to diagnosis. (authors)

  20. Use of 5-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)rhodanine in quantitating silver grains eluted from autoradiograms of biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, J.W.; Guikema, J.A.; Consigli, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    5-(4-Dimethylaminobenzylidene)rhodanine, a silver-specific dye, was used in a colorimetric assay to quantitate the autoradiographic deposition of silver onto X-ray film after exposure to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels of radiolabeled biological material. Silver grains were eluted from autoradiograms with 5 N potassium hydroxide, dissolved in nitric acid, and neutralized with 1 M Trizma Base. The concentration of silver was measured spectrophotometrically owing to the chelation properties of the dye. After corrections for background exposure were made, the silver contents of excised bands were then determined by comparison to a standard curve generated with silver nitrate. We have used this silver assay to quantitate the relative amount of each polypeptide band comprising the polyomavirus structural protein VP2 doublet. The method reported here has proven useful when densitometry is inconvenient (i.e., short distance between bands, irregular shape of bands, very faint bands) in addition to being inexpensive and simple to perform

  1. Essential partial differential equations analytical and computational aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David F; Silvester, David J

    2015-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to the analytical and numerical aspects of partial differential equations (PDEs). It unifies an analytical and computational approach for these; the qualitative behaviour of solutions being established using classical concepts: maximum principles and energy methods.   Notable inclusions are the treatment of irregularly shaped boundaries, polar coordinates and the use of flux-limiters when approximating hyperbolic conservation laws. The numerical analysis of difference schemes is rigorously developed using discrete maximum principles and discrete Fourier analysis. A novel feature is the inclusion of a chapter containing projects, intended for either individual or group study, that cover a range of topics such as parabolic smoothing, travelling waves, isospectral matrices, and the approximation of multidimensional advection–diffusion problems.   The underlying theory is illustrated by numerous examples and there are around 300 exercises, designed to promote and test unde...

  2. Low density in liver of idiopathic portal hypertension. A computed tomographic observation with possible diagnostic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishito, Hiroyuki

    1988-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diagnostic value of low density in liver on computed tomography (CT), CT scans of 11 patients with idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) were compared with those from 22 cirrhotic patients, two patients with scarred liver and 16 normal subjects. Low densities on plain CT scans in patients with IPH were distinctly different from those observed in normal liver. Some of the low densities had irregular shape with unclear margin and were scattered near the liver surface, and others had vessel-like structures with unclear margin and extended as far as near the liver surface. Ten of the 11 patients with IPH had low densities mentioned above, while none of the 22 cirrhotic patients had such low densities. The present results suggest that the presence of low densities in liver on plain CT scan is clinically beneficial in diagnosis of IPH.

  3. Low density in liver of idiopathic portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishito, Hiroyuki

    1988-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diagnostic value of low density in liver on computed tomography (CT), CT scans of 11 patients with idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) were compared with those from 22 cirrhotic patients, two patients with scarred liver and 16 normal subjects. Low densities on plain CT scans in patients with IPH were distinctly different from those observed in normal liver. Some of the low densities had irregular shape with unclear margin and were scattered near the liver surface, and others had vessel-like structures with unclear margin and extended as far as near the liver surface. Ten of the 11 patients with IPH had low densities mentioned above, while none of the 22 cirrhotic patients had such low densities. The present results suggest that the presence of low densities in liver on plain CT scan is clinically beneficial in diagnosis of IPH. (author)

  4. Seven-legged calf: Dipygus with an extra foreleg at the pelvic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, T.; Abe, M.; Iwasa, K.; Takehana, K.; Tetsuka, M.

    1989-01-01

    A male Holstein-Friesian calf with seven legs was examined macroscopically and radiographically. External features included two normal forelimbs, two normal hindlimbs (lateral hindlimbs), and two abnormal hindlimbs (medial hindlimbs) which were underdeveloped. Also, a rudimentary forelimb, which was attached to the pelvic region, was observed between both the medial hindlimbs. It consisted of an underdeveloped humerus, a duplicated ulna, several carpal bones, a partially duplicated metacarpal bone and three digits with three hoofs. This leg was connected with two sets of coxae by a irregular-shaped bone considered the vestigial vertebrae and ribs. Two penises and scrotums, three kidneys and testes were also observed. This calf is the first case of dipygus associated with pygopagus parasiticus in cattle. Based on these findings, the pathogenesis of this rare anomaly was briefly discussed from an embryological point of view

  5. Interstitial Cells of Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pucovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are made up of several distinct cell types. Although it was originally thought that the tunica media of blood vessels was composed of a homogeneous population of fully differentiated smooth muscle cells, more recent data suggest the existence of multiple smooth muscle cell subpopulations in the vascular wall. One of the cell types contributing to this heterogeneity is the novel, irregularly shaped, noncontractile cell with thin processes, termed interstitial cell, found in the tunica media of both veins and arteries. While the principal role of interstitial cells in veins seems to be pacemaking, the role of arterial interstitial cells is less clear. This review summarises the knowledge of the functional and structural properties of vascular interstitial cells accumulated so far, offers hypotheses on their physiological role, and proposes directions for future research.

  6. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    for a minimum height container required for the items. The main contributions of the thesis are three new heuristics for strip-packing and knapsack packing problems where items are both rectangular and irregular. In the two first papers we describe a heuristic for the multidimensional strip-packing problem...... that is based on a relaxed placement principle. The heuristic starts with a random overlapping placement of items and large container dimensions. From the overlapping placement overlap is reduced iteratively until a non-overlapping placement is found and a new problem is solved with a smaller container size...... of this heuristic are among the best published in the literature both for two- and three-dimensional strip-packing problems for irregular shapes. In the third paper, we introduce a heuristic for two- and three-dimensional rectangular knapsack packing problems. The two-dimensional heuristic uses the sequence pair...

  7. Glass/Jamming Transition in Colloidal Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Philip N.; Prasad, Vikram; Weitz, David A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have studied colloidal aggregation in a model colloid plus polymer system with short-range attractive interactions. By varying the colloid concentration and the strength of the attraction, we explored regions where the equilibrium phase is expected to consist of colloidal crystallites in coexistance with colloidal gas (i.e. monomers). This occurs for moderate values of the potential depth, U approximately equal to 2-5 kT. Crystallization was not always observed. Rather, over an extended sub-region two new metastable phases appear, one fluid-like and one solid-like. These were examined in detail with light scattering and microscopy techniques. Both phases consist of a near uniform distribution of small irregular shaped clusters of colloidal particles. The dynamical and structural characteristics of the ergodic-nonergodic transition between the two phases share much in common with the colloidal hard sphere glass transition.

  8. A radioactive tracer dilution method to determine the mass of molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Cao; Jarrell, Josh; Hardtmayer, D.E.; White, Susan; Herminghuysen, Kevin; Kauffman, Andrew; Sanders, Jeff; Li, Shelly

    2017-01-01

    A new technique for molten salt mass determination, termed radioactive tracer dilution, that uses 22 Na as a tracer was validated at bench scale. It has been a challenging problem to determine the mass of molten salt in irregularly shaped containers, where a highly radioactive, high-temperature molten salt was used to process nuclear spent/used fuel during electrochemical recycling (pyro-processing) or for coolant/fuel salt from molten salt reactors. A radioactive source with known activity is dissolved into the salt. After a complete mixture, a small amount of the salt is sampled and measured in terms of its mass and radioactivity. By finding the ratio of the mass to radioactivity, the unknown salt mass in the original container can be precisely determined. (author)

  9. Synthesize and Analysis of Li1.33Mn1.67O4 as Adsorbent for Lithium Extraction of Lumpur Sidoarjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, L.; Kistiyanto, W. P.; Susanti, D.; Purwaningsih, H.; Widodo, A.

    2017-07-01

    Li1.33Mn1.67O4 (LMO) was successfully synthesized by solid state reaction method at temperature variation of 500, 600, and 700 °C. As-prepared samples are immersed in 1 lt 0.5M HCL for 24 hours to create vacant site for lithium ion. Lithium extraction process is employed by soaking the adsorbent LMO in 1 lt of Lumpur Sidoarjo for 24 hrs. SEM images of adsorbent with variation of calcination temperature show irregular shape with particles size in the range of 15-52 μm. The calcination temperature effects on the size of the grain and crystallinity of adsorbent. LMO 700 sample has the highest capacity of lithium adsorption with capacity of 29.8 mg/g. It is attributed to the high crystalline of LMO 700 sample compared with other samples.

  10. Galileo encounter with 951 Gaspra: First pictures of an asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.; Helfenstein, P.; Simonelli, D.; Chapman, C.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J.; Murchie, S.; Klaasen, K.; Johnson, T.V.; McEwen, A.; Morrison, D.; Neukum, G.; Fanale, F.; Anger, C.; Carr, M.; Pilcher, C.

    1992-01-01

    Galileo images of Gaspra reveal it to be an irregularly shaped object (19 by 12 by 11 kilometers) that appears to have been created by a catastrophic collisional disruption of a precursor parent body. The cratering age of the surface is about 200 million years. Subtle albedo and color variations appear to correlate with morphological features: Brighter materials are associated with craters especially along the crests of ridges, have a stronger 1-micrometer absorption, and may represent freshly excavated mafic materials; darker materials exhibiting a significantly weaker 1-micrometer absorption appear concentrated in interridge areas. One explanation of these patterns is that Gaspra is covered with a thin regolith and that some of this material has migrated downslope in some areas.

  11. Polishing large NaCl windows on a continuous polisher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, R.

    1979-01-01

    The Helios and Antares CO 2 fusion laser systems incorporate numerous large sodium chloride windows. These must be refinished periodically, making necessary a consistent and predictable polishing capability. A continuous polisher (or annular lap) which might at Kirtland's Developmental Optical Facility. Large NaCl windows had not been polished on this type of machine. The machine has proven itself capable of producing lambda/16 figures at 633 nm (HeNe) with extremely smooth surfaces on glass. Since then, we have been working exclusively on NaCl optics. Due to different polishing parameters between NaCl and glass, and the slight solubility of the pitch in the slurry, this phase presents new problems. The work on glass will be reviewed. Results on NaCl to date will be reported. The potential of this type of machine relative to prisms, thin and irregularly shaped optics will be discussed

  12. The behaviour of free-flowing granular intruders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyburn Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle shape affects both the quasi-static and dynamic behaviour of granular media. There has been significant research devoted to the flowability of systems of irregularly shaped particles, as well as the flow of grains around fixed intruders, however the behaviour of free flowing intruders within granular flows remains comparatively unexplored. Here, the effect of the shape of these intruder particles is studied, looking at the kinematic behaviour of the intruders and in particular their tendency of orientation. Experiments are carried out within the Stadium Shear Device, which is a novel apparatus able to continuously apply simple shear conditions to two-dimensional grain analogues. It is found that the intruder shows different behaviour to that of the bulk flow, and that this behaviour is strongly shape dependent. These insights could lead to the development of admixtures that alter the flowability of granular materials.

  13. Use of pliable bags in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonnet, G.; Jacquet, M.A.; Sharif, A.; Engler, R.

    1981-01-01

    Pliable plastic bags have been used to replace glass or plastic vials for liquid scintillation counting. The two major advantages of this method are the lower cost of the plastic bags and the fact that, per sample, the radioactive waste is significantly reduced. The following parameters have been checked: the impermeability of the bags to various scintillator mixtures and the fact that neither the irregular shape of the bags nor their position in the counting chamber had any effect on the results of the counting. The latter was also constant with time, at least over a period of 10 days. The technique has been used to count the radioactivity of 3 H-DNA precipitates prepared from bacteria and lymphocytes and deposited on filters impregnated with only 200 μl scintillator. It is a method that can be applied to the counting of any samples deposited on filters and insoluble in scintillator. (author)

  14. Plantain starch granules morphology, crystallinity, structure transition, and size evolution upon acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jaimes, C; Bello-Pérez, L A; Vernon-Carter, E J; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2013-06-05

    Plantain native starch was hydrolysed with sulphuric acid for twenty days. Hydrolysis kinetics was described by a logistic function, with a zero-order rate during the first seven days, followed by a slower kinetics dynamics at longer times. X-ray diffraction results revealed a that gradual increase in crystallinity occurred during the first seven days, followed by a decrease to values similar to those found in the native starch. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis suggested a sharp structure transition by the seventh day probably due to a molecular rearrangement of the starch blocklets and inhomogeneous erosion of the amorphous regions and semi crystalline lamellae. Scanning electron micrographs showed that starch granules morphology was continually degraded from an initial oval-like shape to irregular shapes due to aggregation effects. Granule size distribution broadened as hydrolysis time proceeded probably due to fragmentation and agglomeration phenomena of the hydrolysed starch granules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Fazry, Shazrul; Lazim, Azwan Mat

    2015-09-01

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm.

  16. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul

    2015-01-01

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm

  17. A computer-controlled high resolution micro-multi-leaf collimator for stereotactic conformal radio-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, Wolfgang; Pastyr, Otto; Kubesch, Rudolf; Diemer, Torsten; Kuester, Gunnilla; Rhein, Bernhard; Hoever, Karl-Heinz

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective In stereotactic conformal radiotherapy of irregularly shaped lesions, either multi-isocentric convergent beam treatment techniques with circular collimators or irregular shaped beams are being used. While the treatment technique with multiple isocenters has the disadvantage of producing inhomogeneous dose distributions, the use of irregular shaped fields is not yet satisfying from a technical point of view: Cerrobend blocking or the use of static micro MLCs need a long preparation time and only allow static treatment techniques, MLC collimators which are commercially available in connection with modern LINACs have leaf-thickness of at least 1 cm which is too coarse for stereotactic radiotherapy of lesions in the brain and head and neck area. For this reason, we developed a computer controlled micro-MLC with technical specifications matched to the needs of stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery. Materials and Methods The mechanical specifications of the computer controlled micro-MLC were derived from our experience with stereotactic treatment techniques, from the requirement that the MLC has to be attachable as an external device to the accessory holders of standard LINACs, including cost considerations, dosimetric measurements as well as Monte Carlo calculations. The Micro-MLC is controlled by an electronic equipment consisting of a standard PC under Windows 95, an interface board, 14 Micro-controller boards, a verification system and 80 driving units equipped with DC motors and potentiometers. The control program has calibrating, operating, visualizing and test options. Irregular field data are transferred from the treatment planning computer to the control PC and distributed to the micro-controllers, which in parallel are driving three leaves each. Beside the special control unit, we are currently investigating whether the electronics of commercially available integrated large field MLCs can also be used for operating the Micro-MLC. Results

  18. Laser ablated copper plasmas in liquid and gas ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-05-01

    The dynamics of copper ablated plasma plumes generated using laser ablation of copper targets in both liquid (de-ionized water) and gas (air) ambients is reported. Using time and space resolved visible emission spectroscopy (450-650 nm), the plasma plumes parameters are investigated. The electron density (ne) determined using Stark broadening of the Cu I (3d104d1 2D3/2-3d104p1 2P3/2 at 521.8 nm) line is estimated and compared for both plasma plumes. The electron temperature (Te) was estimated using the relative line emission intensities of the neutral copper transitions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectral analysis of the ablated copper surface indicated abundance of spherical nanoparticles in liquid while those in air are amalgamates of irregular shapes. The nanoparticles suspended in the confining liquid form aggregates and exhibit a surface plasmon resonance at ˜590 nm.

  19. Cast iron repair method of stitching pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, In Sik; Yu, Yeong Chul; Kim, Steve S.; Reed, Gary J.

    2003-01-01

    Many cast iron parts are welded and suffer from improper pre-heating and poor welding skills which destroy the castings due to new cracks, deformations etc. This is due mainly to the lack of understanding of the properties of cast iron. Welding, however impractical, was the only alternative for many years. Locks are used to add strength across a crack. Special drilling jigs are used to create a precise hole pattern that locks are driven into. Our locks have a unique ability to pull the sides of a crack together. Bottom locks are stacked or laminated to a depth of 80% of the casting thickness. Thicker surface locks finish off lock installation, allowing repairs in irregular shapes and contours. Installing products can be done quickly with pneumatic tools. Up to one inch of repair can be done in 5 minutes in 1/4 inch thick cast iron.

  20. Superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebard, A.F.; Vandenberg, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to granular metal and metal oxide superconducting films formed by ion beam sputter deposition. Illustratively, the films comprise irregularly shaped, randomly oriented, small lead grains interspersed in an insulating lead oxide matrix. The films are hillock-resistant when subjected to thermal cycling and exhibit unusual josephson-type switching characteristics. Depending on the oxygen content, a film may behave in a manner similar to that of a plurality of series connected josephson junctions, or the film may have a voltage difference in a direction parallel to a major surface of the film that is capable of being switched from zero voltage difference to a finite voltage difference in response to a current larger than the critical current

  1. Physicochemical studies on starches isolated from plantain cultivars, plantain hybrids and cooking bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, G.; Akoni, S. (International Inst. of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria)); Swennen, R. (Catholic Univ. of Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Lab. of Tropical Husbandry)

    1992-04-01

    Starches from mature, unripe fruit pulp of plantain cultivars (Musa supp., AAB group) representing the wide variability in Africa, tetraploid and diploid plantain hybrids and starchy cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB group) were isolated and characterised. In general, studies revealed very compact irregularly shaped and sized granules, with low amylose content (9.11-17.16%), highly resistant to bacterial {alpha}-amylase attack; Brabender amylograms showed very restricted swelling type patterns with great stability and negligible retrogradation. Results indicate that differences in physico-chemical properties exist amongst the three Musa fruit group starches. Plantains represent a chemical/molecular homogeneous group, but heterogeneous for granule structure. Ploidy level affected hybrid properties. ABB cooking bananas starches exhibited highly pronounced restricted swelling and high gelatinisation and pasting temperatures, indicating a more ordered, very strongly bonded granule structure; chemical and physical properties varied considerably within the ABB genotype. (orig.).

  2. Thoracoscopic Surgery in a Patient with Multiple Esophageal Carcinomas after Surgery for Esophageal Achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yuki; Tsukada, Tomoya; Aoki, Tatsuya; Haba, Yusuke; Hirano, Katsuhisa; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Kaji, Masahide; Shimizu, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    We present a case in which we used a thoracoscopic approach for resection of multiple esophageal carcinomas diagnosed 33 years after surgery for esophageal achalasia. A 68-year-old Japanese man had been diagnosed with esophageal achalasia and underwent surgical treatment 33 years earlier. He was examined at our hospital for annual routine checkup in which upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a "0-IIb+IIa" lesion in the middle esophagus. Iodine staining revealed multiple irregularly shaped iodine-unstained areas, the diagnosis of which was esophageal carcinoma. Thoracoscopic subtotal esophagectomy was performed. Esophageal carcinoma may occur many years after surgery for esophageal achalasia, even if the passage symptoms have improved. So, long-term periodic follow-up is necessary for detection of carcinoma at an earlier stage.

  3. Application of computerized axial tomography in the field of nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimers, P.; Heidt, H.; Stade, J.; Weise, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    So far, CAT devices have been used exclusively for medical purposes. In materials testing, higher attenuation in most test specimens requires higher photon energies. Higher photon energies, in turn, require other types of radiation sources, other types of collimators, and other types of detectors which must have sufficient efficiency for this 'harder' radiation. Another requirement on a materials testing CAT device is a lateral resolution better than 1 to 2 mm - the usual resolution of medical devices. Irregular shapes of pieces and more pronounced hardening on radiology with continuous spectra require novel correction techniques in image reconstruction. This means that a completely new CAT scanning device must be developed for materials. In view of its highly diverse applications, a modular structure would most favourable. (orig./RW) [de

  4. COSMIC DUST AGGREGATION WITH STOCHASTIC CHARGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.; Shotorban, Babak

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation of cosmic dust grains is a fundamental process which takes place in astrophysical environments, such as presolar nebulae and circumstellar and protoplanetary disks. Cosmic dust grains can become charged through interaction with their plasma environment or other processes, and the resultant electrostatic force between dust grains can strongly affect their coagulation rate. Since ions and electrons are collected on the surface of the dust grain at random time intervals, the electrical charge of a dust grain experiences stochastic fluctuations. In this study, a set of stochastic differential equations is developed to model these fluctuations over the surface of an irregularly shaped aggregate. Then, employing the data produced, the influence of the charge fluctuations on the coagulation process and the physical characteristics of the aggregates formed is examined. It is shown that dust with small charges (due to the small size of the dust grains or a tenuous plasma environment) is affected most strongly

  5. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the Piedmont Province of South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secor, D.T. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    This report reviews the geology of the Piedmont Province of South Carolina with the aim of designating rock units favorable for field exploration for a potential underground repository for the storage of radioactive waste. Most of the rocks in the South Carolina Piedmont are metamorphosed sedimentary volcanic or igneous rocks that have experienced at least one episode of strong deformation. As a consequence of this deformation, they have irregular shapes, making it difficult to predict their subsurface extent. In evaluating the suitability of the rock units for radioactive waste storage, certain criteria were found to be particularly useful. The requirements that the storage site be located in a large volume of homogeneous, impermeable, relatively unfractured rock was the most important criteria in eliminating most of the Piedmont rock units for consideration as field study areas. Six large late- to post-tectonic igneous plutons (Winnsboro, Liberty Hill, Ogden, Newberry, Lowrys, and Bald Rock) are recommended as field study areas

  6. Synthesis of silver nano-materials from Grevillea robusta A Cunn (Silver-oak tree) leaves extract and shape directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rabia; Faisal, Qamer; Hussain, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Grevillea robusta (Silver-oak tree) tree is a medicinal tree. Conventional UV-visible spectrophotometric and transmission electron microscopic technique were used to determine the morphology of silver nanoplates (AgNP) using Grevillea robusta (Silver-oak tree) aqueous leaves extract for the first time. The visible spectra showed the presence of three well defined surface plasmon absorption (SPR) bands at 500, 550 and 675 nm which was attributed to the anisotropic growth of Ag-nanoplates. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis of AgNP showed formation of truncated triangular, polyhedral with some irregular shapes nanoplates in the size range 8-20 nm. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has no significant effect on the shape of the spectra, position of SPR bands, size and size distribution of AgNP.

  7. Possible Late Pleistocene volcanic activity on Nightingale Island, South Atlantic Ocean, based on geoelectrical resistivity measurements, sediment corings and 14C dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Anders Anker; Björck, Svante; Cronholm, Anders

    2011-01-01

    . The irregular shapes of the basins and the lack of clear erosional features indicate that they are not eruption craters and were not formed by erosion. Instead, we regard them as morphological depressions formed between ridges of trachytic lava flows and domes at a late stage of the formation of the volcanic...... edifice. The onset of sedimentation within these basins appears to have occurred between 24 and 37 ka with the highest situated wetland yielding the highest ages. These ages are very young compared to the timing of the main phase of the formation of the island, implying volcanic activity on the island......Tristan da Cunha is a volcanic island group situated in the central South Atlantic. The oldest of these islands, Nightingale Island, has an age of about 18Ma. In the interior of the island, there are several wetlands situated in topographic depressions. The ages of these basins have been unknown...

  8. Eye-in-Hand Manipulation for Remote Handling: Experimental Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Longchuan; Suominen, Olli; Aref, Mohammad M.; Mattila, Jouni; Ruiz, Emilio; Esque, Salvador

    2018-03-01

    A prototype for eye-in-hand manipulation in the context of remote handling in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)1 is presented in this paper. The setup consists of an industrial robot manipulator with a modified open control architecture and equipped with a pair of stereoscopic cameras, a force/torque sensor, and pneumatic tools. It is controlled through a haptic device in a mock-up environment. The industrial robot controller has been replaced by a single industrial PC running Xenomai that has a real-time connection to both the robot controller and another Linux PC running as the controller for the haptic device. The new remote handling control environment enables further development of advanced control schemes for autonomous and semi-autonomous manipulation tasks. This setup benefits from a stereovision system for accurate tracking of the target objects with irregular shapes. The overall environmental setup successfully demonstrates the required robustness and precision that remote handling tasks need.

  9. Image-based method for monitoring of crack opening on masonry and concrete using Mobile Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Martins

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an automatic method based on the computing vision, implemented in a mobile platform, to inspect cracks in masonry and concrete. The developed algorithm for image processing performs this task from images of the cracks evolution. The contribution of this paper is the development of a mobile tool with quick response aiming to assist technicians in periodic visits when monitoring the crack opening in masonry and concrete. The obtained results show, successfully, the dimensional alterations of cracks detected by mobile phone in a faster and accurate way compared with the conventional measurement technique. Regardless the irregular shape of the cracks, the proposed method has the advantage of producing results statistically significant in measurement repetition by decreasing the subjectivity inherent to manual measurement technique.

  10. Disintegration of liquid metals by low pressure water blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of disintegrating metals by a low cost system and subsequently incorporating them into grout mixtures has been demonstrated. A low pressure water blasting technique consisting of multiple nozzles and a converging-line jet stream was developed to disintegrate liquid metals and produce coarse metal powder and shot. Molten iron resulted in spherical shot, while copper, aluminum, and tin produced irregular shaped particles. The particle size was between 0.05 and 3 mm (0.002 and 0.1 in.), and about half the particles were smaller than 1 mm (0.04 in.) in all cases. The water consumption was rather low, while the production rate was relatively high. The method proved to be simple and reliable. The coarse metal powders were suspendable in grout fluids, indicating that they are probably disposable by the shale hydrofracture technique

  11. Detection of a strongly negative surface potential at Saturn's moon Hyperion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, T A; Jones, G H; Roussos, E; Leisner, J S; Coates, A J; Kurth, W S; Khurana, K K; Krupp, N; Dougherty, M K; Waite, J H

    2014-10-28

    On 26 September 2005, Cassini conducted its only close targeted flyby of Saturn's small, irregularly shaped moon Hyperion. Approximately 6 min before the closest approach, the electron spectrometer (ELS), part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) detected a field-aligned electron population originating from the direction of the moon's surface. Plasma wave activity detected by the Radio and Plasma Wave instrument suggests electron beam activity. A dropout in energetic electrons was observed by both CAPS-ELS and the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument Low-Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System, indicating that the moon and the spacecraft were magnetically connected when the field-aligned electron population was observed. We show that this constitutes a remote detection of a strongly negative (∼ -200 V) surface potential on Hyperion, consistent with the predicted surface potential in regions near the solar terminator.

  12. Effect of the polymerization with formaldehyde on the thermal reactivity of a low-temperature coal tar pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose L. Crespo; Ana Arenillas; Jose A. Vin; Roberto Garcia; Colin E. Snape; Sabino R. Moinelo [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2005-04-01

    The influence of polymerization with formaldehyde on the thermal reactivity of a low-temperature coal tar pitch has been investigated. The mechanism and extent of the polymerization depends on the catalyst used, the greatest extent of polymerization being achieved under basic catalytic conditions. After the polymerization treatment, samples were carbonized at 420{sup o}C and the products were characterized by optical microscopy. According to the results, polymerization with formaldehyde increases the reactivity of the pitch, giving rise to increased carbonization yields and leading to the formation of the mesophase with milder conditions. The polymerization process also affects the morphology of the resultant anisotropic material, giving rise to the formation of irregularly shaped mesophase particles and reducing the optical texture size of the anisotropic domains, giving mosaic texture, especially when basic catalysis is used. 36 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Origin and development of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresak, L.

    1989-01-01

    The comets are the most primitive and probably also the oldest members of the solar system. Comet cores are brittle bodies of an irregular shape and of a size of 1 to 10 km whose main component is ice. Around 130 comets move along short-period paths whose aphelia are concentrated in the area of Jupiter. They are in the last stage of development. About 20 comets have periods of 20 to 200 years and feature higher motion stability. Roughly 180 comets have elliptical orbits of a period exceeding 200 years, 200 comets have parabolic and 120 comets have hyperbolic orbits. The most distant comets form the Oort cloud around the solar system consisting of about one billion comets. Comets originated roughly 4.6 thousand million years ago together with planets, probably inside the Oort cloud. (M.D.). 11 figs

  14. Hepatic echinococcosis ruptured into the biliary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Steenbergen, W.; Fevery, J.; Broeckaert, L.; Ponette, E.; Marchal, G.; Baert, A.; Penninckx, F.; Kerremans, R.; De Groote, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three patients are described with hepatic involvement by Echinococcus granulosus, complicated by spontaneous rupture into the biliary tract. Abdominal computed tomography, showing the cystic wall, the presence of wall calcifications, daughter cysts and wall enhancement, provided a correct diagnosis of hepatic hydatidosis in all patients. Dilatation of the bile ducts with the presence of intraluminal material was clearly shown by sonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. On sonography, the intraluminal material appeared as amorphous, sludge-like hydatid sand, and as daughter cysts. On ERCP, the intrabiliary parasitic material appeared as non-homogeneous, irregularly shaped and mobile filling defects. Other findings at ERCP were displacement and distortion of intrahepatic bile ducts by the hepatic cysts and a mild dilatation of the pancreatic duct. (Auth.)

  15. Results of the radiological survey at the Niagara-Mohawk property, Railroad Avenue, Colonie, New York (AL218)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, J.L.; Carrier, R.F.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The Niagara-Mohawk property on Railroad Avenue in Colonie, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated June 11, 1987. This commercial property is an irregularly shaped lot partially occupied by an electric power substation and associated transmission lines. Portions of the property that were swampy and heavily vegetated were inaccessible to the survey team. There are no buildings on the property. A diagram showing the approximate boundaries and the 15-m grid network established for measurements on the property is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/45 m wide by 246 m deep. Two views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Use of sonic tomography to detect and quantify wood decay in living trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregory S; Ballesteros, Javier O; Barrios-Rodriguez, Cesar A; Bonadies, Ernesto F; Cedeño-Sánchez, Marjorie L; Fossatti-Caballero, Nohely J; Trejos-Rodríguez, Mariam M; Pérez-Suñiga, José Moises; Holub-Young, Katharine S; Henn, Laura A W; Thompson, Jennifer B; García-López, Cesar G; Romo, Amanda C; Johnston, Daniel C; Barrick, Pablo P; Jordan, Fulvia A; Hershcovich, Shiran; Russo, Natalie; Sánchez, Juan David; Fábrega, Juan Pablo; Lumpkin, Raleigh; McWilliams, Hunter A; Chester, Kathleen N; Burgos, Alana C; Wong, E Beatriz; Diab, Jonathan H; Renteria, Sonia A; Harrower, Jennifer T; Hooton, Douglas A; Glenn, Travis C; Faircloth, Brant C; Hubbell, Stephen P

    2016-12-01

    Field methodology and image analysis protocols using acoustic tomography were developed and evaluated as a tool to estimate the amount of internal decay and damage of living trees, with special attention to tropical rainforest trees with irregular trunk shapes. Living trunks of a diversity of tree species in tropical rainforests in the Republic of Panama were scanned using an Argus Electronic PiCUS 3 Sonic Tomograph and evaluated for the amount and patterns of internal decay. A protocol using ImageJ analysis software was used to quantify the proportions of intact and compromised wood. The protocols provide replicable estimates of internal decay and cavities for trees of varying shapes, wood density, and bark thickness. Sonic tomography, coupled with image analysis, provides an efficient, noninvasive approach to evaluate decay patterns and structural integrity of even irregularly shaped living trees.

  17. Use of sonic tomography to detect and quantify wood decay in living trees1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregory S.; Ballesteros, Javier O.; Barrios-Rodriguez, Cesar A.; Bonadies, Ernesto F.; Cedeño-Sánchez, Marjorie L.; Fossatti-Caballero, Nohely J.; Trejos-Rodríguez, Mariam M.; Pérez-Suñiga, José Moises; Holub-Young, Katharine S.; Henn, Laura A. W.; Thompson, Jennifer B.; García-López, Cesar G.; Romo, Amanda C.; Johnston, Daniel C.; Barrick, Pablo P.; Jordan, Fulvia A.; Hershcovich, Shiran; Russo, Natalie; Sánchez, Juan David; Fábrega, Juan Pablo; Lumpkin, Raleigh; McWilliams, Hunter A.; Chester, Kathleen N.; Burgos, Alana C.; Wong, E. Beatriz; Diab, Jonathan H.; Renteria, Sonia A.; Harrower, Jennifer T.; Hooton, Douglas A.; Glenn, Travis C.; Faircloth, Brant C.; Hubbell, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Field methodology and image analysis protocols using acoustic tomography were developed and evaluated as a tool to estimate the amount of internal decay and damage of living trees, with special attention to tropical rainforest trees with irregular trunk shapes. Methods and Results: Living trunks of a diversity of tree species in tropical rainforests in the Republic of Panama were scanned using an Argus Electronic PiCUS 3 Sonic Tomograph and evaluated for the amount and patterns of internal decay. A protocol using ImageJ analysis software was used to quantify the proportions of intact and compromised wood. The protocols provide replicable estimates of internal decay and cavities for trees of varying shapes, wood density, and bark thickness. Conclusions: Sonic tomography, coupled with image analysis, provides an efficient, noninvasive approach to evaluate decay patterns and structural integrity of even irregularly shaped living trees. PMID:28101433

  18. Physico-chemical characterisation of Indian biomass ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Umamaheswaran; Vidya S. Batra [Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi (India)

    2008-05-15

    India stands fourth in biomass utilisation for various purposes like domestic, commercial and industrial applications. While extensive studies have been made for coal ash characterisation and utilisation, studies on characterisation of biomass ash and its utilisation has not been addressed. In this paper, biomass ash from five sources i.e. rice husk, bagasse, groundnut shell, cashewnut shell, and arecanut shell have been characterised. Chemical composition analysis, particle size analysis, thermal analysis, and microstructure analysis were carried out. Results show that in all ashes silica is the major compound with particle size ranging from 15 to 30 {mu}m and having irregular shape. Ash powders originating from cashewnut shell, arecanut shell and groundnut shell also have compounds of calcium, magnesium and potassium. Bagasse and cashewnut shell ashes have high LOI due to presence of unburnt carbon, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and other volatiles. 16 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Influence of corrosion defects on the pipeline collapse pressure; Analise da influencia de defeitos de corrosao na pressao de colapso de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netto, Theodoro A.; Ferraz, Urbano S.; Botto, Adriana [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Oceanica

    2005-07-01

    The loss of metal in a pipeline due to corrosion usually results in localized pits with various depths and irregular shapes on its external and internal surfaces. The effect of external corrosion defects was studied via a series of small scale experiments and through a non-linear numerical model based on the finite element method. After calibrated in view of the experimental results, the model was used to determine the collapse pressure as a function of material and geometric parameters of different pipes and defects. Collapse mechanisms are complex and do affect the collapse pressure of corroded pipes. The problem is not only affected by the geometry of the defect but also by the interaction of the defect with the ovality of the cross section as we will show next. (author)

  20. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  1. Low-Cost, Rapidly Responsive, Controllable, and Reversible Photochromic Hydrogel for Display and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongqi; Guan, Lin; Gao, Guanghui

    2018-04-25

    Traditional optoelectronic devices without stretchable performance could be limited for substrates with irregular shape. Therefore, it is urgent to explore a new generation of flexible, stretchable, and low-cost intelligent vehicles as visual display and storage devices, such as hydrogels. In the investigation, a novel photochromic hydrogel was developed by introducing the negatively charged ammonium molybdate as a photochromic unit into polyacrylamide via ionic and covalent cross-linking. The hydrogel exhibited excellent properties of low cost, easy preparation, stretchable deformation, fatigue resistance, high transparency, and second-order response to external signals. Moreover, the photochromic and fading process of hydrogels could be precisely controlled and repeated under the irradiation of UV light and exposure of oxygen at different time and temperature. The photochromic hydrogel could be considered applied for artificial intelligence system, wearable healthcare device, and flexible memory device. Therefore, the strategy for designing a soft photochromic material would open a new direction to manufacture flexible and stretchable devices.

  2. Assessment of statistical uncertainty in the quantitative analysis of solid samples in motion using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabalín, L. M.; González, A.; Ruiz, J.; Laserna, J. J.

    2010-08-01

    Statistical uncertainty in the quantitative analysis of solid samples in motion by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been assessed. For this purpose, a LIBS demonstrator was designed and constructed in our laboratory. The LIBS system consisted of a laboratory-scale conveyor belt, a compact optical module and a Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm. The speed of the conveyor belt was variable and could be adjusted up to a maximum speed of 2 m s - 1 . Statistical uncertainty in the analytical measurements was estimated in terms of precision (reproducibility and repeatability) and accuracy. The results obtained by LIBS on shredded scrap samples under real conditions have demonstrated that the analytical precision and accuracy of LIBS is dependent on the sample geometry, position on the conveyor belt and surface cleanliness. Flat, relatively clean scrap samples exhibited acceptable reproducibility and repeatability; by contrast, samples with an irregular shape or a dirty surface exhibited a poor relative standard deviation.

  3. Assessment of statistical uncertainty in the quantitative analysis of solid samples in motion using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalin, L.M.; Gonzalez, A.; Ruiz, J.; Laserna, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical uncertainty in the quantitative analysis of solid samples in motion by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been assessed. For this purpose, a LIBS demonstrator was designed and constructed in our laboratory. The LIBS system consisted of a laboratory-scale conveyor belt, a compact optical module and a Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm. The speed of the conveyor belt was variable and could be adjusted up to a maximum speed of 2 m s -1 . Statistical uncertainty in the analytical measurements was estimated in terms of precision (reproducibility and repeatability) and accuracy. The results obtained by LIBS on shredded scrap samples under real conditions have demonstrated that the analytical precision and accuracy of LIBS is dependent on the sample geometry, position on the conveyor belt and surface cleanliness. Flat, relatively clean scrap samples exhibited acceptable reproducibility and repeatability; by contrast, samples with an irregular shape or a dirty surface exhibited a poor relative standard deviation.

  4. Development of a new modeling technique of 3D S-wave velocity structure for strong ground motion evaluation - Integration of various geophysical and geological data using joint inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    A restricted stripe-like zone suffered major damage due to the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake, and ground motion of the south side of the Kashiwazaki NPP site was much greater than that of the north side in the 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake. One reason for these phenomena is thought to be the focusing effect due to irregularly shaped sedimentary basins (e.g., basin-edge structure, fold structure, etc.) This indicates that precise evaluation of S-wave velocity structure is important. A calculation program that was developed to make S-wave velocity models using the joint inversion method was presented. This program unifies various geophysical and geological data and can make a complex structure model for evaluating strong ground motion with high precision. (author)

  5. A study on preparation and hydriding of β-Mg2Al3 and γ-Mg17Al12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi Suwarno

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of the synthetic formation of β-Mg 2 Al 3 and γ-Mg 17 Al 12 has been studied. Mechanical alloying of Mg and Al powders with the atomic ratio of Mg:Al = 2:3 in toluene solution yields β-Mg 2 Al 3 compound after milling for 30 h. The γ-Mg 17 Al 12 can be formed by heating the β-Mg 2 Al 3 at 430°C under high vacuum. The measured hydrogen capacities of β-Mg 2 Al 3 and γ-Mg 17 Al 12 as hydride at 300°C are 3.2 and 4.9 wt%, respectively. Microstructure of the Mg-Al specimen shows that on hydriding at 300°C the polygonal shape of the γ-Mg 17 Al 12 changes into irregular shapes which are composed of γ-MgH 2 and Al. (author)

  6. Fracture evaluation of a crack in the service water piping system to an emergency diesel generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudland, D.; Scott, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.

    1995-01-01

    A pipe fracture experiment was conducted on a section of 6-inch nominal diameter pipe which was degraded by microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) at a circumferential girth weld. The pipe was a section of one of the service water piping system to one of the emergency diesel generators at the Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) plant. The experimental results will help validate future ASME Section XI pipe flaw evaluation criteria for other than Class 1 piping. A critical aspect of this experiment was an assessment of the degree of conservatism embodied in the ASME definition of flaw size. The ASME flaw size definition assumes a rectangular shaped, constant depth flaw with a depth equal to its maximum depth for its entire length. Since most service flaws are very irregular in shape, this definition can be very conservative. Alternative equivalent flaw size definitions for irregular shaped flaws are explored in this paper. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  7. An Image Analysis Method for the Precise Selection and Quantitation of Fluorescently Labeled Cellular Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agley, Chibeza C.; Velloso, Cristiana P.; Lazarus, Norman R.

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the morphological characteristics of cells with nonuniform conformations presents difficulties. We report here a straightforward method using immunofluorescent staining and the commercially available imaging program Adobe Photoshop, which allows objective and precise information to be gathered on irregularly shaped cells. We have applied this measurement technique to the analysis of human muscle cells and their immunologically marked intracellular constituents, as these cells are prone to adopting a highly branched phenotype in culture. Use of this method can be used to overcome many of the long-standing limitations of conventional approaches for quantifying muscle cell size in vitro. In addition, wider applications of Photoshop as a quantitative and semiquantitative tool in immunocytochemistry are explored. PMID:22511600

  8. Experimental determination of fission gas adsorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovell, R.; Underhill, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Large charcoal beds have been used for a number of years for the holdup and decay of radioactive isotopes of krypton and xenon. Reliable design of these beds depends on an accurate knowledge of the adsorption coefficient of krypton and xenon on the adsorbents used in these beds. It is somewhat surprising that there is no standard procedure of determining the adsorption coefficient for krypton and xenon. Fundamental information needed to establish a standardized reproducible test procedure is given emphasizing the breakthrough curves commonly used to analyze dynamic adsorption data can lead to serious systematic errors and the fact that the adsorption coefficient, if calculated from the arithmetic holding time, is independent of geometric factors such as the shape of the adsorption bed and the irregular shape of the adsorbent

  9. Manipulation and light-induced agglomeration of carbon nanotubes through optical trapping of attached silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chao; Zhang Yi; Gu, Claire; Seballos, Leo; Zhang, Jin Z

    2008-01-01

    A simple experimental method has been demonstrated for manipulating multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bundles through the optical trapping of attached silver nanoparticles (SNPs). In our experiments, without the SNPs, the MWCNTs cannot be trapped due to their irregular shapes and large aspect ratio. However, when mixed with SNPs, the MWCNTs can be successfully trapped along with the SNPs using a TEM 00 mode laser at 532 nm. This is attributed to the optical trapping of the SNPs and attractive interaction or binding between the SNPs and MWCNTs due to electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Therefore, optical manipulation of MWCNT bundles is achieved through the manipulation of the attached silver nanoparticles/aggregates. In addition, we have observed the phenomenon of light-induced further agglomeration of SNPs/MWCNTs which could potentially be exploited for fabricating patterned MWCNT films for future nanoscale devices and other applications

  10. An Efficient Heuristic Approach for Irregular Cutting Stock Problem in Ship Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-xin Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient approach for solving a real two-dimensional irregular cutting stock problem in ship building industry. Cutting stock problem is a common cutting and packing problem that arises in a variety of industrial applications. A modification of selection heuristic Exact Fit is applied in our research. In the case referring to irregular shapes, a placement heuristics is more important to construct a complete solution. A placement heuristic relating to bottom-left-fill is presented. We evaluate the proposed approach using generated instance only with convex shapes in literatures and some instances with nonconvex shapes based on real problem from ship building industry. The results demonstrate that the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach are significantly better than some conventional heuristics.

  11. Improvement of diagnostic efficiency in distinguishing the benign and malignant thyroid nodules via conventional ultrasound combined with ultrasound contrast and elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Juan; Men, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Xi; Liu, Hao

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic values of conventional ultrasound (US), ultrasound contrast (UC) and ultrasound elastography (UE) in distinguishing the benign and malignant thyroid nodules. A total of 100 patients with thyroid nodules receiving operative treatment were selected; they underwent the conventional US, UE and UC examinations before operation, respectively. The nodules received pathological examination after operation to distinguish benign from malignant lesions. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accordance rate of each diagnostic method was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the area under the curve (AUC) of ROC was calculated. The manifestations of malignant thyroid nodules in conventional US examination were mostly the hypoecho, heterogeneous echo, irregular shape, unclear boundary, aspect ratio benign and malignant nodules in 2, 3 and 4 points were statistically significant (Pbenign and malignant thyroid nodules.

  12. The diagnosis and treatment of tubal pregnancy with selective salpingography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qunying

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study feasibility of diagnosing and treating tubal pregnancy with selective salpingography. methods: 13 women diagnosed clinically as ectopic pregnancy without abdominal bleeding were studied and confirmed as tubal pregnancy with selective salpingography, MTX was then injected through fallopian tube. Urine hCG, blood β-hCG and US were studied during follow-up. Results: 12 cases tubal pregnancy were confirmed as well as 1 case of intra-uterine pregnancy. X-ray showed a localized dilation of fallopian tube, half-loop, ring-like or irregular shaped filling defect. In one case, cluster of grapes appearance of contrast medium could be seen at the umbrella end of fallopian tube. Of the 12 cases of tubal pregnancy, 10 were successfully treated, the successful rate was 83%. Conclusion: Selective salpingography is a simple safe and effective method of diagnosing and treating tubal pregnancy

  13. Development of a 3D ultrasound system to investigate post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in pre-term neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, J.; Lee, D.; St. Lawrence, K.; Romano, W.; Fenster, A.; de Ribaupierre, S.

    2013-03-01

    Clinical intracranial ultrasound (US) is performed as a standard of care on neonates at risk of intraventricular hemorrhaging (IVH) and is also used after a diagnosis to monitor for potential ventricular dilation. However, it is difficult to estimate the volume of ventricles with 2D US due to their irregular shape. We developed a 3D US system to be used as an adjunct to a clinical system to investigate volumetric changes in the ventricles of neonates with IVH. Our system has been found have an error of within 1% of actual distance measurements in all three directions and volume measurements of manually segmented volumes from phantoms were not statistically significantly different from the actual values (p>0.3). Interobserver volume measurements of the lateral ventricles in a patient with grade III IVH found no significant differences between measurements. There is the potential to use this system in IVH patients to monitor the progression of ventriculomegaly over time.

  14. Morphological studies of polymer dispersed liquid crystal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jin-Woo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the morphologies of polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) based on E7/NOA61. Scanning electron microscope studies show that the PDLC morphology is strongly affected by the LC concentration and the cure temperature. A typical PDLC morphology with isolated LC droplets dispersed in a polymer matrix is only observed at low LC compositions and at low cure temperatures. Increasing either the LC composition or the cure temperature results in a polymer ball morphology, in which LCs exist in irregularly shaped voids in the polymer network structure. It is shown that the transition between these two morphologies can be qualitatively explained using a pseudo-binary phase diagram.

  15. Therapy operation at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheeler, U.; Wilms, D.

    2004-01-01

    GSI is the heavy ion research center in Germany operating the three accelerators UNILAC (linac), SIS (synchrotron) and ESR (storage ring). Experiments are made on the fields of nuclear and atomic physics, plasma physics, nuclear chemistry, material research and biophysics. The most important program of the biophysics group is the study of the advantage of Carbon ions for cancer irradiation. The developed raster-scanning technique allows the direct 3D irradiation of irregular shaped tumor and minimizes the dose in healthy tissue [1],[2]. This method requires the reliable request of a large variety of beam parameters (energy, intensity, beam-spot diameter) for sequential synchrotron cycles. Certain restrictions to the physics experimental program have to be considered during the treatment sessions. To deliver excellent conditions for the other experiments, these restrictions had to be kept a small as possible. (author)

  16. Development of an Automatic Dispensing System for Traditional Chinese Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ying Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The gathering of ingredients for decoctions of traditional Chinese herbs still relies on manual dispensation, due to the irregular shape of many items and inconsistencies in weights. In this study, we developed an automatic dispensing system for Chinese herbal decoctions with the aim of reducing manpower costs and the risk of mistakes. We employed machine vision in conjunction with a robot manipulator to facilitate the grasping of ingredients. The name and formulation of the decoction are input via a human-computer interface, and the dispensing of multiple medicine packets is performed automatically. An off-line least-squared curve fitting method was used to calculate the amount of material grasped by the claws and thereby improve system efficiency as well as the accuracy of individual dosages. Experiments on the dispensing of actual ingredients demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system.

  17. 1.5 MeV Kr+ irradiation of polycrystalline Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.M.; Birtcher, R.C.; Rehn, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports 1.5 MeV Kr + irradiation of polycrystalline Ge at room temperature, and subsequent annealing carried out with in situ TEM observations. After a Kr + dose of 1.2 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 , Ge in the electron transparent region was completely amorphized. Continuous irradiation of the amorphized Ge resulted in a high density of small cavities. These cavities, first observed after 7 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 with an average diameter of ∼3 nm, grew into large (∼50 nm) irregular-shaped holes, transforming the irradiated Ge into a sponge-like material after 8.5 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . The crystallization temperature and the morphology of the crystallized Ge after annealing were found to be dependent on the Kr + dose. The sponge-like structure was retained after crystallization at ∼600 degrees C

  18. Absolute determination of copper and silver in ancient coins using 14 MeV neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouhi, Ch.; Hourani, E.; Loos, R.; Melki, S.

    1982-09-01

    A method for absolute determination of copper and silver in ancient coins is described. Activation analysis by 14 MeV neutrons is performed. In the experimental procedure emphasis is placed on corrections for neutrons and gamma attenuation. In the analytical procedure, a multi linear-regression calculation is used to separate different contributions to the 511 keV gamma peak. The precision in the absolute determination of Cu and Ag is better than 2% in recent coins of definite shapes, whereas it is a somewhat lower in ancient coins of irregular shapes. The method was applied to ancient coins provided by the Museum of the American University of Beirut. Overall consistency and suitability of the method were obtained.

  19. Absolute determination of copper and silver in ancient coins using 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalouhi, C.; Hourani, E.; Loos, R.; Melki, S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for absolute determination of copper and silver in ancient coins is described. Activation analysis by 14 MeV neutrons is performed. In the experimental procedure emphasis is placed on corrections for neutrons and gamma attenuation. In the analytical procedure, a multi linear-regression calculation is used to separate different contributions to the 511 keV gamma peak. The precision in the absolute determination of Cu and Ag is better than 2% in recent coins of definite shapes, whereas it is a somewhat lower in ancient coins of irregular shapes. The method was applied to ancient coins provided by the Museum of the American University of Beirut. Overall consistency and suitability of the method were obtained. (orig.)

  20. Absolute determination of copper and silver in ancient coins using 14 MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalouhi, C.; Hourani, E.; Loos, R.; Melki, S. (Faculty of Science, Beirut (Lebanon))

    1982-09-15

    A method for absolute determination of copper and silver in ancient coins is described. Activation analysis by 14 MeV neutrons is performed. In the experimental procedure emphasis is placed on corrections for neutrons and gamma attenuation. In the analytical procedure, a multi linear-regression calculation is used to separate different contributions to the 511 keV gamma peak. The precision in the absolute determination of Cu and Ag is better than 2% in recent coins of definite shapes, whereas it is a somewhat lower in ancient coins of irregular shapes. The method was applied to ancient coins provided by the Museum of the American University of Beirut. Overall consistency and suitability of the method were obtained.

  1. Optimized Power Dispatch Strategy for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Zhang, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    which are related to electrical system topology. This paper proposed an optimized power dispatch strategy (OPD) for minimizing the levelized production cost (LPC) of a wind farm. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to obtain final solution for the optimization problem. Both regular shape......Maximizing the power production of offshore wind farms using proper control strategy has become an important issue for wind farm operators. However, the power transmitted to the onshore substation (OS) is not only related to the power production of each wind turbine (WT) but also the power losses...... and irregular shape wind farm are chosen for the case study. The proposed dispatch strategy is compared with two other control strategies. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy....

  2. Effects of N2 mixed gas atomization on electrochemical properties of Mm(Ni,Co,Mn,Al)5.0 alloy powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagimoto, K.; Sunada, S.; Majima, K.; Sawada, T.

    2004-01-01

    N 2 gas, N 2 -Ar mixed gas and Ar gas atomization followed by acid surface treatment was applied to improve electrochemical properties of AB 5 type hydrogen storage alloy powder. The shape of Ar atomized powder was spherical and it changed to be irregular with increasing N 2 content of mixed gas. Irrespective of gas kinds, electrodes of atomized powder showed the same discharge capacity as cast-pulverized powder under auxiliary electrical conductivity by nickel powder addition. Without nickel powder, however, N 2 atomized powder showed the best electrochemical properties as well as gas activation behavior. By the combination process of N 2 gas atomization and acid surface treatment, it was considered that irregular shape of N 2 atomized powder promoted electrical conductivity of electrodes and catalytic nickel concentrated surface layer was formed to increase the hydrogen storage rapidity

  3. Installation and validation of MCNP-4A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    MCNP-4A is a multi-purpose Monte Carlo program suitable for the modelling of neutron, photon, and electron transport problems. It is a particularly useful technique when studying systems containing irregular shapes. MCNP has been developed over the last 25 years by Los Alamos, and is distributed internationally via RSIC at Oak Ridge. This document describes the installation of MCNP-4A (henceforth referred to as MCNP) on the Silicon Graphics workstation (bluey.ansto.gov.au). A limited number of benchmarks pertaining to fast and thermal systems were performed to check the installation and validate the code. The results are compared to deterministic calculations performed using the AUS neutronics code system developed at ANSTO. (author)

  4. Chaotic Zones around Rotating Small Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lages, José; Shevchenko, Ivan I. [Institut UTINAM, Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers THETA, CNRS, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon F-25030 (France); Shepelyansky, Dima L., E-mail: jose.lages@utinam.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique du CNRS, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, Toulouse F-31062 (France)

    2017-06-01

    Small bodies of the solar system, like asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects, cometary nuclei, and planetary satellites, with diameters smaller than 1000 km usually have irregular shapes, often resembling dumb-bells or contact binaries. The spinning of such a gravitating dumb-bell creates around it a zone of chaotic orbits. We determine its extent analytically and numerically. We find that the chaotic zone swells significantly if the rotation rate is decreased; in particular, the zone swells more than twice if the rotation rate is decreased 10 times with respect to the “centrifugal breakup” threshold. We illustrate the properties of the chaotic orbital zones in examples of the global orbital dynamics about asteroid 243 Ida (which has a moon, Dactyl, orbiting near the edge of the chaotic zone) and asteroid 25143 Itokawa.

  5. A nonlinear HP-type complementary resistive switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Radtke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resistive Switching (RS is the change in resistance of a dielectric under the influence of an external current or electric field. This change is non-volatile, and the basis of both the memristor and resistive random access memory. In the latter, high integration densities favor the anti-serial combination of two RS-elements to a single cell, termed the complementary resistive switch (CRS. Motivated by the irregular shape of the filament protruding into the device, we suggest a nonlinearity in the resistance-interpolation function, characterized by a single parameter p. Thereby the original HP-memristor is expanded upon. We numerically simulate and analytically solve this model. Further, the nonlinearity allows for its application to the CRS.

  6. A nonlinear HP-type complementary resistive switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Paul K.; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2016-05-01

    Resistive Switching (RS) is the change in resistance of a dielectric under the influence of an external current or electric field. This change is non-volatile, and the basis of both the memristor and resistive random access memory. In the latter, high integration densities favor the anti-serial combination of two RS-elements to a single cell, termed the complementary resistive switch (CRS). Motivated by the irregular shape of the filament protruding into the device, we suggest a nonlinearity in the resistance-interpolation function, characterized by a single parameter p. Thereby the original HP-memristor is expanded upon. We numerically simulate and analytically solve this model. Further, the nonlinearity allows for its application to the CRS.

  7. A Case of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Outer Hair Follicle Sheath Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masazumi Onishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old Japanese man presented at our hospital with an asymptomatic, blackish, irregularly shaped plaque with a gray nodule in the periphery on his left lower leg. The lesion had been present for 10 years and had recently enlarged, associated with bleeding. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of three distinct parts: The first part showed massive aggregation of basophilic basaloid cells with peripheral palisading and abundant melanin granules, and was diagnosed as solid-type basal cell carcinoma. The second part showed aggregation of clear cells with squamous eddies, and was diagnosed as proliferating trichilemmal tumor. The third part showed reticular aggregation of basaloid cells with infundibular cysts in the papillary dermis, and was diagnosed as infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. We diagnosed this tumor as basal cell carcinoma with various forms of hair follicle differentiation, including differentiation into the outer root sheath.

  8. Estimation of environmental noise impacts within architectural spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y. S.; Liebich, R. E.; Chun, K. C.

    2002-01-01

    Public Law 91-596, ''Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970,'' Dec. 29, 1970, stimulated interest in modeling the impacts of interior noise on employees, as well as the intelligibility of interior public-address and other speech intra-communication systems. The classical literature on this topic has primarily featured a statistical uniform diffuse-field model. This was pioneered by Leo L. Beranek in the 1950s, based on energy-density formulations at the former Bell Telephone (AT and T) Laboratories in the years from 1930 to 1950. This paper compares the classical prediction approach to the most recent statistical methods. Such models were developed in the late 1970s and included innovations such as consideration of irregularly shaped (e.g., L-shaped) interior room spaces and coupled spaces

  9. 3D laser scanning in civil engineering - measurements of volume of earth masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowicz, J. A.; Szafranko, E.; Harasymiuk, J.

    2018-03-01

    Considering the constant drive to improve and accelerate building processes as well as possible applications of the latest technological achievements in civil engineering practice, the author has proposed to use 3D laser scanning in the construction industry. For example, data achieved through a 3D laser scanning process will facilitate making inventories of parameters of buildings in a very short time, will enable one to check irregularly shaped masses of earth, heavy and practically impossible to calculate precisely using traditional techniques. The other part of the research, performed in the laboratory, consisted of measurements of a model mound of earth. All the measurements were made with a 3D SkanStation C10 laser scanner manufactured by Leica. The data were analyzed. The results suggest that there are great opportunities for using the laser scanning technology in civil engineering

  10. Chitosan/Carboxymethylcellulose/Ionic Liquid/Ag(0) Nanoparticles Form a Membrane with Antimicrobial Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadros, C.; Faria, V.W.; Scheeren, C.W.; Klein, M.P.; Hertz, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    Silver metal nanoparticles were immobilized in chitosan/carboxymethylcellulose/BMI.BF4(1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid) (CS/CMC/IL) to form polymeric membrane with 20 μm thickness. The CS/CMC/IL polymeric membrane was prepared using a simple solution blending method. Irregularly shaped Ag(0) nanoparticles with monomodal size distributions of nm Ag(0) were immobilized in the membrane. The presence of small Ag(0) nanoparticles induced an augmentation in the CS/CMC/IL film surface areas. The CS/CMC/IL membrane containing Ag(0) showed increase antimicrobial activity the Ag(0) concentration increased up to saturation at 10 mg. CS/CMC/IL membrane that contains Ag(0) nanoparticles has enhanced durability of the membrane and exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. Prevalence of 'high-riding' superior pericardial recesses on thin-section 16-MDCT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, Antonio [Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Ospedale Ferrarotto, via Citelli, 8 95124 Catania (Italy)]. E-mail: antodoc@yahoo.com; Bisceglie, Paola [Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Ospedale Ferrarotto, via Citelli, 8 95124 Catania (Italy); Giulietti, Giorgio [Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Ospedale Ferrarotto, via Citelli, 8 95124 Catania (Italy); Calcara, Giacomo [Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Ospedale Ferrarotto, via Citelli, 8 95124 Catania (Italy); Figuera, Michele [Department of Radiology, Ospedale Vittorio Emanuele, Via Plebiscito 628, 95124 Catania (Italy); Mundo, Elena [Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Ospedale Ferrarotto, via Citelli, 8 95124 Catania (Italy); Granata, Antonio [Department of Nephrology, Ospedale Vittorio Emanuele, Via Plebiscito 628, 95124 Catania (Italy); Runza, Giuseppe [Department of Radiology, Policlinico Universitario, Via del Vespro 129, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Privitera, Carmelo [Department of Radiology, Ospedale Vittorio Emanuele, Via Plebiscito 628, 95124 Catania (Italy); Privitera, Giambattista [Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Ospedale Ferrarotto, via Citelli, 8 95124 Catania (Italy); Patti, Maria Teresa [Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Ospedale Ferrarotto, via Citelli, 8 95124 Catania (Italy)

    2006-08-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of 'high-riding' superior pericardial recess (HRSPR) on thin-section (1 mm) 16-multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans. Materials and methods: Three hundred and fourteen consecutive chest CT scans obtained with a thin-section 16 MDCT were retrospectively evaluated. The prevalence and characteristic of HRSPR were analyzed. Results: HRSPR was depicted in 21 patients (11 men and 10 women) (6.6%) who ranged in age from 28 to 72 years (mean age, 57 years). The extended recesses were rounded/oval shaped in five patients and triangular, spindle, half moon or irregular shaped in the other 16 patients. Conclusion: Our data suggest as HRSPRs are more frequently and better depicted on thinsection MDCT scans, and this improves the capability to distinguish this superior extension of the superior aortic recess from abnormal findings such as lymphadenopathy, cystic lesions, and aortic dissection.

  12. Process for titanium powders spheroidization by RF induction plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhongtao; Ye Gaoying; Liu Chuandong; Tong Honghui

    2010-01-01

    Spherical titanium (Ti) particles were obtained by the process of heating irregularly shaped Ti powders under the radio frequency induction plasma (RF induction plasma) condition. The effect of feed rate, various dispersion methods and Ti particle size on the spheroidization efficiency was studied. The efficiency of the spheroidization is evaluated through the measurements of the percentage of powder spheroidized based on the electron microscopic observations and the tap density measurement of the processed powder. During the short flight of the particles in the plasma flow, of the order of a few milliseconds, the individual titanium particles of the powder are heated and melt, forming a spherical liquid droplet which upon freezing gives rise to the formation of a perfectly dense spherical solid particle. So RF induction plasma is a promising method for the preparation of spherical titanium powders with high flow ability. (authors)

  13. Cascade reactor: granule fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandson, O.D.; Winkler, E.O.; Maya, I.; Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    A key feature of Cascade is the granular blanket. Of the many blanket material options open to Cascade, fabrication of Li 2 O granules was felt to offer the greatest challenge. The authors explored available methods for initial Li 2 O granule fabrication. They identified three cost-effective processes for fabricating Li 2 O granules: the VSM drop-melt furnace process, which is based on melting and spheroidizing irregularly shaped Li 2 O feed granules; the LiOH process, which spheroidizes liquefied LiOH and uses GA Technologies' sphere-forming procedures; and the Li 2 CO 3 sol-gel process, used for making spherical fuel particles for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Each process is described below

  14. RF induction plasma spheroidization of tungsten powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhogntao; Ye Gaoying; Liu Chuandong; Tong Honghui

    2009-01-01

    Irregularly-shaped tungsten powders (average granular sizes of 512 μm) have been spheroidized by radio frequency (RF)induction plasma. The effects of feed rate, mode of material dispersion, particle size on spheroidization efficiency are investigated. Experimental results show that the spheroidization efficiency decreases rapidly when the feed rate increases to more than 95 g/min. Only 30% spheroidization efficiency is gained at the feed rate of 135.75 g/min. The spheroidization efficiency is also affected by the flow rate of carrier gas. When the flow rate of carrier gas is 0.12 m 3 /h, the dispersion effect is the best, and the spheroidization efficiency is almost 100%. The apparent density of tungsten powders increases a bit with the increase of spheroidization efficiency. And the particle size uniformity of spheroidized tungsten powders is in accordance with that of original powders. (authors)

  15. Metamorphosis: Phases of UF{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, R.H. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A 15-minute videotape is presented. The subject matter is 150 grams of UF{sub 6} sealed in a glass tube. Close-up views show the UF{sub 6} as phase changes are effected by the addition or removal of heat from the closed system. The solid-to-liquid transition is shown as heat is added, both slowly and rapidly. The solid phases which result from freezing and from desublimation are contrasted. In the solid state, uranium hexafluoride is a nearly-white, dense crystalline solid. The appearance of this solid depends on whether it is formed by freezing from the liquid or by desublimation from the vapor phase. If frozen from the liquid, the solid particles take the form of irregularly shaped coarse grains, while the solid product of desublimation tends to be a rather formless mass without individually distinguishable particles. The changes in state are presented in terms of the UF{sub 6} phase diagram.

  16. Thoracoscopic Surgery in a Patient with Multiple Esophageal Carcinomas after Surgery for Esophageal Achalasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Yamasaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case in which we used a thoracoscopic approach for resection of multiple esophageal carcinomas diagnosed 33 years after surgery for esophageal achalasia. A 68-year-old Japanese man had been diagnosed with esophageal achalasia and underwent surgical treatment 33 years earlier. He was examined at our hospital for annual routine checkup in which upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a “0-IIb+IIa” lesion in the middle esophagus. Iodine staining revealed multiple irregularly shaped iodine-unstained areas, the diagnosis of which was esophageal carcinoma. Thoracoscopic subtotal esophagectomy was performed. Esophageal carcinoma may occur many years after surgery for esophageal achalasia, even if the passage symptoms have improved. So, long-term periodic follow-up is necessary for detection of carcinoma at an earlier stage.

  17. High resolution MRI of the breast at 3 T: which BI-RADS registered descriptors are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinker-Domenig, K.; Helbich, T.H.; Bogner, W.; Gruber, S.; Bickel, H.; Duffy, S.; Schernthaner, M.; Dubsky, P.; Pluschnig, U.; Rudas, M.; Trattnig, S.

    2012-01-01

    To identify which breast lesion descriptors in the ACR BI-RADS registered MRI lexicon are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer when performing breast MR imaging at 3 T. 150 patients underwent breast MR imaging at 3 T. Lesion size, morphology and enhancement kinetics were assessed according to the BI-RADS registered classification. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. The effects of the BI-RADS registered descriptors on sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Data were analysed using logistic regression. Histopathological diagnoses were used as the standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI at 3 T was 99%, 81% and 93%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the final diagnosis of malignancy was positively associated with irregular shape (p registered breast lesion descriptors that are mostly strongly associated with breast cancer in breast MR imaging at 3 T are lesion shape, lesion margin, internal enhancement pattern and Type 3 enhancement kinetics. (orig.)

  18. Phytophthora cinnamon causing stem canker and root rot of nursery-grown Platanus × acerifolia: first report in the Northern emisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo PILOTTI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lethal stem and root cankers were observed in nursery-grown Platanus × acerifolia trees in Rome. Externally, canker lesions appeared as bluish or blackish areas starting from the stem base and extending upward. Inner bark was necrotised. In some cases an irregularly-shaped callus reaction attempted to heal the bark lesions. Black-stained necrosis affected the primary roots and the small branch roots to different degrees. The presence of Ceratocystis platani was excluded in the diseased trees. Phytophthora-like organisms were isolated from the altered tissue. Morphological and ITS-region-based analyses identified the isolates as Phytophthora cinnamomi. A pathogenicity test confirmed P. cinnamomi as the causal agent of the disease here defined as: stem canker and root rot of plane tree. This is the first report of P. cinnamomi in Platanus spp. in the Northern emisphere.

  19. Far-infrared contraband-detection-system development for personnel-search applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenbaum, R.L.

    1982-09-01

    Experiments have been conducted toward the development of an active near-millimeter-wave, far infrared, personnel search system for the detection of contraband. These experiments employed a microwave hybrid tee interferometer/radiometer scanning system and quasi-optical techniques at 3.3-mm wavelength to illuminate and detect the reflection from target objects against a human body background. Clothing and other common concealing materials are transport at this wavelength. Retroreflector arrays, in conjunction with a Gunn diode radiation source, were investigated to provide all-angle illumination and detection of specular reflections from unaligned and irregular-shaped objects. Results indicate that, under highly controlled search conditions, metal objects greater than or equal to 25 cm 2 can be detected in an enclosure lined with retroreflectors. Further development is required to produce a practical personnel search system. The investigation and feasibility of alternate far infrared search techniques are presented. 23 figures, 2 tables

  20. User defined function for transformation of ellipsoidal coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The topographic plane of the Earth has irregular shape, and for the purpose of mathematical defining, it is to be approximated by rotational ellipsoid. As local geodetic datum, rotational ellipsoids of various sizes are used in the world. More widely usage of the GPS while performing surveying tasks has resulted in the need to define global geodetic datum in order to obtain the best approximation the entire Earth. For this purpose, geocentric rotational ellipsoid WGS84 was defined and the results of the GPS measurements are shown in relation to it. By applying the appropriate equations, the ellipsoidal coordinates are being transformed from WGS84 into the coordinates on the local rotational ellipsoid, i.e. on the view plane. The paper shows User Defined Function created for Excel, by which the coordinates in the territory of Belgrade are being transformed from WGS84 of rotational ellipsoid into the Gauss-Krüger projection plane.

  1. Ant Colony Optimization Approaches to Clustering of Lung Nodules from CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran C. Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is becoming a threat to mankind. Applying machine learning algorithms for detection and segmentation of irregular shaped lung nodules remains a remarkable milestone in CT scan image analysis research. In this paper, we apply ACO algorithm for lung nodule detection. We have compared the performance against three other algorithms, namely, Otsu algorithm, watershed algorithm, and global region based segmentation. In addition, we suggest a novel approach which involves variations of ACO, namely, refined ACO, logical ACO, and variant ACO. Variant ACO shows better reduction in false positives. In addition we propose black circular neighborhood approach to detect nodule centers from the edge detected image. Genetic algorithm based clustering is performed to cluster the nodules based on intensity, shape, and size. The performance of the overall approach is compared with hierarchical clustering to establish the improvisation in the proposed approach.

  2. Quantification of thickness loss in a liquid-loaded plate using ultrasonic guided wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jing; Ratassepp, Madis; Fan, Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave tomography (GWT) provides an attractive solution to map thickness changes from remote locations. It is based on the velocity-to-thickness mapping employing the dispersive characteristics of selected guided modes. This study extends the application of GWT on a liquid-loaded plate. It is a more challenging case than the application on a free plate, due to energy of the guided waves leaking into the liquid. In order to ensure the accuracy of thickness reconstruction, advanced forward models are developed to consider attenuation effects using complex velocities. The reconstruction of the thickness map is based on the frequency-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) method, and its accuracy is discussed using different frequencies and defect dimensions. Validation experiments are carried out on a water-loaded plate with an irregularly shaped defect using S0 guided waves, showing excellent performance of the reconstruction algorithm.

  3. Electrode placement during electro-desalination of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Andersson, Lovisa C. H.

    2017-01-01

    Carved stone sculptures and ornaments can be severely damaged by salt induced decay. Often the irregular surfaces are decomposed, and the artwork is lost. The present paper is an experimental investigation on the possibility for using electro-desalination for treatment of stone with irregular shape....... Electro-desalination experiments were made with different duration to follow the progress. Successful desalination of the whole stone piece was obtained, showing that also parts not being placed directly between the electrodes were desalinated. This is important in case of salt damaged carved stones......, where the most fragile parts thus can be desalinated without physically placing electrodes on them. The Cl removal rate was higher in the areas closest to the electrodes and slowest in the part, which was not placed directly between the electrodes. This is important to incorporate in the monitoring...

  4. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Lazim, Azwan Mat [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Fazry, Shazrul [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm.

  5. Interfacial reaction in cast WC particulate reinforced titanium metal matrix composites coating produced by laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejian; Hu, Peipei; Min, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    Laser injection of ceramic particle was conducted to produce particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Cast WC particle (WCp) was used as injection reinforcement to avoid excessive release of carbon atoms into the melt pool. The interfaces and boundaries between WC and Ti matrix were investigated by electron microscopy study. Compared with single crystal WCp, cast WCp was an appropriate solution to control the reaction products (TiC) in the matrix and the total amount of reaction products was significantly reduced. Irregular-shape reaction layers were formed around cast WCp. The reaction layers consist of a W2C layer and a mixed layer of W and TiC. Such reaction layers are effective in load transfer under an external load.

  6. Combining multiple FDG-PET radiotherapy target segmentation methods to reduce the effect of variable performance of individual segmentation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGurk, Ross J. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Bowsher, James; Das, Shiva K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Lee, John A [Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy Unit, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Many approaches have been proposed to segment high uptake objects in 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography images but none provides consistent performance across the large variety of imaging situations. This study investigates the use of two methods of combining individual segmentation methods to reduce the impact of inconsistent performance of the individual methods: simple majority voting and probabilistic estimation. Methods: The National Electrical Manufacturers Association image quality phantom containing five glass spheres with diameters 13-37 mm and two irregularly shaped volumes (16 and 32 cc) formed by deforming high-density polyethylene bottles in a hot water bath were filled with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose and iodine contrast agent. Repeated 5-min positron emission tomography (PET) images were acquired at 4:1 and 8:1 object-to-background contrasts for spherical objects and 4.5:1 and 9:1 for irregular objects. Five individual methods were used to segment each object: 40% thresholding, adaptive thresholding, k-means clustering, seeded region-growing, and a gradient based method. Volumes were combined using a majority vote (MJV) or Simultaneous Truth And Performance Level Estimate (STAPLE) method. Accuracy of segmentations relative to CT ground truth volumes were assessed using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the symmetric mean absolute surface distances (SMASDs). Results: MJV had median DSC values of 0.886 and 0.875; and SMASD of 0.52 and 0.71 mm for spheres and irregular shapes, respectively. STAPLE provided similar results with median DSC of 0.886 and 0.871; and median SMASD of 0.50 and 0.72 mm for spheres and irregular shapes, respectively. STAPLE had significantly higher DSC and lower SMASD values than MJV for spheres (DSC, p < 0.0001; SMASD, p= 0.0101) but MJV had significantly higher DSC and lower SMASD values compared to STAPLE for irregular shapes (DSC, p < 0.0001; SMASD, p= 0.0027). DSC was not significantly

  7. Manufacture of Regularly Shaped Sol-Gel Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kinder, James D.

    2006-01-01

    An extrusion batch process for manufacturing regularly shaped sol-gel pellets has been devised as an improved alternative to a spray process that yields irregularly shaped pellets. The aspect ratio of regularly shaped pellets can be controlled more easily, while regularly shaped pellets pack more efficiently. In the extrusion process, a wet gel is pushed out of a mold and chopped repetitively into short, cylindrical pieces as it emerges from the mold. The pieces are collected and can be either (1) dried at ambient pressure to xerogel, (2) solvent exchanged and dried under ambient pressure to ambigels, or (3) supercritically dried to aerogel. Advantageously, the extruded pellets can be dropped directly in a cross-linking bath, where they develop a conformal polymer coating around the skeletal framework of the wet gel via reaction with the cross linker. These pellets can be dried to mechanically robust X-Aerogel.

  8. Repetition Priming Magnitude Depends on Affirmative Prime Responses: A Test of Two Congruity Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, Paula; Sorensen, Linda; Mayne, Zachary; Corgiat, Damon; Woltz, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We conducted 2 experiments to evaluate the impact of positive prime responses on repetition priming effects while decoupling this impact from content congruity and specific evaluation operations. Our first experiment consisted of word-meaning comparison trials that required participants to evaluate synonyms or antonyms. A crossing of evaluation operation with semantic content allowed us to test the goal-content congruity hypothesis against the semantic congruity explanation for greater facilitation from positive response primes. Results suggested that operation-based priming is affected by goal-content congruity. A second experiment tested the observed effect of positive responses on repetition priming using mental rotation of irregular shapes, affording a test of the impact of congruity in evaluation goals and content in a nonverbal stimulus domain. Both experiments produced a pattern of results inconsistent with Schulman's (1974) semantic congruity account and instead implicated a different form of congruity that affects memory for prior operations rather than memory for semantic and episodic content.

  9. 3-D reconstruction using an efficient Octree encoding scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.J.; Jagadeesh, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Reconstruction of a three dimensional (3-D) model of biological objects from their thin section 2-D slices is a valuable tool for biomedical research. The goal of a 3-D reconstruction routine is to find the 3-D structure from a set of sliced images and display the 3-D view on a 2-D screen. Octree has been widely used as a powerful data structure to represent 3-D objects in computer. The encoding technique is specially useful for the representation of objects with irregular shape, such as biomedical objects. A method called level-wise pointerless representation which can offer much less storage requirement has been developed. In addition, a complete software package has been designed using the efficient data structure to reconstruct 3-D objects from 2-D sliced images and to display the 3-D objects on 2-D screen

  10. Low-field vortex pinning model for undoped sintered MgB2 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agassi, Y D

    2011-01-01

    Sintered MgB 2 powders constitute a porous ensemble of irregularly shaped agglomerates of tightly packed grains. The low-field critical current density in such powders was experimentally observed to scale with the inverse of the average agglomerate size. Motivated by this observation we consider a flux pinning model which accounts for the MgB 2 powder porosity by focusing on a single finite-size agglomerate size. According to the model the observed critical current density dependence on the agglomerate size reflects the outward pull exerted on a vortex that is pinned in proximity to the agglomerate edges. The calculated critical current density replicates the observed scaling within agglomerate-size bounds. Implications of the model are discussed.

  11. Physical characterization of asteroid surfaces from photometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.

    1989-01-01

    Rigorous photometric models, like Hapke's equation, can be applied to the analysis of disk-integrated phase curves in order to estimate a variety of regolith physical properties (average particle single-scattering albedo, particle transparency, soil compaction and large-scale roughness). Unfortunately, unambiguous interpretation is difficult due to uncertainties introduced by the irregular shapes of many asteroids and because Earth-based observations are often restricted to small phase angles (<30 degrees). In this chapter, the authors explore in detail how incomplete phase-angle coverage and nonsphericity of asteroids limits the reliable determination of Hapke's photometric parameters from asteroid phase curves. From obtainable Earth-based observations, it is possible to derive useful relative comparisons of single-scattering albedos, opposition-surge amplitudes, and regolith compaction states for different asteroids

  12. Imaging basilar skull fractures in the horse: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, O. III; Jorgensen, J.S.; Thrall, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Due to the complex nature of the anatomy of the equine head, superimposition of numerous structures, and poor soft tissue differentiation, radiography may be of limited value in the diagnosis of basilar skull fractures. However, in many horses radiographic changes such as soft tissue opacification of the guttural pouch region, irregular bone margination at the sphenooccipital line, attenuation of the nasopharynx, ventral displacement of the dorsal pharyngeal wall and the presence of irregularly shaped bone fragments in the region of the guttural pouches are suggestive of a fracture of the skull base. These findings in conjunction with physical examination findings and historical information may lead to a presumptive diagnosis of a fracture. When available and when the patient will accommodate the equipment, computed tomography may give a definitive diagnosis owing to its superior resolution and differentiation of soft tissue structures

  13. Stereotactic radiosurgery. The role of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Schulte, R.W.M.; Slater, J.D.; Miller, D.W.; Slater, J.M. [Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine

    1999-08-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery using charged-particle beams has been the subject of biomedical research and clinical development for more than 50 years. Charged particles of proton mass or greater manifest unique physical properties that can be used to place a high dose of radiation preferentially within the boundaries of a deeply located intracranial target volume. Since 1954, nearly 10 000 patients have been treated using this technique. Treated disorders include pituitary tumors, vascular malformations, primary and metastatic brain tumors, and subfoveal neovascularization. Charged-particle radiosurgery is particularly advantageous for the conformal treatment of large and/or irregularly shaped lesions, or for the treatment of lesions located in front of or adjacent to sensitive brain structures. (orig.)

  14. Stereotactic radiosurgery. The role of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.P.; Schulte, R.W.M.; Slater, J.D.; Miller, D.W.; Slater, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery using charged-particle beams has been the subject of biomedical research and clinical development for more than 50 years. Charged particles of proton mass or greater manifest unique physical properties that can be used to place a high dose of radiation preferentially within the boundaries of a deeply located intracranial target volume. Since 1954, nearly 10 000 patients have been treated using this technique. Treated disorders include pituitary tumors, vascular malformations, primary and metastatic brain tumors, and subfoveal neovascularization. Charged-particle radiosurgery is particularly advantageous for the conformal treatment of large and/or irregularly shaped lesions, or for the treatment of lesions located in front of or adjacent to sensitive brain structures. (orig.)

  15. HMB-45 negative clear cell perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusiol, Teresa; Morichetti, Doriana; Zorzi, Maria Grazia; Dario, Surace

    2012-01-01

    The first case of cutaneous clear cell perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) with negative HMB-45 marker is presented. The tumor was a nodule 3x2 cm in size, located on the right foot in a 60-year-old man. The lesion consisted of large irregularly shaped cells with clear cytoplasm, negative for S-100 protein, HMB-45, Melan-A, pancytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen and CAM5.2. Multifocal positivity for desmin, microphthalmia transcription factor and tyrosinase was found. The diagnosis of cutaneous PEComa of clear cell type was made. Clear cell change is a very unusual finding in PEComa and may pose problems in diagnostic differentiation from other clear cell cutaneous lesions that may be excluded with immunohistochemistry. In our case, the HMB-45 negativity may be explained by extensive clear cell change. Additional studies are necessary to accept the clear cell cutaneous HMB-45 negative PEComa as a new variant of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor.

  16. Application of Genetic Algorithm to the Design Optimization of Complex Energy Saving Glass Coating Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, F. M.; Azmin, F. A.; Shibghatullah, A. S.; Suaidi, M. K.; Ahmad, B. H.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Salleh, S. N.; Shukor, M. Md

    2014-04-01

    Attenuation of GSM, GPS and personal communication signal leads to poor communication inside the building using regular shapes of energy saving glass coating. Thus, the transmission is very low. A brand new type of band pass frequency selective surface (FSS) for energy saving glass application is presented in this paper for one unit cell. Numerical Periodic Method of Moment approach according to a previous study has been applied to determine the new optimum design of one unit cell energy saving glass coating structure. Optimization technique based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to obtain an improved in return loss and transmission signal. The unit cell of FSS is designed and simulated using the CST Microwave Studio software at based on industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM). A unique and irregular shape of an energy saving glass coating structure is obtained with lower return loss and improved transmission coefficient.

  17. Application of genetic algorithm to the design optimization of complex energy saving glass coating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johar, F M; Azmin, F A; Suaidi, M K; Ahmad, B H; Aziz, M Z A Abd; Salleh, S N; Shukor, M Md; Shibghatullah, A S

    2014-01-01

    Attenuation of GSM, GPS and personal communication signal leads to poor communication inside the building using regular shapes of energy saving glass coating. Thus, the transmission is very low. A brand new type of band pass frequency selective surface (FSS) for energy saving glass application is presented in this paper for one unit cell. Numerical Periodic Method of Moment approach according to a previous study has been applied to determine the new optimum design of one unit cell energy saving glass coating structure. Optimization technique based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to obtain an improved in return loss and transmission signal. The unit cell of FSS is designed and simulated using the CST Microwave Studio software at based on industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM). A unique and irregular shape of an energy saving glass coating structure is obtained with lower return loss and improved transmission coefficient.

  18. Laser pushing or pulling of absorbing airborne particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chuji, E-mail: cw175@msstate.edu; Gong, Zhiyong [Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi 39759 (United States); Pan, Yong-Le; Videen, Gorden [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    A single absorbing particle formed by carbon nanotubes in the size range of 10–50 μm is trapped in air by a laser trapping beam and concurrently illuminated by another laser manipulating beam. When the trapping beam is terminated, the movement of the particle controlled by the manipulating beam is investigated. We report our observations of light-controlled pushing and pulling motions. We show that the movement direction has little relationship with the particle size and manipulating beam's parameters but is dominated by the particle's orientation and morphology. With this observation, the controllable optical manipulation is now able to be generalized to arbitrary particles, including irregularly shaped absorbing particles that are shown in this work.

  19. Separation of enantiomers by continuous preferential crystallization: Experimental realization using a coupled crystallizer configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaaban, Joussef Hussein; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Kiil, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The experimental realization of a continuous preferential crystallization process, consisting of two mixed-flow crystallizers coupled via crystal-free liquid exchange streams and with only the liquid phases operating continuously, is addressed. Experiments in triplicate, using the conglomerate....... Successful enantioseparation by crystal growth, with the repeatability being within ±10% deviation, was obtained. However, slow crystal growth, due to a low surface integration rate, led to a negligible consumption of the desired enantiomer added in the feed solution, resulting in low productivities....... Productivities, yields, and purities of solid products were influenced by the morphological differences in the seed crystals. Due to irregularly shaped seed crystals, increase in the productivities and yields were achieved in the L-Tank. Lower purities of solid products from the L-Tank compared to purities...

  20. SEGMENTATION OF MITOCHONDRIA IN ELECTRON MICROSCOPY IMAGES USING ALGEBRAIC CURVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Ellisman, Mark H; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution microscopy techniques have been used to generate large volumes of data with enough details for understanding the complex structure of the nervous system. However, automatic techniques are required to segment cells and intracellular structures in these multi-terabyte datasets and make anatomical analysis possible on a large scale. We propose a fully automated method that exploits both shape information and regional statistics to segment irregularly shaped intracellular structures such as mitochondria in electron microscopy (EM) images. The main idea is to use algebraic curves to extract shape features together with texture features from image patches. Then, these powerful features are used to learn a random forest classifier, which can predict mitochondria locations precisely. Finally, the algebraic curves together with regional information are used to segment the mitochondria at the predicted locations. We demonstrate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in segmentation of mitochondria in EM images.

  1. Preparation of ultra-fine powders from polysaccharide-coated solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers by innovative nano spray drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taoran; Hu, Qiaobin; Zhou, Mingyong; Xue, Jingyi; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-09-10

    In this study, five polysaccharides were applied as natural polymeric coating materials to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructure lipid carriers (NLC), and then the obtained lipid colloidal particles were transformed to solid powders by the innovative nano spray drying technology. The feasibility and suitability of this new technology to generate ultra-fine lipid powder particles were evaluated and the formulation was optimized. The spray dried SLN powder exhibited the aggregated and irregular shape and dimension, but small, uniform, well-separated spherical powder particles of was obtained from NLC. The optimal formulation of NLC was prepared by a 20-30% oleic acid content with carrageenan or pectin as coating material. Therefore, nano spray drying technology has a potential application to produce uniform, spherical, and sub-microscale lipid powder particles when the formulation of lipid delivery system is appropriately designed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spiral CT manifestations of spherical pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Yang Hongwei; Xu Chunmin; Qin Xiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the Spiral CT manifestations and differential diagnosis of spherical pneumonia. Methods: 18 cases of spherical pneumonia and 20 cases of peripheral pulmonary carcinoma were selected, both of them were confirmed by clinic and/or pathology. The SCT findings of both groups were compared retrospectively. Results: Main spiral CT findings of spherical pneumonia were showed as followings: square or triangular lesions adjacent to pleura; with irregular shape, blurry, slightly lobulated margin, sometimes with halo sign. Small inflammatory patches and intensified vascular markings around the lesions were seen. Lesions became smaller or vanished after short-term anti-inflammatory treatment. Conclusion: Spherical pneumonia showed some characteristics on Spiral CT scan, which are helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this disease. (authors)

  3. Scoring radiologic characteristics to predict proliferative potential in meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiba, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Naoya; Maruno, Motohiko; Izumoto, Shuichi; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Naoki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using radiologic characteristics to predict the proliferative potential in meningiomas. Our statistical analysis revealed that the presence of peritumoral edema, an ambiguous brain-tumor border, and irregular tumor shape were significantly correlated with a higher MIB-1 staining index (SI) value. We developed the following scoring system for specific features in each tumor: peritumoral edema (tumor with edema=1, tumor without edema=0); brain-tumor border (tumor with any ambiguous border=1, tumor circumscribed by a distinct rim=0); and tumor shape (tumor with irregular shape=1, tumor with smooth shape=0). Using Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis, we found a significant correlation (P<0.005) between total score calculated for each patient and SI value. Our findings suggest that the proliferative potential of meningiomas can be predicted using a less invasive preoperative examination focusing on the presence of peritumoral edema, ambiguous brain-tumor border, and irregular tumor shape. (author)

  4. Viscosity of dilute suspensions of rigid bead arrays at low shear: accounting for the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the bead surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stuart A; Pei, Hongxia

    2009-06-11

    In this work, we examine the viscosity of a dilute suspension of irregularly shaped particles at low shear. A particle is modeled as a rigid array of nonoverlapping beads of variable size and geometry. Starting from a boundary element formalism, approximate account is taken of the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the surface of the individual beads. For a touching dimer of two identical beads, the predicted viscosity is lower than the exact value by 5.2%. The methodology is then applied to several other model systems including tetramers of variable conformation and linear strings of touching beads. An analysis is also carried out of the viscosity and translational diffusion of several dilute amino acids and diglycine in water. It is concluded that continuum hydrodynamic modeling with stick boundary conditions is unable to account for the experimental viscosity and diffusion data simultaneously. A model intermediate between "stick" and "slip" could possibly reconcile theory and experiment.

  5. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  6. Identification of SNP c.-22G>A in the melanophilin gene from a dog with color dilution alopecia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mutant color alopecia is an ectodermical defection of color dilution, characterized by partial alopecia, dry, shine-less hair, and peeling and papule. Melanization damages also occur on the cortical structure of the affected hair. The animals affected have big melanin grains with irregular shape on the basal keratinocytes, also on the hair matrix cells and rod. Therefore, there is not a specific treatment that makes any difference on the syndrome evolution. Although in some animals, it is possible to use weekly showers with benzyl peroxide to reduce seborrhea formation and secondary infections. There is evidence that the condition in dogs is caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding the melanophilin protein. In the present study the identification of the SNP c.-22G>A in the melanophilin gene of a Dachshund breed dog with clinical and histopathologic evidence of color dilution alopecia is reported.

  7. Comet Halley: nucleus and jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Avanesov, G.A.; Barinov, I.V.

    1986-06-01

    The VEGA-1 and VEGA-2 spacecrafts made their closest approach to Comet Halley on 6 and 9 March, respectively. In this paper results of the onboard imaging experiment are discussed. The nucleus of the comet was clearly identifyable as an irregularly shaped object with overall dimensions of (16+-1)x(8+-1)x(8+-1) km. The nucleus rotates around its axis which is nearly perpendicular to the orbital plane, with a period of 53+-2 hours. Its albedo is only 0.04+-002. Most of the jet features observed during the second fly-by were spatially reconstructed. These sources form a quasi-linear structure on the surface. The dust above the surface is shown to be optically thin except certain specific dust jets. Brightness features on the surface are clearly seen. Correlating the data with other measurements it is concluded that the dirty snow-ball model probably has to be revised. (author)

  8. Types of collapse calderas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre-Diaz, Gerardo J [Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., 76230 (Mexico)], E-mail: ger@geociencias.unam.mx

    2008-10-01

    Three main types of collapse calderas can be defined, 1) summit caldera: those formed at the top of large volcanoes, 2) classic caldera: semi-circular to irregular-shaped large structures, several km in diameter and related to relatively large-volume pyroclastic products, and 3) graben caldera: explosive volcano-tectonic collapse structures from which large-volume, ignimbrite-forming eruptions occurred through several fissural vents along the graben master faults and the intra-graben block faults. These in turn can collapse at least with three styles: 1) Piston: when the collapse occurs as a single crustal block; 2) Trap-door: when collapse occurs unevenly along one side while the opposite side remains with no collapse; 3) Piece-meal: when collapse occurs as broken pieces of the crust on top of the magma chamber.

  9. Pulsed TEA CO2 Laser Irradiation of Titanium in Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganovic, J.; Matavulj, P.; Trtica, M.; Stasic, J.; Savovic, J.; Zivkovic, S.; Momcilovic, M.

    2017-12-01

    Surface changes created by interaction of transversely excited atmospheric carbon dioxide (TEA CO2) laser with titanium target/implant in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas were studied. TEA CO2 laser operated at 10.6 μm, pulse length of 100 ns and fluence of ˜17 J/cm2 which was sufficient for inducing surface modifications. Induced changes depend on the gas used. In both gases the grain structure was produced (central irradiated zone) but its forms were diverse, (N2: irregular shape; CO2: hill-like forms). Hydrodynamic features at peripheral zone, like resolidified droplets, were recorded only in CO2 gas. Elemental analysis of the titanium target surface indicated that under a nitrogen atmosphere surface nitridation occurred. In addition, irradiation in both gases was followed by appearance of plasma in front of the target. The existence of plasma indicates relatively high temperatures created above the target surface offering a sterilizing effect.

  10. Frequency of parasites and Salmonella infection in captive maned-wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, kept in Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilioli R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 from 11 Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were screened to investigate the presence of parasites and Salmonella infection by parasitological diagnostic methods and fecal selective culture. The most frequent ecto and endoparasites found were Ctenocephalides felis (56.2%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (12.5%, Ancylostoma caninum (45.1%, Strongyloides sp. (29.0%, Uncinaria stenocephala (3.2%, Capillaria sp. (3.2%, Entamoeba sp. (22.9%, Sarcocystis sp. (29.0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (19.3%, Eimeria sp. (19.3%, Giardia sp. (9.6% and Isospora sp. (3.2%. Four different serotypes of Salmonella were identified in six animals (25%. Only one infected animal showed clinical signs of diarrhea. The ability to harbor Salmonella spp. as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation of this specie.

  11. Parasitological surveillance in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) colony in São Paulo Zoo animal house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Gonzalez, Irys Hany Lima; Favoretto, Samantha Mesquita; Ramos, Patrícia Locosque

    Rattus norvegicus (Mammalia: Rodentia) is a widespread and synanthropic rodent, broadly used in medical experiments. It can also be used for feeding captive animals in zoos. Parasitological surveys are important to guarantee the health of both the animals and the staff responsible for their management. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites of Rattus norvegicus offered as food to captive animals from São Paulo Zoo, and demonstrate the importance of sanitary hurdling, disease control and biosecurity. The identified protozoan parasites were Eimeria sp., Entamoeba sp., Spironucleus sp., Giardia sp., Tritrichomonas sp., Chilomastix sp., unidentified cysts and non-sporulated coccidians oocysts (Isospora/Eimeria). The following helminths were found: Syphacia muris, Rodentolepis nana and Aspiculuris tetraptera.

  12. Encuesta de parásitos intestinales en 615 escolares del Rímac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gonzales-Mugaburu

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available El examen microscópico de una sola muestra de heces de cada uno de 615 escolares del Rímac, ha mostrado: 1. El elevado porcentaje de protozoarios intestinales encontrados, sugiere una alta contaminación fecal. 2. La alta frecuencia de H. nana 166 (27.0% constituye un problema al que hay que prestar atención. 3. El hallazgo de Strongyloides stercoralis y Ancylostoma o Necator sólo en sujetos que habían estado algún tiempo en la Selva del Perú, sugiere una vez más, que dichos parásitos no son transmitidos en esta parte de la Costa. 4. La presencia de tres casos de Isospora belli nos indica que esta coccidia es más frecuente de lo que se suponía.

  13. Faecal helminth egg and oocyst counts of a small population of African lions (Panthera leo in the southwestern Kalahari, Namibia : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Smith

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An endoparasite survey of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southwestern Namibia, during winter and summer of 2003 and 2004, respectively. Overall, 23 fresh lion scats were collected opportunistically during fieldwork trials. A flotation technique was employed for the diagnosis of parasites. Three nematodes, Ancylostoma braziliense, Gnathostoma spinigerum and Uncinaria stenocephala and two coccidians, Toxoplasma gondii and Isospora felis were recorded. By using the McMaster method for quantification, a maximum number of 14 866 oocysts per gram of faeces was obtained for I. felis during winter 2003. Endoparasite taxa carried by the different individuals in the pride were found to be related to their levels of association. Rates of infection were relatively low as a result of the habitat, semi-captive conditions and earlier sporadic deworming.

  14. Occurrence of Endoparasites in Indigenous Zambian Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce-Miller M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the country of Zambia, Southern Africa, to investigate the occurrence of endo-parasites in indigenous Zambian dogs. Faecal samples were collected from 41 indigenous Zambian dogs from different areas of the Mbabala region in the Southern province of Zambia during the “hot wet” season, although at the time that the samples were collected, the country was experiencing a drought. Faecal samples were analysed using the concentration flotation method with zinc sulphate for the determination of the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. The most prevalent parasites were species from the family Ancylostomatidae (65.0 % infection rate which followed by: Isospora canis (9.8 %, Dipylidium caninum (4.8 %, and Toxascaris leonina (2.4 %. There were in addition, two cases of co-infections with the family Ancylostomatidae and D. caninum, as well as the family Ancylostomatidae and I. canis.

  15. Canine distemper virus infection in fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jho, Yeon-Sook; Bak, Eun-Jung

    2010-08-01

    Fifteen 8-month-old fennec foxes imported from Sudan showed fever, mucopurulent ocular discharge, diarrhea, severe emaciation, seizures, and generalized ataxia, and died. Three of the 15 animals were presented for diagnostic investigation. Severe dehydration, brain congestion, and gastric ulcers were observed in all animals. In one animal, the lungs had failed to collapse and were multifocally dark red in appearance. Histopathologically, there were lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with malacia, mild interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion of lymphoid tissues and organs, and intestinal villous atrophy with intralesional coccidia. There were many intracytoplasmic and/or intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the medullary velum, lungs, liver, kidneys, trachea, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder, urinary bladder, and ureters, and in macrophages of malacia foci and lymphocytes and macrophages of lymphoid organs. Additionally, intestinal coccidia were confirmed to be Isospora species by a fecal test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of canine distemper with intestinal coccidiosis in fennec fox.

  16. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and intestinal parasites in stray cats from Nigde, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengi Dündar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated by the Sabin-Feldman Dye test (SFDT in 72 stray cats from Nigde, Turkey. A total of 55 (76.4% of the analysed sera had antibodies to T. gondii. The seropositivity of T. gondii was 77.1% in male and 75.7% in female cats (P>0.05. Faeces of these cats were also examined by zinc sulphate flotation method for the presence of parasite oocysts and eggs of other parasites. Two protozoan parasites were identified as Isospora spp. (12.5% and Eimeria spp. (4.1% in cats. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any faecal samples analysed. Two parasitic helminth species were observed: Toxocara cati (15.2% and Toxascaris leonina (20.8%. These common ascarids were recorded for the first time in cats from Nigde.

  17. Recovery of gastrointestinal swine parasites in anaerobic biodigester systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañon-Franco, William Alberto; Henao-Agudelo, Ricardo Andrés; Pérez-Bedoya, José Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Solid and liquid wastes from livestock operations represent important challenges for animal production regarding their impact in the environment and public health. Parasitological tests performed on 80 samples of affluent and effluent waters from three anaerobic biodigestors with flexible structure from swine farms of Caldas - Colombia, showed the presence of Isospora suis (45%), Eimeria suis (42.5%), E. espinosa (35%), Strongyloides ransomi (28.8%), E. perminuta (12.5%), E. cerdonis (3.8%), and E. porci (2.5%). The additional finding of eggs of Taenia spp. in 10% of the samples was probably caused by a connection between the human sewage system and the biodigester. Although we observed a mean decrease of 65.6% of parasites, these levels were insufficient to meet the minimum requirement set by Engelberg's guidelines regarding water quality. This study demonstrates the serious environmental impact that an inadequately treated animal wastewater represents, and has important implications for water resources and human health.

  18. Invasive forms of canine endoparasites as a potential threat to public health – A review and own studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Felsmann

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dogs serve as the vectors of serious zoonotic parasitic diseases. In the month of May 2012 – 2014, 339 dog faeces samples from seven public sites in Chełmno, a town in northern Poland, were collected and examined to determine the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of dogs. Each faecal sample was dissected with a needle, checked for tapeworm segments and examined for parasite eggs and oocysts using the flotation and decantation method and a modified Baermann technique. Differences were observed in the degree of parasite species occurrence. The most dominant were Toxocara canis and Ancylostomatidae. The detected species included: T. canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs (23.4% and 10.2%, respectively, as well as eggs from the Ancylostomatidae family (16.2%, Trichuris vulpis eggs (6.6%, Taenia type eggs (4.6%, Dipylidium caninum (5.2% and Cystoisospora (Isospora spp. oocysts (10.9%.

  19. A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in northern region of Nile delta, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda E Khalafalla

    Full Text Available A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%, Toxascaris leonina (5%, Dipylidium caninum (5%, Capillaria spp. (3%, Taenia taeniformis (22% and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%, four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%, Sarcocyst spp. (1%, Isospora spp. (2% and Giardia spp. (2% and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2% and mites eggs (13%. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region.

  20. Prevalensi Infeksi Protozoa Saluran Pencernaan Pada Kucing Lokal (Felis catus Di Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Titin Evi Sucitrayani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cat is one of the pets which many people love to looking after.  A lot of people looking after cat but so many of them don’t pay much attention to cats wealth, this makes them become stray cat. The most common gastrointestinal protozoa in cat is Giardia felis, Cryptosporadium felis, Sarcocystis spp, Hammondia hamondi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Isospora spp. The purpose of this research is to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoa infection in local home cat and stray cat in Denpasar. This research used 80 samples of cat feces, 40 home cat feces and 40 stray cat feces. Samples examined using float concentration method, with saturated sodium chloride. From 80 examined samples, 25 samples (31,3 % infected with gastrointestinal protozoa. For home cat, from 40 examined samples 9 samples  (22,5%  infected with gastrointestinal protozoa, meanwhile from stray cat, 16 samples (40 %  infected from gastrointestinal protozoa.

  1. A Survey Study on Gastrointestinal Parasites of Stray Cats in Northern Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalla, Reda E.

    2011-01-01

    A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%), Toxascaris leonina (5%), Dipylidium caninum (5%), Capillaria spp. (3%), Taenia taeniformis (22%) and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%), four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%), Sarcocyst spp. (1%), Isospora spp. (2%) and Giardia spp. (2%) and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2%) and mites eggs (13%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region. PMID:21760884

  2. Internal parasites of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raś-Noryńska, Małgorzata; Sokół, Rajmund

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays a growing number of exotic reptiles are kept as pets. The aim of this study was to determine the species of parasites found in reptile patients of veterinary practices in Poland. Fecal samples obtained from 76 lizards, 15 turtles and 10 snakes were examined by flotation method and direct smear stained with Lugol's iodine. In 63 samples (62.4%) the presence of parasite eggs and oocysts was revealed. Oocysts of Isospora spp. (from 33% to 100% of the samples, depending on the reptilian species) and Oxyurids eggs (10% to 75%) were predominant. In addition, isolated Eimeria spp. oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts were found, as well as Strongylus spp. and Hymenolepis spp. eggs. Pet reptiles are often infected with parasites, some of which are potentially dangerous to humans. A routine parasitological examination should be done in such animals.

  3. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Singh, V P

    2010-06-01

    Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9%). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.9%), Spirocerca lupi (5.4%), Toxocara canis (7.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.4%) Giardia intestinalis (5.6%) and Isospora sp. (1.3%). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7%) than those harbouring 2 (15%) or multiple (2.1%) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7% of the samples.

  4. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9 %. The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8 %, Trichuris vulpis (7.9 %, Spirocerca lupi (5.4 %, Toxocara canis (7.9 %, Toxascaris leonina (0.4 % Giardia intestinalis (5.6 % and Isospora sp. (1.3 %. Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7 % than those harbouring 2 (15 % or multiple (2.1 % species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7 % of the samples.

  5. Statistically-Estimated Tree Composition for the Northeastern United States at Euro-American Settlement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Paciorek

    Full Text Available We present a gridded 8 km-resolution data product of the estimated composition of tree taxa at the time of Euro-American settlement of the northeastern United States and the statistical methodology used to produce the product from trees recorded by land surveyors. Composition is defined as the proportion of stems larger than approximately 20 cm diameter at breast height for 22 tree taxa, generally at the genus level. The data come from settlement-era public survey records that are transcribed and then aggregated spatially, giving count data. The domain is divided into two regions, eastern (Maine to Ohio and midwestern (Indiana to Minnesota. Public Land Survey point data in the midwestern region (ca. 0.8-km resolution are aggregated to a regular 8 km grid, while data in the eastern region, from Town Proprietor Surveys, are aggregated at the township level in irregularly-shaped local administrative units. The product is based on a Bayesian statistical model fit to the count data that estimates composition on the 8 km grid across the entire domain. The statistical model is designed to handle data from both the regular grid and the irregularly-shaped townships and allows us to estimate composition at locations with no data and to smooth over noise caused by limited counts in locations with data. Critically, the model also allows us to quantify uncertainty in our composition estimates, making the product suitable for applications employing data assimilation. We expect this data product to be useful for understanding the state of vegetation in the northeastern United States prior to large-scale Euro-American settlement. In addition to specific regional questions, the data product can also serve as a baseline against which to investigate how forests and ecosystems change after intensive settlement. The data product is being made available at the NIS data portal as version 1.0.

  6. Oil refinery dusts: morphological and size analysis by TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielicki, Przemysław; Janik, Helena; Guzman, Agnieszka; Broniszewski, Mieczysław; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to develop a means of sampling atmospheric dusts on the premises of an oil refinery for electron microscopic study to carry out preliminary morphological analyses and to compare these dusts with those collected at sites beyond the refinery limits. Carbon and collodion membranes were used as a support for collection of dust particles straight on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. Micrographs of the dust particles were taken at magnifications from ×4,000 to ×80,000 with a Tesla BS500 transmission electron microscope. Four parameters were defined on the basis of the micrographs: surface area, Feret diameter, circumference, and shape coefficient. The micrographs and literature data were used to classify the atmospheric dusts into six groups: particles with an irregular shape and rounded edges; particles with an irregular shape and sharp edges; soot and its aggregates; spherical particles; singly occurring, ultrafine dust particles; and particles not allocated to any of the previous five groups. The types of dusts found in all the samples were similar, although differences did exist between the various morphological parameters. Dust particles with the largest Feret diameter were present in sample 3 (mean, 0.739 μm)-these were collected near the refinery's effluent treatment plant. The particles with the smallest diameter were found in the sample that had been intended to be a reference sample for the remaining results (mean, 0.326 μm). The dust particles collected in the refinery had larger mean Feret diameters, even 100% larger, than those collected beyond it. Particles with diameters from 0.1 to 0.2 μm made up the most numerous group in all the samples collected in the refinery.

  7. Predicting clinical outcomes in chordoma patients receiving immunotherapy: a comparison between volumetric segmentation and RECIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenerty, Kathleen E.; Folio, Les R.; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Marté, Jennifer L.; Gulley, James L.; Heery, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) are the current standard for evaluating disease progression or therapy response in patients with solid tumors. RECIST 1.1 calls for axial, longest-diameter (or perpendicular short axis of lymph nodes) measurements of a maximum of five tumors, which limits clinicians’ ability to adequately measure disease burden, especially in patients with irregularly shaped tumors. This is especially problematic in chordoma, a disease for which RECIST does not always adequately capture disease burden because chordoma tumors are typically irregularly shaped and slow-growing. Furthermore, primary chordoma tumors tend to be adjacent to vital structures in the skull or sacrum that, when compressed, lead to significant clinical consequences. Volumetric segmentation is a newer technology that allows tumor burden to be measured in three dimensions on either MR or CT. Here, we compared the ability of RECIST measurements and tumor volumes to predict clinical outcomes in a cohort of 21 chordoma patients receiving immunotherapy. There was a significant difference in radiologic time to progression Kaplan-Meier curves between clinical outcome groups using volumetric segmentation (P = 0.012) but not RECIST (P = 0.38). In several cases, changes in volume were earlier and more sensitive reflections of clinical status. RECIST is a useful evaluation method when obvious changes are occurring in patients with chordoma. However, in many cases, RECIST does not detect small changes, and volumetric assessment was capable of detecting changes and predicting clinical outcome earlier than RECIST. Although this study was small and retrospective, we believe our results warrant further research in this area

  8. Retrospective Methods Analysis of Semiautomated Intracerebral Hemorrhage Volume Quantification From a Selection of the STICH II Cohort (Early Surgery Versus Initial Conservative Treatment in Patients With Spontaneous Supratentorial Lobar Intracerebral Haematomas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Mark D; Gregson, Barbara A; Mould, W Andrew; Hanley, Daniel F; Mendelow, Alexander David

    2018-02-01

    The ABC/2 method for calculating intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume has been well validated. However, the formula, derived from the volume of an ellipse, assumes the shape of ICH is elliptical. We sought to compare the agreement of the ABC/2 formula with other methods through retrospective analysis of a selection of the STICH II cohort (Early Surgery Versus Initial Conservative Treatment in Patients With Spontaneous Supratentorial Lobar Intracerebral Haematomas). From 390 patients, 739 scans were selected from the STICH II image archive based on the availability of a CT scan compatible with OsiriX DICOM viewer. ICH volumes were calculated by the reference standard semiautomatic segmentation in OsiriX software and compared with calculated arithmetic methods (ABC/2, ABC/2.4, ABC/3, and 2/3SC) volumes. Volumes were compared by difference plots for specific groups: randomization ICH (n=374), 3- to 7-day postsurgical ICH (n=206), antithrombotic-associated ICH (n=79), irregular-shape ICH (n=703) and irregular-density ICH (n=650). Density and shape were measured by the Barras ordinal shape and density groups (1-5). The ABC/2.4 method had the closest agreement to the semiautomatic segmentation volume in all groups, except for the 3- to 7-day postsurgical ICH group where the ABC/3 method was superior. Although the ABC/2 formula for calculating elliptical ICH is well validated, it must be used with caution in ICH scans where the elliptical shape of ICH is a false assumption. We validated the adjustment of the ABC/2.4 method in randomization, antithrombotic-associated, heterogeneous-density, and irregular-shape ICH. URL: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN22153967. Unique identifier: ISRCTN22153967. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Ultrasonographic criteria for fine needle aspiration of nonpalpable thyroid nodules 1–2 cm in diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Yang, E-mail: j0kim040@louisville.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Louisville, 530 South Jackson Street, Louisville, KY 40242 (United States); Department of Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 737 Star tower, 40 floor, Yeoksam-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-080 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Young; Yang, Ki Ra [Department of Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 737 Star tower, 40 floor, Yeoksam-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-080 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To investigate the ultrasonographic (US) characteristics for nonpalpable thyroid nodules 1–2 cm in diameter and to evaluate the guideline for fine needle aspiration (FNA) in terms of US findings. Materials and methods: Between June 2005 and November 2006, FNA was performed in 919 thyroid nodules by radiologists. Of these nodules, 51 malignant nodules and 72 benign nodules were finally included. All 123 nodules were analyzed by 3 radiologists if there were the following US characteristics: marked hypoechogenecity, hypoechogenecity, isoechogenecity, hyperechogenecity, microcalcification, coarse calcification, rim calcification, spiculated margin, taller-than-wide shape, irregular shape, hypoechoic rim and honeycomb appearance. The maximum diameters of nodules and thickness of hypoechoic rim were measured. US characteristics relevant as predictors were identified using a Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and odds ratio. We compared the diagnostic efficacy of 3 US criteria for FNA indication. Results: Microcalcification, taller-than-wide shape, marked hypoechogenecity, hypoechogenecity, coarse calcification, irregular shape and spiculated margin were significant characteristics of malignant nodules. Isoechogenecity, hypoechoic rim and honeycomb appearance was significant characteristics of benign nodules. Rim or arc calcification, hyperechogenecity and thickness of hypoechoic rim were insignificant. Among 3 US criteria for FNA indication, NFI showed the highest diagnostic efficacy, 98.0% in sensitivity, 75.0% in specificity and 150.0 in odds ratio. Conclusion: As for nonpalpable thyroid nodules 1–2 cm in diameter, US characteristics are useful for differentiating between malignant and benign nodules. Malignant US characteristics and honeycombing appearance have significant value in selecting nodules for biopsy and reducing the frequency of the FNA procedure.

  10. TLD-300 detectors for separate measurement of total and gamma absorbed dose distributions of single, multiple, and moving-field neutron treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1984-01-01

    Fast neutron therapy requirements, because of the poor depth dose characteristic of present therapeutical sources, are at least as complex in treatment plans as photon therapy. The physical part of the treatment planning is very important; however, it is much more complicated than for photons or electrons owing to the need for: Separation of total and gamma absorbed dose distributions (Dsub(T) and Dsub(G)); and more stringent tissue-equivalence conditions of phantoms than in photon therapy. Therefore, methods of clinical dosimetry for the separate determination of total and gamma absorbed dose distributions in irregularly shaped (inhomogeneous) phantoms are needed. A method using TLD-300 (CaF 2 :Tm) detectors is described, which is able to give an approximate solution of the above-mentioned dosimetric requirements. The two independent doses, Dsub(T) and Dsub(G), can be calculated by an on-line computer analysis of the digitalized glow curve of TLD-300 detectors, irradiated with d(14)+Be neutrons of the cyclotron isocentric neutron therapy facility CIRCE in Essen. Results are presented for depth and lateral absorbed dose distributions (Dsub(T) and Dsub(G)) for fixed neutron beams of different field sizes compared with measurements by standard procedures (TE-TE ionization chamber, GM counter) in an A-150 phantom. The TLD-300 results for multiple and moving-field treatments (with and without wedge filters) in a patient simulating irregularly shaped (inhomogeneous) phantoms, are shown together with computer calculations of these dose distributions. The probable causes for some systematic deviations are discussed, which lead to open problems for further investigations owing to features of the detector material and the evaluation method, but mainly to differences in the composition of phantom materials used for the calculations (standard dose distributions) and TLD-300 measurements. (author)

  11. Increased technetium uptake is not equivalent to muscle necrosis: scintigraphic, morphological and intramuscular pressure analyses of sore muscles after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, A. G.; Friden, J.; Hargens, A. R.; Lang, G. H.; Thornell, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    A scintigraphic technique employing technetium pyrophosphate uptake was used to identify the area of skeletal muscle damage in the lower leg of four runners 24 h after an ultramarathon footrace (160 km). Most of the race had been run downhill which incorporated an extensive amount of eccentric work. Soreness was diffuse throughout the posterior region of the lower leg. In order to interpret what increased technetium uptake reflects and to express extreme endurance related damages, a biopsy was taken from the 3-D position of abnormal uptake. In addition, intramuscular pressures were determined in the deep posterior compartment. Scintigraphs revealed increased technetium pyrophosphate uptake in the medial portion of the gastrocnemius muscle. For 3698 fibres analysed, 33 fibres (1%) were necrotic, while a few other fibres were either atrophic or irregular shaped. A cluster of necrotic fibres occurred at the fascicular periphery for one subject and fibre type grouping occurred for another. Ultrastructural analysis revealed Z-line streaming near many capillaries and variously altered subsarcolemmal mitochondria including some with paracrystalline inclusions. The majority of the capillaries included thickened and irregular shaped endothelial cells. Intramuscular pressures of the deep posterior compartment were slightly elevated (12-15 mmHg) for three of the four subjects. Increased technetium uptake following extreme endurance running does not just reflect muscle necrosis but also subtle fibre abnormalities. Collectively, these pathological findings are attributed to relative ischaemia occurring during the race and during pre-race training, whereas, intramuscular pressure elevations associated with muscle soreness are attributed to mechanical stress caused by extensive eccentric work during the race.

  12. Pulmonary tumor measurements from x-ray computed tomography in one, two, and three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemaire, Lauren; Owrangi, Amir M; Etemad-Rezai, Roya; Wilson, Laura; O'Riordan, Elaine; Keller, Harry; Driscoll, Brandon; Bauman, Glenn; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

    2011-11-01

    We evaluated the accuracy and reproducibility of three-dimensional (3D) measurements of lung phantoms and patient tumors from x-ray computed tomography (CT) and compared these to one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) measurements. CT images of three spherical and three irregularly shaped tumor phantoms were evaluated by three observers who performed five repeated measurements. Additionally, three observers manually segmented 29 patient lung tumors five times each. Follow-up imaging was performed for 23 tumors and response criteria were compared. For a single subject, imaging was performed on nine occasions over 2 years to evaluate multidimensional tumor response. To evaluate measurement accuracy, we compared imaging measurements to ground truth using analysis of variance. For estimates of precision, intraobserver and interobserver coefficients of variation and intraclass correlations (ICC) were used. Linear regression and Pearson correlations were used to evaluate agreement and tumor response was descriptively compared. For spherical shaped phantoms, all measurements were highly accurate, but for irregularly shaped phantoms, only 3D measurements were in high agreement with ground truth measurements. All phantom and patient measurements showed high intra- and interobserver reproducibility (ICC >0.900). Over a 2-year period for a single patient, there was disagreement between tumor response classifications based on 3D measurements and those generated using 1D and 2D measurements. Tumor volume measurements were highly reproducible and accurate for irregular, spherical phantoms and patient tumors with nonuniform dimensions. Response classifications obtained from multidimensional measurements suggest that 3D measurements provide higher sensitivity to tumor response. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Triangular fibrocartilage lesions: comparison STIR sequence versus arthroscopy findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi; Meng; Xianghong; Wang Linsen; Suo Yongmei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of short TI inversion recovery (STIR) sequence in evaluating triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) lesions, and to compare the findings with the arthroscopy findings. Materials and Methods: Wrist joint MR examination using STIR sequence and arthroscopy were performed in 56 patients with TFC lesions. The parameters of STIR sequence were: TR: 1164 ms, TE: 16 ms, and TI: 90 ms. The sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy in the diagnosis of TFC lesions with STIR sequence were calculated, using arthroscopy as the standard. Results: (1) STIR manifested 10 patients with normal TFC; 6 with small edema or mucous degeneration in the body portion but not involving joint surface edge; 6 with horizontal avulsion in the body portion, but not involving joint surface edge; 6 with avulsion involving joint surface edge; 11 with perforation in central portion; 6 with avulsion in radial attached end; 5 with avulsion in ulnar attached end; 3 with avulsion in both radial and ulnar attached ends; 3 with irregular shape and thin on the whole TFC. (2) Arthroscopy manifested 21 patients with normal TFC; 8 with avulsion involving joint surface edge; 10 with perforation in central portion; 7 with avulsion in radial attached end; 5 with avulsion in ulnar attached end; 2 with avulsion in both radial and ulnar attached ends; 3 with irregular shape on the whole TFC. Using STIR sequence, the sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value. and accuracy were 85.7%, 23.8%, 65.2%, 50%, and 62.5%, respectively, in detection of TFC lesions, with arthroscopy as the standard. Conclusion: STIR sequence has high diagnostic value in detection of TFC lesions. (authors)

  14. Collection strategy, inner morphology, and size distribution of dust particles in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balden, M.; Endstrasser, N.; Humrickhouse, P. W.; Rohde, V.; Rasinski, M.; von Toussaint, U.; Elgeti, S.; Neu, R.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-07-01

    The dust collection and analysis strategy in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is described. During five consecutive operation campaigns (2007-2011), Si collectors were installed, which were supported by filtered vacuum sampling and collection with adhesive tapes in 2009. The outer and inner morphology (e.g. shape) and elemental composition of the collected particles were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The majority of the ˜50 000 analysed particles on the Si collectors of campaign 2009 contain tungsten—the plasma-facing material in AUG—and show basically two different types of outer appearance: spheroids and irregularly shaped particles. By far most of the W-dominated spheroids consist of a solid W core, i.e. solidified W droplets. A part of these particles is coated with a low-Z material; a process that seems to happen presumably in the far scrape-off layer plasma. In addition, some conglomerates of B, C and W appear as spherical particles after their contact with plasma. By far most of the particles classified as B-, C- and W-dominated irregularly shaped particles consist of the same conglomerate with varying fraction of embedded W in the B-C matrix and some porosity, which can exceed 50%. The fragile structures of many conglomerates confirm the absence of intensive plasma contact. Both the ablation and mobilization of conglomerate material and the production of W droplets are proposed to be triggered by arcing. The size distribution of each dust particle class is best described by a log-normal distribution allowing an extrapolation of the dust volume and surface area. The maximum in this distribution is observed above the resolution limit of 0.28 µm only for the W-dominated spheroids, at around 1 µm. The amount of W-containing dust is extrapolated to be less than 300 mg on the horizontal areas of AUG.

  15. Collection strategy, inner morphology, and size distribution of dust particles in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balden, M.; Endstrasser, N.; Rohde, V.; Rasinski, M.; Von Toussaint, U.; Elgeti, S.; Neu, R.; Humrickhouse, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The dust collection and analysis strategy in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is described. During five consecutive operation campaigns (2007–2011), Si collectors were installed, which were supported by filtered vacuum sampling and collection with adhesive tapes in 2009. The outer and inner morphology (e.g. shape) and elemental composition of the collected particles were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The majority of the ∼50 000 analysed particles on the Si collectors of campaign 2009 contain tungsten—the plasma-facing material in AUG—and show basically two different types of outer appearance: spheroids and irregularly shaped particles. By far most of the W-dominated spheroids consist of a solid W core, i.e. solidified W droplets. A part of these particles is coated with a low-Z material; a process that seems to happen presumably in the far scrape-off layer plasma. In addition, some conglomerates of B, C and W appear as spherical particles after their contact with plasma. By far most of the particles classified as B-, C- and W-dominated irregularly shaped particles consist of the same conglomerate with varying fraction of embedded W in the B–C matrix and some porosity, which can exceed 50%. The fragile structures of many conglomerates confirm the absence of intensive plasma contact. Both the ablation and mobilization of conglomerate material and the production of W droplets are proposed to be triggered by arcing. The size distribution of each dust particle class is best described by a log-normal distribution allowing an extrapolation of the dust volume and surface area. The maximum in this distribution is observed above the resolution limit of 0.28 µm only for the W-dominated spheroids, at around 1 µm. The amount of W-containing dust is extrapolated to be less than 300 mg on the horizontal areas of AUG. (paper)

  16. Growth of surface structures correlated with structural and mechanical modifications of brass by laser-induced Si plasma ions implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shahbaz; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, M. Shahid; Yousaf, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Laser-produced Si plasma is employed as an ion source for implantation on the brass substrate for its surface, structural, and mechanical modifications. Thomson parabola technique is employed for the measurement of energy and flux of Si ions using CR-39. In response to stepwise increase in number of laser pulses from 3000 to 12000, four brass substrates were implanted by laser-induced Si plasma ions of energy 290 keV at different fluxes ranging from 45 × 1012 to 75 × 1015 ions/cm2. SEM analysis reveals the formation of nano/micro-sized irregular shaped cavities and pores for the various ion fluxes for varying numbers of laser pulses from 3000 to 9000. At the maximum ion flux for 12,000 pulses, distinct and organized grains with hexagonal and irregular shaped morphology are revealed. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis exhibits that a new phase of CuSi (311) is identified which confirms the implantation of Si ions in brass substrate. A significant decrease in mechanical properties of implanted brass, such as Yield Stress (YS), Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), and hardness, with increasing laser pulses from 3000 to 6000 is observed. However, with increasing laser pulses from 9000 to a maximum value of 12,000, an increase in mechanical properties like hardness, YS, and UTS is observed. The generation as well as annihilation of defects, recrystallization, and intermixing of Si precipitates with brass matrix is considered to be responsible for variations in surface, structural, and mechanical modifications of brass.

  17. Visuomotor learning in cerebellar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmann, D; Shimansky, Y; Larson, P S; Wunderlich, D A; Stelmach, G E; Bloedel, J R

    1996-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that patients with pathology affecting substantial regions of the cerebellum can improve their performance in a series of two-dimensional tracing tasks, thus supporting the view that this type of motor behavior can be acquired even when the integrity of this structure is compromised. Eight patients with chronic, isolated cerebellar lesions and eight age- and sex-matched healthy controls were tested. Three patients had mild, five had moderate upper limb ataxia. The experiment was divided into two parts. In the first, subjects traced an irregularly shaped outline over 20 consecutive trials ('Trace 1' task). Next, subjects were asked to redraw the object without any underlying template as a guide ('Memory 1' task). In the second part of the study, subjects were asked to trace a different, irregularly shaped outline over 20 consecutive trials ('Trace 2' task). Next, they were required to redraw it by memory with its axis rotated 90 degrees ('Memory 2' task). In each of the memory tasks the template was placed over the drawn image after each trial and shown to the subjects. The error of performance was determined by calculating three different measurements, each focused on different aspects of the task. Based on these measurements, the cerebellar patients showed improvement in both memory tasks. In the 'Memory 1' task the calculated error decreased significantly for the patients with mild ataxia. In the 'Memory 2' task all cerebellar patients improved their performance substantially enough to reduce significantly the magnitude of all three error measurements. The experiments demonstrate that patients with cerebellar lesions are capable of improving substantially their performance of a complex motor task involving the recall of memorized shapes and the visuomotor control of a tracing movement.

  18. Impaired capacity of cerebellar patients to perceive and learn two-dimensional shapes based on kinesthetic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, Y; Saling, M; Wunderlich, D A; Bracha, V; Stelmach, G E; Bloedel, J R

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of the role of the cerebellum in the processing of sensory information by determining the capability of cerebellar patients to acquire and use kinesthetic cues received via the active or passive tracing of an irregular shape while blindfolded. Patients with cerebellar lesions and age-matched healthy controls were tested on four tasks: (1) learning to discriminate a reference shape from three others through the repeated tracing of the reference template; (2) reproducing the reference shape from memory by drawing blindfolded; (3) performing the same task with vision; and (4) visually recognizing the reference shape. The cues used to acquire and then to recognize the reference shape were generated under four conditions: (1) "active kinesthesia," in which cues were acquired by the blindfolded subject while actively tracing a reference template; (2) "passive kinesthesia," in which the tracing was performed while the hand was guided passively through the template; (3) "sequential vision," in which the shape was visualized by the serial exposure of small segments of its outline; and (4) "full vision," in which the entire shape was visualized. The sequential vision condition was employed to emulate the sequential way in which kinesthetic information is acquired while tracing the reference shape. The results demonstrate a substantial impairment of cerebellar patients in their capability to perceive two-dimensional irregular shapes based only on kinesthetic cues. There also is evidence that this deficit in part relates to a reduced capacity to integrate temporal sequences of sensory cues into a complete image useful for shape discrimination tasks or for reproducing the shape through drawing. Consequently, the cerebellum has an important role in this type of sensory information processing even when it is not directly associated with the execution of movements.

  19. Comparison of models and measurements of angle-resolved scatter from irregular aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milstein, Adam B.; Richardson, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed and validated a method for modeling the elastic scattering properties of biological and inert aerosols of irregular shape at near- and mid-wave infrared wavelengths. The method, based on Gaussian random particles, calculates the ensemble-average optical cross section and Mueller scattering matrix, using the measured aerodynamic size distribution and previously-reported refractive index as inputs. The utility of the Gaussian particle model is that it is controlled by only two parameters (σ and Γ) which we have optimized such that the model best reproduces the full angle-resolved Mueller scattering matrices measured at λ=1.55 µm in the Standoff Aerosol Active Signature Testbed (SAAST). The method has been applied to wet-generated singlet biological spore samples, dry-generated biological spore clusters, and kaolin. The scattering computation is performed using the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA), which requires significant computational resources, and is thus implemented on LLGrid, a large parallel grid computer. For the cases presented, the best fit Gaussian particle model is in good qualitative correspondence with microscopy images of the corresponding class of particles. The measured and computed cross sections agree well within a factor of two overall, with certain cases bearing closer correspondence. In particular, the DDA reproduces the shape of the measured scatter function more accurately than Mie predictions. The DDA-computed depolarization factors are also in good agreement with measurement. - Highlights: • We model elastic scattering of biological and inert aerosols of irregular shape. • We calculate cross sections and Mueller matrix using random particle shape model. • Scatter models employ refractive index and measured size distribution as inputs. • Discrete dipole approximation (DDA) with parallelization enables model calculations. • DDA-modeled cross section and Mueller matrix agree well with measurements at 1.55 μm

  20. The use of tetrahedral mesh geometries in Monte Carlo simulation of applicator based brachytherapy dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Yoriyaz, Hélio; Landry, Guillaume; White, Shane; Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank; D’Amours, Michel; Beaulieu, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Accounting for brachytherapy applicator attenuation is part of the recommendations from the recent report of AAPM Task Group 186. To do so, model based dose calculation algorithms require accurate modelling of the applicator geometry. This can be non-trivial in the case of irregularly shaped applicators such as the Fletcher Williamson gynaecological applicator or balloon applicators with possibly irregular shapes employed in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) performed using electronic brachytherapy sources (EBS). While many of these applicators can be modelled using constructive solid geometry (CSG), the latter may be difficult and time-consuming. Alternatively, these complex geometries can be modelled using tessellated geometries such as tetrahedral meshes (mesh geometries (MG)). Recent versions of Monte Carlo (MC) codes Geant4 and MCNP6 allow for the use of MG. The goal of this work was to model a series of applicators relevant to brachytherapy using MG. Applicators designed for 192 Ir sources and 50 kV EBS were studied; a shielded vaginal applicator, a shielded Fletcher Williamson applicator and an APBI balloon applicator. All applicators were modelled in Geant4 and MCNP6 using MG and CSG for dose calculations. CSG derived dose distributions were considered as reference and used to validate MG models by comparing dose distribution ratios. In general agreement within 1% for the dose calculations was observed for all applicators between MG and CSG and between codes when considering volumes inside the 25% isodose surface. When compared to CSG, MG required longer computation times by a factor of at least 2 for MC simulations using the same code. MCNP6 calculation times were more than ten times shorter than Geant4 in some cases. In conclusion we presented methods allowing for high fidelity modelling with results equivalent to CSG. To the best of our knowledge MG offers the most accurate representation of an irregular APBI balloon applicator. (paper)

  1. Synthesis, multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance and electromagnetic absorption properties of hcp-cobalt particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Shulai; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiuchen; Cheng, Jingwei; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hcp-cobalt particles were successfully prepared by a liquid phase reduction method, and the microstructure, static magnetic properties, electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties of the cobalt particles with irregular shape were investigated in detail. The measured results indicate that the saturation magnetization was less than that of hcp-Co single crystals, and the coercivity was larger than that of bulk cobalt crystal. The permittivity presents multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance, which may result from the irregular shape containing parts of cutting angle of dodecahedron of cobalt particles. The real part of permeability decreases with the frequency, and the imaginary part has a wide resonant peak. The paraffin-based composite containing 70 wt% cobalt particles possessed strong absorption characteristics with a minimum RL of −38.97 dB at 10.81 GHz and an absorption band with RL under −10 dB from 8.72 to 13.26 GHz when the thickness is 1.8 mm, which exhibits excellent microwave absorption in middle and high frequency. The architectural design of material morphologies is important for improving microwave absorption properties toward future application. - Highlights: • Hcp-cobalt particles were prepared by a liquid phase reduction method. • The saturation magnetization was less than that of hcp-Co single crystals. • The permittivity presents multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance. • The real part of permeability decreases with frequency, and the imaginary part presents a wide resonant peak. • The paraffin-based composite possessed a minimum RL of −38.97 dB at 10.81 GHz

  2. High-speed scanning: an improved algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachimuthu, A.; Hoang, Khoi

    1995-10-01

    In using machine vision for assessing an object's surface quality, many images are required to be processed in order to separate the good areas from the defective ones. Examples can be found in the leather hide grading process; in the inspection of garments/canvas on the production line; in the nesting of irregular shapes into a given surface... . The most common method of subtracting the total area from the sum of defective areas does not give an acceptable indication of how much of the `good' area can be used, particularly if the findings are to be used for the nesting of irregular shapes. This paper presents an image scanning technique which enables the estimation of useable areas within an inspected surface in terms of the user's definition, not the supplier's claims. That is, how much useable area the user can use, not the total good area as the supplier estimated. An important application of the developed technique is in the leather industry where the tanner (the supplier) and the footwear manufacturer (the user) are constantly locked in argument due to disputed quality standards of finished leather hide, which disrupts production schedules and wasted costs in re-grading, re- sorting... . The developed basic algorithm for area scanning of a digital image will be presented. The implementation of an improved scanning algorithm will be discussed in detail. The improved features include Boolean OR operations and many other innovative functions which aim at optimizing the scanning process in terms of computing time and the accurate estimation of useable areas.

  3. Oil refinery dusts: morphological and size analysis by TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sielicki, Przemyslaw; Janik, Helena; Guzman, Agnieszka [Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Polymer Technology, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk (Poland); Broniszewski, Mieczyslaw [Environmental Protection Office, Lotos Group, Gdansk (Poland); Namiesnik, Jacek [Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-03-15

    The objectives of this work were to develop a means of sampling atmospheric dusts on the premises of an oil refinery for electron microscopic study to carry out preliminary morphological analyses and to compare these dusts with those collected at sites beyond the refinery limits. Carbon and collodion membranes were used as a support for collection of dust particles straight on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. Micrographs of the dust particles were taken at magnifications from x 4,000 to x 80,000 with a Tesla BS500 transmission electron microscope. Four parameters were defined on the basis of the micrographs: surface area, Feret diameter, circumference, and shape coefficient. The micrographs and literature data were used to classify the atmospheric dusts into six groups: particles with an irregular shape and rounded edges; particles with an irregular shape and sharp edges; soot and its aggregates; spherical particles; singly occurring, ultrafine dust particles; and particles not allocated to any of the previous five groups. The types of dusts found in all the samples were similar, although differences did exist between the various morphological parameters. Dust particles with the largest Feret diameter were present in sample 3 (mean, 0.739 {mu}m) - these were collected near the refinery's effluent treatment plant. The particles with the smallest diameter were found in the sample that had been intended to be a reference sample for the remaining results (mean, 0.326 {mu}m). The dust particles collected in the refinery had larger mean Feret diameters, even 100% larger, than those collected beyond it. Particles with diameters from 0.1 to 0.2 {mu}m made up the most numerous group in all the samples collected in the refinery. (orig.)

  4. Fecal parasite identification by microscopy and PCR in scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, managed at two sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, Cassandra Dawn; Oller, Anna R; Jackson, Victoria

    2016-12-01

    The scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah , an endangered species extinct in the wild, is managed in various captive management programs and is the focus of reintroduction efforts. Management variability can contribute to substantial parasite load differences, which can affect deworming programs and potentially transfer parasites to different regions with translocations. Parasite studies in O. dammah are lacking. In this study, we determined fecal egg/oocyst counts of O. dammah in two captive herds, Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (FRWC) and Kansas City Zoo (KCZ). Fecal egg counts (FEC) were performed on O. dammah feces collected seasonally using the modified McMaster method, and microscopy provided additional identification of parasite genera ova and oocysts. To identify parasites to species level, homogenized fecals provided DNA subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genus specific primers. Microscopy and sequencing results indicated the presence of Strongylus (Strongylus vulgaris, Angiostrongylus cantonensis) , Trichostrongylus (Haemonchus contortus, Camelostrongylus mentulatus) , Trichuris (T. leporis, T. ovis, and T. discolor) , Isospora (Isospora gryphoni) and Eimeria (E. zuernii and E. bovis) , with Strongylus being the most common. Nematodirus was identified through microscopy at FRWC. Fecal egg counts were significantly higher in (FRWC) than in (KCZ) in all samplings (P = <0.001). No significant difference was seen between parasite load and seasons (P = 0.103), nor site and season (P = 0.51). Both study sites maintained most animals within commonly accepted FEC levels found in domestic livestock. Individuals with high numbers of EPG or OPG were subordinate males, pregnant females, or neonates. Several significant interactions were found between genera of parasites, age, sex, season, and pregnancy status in the FRWC herd. Sampling limitations prevented further analysis of the KCZ herd. Understanding interactions between parasite loads and

  5. Fecal parasite identification by microscopy and PCR in scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, managed at two sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Dawn Pauling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, an endangered species extinct in the wild, is managed in various captive management programs and is the focus of reintroduction efforts. Management variability can contribute to substantial parasite load differences, which can affect deworming programs and potentially transfer parasites to different regions with translocations. Parasite studies in O. dammah are lacking. In this study, we determined fecal egg/oocyst counts of O. dammah in two captive herds, Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (FRWC and Kansas City Zoo (KCZ. Fecal egg counts (FEC were performed on O. dammah feces collected seasonally using the modified McMaster method, and microscopy provided additional identification of parasite genera ova and oocysts. To identify parasites to species level, homogenized fecals provided DNA subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific primers. Microscopy and sequencing results indicated the presence of Strongylus (Strongylus vulgaris, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Trichostrongylus (Haemonchus contortus, Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Trichuris (T. leporis, T. ovis, and T. discolor, Isospora (Isospora gryphoni and Eimeria (E. zuernii and E. bovis, with Strongylus being the most common. Nematodirus was identified through microscopy at FRWC. Fecal egg counts were significantly higher in (FRWC than in (KCZ in all samplings (P = <0.001. No significant difference was seen between parasite load and seasons (P = 0.103, nor site and season (P = 0.51. Both study sites maintained most animals within commonly accepted FEC levels found in domestic livestock. Individuals with high numbers of EPG or OPG were subordinate males, pregnant females, or neonates. Several significant interactions were found between genera of parasites, age, sex, season, and pregnancy status in the FRWC herd. Sampling limitations prevented further analysis of the KCZ herd. Understanding interactions between parasite loads and

  6. Chronic diarrhoea in HIV patients: Prevalence of coccidian parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV patients with or without diarrhoea and to see an association between diarrhoea and the coccidian parasites in our setting. Stool samples from 113 HIV patients, 34 chronic diarrhoea and 79 without any history of diarrhoea were collected and examined for enteric parasites by microscopy. One hundred and thirteen control samples from HIV negative patients complaining of prolonged diarrhoea were also collected and analysed. Prevalence of coccidian parasites in HIV and non-HIV patients; with and without diarrhoea was compared using chi-square tests. Enteric parasites were detected in 55.8% HIV patients with diarrhoea compared to 16.4% in patients without diarrhoea ( P < 0.001. Isospora belli was found in 41.1% (14/34 of chronic diarrhoea and 6.3% (5/79 in non-diarrhoeal cases ( P < 0.001. Cryptosporidium was detected in 20.6% (7/34 of chronic diarrhoea and 2.5% (2/79 in non-diarrhoeal cases ( P < 0.01. Cyclospora cayetanensis associated diarrhoea was detected in only one case of chronic diarrhoea (2.9%. CD4+ T-cell count was lower (180 cells/μl0 in diarrhoeal HIV patients as compared to non-diarrhoeal patients. Coccidian parasites were seen at a mean CD4+ T-cell count of 186.3 cells/μL. This study concluded that Isospora belli was the predominant parasite followed by Cryptosporidium spp. and both were strongly associated with diarrhoea among HIV patients.

  7. [Enteroparasite determination in Lactuca sativa from farms dedicated to its production in Pasto, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Giovanni Andrés; Benavides, Carmenza Janneth; Astaiza, Juan Manuel; Vallejo, Dario Antonio; Betancourt, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    Currently, vegetables like lettuce are widely recommended as part of the daily diet given their high nutritional value; however, while consumers feel attracted to the benefits provided by the vegetable, they may also be exposed to parasitic intestinal infections. To determine the presence or absence of enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown in the rural area in the municipality of Pasto, and to analyze associated factors based on the characterization of the lands. We conducted a descriptive double blind cross-sectional study. We took a total of 105 samples from 21 properties from June to December, 2013, and we processed them by sedimentation and flotation tests. Additionally, the owners were surveyed in order to obtain information about the possible variables influencing the occurrence of enteroparasites. We detected contamination in 100% of the lettuce samples and we found parasite eggs and larvae as follows: 95.25% with Entamoeba spp. cysts; 71.43% with Isospora spp. oocysts; 61.90% with Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (L3); 28.57% with Toxocara spp. eggs, and 4.76% with Eimeria spp. oocysts. Using the chi-square test we found association between Entamoeba spp. and ditches (p=0.008), dogs (p=0.008) and septic tanks (p=0.029); between Isospora spp. and compost (p=0.0001), dogs (p=0.0001) and slugs (p=0.002); between S. stercoralis and handling (p=0.003), and between Toxocara spp. and no use of biodigesters (p= 0.002). We found contamination with enteroparasites in lettuce samples from growing areas in the municipality of Pasto with animal and human sources as their main reservoirs, although others were present in the environment.

  8. Survey of Dogs’ Parasites in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhR Razmi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dog is known to act as definitive host for some parasites that cause important diseases in man and animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Neospora caninum and other intestinal parasites in dogs in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was done concerning frequency of N. canium and other in­testinal parasites in dogs in Mashhad area. Totally, 174 fecal samples from 89 farm dogs and 85 household dogs were collected from 2006 to 2007. Fecal samples were examined for de­tecting intestinal parasites by Mini Parasep®SF faecal parasite concentrator in Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran "nResults: The overall prevalence of other intestinal parasites in farm dogs and household dogs were 29.21% and 14.11%, respectively. Seven parasites were found in farm dogs as follows: Toxocara canis 17.9%, Taenia sp. 10.1% , Strongyloides stercoralis 5.6%, Hammondia Neo­spora-like oocysts (HNLO 4.4% , Isospora sp. 7.8 %, Sarcocystis sp. 7.8 % and   Giardia sp. 1.1%  and four parasite in housed dogs:  Toxocara. 4.4%, Taenia sp. 3.3 % , Isospora sp. 2.3 % and  Sarcocystis sp. 4.7 %.  The fecal samples with HNLO were examined by N. caninum -specific PCR, and two of samples were positive for N. caninum. "nConclusion: The farm and household dogs are the source of some important zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases in Iran .

  9. Eimeria peltocephali n. sp., (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae from the Freshwater Turtle Peltocephalus dumerilianus (Chelonia:Pelomusidae and Eimeria molossi n. sp., from the Bat, Molossus ater (Mammalia:Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson R

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The oocyst is described of Eimeria peltocephali n.sp. from faeces of the freshwater turtle Peltocephalus dumerilianus from Barcelos, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts are elongate, ellipsoidal or cylindrical, frequently curved to a banana-shape, 54.4 x19.1 (37.5 - 68.7 x 18.7-20.0 µm, shape-index 2.8 (1.8 -3.9. The oocyst wall is a single thin, colourless layer about 1 µm thick, with no micropyle. There is a bulky oocyst residuum, at first spherical to ellipsoidal, 19 x 16 (16. 2 -26.2 x 16 - 21.5µm , but becoming dispersed on maturation. There are no polar bodies. The sporocysts, 19.1 x 6.8 ( 17.5 -21.2 x 6.2 -7.5 µm, shape- index 2.8 (2.3 -3.2, are usually disposed in pairs at each end of the oocyst, and bear an inconspicuous Stieda body in the form of a flat cap. The sporozoites are elongate and slightly curved around the residuum. No refractile bodies were seen. Eimeria molossi n.sp., is described from the molossid bat Molossus ater. Sporulation is exogenous and the mature oocysts are predominantly broadly ellipsoidal, 23.4 x 17.5 (18-30 x 15-22.5 µm, shape-index 1.3 (1-1.6. The oocyst wall is about 2 µm thick, and of three layers: an inner thin, colourless one and two outer layers which are thicker, yellowish-brown, prominently striated and in close apposition. There is no micropyle or oocyst residuum, but one and occasionally two polar bodies are usually present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.2 x 7.5 (10-12.5 x 7.5 µm, shape-index 1.4 (1.3-1.7 with an inconspicuous Stieda body. Endogenous stages are described in the epithelial cells of the small intestine

  10. Synthesis of [1,2-T2]-nandrolon for RIA kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, L.; Postolache, C.; Bubueanu, G.; Tanase, C.; Podina, C.

    2009-01-01

    Nandrolon is an androgenic growth promoter. This anabolic substance can be used for accelerating the increase of animal body mass. This steroid is used also in the therapy of animals like cattle, sheep or hogs and it can be found as residuum in the animal body. In a lot of countries this therapy is used abusively and, as result, results in a high level of residuals in different food stuffs such as beef and pork meat and veal liver. Because of these potential health damages it is important to monitor the food concerning the hormonal residuals. Due to their very low concentration in animal products, these chemical compounds can be determined only using ELISA and RIA immunochemical analysis techniques. In this paper, we describe the methods of obtaining tritium-labeled nandrolone for RIA kits production. (author)

  11. Deploying the carbonization of cupuacu rind for energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva dos; Mendonca, Marco Antonio de Freitas [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (DEAS/FCA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e Solos; Araujo, Moises Silva; Moura, Rodolfo Pessoa de Melo [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias; Seye, Omar; Mota, Sheila Cordeiro [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (CDEAM/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico; Azevedo, Daniel de Menezes [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (DPAV/FCA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Producao Animal e Vegetal

    2008-07-01

    The State of Amazonas presents one of the smallest deforestation index (0,04%), due mainly to the the development model adopted in the state, which contributes for the preservation of the forest. Farming activities are important to the local economy, and among several native species commercially cultivated, one deserves special attention, namely, the fruit of cupuacuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum), since it is highly appreciated and consumed in Amazon region. The residuum produced from its improvement (rind), when gathered next to the plantation can cause the proliferation of phytopathogenic agents, resulting in economic prejudices to the producers. Aiming to use its rind for energy use, it has been proceeded a study of carbonization in igloo-like oven, at the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Amazon. The duration of rind carbonization took 25 hours, and the energy characteristics for energy use has been proven to be acceptable, as for example the calorific capacity of 23, 8 MJ/kg. (author)

  12. Enhanced E-bed bottoms upgrading using latest catalytic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshima, H.; Mayo, S.; Sedlacek, Z.; Hughes, T.; De Wind, M. [Albermarle Corp., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    The profitability of refineries depends on heavy oil upgrading in terms of price, conversion, yields and quality of the product. The Ebullated-bed process represents a solution for the effective primary upgrading of heavy oils. Since the 1970s, Albemarle has commercialized several E-bed catalysts to upgrade the bottoms in low sediment and high hydrogenation operations. Although an E-bed is used to maximize the conversion of vacuum residuum (VR), it is often limited by fouling caused by sediment in the product. In order to reduce sedimentation in the product, Albemarle developed an improved E-bed catalytic technology by characterizing the asphaltenes and sediments in order to better understand the oil chemistry and compatibility. The most recent development involves the patented catalyst-staging technology and the improved single catalyst application. Both achieve very low sediment or higher hydrodesulphurization (HDS) and Conradson carbon (CCR) removal for improved bottom upgrading. tabs., figs.

  13. Assessment of subsidence in karst terranes at selected areas in East Tennessee and comparison with a candidate site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.G.; Tanner, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    Work in the respective areas included assessment of conditions related to sinkhole development. Information collected and assessed involved geology, hydrogeology, land use, lineaments and linear trends, identification of karst features and zones, and inventory of historical sinkhole development and type. Karstification of the candidate, Rhea County, and Morristown study areas, in comparison to other karst areas in Tennessee, can be classified informally as youthful, submature, and mature, respectively. Historical sinkhole development in the more karstified areas is attributed to the greater degree of structural deformation by faulting and fracturing, subsequent solutioning of bedrock, thinness of residuum, and degree of development by man. Sinkhole triggering mechanisms identified are progressive solution of bedrock, water-level fluctuations, piping, and loading. 68 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  14. Partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus and fluorine in some lunar lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, W. P.; Hausel, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar sample 14310 is a feldspar-rich basalt which shows no evidence of shock deformation or recrystallization. Pyroxenes include Mg-rich orthopyroxene, pigeonite and augite; pyroxferroite occurs in the interstitial residuum. Plagioclase feldspars are zoned from An(96) to An(67), and variations in feldspar compositions do not necessarily indicate loss of Na during eruption of the lava. Opaque phases include ilmenite, ulvospinel, metallic iron, troilite, and schreibersite. Both whitlockite and apatite are present, and the interstitial residua contain baddeleyite, tranquillityite and barium-rich sanidine. Theoretical calculations provide estimates of partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus, and fluorine in lunar magmas. In general, partial pressures of oxygen are restricted by the limiting assemblages of iron-wuestite and ilmenite-iron-rutile; phosphorus partial pressures are higher in lunar magmas than in terrestrial lavas. The occurrence of whitlockite indicates significantly lower fugacities of fluorine in lunar magmas than in terrestrial magmas.

  15. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. from Pipistrellus kuhlii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dakhil, Mohamed; Al-Shawa, Yaser

    1999-01-01

    Fecal samples from 12 Pipistrellus kuhlii captured at Shagrah, Saudi Arabia, were examined for coccidia and three (25%) found to harbor a undescribed eimerian, herein described as Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. Sporulated oocysts were subspherical, 24.8×23.2 (22-27×20-25) µm, with a bilayered and smooth wall. The micropyle was absent, but a large oocyst residuum and a single polar granule were present. Sporocysts were ovoid, 11.6×8.3 (10.5-13×7.5-9) µm, with a prominent Stieda body, but without a substiedal body; sporozoites lay head to tail in sporocysts and contained one large posterior refractile body. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. is the 3rd species of the genus Eimeria found from bats of the genus Pipistrellus. PMID:10188376

  16. Ovarian cancer: contribution of radiation therapy to patient management: Erskine Memorial Lecture, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Ovarian cancer may be treated with radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, or a combination. To evaluate the contribution of radiation therapy to patient management the cure rate must be estimated; data are presented suggesting that the 5-year survival rate provides a reasonable estimate of the cure rate. A study of patients treated since 1971 showed that stage and postoperative residuum could be used to divide patients into two subgroups, a poor prognosis group and a good prognosis group; a multifactorial grouping of patients in the good prognosis group who were treated postoperatively with radiation therapy only was further able to divide patients into low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups. Studies of radiation therapy for different subgroups are discussed; abdominopelvic irradiation has been shown to improve survival for approximately one-third of patients with cancer of the ovary

  17. System and process for the production of syngas and fuel gasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Benefiel, Bradley C

    2015-04-21

    The production of gasses and, more particularly, to systems and methods for the production of syngas and fuel gasses including the production of hydrogen are set forth. In one embodiment system and method includes a reactor having a molten pool of a material comprising sodium carbonate. A supply of conditioned water is in communication with the reactor. A supply of carbon containing material is also in communication with the reactor. In one particular embodiment, the carbon containing material may include vacuum residuum (VR). The water and VR may be kept at desired temperatures and pressures compatible with the process that is to take place in the reactor. When introduced into the reactor, the water, the VR and the molten pool may be homogenously mixed in an environment in which chemical reactions take place including the production of hydrogen and other gasses.

  18. Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.B.

    1980-01-01

    A method for determination of beryllium in minerals and rocks is described. The method comprises microanalysis and trace analysis. Because of the toxidity of beryllium the method is designed for determination of a hitherto unknown small amount, 1-10 nanogram Be. With the optimal amount for determination, 3 ng Be, the relative error of the method is 10%. The description includes an inventory of chemicals and apparatus, also an example of application of the method on the mineral epididymite. In brief, the sample is melted with sodium carbonate and sodium tetra borate; when required the sample in advance is fumed with hydrogen fluoride and sulphuric acid to evaporate silica. The residuum is dissolved in water and hydrogen chloride, upon which the solution is made to volume. In the Ring oven interfering compounds are masked with EDTA. Beryllium is settled with chrome azurol and ammonia. Beryllium is identified and evaluated in comparison with previously produced standards. (author)

  19. Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    A method for determination of beryllium in minerals and rocks is described. The method comprises microanalysis and trace analysis. Because of the toxidity of beryllium the method is designed for determination of a hitherto unknown small amount, 1-10 nanogram Be. With the optimal amount for determination, 3 ng Be, the relative error of the method is 10%. The description includes an inventory of chemicals and apparatus, also an example of application of the method on the mineral epididymite. In brief, the sample is melted with sodium carbonate and sodium tetra borate; when required the sample in advance is fumed with hydrogen fluoride and sulphuric acid to evaporate silica. The residuum is dissolved in water and hydrogen chloride, upon which the solution is made to volume. In the Ring oven interfering compounds are masked with EDTA. Beryllium is settled with chrome azurol and ammonia. Beryllium is identified and evaluated in comparison with previously produced standards. (author)

  20. Decomposition of residual oil by large scale HSC plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Koichi; Ogata, Yoshitaka; Limmer, H.; Schuetter, H. (Toyo Engineering Corp., funabashi, Japan VEB Petrolchemisches Kombinat Schwedt, Schwedt (East Germany))

    1989-07-01

    Regarding large scale and high decomposition ratio visbreaker HSC, characteristic points and operation conditions of a new plant in East Germany were introduced. As for the characteristics of the process, high decomposition ratio and stable decpmposed oil, availability of high sulfur content oil or even decomposed residuum of visbreaker, stableness of produced light oil with low content of unsaturated components, low investment with low running cost, were indicated. For the realization of high decomposition ratio, designing for suppressing the decomposition in heating furnace and accelaration of it in soaking drum, high space velocity of gas phase for better agitation, were raised. As the main subject of technical development, design of soaking drum was indicated with main dimensions for the designing. Operation conditions of the process in East Germany using residual oil supplied from already working visbreaker for USSR crude oil were introduced. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Endosulfan in water soils and fruits usage impact in a production intensive rural area of vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, R.; Stapff, M.; Mandl, B.; Franchi, S.; Enrich, N.; Campelo, E.

    2007-01-01

    The first phase of a project aimed to detect agrochemical remainders in soil, fruits and groundwater was carried out in four rural properties located in the vegetable and fruit production region of Salto. The presence of endosulfan was tracked because the alert was given from Europe about the withdrawal of this chemical from the authorized product list, considering that it may be a potencial threat with long persistence for human health. From this first sampling phase was concluded that there is a high persistence in soil, in harvested fruit the remainings found stay below the Maximum Limits for Residuum of the Alimentarius Codex, and it is not detected at all in groundwater. The advantages of working with an interdisciplinary approach were highly valuable to perform this study of the impact of the remainings of one of the chemicals currently used for the agricultural production in our country

  2. A qualitative study of the challenges of providing pre-prosthetic rehabilitation in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennion, Liezel; Johannesson, Anton

    2018-04-01

    There is a known shortage of rehabilitation staff in rural settings and a sharp increase in the number of lower limb amputations being performed. A lack of adequate pre-prosthetic rehabilitation will result in worse physical and psychological outcomes for a person with a lower limb amputation, and they will not be eligible to be fitted with a prosthesis. To explore therapists' experiences with providing pre-prosthetic rehabilitation in a rural setting. A qualitative descriptive approach was used to collect and analyse data. Data were collected from 17 purposively sampled therapists in five district hospitals in a rural community in South Africa. Data were collected in two rounds of focus groups to explore the challenges of providing pre-prosthetic rehabilitation in rural South Africa. The main themes identified in the study were (1) a lack of government health system support, (2) poor socioeconomic circumstances of patients and (3) cultural factors that influence rehabilitation. These themes all negatively influence the therapists' ability to follow up patients for pre-prosthetic rehabilitation after discharge from hospital. A lack of adequate pre-prosthetic rehabilitation is a substantial barrier to prosthetic fitting in rural South Africa. Patients who do not receive pre-prosthetic rehabilitation have a poorly shaped residuum or other complications such as knee or hip joint contractures which disqualifies them from being referred to prosthetic services. Therapists involved in this study identified the most important barriers to patients having access to prosthetic services. Clinical relevance Pre-prosthetic rehabilitation provides care of the residuum; maintenance or improvement of physical strength, joint range of motion and referral to a prosthetist. By exploring the challenges known to exist in this service, we can identify potential ways to reduce these barriers and improve the lives of those who use it.

  3. Evaluation of the ORNL area for future waste burial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Byerly, D.W.; Gonzales, S.

    1983-10-01

    Additional waste-burial facilities will be needed at ORNL within this decade. In order to find environmentally acceptable sites, the ORNL area must be systematically evaluated. This document represents the first step in that selection process. Geologic and hydrologic data from the literature and minor field investigations are used to identify more favorable sites for Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7. Also underway at this time is a companion study to locate a Central Waste Storage Area which could be used in the future to accommodate wastes generated by the X-10, Y-12, and K-25 facilities. From the several watershed options available, the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin is selected as the most promising hydrologic regime. This area contains all past and present waste-disposal facilities and is thus already well monitored. The seven bedrock units within the ORNL area are evaluated as potential burial media. Shales of the Conasauga Group, which are currently used for waste burial in the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin, and the Knox Group are considered the leading candidates. Although the residuum derived from and overlying the Knox dolomite has many favorable characteristics and may be regarded as having a high potential for burial of low-level wastes, at the present it is unproven. Therefore, the Conasauga shales are considered a preferable option for SWSA 7 within the ORNL area. Since the Conasauga interval is currently used for waste burial, it is better understood. One tract in Melton Valley that is underlain by Conasauga shales is nominated for detailed site-characterization studies, and several other tracts are recommended for future exploratory drilling. Exploration is also suggested for a tract in the upper Whiteoak Creek basin where Knox residuum is the shallow subsurface material

  4. A new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Californian rabbits in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ping; Liu, Hongbin; Fang, Sufang; Gu, Xiaolong; Wang, Peng; Liu, Chunling; Tao, Geru; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2017-10-01

    Rabbit coccidiosis is caused by infection with one or usually several Eimeria species, parasitizing in hepatobiliary ducts or intestinal epithelium of rabbits. To date, 11 species of rabbit coccidia have been well documented. Here we report a new species of Eimeria from rabbits. Sporulated oocysts were ellipsoidal to slightly ovoidal, 37.4 (32.6-41.2) μm in length, 23.5 (20.9-25.5) μm in width, with a shape index (length/width) 1.6 (1.43-1.91) and smooth, bilayered, homogeneously thick wall. The micropyle was obvious and with an inner diameter of 6.2 (5.0-7.5) μm. Both oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal to elongate, 17.2 (13.2-20.0) μm long and 8.4 (7.5-9.1) μm wide, with a shape index (length/width) of 2.1 (1.74-2.21) and the presence of Stieda body and sporocyst residuum. The prepatent period was 132h. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 18S rDNA sequence of the new species clustered together with the 11 rabbit Eimeria species into a clade. However, ITS-1 sequence of the new species shared low similarities (27.1%-30%) with those of 11 rabbit Eimeria species. As the data above supported the erection of a new species, we named it as Eimeria kongi n. sp., in honor of Fanyao Kong, a Chinese parasitologist. The finding of the new species has important implications for the diagnosis and prevention of rabbit coccidiosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 from the Serra dos Órgãos National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with notes on its endogenous development in the montane grass mouse, Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Miglionico, Marcos Tobias; Viana, Lúcio André; Barbosa, Helene Santos; Mota, Ester Maria; da Costa Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio

    2018-02-01

    A total of 53 specimens of the montane grass mouse, Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 were collected in the Serra dos Órgãos National Park (SONP) in November 2014 and July 2015. The fecal material was analyzed, and a prevalence of 7.5% was recorded for a new coccidian species of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875, with part of its endogenous development recorded in the small intestine. The oocysts of a new coccidian species of genus Eimeria are ellipsoidal to subspherical. The wall is bi-layered, c. 1.5 μm (1.3-1.6 μm) thick, outer layer rough. Oocyst (n = 126) mean length is 25.3 μm (21.0-28.0 μm), with a width of 20.2 μm (17.0-22.0 μm) and mean length/width (L:W) ratio of 1.3 (1.2-1.4). Polar granule is present, with the oocyst residuum as a large spherical to subspherical globule. Sporocyst shape (n = 126) is ellipsoidal, with a mean length of 11.8 μm (9.3-14.4 μm), width of 7.9 μm (6.7-9.3 μm), and mean L:W ratio of 1.5 (1.4-1.7). Sporocysts with nipple-like Stieda body and sub-Stieda body are absent. A sporocyst residuum formed by several globules, usually along the sporocyst wall. This is the first record of Eimeria in the montane grass mouse from Brazil.

  6. Mineralogical characterization of West Chestnut Ridge soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Kopp, O.C.; Lietzke, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    The morphological, physicochemical, and mineralogical properties of the soils and residua from the proposed site of the Central Waste Disposal Facility were characterized. The proposed site is underlain by cherty dolostones, limestones, and shales of the Knox Group covered by a thick residuum. Three diagnostic horizons from four soil profiles and six samples from residuum cores were selected for mineralogical analysis. The coarse fractions (gravel and sand) of the samples included different types of chert, iron-manganese oxide nodules, and quartz. The samples were high in clay content (except those from the A and E horizons) and low in pH and base saturation. The clay fractions were composed of varying amounts of kaolinite, mica, vermiculite, aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, amorphous iron and aluminum oxides, gibbsite, and quartz. Aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite is the major component in surface horizons, but kaolinite becomes dominant in subsurface horizons of the soils. Degradation of kaolinite and formation of aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite and iron and aluminum oxides are pronounced chemical weathering processes in the surface soils. The aluminum hydroxy interlayering of vermiculite reduces cation exchange and selective sorption capacities of soils. In the residua, micaceous minerals free of aluminum hydroxy interlayering, kaolinite, and amorphous iron and aluminum oxides are major components in the clay fraction. The sorption ratios of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 60 Co, and the uranium isotopes expected to be in the radioactive wastes should be very high for the clays having such mineralogical composition. The low acid-buffering capacity (base saturation) of the residua suggest that the fragile chemical and mineralogical equilibria can be easily broken if an extreme chemical condition is imposed on the residua

  7. Formation of zinc-peptide spherical microparticles during lyophilization from tert-butyl alcohol/water co-solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Ni, Nina; Chen, Jia-Wen; Desikan, Sridhar; Naringrekar, Vijay; Hussain, Munir A; Barbour, Nancy P; Smith, Ronald L

    2008-12-01

    To understand the mechanism of spherical microparticle formation during lyophilizing a tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA)/water solution of a zinc peptide adduct. A small peptide, PC-1, as well as zinc PC-1 at (3:2) and (3:1) ratios, were dissolved in 44% (wt.%) of TBA/water, gradually frozen to -50 degrees C over 2 h ("typical freezing step"), annealed at -20 degrees C for 6 h ("annealing step"), and subsequently lyophilized with primary and secondary drying. Zinc peptide (3:1) lyophile was also prepared with quench cooling instead of the typical freezing step, or without the annealing step. Other TBA concentrations, i.e., 25%, 35%, 54% and 65%, were used to make the zinc peptide (3:1) adduct lyophile with the typical freezing and annealing steps. The obtained lyophile was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The zinc peptide solutions in TBA/water were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The surface tension of the TBA/water co-solvent system was measured by a pendant drop shape method. With typical freezing and annealing steps, the free peptide lyophile showed porous network-like structure that is commonly seen in lyophilized products. However, with increasing the zinc to peptide ratio, uniform particles were gradually evolved. Zinc peptide (3:1) adduct lyophiles obtained from 25%, 35% and 44% TBA exhibit a distinctive morphology of uniform and spherical microparticles with diameters of approximately 3-4 microm, and the spherical zinc peptide particles are more predominant when the TBA level approaches 20%. Adopting quench cooling in the lyophilization cycle leads to irregular shape fine powders, and eliminating the annealing step causes rough particles surface. When TBA concentration increases above 54%, the lyophiles demonstrate primarily irregular shape particles. A proposed mechanism of spherical particle formation of the 3:1 zinc peptide encompasses the freezing of a TBA/water solution (20-70% TBA) causing the formation of a TBA hydrate

  8. Study on effective particle diameters and coolability of particulate beds packed with irregular multi-size particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, S.; Ma, W.; Kudinov, P.; Bechta, S. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH. Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    One of the key questions in severe accident research is the coolability of the debris bed, i.e., whether decay heat can be completely removed by the coolant flow into the debris bed. Extensive experimental and analytical work has been done to substantiate the coolability research. Most of the available experimental data is related to the beds packed with single size (mostly spherical) particles, and less data is available for multi-size/irregular-shape particles. There are several analytical models available, which rely on the mean particle diameter and porosity of the bed in their predictions. Two different types of particles were used to investigate coolability of particulate beds at VTT, Finland. The first type is irregular-shape Aluminum Oxide gravel particles whose sizes vary from 0.25 mm to 10 mm, which were employed in the STYX experiment programme (2001-2008). The second type is spherical beads of Zirconium silicate whose sizes vary between 0.8 mm to 1 mm, which were used in the COOLOCE tests (Takasuo et al., 2012) to study the effect of multi-dimensional flooding on coolability. In the present work, the two types of particles are used in the POMECO-FL and POMECO-HT test facility to obtain their effective particle diameters and dryout heat flux of the beds, respectively. The main idea is to check how the heaters' orientations (vertical in COOLOCE vs. horizontal in POMECO-HT) and diameters (6 mm in COOLOCE vs. 3 mm in POMECO-HT) affect the coolability (dryout heat flux) of the test beds. The tests carried out on the POMECO-FL facility using a bed packed with aluminum oxide gravel particles show the effective particle diameter of the gravel particles is 0.65 mm, by which the frictional pressure gradient can be predicted by the Ergun equation. After the water superficial velocity is higher than 0.0025 m/s, the pressure gradient is underestimated. The effective particle diameter of the zirconium particles is found as 0.8 mm. The dryout heat flux is measured on

  9. Intensity-modulated stereotactic radiosurgery using dynamic micro-multileaf collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, Stanley H.; Cardinale, Robert M.; Wu Qiuwen; Zwicker, Robert D.; Broaddus, William C.; Mohan, Radhe

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The implementation of dynamic leaf motion on a micro-multileaf collimator system provides the capability for intensity-modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IMSRS), and the consequent potential for improved dose distributions for irregularly shaped tumor volumes adjacent to critical organs. This study explores the use of IMSRS to provide improved tumor coverage and normal tissue sparing for small cranial tumors relative to plans based on multiple fixed uniform-intensity beams or traditional circular collimator arc-based stereotactic techniques. Methods and Materials: Four patient cases involving small brain lesions are presented and analyzed. The cases were chosen to include a representative selection of target shapes, number of targets, and adjacent critical areas. Patient plans generated for these comparisons include standard arcs with multiple circular collimators, and fixed noncoplanar static fields with uniform-intensity beams and IMSRS. Parameters used for evaluation of the plans include the percentage of irradiated volume to tumor volume (PITV), normal tissue dose-volume histograms, and dose-homogeneity ratios. All IMSRS plans were computed using previously established IMRT techniques adapted for use with the BrainLAB M3 micro-multileaf collimator. The algorithms comprising the IMRT system for optimization of intensity distributions and conversion into leaf trajectories of the BrainLab M3 were developed at our institution. The ADAC Pinnacle 3 radiation treatment-planning system was used for dose calculations and for input of contours for target volumes and normal critical structures. Results: For all cases, the IMSRS plans showed a high degree of conformity of the dose distribution with the target shape. The IMSRS plans provided either (1) a smaller volume of normal tissue irradiated to significant dose levels, generally taken as doses greater than 50% of the prescription, or (2) a lower dose to an important adjacent critical organ. The reduction in

  10. Study on effective particle diameters and coolability of particulate beds packed with irregular multi-size particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakre, S.; Ma, W.; Kudinov, P.; Bechta, S.

    2013-08-01

    One of the key questions in severe accident research is the coolability of the debris bed, i.e., whether decay heat can be completely removed by the coolant flow into the debris bed. Extensive experimental and analytical work has been done to substantiate the coolability research. Most of the available experimental data is related to the beds packed with single size (mostly spherical) particles, and less data is available for multi-size/irregular-shape particles. There are several analytical models available, which rely on the mean particle diameter and porosity of the bed in their predictions. Two different types of particles were used to investigate coolability of particulate beds at VTT, Finland. The first type is irregular-shape Aluminum Oxide gravel particles whose sizes vary from 0.25 mm to 10 mm, which were employed in the STYX experiment programme (2001-2008). The second type is spherical beads of Zirconium silicate whose sizes vary between 0.8 mm to 1 mm, which were used in the COOLOCE tests (Takasuo et al., 2012) to study the effect of multi-dimensional flooding on coolability. In the present work, the two types of particles are used in the POMECO-FL and POMECO-HT test facility to obtain their effective particle diameters and dryout heat flux of the beds, respectively. The main idea is to check how the heaters' orientations (vertical in COOLOCE vs. horizontal in POMECO-HT) and diameters (6 mm in COOLOCE vs. 3 mm in POMECO-HT) affect the coolability (dryout heat flux) of the test beds. The tests carried out on the POMECO-FL facility using a bed packed with aluminum oxide gravel particles show the effective particle diameter of the gravel particles is 0.65 mm, by which the frictional pressure gradient can be predicted by the Ergun equation. After the water superficial velocity is higher than 0.0025 m/s, the pressure gradient is underestimated. The effective particle diameter of the zirconium particles is found as 0.8 mm. The dryout heat flux is measured on

  11. Fundamental study of single biomass particle combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass particle combustion. The effect of particle shape and size and operating conditions on biomass conversion characteristics were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental samples were divided in two groups: particles with regular shapes (spheres and cylinders) and particles with irregular shapes (almost flake-like). A CAMSIZER analyser (Retsch Technology GMBH) was used to determine the size and shape of the particles via Dynamical Digital Image Processing. The experiments were performed in a single particle reactor under well-defined conditions, and the complete combustion processes were recorded as video sequences by a CCD camera installed in the set-up. One of the project objectives is to simulate conditions reasonably close to the conditions in a power plant boiler, i.e., reasonably high temperatures (up to 1600 deg. C) and varying oxygen concentrations in the 5 to 20% range. A one-dimensional mathematical model was used to simulate all the intraparticle conversion processes (drying, recondensation, devolatilisation, char gasification/oxidation and heat/mass/momentum transfer) within single particles of different shapes and size under various conditions. The model also predicts the flame layer domain of a single particle. The model was validated by experimental results under different conditions; good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data was observed. Both the experimental and modelling results showed that cylindrical particles lose mass faster than spherical particles of a similar volume (mass) and that the burnout time is reduced by increasing the particle aspect ratio (surface area to volume ratio). Very similar conversion times were observed for cylindrical particles with nearly identical surface area to volume ratios. Similar conversion times were also observed for two size classes of pulverised particles (with irregular shapes) made from the same type of

  12. Photometric Studies of Orbital Debris at GEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Ed; Abercromby, Kira J.; Foreman, Gary; Hortsman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Orbital debris represents a significant and increasing risk to operational spacecraft. Here we report on photometric observations made in standard BVRI filters at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in an effort to determine the physical characteristics of optically faint debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Our sample is taken from GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan s 0.6-m Curtis-Schmidt telescope (known as MODEST, for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m for orbits and photometry. For a sample of 50 objects, calibrated sequences in RB- V-I-R filters have been obtained with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m. For objects that do not show large brightness variations, the colors are largely redder than solar in both B-R and R-I. The width of the color distribution may be intrinsic to the nature of the surfaces, but also could imply that we are seeing irregularly shaped objects and measuring the colors at different times with just one telescope. For irregularly shaped objects tumbling at unknown orientations and rates, such sequential filter measurements using one telescope are subject to large errors for interpretation. If all observations in all filters in a particular sequence are of the same surface at the same solar and viewing angles, then the colors are meaningful. Where this is not the case, interpretation of the observed colors is impossible. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m observes in B, and the Schmidt in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are both the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Now the observed B-R color is a true measure of the scattered illuminated area of the debris piece for that observation.

  13. Structural and electronic investigations of PbTa4O11 and BiTa7O19 constructed from α-U3O8 types of layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltersdorf, Jonathan; Maggard, Paul A.

    2015-09-01

    The PbTa4O11 and BiTa7O19 phases were prepared by ion-exchange and solid-state methods, respectively, and their structures were characterized by neutron time-of-flight diffraction and Rietveld refinement methods (PbTa4O11, R 3 (No. 146), a=6.23700(2) Å, c=36.8613(1) Å; BiTa7O19, P 6 bar c 2 (No. 188), a=6.2197(2) Å, c=20.02981(9) Å). Their structures are comprised of layers of TaO6 octahedra surrounded by three 7-coordinate Pb(II) cations or two 8-coordinate Bi(III) cations. These layers alternate down the c-axis with α-U3O8 types of single and double TaO7 pentagonal bipyramid layers. In contrast to earlier studies, both phases are found to crystallize in noncentrosymmetric structures. Symmetry-lowering structural distortions within PbTa4O11, i.e. R 3 bar c →R3, are found to be a result of the displacement of the Ta atoms within the TaO7 and TaO6 polyhedra, towards the apical and facial oxygen atoms, respectively. In BiTa7O19, relatively lower reaction temperatures leads to an ordering of the Bi/Ta cations within a lower-symmetry structure, i.e., P63/mcm→ P 6 bar c 2 . In the absence of Bi/Ta site disorder, the Ta-O-Ta bond angles decrease and the Ta-O bond distances increase within the TaO7 double layers. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal two particle morphologies for PbTa4O11, hexagonal rods and finer irregularly-shaped particles, while BiTa7O19 forms as aggregates of irregularly-shaped particles. Electronic-structure calculations confirm the highest-energy valence band states are comprised of O 2p-orbitals and the respective Pb 6s-orbital and Bi 6s-orbital contributions. The lowest-energy conduction band states are composed of Ta 5d-orbital contributions that are delocalized over the TaO6 octahedra and layers of TaO7 pentagonal bipyramids. The symmetry-lowering distortions in the PbTa4O11 structure, and the resulting effects on its electronic structure, lead to its relatively higher photocatalytic activity compared to similar structures without

  14. Mechanical and microstructural characteristics of meat doughs, either heated by a continuous process in a radio-frequency field or conventionally in a waterbath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roon, P S; Houben, J H; Koolmees, P A; van Vliet, T; Krol, B

    1994-01-01

    Meat doughs, all having the same chemical composition, were pasteurised to a comparable heat intensity (calculated as Cook values: target level of 5 min at 100°C): (i) while flowing through a glass tube (inner diameter 50 mm) mounted in a special radio-frequency (27 MHz) heating section; (ii) after flowing unheated through the glass tube at the same rate and heated in a waterbath; and (iii) after sampling immediately after the pump and heated in a waterbath. The cooked products were sampled in the core and at the rim of the product for rheological (oscillation and uniaxial compression tests at small strain), fracture measurements (uniaxial compression tests at high strain) and microstructural evaluation (light microscopy and video image analysis). Additional core samples were used for a sensory evaluation (triangle tests) of the texture of the differently processed doughs. The fast heating rate (25-30 K/min) at a mass flow of the dough of 100 kg/h (mean velocity 0.014 m/s) during dielectrical pasteurisation affected the mechanical character, the microstructure and the triangle test results of core samples from the sausages, compared to heating in a waterbath. Flow of the unheated dough through the tube of the continuous processing equipment, followed by heating in a waterbath, had little effect on the results of the mechanical tests, the microscopical evaluation and the triangle tests. The radio-frequency heated products had both higher storage and loss moduli (were more firm), fractured at higher stress values and were considered more firm in the sensory evaluation. The microstructure of dielectrically heated versus other samples displayed a more open structure of the protein matrix with larger irregularly shaped fat particles that were surrounded by relatively thin and compact protein bridges. The effects of flow and heating method on the behaviour of rim samples were very similar to their effects on the core of the products. A comparison of the mechanical

  15. Yield surface investigation of alloys during model disk spin tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Kuzmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas-turbine engines operate under heavy subsequently static loading conditions. Disks of gas-turbine engine are high loaded parts of irregular shape having intensive stress concentrators wherein a 3D stress strain state occurs. The loss of load-carrying capability or burst of disk can lead to severe accident or disaster. Therefore, development of methods to assess deformations and to predict burst is one of the most important problems.Strength assessment approaches are used at all levels of engine creation. In recent years due to actively developing numerical method, particularly FEA, it became possible to investigate load-carrying capability of irregular shape disks, to use 3D computing schemes including flow theory and different options of force and deformation failure criteria. In spite of a wide progress and practical use of strength assessment approaches, there is a lack of detailed research data on yield surface of disk alloys. The main purpose of this work is to validate the use of basis hypothesis of flow theory and investigate the yield surface of disk alloys during the disks spin test.The results of quasi-static numerical simulation of spin tests of model disk made from high-temperature forged alloy are presented. To determine stress-strain state of disk during loading finite element analysis is used. Simulation of elastic-plastic strain fields was carried out using incremental theory of plasticity with isotropic hardening. Hardening function was taken from the results of specimens tensile test. Specimens were cut from a sinkhead of model disk. The paper investigates the model sensitivity affected by V.Mises and Tresca yield criteria as well as the Hosford model. To identify the material model parameters the eddy current sensors were used in the experimental approach to measure rim radial displacements during the load-unload of spin test. The results of calculation made using different material models were compared with the

  16. The Benefit of Sonography in Pregnancy-associated Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Eun Ju; Oh, Ki Keun; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic, mammographic and MRI features of pregnancy-associated breast cancer with the major focus on the sonographic benefit in a diagnosis of pregnancy associated breast cancer. From 1998 to 2002, sonography was performed on a total 7 patients (age 23 to 38 years), who were pathologically diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy. Six of those patients underwent mammography. Five patients underwent a breast MRI, preoperatively. The radiological findings were evaluated retrospectively. Six patients underwent surgery and 1 patient underwent a core biopsy and chemotherapy. The histological, nuclear grading and pathological staging were evaluated. The sonographic findings showed a mass with irregular shapes (n=6), irregular margins (n=6), a non-parallel orientation (n=5), complex echo patterns (n=5). Associated findings could be observed in 3 patients, including Cooper's ligament thickening (n=2), edema (n=2), skin thickening (n=1) and axillary lymphadenopathy (n=3). The sonographic findings were positive and showed masses in 6 patients. All the patients had a dense breast in mammography. The mammographic findings included masses (n=4), masses with microcalcifications (n=2), masses with axillary lymphadenopathy (n=3), calcifications alone (n=1), an asymmetric density alone (n=1), extremely dense breasts with negative findings (n=2). A breast MRI showed an irregular shaped mass (n=4) with a rim-like enhancement (n=3), linear ductal enhancement without a mass (n= 1), and the time intensity cure revealed the typical pattern and level of enhancement in the carcinoma. Sonography is a valuable tool for diagnosing pregnancy-associated breast cancer. However, mammography should be performed if there is a suspicious lesion on sonography in order to confirm the pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Mammography has a lower sensitivity during pregnancy due to the physiologic changes in the breasts. However, calcifications and associated findings are helpful

  17. A pencil beam dose calculation model for CyberKnife system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Bin; Li, Yongbao; Liu, Bo; Zhou, Fugen [Image Processing Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Xu, Shouping [Department of Radiation Oncology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Wu, Qiuwen, E-mail: Qiuwen.Wu@Duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: CyberKnife system is initially equipped with fixed circular cones for stereotactic radiosurgery. Two dose calculation algorithms, Ray-Tracing and Monte Carlo, are available in the supplied treatment planning system. A multileaf collimator system was recently introduced in the latest generation of system, capable of arbitrarily shaped treatment field. The purpose of this study is to develop a model based dose calculation algorithm to better handle the lateral scatter in an irregularly shaped small field for the CyberKnife system. Methods: A pencil beam dose calculation algorithm widely used in linac based treatment planning system was modified. The kernel parameters and intensity profile were systematically determined by fitting to the commissioning data. The model was tuned using only a subset of measured data (4 out of 12 cones) and applied to all fixed circular cones for evaluation. The root mean square (RMS) of the difference between the measured and calculated tissue-phantom-ratios (TPRs) and off-center-ratio (OCR) was compared. Three cone size correction techniques were developed to better fit the OCRs at the penumbra region, which are further evaluated by the output factors (OFs). The pencil beam model was further validated against measurement data on the variable dodecagon-shaped Iris collimators and a half-beam blocked field. Comparison with Ray-Tracing and Monte Carlo methods was also performed on a lung SBRT case. Results: The RMS between the measured and calculated TPRs is 0.7% averaged for all cones, with the descending region at 0.5%. The RMSs of OCR at infield and outfield regions are both at 0.5%. The distance to agreement (DTA) at the OCR penumbra region is 0.2 mm. All three cone size correction models achieve the same improvement in OCR agreement, with the effective source shift model (SSM) preferred, due to their ability to predict more accurately the OF variations with the source to axis distance (SAD). In noncircular field validation

  18. The calculation of relative output factor and depth dose for irregular electron fields in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, Peter; McGhee, Peter; Chu, Terence

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: A technique, based on sector integration and interpolation, has been developed for the computation of both relative output factor and depth dose of irregular electron fields in water. The purpose of this study was to determine the minimum experimental data set required for the technique to yield results within accepted dosimetric tolerances. Materials and Methods: PC based software has been written to perform the calculations necessary to dosimetrically characterize irregular shaped electron fields. The field outline is entered via digitiser and the SSD and energy via the keyboard. The irregular field is segmented into sectors of specified angle (2 deg. was used for this study) and the radius of each sector computed. The central ray depth dose is reconstructed by summing the contributions from each sector deduced from calibration depth doses measured for circular fields. Relative output factors and depth doses at SSDs at which calibrations were not performed are found by interpolation. Calibration data were measured for circular fields from 2 to 9 cm diameter at 100, 105, 110, and 115 cm SSD. A clinical cut out can be characterized in less than 2 minutes including entry of the outline using this software. The performance of the technique was evaluated by comparing calculated relative output factors, surface dose and the locations of d 80 , d 50 and d 20 with experimental measurements on a variety of cut out shapes at 9 and 18 MeV. The calibration data set (derived from circular cut outs) was systematically reduced to identify the minimum required to yield an accuracy consistent with current recommendations. Results: The figure illustrates the ability of the technique to calculate the depth dose for an irregular field (shown in the insert). It was found that to achieve an accuracy of 2% in relative output factor and 2% or 2 mm (our criterion) in percentage depth dose, calibration data from five circular fields at the four SSDs spanning the range 100-115 cm

  19. Tratamento anaeróbio de esgoto e sua eficiência na redução da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela C. Paulino

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários presentes em biossólido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaeróbio em estações de tratamento de esgoto onde são empregados reatores anaeróbios de lodo fluidizado (RALF, na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%, Toxocara sp (5,5%, Trichuris sp (4,5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%, H. nana (1% e Taenia sp (0,4%, Protozoários: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos viáveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estações estudadas. A redução da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biológico baseado na digestão anaeróbia a eficácia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes são necessários para a utilização do lodo produzido por digestão anaeróbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para saúde humana e animal.This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%, Toxocara sp (5.5%, Trichuris sp (4.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (3.7%, H. nana (1% and Taenia sp (0.4%, protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment based on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives

  20. Determinación de enteroparásitos en lechuga Lactuca sativa en fincas dedicadas a su producción en Pasto, Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Andrés Polo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Actualmente las verduras, como la lechuga, se recomiendan ampliamente como parte de la dieta diaria por su gran aporte nutricional, sin embargo, los consumidores al sentirse atraídos por los beneficios proporcionados por la hortaliza, están expuestos a infecciones con parásitos intestinales. Objetivo. Determinar la presencia o ausencia de enteroparásitos en la lechuga (Lactuca sativa cultivada en la zona rural de municipio de Pasto y analizar factores asociados previa caracterización de los predios. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal doble ciego de tipo descriptivo. Se tomaron 105 muestras de 21 predios en el periodo de junio a diciembre de 2013 y se procesaron mediante pruebas de flotación y sedimentación. Adicionalmente, se encuestó a los propietarios para obtener información sobre las posibles variables que influyen en la aparición de enteroparásitos. Resultados. Se encontró contaminación del 100% de las muestras, las cuales presentaban estructuras parasitarias representadas en huevos y larvas correspondientes al 95,25% con quistes de Entamoeba spp., 71,43% con ooquistes de Isospora spp., 61,90% con larvas (L3 de Strongyloides stercoralis, 28,57% con huevos de Toxocara spp. y 4,76% con ooquistes de Eimeria spp. En los factores asociados mediante la prueba de Ji cuadrado, se encontró relación entre Entamoeba spp. con acequia (p= 0,008, perros (p= 0,008 y pozo séptico (p= 0,029 Isospora spp. con compostaje (p= 0,0001, perros (p= 0,0001 y babosas (p=0,002; Strongyloides stercoralis con manipulación (p= 0,003 y Toxocara spp. con el no uso de biodigestores (p= 0,002. Conclusiones. Existe contaminación de la lechuga por enteroparásitos en las áreas de cultivo del municipio de Pasto, los cuales provienen de fuentes animales y humanas como sus principales reservorios, y otros están presentes en el medio ambiente.

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and cats under veterinary care in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Lorenzini

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O parasitismo gastrintestinal é uma das principais causas de doenças em animais domésticos. Para o estudo da prevalência de enteroparasitos foram utilizadas amostras fecais de animais de diferentes áreas da cidade de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, as quais foram enviadas ao Laborvet (Laboratório Veterinário Ltda, durante o período de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2004. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de parasitos gastrintestinais em cães e gatos, submetidos aos cuidados de médicos veterinários. Em 1761 amostras examinadas, 1473 (83,6% eram de cães e 288 (16,4% de gatos. Resultados positivos, nos quais foram encontrados pelo menos um parasito, foram de 26,6% (392 para amostras de cães e 20,5% (59 para as de gatos. Em ambos hospedeiros, Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara spp., Isospora spp. e Giardia spp. foram os parasitos mais encontrados. Animais de 0 a 6 meses obtiveram uma alta infecção por parasitos intestinais com 39,5% para cães e 29,5% para gatos. Isospora spp. e Toxocara spp. foram os parasitos mais diagnosticados. O verão foi a estação que apresentou a maior prevalência de parasitos com 30% para cães e 27,6% para gatos. Quando comparou-se o monoparasitismo com o poliparasitismo, a presença de um único parasito foi mais freqüente em cães e gatos (23,8% e 19,4% respectivamente. Nosso estudo demonstrou a prevalência de parasitos intestinais causadores de zoonoses presentes em cães e gatos. É essencial manter animais domésticos sob cuidados do médico veterinário para evitar infecções por parasitos intestinais entre animais de estimação e o homem.

  2. Recovery of gastrointestinal swine parasites in anaerobic biodigester systems Recuperação de parasitas gastrintestinais de suínos em biodigestores anaeróbicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alberto Cañon-Franco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid and liquid wastes from livestock operations represent important challenges for animal production regarding their impact in the environment and public health. Parasitological tests performed on 80 samples of affluent and effluent waters from three anaerobic biodigestors with flexible structure from swine farms of Caldas - Colombia, showed the presence of Isospora suis (45%, Eimeria suis (42.5%, E. espinosa (35%, Strongyloides ransomi (28.8%, E. perminuta (12.5%, E. cerdonis (3.8%, and E. porci (2.5%. The additional finding of eggs of Taenia spp. in 10% of the samples was probably caused by a connection between the human sewage system and the biodigester. Although we observed a mean decrease of 65.6% of parasites, these levels were insufficient to meet the minimum requirement set by Engelberg's guidelines regarding water quality. This study demonstrates the serious environmental impact that an inadequately treated animal wastewater represents, and has important implications for water resources and human health.Resíduos sólidos e líquidos oriundos da suinocultura representam desafios importantes para a produção animal no que diz respeito ao impacto do meio ambiente e em saúde pública. Testes parasitológicos foram realizados em 80 amostras de águas afluentes e efluentes de três biodigestores anaeróbicos com estrutura flexível em granjas de Caldas - Colômbia, demonstrando a presença de Isospora suis (45%, Eimeria suis (42,5%, E. espinosa (35%, Strongyloides ransomi (28,8%, E. perminuta (12,5%, E. cerdonis (3,8% e E. porci (2,5%. A constatação adicional de ovos de Taenia spp. em 10% das amostras foi provavelmente causada pela conexão entre o sistema de esgoto humano e o biodigestor. Embora fosse observada uma diminuição média de 65,6% dos parasitas, estes níveis são insuficientes para atender ao requisito mínimo estabelecido pelas diretrizes Engelberg em relação à qualidade da água. Este estudo demonstra o grave

  3. Geology and mining history of the Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines, Washington, Jefferson, and St. Francois Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugel, Douglas N.

    2017-03-09

    The Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines are located in Washington, Jefferson, and St. Francois Counties, Missouri, where barite and lead ore are present together in surficial and near-surface deposits. Lead mining in the area began in the early 1700’s and extended into the early 1900’s. Hand mining of lead in the residuum resulted in widespread pits (also called shafts or diggings), and there was some underground mining of lead in bedrock. By the 1860’s barite was recovered from the residuum by hand mining, also resulting in widespread diggings, but generally not underground mines in bedrock. Mechanized open-pit mining of the residuum for barite began in the 1920’s. Barite production slowed by the 1980’s, and there has not been any barite mining since 1998. Mechanized barite mining resulted in large mined areas and tailings ponds containing waste from barite mills.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that lead is present in surface soils in Washington and Jefferson Counties at concentrations exceeding health-based screening levels. Also, elevated concentrations of barium, arsenic, and cadmium have been identified in surface soils, and lead concentrations exceeding the Federal drinking-water standard of 15 micrograms per liter have been identified in private drinking-water wells. Potential sources of these contaminants are wastes associated with barite mining, wastes associated with lead mining, or unmined natural deposits of barium, lead, and other metals. As a first step in helping EPA determine the source of soil and groundwater contamination, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA, investigated the geology and mining history of the Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines.Ore minerals are barite (barium sulfate), galena (lead sulfide), cerussite (lead carbonate), anglesite (lead sulfate), sphalerite (zinc sulfide), smithsonite (zinc carbonate), and chalcopyrite (copper

  4. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in Radio Frequency Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Wyndham, E.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has attracted wide interests since it emulates conventional ion-beam ion implantation (IBII) in niche applications. For instance, the technique has very high throughput, the implantation time is independent of the sample size, and samples with an irregular shape can be implanted without complex beam scanning or sample manipulation. For uniform ion implantation and deposition on to different substrates, like silicon, stainless steel etc., a capacitive coupled Radio frequency (RF), 13.6 MHz, plasma is used. During the PIII process, the physical parameters which are expected to play crucial rule in the deposition process like RF power, Negative pulse voltage and pulse duration, gas type and gas mixture, gas flow rates and the implantation dose are studied. The ion dose is calculated by dynamic sheath model and the plasma parameters are calculated from the V-I characteristic and power balance equation by homogeneous model of rf plasma discharge considering Ohmic as well as Stochastic heating. The correlations between the yield of the implantation process and the physical parameters as well as plasma parameters are discussed. (author)

  5. Histological features in the mammary glands of female dogs throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanou, D C; Pourlis, A; Ververidis, H N; Mavrogianni, V S; Taitzoglou, I A; Boscos, C M; Fthenakis, G C

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the histology of the mammary glands of female dogs throughout lactation. Twelve lactating female dogs were operated 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56, 70 and 84 days post-partum; four mammary glands of each animal were excised for histological, ultrastructural and morphometric examination. During early lactation and mid-lactation, all lobes and lobules within the same gland had similar features; alveoli were well developed and distended and had a spherical to slightly ovoid structure, with muscular fibres grasping them around; inflammatory cells were seen in the inter- and intra-alveolar space; mammary lobules were separated with a scant amount of connective tissue. In late lactation, connective tissue was abundant and dense, with large numbers of inflammatory cells; alveoli appeared to be irregularly shaped and collapsing, shrunken or fully collapsed. Number of alveoli per lobule and number of epithelial cells per alveolus, as well as diameter of alveoli and height of epithelial cells decreased as lactation progressed. The third mammary glands (from caudal to cranial) had a significantly smaller number of alveoli, but not of epithelial cells per alveolus, than each of the two mammary glands caudally to that. The results suggest that progressive involution of the normal mammary gland starts around the end of the 2nd month of lactation and continues until the end of the 3rd month. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Age and area predict patterns of species richness in pumice rafts contingent on oceanic climatic zone encountered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Eleanor; Bryan, Scott E; Ekins, Merrick; Cook, Alex G; Hurrey, Lucy; Firn, Jennifer

    2018-05-01

    The theory of island biogeography predicts that area and age explain species richness patterns (or alpha diversity) in insular habitats. Using a unique natural phenomenon, pumice rafting, we measured the influence of area, age, and oceanic climate on patterns of species richness. Pumice rafts are formed simultaneously when submarine volcanoes erupt, the pumice clasts breakup irregularly, forming irregularly shaped pumice stones which while floating through the ocean are colonized by marine biota. We analyze two eruption events and more than 5,000 pumice clasts collected from 29 sites and three climatic zones. Overall, the older and larger pumice clasts held more species. Pumice clasts arriving in tropical and subtropical climates showed this same trend, where in temperate locations species richness (alpha diversity) increased with area but decreased with age. Beta diversity analysis of the communities forming on pumice clasts that arrived in different climatic zones showed that tropical and subtropical clasts transported similar communities, while species composition on temperate clasts differed significantly from both tropical and subtropical arrivals. Using these thousands of insular habitats, we find strong evidence that area and age but also climatic conditions predict the fundamental dynamics of species richness colonizing pumice clasts.

  7. Shape and texture analysis of the carotid plaque, and its correlation with cerebral infarctions on CT, and cerebrovascular symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalomiris, Konstantinos; Tegos, Thomas J; Sabetai, Michael; Nicolaides, Andrew N [Irvine Laboratory for Cardiovascular Investigations and Research, Imperial College School of Medicine at St Mary` , Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    This work has studied the relationship between ultrasonic texture characteristics, ultrasonic shape characteristics, cerebral infarctions on CT, and cerebrovascular symptoms, in an attempt to identify the unstable carotid plaque, i.e. the plaque associated with high prevalence of ipsilateral cerebral infarctions on CT, and cerebrovascular symptoms. The morphological features used were : the grey scale median (GSM) for the texture, and the bending energy (BE) for the shape. It has been shown that echoluscent plaques (plaques with low GSM) with irregular shape (high BE) are associated with high prevalence of ipsilateral cerebral infarctions on CT and cerebrovascular symptoms, whereas echogenic plaques (high GSM) with smooth shape (low BE) are associated with low prevalence of ipsilateral cerebral infarctions on CT and cerebrovascular symptoms. Previous work has demonstrated the significance of the GSM in identifying the unstable carotid plaques, but no attempt, to our knowledge, has been made to establish the clinical significance of the ultrasonic shape characteristics of the carotid plaque. The importance of the ultrasonic texture and shape characteristics will be established in prospective studies of patients with asymptomatic carotid plaques, aiming at the identification of patients with a high risk for stroke, and therefore for a better selection of asymptomatic patients who might benefit from a carotid endarterectomy. (authors) 5 refs., 3 figs.

  8. The Screw-Like Movement of a Gliding Bacterium Is Powered by Spiral Motion of Cell-Surface Adhesins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Abhishek; Roland, Thibault; Berg, Howard C

    2016-09-06

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae, a rod-shaped bacterium, glides over surfaces at speeds of ∼2 μm/s. The propulsion of a cell-surface adhesin, SprB, is known to enable gliding. We used cephalexin to generate elongated cells with irregular shapes and followed their displacement in three dimensions. These cells rolled about their long axes as they moved forward, following a right-handed trajectory. We coated gold nanoparticles with an SprB antibody and tracked them in three dimensions in an evanescent field where the nanoparticles appeared brighter when they were closer to the glass. The nanoparticles followed a right-handed spiral trajectory on the surface of the cell. Thus, if SprB were to adhere to the glass rather than to a nanoparticle, the cell would move forward along a right-handed trajectory, as observed, but in a direction opposite to that of the nanoparticle. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cellulose Fibre-Reinforced Biofoam for Structural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Obradovic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, polymers and macromolecular components used in the foam industry are mostly derived from petroleum. The current transition to a bio-economy creates demand for the use of more renewable feedstocks. Soybean oil is a vegetable oil, composed mainly of triglycerides, that is suitable material for foam production. In this study, acrylated epoxidized soybean oil and variable amounts of cellulose fibres were used in the production of bio-based foam. The developed macroporous bio-based architectures were characterised by several techniques, including porosity measurements, nanoindentation testing, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. It was found that the introduction of cellulose fibres during the foaming process was necessary to create the three-dimensional polymer foams. Using cellulose fibres has potential as a foam stabiliser because it obstructs the drainage of liquid from the film region in these gas-oil interfaces while simultaneously acting as a reinforcing agent in the polymer foam. The resulting foams possessed a porosity of approximately 56%, and the incorporation of cellulose fibres did not affect thermal behaviour. Scanning electron micrographs showed randomly oriented pores with irregular shapes and non-uniform pore size throughout the samples.

  10. A model of Saturn inferred from its measured gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.

    2018-04-01

    We present an interior model of Saturn with an ice-rock core, a metallic region, an outer molecular envelope and a thin transition layer between the metallic and molecular regions. The shape of Saturn’s 1 bar surface is irregular and determined fully self-consistently by the required equilibrium condition. While the ice-rock core is assumed to have a uniform density, three different equations of state are adopted for the metallic, molecular and transition regions. The Saturnian model is constrained by its known mass, its known equatorial and polar radii, and its known zonal gravitational coefficients, J 2n , n = 1, 2, 3. The model produces an ice-rock core with equatorial radius 0.203 R S, where R S is the equatorial radius of Saturn at the 1-bar pressure surface; the core density ρ c = 10388.1 kgm‑3 corresponding to 13.06 Earth masses; and an analytical expression describing the Saturnian irregular shape of the 1-bar pressure level. The model also predicts the values of the higher-order gravitational coefficients, J 8, J 10 and J 12, for the hydrostatic Saturn and suggests that Saturn’s convective dynamo operates in the metallic region approximately defined by 0.2 R S < r e < 0.7 R S, where r e denotes the equatorial radial distance from the Saturnian center of figure.

  11. Two methods for isolating the lung area of a CT scan for density information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedlund, L.W.; Anderson, R.F.; Goulding, P.L.; Beck, J.W.; Effmann, E.L.; Putman, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Extracting density information from irregularly shaped tissue areas of CT scans requires automated methods when many scans are involved. We describe two computer methods that automatically isolate the lung area of a CT scan. Each starts from a single, operator specified point in the lung. The first method follows the steep density gradient boundary between lung and adjacent tissues; this tracking method is useful for estimating the overall density and total area of lung in a scan because all pixels within the lung area are available for statistical sampling. The second method finds all contiguous pixels of lung that are within the CT number range of air to water and are not a part of strong density gradient edges; this method is useful for estimating density and area of the lung parenchyma. Structures within the lung area that are surrounded by strong density gradient edges, such as large blood vessels, airways and nodules, are excluded from the lung sample while lung areas with diffuse borders, such as an area of mild or moderate edema, are retained. Both methods were tested on scans from an animal model of pulmonary edema and were found to be effective in isolating normal and diseased lungs. These methods are also suitable for isolating other organ areas of CT scans that are bounded by density gradient edges

  12. Characterization of naproxen-loaded solid SMEDDSs prepared by spray drying: the effect of the polysaccharide carrier and naproxen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerpnjak, Katja; Zvonar, Alenka; Vrečer, Franc; Gašperlin, Mirjana

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to prepare solid SMEDDS (sSMEDDS) particles produced by spray-drying using maltodextrin (MD), hypromellose (HPMC), and a combination of the two as a solid carrier. Naproxen (NPX) as the model drug was dissolved (at 6% concentration) or partially suspended (at 18% concentration) in a liquid SMEDDS composed of Miglyol(®) 812, Peceol™, Gelucire(®) 44/14, and Solutol(®) HS 15. Among the sSMEDDSs tested, the MD-based sSMEDDSs (with a granular, smooth-surfaced, microspherical appearance) preserved the self-microemulsifying properties of liquid SMEDDSs and exhibited dissolution profiles similar to those of liquid SMEDDSs, irrespective of the concentration of NPX. In contrast, HPMC-based sSMEDDSs (irregular-shaped microparticles) exhibited slightly prolonged release times due to the polymeric nature of the carrier. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and Raman mapping analysis confirmed molecularly dissolved NPX (at 6% of drug loading), whereas at 18% NPX loading drug is partially molecularly dissolved and partially in the crystalline state. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Application of debris-bed dryout data to CONACS-1 modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Cassulo, J.C.; Pedersen, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    CONACS-1 (the first version of the DOE Containment Analysis Code System) which is currently under development requires extension of existing debris-bed dryout data to the wide range of conditions possible in an accident sequence. While there has been much effort on modeling of debris-bed dryout from first principles, there is no definitive model for beds of irregularly shaped particles of wide size distribution and for beds of varying heights. Existing debris-bed heat-transfer data with real materials are for the most part limited to dryout as a function of bed depth for adiabatic conditions of atmospheric pressure. These data must be extrapolated with the use of appropriate theoretical models based on experimentation with simulant materials to the ocnditions under consideration in the containment analysis. The data base selected for CONACS-1 is from measurements of dryout for beds of 100 to 1000 μm UO 2 with the sodium phase Joule heated. This particle size range which is typical for debris from fuel-coolant interactions is the most reasonable to use

  14. Inverse estimation of heat flux and temperature on nozzle throat-insert inner contour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tsung-Chien [Department of Power Vehicle and Systems Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Ta-Hsi, Tao-Yuan 33509 (China); Liu, Chiun-Chien [Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Lung-Tan, Tao-Yuan 32526 (China)

    2008-07-01

    During the missile flight, the jet flow with high temperature comes from the heat flux of propellant burning. An enormous heat flux from the nozzle throat-insert inner contour conducted into the nozzle shell will degrade the material strength of nozzle shell and reduce the nozzle thrust efficiency. In this paper, an on-line inverse method based on the input estimation method combined with the finite-element scheme is proposed to inversely estimate the unknown heat flux on the nozzle throat-insert inner contour and the inner wall temperature by applying the temperature measurements of the nozzle throat-insert. The finite-element scheme can easily define the irregularly shaped boundary. The superior capability of the proposed method is demonstrated in two major time-varying estimation cases. The computational results show that the proposed method has good estimation performance and highly facilitates the practical implementation. An effective analytical method can be offered to increase the operation reliability and thermal-resistance layer design in the solid rocket motor. (author)

  15. Mechanisms and kinetics of proliferation and fibrosis development in a mouse model of thyrocyte hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciornei, Radu Tudor; Hong, So-Hee; Fang, Yujiang; Zhu, Ziwen; Braley-Mullen, Helen

    2016-01-01

    IFN-γ(-/-) NOD.H-2h4 mice develop autoimmune disease with extensive hyperplasia and proliferation of thyroid epithelial cells (TEC H/P) and fibrosis. Splenic T cells from donors with severe TEC H/P transfer TEC H/P to SCID recipients. The goal of this study was to determine what factors control TEC H/P development/progression by examining T cells, markers of apoptosis, senescence and proliferation in thyroids of SCID recipients over time. At 28days, T cell infiltration was maximal, thyrocytes were proliferating, and fibrosis was moderate. At days 60 and 90, thyroids were larger with more fibrosis. T cells, cytokines and thyrocyte proliferation decreased, and cell cycle inhibitor proteins, and anti-apoptotic molecules increased. T cells and thyrocytes had foci of phosphorylated histone protein H2A.X, indicative of cellular senescence, when TEC H/P progressed and thyrocyte proliferation declined. Some thyrocytes were regenerating at day 90, with irregularly shaped empty follicles and ciliated epithelium. Proliferating thyrocytes were thyroid transcription factor (TTF1)-positive, suggesting they derived from epithelial cells and not brachial cleft remnants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of several microcrystalline celluloses obtained from agricultural by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rojas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcrystalline cellulose (MCCI has been widely used as an excipient for direct compression due to its good flowability, compressibility, and compactibility. In this study, MCCI was obtained from agricultural by-products, such as corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, rice husk, and cotton by pursuing acid hydrolysis, neutralization, clarification, and drying steps. Further, infrared spectroscopy (IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy, degree of polymerization (DP, and powder and tableting properties were evaluated and compared to those of Avicel PH101, Avicel PH102, and Avicel PH200. Except for the commercial products, all materials showed a DP from 55 to 97. Particles of commercial products and corn cob had an irregular shape, whereas bagasse particles were elongated and thick. Rice and cotton particles exhibited a flake-like and fiber-like shape, respectively. MCCI as obtained from rice husk and cotton was the most densified material, while that produced from corn cob and bagasse was bulky, porous, and more compressible. All products had a moisture content of less than 10% and yields from 7.4% to 60.4%. MCCI as obtained from bagasse was the most porous and compressible material among all materials. This product also showed the best tableting properties along with Avicel products. Likewise, all MCCI products obtained from the above-mentioned sources showed a more rapid disintegration time than that of Avicel products. These materials can be used as a potential source of MCCI in the production of solid dosage forms.

  17. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Bombyx Mori Silk Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Martin, D. C.

    1997-03-01

    The microstructure of B. Mori silk fibers before and after degumming was examined by TEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED), WAXS and low voltage SEM. SEM micrographs of the neat cocoon revealed a network of pairs of twisting filaments. After degumming, there were only individual filaments showing a surface texture consistent with an oriented fibrillar structure in the fiber interior. WAXS patterns confirmed the oriented beta-sheet crystal structure common to silkworm and spider silks. Low dose SAED results were fully consistent with the WAXS data, and revealed that the crystallographic texture did not vary significantly across the fiber diameter. TEM observations of microtomed fiber cross sections indicated a somewhat irregular shape, and also revealed a 0.5-2 micron sericin coating which was removed by the degumming process. TEM observations of the degummed silk fiber showed banded features with a characteristic spacing of nominally 600 nm along the fiber axis. These bands were oriented in a roughly parabolic or V-shape pointing along one axis within a given fiber. We hypothesize that this orientation is induced by the extrusion during the spinning process. Equatorial DF images revealed that axial and lateral sizes of the β-sheet crystallites in silk fibroin ranged from 20 to 170 nm and from 1 to 24 nm, respectively. Crazes developed in the degummed silk fiber parallel to the fiber direction. The formation of these crazes suggests that there are significant lateral interactions between fibrils in silk fibers.

  18. Pulsed 1064 nm Nd-YAG Laser Deposition of Titanium on Silicon in a Nitrogen Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Garcia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed laser deposition (PLD technique was demonstrated for the deposition of titanium nitride (TiN thin films on Si (100 substrates. A 1064 nm pulsed Nd-YAG laser is focused on a titanium (99.5% target in a nitrogen environment to generate the atomic flux needed for the film deposition. Spectroscopic analysis of the plasma emission indicates the presence of atomic titanium and nitrogen, which are the precursors of TiN. Images of the films grown at different laser pulse energies show an increase in the number and size of deposited droplets and clusters with increasing laser pulse energy. A decrease in cluster and droplet size is also observed, with an increase in substrate temperature. EDS data show an increase in the titanium peak relative to the silicon as the ambient nitrogen pressure is decreased. An increase in deposition time was found to result in large clusters and irregularly shaped structures on the substrate. Post-deposition annealing of the samples enhanced the crystallinity of the film.

  19. Surface and microstructural characterization of commercial breeder reactor candidate alloys exposed to 7000C sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Brehm, W.F.

    1979-03-01

    Sodium compatibility screening tests were performed on several commercial austenitic alloys at 700 0 C for 2000 hours for applications as breeder reactor fuel cladding. The sodium-exposed surfaces were characterized by Optical Metallography, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA). Sodium exposure generally resulted in the depletion of Ni, Cr, Ti, Si, Mn and Nb, and enrichment of Fe and Mo at the surface. The average thickness of the depleted zone was 5 μm. The alloys can be divided into three groups based on corrosion rate, and each group has its own characteristic surface structure. Grain-orientation dependent striations were seen in alloys with low corrosion rates, while alloys with intermediate corrosion rates displayed micron-size nodes enriched with Fe and Mo. The high corrosion rate alloys exhibited scale-like formations on the surface with irregularly shaped holes. In addition, the data importantly point out that a ferrite layer will form at the sodium-exposed surface of these austenitic alloys after prolonged exposure

  20. A deep 3D residual CNN for false-positive reduction in pulmonary nodule detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongsheng; Li, Zongyao; Tong, Ruofeng; Lin, Lanfen

    2018-05-01

    The automatic detection of pulmonary nodules using CT scans improves the efficiency of lung cancer diagnosis, and false-positive reduction plays a significant role in the detection. In this paper, we focus on the false-positive reduction task and propose an effective method for this task. We construct a deep 3D residual CNN (convolution neural network) to reduce false-positive nodules from candidate nodules. The proposed network is much deeper than the traditional 3D CNNs used in medical image processing. Specifically, in the network, we design a spatial pooling and cropping (SPC) layer to extract multilevel contextual information of CT data. Moreover, we employ an online hard sample selection strategy in the training process to make the network better fit hard samples (e.g., nodules with irregular shapes). Our method is evaluated on 888 CT scans from the dataset of the LUNA16 Challenge. The free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method achieves a high detection performance. Our experiments confirm that our method is robust and that the SPC layer helps increase the prediction accuracy. Additionally, the proposed method can easily be extended to other 3D object detection tasks in medical image processing. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Detecting space-time disease clusters with arbitrary shapes and sizes using a co-clustering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ullah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ability to detect potential space-time clusters in spatio-temporal data on disease occurrences is necessary for conducting surveillance and implementing disease prevention policies. Most existing techniques use geometrically shaped (circular, elliptical or square scanning windows to discover disease clusters. In certain situations, where the disease occurrences tend to cluster in very irregularly shaped areas, these algorithms are not feasible in practise for the detection of space-time clusters. To address this problem, a new algorithm is proposed, which uses a co-clustering strategy to detect prospective and retrospective space-time disease clusters with no restriction on shape and size. The proposed method detects space-time disease clusters by tracking the changes in space–time occurrence structure instead of an in-depth search over space. This method was utilised to detect potential clusters in the annual and monthly malaria data in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan from 2012 to 2016 visualising the results on a heat map. The results of the annual data analysis showed that the most likely hotspot emerged in three sub-regions in the years 2013-2014. The most likely hotspots in monthly data appeared in the month of July to October in each year and showed a strong periodic trend.

  2. Hormonal regulation of epithelial organization in a three-dimensional breast tissue culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroni, Lucia; Whitt, Gregory S; Xylas, Joanna; Quinn, Kyle P; Jondeau-Cabaton, Adeline; Barnes, Clifford; Georgakoudi, Irene; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of hormone target breast cells in the 1970's resulted in suitable models for the study of hormone control of cell proliferation and gene expression using two-dimensional (2D) cultures. However, to study mammogenesis and breast tumor development in vitro, cells must be able to organize in three-dimensional (3D) structures like in the tissue. We now report the development of a hormone-sensitive 3D culture model for the study of mammogenesis and neoplastic development. Hormone-sensitive T47D breast cancer cells respond to estradiol in a dose-dependent manner by forming complex epithelial structures. Treatment with the synthetic progestagen promegestone, in the presence of estradiol, results in flat epithelial structures that display cytoplasmic projections, a phenomenon reported to precede side-branching. Additionally, as in the mammary gland, treatment with prolactin in the presence of estradiol induces budding structures. These changes in epithelial organization are accompanied by collagen remodeling. Collagen is the major acellular component of the breast stroma and an important player in tumor development and progression. Quantitative analysis of second harmonic generation of collagen fibers revealed that collagen density was more variable surrounding budding and irregularly shaped structures when compared to more regular structures; suggesting that fiber organization in the former is more anisotropic than in the latter. In sum, this new 3D model recapitulates morphogenetic events modulated by mammogenic hormones in the breast, and is suitable for the evaluation of therapeutic agents.

  3. Mapping Orbits regarding Perturbations due to the Gravitational Field of a Cube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviane C. F. Venditti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The orbital dynamics around irregular shaped bodies is an actual topic in astrodynamics, because celestial bodies are not perfect spheres. When it comes to small celestial bodies, like asteroids and comets, it is even more import to consider the nonspherical shape. The gravitational field around them may generate trajectories that are different from Keplerian orbits. Modeling an irregular body can be a hard task, especially because it is difficult to know the exact shape when observing it from the Earth, due to their small sizes and long distances. Some asteroids have been observed, but it is still a small amount compared to all existing asteroids in the Solar System. An approximation of their shape can be made as a sum of several known geometric shapes. Some three-dimensional figures have closed equations for the potential and, in this work, the formulation of a cube is considered. The results give the mappings showing the orbits that are less perturbed and then have a good potential to be used by spacecrafts that need to minimize station-keeping maneuvers. Points in the orbit that minimizes the perturbations are found and they can be used for constellations of nanosatellites.

  4. Bier spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Yorulmaz,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elucidated, Bier spots have been suggested to be a vascular anomaly caused by vasoconstriction of small vessels. In addition, several diseases have been proposed to be associated with Bier spots, including scleroderma renal crisis, cryoglobulinemia, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, alopecia areata and hypoplasia of the aorta, although it has not been shown whether these associations are casual or coincidental. The clinical presentation of Bier spots is quite typical. These tiny whitish macules easily become prominent when the affected limb is placed in a dependent position and fade away when the limb is raised. Here we report a case of Bier spots in a 32-year-old male patient with characteristical clinical manifestations.

  5. Hemodynamic and morphological characteristics of unruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysms with oculomotor nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Nan; Yu, Ying; Xu, Jinyu; Karmonik, Christof; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2016-08-01

    OBJECT Unruptured posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms with oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) have a very high risk of rupture. This study investigated the hemodynamic and morphological characteristics of intracranial aneurysms with high rupture risk by analyzing PCoA aneurysms with ONP. METHODS Fourteen unruptured PCoA aneurysms with ONP, 33 ruptured PCoA aneurysms, and 21 asymptomatic unruptured PCoA aneurysms were included in this study. The clinical, morphological, and hemodynamic characteristics were compared among the different groups. RESULTS The clinical characteristics did not differ among the 3 groups (p > 0.05), whereas the morphological and hemodynamic analyses showed that size, aspect ratio, size ratio, undulation index, nonsphericity index, ellipticity index, normalized wall shear stress (WSS), and percentage of low WSS area differed significantly (p PCoA aneurysms with ONP demonstrated a distinctive morphological-hemodynamic pattern that was significantly different compared with asymptomatic unruptured PCoA aneurysms and was similar to ruptured PCoA aneurysms. The larger size, more irregular shape, and lower WSS might be related to the high rupture risk of PCoA aneurysms.

  6. Implementation of pencil kernel and depth penetration algorithms for treatment planning of proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.R.; Saxner, M.; Ahnesjoe, A.; Montelius, A.; Grusell, E.; Dahlgren, C.V.

    2000-01-01

    The implementation of two algorithms for calculating dose distributions for radiation therapy treatment planning of intermediate energy proton beams is described. A pencil kernel algorithm and a depth penetration algorithm have been incorporated into a commercial three-dimensional treatment planning system (Helax-TMS, Helax AB, Sweden) to allow conformal planning techniques using irregularly shaped fields, proton range modulation, range modification and dose calculation for non-coplanar beams. The pencil kernel algorithm is developed from the Fermi-Eyges formalism and Moliere multiple-scattering theory with range straggling corrections applied. The depth penetration algorithm is based on the energy loss in the continuous slowing down approximation with simple correction factors applied to the beam penumbra region and has been implemented for fast, interactive treatment planning. Modelling of the effects of air gaps and range modifying device thickness and position are implicit to both algorithms. Measured and calculated dose values are compared for a therapeutic proton beam in both homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms of varying complexity. Both algorithms model the beam penumbra as a function of depth in a homogeneous phantom with acceptable accuracy. Results show that the pencil kernel algorithm is required for modelling the dose perturbation effects from scattering in heterogeneous media. (author)

  7. Controllable load sharing for soft adhesive interfaces on three-dimensional surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sukho; Drotlef, Dirk-Michael; Majidi, Carmel; Sitti, Metin

    2017-05-01

    For adhering to three-dimensional (3D) surfaces or objects, current adhesion systems are limited by a fundamental trade-off between 3D surface conformability and high adhesion strength. This limitation arises from the need for a soft, mechanically compliant interface, which enables conformability to nonflat and irregularly shaped surfaces but significantly reduces the interfacial fracture strength. In this work, we overcome this trade-off with an adhesion-based soft-gripping system that exhibits enhanced fracture strength without sacrificing conformability to nonplanar 3D surfaces. Composed of a gecko-inspired elastomeric microfibrillar adhesive membrane supported by a pressure-controlled deformable gripper body, the proposed soft-gripping system controls the bonding strength by changing its internal pressure and exploiting the mechanics of interfacial equal load sharing. The soft adhesion system can use up to ˜26% of the maximum adhesion of the fibrillar membrane, which is 14× higher than the adhering membrane without load sharing. Our proposed load-sharing method suggests a paradigm for soft adhesion-based gripping and transfer-printing systems that achieves area scaling similar to that of a natural gecko footpad.

  8. A Comparative Performance Evaluation of Some Novel “Green” and Traditional Antiscalants in Calcium Sulfate Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Popov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A relative ability of industrial samples of four phosphorus-free polymers (polyaspartate (PASP; polyepoxysuccinate (PESA; polyacrylic acid sodium salt (PAAS; copolymer of maleic and acrylic acid (MA-AA and of three phosphonates (aminotris(methylenephosphonic acid, ATMP; 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-bis(phosphonic acid, HEDP; phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid, PBTC to inhibit calcium sulfate precipitation is studied following the NACE Standard along with dynamic light scattering (DLS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD technique. For the 0.5 mg·dm−3 dosage, the following efficiency ranking was found: MA-AA~ATMP>PESA (400–1500 Da>PASP (1000–5000 Da ≫ PAAS (3000–5000 Da~PBTC~HEDP. The isolated crystals are identified as gypsum. SEM images for PESA, PASP, PAAS, and HEDP and for a blank sample indicated the needle-like crystal morphology. Surprisingly, the least effective reagent PBTC revealed quite a different behavior, changing the morphology of gypsum crystals to an irregular shape. The DLS experiments exhibited a formation of 300 to 700 nm diameter particles with negative ζ-potential around −2 mV for all reagents. Although such ζ-potential values are not capable of providing colloidal stability, all three phosphonates demonstrate significant gypsum particles stabilization relative to a blank experiment.

  9. Comparison of starch granule development and physicochemical properties of starches in wheat pericarp and endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xurun; Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Heng; Xiong, Fei; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to characterize structural development of starch granule in pericarp and endosperm during wheat caryopsis growth; (ii) to compare physicochemical properties of starches in pericarp and endosperm; (iii) to further discover the relationships between pericarp starches and endosperm starches. Wheat pericarp and endosperm at different development stages were observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Structural properties of starches were determined using X-ray power diffraction and (13) C solid nuclear magnetic resonance. Pericarp starch granules (PSG) accumulated in amyloplasts and chloroplasts, and showed a typical accumulation peak at 5 days after fertilization (DAF), and then gradually decomposed during 5-22 DAF. PSG in the abdominal region showed a higher rate of decomposition compared to the dorsal region of pericarp. Endosperm starch granules (ESG) accumulated in amyloplasts, and occurred in endosperm cells at 5 DAF, then rapidly enriched the endosperm cells until 22 DAF. Compared with ESG, PSG were compound granules of irregular shape and small size distribution. The results also suggested lower amylose content and V-type single-helix content and higher proportions of double helices for PSG compared to ESG. Based on the structural development of PSG and ESG, we speculated that the saccharides resulting from decomposition of PSG, on one hand, enabled the pericarp to survive before maturity of wheat caryopsis and, on the other hand, provided extra nutrition for the growth of ESG. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effect of silica particles modified by in-situ and ex-situ methods on the reinforcement of silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yingze; Yu, Jinhong; Dai, Dan; Song, Lixian; Jiang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ and ex-situ methods were applied to modify silica particles. • In-situ method was more beneficial to preparing silica particles with high BET surface area. • Silicone rubber filled with in-situ modified silica exhibits excellent mechanical and thermal properties. - Abstract: In-situ and ex-situ methods were applied to modify silica particles in order to investigate their effects on the reinforcement of silicone rubber. Surface area and pore analyzer, laser particle size analyzer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact-angle instrument, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were utilized to investigate the structure and properties of the modified silica particles. Dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA) was employed to characterize the vulcanizing behavior and mechanical properties of the composites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to test the thermal stability of the composites. FTIR and contact angle analysis indicated that silica particles were successfully modified by these two methods. The BET surface area and TEM results reflected that in-situ modification was more beneficial to preparing silica particles with irregular shape and higher BET surface area in comparison with ex-situ modification. The DMTA and TGA data revealed that compared with ex-situ modification, the in-situ modification produced positive influence on the reinforcement of silicone rubber

  11. Physical, chemical and agricultural investigations of fly ash originating from oil-fired equipment, with special regard to the damaging effect on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veres, I; Czibulya, J; Ravasz, T; Boszormenyi, Z

    1972-01-01

    Physical and chemical investigations and green house tests performed with fly ash samples from a large-capacity, oil-fired thermal power plant, are described. The vanadium content determined by a colorimetric method, ranged from 3.82 to 4.14% and the nickel content was determined by a gravimetric method as 0.59-0.62%. The bulk of the fly ash belonged in a fraction of 0.06-0.10 mm. A spherical, soot-like fraction and a mineral fraction with silica, iron oxides, and alkali earth metals as main components were distinguished by morphological investigations. The soot fraction, composed of spheres with smooth surface with limited adhesion, represents minor environmental, including corrosion, hazards, while the mineral fraction which contains hard, abrasive particulates of very irregular shape with large specific surface may produce slight silicosis in man and animals, and plug the stomata in plants. In addition, this fraction represents low-temperature corrosion hazards due to the presence of tetravalent vanacylsulfate and free sulfuric acid. Greenhouse tests with overdosed fly ash revealed white mustard (Brassica hirta) to be most sensitive for fly ash, which thus may be used as an indicator plant. The damage is also dependent on the water supply. The fairly high resistivity of leguminous species, especially of beans may be due to the stimulating effect of vanadium and the increased heat absorption through the fly ash buildups.

  12. Clinical implementation of stereotaxic brain implant optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenow, U.F.; Wojcicka, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    This optimization method for stereotaxic brain implants is based on seed/strand configurations of the basic type developed for the National Cancer Institute (NCI) atlas of regular brain implants. Irregular target volume shapes are determined from delineation in a stack of contrast enhanced computed tomography scans. The neurosurgeon may then select up to ten directions, or entry points, of surgical approach of which the program finds the optimal one under the criterion of smallest target volume diameter. Target volume cross sections are then reconstructed in 5-mm-spaced planes perpendicular to the implantation direction defined by the entry point and the target volume center. This information is used to define a closed line in an implant cross section along which peripheral seed strands are positioned and which has now an irregular shape. Optimization points are defined opposite peripheral seeds on the target volume surface to which the treatment dose rate is prescribed. Three different optimization algorithms are available: linear least-squares programming, quadratic programming with constraints, and a simplex method. The optimization routine is implemented into a commercial treatment planning system. It generates coordinate and source strength information of the optimized seed configurations for further dose rate distribution calculation with the treatment planning system, and also the coordinate settings for the stereotaxic Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) implantation device

  13. Optical fiber sensors embedded in flexible polymer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoe, Bram; van Steenberge, Geert; Bosman, Erwin; Missinne, Jeroen; Geernaert, Thomas; Berghmans, Francis; Webb, David; van Daele, Peter

    2010-04-01

    In traditional electrical sensing applications, multiplexing and interconnecting the different sensing elements is a major challenge. Recently, many optical alternatives have been investigated including optical fiber sensors of which the sensing elements consist of fiber Bragg gratings. Different sensing points can be integrated in one optical fiber solving the interconnection problem and avoiding any electromagnetical interference (EMI). Many new sensing applications also require flexible or stretchable sensing foils which can be attached to or wrapped around irregularly shaped objects such as robot fingers and car bumpers or which can even be applied in biomedical applications where a sensor is fixed on a human body. The use of these optical sensors however always implies the use of a light-source, detectors and electronic circuitry to be coupled and integrated with these sensors. The coupling of these fibers with these light sources and detectors is a critical packaging problem and as it is well-known the costs for packaging, especially with optoelectronic components and fiber alignment issues are huge. The end goal of this embedded sensor is to create a flexible optical sensor integrated with (opto)electronic modules and control circuitry. To obtain this flexibility, one can embed the optical sensors and the driving optoelectronics in a stretchable polymer host material. In this article different embedding techniques for optical fiber sensors are described and characterized. Initial tests based on standard manufacturing processes such as molding and laser structuring are reported as well as a more advanced embedding technique based on soft lithography processing.

  14. Utilization of Hospital Waste Ash in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazim Ali Memon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital waste management is a huge problem in Pakistan. The annual production of medical waste produced from health care facilities, in Pakistan, is around 250,000 tons. This research paper is intended to evaluate the feasibility of using of hospital waste ash obtained from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, as partial replacement of cement. The main variable in this research is the amount of hospital waste ash (2, 4, 6 and 8% by weight of cement while the amount of cementitious material, water to cementitious material ratio, fine and coarse aggregate content were kept constant. Test results substantiate that hospital waste ash can be used in concrete. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction of hospital waste ash showed that it is rich in calcite while scanning electron micrographs indicated that the particles of hospital waste ash have highly irregular shape. The slump value, density of fresh concrete and water absorption decreased with the increase in the quantity of hospital waste ash in the mix. At 3 days of testing, the compressive strength of mixes with hospital waste ash was higher than the control mix while at 7 and 28 days the CM (Control Mix showed higher strength than the hospital waste ash mixes except the mix containing 2% hospital waste ash by weight of cement.

  15. Redesigned purification yields a fully functional PutA protein dimer from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E D; Wood, J M

    1992-06-25

    Proline utilization by Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium requires expression of genes putP (encoding a proline transporter) and putA. Genetic data indicate that the PutA protein is both put repressor and a respiratory chain-linked dehydrogenase. We report a redesigned purification procedure as well as the physical characteristics and biological activities of the PutA protein purified from E. coli. The purified protein was homogeneous as determined by electrophoresis performed under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. Its N-terminal sequence corresponded to that predicted by the DNA sequence. We showed copurification of proline and delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase activities. Purified PutA protein bound put DNA in vitro in an electrophoretic band-shift assay and it could be reconstituted to inverted membrane vesicles, yielding proline dehydrogenase activity. The Stokes radius and Svedberg coefficient of the protein were determined to be 7.1 nm and 9.9 S, respectively. These hydrodynamic data revealed that the protein in our preparation was dimeric with a molecular mass of 293 kDa and that it had an irregular shape indicated by the friction factor (f/f0) of 1.6.

  16. Sclerotinia Rot on Basil Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Sang Hahm

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During growing season of 2011 to 2013, Sclerotinia rot symptoms consistently have been observed on basil in Yesan-gun, Chungcheongnam-do in Korea. The typical symptom formed initially brownish spot on leaf and stem, and then advancing margins, wilting the whole plant and blighting, eventually died. On the surface of diseased lesions was observed cottony, white, dense mat of mycelial growth, and sclerotia (30–100 µm diameter formed on stem and leaf. Morphological and cultural characteristic on potato dextrose agar, color of colony was white and colorless chocolate, sclerotium of irregular shape of the oval was black and 5–50 µm diameter in size. In pathogenicity test, necrosis and wilt of the inoculated stem were observed in all plants and the pathogen was reisolated from stems. On the basis of mycological characteristics, pathogenicity, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis, this fungus was identified as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This is the first report of Sclerotinia rot on basil caused by S. sclerotiorum in Korea.

  17. Preparation of titanium oxide and metal titanates as powders, thin films, and microspheres by complex sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptula, A.; Olczak, T.; Lada, W.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Jakubaszek, U.; Sartowska, B.; Goretta, K.C.; Alvani, C.; Casadio, S.; Contini, V.

    2006-01-01

    Titanium oxide, for many years an important pigment, has recently been applied widely as a photocatalyst or as supports for metallic catalysts, gas sensors, photovoltaic solar cells, and water and air purification devices. Titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and titanates based on Ba, Sr and Ca were prepared from commercial solutions of TiCl 4 and HNO 3 . The main preparation steps for the sols consisted of elimination of Cl - by distillation with HNO 3 and addition of metal hydroxides for the titanates. Resulting sols were gelled and used to: (a) prepare irregularly shaped powders by evaporation; (b) produce by a dipping technique thin films on glass, Ag or Ti supports; (c) produce spherical powders (diameters <100 μm) by solvent extraction. Results of thermal and X-ray-diffraction analyses indicated that the temperatures required to form the various compounds were lower than those necessary to form the compounds by conventional solid-state reactions and comparable to those required with use of organometallic based sol-gel methods. Temperatures of formation could be further reduced by addition of ascorbic acid (ASC) to the sols

  18. Injectable Polyurethane Composite Scaffolds Delay Wound Contraction and Support Cellular Infiltration and Remodeling in Rat Excisional Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Elizabeth J.; Hafeman, Andrea E.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Nanney, Lillian B.; Guelcher, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Injectable scaffolds present compelling opportunities for wound repair and regeneration due to their ability to fill irregularly shaped defects and deliver biologics such as growth factors. In this study, we investigated the properties of injectable polyurethane biocomposite scaffolds and their application in cutaneous wound repair using a rat excisional model. The scaffolds have a minimal reaction exotherm and clinically relevant working and setting times. Moreover, the biocomposites have mechanical and thermal properties consistent with rubbery elastomers. In the rat excisional wound model, injection of settable biocomposite scaffolds stented the wounds at early time points, resulting in a regenerative rather than a scarring phenotype at later time points. Measurements of wound width and thickness revealed that the treated wounds were less contracted at day 7 compared to blank wounds. Analysis of cell proliferation and apoptosis showed that the scaffolds were biocompatible and supported tissue ingrowth. Myofibroblast formation and collagen fiber organization provided evidence that the scaffolds have a positive effect on extracellular matrix remodeling by disrupting the formation of an aligned matrix under elevated tension. In summary, we have developed an injectable biodegradable polyurethane biocomposite scaffold that enhances cutaneous wound healing in a rat model. PMID:22105887

  19. Polyurethane as a base for a family of tissue equivalent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    Recent experience gained in the selection of tissue equivalent materials for the construction of whole body counting phantoms has shown that commercially available polyurethane can be used as a base for a variety of tissue equivalent materials. Tissues simulated include lung, adipose, muscle, cartilage and rib bone. When selecting tissue equivalent materials it is important to understand what tissue properties must be simulated. Materials that simply simulate the linear attenuation of low energy photons for example, are not very likely to simulate neutron interaction properties accurately. With this in mind, we have developed more than one simulation composition for a given tissue, depending on the purpose to which the simulant is to be applied. Simple simulation of linear attenuation can be achieved by addition of carefully measured amounts of higher Z material, such as calcium carbonate to the polyurethane. However, the simulation necessary for medical scanning purposes, or for use in mixed radiation fields requires more complex formulations to yield proper material density, hydrogen and nitrogen content, electron density, and effective atomic number. Though polyurethane has limitations for simulation of tissues that differ markedly from its inherent composition (such as compacted bone), it is safe and easily used in modestly equipped laboratories. The simulants are durable and generally flexible. They can also be easily cast in irregular shapes to simulate specific organ geometries. (author)

  20. Embroidered Coils for Magnetic Resonance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Newton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging is a widely used technique for medical and materials imaging. Even though the objects being imaged are often irregularly shaped, suitable coils permitting the measurement of the radio-frequency signal in these systems are usually made of solid copper. One problem often encountered is how to ensure the coils are both in close proximity and conformal to the object being imaged. Whilst embroidered conductive threads have previously been used as antennae in mobile telecommunications applications, they have not previously been reported for use within magnetic resonance. In this paper we show that an embroidered single loop coil can be used in a commercial unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance system as an alternative to a solid copper. Data is presented showing the determination of both longitudinal (T1 and effective transverse (T2eff relaxation times for a flat fabric coil and the same coil conformed to an 8 cm diameter cylinder. We thereby demonstrate the principles required for the wider use of fabric based conformal coils within nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging.