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Sample records for irradiation uvb significantly

  1. Plant responses to UV-B irradiation are modified by UV-A irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, E.M.; Teramura, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing UV-B radiation (0.28-0.32 μm) reaching the earth's surface is an important concern. Plant response in artificial UV-B irradiation studies has been difficult to assess, especially regarding photosynthetic pigments, because the fluorescent lamps also produce UV-A (0.32-0.40μm) radiation which is involved with blue light in pigment synthesis. Both UV-A and UV-B irradiances were controlled in two glasshouse experiments conducted under relatively high PPFD (> 1300μmol m -2 s -1 ) at two biologically effective daily UV-B irradiances (10.7 and 14.1 kJ m -2 ); UV-A irradiances were matched in Controls (∼5, 9 kJ m -2 ). Normal, chlorophyll-deficient, and flavonoid-deficient isolines of soybean cultivar, Clark, were utilized. Many growth/ pigment variables exhibited a statistically significant interaction between light quality and quantity: in general, UV-A radiation moderated the damaging effects of UV-B radiation. Regression analyses demonstrated that a single negative function related photosynthetic efficiency to carotenoid Content (r 2 =0.73, P≤0.001), implying a open-quotes costclose quotes in maintaining carotenoids for photoprotection. A stomatal limitation to photosynthesis was verified and carotenoid content was correlated with UV-B absorbing compound levels, in UV-B irradiated plants

  2. Effects of UV-B irradiation on isoforms of antioxidant enzymes and their activities in red alga Grateloupia filicina (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiqiang; Li, Lixia

    2014-11-01

    Macroalgae in a littoral zone are inevitably exposed to UV-B irradiance. We analyzed the effects of UV-B on isoenzyme patterns and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) of red algae Grateloupia filicina (Lamour.) C. Agardh. The activities of SOD, CAT, and APX changed in response to UV-B in a time- and dose-dependent manner. POX activity increased significantly under all three UV-B treatments. The enzymatic assay showed three distinct bands of SODI (Mn-SOD), SODII (Fe-SOD), and SODIII (CuZn-SOD) under a low (Luv) and medium (Muv) dose of UV-B irradiation, while SODI and SODIII activities decreased significantly when exposed to a high dose of UV-B irradiation (Huv). The activity of POX isoenzymes increased significantly after exposure to UV-B, which is consistent with the total activity. In addition, a clear decrease in activity of CATIV was detected in response to all the three doses of UV treatments. Some bands of APX isoenzyme were also clearly influenced by UV-B irradiation. Correspondingly, the daily growth rate declined under all the three exposure doses, and was especially significant under Muv and Huv treatments. These data suggest that, although the protection mechanisms of antioxidant defense system are partly inducible by UV-B to prevent the damage, G. filicina has incomplete tolerance to higher UV-B irradiation stress.

  3. Mean Annual UV-B Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is the most energetic part of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface (wavelength region is 280 to 315 nm), and it has been shown to...

  4. A study of the photodegradation of leukotriene B4 by ultraviolet irradiation (UVB, UVA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, B.; Green, C.; Ferguson, J.; Raffle, E.J.; Macleod, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the presence of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemoattractant Leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ) in surface scale of the psoriatic lesion and the known therapeutic effect of phototherapy in psoriasis, the photostability of LTB 4 was investigated. LTB 4 was irradiated with UVB (290-320 nm) from 100-1500 mJ cm -2 and UVA (320-400 nm) from 5-40 J cm -2 . Topical application of UVB irradiated LTB 4 to forearm skin of normal volunteers showed marked reduction in cutaneous erythema, paralleled by reduced transepidermal PMN migration compared with sites of application of unirradiated and UVA irradiated LTB 4 . High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) demonstrated a dose-dependent photodegradation of LTB 4 by UVB irradiation. UVA irradiation produced no such effect. The wavelengths responsible lie within the absorption spectrum of LTB 4 . In vitro chemotaxis studies, using an under agarose technique, showed a statistically significant reduction in the migration of PMN from psoriatic and non-psoriatic subjects to the UVB irradiated LTB 4 compared with unirradiated LTB 4 , whilst UVA irradiated LTB 4 produced a normal PMN chemotactic response. (author)

  5. The influence of urban area opacity on biologically active UV-B irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Rozental', Victor

    2013-04-01

    The study of UV irradiance changes in urban area is an essential problem due to the significant effect of UV irradiance on human health which can be positive (vitamin D synthesis) and negative (erythema, skin cancer, eye damage). According to the results of several experiments within the Moscow megacity we studied the effects of urban area opacity on the different types of biologically active UV-B irradiance on the base of a specially developed mobile photometric complex snd additional measurements of the urban opacity by Nikon Fisheye Converter FC-E8. We analyzed both the level of erythemally-active irradiance and the UV eye damaging radiation using the broadband UVB-1 YES pyranometer calibrated against ultraviolet spectroradiometer Bentham DTM-300 of the Medical University of Innsbruck (courtesy of Dr. M.Blumthaler). In order to estimate the effects of the urban opacity the measurements were normalized on similar measurements at the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University with zero opacity. This ratio is defined as an urban radiative transmittance (URT). Different atmospheric conditions were considered. In cloudy conditions the effect of opacity on URT is much less than that in conditions when the sun disk is open from clouds. We revealed some spectral features in transmittance of biologically active UV-B irradiance which is characterized by higher URT variations in overcast cloudy conditions due to more intensive scattering and smaller direct solar radiation component. In the absence of cloudiness the effect of opacity was studied for open and screening solar disk conditions. We obtained much higher URT in UVB spectral region compared with that for total solar irradiance for screening solar disk conditions with a significant URT dependence on the opacity only in UVB spectral region. No URT dependence was obtained for total solar irradiance in these conditions. Some model calculations were fulfilled to match the experimental results.

  6. Effects of UVB irradiation on keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and receptor (KGFR) expression in cultured human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Lee, H.S.T.; Kooshesh, F.; Fujisawa, H.; Sauder, D.N.; Kondo, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, Div. of Dermatology, Toronto (Canada)

    1996-06-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and its receptor (KGFR) are thought to play important roles in normal keratinocyte growth and differentiation. Since UVB radiation is known to influence keratinocyte growth, we sought to determine whether UVB would alter the expression of KGF and KGFR. Using a reverse-transcription coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the present study examined the expression of KGF and KGFR mRNA in cultured normal human keratinocytes exposed to UVB irradiation. Total cellular RNA was extracted from cultured keratinocytes at various time points after irradiation, reverse transcribed and used for PCR amplification using primers specific for KGF and KGFR. Constitutive expression of KGFR mRNA, but not KGF mRNA, was detected in normal cultured human keratinocytes. After UVB irradiation at 300 J/m{sup 2}, the KGF mRNA remained undetectable while the KGFR mRNA level was significantly decreased. The down-regulation of KGFR mRNA expression was also confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated a decreased positive signal of KGFR in human keratinocytes after UVB irradiation. Our results suggest a possible role for the KGF-KGFR signalling pathway in the skin after exposure to UVB, and that UVB-induced growth inhibition of keratinocytes in hyperproliferative skin disorders may be related to downregulation of KGFR. (au) 39 refs.

  7. Apoptosis - Triggering Effects: UVB-irradiation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham

    2012-12-01

    The pathogenic disturbance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known as a rare but invasive nosocomial fungal infection. This survey is focused on the evaluation of apoptosis-triggering effects of UVB-irradiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The well-growth colonies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) were irradiated within an interval of 10 minutes by UVB-light (302 nm). Subsequently, the harvested DNA molecules of control and UV-exposed yeast colonies were run through the 1% agarose gel electrophoresis comprising the luminescent dye of ethidium bromide. No unusual patterns including DNA laddering bands or smears were detected. The applied procedure for UV exposure was not effective for inducing apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. So, it needs another UV-radiation protocol for inducing apoptosis phenomenon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  8. Hydration and transparency of the rabbit cornea irradiated with UVB-doses of 0.25 J/cm(2) and 0.5 J/cm(2) compared with equivalent UVB radiation exposure reaching the human cornea from sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejka, Cestmír; Ardan, Taras; Sirc, Jakub; Michálek, Jiří; Beneš, Jiří; Brůnová, Blanka; Rosina, Jozef

    2011-07-01

    Exposure of the cornea to UV radiation from sunlight evokes intraocular inflammation, photokeratitis. Photokeratitis is caused by UVB radiation. It is accompanied by changes of corneal hydration and light absorption. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of two UVB doses on corneal optics in rabbits and to compare these UVB doses with the equivalent exposure of UVB radiation reaching the human cornea from sunlight. Rabbit corneas were irradiated with a daily UVB dose of 0.25 J/cm(2) or 0.5 J/cm(2) for 4 days. One day after finishing the irradiations the rabbits were sacrificed and corneal light absorption measured using our spectrophotometrical method. Corneal hydration was examined using an ultrasonic Pachymeter every experimental day before the irradiation procedure and the last day before sacrificing the animals. Changes in corneal optics appeared after the repeated exposure of the cornea to a UVB dose of 0.25 J/ cm(2) and massively increased after the repeated exposure of the cornea to a UVB dose of 0.5 J/cm(2). The first significant changes in corneal hydration appeared after a single exposure of the cornea to a UVB dose of 0.25 J/cm(2). Changes in corneal hydration appeared after the exposure of the rabbit cornea to a single UVB dose equivalent to 2.6 hours of solar UVB radiation reaching the human cornea, as measured by UVB sensors embedded in the eyes of mannequin heads facing the sun on a beach at noon in July. Repeated exposure of the rabbit cornea to the same UVB dose evoked profound changes in corneal optics. Although comparison of experimental and outdoor conditions are only approximate, the results in rabbits point to the danger for the human eye from UVB radiation when short stays in sunlight are repeated for several consecutive days without UV protection.

  9. Effect of Thai banana (Musa AA group) in reducing accumulation of oxidation end products in UVB-irradiated mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerach, Nontaphat; Yakaew, Swanya; Phimnuan, Preeyawass; Soimee, Wichuda; Nakyai, Wongnapa; Luangbudnark, Witoo; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2017-03-01

    Chronic UVB exposure causes skin disorders and cancer through DNA strand breaks and oxidation of numerous functional groups of proteins and lipids in the skin. In this study, we investigated the effects of Thai banana (Musa AA group, "Khai," and Musa ABB group, "Namwa") on the prevention of UVB-induced skin damage when fed to male ICR mice. Mice were orally fed banana (Khai or Namwa) fruit pulps at dose of 1mg/g body weight/day for 12weeks. The shaved backs of the mice were irradiated with UVB for 12weeks. The intensity dose of UVB-exposure was increased from 54mJ/cm 2 /exposure at week 1 to 126mJ/cm 2 /exposure at week 12. A significant increase in skin thickness, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation end products, and expression of MMP-1 was observed in UVB-irradiated mouse skin. A reduction in the accumulation of oxidation end products was found in the skin of UVB-irradiated mice receiving Khai. This occurred in conjunction with a reduction in MMP-1 expression, inhibition of epidermal thickening, and induction of γ-GCS expression. The dietary intake of Khai prevented skin damage from chronic UVB exposure by increased γ-GCS expression and reduced oxidation end products included carbonyls, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA metabolism in peripheral lymphocytes of UV-B wholebody irradiated men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, W.; Kocsis, F.; Altmann, H.

    1983-02-01

    Healthy probands were UV-B irradiated and different times after the treatment blood was taken and lymphocytes were isolated. Semiconservative DNA-synthesis was enhanced after 4 in vivo expositions. DNA repair replication in lymphocytes after in vitro UV-C damage was initially increased in UV-B wholebody irradiated people. With nucleoidsedimentation DNA strand breaks after in vivo UV-B irradiation were detected. (Author) [de

  11. Production and accumulation of UV-B [ultra violet] absorbing compounds in UV-B irradiated leaves of rice, Oryza SativaL.: effects of varying UV-B doses on leaf damage, phenolic content and HPLC [high performance liquid chromatography] peak I area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caasi-Lit, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of varying UV-B doses on leaf damage, phenolic content and HPLC peak 1 area were studied using 65-d-old plants of the UV-B tolerant rice cultivar, M202, and the UV-B susceptible rice cultivar, Dular. Results showed that the production and accumulation of UV-B- absorbing compounds in rice leaves were affected by leaf position and levels (dose) of UV-B and time or duration of UV-B irradiation or exposure. The youngest terminal leaves showed the least damage when exposed to medium and high UV-B doses. The production of these absorptive compounds as represented by relative phenolic and HPLC peak 1 were significantly higher in younger leaves and lower in older or senescing leaves. M202 showed significantly higher amounts of peak 1 area and relative phenolic compared to UV-B susceptible rice cultivar, Dular. The results also confirmed the strong relationship of overall damage rating and area of HPLC peak 1. The development of UV-B symptoms in the susceptible cultivar was hastened when a high UV-B treatment was applied. Peak 1 area did not accumulate in the UV-B susceptible Dular at any given UV-B dose

  12. In vivo UVB irradiation induces clustering of Fas (CD95) on human epidermal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Bo; Gniadecki, Robert; Larsen, Jørgen K

    2003-01-01

    a single dose of UVB irradiation. Normal healthy individuals were irradiated with three minimal erythema doses (MED) of UVB on forearm or buttock skin. Suction blisters from unirradiated and irradiated skin were raised, and Fas, FasL, and apoptosis of epidermal cells quantified by flow cytometry...

  13. Quantitation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA from UVB-irradiated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaite, F.E.; Sutherland, B.M.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone will increase the solar ultraviolet radiation in the range from 290-320 nm (UVB) that reaches the surface of the earth, placing an increased UV burden on exposed organisms. One consequence of increased UVB may be decreased productivity of crop plants. A principal lesion caused by UV in DNA is the cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. We have adapted a method for measuring these dimers in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA for use in UV-irradiated plants. We find that biologically relevant doses of broad band UVB radiation induce easily detectable frequencies of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of irradiated alfalfa sprout leaves and that the dose response for dimer formation is linear up to doses of at least 690 J/m 2 . We also find easily measurable frequencies of dimers in the leaves of seedlings grown in glass filtered sunlight but not exposed to additional UVB, suggesting that significant number of dimers are formed in plants exposed to normal sunlight. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Effect of UV-B (302 nm) irradiation on isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, S.; Habibullah, C.M.; Ayesha, Q.; Khan, A.A.; Srinivas, V.K.; Naithani, R.

    1995-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of UV-B irradiation on the functional integrity, and the metabolic and detoxifying capacity of isolated rat hepatocytes. Isolated rat hepatocytes were irradiated in various doses (400 Jm -2 , 600 Jm -2 , 800 Jm -2 and 1000 Jm -2 ). The cells were assayed for total lactate dehydrogenase, Na + -K + -ATPase, ATPase, ornithine carbamyltransferase activity (OCT) and urea production capacity. Lactate dehydrogenase and Na + -K + -ATPase activity were significantly decreased in all four irradiated groups (P<0.001), whereas viability, OCT and urea production capacity showed no alterations. (au) 22 refs

  15. The behaviour of the endocrinological parameters cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone and prolactin after UVA and UVB whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicke, M.

    1986-01-01

    With two groups, each with 8 healthy subjects UV whole-body irradiation was carried out with uniformly 30 J/cm 2 UVA or respectively UVB at the level of the individual minimal erythema dose. Every subject received serial irradiations once a day for four days. The determination of the serum hormone level was accomplished by means of radioimmunoassays. The results show a weakly significant decline of cortisol 4 and 24 hours after 2 serial UVB irradiations. 3,5 and 7 days after the end of the irradiation series the cortisol values have increased, but by the seventh day statistically only weakly significant. With UVA irradiation there was also a weakly significant increase in cortisol levels three days after the end of the irradiation series. The serum levels of the other hormones showed no statistically significant changes. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Effect of UVB irradiation of the blood on cellular volume adherence and phagocytosis in probands and patients with multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mix, E; Jenssen, H L; Lehmitz, R; Buddenhagen, F; Hitzschke, B; Richter, M

    1988-01-01

    UVB-induced changes of blood cell properties were investigated in 12 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and in 10 healthy volunteers. The mean cell volume (MCV) was determined by electronic sizing, the granulocyte and lymphocyte adherence was estimated in a capillary assay, and the phagocytic activity of granulocytes was measured in a test system based on the incorporation of opsonized baker's yeast. In MS patients the MCV of red cells and lymphocytes decreased rapidly within 6 UVB treatments. In contrast, the reduction of the granulocyte volume was delayed (between the 6th and 12th UVB). In the control group the mean value of the red cell and lymphocyte MCV remained rather unaffected. There was a slight rise of the granulocyte volume after the 6th UVB. The only significant change of adherence was an increase of granulocyte adherence in MS patients. Untreated patients had a significantly enhanced phagocytic activity in comparison to the control group. 6 UVB treatments induced a singificant reduction of the phagocytic activity in MS patients. However, subsequently the percentage of phagocytizing cells increased again, whereas the particle uptake per cell continued to decrease. In the control group only minor UVB-induced changes of phagocytosis were observed. The in vitro UV irradiation caused an enhanced phagocytosis in the majority of cases in both controls and MS patients. In general, under the UVB treatment all parameters examined changed in the sense of a normalisation, in that the measured values reached a new level lying between the extreme pretreatment values accompanied by a reduced standard deviation. The effect of UVB was more pronounced in MS patients when compared with normal control. This could result from an enhanced sensitivity to the influence of UVB of pathologically altered cells in MS patients. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. Effect of UVB irradiation of the blood on cellular volume adherence and phagocytosis in probands and patients with multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mix, E.; Jenssen, H.L.; Lehmitz, R.; Buddenhagen, F.; Hitzschke, B.; Richter, M.

    1988-01-01

    UVB-induced changes of blood cell properties were investigated in 12 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and in 10 healthy volunteers. The mean cell volume (MCV) was determined by electronic sizing, the granulocyte and lymphocyte adherence was estimated in a capillary assay, and the phagocytic activity of granulocytes was measured in a test system based on the incorporation of opsonized baker's yeast. In MS patients the MCV of red cells and lymphocytes decreased rapidly within 6 UVB treatments. In contrast, the reduction of the granulocyte volume was delayed (between the 6th and 12th UVB). In the control group the mean value of the red cell and lymphocyte MCV remained rather unaffected. There was a slight rise of the granulocyte volume after the 6th UVB. The only significant change of adherence was an increase of granulocyte adherence in MS patients. Untreated patients had a significantly enhanced phagocytic activity in comparison to the control group. 6 UVB treatments induced a singificant reduction of the phagocytic activity in MS patients. However, subsequently the percentage of phagocytizing cells increased again, whereas the particle uptake per cell continued to decrease. In the control group only minor UVB-induced changes of phagocytosis were observed. The in vitro UV irradiation caused an enhanced phagocytosis in the majority of cases in both controls and MS patients. In general, under the UVB treatment all parameters examined changed in the sense of a normalisation, in that the measured values reached a new level lying between the extreme pretreatment values accompanied by a reduced standard deviation. The effect of UVB was more pronounced in MS patients when compared with normal control. This could result from an enhanced sensitivity to the influence of UVB of pathologically altered cells in MS patients. The monitoring of the MCV of red cells and lymphocytes as well as the repeated testing of granulocyte phagocytosis are recommended for supportion of therapy

  18. Negative effects of UVB-irradiated phytoplankton on life history traits and fitness of Daphnia magna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Reeuwijk, van P.L.

    2003-01-01

    1. We tested the effect of ultraviolet-B (UVB)-irradiated phytoplankton on life history characteristics of Daphnia magna . Two phytoplankton species were used, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Cryptomonas pyrenoidifera . The phytoplankton species were cultured under photosynthetically active radiation

  19. Photoprotective Properties of Isothiocyanate and Nitrile Glucosinolate Derivatives From Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Against UVB Irradiation in Human Skin Equivalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. Carpenter

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB irradiation of the skin leads to numerous dermatological concerns including skin cancer and accelerated aging. Natural product glucosinolate derivatives, like sulforaphane, have been shown to exhibit chemopreventive and photoprotective properties. In this study, we examined meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba glucosinolate derivatives, 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate (MBITC and 3-methoxyphenyl acetonitrile (MPACN, for their activity in protecting against the consequences of UV exposure. To that end, we have exposed human primary epidermal keratinocytes (HPEKs and 3D human skin reconstructed in vitro (EpiDermTM FT-400 to UVB insult and investigated whether MBITC and MPACN treatment ameliorated the harmful effects of UVB damage. Activity was determined by the compounds’ efficacy in counteracting UVB-induced DNA damage, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP expression, and proliferation. We found that in monolayer cultures of HPEK, MBITC and MPACN did not protect against a UVB-induced loss in proliferation and MBITC itself inhibited cell proliferation. However, in human reconstructed skin-equivalents, MBITC and MPACN decrease epidermal cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs and significantly reduce total phosphorylated γH2A.X levels. Both MBITC and MPACN inhibit UVB-induced MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression indicating their role to prevent photoaging. Both compounds, and MPACN in particular, showed activity against UVB-induced proliferation as indicated by fewer epidermal PCNA+ cells and prevented UVB-induced hyperplasia as determined by a reduction in reconstructed skin epidermal thickness (ET. These data demonstrate that MBITC and MPACN exhibit promising anti-photocarcinogenic and anti-photoaging properties in the skin microenvironment and could be used for therapeutic interventions.

  20. The protective effects of fucosterol against skin damage in UVB-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunson; Park, Sang-Yong; Sun, Zheng-wang; Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Don-Gil; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) overexpression and extracellular matrix depletion, leading to skin photoaging. The activation of MMP is related to increased interlukin-6 (IL-6) and type I procollagen production, which is regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation induces MMP-1 production and reduces type I procollagen secretion. Fucosterol, which is extracted and purified from the brown algae Hizikia fusiformis, is a phytosterol. We assessed the effects of fucosterol on photodamage and investigated its molecular mechanism of action in UVB-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that fucosterol significantly decreased the UVB-induced expression of MMP-1, IL-6, p-c-Jun, and p-c-Fos. Additionally, fucosterol markedly increased the UVB-induced production of type I procollagen and TGF-β1. Our results indicate that fucosterol regulates MMP-1 and type I procollagen expression by modulating AP-1 and TGF-β1 signaling and that MMP-1 activation is correlated with IL-6. These data suggest that fucosterol is a promising botanical agent to protect against skin photodamage.

  1. Effects of UV-B irradiation on photomovement in the desmid, Cosmarium cucumis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeder, D.-P.

    1987-01-01

    Monochromatic UV-B irradiation affects neither the absorption nor the fluorescence of the bulk pigments in the desmid Cosmarium cucumis but it impairs photomovement of these organisms at fluence rates which are not higher than the ambient level of solar UV-B irradiation. Photoaccumulations and phototaxis are strongly inhibited especially at wavelengths <= 300 nm while photodispersal at higher white light fluence rates is hardly affected by supplementary UV-B. This effect has important consequences for the growth and survival of populations in their natural environment: these photosynthetic organisms utilize photomovement to find and stay in areas of suitable visible light fluence rates. The UV-B component of solar irradiation both impairs the strategy of the organisms to find a suitable position and the escape mechanism by which the cells move out of areas with too strong white illuminances which photooxidize the bulk pigments and bleach the population within a few days. (author)

  2. Improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of date plum, persimmon and mulberry on UVB-induced skin damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Shin, Jae Young; Fang, Chong Zhou; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of Date Plum, Persimmon and Mulberry (γ-DPME) on UVB induced skin damage. The samples were gamma irradiated at doses of 10 kGy. γ-DPME treatment tended to decrease UVB-induced immune cell infiltration and erthyderma index than the groups treated with non-gamma-irradiated DPME (n-DPME) and L-ascobic acid (AA). In addition, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased skin thickness, melanin index and mast cell infiltration in UVB-irradiated skin. Moreover, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased the compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and immune cell infiltration than n-DPME group. These results show that gamma irradiation can be used to increase the physiological activities of DPME.

  3. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. Water Extract and Its Bioactive Components Ameliorate Dermal Damage in UVB-Irradiated Skin Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Han Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermal photoaging is a condition of skin suffering inappropriate ultraviolet (UV exposure and exerts inflammation, tissue alterations, redness, swelling, and uncomfortable feelings. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. is a cereal food and its antioxidant and pigment constituents may provide skin protection from photoaging, but it still lacks proved experiments. In this study, protective effects of djulis extract (CFE on UVB-irradiated skin were explored. The results showed that HaCaT cells with 150 μg/mL CFE treatment had higher survival and less production of interleukin- (IL- 6, matrix metalloprotease- (MMP- 1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS in UVB-irradiated conditions. Subsequently, in animal studies, mice supplemented with CFE (100 mg/kg BW were under UVB irradiation and had thinner epidermis and lower IL-6 levels in skin layer. These data demonstrate that bioactive compounds possessing the potency of antiphotoaging exist in CFE. Following that, we found rutin and chlorogenic acid (10–100 μM could significantly increase cell viability and decrease the production of IL-6 in UVB models. Additionally, djulis pigment-betanin has no effect of increasing cell viability in this study. Our findings suggest CFE can protect skin against UV-induced damage and this protection is mainly from contributions of rutin and chlorogenic acid.

  4. UV-B radiation and photosynthetic irradiance acclimate eggplant for outdoor exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, J.G.; Mitchell, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of greenhouse-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings with supplemental photosynthetically active radiation from cool-white fluorescent lamps increased growth of plants subsequently transferred outdoors relative to growth of plants that received no supplemental radiation or were shaded to 45% of solar irradiation in the greenhouse before transfer outdoors. Eggplant seedlings transferred outdoors were placed under plastic tarps either to provide relative protection from solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-315 nm) using Mylar film or to allow exposure to UV-B using cellulose acetate. Protection of seedlings from UV-B radiation resulted in greater leaf expansion than for UV-B-exposed seedlings, but no change in leaf or shoot dry weight occurred after 9 days of treatment. Specific leaf weight increased in response to UV-B exposure outdoors. Exposure of eggplant to UV-B radiation from fluorescent sunlamps in the greenhouse also decreased leaf expansion and leaf and shoot dry weight gain after 5 days of treatment. However, there were no differences in leaf or shoot dry weight relative to control plants after 12 days of UV-B treatment, indicating that UV-B treated plants had acclimated to the treatment and actually had caught up with non-UV-B-irradiated plants in terms of growth

  5. The effect of the antipsoriatic drug metabolite etretin (Ro 10-1670) on UVB irradiation induced changes in the metabolism of arachidonic acid in human keratinocytes in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, Kari; Jansen, C.T.; Puustinen, Tapio

    1986-01-01

    [ 14 C]Arachidonic acid was avidly incorporated into human keratinocytes in culture and following exposure to UVB irradiation of 9 mJ/cm 2 (erythemally effective, EE) substantial amounts of 14 C-radiolabel were released from the cells. The release of radiolabel was accompanied by a decrease in the labelling of phosphatidylethanolamine whereas the labelling of triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters was increased. Keratinocytes produced significant amounts of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and following UVB irradiation of 9 mJ/cm 2 (EE) the formation of prostaglandin E 2 was increased. Etretin (Ro 10-1670), the active metabolite of the antipsoriatic drug etretinate (Ro 10-9359), affected significantly neither the total release of radiolabel induced by UVB nor the formation of prostaglandin E 2 . However, in the presence of etretin the UVB irradiation induced transfer of [ 14 C]arachidonic acid into triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters was not increased as much as in the corresponding experiments without etretin. On the basis of the present study it appears that etretin dose not interfere with the release of arachidonic acid in amounts which could be related to the therapeutic effects of the combination of retinoids with UVB irradiation (Re-UVB) in the treatment of psoriasis. (author)

  6. Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.

    2008-11-01

    Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

  7. Influence of uvA on the erythematogenic and therapeutic effects of uvB irradiation in psoriasis; photoaugmentation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.; Schothorst, A.A.; Suurmond, D.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of repeated exposure to an additive dose of long ultraviolet (uvA) radiation on the erythemogenic and therapeutic effects of middle ultraviolet (uvB) irradiation was investigated in 8 patients with psoriasis. The surface of the backs of these patients was divided into 2 parts, 1 of which received only uvB irradiation 4 times a week and the other uvA + uvB. uvB was provided by Philips TL-12 lamps and uvA by glass-filtered Philips TL-09 lamps. uvA was held constantly at 10 J/cm2, whereas uvB alone were evaluated by 4 tests during the treatment to determine the minimal erythema dose (MED). Test I (at the start of the therapy) showed a photoaugmentative effect which was no longer apparent in Test III (third week). Test III showed a reversal of the ratios of the MEDs of the sites irradiated with the uvA + uvB and uvB (MED A + B/MED B). This is ascribed to the marked pigmentation which appeared after repeated irradiation with the uvA + uvB combination. Comparison showed for the improvement of the psoriasis no distinct differences between uvA + uvB irradiation and uvB alone, but the former had the cosmetic advantage of giving pleasing tan

  8. Effects of UV-B irradiation on growth, survival, pigmentation and nitrogen metabolism enzymes in Cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R.P.; Hader, D.P. [Institut fuer Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie, Friedrich-Alexander Universitaet, Erlangen (Germany); Kumar, H.D.; Kumar, A. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    1995-12-31

    The effects of artificial UV-B irradiation on growth, survival, pigmentation, nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and total protein profile have been studied in a number of N{sub 2}-fixing cyanobacterial strains isolated from rice (paddy) fields in India. Different organisms show different effects in terms of growth and survival. Complete killing of Anabaena sp. and Nostoc carmium occurs after 120 min of UV-B exposure, whereas the same occurs only after 150 min of exposure in the case of Nostoc commune and Scytonema sp. Growth patterns of the cells treated with UV-B revealed that Nostoc commune and Scytonema sp. are comparatively more tolerant than Anabaena sp. and Nostoc carmium. Pigment content, particularly phycocyanin, was severely decreased following UV-B irradiation in all strains tested so far. In vivo NR activity was found to increase, while in vivo GS activity was decreased following exposure to UV-B for different durations in all test organisms; although complete inhibition of GS activity did not occur even after 120 min of UV-B exposure. (author). 37 refs, 6 figs.

  9. Effects of UV-B irradiation on growth, survival, pigmentation and nitrogen metabolism enzymes in Cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.P.; Hader, D.P.; Kumar, H.D.; Kumar, A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of artificial UV-B irradiation on growth, survival, pigmentation, nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and total protein profile have been studied in a number of N 2 -fixing cyanobacterial strains isolated from rice (paddy) fields in India. Different organisms show different effects in terms of growth and survival. Complete killing of Anabaena sp. and Nostoc carmium occurs after 120 min of UV-B exposure, whereas the same occurs only after 150 min of exposure in the case of Nostoc commune and Scytonema sp. Growth patterns of the cells treated with UV-B revealed that Nostoc commune and Scytonema sp. are comparatively more tolerant than Anabaena sp. and Nostoc carmium. Pigment content, particularly phycocyanin, was severely decreased following UV-B irradiation in all strains tested so far. In vivo NR activity was found to increase, while in vivo GS activity was decreased following exposure to UV-B for different durations in all test organisms; although complete inhibition of GS activity did not occur even after 120 min of UV-B exposure. (author)

  10. The co-application effects of fullerene and ascorbic acid on UV-B irradiated mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shinobu; Itoga, Kazuyoshi; Yamato, Masayuki; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Okano, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    The role of fullerene as a pro-oxidant or anti-oxidant in Ultraviolet B ray (UV-B)-induced disorders in mouse skin was investigated. Fullerene gave no photo-toxic effect to UV-B-irradiated mouse skin. Since erythema was concentrated at the pore circumference in a UV-B irradiation experiment in mouse skin, the sebaceous gland pairs was strongly implicated as a site for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In a histological evaluation of the skin stained with CH 3 MDFDA (ROS index) and YO-Pro-1 (apoptosis index), the fluorescence intensity of a sebaceous gland significantly increased with UV-B irradiation. With the application of fullerene to UV-irradiated mouse skin, no toxicity was recognized in comparison with the control, and erythema, the ROS index, and the apoptosis index decrease with the application of fullerene. Ascorbyl radical (AA·) increased with the application of ascorbate (AA) to UV-B-irradiated mouse skin, and AA· decreased with the application of fullerene. The co-application of AA and fullerene, which suppressed AA· in vitro, significantly suppressed erythema, and also suppressed both the ROS index and apoptosis index in mouse skin after UV-B irradiation. In both mouse skin at 48 h after UV-B irradiation and in an attempt to reproduce this phenomenon artificially in vitro, a similar high AA· peak (AA·/H· > 4) was observed in electron spin resonance (ESR) charts. The binding of fullerene with AA impairs the Fenton reaction between AA and Fe-protein based on the observation of ascorbate-specific UV absorption and a linear equation for the calibration curve. Therefore, fullerene may impair the intercalation of AA to a heme pocket by binding with AA. These results suggest that the co-application of AA and fullerene is effective against oxidative skin damage caused by UV-B irradiation, and the development of an AA· inhibitor such as fullerene should be useful for reducing organ damage associated with Fe-protein oxidation.

  11. Effects of UV-B irradiated algae on zooplankton grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the effects of UV-B stressed algae on grazing rates of zooplankton. Four algal species ( Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Cryptomonas sp., Scenedesmus obliquus and Microcystis aeruginosa) were used as food and fed to three zooplankton species ( Daphnia galeata, Bosmina longirostris and

  12. Influence of water and salt solutions on UVB irradiation of normal skin and psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.; Schothorst, A.A.; Boom, B.; Suurmond, D.; Hermans, J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of tap-water (TW) and salt solutions on the minimal erythema dose (MED) was investigated for normal human skin and uninvolved skin of psoriasis patients. MED (UVB) determinations on the forearm revealed that: (1) the MED definitely decreases whenever the arm is immersed in TW or NaCl solutions with a low concentration (4%) prior to UVB exposure, whereas almost saturated NaCl solution (26%), as well as locum Dead Sea water (LDSW), do not produce a change in the MED, and (2) the decrease in MED obtained by wetting the skin with TW was no longer present when the skin was allowed to dry for 20 min. A decrease in water uptake by skin (in vivo) and by callus (in vitro) was found as the salt concentration of the external solution increased. It is proposed that water taken up by the skin plays an important role in the sensitivity of the skin to UVB exposure. Bathing in TW or 4% NaCl prior to UVB exposure offered a slight to moderate improvement in psoriasis over UVB irradiation alone. Finally, it was shown that there is no obvious difference in clearance of the psoriatic skin between a bath in TW, 4% NaCl, or LDSW prior to UVB exposure. (orig.)

  13. In vivo UVB irradiation induces clustering of Fas (CD95) on human epidermal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Bo; Gniadecki, Robert; Larsen, Jørgen K

    2003-01-01

    In vitro studies with human cell lines have demonstrated that the death receptor Fas plays a role in ultraviolet (UV)-induced apoptosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between Fas expression and apoptosis as well as clustering of Fas in human epidermis after...... a single dose of UVB irradiation. Normal healthy individuals were irradiated with three minimal erythema doses (MED) of UVB on forearm or buttock skin. Suction blisters from unirradiated and irradiated skin were raised, and Fas, FasL, and apoptosis of epidermal cells quantified by flow cytometry....... Clustering of Fas was from skin biopsied. Soluble FasL in suction blister fluid was quantified by ELISA. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated increased expression intensity of Fas after irradiation, with 1.6-,2.2- and 2.7-fold increased median expression at 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation, respectively (n...

  14. Effects of UV-B irradiated algae on life history traits of Daphnia pulex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, H.J.; Van Donk, E.

    1997-01-01

    1. The impact of ultraviolet-B (UVB)-irradiated phytoplankton on the life history parameters of Daphnia was studied. Three species of Chlorophyceae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Scenedesmus acutus and S. subspicatus) and one species of Cryptophyceae (Cryptamonas pyrenoidifera) were cultured with and

  15. Comparison of UVB and UVC irradiation disinfection efficacies on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyraki, A.; Markvart, M.; Nielsen, Anne; Bjarnsholt, T.; Bjørndal, L.; Petersen, P. M.

    2016-04-01

    Disinfection routines are important in all clinical applications. The uprising problem of antibiotic resistance has driven major research efforts towards alternative disinfection approaches, involving light-based solutions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common bacterium that can cause skin, soft tissue, lungs, kidney and urinary tract infections. Moreover, it can be found on and in medical equipment causing often cross infections in hospitals. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency, of two different light-based disinfection treatments, namely UVB and UVC irradiation, on P. aeruginosa biofilms at different growth stages. In our experiments a new type of UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) were used to deliver UV irradiation on the biofilms, in the UVB (296nm) and UVC (266nm) region. The killing rate was studied as a function of dose for 24h grown biofilms. The dose was ramped from 72J/m2 to 10000J/m2. It was shown that UVB irradiation was more effective than UVC irradiation in inactivating P. aeruginosa biofilms. No colony forming units (CFU) were observed for the UVB treated biofilms when the dose was 10000 J/m2 (CFU in control sample: 7.5 x 104). UVB irradiation at a dose of 20000J/m2 on mature biofilms (72h grown) resulted in a 3.9 log killing efficacy. The fact that the wavelength of 296nm exists in daylight and has such disinfection ability on biofilms gives new perspectives for applications within disinfection at hospitals.

  16. Binding of antibodies to dsDNA by UVB-irradiated spermatozoa in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollina, U; Schaarschmidt, H; Thiel, W; Knopf, B

    1986-08-01

    Human spermatozoa were exposed to monochromatic UVB light (300 nm) at a dosage range from 1-10/sup 3/ J/m/sup 2/ (xenon-mercury short-arc lamp) and 10/sup -2/-10/sup -1/ J/m/sup 2/ (xenon lamp). UVB irradiation >= 10 J/m/sup 2/ resulted in a subsequent binding of antibodies to double-stranded (ds) DNA. A strong homogeneous head fluorescence was visible. There was no immunoglobulin class restriction. The results were discussed in regards to lupus antigen expression by UV light.

  17. AKT delays the early-activated apoptotic pathway in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes via BAD translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claerhout, Sofie; Decraene, David; Van Laethem, An; Van Kelst, Sofie; Agostinis, Patrizia; Garmyn, Marjan

    2007-02-01

    Upon irradiation with a high dose of UVB, keratinocytes undergo apoptosis as a protective mechanism. In previous work, we demonstrated the existence of an early-activated UVB-induced apoptotic pathway in growth factor-depleted human keratinocytes, which can be substantially delayed by the exclusive supplementation of IGF-1. We now show that in human keratinocytes, IGF-1 inhibits the onset of UVB-triggered apoptosis through a transcriptional independent, AKT-mediated mechanism, involving BAD serine 136 phosphorylation. Our results show that the early UVB-induced apoptosis in growth factor-depleted human keratinocytes is exclusively triggered through the mitochondrial pathway. It is accompanied by BAX translocation, cytochrome c release, and procaspase-9 cleavage, but not by procaspase-8 or BID cleavage. In human keratinocytes, IGF-1 supplementation inhibits these events in a transcription-independent manner. Both IGF-1 supplementation and the transduction of a membrane-targeted form of AKT result in a shift of the BH3-only protein BAD from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm, paralleled by an increase of AKT-specific Ser136 phospho-BAD bound to 14-3-3zeta protein. These data indicate that AKT-induced BAD phosphorylation and its subsequent cytoplasmic sequestration by 14-3-3zeta is a major mechanism responsible for the postponement of UVB-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes.

  18. Sensitivity of two ecotypes of Arabidopsis Thaliana (Cvi and Te) towards UV-B irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkova, M.; Stanoeva, D.; Popova, A.

    2013-01-01

    he susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana towards the detrimental effect of UV-B irradiation was investigated using two ecotypes, Cvi and Te. The effect of UV-B treatment on primary photosynthetic reactions - energy interaction between the main pigment-protein complexes and oxygen evolution, was evaluated at low (4 0 C) and at room (22 0 C) temperature. UV-B-induced alterations of investigated photosynthetic reactions are better expressed at 22 0 C than at 4 0 C for Cvi. For Te ecotype the energy interaction was suppressed to higher extent at 22 0 C, while oxygen evolving activity was affected similarly at both temperatures. At low and room temperature, the energy interaction in the complex PSII-core antenna is affected stronger by UV-B treatment than the energy distribution between both photosystems, as revealed by fluorescence ratios of 77 K spectra. The results presented indicate that the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Cvi (Cape Verde Islands) is less affected by UV-B irradiation in respect to the investigated primary photosynthetic reactions than the ecotype Te (Finland)

  19. Probing behaviors of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on enhanced UV-B irradiated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B induced changes in plants can influence sap-feeding insects through mechanisms that have not been studied. Herein the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae, was monitored on barley plants under the treatments of control [0 kJ/ (m2.d], ambient UV-B [60 kJ/ (m2.d], and enhanced UV-B [120 kJ/ (m2.d] irradiation. Electrical penetration graph (EPG techniques were used to record aphid probing behaviors. Enhanced UV-B irradiated plants negatively affected probing behaviors of S. avenae compared with control plants. In particular, phloem factors that could diminish sieve element acceptance appeared to be involved, as reflected by smaller number of phloem phase, shorter phloem ingestion, and fewer aphids reaching the sustained phloem ingestion phase (E2>10min. On the other hand, factors from leaf surface, epidermis, and mesophyll cannot be excluded, as reflected by higher number of non-probing, longer non-probing and pathway phase, and later the time to first probe.

  20. Comparison of UVB and UVC irradiation disinfection efficacies on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Markvart, M.; Nielsen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    skin, soft tissue, lungs, kidney and urinary tract infections. Moreover, it can be found on and in medical equipment causing often cross infections in hospitals. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency, of two different light-based disinfection treatments, namely UVB and UVC irradiation......, on P. aeruginosa biofilms at different growth stages. In our experiments a new type of UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) were used to deliver UV irradiation on the biofilms, in the UVB (296nm) and UVC (266nm) region. The killing rate was studied as a function of dose for 24h grown biofilms. The dose......Disinfection routines are important in all clinical applications. The uprising problem of antibiotic resistance has driven major research efforts towards alternative disinfection approaches, involving light-based solutions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common bacterium that can cause...

  1. Effect of UV-A and UV-B irradiation on the metabolic profile of aqueous humor in rabbits analyzed by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessem, May-Britt; Bathen, Tone F; Cejková, Jitka; Midelfart, Anna

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate metabolic changes in aqueous humor from rabbit eyes exposed to either UV-A or -B radiation, by using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and unsupervised pattern recognition methods. Both eyes of adult albino rabbits were irradiated with UV-A (366 nm, 0.589 J/cm(2)) or UV-B (312 nm, 1.667 J/cm(2)) radiation for 8 minutes, once a day for 5 days. Three days after the last irradiation, samples of aqueous humor were aspirated, and the metabolic profiles analyzed with (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The metabolic concentrations in the exposed and control materials were statistically analyzed and compared, with multivariate methods and one-way ANOVA. UV-B radiation caused statistically significant alterations of betaine, glucose, ascorbate, valine, isoleucine, and formate in the rabbit aqueous humor. By using principal component analysis, the UV-B-irradiated samples were clearly separated from the UV-A-irradiated samples and the control group. No significant metabolic changes were detected in UV-A-irradiated samples. This study demonstrates the potential of using unsupervised pattern recognition methods to extract valuable metabolic information from complex (1)H NMR spectra. UV-B irradiation of rabbit eyes led to significant metabolic changes in the aqueous humor detected 3 days after the last exposure.

  2. The protective effects of piceatannol from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Kurita, Ikuko; Sugiyama, Kenkichi; Sai, Masahiko; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Ito, Tatsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The use of naturally occurring botanicals with substantial antioxidant activity to prevent photoageing is receiving increasing attention. We have previously identified piceatannol and scirpusin B, which is a dimer of piceatannol, as strong antioxidants that are present in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds. In the present study, the effects of passion fruit seed extract, piceatannol, and scirpusin B on human keratinocytes were investigated. The passion fruit seed extract and piceatannol upregulated the glutathione (GSH) levels in keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that piceatannol is an active component of the passion fruit seed extract in keratinocytes. The pretreatment with piceatannol also suppressed the UVB-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the keratinocytes. In addition, the transfer of the medium from the UVB-irradiated keratinocytes to non-irradiated fibroblasts enhanced matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 activity, and this MMP-1 induction was reduced when the keratinocytes were pretreated with piceatannol. These results suggest that piceatannol attenuates the UVB-induced activity of MMP-1 along with a reduction of ROS generation in keratinocytes. Thus, piceatannol and passion fruit seed extract containing high amounts of piceatannol are potential anti-photoageing cosmetic ingredients.

  3. Migration patterns of dendritic cells in the rat: comparison of the effects of gamma and UV-B irradiation on the migration of dendritic cells and lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oluwole, S.F.; Engelstad, K.; De Rosa, C.; Wang, T.S.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Reemtsma, K.; Hardy, M.A. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))

    1991-04-01

    To further define the underlying mechanisms of immune suppression induced by UV-B irradiation, we have examined the kinetics of homing patterns of in vitro UV-B-irradiated and gamma-irradiated-thoracic duct lymphocytes (TDL) compared to dendritic cells (DC). Our findings show that {sup 111}In-oxine-labeled TDL specifically home to the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow with subsequent recirculation of a large number of cells from the spleen to lymph nodes. In contrast, DC preferentially migrate to the spleen and liver with a relatively insignificant distribution to lymph nodes and an absence of subsequent recirculation. Splenectomy prior to cell injection significantly diverts the spleen-seeking DC to the liver but not to the lymph nodes, while the homing of TDL to lymph nodes is significantly increased. In vitro exposure of 111In-oxine labeled TDL to gamma irradiation does not significantly impair immediate homing to lymphoid tissues but inhibits cell recirculation between 3 and 24 hr. In contrast, gamma irradiation does not affect the tissue distribution of labeled DC, suggesting that DC are more radioresistant to gamma irradiation than TDL. Unlike the findings in animals injected with gamma-irradiated cells, UV-B irradiation virtually abolished the homing of TDL to lymph nodes and significantly reduced the homing of the spleen-seeking DC to the splenic compartment while a large number of cells were sequestered in the liver. The results of in vitro cell binding assay show that TDL, unlike DC, have the capacity to bind to high endothelial venules (HEV) within lymph node frozen sections while gamma and UV-B irradiation significantly inhibit the binding of TDL to lymph node HEV.

  4. Vitamin D Status in Chronic Kidney Disease - UVB Irradiation Is Superior to Oral Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rolfdieter; Roth, Heinz Jürgen; Kaase, Heinrich; Stange, Rainer; Holick, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD) a deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is common. The aim of this review was to compare vitamin D status after oral supplementation of vitamin D3 to that of serial suberythemal irradiation in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. Ninety-five patients, with a mean age of 62 (range=35-82) years, were treated with a mean dose of 35,000 (20,000-60,000) IU vitamin D3 per week for a period of 18 months. Fourteen patients, with a mean age of 51 (range=41-57) years, were whole-body UVB irradiated for over 6 months. From 3 hemodialysis patients skin biopsies were performed. With oral supplementation 25(OH)D3 increased by 60%. With UV irradiation 25(OH)D3 increased by 400%. Gene expression analysis demonstrated an improvement in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) by 0.65 fold, in 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) by 1.0 fold, and in 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R) by 1.2 fold. Serial suberythemal UVB irradiation of patients with CKD on dialysis is capable to improve serum 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 by enhancing the skin's ability to activate vitamin D. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Mitochondria-Targeted Vitamin E Protects Skin from UVB-Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Serk; Kim, Ikyon; Kim, Wang-Kyun; Choi, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Doo Yeong; Moon, Sung-Guk; Min, Hyung-Keun; Song, Min-Kyu; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondria-targeted vitamin E (MVE) is designed to accumulate within mitochondria and is applied to decrease mitochondrial oxidative damage. However, the protective effects of MVE in skin cells have not been identified. We investigated the protective effect of MVE against UVB in dermal fibroblasts and immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). In addition, we studied the wound-healing effect of MVE in animal models. We found that MVE increased the proliferation and survival of fibroblasts at low concentration (i.e., nM ranges). In addition, MVE increased collagen production and downregulated matrix metalloproteinase1. MVE also increased the proliferation and survival of HaCaT cells. UVB increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in fibroblasts and HaCaT cells, while MVE decreased ROS production at low concentration. In an animal experiment, MVE accelerated wound healing from laser-induced skin damage. These results collectively suggest that low dose MVE protects skin from UVB irradiation. Therefore, MVE can be developed as a cosmetic raw material.

  6. Quercetin oxidation by horseradish peroxidase: The effect of UV-B irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Saša R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Horseradish peroxidase (HRP, a highly-investigated member of the peroxidase family has been known, among many other biological activities, to catalyze the oxidation of flavonoids and phenolic substrates overall, including quercetin. On the other hand, quercetin is very well known for its antioxidant activities, which in the case of UV external radiation is exibited partly in a preventive manner since it is an excellent UV-absorber. Therefore the aim of this investigation is to study quercetin oxidation by HRP in phosphate buffer under the conditions of UV-stress, i.e. continuous, prolonged UV-B irradiation. The results show that while UV-B irradiation affects the activity of HRP, and the overal rate of quercetin oxidation by HRP, it probably has very little effect on it for longer UV-B-irradiation periods (>30 min. [Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia under Project No.TR-34012 and OI-172044

  7. Is pollen morphology of Salix polaris affected by enhanced UV-B irradiation? Results from a field experiment in high Arctic tundra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeloff, Dan; Blokker, Peter; Boelen, Peter; Rozema, Jelte

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the thickness of the pollen wall will increase in response to enhanced UV-B irradiation, by examining, the effect of enhanced UV-B irradiance on the pollen morphology of Sali-v polaris Wahlem. grown in a Field experiment on the Arctic tundra of Svalbard.

  8. UVA and UVB irradiation differentially regulate microRNA expression in human primary keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kraemer

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA-mediated regulation of the cellular transcriptome is an important epigenetic mechanism for fine-tuning regulatory pathways. These include processes related to skin cancer development, progression and metastasis. However, little is known about the role of microRNA as an intermediary in the carcinogenic processes following exposure to UV-radiation. We now show that UV irradiation of human primary keratinocytes modulates the expression of several cellular miRNAs. A common set of miRNAs was influenced by exposure to both UVA and UVB. However, each wavelength band also activated a distinct subset of miRNAs. Common sets of UVA- and UVB-regulated miRNAs harbor the regulatory elements GLYCA-nTRE, GATA-1-undefined-site-13 or Hox-2.3-undefined-site-2 in their promoters. In silico analysis indicates that the differentially expressed miRNAs responding to UV have potential functions in the cellular pathways of cell growth and proliferation. Interestingly, the expression of miR-23b, which is a differentiation marker of human keratinocytes, is remarkably up-regulated after UVA irradiation. Studying the interaction between miR-23b and its putative skin-relevant targets using a Luciferase reporter assay revealed that RRAS2 (related RAS viral oncogene homolog 2, which is strongly expressed in highly aggressive malignant skin cancer, to be a direct target of miR-23b. This study demonstrates for the first time a differential miRNA response to UVA and UVB in human primary keratinocytes. This suggests that selective regulation of signaling pathways occurs in response to different UV energies. This may shed new light on miRNA-regulated carcinogenic processes involved in UV-induced skin carcinogenesis.

  9. UVA and UVB Irradiation Differentially Regulate microRNA Expression in Human Primary Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Anne; Chen, I-Peng; Henning, Stefan; Faust, Alexandra; Volkmer, Beate; Atkinson, Michael J.; Moertl, Simone; Greinert, Ruediger

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of the cellular transcriptome is an important epigenetic mechanism for fine-tuning regulatory pathways. These include processes related to skin cancer development, progression and metastasis. However, little is known about the role of microRNA as an intermediary in the carcinogenic processes following exposure to UV-radiation. We now show that UV irradiation of human primary keratinocytes modulates the expression of several cellular miRNAs. A common set of miRNAs was influenced by exposure to both UVA and UVB. However, each wavelength band also activated a distinct subset of miRNAs. Common sets of UVA- and UVB-regulated miRNAs harbor the regulatory elements GLYCA-nTRE, GATA-1-undefined-site-13 or Hox-2.3-undefined-site-2 in their promoters. In silico analysis indicates that the differentially expressed miRNAs responding to UV have potential functions in the cellular pathways of cell growth and proliferation. Interestingly, the expression of miR-23b, which is a differentiation marker of human keratinocytes, is remarkably up-regulated after UVA irradiation. Studying the interaction between miR-23b and its putative skin-relevant targets using a Luciferase reporter assay revealed that RRAS2 (related RAS viral oncogene homolog 2), which is strongly expressed in highly aggressive malignant skin cancer, to be a direct target of miR-23b. This study demonstrates for the first time a differential miRNA response to UVA and UVB in human primary keratinocytes. This suggests that selective regulation of signaling pathways occurs in response to different UV energies. This may shed new light on miRNA-regulated carcinogenic processes involved in UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. PMID:24391759

  10. The response of bean plants to UV-B radiation under different irradiances of background visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, Y.P.; Bornman, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Stella) were grown in controlled conditions under three different irradiances of visible light with or without UV-B (280–320nm) radiation. The biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-BBE) was 6.17 kJ m −2 d −1 , and simulated a c. 5% decrease in stratospheric ozone at 55.7°N, 13.4°E. The photon flux densities of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm) were either 700 μmol m −2−1 (HL), 500, μmol m −2 s −1 (ML) or 230 μmol m −2 s −1 PAR (LL). Under high light (HL) conditions plus UV-B radiation, bean plants appeared most resistant to the enhanced levels of UV-B radiation, and responded only by increasing leaf thickness by c. 18%. A small increase in UV screening pigments was also observed. Both the lower irradiances (ML and LL) increased the sensitivity of the plants to UV-B radiation. Changes in leaf structure were also observed. Photosystem II was inhibited under ML and LL together with UV-B radiation, as determined by Chi fluorescence induction and calculation of the fluorescence half-rise times. Leaf reflectivity measurements showed that the amount of PAR able to penetrate leaves of UV-B treated plants was reduced, and that a possible correlation may exist between the reduced PAR levels, loss of Chi and lowered photosynthetic activity, especially for LL +UV-B grown plants, where surface reflection from leaves was highest. Changes in leaf chlorophyll content were mostly confined to plants grown under LL + UV-B, where a decrease of c. 20% was found. With regard to protective pigments (the carotenoids and UV screening pigments) plants subjected to different visible light conditions responded differently. Among the growth parameters measured, there was a substantial decrease in leaf area, particularly under LL + UV-B (c. 47% relative to controls), where leaf dry weight was also reduced by c. 25%. (author)

  11. Effect of low dose UVB irradiation on the migratory properties and functional capacities of human skin dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richters, C. D.; Reits, E. A.; van Pelt, A. M.; Hoekstra, M. J.; van Baare, J.; Du Pont, J. S.; Kamperdijk, E. W.

    1996-01-01

    We recently described the 'spontaneous' migration of skin dendritic cells out of human split skin during culture. Since newly infiltrating cells from the circulation are excluded, this in vitro model is very suitable for studying the effect of UVB irradiation on the migratory properties, phenotype

  12. Significance of irradiation of blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Eisuke; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1992-01-01

    Many reports of fatal GVHD occurring in non-immunocompromised patients after blood transfusion have been published in Japan. One explantation is that transfused lymphocytes were simulated and attack the recipient organs recognized as HLA incompatible. That is so called 'one-way matching'. To reduce the risk of post-transfusion GVHD, one of the most convenient methods is to irradiate the donated blood at an appropriate dose for inactivation of lymphocytes. Because no one knows about the late effect of irradiated blood, it is necessary to make the prospective safety control. (author)

  13. The influence of enhanced UV-B irradiation on the growth and composition of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevini, M.; Iwanzik, W.

    1982-02-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare), corn (Zea mays), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and radish (Raphanus Sativus) were irradiated under a lighting device for 5 to 10 days continuously at an increased UV-B fluence rate. These four species reacted differently to the elevated UV-radiation in their growth parameters, composition and leaf surface. Bean seedlings incurred the greatest damage, radish and barley seedlings less damage, and corn seedlings were hardly affected. The fresh weight, loaf area and chlorophyll, carstenoid and galactolipid contents were reduced in all species, whereas protein contents were increased throughout compared to controls. An approx. 50% increase in flavaroid content was noted in barley and radish seedlings. Studies on barley seedlings showed the effects on growth parameters and composition to be more market with increasing UV-B fluence rate. Fresh weights, chlorophyll and carotinoid contents were reduced proportionately, in contrast to flavaroid content which increased with increasing fluence rate to 180% of the control value. A bronze discolouration of the leaves appeared regularly at the highest fluence rate. (orig./AJ) [de

  14. Effect of UV-B irradiance on the ATP content of microorganisms of the Weddell Sea (Antartica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosjan, J.H.; Nieuwland, G. (Netherlands Inst. for Sea Research, Den Burg (Netherlands)); Doehler, G. (Frankfurt Universitaet (Federal Republic of Germany). Botanisches Institut)

    1990-06-01

    The effect of UV-B irradiation on the ATP content of natural assemblages of planktonic microorganisms in the upper 30-m water layer of the Weddell Sea (Antartica) was studied. After five hours of irradiation with UV (290-320 nm) of 1.35 W.m{sup -2} a 75% decrease in the ATP content of the microorganisms was observed. (author). 11 refs.; 3 figs.

  15. Effect of UV-B irradiance on the ATP content of microorganisms of the Weddell Sea (Antartica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosjan, J.H.; Nieuwland, G.; Doehler, G.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of UV-B irradiation on the ATP content of natural assemblages of planktonic microorganisms in the upper 30-m water layer of the Weddell Sea (Antartica) was studied. After five hours of irradiation with UV (290-320 nm) of 1.35 W.m -2 a 75% decrease in the ATP content of the microorganisms was observed. (author). 11 refs.; 3 figs

  16. Significance of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Nobuko; Ogami, Koji; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Koga, Kenji; Waki, Norio; Higashi, Hidefumi; Hayashi, Asami; Shibata, Koichiro; Watanabe, Katsuji

    1986-01-01

    From 1978 through 1983, 27 patients were treated with surgery followed by irradiation (irradiated group) and 29 with surery alone (non-irradiated group). In the irradiated group, 10 had stage II and 17 stage III; in the non-irradiated group, 25 had stage II and 4 stage III. The most common histology was medullary tubular carcinoma (MTC). There was no significant difference in survivals at 3 years and 5 years between the groups. Similarly, no significant difference was seen among stage II patients. Patients with MTC tended to have worse survivals in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group, with no statistically significant difference. Among stage II patients, no major differences in local recurrence were seen between the groups; the incidence of distant metastases tended to be high in the irradiated group. The incidence of both local recurrence and distant metastases for stage III patients showed a tendency to be higher in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group. The results indicated no apparent benifit of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. A randomized clinical trial is needed for the evaluation of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. OMI/Aura Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Daily L2 Global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version 003 of Aura-OMI Spectral Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Level-2G data product (Daily level-2 data binned into global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon grids)...

  18. Effect of Artocarpus communis Extract on UVB Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Lin Yen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Administration of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet (UV irradiation-induced skin damage. Artocarpus communis possesses several pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation. However, the photoprotective activity of methanol extract of A. communis heartwood (ACM in ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin damage has not yet been investigated. The present study was performed using ultraviolet absorption, histopathological observation, antioxidant and anti-inflammation assays to elucidate the mechanism of the photoprotective activity of ACM. Our results indicated that ACM displayed a UVA and UVB absorption effect and then effectively decreased scaly skin, epidermis thickness and sunburn cells during ultraviolet irradiation in hairless mice. ACM not only decreased ultraviolet irradiation-mediated oxidative stress, including lowering the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05, but also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin 1β. Additionally, ACM can decrease the synthesis of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 via inhibiting TNF-α-independent pathways (p < 0.05 in UVB-mediated inflammation and formation of sunburn cells. Consequently, we concluded that ACM extract has a photoprotective effect against UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation due to its sunscreen property, and its topical formulations may be developed as therapeutic and/or cosmetic products in further studies.

  19. Specific racemization and isomerization of the aspartyl residue of αA-crystallin due to UV-B irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Noriko; Momose, Yuko; Ishibasi, Yoshihiro; Uemura, Toshimasa; Takita, Masatoshi; Takehana, Makoto

    1997-01-01

    We have reported that the aspartyl (Asp)-151 residue in αA-crystallin in human eye lens was inverted to the D-isomer and isomerized to β-Asp residue with age. We report here that ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation induces the racemization and isomerization of the Asp-151 residue of αA-crystallin from lenses of 6-week-old rats to form D-isomer and β-Asp residue. Simultaneous racemization and isomerization of the specific Asp residue indicate that the reaction proceeds via formation of a succinimide intermediate. This modification was not observed in UV-A irradiated and normal lenses. UV-B irradiation induced the racemization of only the Asp-151 residue and did not affect the other Asp residues in αA-crystallin. On the other hand, the high molecular weight fraction of the lens protein increased upon UV-B irradiation. Modification of the Asp residue would affect the three-dimensional packing array of the lens protein. (author)

  20. Evaluating the effects of UV-B and UV-A irradiances on plant pigments, photosynthesis and growth in Glycine max L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, E.H.M.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing penetration of UV-B radiation to the earth's surface resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion is an important environmental concern, but plant response to UV-B irradiation has been difficult to assess. The UV-A irradiance has not been specifically measured or controlled previously. The experimental UV-A was controlled in a series of three glasshouse experiments conducted under high photosynthetic photon flux (midday PPF ≥ 1200 μmol m -2 s -1 ). Low (LT) and High (HT) daily UV-B BE irradiances (10.7; 14.1 kJ m -2 ) were utilized in two experiments, whereas treatments with different UV-B BE :UV-A ratios ( BE :UV-A ratios

  1. UVB irradiation does not directly induce detectable changes of DNA methylation in human keratinocytes [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/np

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Lahtz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Unprotected exposure to UVB radiation from the sun and the resulting DNA damage are thought to be responsible for physiological changes in the skin and for a variety of skin cancers, including basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Although the mutagenic effects of UVB have been well documented and studied mechanistically, there is only limited information as to whether UV light may also be responsible for inducing epigenetic changes in the genome of exposed cells. DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic modification involved in gene control. To study the effects of UVB radiation on DNA methylation, we repeatedly exposed normal human keratinocytes to a UVB light source. After a recovery period, we analyzed global DNA methylation patterns in the irradiated and control cells using the methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA method in combination with high-resolution microarrays. Bioinformatics analysis revealed only a limited number of possible differences between UVB-exposed and control cells. However, these minor apparent changes could not be independently confirmed by bisulfite sequencing-based approaches. This study reveals that UVB irradiation of keratinocytes has no recognizable global effect on DNA methylation patterns and suggests that changes in DNA methylation, as observed in skin cancers, are not immediate consequences of human exposure to solar UVB irradiation.

  2. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation potentially impacts the photosynthetic performance of high Arctic plants. We conducted an UV-B exclusion experiment in a dwarf shrub heath in NE Greenland (74°N), with open control, filter control, UV-B filtering and UV-AB filtering, all in combination......, nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...... across position in the vegetation. These findings add to the evidence that the ambient solar UV-B currently is a significant stress factor for plants in high Arctic Greenland....

  3. Specific binding of prostaglandin E2 to membrane preparations from human skin: receptor modulation by UVB-irradiation and chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, J.T.; Ziboh, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Human skin membranes bind prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) with high affinity and specificity. This binding is inhibited by trypsin or heat treatment suggesting that PGE2 receptors have protein components. Exposure of the membranes to ultraviolet irradiation (UVB) resulted in the loss of the membrane binding capacity for PGE2. This UVB-inhibitory effect could be prevented by a known protein sulfhydryl-oxidizing agent and a known lipid anti-oxidant

  4. Quality assurance of the UV irradiances of the UV-B Monitoring and Research Program: the Mauna Loa test case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina Maria; Davis, John; Janson, George; Olson, Becky; Chen, Maosi; Durham, Bill; Simpson, Scott; Straube, Jonathan; Sun, Zhibin; Gao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    The USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) is an ongoing effort aiming to establish a valuable, longstanding database of ground-based ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation measurements over the US. Furthermore, the program aims to achieve a better understanding of UV variations through time, and develop a UV climatology for the Northern American section. By providing high quality radiometric measurements of UV solar radiation, UVMRP is also focusing on advancing science for agricultural, forest, and range systems in order to mitigate climate impacts. Within these foci, the goal of the present study is to investigate, analyze, and validate the accuracy of the measurements of the UV multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (UV-MFRSR) and Yankee (YES) UVB-1 sensor at the high altitude, pristine site at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. The response-weighted irradiances at 7 UV channels of the UV-MFRSR along with the erythemal dose rates from the UVB-1 radiometer are discussed, and evaluated for the period 2006-2015. Uncertainties during the calibration procedures are also analyzed, while collocated groundbased measurements from a Brewer spectrophotometer along with model simulations are used as a baseline for the validation of the data. Besides this quantitative research, the limitations and merits of the existing UVMRP methods are considered and further improvements are introduced.

  5. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2011-01-01

    , nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...... across position in the vegetation. These findings add to the evidence that the ambient solar UV-B currently is a significant stress factor for plants in high Arctic Greenland....

  6. A combination of He-Ne laser irradiation and exogenous NO application efficiently protect wheat seedling from oxidative stress caused by elevated UV-B stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Gao, Limei; Han, Rong

    2016-12-01

    The elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) stress induces the accumulation of a variety of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which seems to cause oxidative stress for plants. To date, very little work has been done to evaluate the biological effects of a combined treatment with He-Ne laser irradiation and exogenous nitric oxide (NO) application on oxidative stress resulting from UV-B radiation. Thus, our study investigated the effects of a combination with He-Ne laser irradiation and exogenous NO treatment on oxidative damages in wheat seedlings under elevated UV-B stress. Our data showed that the reductions in ROS levels, membrane damage parameters, while the increments in antioxidant contents and antioxidant enzyme activity caused by a combination with He-Ne laser and exogenous NO treatment were greater than those of each individual treatment. Furthermore, these treatments had a similar effect on transcriptional activities of plant antioxidant enzymes. This implied that the protective effects of a combination with He-Ne laser irradiation and exogenous NO treatment on oxidative stress resulting from UV-B radiation was more efficient than each individual treatment with He-Ne laser or NO molecule. Our findings might provide beneficial theoretical references for identifying some effective new pathways for plant UV-B protection.

  7. UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induce melanoma-associated ganglioside GD3 synthase gene in melanocytes via secretion of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Maiko [Department of Life and Medical Sciences, Chubu University Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, Matsumoto, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Ichihara, Masatoshi; Tajima, Orie; Sobue, Sayaka; Kambe, Mariko [Department of Life and Medical Sciences, Chubu University Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, Matsumoto, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Sugiura, Kazumitsu [Department of Dermatology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Furukawa, Koichi, E-mail: koichi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Furukawa, Keiko [Department of Life and Medical Sciences, Chubu University Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, Matsumoto, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Melanocytes showed low ST8SIA1 and high B3GALT4 levels in contrast with melanomas. • Direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes did not induce ganglioside synthase genes. • Culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced ST8SIA1 in melanocytes. • TNFα and IL-6 secreted from keratinocytes enhanced ST8SIA1 expression in melanocytes. • Inflammatory cytokines induced melanoma-related ST8SIA1 in melanocytes. - Abstract: Although expression of gangliosides and their synthetic enzyme genes in malignant melanomas has been well studied, that in normal melanocytes has been scarcely analyzed. In particular, changes in expression levels of glycosyltransferase genes responsible for ganglioside synthesis during evolution of melanomas from melanocytes are very important to understand roles of gangliosides in melanomas. Here, expression of glycosyltransferase genes related to the ganglioside synthesis was analyzed using RNAs from cultured melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that melanomas expressed high levels of mRNA of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes and low levels of GM1/GD1b synthase genes compared with melanocytes. As a representative exogenous stimulation, effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on the expression levels of 3 major ganglioside synthase genes in melanocytes were analyzed. Although direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes caused no marked changes, culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) induced definite up-regulation of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes. Detailed examination of the supernatants revealed that inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6 enhanced GD3 synthase gene expression. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokines secreted from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced melanoma-associated ganglioside synthase genes, proposing roles of skin microenvironment in the promotion of melanoma-like ganglioside profiles in melanocytes.

  8. UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induce melanoma-associated ganglioside GD3 synthase gene in melanocytes via secretion of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Maiko; Ichihara, Masatoshi; Tajima, Orie; Sobue, Sayaka; Kambe, Mariko; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Furukawa, Koichi; Furukawa, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Melanocytes showed low ST8SIA1 and high B3GALT4 levels in contrast with melanomas. • Direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes did not induce ganglioside synthase genes. • Culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced ST8SIA1 in melanocytes. • TNFα and IL-6 secreted from keratinocytes enhanced ST8SIA1 expression in melanocytes. • Inflammatory cytokines induced melanoma-related ST8SIA1 in melanocytes. - Abstract: Although expression of gangliosides and their synthetic enzyme genes in malignant melanomas has been well studied, that in normal melanocytes has been scarcely analyzed. In particular, changes in expression levels of glycosyltransferase genes responsible for ganglioside synthesis during evolution of melanomas from melanocytes are very important to understand roles of gangliosides in melanomas. Here, expression of glycosyltransferase genes related to the ganglioside synthesis was analyzed using RNAs from cultured melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that melanomas expressed high levels of mRNA of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes and low levels of GM1/GD1b synthase genes compared with melanocytes. As a representative exogenous stimulation, effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on the expression levels of 3 major ganglioside synthase genes in melanocytes were analyzed. Although direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes caused no marked changes, culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) induced definite up-regulation of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes. Detailed examination of the supernatants revealed that inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6 enhanced GD3 synthase gene expression. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokines secreted from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced melanoma-associated ganglioside synthase genes, proposing roles of skin microenvironment in the promotion of melanoma-like ganglioside profiles in melanocytes

  9. Protective effect of different antioxidant agents in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Salucci

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin cells can respond to UVB-induced damage either by tolerating it, or restoring it through antioxidant activation and DNA repair mechanisms or, ultimately, undergoing programmed cell death, when damage is massive. Nutritional factors, in particular, food antioxidants, have attracted much interest because of their potential use in new preventive, protective, and therapeutic strategies for chronic degenerative diseases, including skin inflammation and cancer. Some polyphenols, present in virgin olive oil, well tolerated by organism after oral administration, show a variety of pharmacological and clinical benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and neuro-protective activities. Here, the protective effects of antioxidant compounds against UV-induced apoptosis have been described in HaCat cell line. Human keratinocytes were pre-treated with antioxidants before UVB exposure and their effects have been evaluated by means of ultrastructural analyses. After UVB radiation, a known cell death trigger, typical apoptotic features, absent in control condition and in antioxidant alone-treated cells, appear. An evident numerical decrease of ultrastructural apoptotic patterns and TUNEL positive nuclei can be observed when natural antioxidants were supplied before cell death induction. These data have been confirmed by molecular investigation of caspase activity. In conclusion, this paper highlights antioxidant compound ability to prevent apoptotic cell death in human keratinocytes exposed to UVB, suggesting, for these molecules, a potential role in preventing skin damage. 

  10. Changes in aqueous humor following single or repeated UVB irradiation of rabbit cornea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fris, M.; Čejková, Jitka; Midelfart, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 245, č. 11 (2007), s. 1705-1711 ISSN 0721-832X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/06/1379 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Aqueous humour * Nuclear magnetic resonance * UVB rays Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.590, year: 2007

  11. Effects of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on green algae under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiations: no evidence of enhanced algal toxicity under UV pre-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo

    2013-04-01

    Some metal oxide nanoparticles are photoreactive, thus raising concerns regarding phototoxicity. This study evaluated ecotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiation conditions. The nanoparticles were prepared in algal test medium, and the test units were pre-irradiated by UV light in a photoreactor. Algal assays were also conducted with visible, UVA or UVB lights only without nanoparticles. Algal growth was found to be inhibited as the nanoparticle concentration increased, and ZnO NPs caused destabilization of the cell membranes. We also noted that the inhibitory effects on the growth of algae were not enhanced under UV pre-irradiation conditions. This phenomenon was attributed to the photocatalytic activities of ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs in both the visible and UV regions. The toxicity of ZnO NPs was almost entirely the consequence of the dissolved free zinc ions. This study provides us with an improved understanding of toxicity of photoreactive nanoparticles as related to the effects of visible and UV lights. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of low energy N+ ions pre-treatment on damage effects of UV-B irradiation on M1 rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shuaipeng; Huang Qunce; Chen Xueneng

    2011-01-01

    The seedlings of rice (xindao18) were exposed to UV-B (10.08 kJ/(m 2 ·d 1 )) irradiation following the pretreatment with three different implantation dosages of low-energy N + ions. Changes in the levels of the superoxide (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and soluble sugar were measured. The result showed that the UV-B irradiation on the seedlings of rice pretreated with low-energy ions implantation could lead to increase activities in POD and SOD, and the maximum appeared on the dose of 2.0 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 . Meanwhile, it made the content of GSH increased, and caused the activity of CAT and the content of MDA to be decreased. But there was no obvious change in soluble sugar. It was suggested that the rice pretreated by low energy ion implantation could enhance the antioxidation capacity and defensive ability when irradiated by UV-B, and the antioxidation system could be induced earlier than carbohydrate system. Therefore,the biological effects of UV-B irradiation on rice pretreated by low energy ion implantation were quite obvious. (authors)

  13. TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The...

  14. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone...

  15. Objective Assessment of Sunburn and Minimal Erythema Doses: Comparison of Noninvasive In Vivo Measuring Techniques after UVB Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Pei-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Military personnel movement is exposed to solar radiation and sunburn is a major problem which can cause lost workdays and lead to disciplinary action. This study was designed to identify correlation parameters in evaluating in vivo doses and epidermis changes following sunburn inflammation. Several noninvasive bioengineering techniques have made objective evaluations possible. The volar forearms of healthy volunteers ( , 2 areas, 20 mm in diameter, were irradiated with UVB 100 mj/ and 200 mj/ , respectively. The skin changes were recorded by several monitored techniques before and 24 hours after UV exposures. Our results showed that chromameter value provides more reliable information and can be adopted with mathematical model in predicting the minimal erythema dose (MED which showed lower than visual assessment by 10 mj/ (Pearson correlation coefficient . A more objective measure for evaluation of MED was established for photosensitive subjects' prediction and sunburn risks prevention.

  16. Effect of Novel Marine Nutraceuticals on IL-1α-Mediated TNF-α Release from UVB-Irradiated Human Melanocyte-Derived Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visalini Muthusamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-induced inflammation and reactive oxygen species formation are involved in the development of melanoma. Natural products like 5β-scymnol and CO2-supercritical fluid extract (CO2-SFE of mussel oil contain anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may aid in reducing the deleterious effects of UV radiation. Therefore, their effect on the release of the proinflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, from UVB-irradiated human melanocytic cells was examined. Human epidermal melanocytes (HEM and MM96L melanoma cells were exposed to UVB radiation and IL-1α. Cell viability and TNF-α levels were determined 24 hours after-irradiation while p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation was observed at 15 min after-irradiation. When α-tocopherol, CO2-SFE mussel oil, and 5β-scymnol were added to the UVB-irradiated HEM cells treated with IL-1α, TNF-α levels fell by 53%, 65%, and 76%, respectively, while no inhibition was evident in MM96L cells. This effect was not due to inhibition of the intracellular p38 MAPK signalling pathway. These compounds may be useful in preventing inflammation-induced damage to normal melanocytes.

  17. Topical Administration of Manuka Oil Prevents UV-B Irradiation-Induced Cutaneous Photoaging in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Sook Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Manuka tree is indigenous to New Zealand, and its essential oil has been used as a traditional medicine to treat wounds, fever, and pain. Although there is a growing interest in the use of manuka oil for antiaging skin care products, little is known about its bioactivity. Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is the primary environmental factor causing skin damage and consequently premature aging. Therefore, we evaluated manuka oil for its effects against photoaging in UV-B-irradiated hairless mice. Topical application of manuka oil suppressed the UV-B-induced increase in skin thickness and wrinkle grading in a dose-dependent manner. Application of 10% manuka oil reduced the average length, depth, and % area of wrinkles significantly, and this was correlated with inhibition of loss of collagen fiber content and epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, we observed that manuka oil could suppress UV-B-induced skin inflammation by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, this study provides evidence that manuka oil indeed possesses antiphotoaging activity, and this is associated with its inhibitory activity against skin inflammation induced by UV irradiation.

  18. Physiological effects of short acute UVB treatments in Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Scartazza, Andrea; Castagna, Antonella; Cosio, Eric G; Ranieri, Annamaria; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-10

    Increased ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation due to global change can affect plant growth and metabolism. Here, we evaluated the capacity of quinoa to resist under short acute UVB irradiation. Quinoa was daily exposed for 30 or 60 min to 1.69 W m -2 UVB. The results showed that 30 min exposure in 9 d-course did not cause severe alterations on photosynthetic pigments and flavonoids, but a significant increase of antioxidant capacity was observed. Otherwise, 60 min UVB in 5 d-course reduced almost all these parameters except for an increase in the de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle pigments and led to the death of the plants. Further studies of gas exchange and fluorescence measurements showed that 30 min UVB dramatically decrease stomatal conductance, probably associated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport was also observed, which could be a response to reduce ROS. Otherwise, irreversible damage to the photosynthetic apparatus was found with 60 min UVB probably due to severe ROS overproduction that decompensates the redox balance inducing UVB non-specific signaling. Moreover, 60 min UVB compromised Rubisco carboxylase activity and photosynthetic electron transport. Overall, these data suggest that quinoa modulates different response mechanisms depending on the UVB irradiation dosage.

  19. Prevention of MHC-alloimmunization by UV-B irradiation in a murine model: effects of UV dose and number of transfused cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grijzenhout, M.A.; Claas, F.H.J.

    1994-01-01

    The optimal dose of UV-B radiation for prevention of in vivo alloimmunization (AI) against major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens was investigated in a murine transfusion model. Two groups with five C57BL/6 mice (H-2 b ) each were transfused at weekly intervals with 1 x 10 5 or 1 x 10 6 DBA/2 (H-2 d ) leucocytes. Both suspensions induced anti-H-2 d antibodies in all mice after the second transfusion. The minimal UV-B dose required for abolition of alloreactivity in the mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR) was 0.6 J/cm 2 . This dose completely prevented the onset of MHC-AI in all five mice transfused with six suspensions containing 1 x 10 5 leucocytes. In contrast, suspensions with 1 x 10 6 leucocytes and exposed to 0.6 J/cm 2 induced immunization in 4/5 mice. Further increase of the dose to 1.8 or 5.4 J/cm 2 did not prevent the onset of MHC-AI. We conclude that the number of leucocytes per transfusion determines the efficacy of UV irradiation for the prevention of MHC-AI. For UV irradiation of human platelet concentrates (PCs) we propose to reduce the number of leucocytes by centrifugation prior to UV exposure. UV-B irradiation of PCs with high numbers of leucocytes may not be effective for prevention of alloimmunization. (Author)

  20. Significance of primary irradiation creep in graphite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, C

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally primary irradiation creep is introduced into graphite analysis by applying the appropriate amount of creep strain to the model at the initial time-step. This is valid for graphite components that are subjected to high fast neutron flux...

  1. Morphological and physiological responses of two varieties of a highland species (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) growing under near-ambient and strongly reduced solar UV-B in a lowland location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan A; Rosa, Mariana; Parrado, María F; Hilal, Mirna; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-08-03

    Morphological and physiological responses of seedlings to different solar UV-B irradiances were evaluated in two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a crop species from Andean region of South America. Cristalina and Chucapaca varieties were grown at 1965m a.s.l in a glasshouse under natural light conditions for 18 days, and then transferred to outdoors under near-ambient (+UV-B) and strongly reduced (-UV-B) solar UV-B radiation. Exposition to -UV-B increased cotyledon area and seedling height in Cristalina variety whereas leaf number decreased compared to +UV-B. By contrast Chucapaca variety was not affected by UV-B treatments. Seedling fresh weight (FW), root length and leaf thickness did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Mesophyll tissue was slightly affected by solar UV-B reduction. Chlorophyll content was differentially affected by UV-B treatments. Under +UV-B the highest value was observed in Cristalina variety, while in Chucapaca it was observed under -UV-B treatment. Chlorophyll content was slightly higher in leaves than in cotyledons, but there was no difference in the distribution pattern. Chlorophyll a/b ratio and carotenoid content did not show significant differences between UV-B treatments. Leaf UVB-absorbing compounds showed significant differences between UV-B treatments in Chucapaca only, while there were no significant differences in Cristalina variety. UVB-absorbing compounds of cotyledons did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Sucrose, glucose and fructose showed different distribution patterns in cotyledons and leaves of the two varieties under near-ambient and strongly reduced UV-B. Results demonstrated that varieties of quinoa exhibit different morphological and physiological responses to changes in solar UV-B irradiance, but these responses cannot be used to predict the sensitivity to solar UV-B during a short-term exposition. Also, this study can be useful to

  2. UV-B sensitivity of plant photosynthesis as influenced by visible irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, M.M.; Warner, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were made to separate the effects of preconditioning and concomitant visible irradiation and to investigate this with respect to both light-limited and light-saturated photosynthesis. (orig./AJ)

  3. Reproductive, morphological, and phytochemical responses of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to enhanced UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumbull, V.L.; McCloud, E.S.; Paige, K.N. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, collected from Libya and Norway, were grown in the greenhouse under. UV-B doses of 0 and 10.5 kJ m[sup [minus]2] UV-B[sub BE]. The high UV-B dose simulated midsummer ambient conditions over Libya and a 40% reduction in stratospheric ozone over Norway. The Libyan ectotype, which originated from latitudes where solar UV-B is high, showed no UV-B induced damage to plant growth. However the Norwegian ecotype, which originated from latitudes where solar UV-B is low, showed a significant reduction in plant height, inflorescence weight, and rosette weight in response to enhanced UV-B. Although fruit and seed number for both ecotypes were unaffected by enhanced UV-B radiation the germination success of the seeds harvested from the irradiated Norwegian plants were significantly reduced. The two ecotypes also differed with respect to their accumulation of kaempferol, a putative UV-B protective filter. The Libyan ecotype increased kaempferol concentration by 38% over the 0 kJ treatment whereas the Norwegian ecotype increased by only 15%. These data suggest that, for these ecotypes, variation in UV-B sensitivity may be explained by the differential induction of UV-absorbing leaf pigments.

  4. Objective Assessment of Sunburn and Minimal Erythema Doses: Comparison of Noninvasive In Vivo Measuring Techniques after UVB Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min-Wei; Lo, Pei-Yu; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    Military personnel movement is exposed to solar radiation and sunburn is a major problem which can cause lost workdays and lead to disciplinary action. This study was designed to identify correlation parameters in evaluating in vivo doses and epidermis changes following sunburn inflammation. Several noninvasive bioengineering techniques have made objective evaluations possible. The volar forearms of healthy volunteers ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]), 2 areas, 20 mm in diameter, were irradiated with UVB 100 mj/[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] and 200 mj/[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], respectively. The skin changes were recorded by several monitored techniques before and 24 hours after UV exposures. Our results showed that chromameter [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] value provides more reliable information and can be adopted with mathematical model in predicting the minimal erythema dose (MED) which showed lower than visual assessment by 10 mj/[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] (Pearson correlation coefficient [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]). A more objective measure for evaluation of MED was established for photosensitive subjects' prediction and sunburn risks prevention.

  5. Objective Assessment of Sunburn and Minimal Erythema Doses: Comparison of Noninvasive In Vivo Measuring Techniques after UVB Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Sheng Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Military personnel movement is exposed to solar radiation and sunburn is a major problem which can cause lost workdays and lead to disciplinary action. This study was designed to identify correlation parameters in evaluating in vivo doses and epidermis changes following sunburn inflammation. Several noninvasive bioengineering techniques have made objective evaluations possible. The volar forearms of healthy volunteers (n=20, 2 areas, 20 mm in diameter, were irradiated with UVB 100 mj/cm2 and 200 mj/cm2, respectively. The skin changes were recorded by several monitored techniques before and 24 hours after UV exposures. Our results showed that chromameter a∗ value provides more reliable information and can be adopted with mathematical model in predicting the minimal erythema dose (MED which showed lower than visual assessment by 10 mj/cm2 (Pearson correlation coefficient ℑ=0.758. A more objective measure for evaluation of MED was established for photosensitive subjects' prediction and sunburn risks prevention.

  6. On induced-modifications in optical properties of Makrofol® DE 1-1 SSNTD by UVB and UVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amri, A.; El Ghazaly, M.; Abdel-Aal, M. S.

    The induced modifications in the optical properties of Makrofol® DE 1-1 solid state nuclear track detectors upon irradiation by UVB (302 nm) and UVA (365 nm) were characterized and compared. Makrofol® DE 1-1 detectors were irradiated separately for different durations with UVB (302 nm) and UVA (365 nm). The measurements revealed insignificant changes were observed at all in UVA (365 nm)-irradiated Makrofol® DE 1-1, irrespective the irradiation time (dose). All UVB (302 nm)-irradiated Makrofol® DE 1-1 detectors show a substantial red shift in UV-Vis spectra and a continuous increase in absorbance as the exposure time (Dose) to UVB increases. UVC-irradiated Makrofol® DE 1-1 exhibits absorption bands at 315 ± 5 nm in UV-visible spectra. The absorption increases exponential with the increasing the UVB irradiation time gets saturated started from 75 h to 400 h. In the visible light range no significant changes were observed in Makrofol® DE 1-1 detector irrespective the exposure time to UVB of 302 nm. It is found that the direct band gap is higher than indirect band gap and both decrease with the increase in the irradiation time of UVB of 302 nm. The obtained results of the Urbach energy and carbon atoms per cluster indicate that both increase with the increase in the irradiation time to UVB (302 nm). The induced modification in the optical properties of Makrofol® DE 1-1 can be used in UVB dosimetry, meanwhile it is not applicable for UVA of 365 nm.

  7. Interactive effects of UV-B irradiation and triadimefon on nodulation and nitrogen metabolism in Vigna radiata plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendiran, K.; Ramanujam, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Supply of aqueous solution of triadimefon (20 mg/cubic dm) to unstressed green gram plants increased the contents of soluble proteins, amino acids, nitrate and nitrite, and the activity of nitrate reductase in the leaves and nitrate reductase in nodules. The nitrogenase activity in nodules and roots was also increased. Number and fresh mass of nodules and their nitrate and nitrite contents were also higher than those of the controls. In contrast, the UV-B stress (12.2 kJ/square m/d) suppressed nodulation and nitrogen metabolism in leaves and roots in comparison with plants under natural UV-B (10 kJ/square m/d). Triadimefon-treated plants did not show such severe inhibitions after exposure to elevated UV-B. Thus, triadimefon increased their tolerance to UV-B stress

  8. Effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on delayed-type hypersensitivity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity, and skin graft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, K.; Iijima, M.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of ultraviolet B irradiation on the induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to alloantigens by epidermal cells (EC), on the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity to alloantigens, and on skin graft rejection was studied. After the skin was irradiated with UVB in vitro, EC were obtained. The EC were injected subcutaneously, and the DTH reaction was compared with that induced by non-UVB-irradiated EC. A reduction in the DTH reaction was observed (from 62% to 99.1%). CTL activity in these mice was assessed after in vitro stimulation. CTL activity in mice sensitized with UVB-irradiated EC was significantly reduced. Furthermore, mice sensitized with UVB-irradiated EC did not reject a subsequent skin allograft in an accelerated fashion, whereas mice sensitized with non-UVB-irradiated EC did. The mechanism(s) of these reactions and the clinical application of the UVB irradiation prior to grafting are discussed

  9. Comparison of Sensitivity to Photoinhibition and UV-B Stress between Developing and Mature Leaves of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Plants from Control and Gamma-Irradiated Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Baek, M.H.; Chung, B.Y.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, Y.B.

    2004-01-01

    The stress-resistance of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Yeomyung and Joheung) plants from the seeds irradiated with low doses of gamma-radiation (2, 4, 8, and 16 Gy) was examined under the conditions of photoinhibition and UV-B stress. To induce photoinhibition, the leaves acclimated overnight with a dim light were exposed to a photon flux density (PFD) of 200 μmol · m-² · s-¹ at 25℃ for 1 h. Then, they were further exposed to the same PFD with supplementary UV-B irradiance at 25℃ for 3 h (UV-B stress). The gamma-irradiation stimulated the early growth of the plants in both cultivars at 2, 4, and 8 Gy

  10. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on skin of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenwen; Chen Qiang; Li Peng; Ling Ling; Lin Xiaochen; Ren Shuping; Liu Yajuan; Li Yun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the adverse effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) on the skin of guinea pig. Methods: Guinea pig skin was irradiated with UV-B, the skin changes in external appearance, pathology, and the contents of OH and O 2 - produced in the skin were determined to study the adverse effects of UV-B on the guinea pig skin. Results: UV-B caused red swelling and desquamation of skin, with the increasing of the UV-B irradiation, the cells in stratum spinosum began to proliferate vigorously, the MDA and ROS contents in UVB radiation group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: UV-B can cause injury to guinea pig skin and has the potential to produce skin cancer. (authors)

  11. Genes up-regulated during red coloration in UV-B irradiated lettuce leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Sug; Choung, Myoung-Gun; Kim, Jung-Bong; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Kim, Jong-Bum; Bae, Shin-Chul; Roh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Cheon, Choong-Ill; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Kang-Jin

    2007-04-01

    Molecular analysis of gene expression differences between green and red lettuce leaves was performed using the SSH method. BlastX comparisons of subtractive expressed sequence tags (ESTs) indicated that 7.6% of clones encoded enzymes involved in secondary metabolism. Such clones had a particularly high abundance of flavonoid-metabolism proteins (6.5%). Following SSH, 566 clones were rescreened for differential gene expression using dot-blot hybridization. Of these, 53 were found to overexpressed during red coloration. The up-regulated expression of six genes was confirmed by Northern blot analyses. The expression of chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) genes showed a positive correlation with anthocyanin accumulation in UV-B-irradiated lettuce leaves; flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3',5'H) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) were expressed continuously in both samples. These results indicated that the genes CHS, F3H, and DFR coincided with increases in anthocyanin accumulation during the red coloration of lettuce leaves. This study show a relationship between red coloration and the expression of up-regulated genes in lettuce. The subtractive cDNA library and EST database described in this study represent a valuable resource for further research for secondary metabolism in the vegetable crops.

  12. Is it photosensitization or photodegradation when UV-B irradiation is combined with BDE-47? Evidence from the growth and reproduction changes of rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunchen; Tang, Xuexi; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Yongshun; Lv, Mengchen; Zang, Yu; Wang, You

    2018-07-01

    Ecotoxicological methods were applied in the present study, and the marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis was used as the toxic endpoint to depict what occurred when 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) was combined with solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B). B. plicatilis was exposed to three different combination methods of BDE-47 and UV-B at an equal toxicity ratio, including normal rotifer co-cultured with UV-B-irradiated BDE-47 (known as Method I), UV-B-irradiated rotifer co-cultured with BDE-47 exposure (known as Method II) and normal rotifer co-cultured with the simultaneous addition of BDE-47 and UV-B irradiation (known as Method III). Acute and chronic experiments were preformed to determine the toxicity differentiation according to the growth and reproduction changes in the rotifer. Twenty-four-hour acute experiments showed that the modes of three combined methods changed from antagonism to additive, to synergistic with the concentration/dose increment, and the contribution rates of Method I and Method II to Method III were calculated by approximately 40.4% and 59.6%, respectively. Chronic exposure to either the single stressor or the combination of stressors inhibited the growth and reproduction of the rotifer, demonstrating the inhibition of the population growth rate and the decrease in the larvae production. Three combined groups presented more serious damages compared to groups with single stress exposure, and the ascending sequence of toxicity was Method IUV-B was mainly due to photosensitization and photodegradation, and the photosensitization might be more

  13. How narrow-band and broad-band uvb irradiation influences the immunohistochemistry analyses of experimental animals’ skin – a comparative study. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Borowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of the artcle series impact narrow-band UVB radiation (NB-UVB and broad-band UVB radiation (BB-UVB on experimental animals’ skin (white Wistar female rats. The aim of this comparative study was immunohistochemistry analyses containing expression of p53 protein. Expression of p53 protein was performed on two experimental groups. One – exposed to NB-UVB; the other – exposed to BB-UVB radiation. The results indicate that p53 protein takes an active part in the process of apoptosis that is induced by both NB-UVB and BB-UVB. The results showed an increase in p53 expressing cells following BB-UVB than NB-UVB phototherapy.

  14. Egg hatching response to a range of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation doses for four predatory mites and the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveos, Dimitrios S; Suzuki, Takeshi; Terzidou, Anastasia; Kokkari, Anastasia; Floros, George; Damos, Petros; Kouloussis, Nikos A

    2017-01-01

    Egg hatchability of four predatory mites-Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Iphiseius [Amblyseius] degenerans Berlese, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, and Euseius finlandicus Oudemans (Acari: Phytoseiidae)-and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) was determined under various UV-B doses either in constant darkness (DD) or with simultaneous irradiation using white light. Under UV-B irradiation and DD or simultaneous irradiation with white light, the predator's eggs hatched in significantly lower percentages than in the control non-exposed eggs, which indicates deleterious effects of UV-B on embryonic development. In addition, higher hatchability percentages were observed under UV-B irradiation and DD in eggs of the predatory mites than in eggs of T. urticae. This might be caused by a higher involvement of an antioxidant system, shield effects by pigments or a mere shorter duration of embryonic development in predatory mites than in T. urticae, thus avoiding accumulative effects of UV-B. Although no eggs of T. urticae hatched under UV-B irradiation and DD, variable hatchability percentages were observed under simultaneous irradiation with white light, which suggests the involvement of a photoreactivation system that reduces UV-B damages. Under the same doses with simultaneous irradiation with white light, eggs of T. urticae displayed higher photoreactivation and were more tolerant to UV-B than eggs of the predatory mites. Among predators variation regarding the tolerance to UV-B effects was observed, with eggs of P. persimilis and I. degenerans being more tolerant to UV-B radiation than eggs of A. swirskii and E. finlandicus.

  15. A long term study of the relations between erythemal UV-B irradiance, total ozone column, and aerosol optical depth at central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palancar, Gustavo G.; Olcese, Luis E.; Achad, Mariana; López, María Laura; Toselli, Beatriz M.

    2017-09-01

    Global ultraviolet-B irradiance (UV-B, 280-315 nm) measurements made at the campus of the University of Córdoba, Argentina were analyzed to quantify the effects of ozone and aerosols on surface UV-B erythemal irradiance (UVER). The measurements have been carried out with a YES Pyranometer during the period 2000-2013. The effect of ozone and aerosols has been quantified by means of the Radiation Amplification Factor (RAF) and by an aerosol factor (AF, analogous to RAF), respectively. The overall mean RAF under cloudless conditions was (1.2 ± 0.3) %, ranging from 0.67 to 2.10% depending on solar zenith angle (SZA) and on Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). The RAF increased with the SZA with a clear trend. Similarly, the aerosol effect under almost-constant ozone and SZA showed that, on average, a 1% increase in AOD forced a decrease of (0.15 ± 0.04) % in the UVER, with a range of 0.06 to 0.27 and no defined trend as a function of the SZA. To analyze the effect of absorbing aerosols, an effective single scattering albedo (SSA) was determined by comparing the experimental UVER with calculations carried out with the TUV radiative transfer model.

  16. Effects of low or high doses of short wavelength ultraviolet light (UVB) on Langerhans cells and skin allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odling, K.A.; Halliday, G.M.; Muller, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    Donor C57BL mouse shaved dorsal trunk or tail skin was exposed to high (200 mJ/cm 2 ) or low (40 mJ/cm 2 ) doses of short wavelength ultraviolet light (UVB) before grafting on to the thorax of BALB/c mouse recipients of the same sex. Skin grafted 1-14 days following a single high dose of UVB irradiation was ultrastructurally depleted of LC and survived significantly longer than unirradiated skin before being rejected. After a 21-day interval between exposure and grafting when LC were again present in the epidermis there was no significant difference between treated and control graft survival. Exposure to low dose UVB irradiation only significantly increased graft survival for skin transplanted 1-3 days after irradiation; skin grafted 4 days following irradiation survived for a similar period to unirradiated control skin grafts. Electronmicroscopy showed that the low UVB dose did not deplete LC from the epidermis. We conclude that after low dose UVB treatment the class II MHC antigens on the LC Plasma membrane were lost temporarily, thus prolonging graft survival, but when the plasma membrane antigens were re-expressed graft survival returned to normal. In contrast, high-dose UVB irradiation prolonged graft survival by depleting LC from the epidermis, with graft survival only returning to control values as LC repopulated the epidermis

  17. Effects of environmental and artificial UV-B radiation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Evelise Maria [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Morfologicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21949-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genetica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Ammar, Dib [Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia, Campus Universitario, 89600-000 Joacaba, SC (Brazil); Bem, Andreza Fabro de; Latini, Alexandra [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Bioquimica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Mueller, Yara Maria Rauh [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genetica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Allodi, Silvana, E-mail: sallodi@histo.ufrj.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Morfologicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21949-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-06-01

    The recent decrease of the stratospheric ozone has resulted in an increase of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the Earth's surface. In freshwater ecosystems with transparent water, UV-B rays easily penetrate and potentially cause harmful effects to organisms. In this study, embryos of the prawn Macrobrachium olfersi were used to evaluate the impact of UV-B rays in freshwater environments. We observed three groups of embryos: the first was to assess whether UV-B radiation produced morphological defects and/or biochemical impairments in the laboratory. The second was to check whether embryos with the same impairments as those observed in the laboratory were found in their environment, under natural solar radiation. The third group was the non-irradiated control. The embryos irradiated with 310 mW cm{sup -2} UV-B for 30 min showed morphological alterations similar to those observed in embryos from the environmental control group. The most important effects of the UV-B radiation observed in M. olfersi embryos were morphological (1.2% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 2.8% of the total number of irradiated embryos), pigmentation changes in the eyes (78.0% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 98.9% of the total number of irradiated embryos), and disruption of the chromatophores (46.9% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 95.5% of the total number of irradiated embryos). We also observed an increase in egg volume, which was accompanied by a significant increase in water content in UV-B irradiated groups when compared with aquaria control embryos. In addition, a significant decrease in the mitotic index in eggs exposed to UV-B radiation was detected (0.17 for the embryos from the aquaria control, 0.10 for the embryos of the environmental control, and 0.04 for the irradiated groups). The low levels of NPSH and high levels of TBARS indicated that UV-B rays directly compromised the antioxidant function of

  18. Effects of environmental and artificial UV-B radiation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, Evelise Maria; Ammar, Dib; Bem, Andreza Fabro de; Latini, Alexandra; Mueller, Yara Maria Rauh; Allodi, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    The recent decrease of the stratospheric ozone has resulted in an increase of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the Earth's surface. In freshwater ecosystems with transparent water, UV-B rays easily penetrate and potentially cause harmful effects to organisms. In this study, embryos of the prawn Macrobrachium olfersi were used to evaluate the impact of UV-B rays in freshwater environments. We observed three groups of embryos: the first was to assess whether UV-B radiation produced morphological defects and/or biochemical impairments in the laboratory. The second was to check whether embryos with the same impairments as those observed in the laboratory were found in their environment, under natural solar radiation. The third group was the non-irradiated control. The embryos irradiated with 310 mW cm -2 UV-B for 30 min showed morphological alterations similar to those observed in embryos from the environmental control group. The most important effects of the UV-B radiation observed in M. olfersi embryos were morphological (1.2% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 2.8% of the total number of irradiated embryos), pigmentation changes in the eyes (78.0% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 98.9% of the total number of irradiated embryos), and disruption of the chromatophores (46.9% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 95.5% of the total number of irradiated embryos). We also observed an increase in egg volume, which was accompanied by a significant increase in water content in UV-B irradiated groups when compared with aquaria control embryos. In addition, a significant decrease in the mitotic index in eggs exposed to UV-B radiation was detected (0.17 for the embryos from the aquaria control, 0.10 for the embryos of the environmental control, and 0.04 for the irradiated groups). The low levels of NPSH and high levels of TBARS indicated that UV-B rays directly compromised the antioxidant function of the

  19. Ultraviolet B (UVB) induction of the c-fos promoter is mediated by phospho-cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) binding to CRE and c-fos activator protein 1 site (FAP1) cis elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Melissa; Bowden, G Tim

    2002-06-26

    The ultraviolet B (UVB) portion (280-320 nm) of the ultraviolet spectrum has been shown to contribute to the development of non-melanoma skin cancer in humans. Research in the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, revealed that UVB irradiation caused the upregulation of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). The AP-1 complex formed in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells is specifically composed of c-fos and Jun D. c-Fos expression was induced in a manner that correlated with the UVB-induced activation of AP-1. To investigate how c-fos expression is regulated by UVB irradiation, the role of each of four cis elements within the c-fos promoter was evaluated. Clustered point mutations at the sis inducible element (SIE), serum response element (SRE), c-fos AP-1 site (FAP1), or cyclic AMP response elements (CRE) significantly inhibited UVB induction of the c-fos promoter. This indicated that all four cis elements are required for maximum promoter activity. The CRE and FAP1 elements were the two most active cis elements that mediate the UVB transactivation of c-fos. Homodimers of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were induced by UVB irradiation to bind to each of these elements. Therefore, CREB may function as an important regulatory protein in the UVB-induced expression of c-fos.

  20. The effect of chronic low-dose UVB radiation on Langerhans cells, sunburn cells, urocanic acid isomers, contact hypersensitivity and serum immunoglobulins in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghorr, A.A.; Norval, M.; Lappin, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    C3H mice were irradiated three times a week for up to 6 weeks with either 500 J/m 2 or 1000 J/m 2 broadband UVB (270-350 nm) or 3000 J/m 2 narrowband UVB (311-312 nm; TL01 source). Each dose was suberythemal to the mouse strain used. The number of Langerhans cells (LC) in the epidermis was reduced by over 50% after 2 weeks of irradiation with the UVB source and by 20% following TL01 irradiation. Continued irradiation for up to 6 weeks resulted in no further decrease in LC numbers in the case of the UVB source but a steady decline to 40% in the case of the TL01 source. Sunburn cells were detected following irradiation with both sources but the numbers were very low in comparison with acute exposure. Ultraviolet-B exposure resulted in doubling of the thickness of the epidermis throughout the 6 weeks of irradiation while TL01 exposure did not alter epidermal thickness. Conversion of trans- to cis-urocanic acid (UCA) was observed with both UVB and TL01 sources. The percentage of cis-UCA started to return to normal after 4 weeks of TL01 exposure despite continued irradiation. As observed following a single exposure, the contact hypersensitivity (CH) response was significantly reduced following 6 weeks of UVB irradiation but was unaffected by TL01 exposure, indicating no correlation between cis-UCA levels and CH response. (author)

  1. UVB-induced immune suppression and infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, F.P.; Lewis, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation with ultraviolet B (UVB, 290-320 nm) causes a systematic immunosuppression of cell-mediated immunity. The question of whether UV immunosuppression modulates the course of infectious diseases is important because UVB levels in sunlight are sufficient to predict significant UV-induced immunosuppression at most latitudes. We have investigated the effect of immunosuppressive doses of UVB on the disease caused by the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated once or three times weekly over 60-80 days with UV from a bank of FS40 sunlamps. Each UV treatment consisted of an immunosuppressive UV dose, as determined by suppression of contact hypersensitivity to trinitrochlorobenzene, corresponding to about 15-30 min of noonday tropical sunlight exposure under ideal clear sky conditions. Cumulative UV doses were between 80 and 170 kJ/m 2 . Worm and egg burdens, liver granuloma diameters and liver fibrosis showed minimal changes ( 2 administered in six treatments) did not impair the resistance to rechallenge conferred by vaccination with 60 Co-irradiated cercariae. We have observed a dichotomy between UV immnosuppression and both disease and vaccination in this helminth infection, in contrast to the effects of UVB shown in other infectious diseases. (author)

  2. Protective effect of mango (Mangifera indica L.) against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Eun Young; Choi, Goya; Hyun, Jin Won; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Hye Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2013-04-01

    Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose extracts have been described as an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Skin aging is a consequence of chronic sun exposure to the sun and therefore ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Naturally occurring antioxidants are known to reduce skin aging. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective role of mango extract against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice. HR-1 hairless male mice (6 weeks old) were divided into three groups: control (n = 5), UVB-treated vehicle (n = 5), and UVB-treated mango extract (n = 5) groups. UVB-irradiated mice from the mango extract group were orally administered 0.1 ml of water containing 100 mg of mango extract/kg body weight per day. The inhibitory activity of mango extract on wrinkle formation was determined by the analysis of the skin replica, epidermal thickness based on histological examination, and damage to collagen fiber. The mean length of wrinkles in UVB-treated vehicle group significantly improved after the oral administration of mango extract, which significantly inhibited the increase in epidermal thickness and epidermal hypertrophy (P mango extract by Masson's trichrome staining. These results indicate that mango extract showed anti-photoaging activity in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. UV-B radiation-induced oxidative stress and p38 signaling pathway involvement in the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Kyun-Woo; Kim, Min-Jung; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation presents an environmental hazard to aquatic organisms. To understand the molecular responses of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus to UV-B radiation, we measured the acute toxicity response to 96 h of UV-B radiation, and we also assessed the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, glutathione (GSH) content, and antioxidant enzyme (GST, GR, GPx, and SOD) activities after 24 h of exposure to UV-B with LD50 and half LD50 values. Also, expression patterns of p53 and hsp gene families with phosphorylation of p38 MAPK were investigated in UV-B-exposed copepods. We found that the ROS level, GSH content, and antioxidant enzyme activity levels were increased with the transcriptional upregulation of antioxidant-related genes, indicating that UV-B induces oxidative stress by generating ROS and stimulating antioxidant enzymatic activity as a defense mechanism. Additionally, we found that p53 expression was significantly increased after UV-B irradiation due to increases in the phosphorylation of the stress-responsive p38 MAPK, indicating that UV-B may be responsible for inducing DNA damage in T. japonicus. Of the hsp family genes, transcriptional levels of hsp20, hsp20.7, hsp70, and hsp90 were elevated in response to a low dose of UV-B radiation (9 kJ m(-2)), suggesting that these hsp genes may be involved in cellular protection against UV-B radiation. In this paper, we performed a pathway-oriented mechanistic analysis in response to UV-B radiation, and this analysis provides a better understanding of the effects of UV-B in the intertidal benthic copepod T. japonicus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective effect of 4-coumaric acid from UVB ray damage in the rabbit eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodovici, Maura; Caldini, Silvia; Morbidelli, Lucia; Akpan, Victor; Ziche, Marina; Dolara, Piero

    2009-01-01

    UV-induced oxidation damage seems to play a major role in a number of specific pathological conditions of intraocular tissues, such as cataract formation and retinal degeneration. Therefore, antioxidant and/or scavenger compounds might protect the eyes from UV-induced cellular damage. We previously reported that 4-coumaric acid (4-CA) is able to protect rabbit corneal-derived cells (SIRC) from UVB-induced oxidation damage. In this study we evaluated the protective effect of 4-CA against UVB-induced cell damage in rabbit cornea in vivo. Twelve male New Zealand albino rabbits were used; four rabbits were used as a control and received vehicle in one eye and 4-CA acid in the contralateral eye; eight rabbits were exposed to UVB rays (79.2 mJ/cm 2 ) and three days before to UV exposure each animal received 1 drop/day of vehicle in one eye and 1 drop/day of vehicle containing 4-CA (164 ng) in the contralateral eye. Corneal and sclera tissues were removed and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) levels were measured. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities were determined in aqueous humour. UVB-induced vessel hyper-reactivity was strongly reduced at 4 and 24 h after UVB exposure after local treatment with 4-CA, 8-oxodGuo levels, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in sclera and cornea by UVB irradiation, but when 4-CA was administered to the conjunctiva in a buffered solution once a day for 3 d before and 6 d after UVB exposure, levels of 8-oxodGuo were similar to controls and significantly reduced (P < 0.05) compared to UVB-treated corneas. XO activity in the aqueous humour was significantly increased. The administration of 4-CA for 3 d before and 6 d after UVB irradiation induced a small but significant (P < 0.05) reduction of XO compared with control eyes. Our results indicate that the administration of 4-CA protects eye tissues, thus reducing the harmful effect of UVB radiation at low

  5. Combined effects of enhanced UV-B radiation and nitrogen deficiency on the growth, composition and photosynthesis of rye (Secale cereale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckmyn, G.; Impens, I.

    1997-01-01

    The interactive effects of N-deficiency and enhanced UV-B radiation on growth, photosynthesis and pigmentation of rye were studied. The plants were grown for 5 weeks in growth chambers with high (700 μmol m -2 s -2 ) irradiance levels. A 30% difference in UV-B at plant level was achieved by using different thicknesses of UV-B transparent Plexiglass. One half of the plants received optimal N nutrition, while the other received half of this dose. Both enhanced UV-B and N deficiency strongly decreased production (from 24–33%). The combined effect was additive (no interaction) on most parameters, including total dry weight production which was 52% lower than in the control series. Significant interaction was found on the root/shoot ratio. While reduced N supply induced an increase in the ratio at normal UV-B irradiation, under the increased UV-B, N deficiency had no effect on the root/shoot ratio. The reduced biomass due to UV-B was clearly correlated to a reduction in photosynthesis. At optimal N supply the plants increased the production of protective pigments in response to UV-B, but at reduced N supply this response was lacking. The increased N content of the high UV-B/high N plants could be a result of increased flavonoid production as well as changes in light penetration in the canopy. (author)

  6. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yuanqin [Cancer Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Yao, Hua [Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Luo, Jia [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY (United States); Gao, Ning [Department of Pharmacognos, College of Pharmacy, 3rd Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries.

  7. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yuanqin; Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin; Yao, Hua; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J.; Luo, Jia; Gao, Ning; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries

  8. Cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by regulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 hairless mice skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Joseph, Binoy; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Kim, Donghern; Yin, Yuanqin; Roy, Ram Vinod; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Yitao

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States. Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation induces inflammation and photocarcinogenesis in mammalian skin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a member of the anthocyanin family, is present in various vegetables and fruits especially in edible berries, and displays potent antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study, we have assessed the in vivo effects of C3G on UVB irradiation induced chronic inflammatory responses in SKH-1 hairless mice, a well-established model for UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. Here, we show that C3G inhibited UVB-induced skin damage and inflammation in SKH-1 hairless mice. Our results indicate that C3G inhibited glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidation in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. C3G significantly decreased the production of UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, associated with cutaneous inflammation. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by C3G as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, C3G also decreased UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), PGE 2 and iNOS levels, which are well-known key mediators of inflammation and cancer. Treatment with C3G inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mice skin. Immunofluorescence assay revealed that topical application of C3G inhibited the expression of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and cyclin D1 in chronic UVB exposed mouse skin. Collectively, these data indicates that C3G can provide substantial protection against the adverse effects of UVB radiation by modulating UVB-induced MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. - Highlights: • C3G inhibited UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation. • C3G inhibited UVB-induced COX-2, iNOS and PGE 2 production. • C3G inhibited

  9. Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through MAP kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 mice skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Wang, Xin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Extensive exposure of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to skin induces oxidative stress and inflammation that play a crucial role in the induction of skin cancer. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. In this study, we investigated whether blackberry extract (BBE) reduces chronic inflammatory responses induced by UVB irradiation in SKH-1 hairless mice skin. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm 2 ) on alternate days for 10 weeks, and BBE (10% and 20%) was applied topically a day before UVB exposure. Our results show that BBE suppressed UVB-induced hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the SKH-1 hairless mice skin. BBE treatment reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. BBE significantly decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in UVB-exposed skin. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by BBE as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, BBE also reduced inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in UVB-exposed skin. Treatment with BBE inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mouse skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that topical application of BBE inhibited the expression of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin D1 in UVB-exposed skin. Collectively, these data indicate that BBE protects from UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by modulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. - Highlights: • Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced glutathione depletion. • Blackberry

  10. Cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by regulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 hairless mice skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Joseph, Binoy [Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center and Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0509 (United States); Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Kim, Donghern [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yin, Yuanqin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Cancer Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Roy, Ram Vinod [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Lu, Jian [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang, Yitao [State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau (China); and others

    2014-10-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States. Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation induces inflammation and photocarcinogenesis in mammalian skin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a member of the anthocyanin family, is present in various vegetables and fruits especially in edible berries, and displays potent antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study, we have assessed the in vivo effects of C3G on UVB irradiation induced chronic inflammatory responses in SKH-1 hairless mice, a well-established model for UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. Here, we show that C3G inhibited UVB-induced skin damage and inflammation in SKH-1 hairless mice. Our results indicate that C3G inhibited glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidation in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. C3G significantly decreased the production of UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, associated with cutaneous inflammation. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by C3G as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, C3G also decreased UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), PGE{sub 2} and iNOS levels, which are well-known key mediators of inflammation and cancer. Treatment with C3G inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mice skin. Immunofluorescence assay revealed that topical application of C3G inhibited the expression of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and cyclin D1 in chronic UVB exposed mouse skin. Collectively, these data indicates that C3G can provide substantial protection against the adverse effects of UVB radiation by modulating UVB-induced MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. - Highlights: • C3G inhibited UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation. • C3G inhibited UVB-induced COX-2, iNOS and PGE{sub 2} production. • C3G

  11. Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through MAP kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 mice skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Wang, Xin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin [Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Asha, Padmaja [National Centre for Aquatic Animal Health, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin (India); Shi, Xianglin [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Extensive exposure of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to skin induces oxidative stress and inflammation that play a crucial role in the induction of skin cancer. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. In this study, we investigated whether blackberry extract (BBE) reduces chronic inflammatory responses induced by UVB irradiation in SKH-1 hairless mice skin. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm{sup 2}) on alternate days for 10 weeks, and BBE (10% and 20%) was applied topically a day before UVB exposure. Our results show that BBE suppressed UVB-induced hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the SKH-1 hairless mice skin. BBE treatment reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. BBE significantly decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in UVB-exposed skin. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by BBE as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, BBE also reduced inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in UVB-exposed skin. Treatment with BBE inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mouse skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that topical application of BBE inhibited the expression of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin D1 in UVB-exposed skin. Collectively, these data indicate that BBE protects from UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by modulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. - Highlights: • Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced glutathione depletion.

  12. Joint additive effects of temperature and UVB radiation on zoeae of the crab Taliepus dentatus

    KAUST Repository

    Carreja, B

    2016-04-06

    Warming and enhanced ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation are 2 global stressors acting across the ocean. We tested their effects on the survival and performance (consumption rates and activity) on the zoea I stage of the Chilean kelp crab Taliepus dentatus. Our goal was to resolve whether these stressors, when acting concurrently, had additive or interactive effects, either synergistic or antagonistic. A multifactorial experiment of 4 temperatures and 3 UVB irradiance levels was run. The larvae showed a significant increase in mortality with increasing temperature. Exposure to UVB reduced the thermal tolerance of the larvae by a significant increase of their mortality rate. Oxygen consumption increased as temperature increased. When exposed to UVB radiation, larval oxygen consumption increased significantly for all the temperatures tested. Two statistical models of joint effects confirmed that the combined effect of both stressors was additive, with no interaction, either synergistic or antagonistic. One of them, the independent action (IA) model, also revealed that concurrent effects on mortality remained additive when doubling the UVB dose. Additivity of the stressors improved the predictability of their effects on larval mortality. Exposure to UVB radiation increased mortality rates by 1.5 times at any temperature tested, independently of the dose. © The authors 2016.

  13. Joint additive effects of temperature and UVB radiation on zoeae of the crab Taliepus dentatus

    KAUST Repository

    Carreja, B; Ferná ndez, M; Agusti, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Warming and enhanced ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation are 2 global stressors acting across the ocean. We tested their effects on the survival and performance (consumption rates and activity) on the zoea I stage of the Chilean kelp crab Taliepus dentatus. Our goal was to resolve whether these stressors, when acting concurrently, had additive or interactive effects, either synergistic or antagonistic. A multifactorial experiment of 4 temperatures and 3 UVB irradiance levels was run. The larvae showed a significant increase in mortality with increasing temperature. Exposure to UVB reduced the thermal tolerance of the larvae by a significant increase of their mortality rate. Oxygen consumption increased as temperature increased. When exposed to UVB radiation, larval oxygen consumption increased significantly for all the temperatures tested. Two statistical models of joint effects confirmed that the combined effect of both stressors was additive, with no interaction, either synergistic or antagonistic. One of them, the independent action (IA) model, also revealed that concurrent effects on mortality remained additive when doubling the UVB dose. Additivity of the stressors improved the predictability of their effects on larval mortality. Exposure to UVB radiation increased mortality rates by 1.5 times at any temperature tested, independently of the dose. © The authors 2016.

  14. Long-wave UVA offers partial protection against UVB-induced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L.; Villadsen, L.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280–320 nm) interferes with the generation of cell-mediated immunity to contact allergens applied epicutaneously on the irradiated site. To investigate whether pretreatment with UVA-1 (340–400 nm) protects against the UVB-induced immune suppression we sensitized human volunteers...... with diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) on normal buttock skin (n=12), on UVB-irradiated buttock skin (n=21), on buttock skin pretreated with UVA-1 (n=12), and on buttock skin pretreated with UVA-1 and thereafter irradiated with UVB (n=22). Sensitization on UVB-irradiated skin reduced the immunization rate to DPCP compared...

  15. Common variants in CYP2R1 and GC genes are both determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations after UVB irradiation and after consumption of vitamin D₃-fortified bread and milk during winter in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Janna; Vogel, Ulla; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Madsen, Katja H; Nexø, Bjørn A; Andersen, Rikke; Mejborn, Heddie; Bjerrum, Poul J; Rasmussen, Lone B; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how the genetic variation in vitamin D modulating genes influences ultraviolet (UV)B-induced 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. In the Food with vitamin D (VitmaD) study, we showed that common genetic variants rs10741657 and rs10766197 in 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1) and rs842999 and rs4588 in vitamin D binding protein (GC) predict 25(OH)D concentrations at late summer and after 6-mo consumption of cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃)-fortified bread and milk. In the current study, called the Vitamin D in genes (VitDgen) study, we analyzed associations between the increase in 25(OH)D concentrations after a given dose of artificial UVB irradiation and 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms located in or near genes involved in vitamin D synthesis, transport, activation, or degradation as previously described for the VitmaD study. Second, we aimed to determine whether the genetic variations in CYP2R1 and GC have similar effects on 25(OH)D concentrations after artificial UVB irradiation and supplementation by vitamin D₃-fortified bread and milk. The VitDgen study includes 92 healthy Danes who received 4 whole-body UVB treatments with a total dose of 6 or 7.5 standard erythema doses during a 10-d period in winter. The VitmaD study included 201 healthy Danish families who were given vitamin D₃-fortified bread and milk or placebo for 6 mo during the winter. After UVB treatments, rs10741657 in CYP2R1 and rs4588 in GC predicted UVB-induced 25(OH)D concentrations as previously shown in the VitmaD study. Compared with noncarriers, carriers of 4 risk alleles of rs10741657 and rs4588 had lowest concentrations and smallest increases in 25(OH)D concentrations after 4 UVB treatments and largest decreases in 25(OH)D concentrations after 6-mo consumption of vitamin D₃-fortified bread and milk. Common genetic variants in the CYP2R1 and GC genes modify 25(OH)D concentrations in the same manner after artificial UVB-induced vitamin D and consumption of vitamin D

  16. Significance of apoptotic cell death after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.G.; Kim, I.H.; Ha, S.W.; Park, C.I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The objectives of this study are to investigate the significance of apoptotic death compared to total cell death after γ-ray irradiation in human Hand N cancer cell lines and to find out correlation between apoptosis and radiation sensitivity. Materials and Method: Head and neck cancer cell lines (PCI-1, PCI-13, and SNU-1066), leukemia cell line (CCRF-CEM), and fibroblast cell line (LM217) as a normal control were used for this study. Cells were irradiated using Cs-137 animal experiment irradiator. Total cell death was measured by clonogenic assay. Annexin-V staining was used to detect the fraction of apoptotic death. The resulting data was analyzed with two parameters, apoptotic index (AI) and apoptotic fraction(AF). AI is ratio of apoptotic cells to total cells, and AF is ration of apoptotic cell death to mutant frequencytion ex(Number of apoptotic cells) / (Number of total cells counted) AF = {(AI) / (1-survival fraction)} x 100 (%) Results. Surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) were 0.741, 0.544, 0.313, 0.302, and 0.100 for PCI-1, PCI-13, SNU-1066, CCRF-CEM, and LM217 cell lines, respectively. Apoptosis was detected in all cell lines. Apoptotic index reached peak value at 72 hours after irradiation in head and neck cancer cell lines, and that was at 24 hours in CCRF-CEM and LM217. Total cell death increased exponentially with increasing radiation dose from 0 Gy to 8 Gy, but the change was minimal in apoptotic index (Fig. 1.). Apoptotic fractions at 2 Gy were 46%, 48%, 46%, 24%, and 19% and at 6 Gy were 20%, 33%, 35%, 17%, and 20% for PCI-1, PCI-13, SNU-1066, CCRF-CEM, and LM217, respectively. The radioresistant cell lines showed more higher apoptotic fraction at 2 Gy (Table 1.), but there was not such correlation at 6 Gy. Conclusion: All cell lines used in this study showed apoptosis after irradiation, but time course of apoptosis was different from that of leukemia cell line and normal fibroblast cell line. Reproductive cell death was more important

  17. Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) regulates autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: A potential role for reducing UVB light-induced retinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chao-Peng; Yao, Jin; Tao, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiu-Miao; Jiang, Qin; Yan, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •UVB irradiation induces RPE autophagy. •EGCG treatment represses UVB-mediated autophagy. •EGCG regulates UVB-mediated autophagy through mTOR signaling pathway. •EGCG sensitizes RPE cells to UVB-induced damage in an autophagy-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process involved in protein and organelle degradation via the lysosomal pathway that has been linked in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). UVB irradiation-mediated degeneration of the macular retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is an important hallmark of AMD, which is along with the change in RPE autophagy. Thus, pharmacological manipulation of RPE autophagy may offer an alternative therapeutic target in AMD. Here, we found that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound from green tea, plays a regulatory role in UVB irradiation-induced autophagy in RPE cells. UVB irradiation results in a marked increase in the amount of LC3-II protein in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG administration leads to a significant reduction in the formation of LC3-II and autophagosomes. mTOR signaling activation is required for EGCG-induced LC3-II formation, as evidenced by the fact that EGCG-induced LC3-II formation is significantly impaired by rapamycin administration. Moreover, EGCG significantly alleviates the toxic effects of UVB irradiation on RPE cells in an autophagy-dependent manner. Collectively, our study reveals a novel role of EGCG in RPE autophagy. EGCG may be exploited as a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with abnormal autophagy

  18. Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) regulates autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: A potential role for reducing UVB light-induced retinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chao-Peng; Yao, Jin; Tao, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiu-Miao; Jiang, Qin, E-mail: jqin710@vip.sina.com; Yan, Biao, E-mail: yanbiao1982@hotmail.com

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •UVB irradiation induces RPE autophagy. •EGCG treatment represses UVB-mediated autophagy. •EGCG regulates UVB-mediated autophagy through mTOR signaling pathway. •EGCG sensitizes RPE cells to UVB-induced damage in an autophagy-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process involved in protein and organelle degradation via the lysosomal pathway that has been linked in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). UVB irradiation-mediated degeneration of the macular retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is an important hallmark of AMD, which is along with the change in RPE autophagy. Thus, pharmacological manipulation of RPE autophagy may offer an alternative therapeutic target in AMD. Here, we found that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound from green tea, plays a regulatory role in UVB irradiation-induced autophagy in RPE cells. UVB irradiation results in a marked increase in the amount of LC3-II protein in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG administration leads to a significant reduction in the formation of LC3-II and autophagosomes. mTOR signaling activation is required for EGCG-induced LC3-II formation, as evidenced by the fact that EGCG-induced LC3-II formation is significantly impaired by rapamycin administration. Moreover, EGCG significantly alleviates the toxic effects of UVB irradiation on RPE cells in an autophagy-dependent manner. Collectively, our study reveals a novel role of EGCG in RPE autophagy. EGCG may be exploited as a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with abnormal autophagy.

  19. Growth and defense in deciduous trees and shrubs under UV-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Haeggman, Hely; Aphalo, Pedro J.; Lavola, Anu; Tegelberg, Riitta; Veteli, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Reflection by waxy or resinous surface structures and hairs, repair reactions of biomolecules and induction of different sheltering components provide the means of plant protection from harmful solar UV-B radiation. Secondary products, especially flavonoids and phenolic acids as defense components are also important in plant tolerance to UV-B, fulfilling the dual role as screens that reduce UV-B penetration in plant tissues, and as antioxidants protecting from damage by reactive oxidant species. Plants are sensitive to UV-B radiation, and this sensitivity can be even more clone-specific than species-specific. The results available in the literature for deciduous trees and shrubs indicate that UV-B radiation may affect several directions in the interaction of woody species with biotic (herbivores) and abiotic (CO 2 and nutrition) factors depending on the specific interaction in question. These multilevel interactions should have moderate ecological significance via the overall changed performance of woody species and shrubs. - The growth performance of deciduous trees and shrubs under UV-B irradiation is constrained by multilevel interactions with many abiotic and biotic factors

  20. A protective effect of anthocyanins and xanthophylls on UVB-induced damage in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silván, Jose Manuel; Reguero, Marina; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia

    2016-02-01

    Increased exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage that may promote age related macular degeneration (AMD) and other ocular pathologies. This study is aimed to demonstrate the protective effects of some anthocyanins and xanthophylls against the UVB-induced oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. ARPE-19 cells were treated with 5 μM cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, lutein, zeaxanthin or a mixture of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside:zeaxanthin prior to UVB exposure (500 J m(-2)). Cell viability and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation were determined by MTT assay and western blot analysis, respectively. Oxidative damage was evaluated by measuring the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The data showed that UVB irradiation reduces the cell viability to 46% with increasing of intracellular ROS levels and phosphorylation of MAPKs. However, pre-treatment (60 min) with 5 μM cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, lutein or zeaxanthin significantly reduced cellular ROS levels and phosphorylation of MAPKs (JNK1/2 and p38) mediated by UVB irradiation and subsequently increased cell viability. Thus, results show that UVB irradiation is able to induce apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells through oxidative stress; however anthocyanins and xanthophylls pre-treatment can attenuate this damage. This suggests that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, lutein and zeaxanthin are effective in preventing UVB-induced damage in RPE cells and may be suitable as chemoprotective factors for the prevention of ocular damage. The use of natural dietary antioxidants might reduce ocular oxidative damage caused by UVB radiation.

  1. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkovits, J.; D’Eramo, J. L.; Fridman, O.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300–310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

  2. UVB Radiation Delays Tribolium castaneum Metamorphosis by Influencing Ecdysteroid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Wen; Yu, Lin; He, Li; Ma, Wei-Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is an important environmental factor. It is generally known that UVB exhibits high genotoxicity due to causing DNA damage, potentially leading to skin carcinogenesis and aging in mammals. However, little is known about the effects of UVB on the development and metamorphosis of insects, which are the most abundant terrestrial animals. In the present study, we performed dose-response analyses of the effects UVB irradiation on Tribolium castaneum metamorphosis, assessed the function of the T. castaneum prothoracicotropic hormone gene (Trcptth), and analyzed ecdysteroid pathway gene expression profile and ecdysterone titers post-UVB irradiation. The results showed that UVB not only caused death of T. castaneum larvae, but also delayed larval-pupal metamorphosis and reduced the size and emergence rate of pupae. In addition, we verified the function of Trcptth, which is responsible for regulating metamorphosis. It was also found that the expression profiles of Trcptth as well as ecdysteroidogenesis and response genes were influenced by UVB radiation. Therefore, a disturbance pulse of ecdysteroid may be involved in delaying development under exposure to irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that UVB can influence the metamorphosis of insects. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of UVB on signaling mechanisms in insect metamorphosis.

  3. Mechanisms of UVB-resistance in rice: Cultivar differences in the sensitivity to UVB radiation in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidema, J.

    2001-01-01

    In a study on the sensitivity to UVB radiation of rice cultivars of 5 Asian rice ecotypes, results showed that the rice cultivars widely varied in UVB sensitivity; among the Japanese rice cultivars, Sasanishiki was more resistant to UVB, while Norin 1 was less resistant; UV-sensitive Norin 1 was deficient in photorepair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (UV-induced DNA damage), and the sensitivity to UVB radiation significantly correlated with deficient CPD photorepair; and that this deficiency in Norin 1 resulted from a functionally altered photolyase. The results suggest that photorepair capacity is a principal factor in determining UVB sensitivity in rice. The effects of supplemental UVB radiation on the growth and yield of Japanese rice cultivars under field conditions were also studied in Japan since 1993. The results indicate that supplemental UVB radiation had inhibitory effects on the growth and yield of rice. Furthermore, grain size was smaller with supplemental UVB radiation

  4. Enhanced UV-B radiation alleviates the adverse effects of summer drought in two Mediterranean pines under field conditions [ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petropoulou, Y.; Kyparissis, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Manetas, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of enhanced UV-B (290-320 nm) radiation on two native Mediterranean pines (Pinus pinea L., Pinus halepensis Mill.) were recorded during a one-year field study. Plants received ambient or ambient plus supplemental UV-B radiation (simulating a 15% stratospheric ozone depletion over Patras. Greece, 38.3°N. 29.1°E) and only natural precipitation, i.e. they were simultaneously exposed to other natural stresses. particularly water stress during summer. Supplemental UV-B irradiation started in early February, 1993 and up to late June, no effects were observed on growth and photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, as measured by chlorophy II fluorescence induction. Water stress during the summer was manifested in the control plants as a decline in the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (F v /F m ), the apparent photon yield for oxygen evolution (φ I ) and the photosynthetic capacity at 5% CO 2 (P m ). In addition, a partial needle loss was evident. Under supplemental UV-B radiation, however, the decreases in F v /F m , φ i , and P m . as well as needle losses were significantly less. Soon after the first heavy autumn rains. photosynthetic parameters in both control and UV-B treated plants recovered to similar values. but the transient summer superiority of UV-B irradiated plants resulted in a significant increase in their dry weight measured at plant harvest. during late January. 1994. Plant height. UV-B absorbing compounds, photosynthetic pigments and relative water content measured at late spring. late summer and at plant harvest, were not significantly affected by supplemental UV-B radiation. The results indicate that enhanced UV-B radiation may be beneficial for Mediterranean pines through a partial alleviation of the adverse effects of summer drought. (author)

  5. Curcumin Protects against UVB-Induced Skin Cancers in SKH-1 Hairless Mouse: Analysis of Early Molecular Markers in Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Daw Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin (CUR has been shown to possess a preventive effect against various cancers and interfere with multiple-cell signaling pathways. We evaluated the protective effects of CUR in regression of UVB-induced skin tumor formation in SKH-1 hairless mice and its underlying early molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis. Mice irradiated with UVB at 180 mJ/cm2 twice per week elicited 100% tumor incidence at 20 weeks. Topical application of CUR prior to UVB irradiation caused delay in tumor appearance, multiplicity, and size. Topical application of CUR prior to and immediately after a single UVB irradiation (180 mJ/cm2 resulted in a significant decrease in UVB-induced thymine dimer-positive cells, expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, and apoptotic sunburn cells together with an increase in p53 and p21/Cip1-positive cell population in epidermis. Simultaneously, CUR also significantly inhibited NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and nitric oxide (NO levels. The results suggest that the protective effect of CUR against photocarcinogenesis is accompanied by downregulation of cell proliferative controls, involving thymine dimer, PCNA, apoptosis, transcription factors NF-κB, and of inflammatory responses involving COX-2, PGE2, and NO, while upregulation of p53 and p21/Cip1 to prevent DNA damage and facilitate DNA repair.

  6. Alteration of foliar flavonoid chemistry induced by enhanced UV-B radiation in field-grown Pinus ponderosa, Quercus rubra and Pseudotsuga menziesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M; Bassman, John H; Mattinson, D Scott; Fellman, John K; Edwards, Gerald E; Robberecht, Ronald

    2002-03-01

    Chromatographic analyses of foliage from several tree species illustrate the species-specific effects of UV-B radiation on both quantity and composition of foliar flavonoids. Pinus ponderosa, Quercus rubra and Pseudotsuga menziesii were field-grown under modulated ambient (1x) and enhanced (2x) biologically effective UV-B radiation. Foliage was harvested seasonally over a 3-year period, extracted, purified and the flavonoid fraction applied to a mu Bondapak/C(18) column HPLC system sampling at 254 nm. Total flavonoid concentrations in Quercus rubra foliage were more than twice (leaf area basis) that of the other species; Pseudotsuga menziesii foliage had intermediate levels and P. ponderosa had the lowest concentrations of total flavonoids. No statistically significant UV-B radiation-induced effects were found in total foliar flavonoid concentrations for any species; however, concentrations of specific compounds within each species exhibited significant treatment effects. Higher (but statistically insignificant) levels of flavonoids were induced by UV-B irradiation in 1- and 2-year-old P. ponderosa foliage. Total flavonoid concentrations in 2-year-old needles increased by 50% (1x ambient UV-B radiation) or 70% (2x ambient UV-B radiation) from that of 1-year-old tissue. Foliar flavonoids of Q. rubra under enhanced UV-B radiation tended to shift from early-eluting compounds to less polar flavonoids eluting later. There were no clear patterns of UV-B radiation effects on 1-year-old P. menziesii foliage. However, 2-year-old tissue had slightly higher foliar flavonoids under the 2x UV-B radiation treatment compared to ambient levels. Results suggest that enhanced UV-B radiation will alter foliar flavonoid composition and concentrations in forest tree species, which could impact tissue protection, and ultimately, competition, herbivory or litter decomposition.

  7. A thirty percent increase in UV-B has no impact on photosynthesis in well-watered and droughted pea plants in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.J.; Nogues, S.; Morison, J.I.L.; Greenslade, P.D.; McLeod, A.R.; Baker, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that field experiments which increase UV-B irradiation by a fixed amount irrespective of ambient light conditions (‘square-wave’), may overestimate the response of photosynthesis to UV-B irradiation. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants were grown in the field and subjected to a modulated 30% increase in ambient UK summer UV-B radiation (weighted with an erythemal action spectrum) and a mild drought treatment. UV-A and ambient UV control treatments were also studied. There were no significant effects of the UV-B treatment on the in situ CO 2 assimilation rate throughout the day or on the light-saturated steady-state photosynthesis. This was confirmed by an absence of UV-B effects on the major components contributing to CO 2 assimilation; photosystem II electron transport, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate regeneration, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase carboxylation, and stomatal conductance. In addition to the absence of an effect on photosynthetic activities, UV-B had no significant impact on plant biomass, leaf area or partitioning. UV-B exposure increased leaf flavonoid content. The UV-A treatment had no observable effect on photosynthesis or productivity. Mild drought resulted in reduced biomass, a change in partitioning away from shoots to roots whilst maintaining leaf area, but had no observable effect on photosynthetic competence. No UV-B and drought treatment interactions were observed on photosynthesis or plant biomass. In conclusion, a 30% increase in UV-B had no effects on photosynthetic performance or productivity in well-watered or droughted pea plants in the field. (author)

  8. Irradiation in perspective - the significance for the mango industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Thord-Gray, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper briefly describes the progress made with the irradiation of mangoes intended for sea shipment to overseas markets, over the past seven years. Highlights are given on mango radurization experiments for the period 1975-1981. Combination treatment for food preservation is discussed. This includes data on the effect of hot water plus irradiation, heated fungicide and ethylene treatments on decay development and insect damage in cold-stored sensation mangoes

  9. UVB-induced decreased resistance to Trichinella spiralis in the rat is related to impaired cellular immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettsch, W.; Garssen, J.; Loveren, H. van; Gruijl, F.R. de

    1996-01-01

    Our laboratory has demonstrated in preliminary experiments that UVB exposure using the Kromayer lamp can induce increased numbers of Trichinella spiralis larvae in carcasses of infected Wistar rats, without affecting specific antibody titers to this parasite. In this study, orally T.spiralis-infected Wistar rats were exposed to subery-thermal doses of UVB radiation using FS40 lamps during different time periods before or after infection. A significant increase in the number of T. spiralis larvae was found in the carcasses of rats that were UVB irradiated daily for 7 consecutive days in the second week after infection. Additionally, increased numbers of larvae were also detected histologically in the tongue of rats that were exposed the first and the second week after infection. Lymphocyte stimulation assays using mesenteral lymph node cells indicated that UVB exposure also impaired the specific lymphocyte response to T. spiralis. Moreover, DTH responses to T. spiralis were severely impaired in rats that were UVB irradiated daily for 7 consecutive days in the second week after infection. Thus, these data combined with the data of the Kromayer study indicate that exposure of rats to FS40 irradiation following oral infection with T. spiralis leads to increased numbers of larvae in systemic sites and impaired T-cell immunity to the parasite. (Author)

  10. Suppressed histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells by ultraviolet B irradiation: decreased diacylglycerol formation as a possible mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, K.; Fujii, K.; Tachibana, T.; Toda, K.; Horio, T.

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation on mast cell functions. Purified mast cells obtained from rat peritoneal cavity were irradiated with UVB and subsequently exposed to a degranulator, compound 48/80, or the calcium ionophore A-23187. The amount of histamine released from mast cells measured by the enzyme isotopic assay was significantly decreased by UVB irradiation (100-400 mJ/cm2). Within this dose range, UVB alone was not cytotoxic to the cells because it did not induce histamine release. The suppression was observed when mast cells were subjected to degranulation without intervals after UVB irradiation, and even after 5 h postirradiation. The wavelength of 300 nm from a monochromatic light source showed the maximum effect. When mast cells prelabeled with [ 3 H]arachidonate were irradiated and challenged by compound 48/80, label accumulation in diacylglycerol produced by the phosphatidylinositol cycle was considerably decreased by UVB irradiation. From these results, we hypothesize that, within an adequate irradiation dose, UVB irradiation suppresses histamine release from mast cells, probably by causing noncytotoxic damage to the membrane phospholipid metabolism, which is tied to the degranulation mechanisms

  11. Dose/dose-rate responses of shrimp larvae to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damkaer, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 Wm -2 sub([DNA]) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activity, development, or survival. Beyond that dose-rate threshold, shrimp larvae are significantly affected if the total dose exceeds about 85 Jm -2 sub([DNA]). Predictions cannot be made without both the dose-rate and the dose. These dose/dose-rate thresholds are compared to four-year mean dose/dose-rate solar UV-B irradiances at the experimental site, measured at the surface and calculated for 1 m depth. The probability that the shrimp larvae would receive lethal irradiance is low for the first half of the season of surface occurrence, even with a 44% increase in damaging UV radiation. (orig.)

  12. Low salinity and high-level UV-B radiation reduce single-cell activity in antarctic sea ice bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew; Hall, Julie; Ryan, Ken

    2009-12-01

    Experiments simulating the sea ice cycle were conducted by exposing microbes from Antarctic fast ice to saline and irradiance regimens associated with the freeze-thaw process. In contrast to hypersaline conditions (ice formation), the simulated release of bacteria into hyposaline seawater combined with rapid exposure to increased UV-B radiation significantly reduced metabolic activity.

  13. The effect of single and repeated UVB radiation on rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fris, Miroslav; Tessem, May-Britt; Cejková, Jitka; Midelfart, Anna

    2006-12-01

    Cumulative effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an important aspect of UV corneal damage. The purpose of this study was to apply high resolution magic angle spinning proton nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS 1H NMR) spectroscopy to evaluate the effect of single and repeated UV radiation exposure of the same overall dose on the rabbit cornea. Corneal surfaces of 24 normal rabbit eyes were examined for the effects of UVB exposure (312 nm). In the first group (UVB1), animals were irradiated with a single dose (3.12 J/cm2; 21 min) of UVB radiation. The animals in the second group (UVB2) were irradiated three times for 7 min every other day (dose of 1.04 J/cm2; days 1, 3, 5) to give the same overall dose (3.12 J/cm2). The third group served as an untreated control group. One day after the last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed, and the corneas were removed and frozen. HR-MAS 1H NMR spectra from intact corneas were obtained. Special grouping patterns among the tissue samples and the relative percentage changes in particular metabolite concentrations were evaluated using modern statistical methods (multivariate analysis, one-way ANOVA). The metabolic profile of both groups of UVB-irradiated samples was significantly different from the control corneas. Substantial decreases in taurine, hypo-taurine and choline-derivatives concentrations and substantial elevation in glucose and betaine levels were observed following the UVR exposure. There was no significant difference between the effect of a single and repeated UVB irradiation of the same overall dose. For the first time, the effects of single and repeated UVR doses on the metabolic profile of the rabbit cornea were analysed and compared. The combination of HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy and modern statistical methods (multivariate analysis, one-way ANOVA) proved suitable to assess the overall view of the metabolic alterations in the rabbit corneal tissue following UVB radiation exposure.

  14. Responses of He-Ne laser on agronomic traits and the crosstalk between UVR8 signaling and phytochrome B signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana subjected to supplementary ultraviolet-B (UV-B) stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Limei; Li, Yongfeng; Shen, Zhihua; Han, Rong

    2018-05-01

    UV-B acclimation effects and UV-B damage repair induced by a 632.8-nm He-Ne laser were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana plants in response to supplementary UV-B stress. There was an increasing trend in growth parameters in the combination-treated plants with He-Ne laser and UV-B light compared to those stressed with enhanced UV-B light alone during different developmental stages of plants. The photosynthetic efficiency (Pn) and survival rates of seedlings were significantly higher in the combination treatments than UV-B stress alone. The expression of UVR8, phytochrome B (PhyB), and their mediated signal responsive genes such as COP1, HY5, and CHS were also significantly upregulated in plants with the laser irradiation compared with other groups without the laser. Levels of flavonol accumulation in leaves and capsule yield of He-Ne laser-treated plants were increased. The phyB-9 mutants were more sensitive to enhanced UV-B stress and had no obvious improvements in plant phenotypic development and physiological damage caused by enhanced UV-B stress after He-Ne laser irradiation. Our results suggested that UVR8 and its mediated signaling pathway via interaction with COP1 can be induced by He-Ne laser, and these processes were dependent on cytoplasmic PhyB levels in plant cells, which might be one of the most important mechanisms of He-Ne laser on UV-B protection and UV-B damage repair. These current data have also elucidated that the biostimulatory effects of He-Ne laser on Arabidopsis thaliana plants would happen not only during the early growth stage but also during the entire late developmental stage.

  15. UV-B Irradiation Changes Specifically the Secondary Metabolite Profile in Broccoli Sprouts: Induced Signaling Overlaps with Defense Response to Biotic Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewis, Inga; Schreiner, Monika; Nguyen, Chau Nhi; Krumbein, Angelika; Ulrichs, Christian; Lohse, Marc; Zrenner, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Only a few environmental factors have such a pronounced effect on plant growth and development as ultraviolet light (UV). Concerns have arisen due to increased UV-B radiation reaching the Earth’s surface as a result of stratospheric ozone depletion. Ecologically relevant low to moderate UV-B doses (0.3–1 kJ m–2 d–1) were applied to sprouts of the important vegetable crop Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli), and eco-physiological responses such as accumulation of non-volatile secondary metabolites were related to transcriptional responses with Agilent One-Color Gene Expression Microarray analysis using the 2×204 k format Brassica microarray. UV-B radiation effects have usually been linked to increases in phenolic compounds. As expected, the flavonoids kaempferol and quercetin accumulated in broccoli sprouts (the aerial part of the seedlings) 24 h after UV-B treatment. A new finding is the specific UV-B-mediated induction of glucosinolates (GS), especially of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl GS and 4-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS, while carotenoids and Chl levels remained unaffected. Accumulation of defensive GS metabolites was accompanied by increased expression of genes associated with salicylate and jasmonic acid signaling defense pathways and up-regulation of genes responsive to fungal and bacterial pathogens. Concomitantly, plant pre-exposure to moderate UV-B doses had negative effects on the performance of the caterpillar Pieris brassicae (L.) and on the population growth of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Moreover, insect-specific induction of GS in broccoli sprouts was affected by UV-B pre-treatment. PMID:22773681

  16. Spectral dependence of some UV-B and UV-C responses of Tetrahymena pyriformis irradiated with dye laser generated UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, John; Colley, Ed; Wheeler, John; Kentucky Univ., Lexington

    1987-01-01

    We have generated UV-B and UV-C radiations using a flashlamp driven tunable dye laser combined with frequency doubling crystals. Using this novel UV source, we have investigated lethality and its modification by growth phase, photoreactivation and caffeine in Tetrahymena pyriformis at 254 nm and from 260-315 nm in 5 nm steps. From the observed responses we have constructed action spectra for lethality, with or without caffeine (a repair inhibitor) and under conditions of photoreactivation. We have also estimated quantum efficiencies for these responses. Our observations suggest that complex changes in response occur at several wavelengths over the UV-C and UV-B regions. (author)

  17. Mechanisms of caffeine-induced inhibition of UVB carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan H Conney

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the United States with more than 2 million cases per year. Several studies have shown an inhibitory effect of caffeine administration on UVB-induced skin cancer in mice, and these studies are paralleled by epidemiology studies that indicate an inhibitory effect of coffee drinking on nonmelanoma skin cancer in humans. Strikingly, decaffeinated coffee consumption had no such inhibitory effect.Mechanism studies indicate that caffeine has a sunscreen effect that inhibits UVB-induced formation of thymine dimers and sunburn lesions in the epidermis of mice. In addition, caffeine administration has a biological effect that enhances UVB-induced apoptosis thereby enhancing the elimination of damaged precancerous cells, and caffeine administration also enhances apoptosis in tumors. Caffeine administration enhances UVB-induced apoptosis by p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. Exploration of the p53-independent effect indicated that caffeine administration enhanced UVB-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the UVB-induced increase in ATR-mediated formation of phospho-Chk1 (Ser345 and abolishing the UVB-induced decrease in cyclin B1 which resulted in caffeine-induced premature and lethal mitosis in mouse skin. In studies with cultured primary human keratinocytes, inhibition of ATR with siRNA against ATR inhibited Chk1 phosphorylation and enhanced UVB-induced apoptosis. Transgenic mice with decreased epidermal ATR function that were irradiated chronically with UVB had 69% fewer tumors at the end of the study compared with irradiated littermate controls with normal ATR function. These results, which indicate that genetic inhibition of ATR (like pharmacologic inhibition of ATR via caffeine inhibits UVB-induced carcinogenesis and supports the concept that ATR-mediated phosphorylation of Chk1 is an important target for caffeine’s inhibitory effect on UVB-induced carcinogenesis.

  18. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel powder prevents UVB-induced decrease in skin elasticity via suppression of overexpression of MMPs in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Marie; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yao, Ruiquing; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Kouji; Abe, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the effects of oral Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) containing Aloe sterols on skin elasticity and the extracellular matrix in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated hairless mice. Ten-week-old hairless mice were fed diets containing 0.3% AVGP for 8 weeks and irradiated UVB for 6 weeks. Mice treated with AVGP showed significant prevention of the UVB-induced decrease in skin elasticity. To investigate the mechanism underlying this suppression of skin elasticity loss, we measured the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, and -13. AVGP prevented both the UVB-induced increases in MMPs expressions. Moreover, we investigated hyaluronic acid (HA) content of mice dorsal skin and gene expression of HA synthase-2 (Has2). In the results, AVGP oral administration prevented UVB-induced decreasing in skin HA content and Has2 expression and attenuates the UVB-induced decrease in serum adiponectin, which promotes Has2 expression. These results suggested that AVGP has the ability to prevent the skin photoaging.

  19. Trehalose treatment accelerates the healing of UVB-irradiated corneas. Comparative immunohistochemical studies on corneal cryostat sections and corneal impression cytology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Čejka, Čestmír; Luyckx, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 8 (2012), s. 1029-1040 ISSN 0213-3911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Trehalose * UVB rays * Corneal healing Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2012

  20. Irradiation of the rabbit cornea with UVB rays stimulates the expression of nitric oxide synthases-generated nitric oxide and the formation of cytotoxic nitrogen-related oxidants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Ardan, Taras; Andonova, Janetta; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2005), s. 467-473 ISSN 0213-3911 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Keywords : UVB rays * Reactive nitrogen species * Cornea Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.023, year: 2005

  1. Effect of UV-A and UV-B irradiation on the metabolic profile of aqueous humor in rabbits analyzed by IH NMR Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tessem, MB.; Bathen, T. F.; Čejková, Jitka; Midelfart, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2005), s. 776-781 ISSN 0146-0404 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : UV-A * UV-B Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 3.643, year: 2005

  2. Differences in the immunologic reactivity of mice treated with UVB or methoxsalen plus UVA radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kripke, M.L.; Morison, W.L.; Parrish, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Skin tumors induced in mice by chronic exposure to UVB radiation are often highly antigenic and regress when transplanted into normal syngeneic animals, but grow progressively in immunosuppressed mice. Exposure of mice to subtumorigenic doses of UVB radiation can abolish this immunologic rejection phenomenon. In this study, we have investigated the effects of treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA radiation (PUVA) on the rejection of antigenic UVB-induced tumors. PUVA treatment, with either topical or systemic administration of the psoralen, did not alter the normal process of rejection of UVB-induced tumors. Mice treated with both minimally and markedly phototoxic doses of PUVA rejected tumors with a frequency similar to that seen in untreated animals, although these tumors grew progressively in UVB-irradiated mice. These results indicate that the effects of PUVA treatment differ from those of UVB irradiation in that PUVA treatment does not alter the immunologic rejection of UVB-induced tumors

  3. Lens epithelial cell apoptosis is an early event in the development of UVB-induced cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Spector, A

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that exposure to UV can induce cataractogenesis. To investigate the mechanism of this induction, viability of the lens epithelial cells from UVB-treated rat lenses were examined. Irradiation of the cultured rat lenses with 8 J/s/m2 UVB for 60 min triggers lens epithelial cell apoptosis as determined by terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase (TdT) labeling and DNA fragmentation assays. The apoptotic lens epithelial cells were initially found in the equatorial region and then quickly appeared in both equatorial and central regions. The percentage of apoptotic cells continuously increased during the postirradiation incubation. After a 5-h post-UVB incubation, more than 50% of the lens epithelial cells were apoptotic. By 24 h, all of the lens epithelial cells in the irradiated lenses were dead through apoptosis. Associated with this apoptotic process is a large upregulation of the proto-oncogene, c-fos. Opacification appears to follow the death of lens epithelial cells occurring first in the equatorial region and then in the central area. This is also true of classical cataract parameters such as non-protein thiol and wet weight, which are significantly modified only after appreciable epithelial cell apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that the rapid apoptotic death of the lens epithelial cells induced by UVB initiates cataract development.

  4. Intraspecific responses of 188 rice cultivars to enhanced UVB radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Q.; Peng, A.; Chavez, A.Q.; Vergara, B.S.

    1994-01-01

    Phytotron studies were conducted to determine the intraspecific variation in sensitivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to enhanced UVB and to test the hypothesis that rice cultivars originating from regions with higher ambient UVB radiation are more tolerant to enhanced UVB. Out of the 188 rice cultivars (from various rice growing regions and ecosystems) tested, 143 had significantly reduced plant height, 52 had smaller leaf area, 61 had lower plant dry weight and 41 had less tiller number under elevated UVB radiation (13.0 kJ m −2 day −1 ) for 3 weeks. Six cultivars showed significant positive growth response to enhanced UVB radiation, although the mechanism is not clear at present. These six cultivars were from the summer rice crop of Bangladesh and from high elevation rice areas where prevailing UVB radiation is most likely to be greater. However, there was no correlation between the dry matter changes under enhanced UVB and the ambient UVB level at the origin of the cultivar across the 188 cultivars tested. Therefore, cultivars originating from regions with higher ambient UVB are not necessarily more tolerant to enhanced UVB radiation. (author)

  5. The pattern and time course of somatosensory changes in the human UVB sunburn model reveal the presence of peripheral and central sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustorff, Burkhard; Sycha, Thomas; Lieba-Samal, Doris; Rolke, Roman; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Magerl, Walter

    2013-04-01

    The ultraviolet B (UVB) sunburn model was characterized with a comprehensive battery of quantitative sensory testing (QST). Primary hyperalgesia in UVB-irradiated skin and secondary hyperalgesia in adjacent nonirradiated skin were studied in 22 healthy subjects 24h after irradiation with UVB at 3-fold minimal erythema dose of a skin area 5 cm in diameter at the thigh and compared to mirror-image contralateral control areas. The time course of hyperalgesia over 96 h was studied in a subgroup of 12 subjects. Within the sunburn area, cold hyperesthesia (P=.01), profound generalized hyperalgesia to heat (Psunburn was surrounded by large areas of pinprick hyperalgesia (mean±SEM, 218±32 cm(2)) and a small rim of dynamic mechanical allodynia but no other sensory changes. Although of smaller magnitude, secondary hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia adjacent to the UVB-irradiated area were statistically highly significant. Primary and secondary hyperalgesia developed in parallel within hours, peaked after 24-32 h, and lasted for more than 96 h. These data reveal that the UVB sunburn model activates a broad spectrum of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms and hence is a useful human surrogate model to be used as a screening tool for target engagement in phases 1 and 2a of drug development. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure - a comparison of exposed skin regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmancevic, Amra; Sandström, Katarina; Gillstedt, Martin; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin; Larkö, Olle; Wennberg Larkö, Ann-Marie; F Holick, Michael; Krogstad, Anne-Lene

    2015-02-01

    Cholecalciferol is an essential steroid produced in the skin by solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB 290-315nm). Skin production of cholecalciferol depends on factors affecting UVB flux, age and exposed skin area. Serum cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentrations were measured after UVB irradiation of 3 different skin areas to compare the skin capacity to produce vitamin D in different anatomic sites in the same individuals. Ten voluntary Caucasians (skin photo type II & III, aged 48±12years (±SD)) were exposed to broadband UVB (280-320nm) between February and April. Hands and face, upper body and whole body were exposed to a suberythemic dose of UVB (median 101mJ/cm(2) (min 66, max 143)) (for 3 subsequent days 24h apart with a wash out period of about 3weeks (median 18days (min 11, max 25)) between the exposures of respective area. Serum concentrations of cholecalciferol and 25(OH)D3, were measured immediately before the first and 24h after the last dose of radiation. There was a significantly higher increase in serum cholecalciferol after UVB exposure of the two larger skin areas compared to face and hands, but no difference in increase was found between upper body and whole body exposures. Exposure of a larger skin area was superior to small areas and gave greater increase in both serum cholecalciferol and serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. However, exposure of face and hands, i.e. only 5% of the body surface area, was capable of increasing serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An action spectrum for UV-B radiation and the rat lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, J C; Löfgren, S; Michael, R; Söderberg, P; Dillon, J; Zheng, L; Ayala, M

    2000-08-01

    To determine an action spectrum for UV-B radiation and the rat lens and to show the effect of the atmosphere and the cornea on the action spectrum. One eye of young female rats was exposed to 5-nm bandwidths of UV-B radiation (290, 295, 300, 305, 310, and 315 nm). Light scattering of exposed and nonexposed lenses was measured 1 week after irradiation. A quadratic polynomial was fit to the dose-response curve for each wave band. The dose at each wave band that produced a level of light scattering greater than 95% of the nonexposed lenses was defined as the maximum acceptable dose (MAD). Transmittance of the rat cornea was measured with a fiberoptic spectrophotometer. The times to be exposed to the MAD in Stockholm (59.3 degrees N) and La Palma (28 degrees N) were compared. Significant light scattering was detected after UV-B at 295, 300, 305, 310, and 315 nm. The lens was most sensitive to UV-B at 300 nm. Correcting for corneal transmittance showed that the rat lens is at least as sensitive to UV radiation at 295 nm as at 300 nm. The times to be exposed to the MAD at each wave band were greater in Stockholm than in La Palma, and in both locations the theoretical time to be exposed to the MAD was least at 305 nm. After correcting for corneal transmittance, the biological sensitivity of the rat lens to UV-B is at least as great at 295 nm as at 300 nm. After correcting for transmittance by the atmosphere, UV-B at 305 nm is the most likely wave band to injure the rat lens in both Stockholm and La Palma.

  8. Vanillin protects human keratinocyte stem cells against ultraviolet B irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jienny; Cho, Jae Youl; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lee, Jongsung; Song, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation is one of major factors which induce cellular damages in the epidermis. We investigated protective effects and mechanisms of vanillin, a main constituent of vanilla beans, against UVB-induced cellular damages in keratinocyte stem cells (KSC). Here, vanillin significantly attenuated UVB irradiation-induced cytotoxicity. The vanillin effects were also demonstrated by the results of the senescence-associated β-galactosidase and alkaline comet assays. In addition, vanillin induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Attempts to elucidate a possible mechanism underlying the vanillin-mediated effects revealed that vanillin significantly reduced UVB-induced phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), serine threonine kinase checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53), p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK), S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), and histone 2A family member X (H2A.X). UVB-induced activation of p53 luciferase reporter was also significantly inhibited by vanillin. In addition, while ATM inhibitor had no effect on the vanillin effects, mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) inhibitor significantly attenuated suppressive effects of vanillin on UVB-induced activation of p53 reporter in KSC. Taken together, these findings suggest that vanillin protects KSC from UVB irradiation and its effects may occur through the suppression of downstream step of MDM2 in UVB irradiation-induced p53 activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Photosynthesis and pigment production in Liquidambar styraciflua - developmental and UV-B radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillenburg, L.R.; Sullivan, J.H.; Teramura, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    Leaf expansion is very sensitive to different environmental stresses. This study describes ontogenetic changes in leaf size and physiology of Liquidambar styraciflua seedlings grown under UV-B irradiance levels simulating 0% (control), 16% (low) and 25% (high) stratospheric ozone reductions. Leaf size, light- and CO 2 -saturated rates of O 2 evolution (A max ), and concentration of chlorophylls (chl), and UV-B absorbing pigments were measured over a 4-week period. Specific leaf weight, A max and chl concentration increased with leaf age, except for a peak in A max at early development. Chlorophyll b concentration increased at a slower rate than chl a. Recently unfurled leaves has the greatest concentration of UV-B absorbing pigments. The effect of UV-B radiation on leaf growth and physiology were small and not dose-dependent. Expansion of leaves exposed to low UV-B was slightly delayed compared to controls (1.663 vs. 1.90 cm 2 /day), but final leaf size was unaffected by UV-B radiation. Physiological effects were less pronounced during the rapid expansion period. High UV-B tended to promote, while low UV-B inhibited accumulation of chl, especially chl a. In contrast, concentration of UV-B absorbing compounds was promoted only by low UV-B. The small inhibitory effects of UV-B on leaf growth and physiology suggests a high tolerance of the species to damaging UV-B radiation

  10. Responses of phylloplane yeasts to UV-B (290-320 nm) radiation: interspecific differences in sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekera, T.S.; Paul, N.D.; Ayres, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity to UV-B (290–320 nm) radiation of common phylloplane yeasts from two contrasting UV-B environments was compared in the laboratory using mixtures of white light (PAR: 400–700 nm) and UV-B radiation from artificial lamp sources. Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Cryptococcus sp., the dominant yeasts on leaves of tea (Camellia sinensis), were isolated in Sri Lanka (SL), while Sporidiobolus sp. and Bullera alba, dominant on faba bean (Vicia faba), were isolated in the U.K. Dose responses were determined separately for each yeast. UV-B reduced colony forming units (due to cell mortality or inactivation) and colony size (due to reduced multiplication) of all yeasts. The LD 50 values and doses causing 50% reduction of cells per colony were higher for SL isolates than U.K. isolates. Results indicated that each yeast is somewhat vulnerable to UV-B doses representative of its natural habitat. The relative insensitivity of SL isolates was shown when SL and U.K. isolates were irradiated simultaneously with the same dose of UV-B. Of the two U.K. yeasts, B. alba was significantly more sensitive than Sporidiobolus sp. to UV-B. Except for R. mucilaginosa from SL, all yeasts demonstrated some photorepair in the presence of white light. White light provided relatively little protection for the U.K. isolate of Sporidiobolus sp. although it allowed increased colony size. The spectral responses of Sporidiobolus sp. (U.K.) and of B. alba (U.K.) were broadly similar. Wavelengths longer than 320 nm had no measurable effect on colony forming units. However, colony survival was significantly reduced at 310 nm and all shorter wavebands. No colonies were counted at 290 nm or below. (author)

  11. Histopathological responses of newly hatched larvae of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus s.l.) to UV-B induced toxicity of retene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haekkinen, Jani; Vehniaeinen, Eeva; Oikari, Aimo

    2003-04-10

    Positively phototactic fish larvae may be exposed to increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation alone or, potentially and in addition, to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene) at the egg or larval stages. Suspended and sedimental particulate material near pulp and paper mills may act as sources of retene in chemically contaminated lake areas. In laboratory conditions whitefish larvae were pre-exposed to retene (10, 32 and 100 {mu}g/l), with relevant controls, and irradiated in semi-static tests for 3 h once a day (2 consecutive days) with two UV-B doses (CIE-weighted 2.8 or 5.4 kJ per m{sup 2} per day) or with visible light only. These UV-B doses correspond with slightly subambient and 80% increases relative to the natural maximum daily doses of the solar UV-B in Finland in early May. The UV-B radiation alone increased mortality only slightly (2.7 and 4.0%, respectively). Similarly, no mortality was observed due to retene alone. On the contrary, simultaneous UV-B and retene exposure caused very high mortality to whitefish and all larvae died in the highest retene concentration. The photoinduced acute LC{sub 50} for retene was 13.3 {mu}g/l. Retene treated fish exhibited signs of behavioral irritation and hypoxia during and after the exposure to UV light. Severe skin damages were detected in larvae exposed simultaneously to retene and UV-B. The structural signs of sunburn could also be seen in UV-B and solvent controls (DMSO) with UV-B. Even at the lowest retene concentration, the number of mucous cells increased significantly in simultaneous chemical and UV-B treatment. We consider the tissue reaction as protective response against UV induced retene toxicity. Further, regarding liver parenchyma, fish exposed to retene with UV-B had lesions, revealing hepatotoxicity. We suggest that synergism of the UV-B radiation and the photoactivating pollutants such as retene is a potential risk factor to be taken into

  12. Histopathological responses of newly hatched larvae of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus s.l.) to UV-B induced toxicity of retene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haekkinen, Jani; Vehniaeinen, Eeva; Oikari, Aimo

    2003-01-01

    Positively phototactic fish larvae may be exposed to increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation alone or, potentially and in addition, to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene) at the egg or larval stages. Suspended and sedimental particulate material near pulp and paper mills may act as sources of retene in chemically contaminated lake areas. In laboratory conditions whitefish larvae were pre-exposed to retene (10, 32 and 100 μg/l), with relevant controls, and irradiated in semi-static tests for 3 h once a day (2 consecutive days) with two UV-B doses (CIE-weighted 2.8 or 5.4 kJ per m 2 per day) or with visible light only. These UV-B doses correspond with slightly subambient and 80% increases relative to the natural maximum daily doses of the solar UV-B in Finland in early May. The UV-B radiation alone increased mortality only slightly (2.7 and 4.0%, respectively). Similarly, no mortality was observed due to retene alone. On the contrary, simultaneous UV-B and retene exposure caused very high mortality to whitefish and all larvae died in the highest retene concentration. The photoinduced acute LC 50 for retene was 13.3 μg/l. Retene treated fish exhibited signs of behavioral irritation and hypoxia during and after the exposure to UV light. Severe skin damages were detected in larvae exposed simultaneously to retene and UV-B. The structural signs of sunburn could also be seen in UV-B and solvent controls (DMSO) with UV-B. Even at the lowest retene concentration, the number of mucous cells increased significantly in simultaneous chemical and UV-B treatment. We consider the tissue reaction as protective response against UV induced retene toxicity. Further, regarding liver parenchyma, fish exposed to retene with UV-B had lesions, revealing hepatotoxicity. We suggest that synergism of the UV-B radiation and the photoactivating pollutants such as retene is a potential risk factor to be taken into consideration in lake

  13. Xanthophylls and alpha-tocopherol decrease UVB-induced lipid peroxidation and stress signaling in human lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Bomser, Joshua A; Glamm, Jayme E; Failla, Mark L

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of vegetables rich in the xanthophylls lutein (LUT) and zeaxanthin (ZEA) reduces the risk for developing age-related cataract, a leading cause of vision loss. Although LUT and ZEA are the only dietary carotenoids present in the lens, direct evidence for their photoprotective effect in this organ is not available. The present study examined the effects of xanthophylls and alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TC) on lipid peroxidation and the mitogen-activated stress signaling pathways in human lens epithelial (HLE) cells following ultraviolet B light (UVB) irradiation. When presented with LUT, ZEA, astaxanthin (AST), and alpha-TC as methyl-beta-cyclodextrin complexes, HLE cells accumulated the lipophiles in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with uptake of LUT exceeding that of ZEA and AST. Pretreatment of cultures with either 2 micromol/L xanthophyll or 10 micromol/L alpha-TC for 4 h before exposure to 300 J/m(2) UVB radiation decreased lipid peroxidation by 47-57% compared with UVB-treated control HLE cells. Pretreatment with the xanthophylls and alpha-TC also inhibited UVB-induced activation of c-JUN NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 by 50-60 and 25-32%, respectively. There was substantial inhibition of UVB-induced JNK and p38 activation for cells containing xanthophylls/mg, respectively, whereas >2.3 nmol alpha-TC/mg protein was required to significantly decrease UVB-induced stress signaling. These data suggest that xanthophylls are more potent than alpha-TC for protecting human lens epithelial cells against UVB insult.

  14. Photoprotection of Buddleja cordata extract against UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Acevedo, José Guillermo; Espinosa González, Adriana Montserrat; De Maria y Campos, Diana Matamoros; Benitez Flores, José del Carmen; Hernández Delgado, Tzasna; Flores Maya, Saul; Campos Contreras, Jorge; Muñoz López, José Luis; García Bores, Ana María

    2014-08-03

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using botanical agents to prevent skin damage resulting from solar UV-irradiation. Buddleja cordata is a plant that is known as "tepozan". Some people in Mexico use the leaves of this plant to treat tumours, abscesses, sores and burns. The purpose of this study is to investigate the photoprotective properties of Buddleja cordata methanolic extract (BCME) against UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice at the macroscopic and histological levels. BCME was characterised to determine its spectroscopic, chromatographic and antioxidant (DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals) properties. To conduct the photoprotection studies, BCME was applied topically to the skin of SKH-1 mice before acute exposure to UVB for 10 minutes. The murine skin samples were used for macroscopic and histological studies to assess tissue damage. Penetration of active components of BCME into stratum corneum on the dorsal area of mice was investigated in vivo by the tape stripping method. Moreover, genotoxicity of BCME was evaluated in a Vicia faba cell root micronucleus model. BCME displayed absorbance over the entire UVB spectrum, and its principal components included verbascoside and linarin. BCME exhibited antioxidant activity and significantly scavenged hydroxyl radicals. BCME reduced erythema, sunburn cell production, vessel congestion and epidermal thickening of UVB irradiated mouse skin. BCME penetrate the skin of mice. BCME did not exhibit genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. The topical administration of BCME protected against acute UVB-induced damage in mouse SKH-1 skin, and our results suggest that BCME may potentially prevent photodamage.

  15. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    on high-arctic vegetation. They supplement previous investigations from the Arctic focussing on other variables like growth etc., which have reported no or minor plant responses to UV-B, and clearly indicates that UV-B radiation is an important factor affecting plant life at high-arctic Zackenberg......Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high......-arctic regions, manipulation experiments with various set-ups have been performed. Activation of plant defence mechanisms by production of UV-B absorbing compounds was significant in ambient UV-B in comparison to a filter treatment reducing the UV-B radiation. Despite the UV-B screening response, ambient UV...

  16. Antagonist effects of veratric acid against UVB-induced cell damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seoung Woo; Jung, Eunsun; Kim, Seungbeom; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Youm, Jong-Kyung; Park, Deokhoon

    2013-05-10

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes in human epidermis, resulting in inflammation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. Adequate protection of skin against the harmful effect of UV irradiation is essential. In recent years naturally occurring herbal compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and high molecular weight polyphenols have gained considerable attention as beneficial protective agents. The simple phenolic veratric acid (VA, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid) is one of the major benzoic acid derivatives from vegetables and fruits and it also occurs naturally in medicinal mushrooms which have been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. However, it has rarely been applied in skin care. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the possible roles of veratric acid in protection against UVB-induced damage in HaCaT cells. Results showed that veratric acid can attenuate cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) formation, glutathione (GSH) depletion and apoptosis induced by UVB. Furthermore, veratric acid had inhibitory effects on the UVB-induced release of the inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and prostaglandin-E2. We also confirmed the safety and clinical efficacy of veratric acid on human skin. Overall, results demonstrated significant benefits of veratric acid on the protection of keratinocyte against UVB-induced injuries and suggested its potential use in skin photoprotection.

  17. Antagonist Effects of Veratric Acid against UVB-Induced Cell Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokhoon Park

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation induces DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes in human epidermis, resulting in inflammation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. Adequate protection of skin against the harmful effect of UV irradiation is essential. In recent years naturally occurring herbal compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and high molecular weight polyphenols have gained considerable attention as beneficial protective agents. The simple phenolic veratric acid (VA, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid is one of the major benzoic acid derivatives from vegetables and fruits and it also occurs naturally in medicinal mushrooms which have been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. However, it has rarely been applied in skin care. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the possible roles of veratric acid in protection against UVB-induced damage in HaCaT cells. Results showed that veratric acid can attenuate cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs formation, glutathione (GSH depletion and apoptosis induced by UVB. Furthermore, veratric acid had inhibitory effects on the UVB-induced release of the inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and prostaglandin-E2. We also confirmed the safety and clinical efficacy of veratric acid on human skin. Overall, results demonstrated significant benefits of veratric acid on the protection of keratinocyte against UVB-induced injuries and suggested its potential use in skin photoprotection.

  18. Effects of UV-B radiation on a hereditary suture cataract in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forker, Carina; Wegener, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    UV-B (290-320 nm, λ max = 305 nm) radiation and the Cat2 ns (suture cataract) mutation in mice affect both the anterior lens epithelium and the formation of the suture. A low dose of UV-B radiation (2.2 Jcm -2 ) induces similar anterior subcapsular and cortical lens opacities in wild type as in heterozygous mutant mice. The UV-B treatment of the mutant lenses, however, leads to an increase in the number of epithelial cell layers in the anterior central part as compared to the wild type indicating a more severe form of the cataract formation in mutants. In addition, mutants demonstrate a predisposition for a rupture of the posterior lens capsule, because from 2.9 Jcm -2 and higher, this phenomenon could always be observed in the UV-B treated mutants, but never in the treated wild type mice. The protein biochemical analyses were performed by gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing of extracts of total lenses or from defined areas of the lens (lens slice technique). These covered the patterns of those proteins already synthesized before irradiation, which in irradiated lenses in no case evidenced a difference to the untreated control, neither in the wild type nor in the mutants. In contrast, by analysing specifically those proteins, which are synthesized after irradiation, in both treated groups a protein with a molecular mass of about 31 kDa becomes discernable in both treated groups. In addition, the cataractous lenses demonstrate a significantly enhanced overall synthesis of water-soluble proteins after irradiation, which might promote the rupture of the posterior capsule at the posterior pole. The present study offers for the first time the possibility to discriminate between endogeneous (genetic) effects and exogeneous (environmental) effects in cataractogenesis and to study their interactive effects. The first set of experiments demonstrated a clear intensification of the hereditary cataract by the UV-B treatment. The study supports the hypothesis that

  19. Protective Effects of LSGYGP from Fish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates on UVB-Induced MEFs by Regulation of Oxidative Stress and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingyu; Liu, Qiuming; Yuan, Ling; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2018-03-28

    A previous study has shown that tilapia fish skin gelatin hydrolysates inhibited photoaging in vivo, and that, Leu-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Gly-Pro (LSGYGP) identified in the hydrolysate had a high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In this study, activities of LSGYGP were further evaluated using ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). UVB irradiation significantly increased the intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activities and decreased the content of collagen in MEFs. LSGYGP reduced the intercellular ROS generation in UVB-induced MEFs. Meanwhile, the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the increase of malondiaidehyde (MDA) content were inhibited by LSGYGP. LSGYGP reduced MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking simulation indicated that LSGYGP inhibited MMPs activities by docking the active sites of MMP-1 and MMP-9. Furthermore, LSGYGP also affected the intercellular phosphorylation of UVB-induced the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. LSGYGP could protect collagen synthesis in MEFs under UVB irradiation by inhibiting oxidative stress and regulating MMPs activities.

  20. Protective Effects of LSGYGP from Fish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates on UVB-Induced MEFs by Regulation of Oxidative Stress and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyu Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A previous study has shown that tilapia fish skin gelatin hydrolysates inhibited photoaging in vivo, and that, Leu-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Gly-Pro (LSGYGP identified in the hydrolysate had a high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In this study, activities of LSGYGP were further evaluated using ultraviolet B (UVB-induced mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. UVB irradiation significantly increased the intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs activities and decreased the content of collagen in MEFs. LSGYGP reduced the intercellular ROS generation in UVB-induced MEFs. Meanwhile, the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and the increase of malondiaidehyde (MDA content were inhibited by LSGYGP. LSGYGP reduced MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking simulation indicated that LSGYGP inhibited MMPs activities by docking the active sites of MMP-1 and MMP-9. Furthermore, LSGYGP also affected the intercellular phosphorylation of UVB-induced the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. LSGYGP could protect collagen synthesis in MEFs under UVB irradiation by inhibiting oxidative stress and regulating MMPs activities.

  1. Flavonoids are systemically induced by UV-B in Zea mays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossi, V.E.; Lamattina, L.; Cassia, R.

    2009-01-01

    Flavonoid concentration is increased by UV-B irradiation, but it is unknown if this is a local or systemic response. Nitric oxide (NO) is a diffusible molecule involved in the UV-B response. NO regulates the expression of chalcone synthase (CHS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of flavonoids. The aim of this work was to determine if maize flavonoids are local or systemically induced by UV-B, and what is the participation of NO in this response. We have used maize seedlings where the second leaf was sprayed with H 2 O or cPTIO (a NO scavenger), and then completely covered (C), partially covered (P) or uncovered (U) before to be UV-B irradiated. The results show a 60% increase in the NO concentration of U, 42% in P and 35% in C respectively. Flavonoid concentration increased 90% in C, 70% in P and 40% in U. Flavonoid concentration was reduced when leaves were pretreated with cPTIO before the UV-B irradiation. RT-PCR shows that CHS was up-regulated by UV-B in U, P and C, but downregulated with cPTIO. We have analyzed the subcellular localization of flavonoid and NO in UV-B irradiated plants. Flavonoid localization was coincident with the NO presence in the irradiated surface of the leaves and flavonoids were detected in vesicles. These results indicate that flavonoids are systemically induced by UV-B in a NO-related mechanism. (authors)

  2. Significance of bacterial flora in abdominal irradiation-induced inhibition of lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Ando, K.; Koike, S.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously reported that abdominal irradiation prior to i.v. injection of syngeneic tumor cells reduced metastases in lung. Our report described an investigation of the significance of intestinal organisms in the radiation effect. We found that eliminating intestinal organisms with antibiotics totally abolished the radiation effect. Monoassociation of germ-free mice revealed that the radiation effect was observable only for Enterobacter cloacae, never for Streptococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium adlesentis, or Escherichia coli. After abdominal irradiation of regular mice, E. cloacae multiplied in cecal contents, adhered to mucous membranes, invaded the cecal wall, and translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes. Intravenous administration of E. cloacae in place of abdominal irradiation inhibited metastases. E. cloacae-monoassociated mice developed fewer metastases than germ-free mice, and the reduction was further enhanced by abdominal irradiation. We concluded that abdominal irradiation caused the invasion of E. cloacae from the mucous membrane of the intestine and inhibited formation of lung metastases

  3. Risks of increased UV-B radiation for humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybilla, B.; Eberlein-Koenig, B.; Bergner, T.

    1994-01-01

    If not compensated in any way, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer leads to an increase of UV-B radiation at the earth's surface, especially towards the short-wave range, which is biologically the more active. The most concerning effect here is that of UV-B induced skin reactions, in particular malignant skintumors (malignant melanoma, spinocellular carcinoma, basalioma), whose incidence is expected to increase in future. As some photoreactions can be inhibited or enhanced also by radiation outside their action spectrum, it is possible for changes in solar spectral radiation flux density to influence photo-induced reactions that are driven at wavelengths outside the UV-B range. The authors have performed studies for developing methods of quantifying individual UV sensitivity. In vitro studies have shown that UV-A dependent photoreactions can be partly inhibited by UV-B. A number of drugs, as well as sulphites, which are used as preservatives amongst other things, have been shown to have phototoxic properties that may be relevant to photocarcinogenesis. Irradiation tests on cell cultures for different UV-B ranges have shown that irradiation at shorter wavelengths leads to a stronger release of proinflammatory cytokines that ar longer wavelengths with the same dose. Altogether it can be said that despite compelling theoretical evidence it is not easily possible to predict the actual consequences of an increase in particular of short-wave UV-B radiation at the earth's surface. The assumed effects must be examined individually by appropriate methods. (orig.) [de

  4. Exposure of vitamins to UVB and UVA radiation generates singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knak, Alena; Regensburger, Johannes; Maisch, Tim; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Deleterious effects of UV radiation in tissue are usually attributed to different mechanisms. Absorption of UVB radiation in cell constituents like DNA causes photochemical reactions. Absorption of UVA radiation in endogenous photosensitizers like vitamins generates singlet oxygen via photosensitized reactions. We investigated two further mechanisms that might be involved in UV mediated cell tissue damage. Firstly, UVB radiation and vitamins also generate singlet oxygen. Secondly, UVB radiation may change the chemical structure of vitamins that may change the role of such endogenous photosensitizers in UVA mediated mechanisms. Vitamins were irradiated in solution using monochromatic UVB (308 nm) or UVA (330, 355, or 370 nm) radiation. Singlet oxygen was directly detected and quantified by its luminescence at 1270 nm. All investigated molecules generated singlet oxygen with a quantum yield ranging from 0.007 (vitamin D3) to 0.64 (nicotinamide) independent of the excitation wavelength. Moreover, pre-irradiation of vitamins with UVB changed their absorption in the UVB and UVA spectral range. Subsequently, molecules such as vitamin E and vitamin K1, which normally exhibit no singlet oxygen generation in the UVA, now produce singlet oxygen when exposed to UVA at 355 nm. This interplay of different UV sources is inevitable when applying serial or parallel irradiation with UVA and UVB in experiments in vitro. These results should be of particular importance for parallel irradiation with UVA and UVB in vivo, e.g. when exposing the skin to solar radiation.

  5. Australian UVB measurements programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgan, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    Australia's scientific community and industry are involved in a number of programs and projects with regard to UVB monitoring. Those indicated below are related to either long term monitoring programs or to the atmospheric science community. They are not meant to be exhaustive but can be used as a reference guide. (author)

  6. Galectin-7 overexpression is associated with the apoptotic process in UVB-induced sunburn keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernerd, Francoise; Sarasin, Alain; Magnaldo, Thierry

    1999-01-01

    Galectin-7 is a β-galactoside binding protein specifically expressed in stratified epithelia and notably in epidermis, but barely detectable in epidermal tumors and absent from squamous carcinoma cell lines. Galectin-7 gene is an early transcriptional target of the tumor suppressor protein P53 [Polyak, K., Xia, Y., Zweier, J., Kinzler, K. & Vogelstein, B. (1997) Nature (London) 389, 300–305]. Because p53 transcriptional activity is increased by genotoxic stresses we have examined the possible effects of ultraviolet radiations (UVB) on galectin-7 expression in epidermal keratinocytes. The amounts of galectin-7 mRNA and protein are increased rapidly after UVB irradiation of epidermal keratinocytes. The increase of galectin-7 is parallel to P53 stabilization. UVB irradiation of skin reconstructed in vitro and of human skin ex vivo demonstrates that galectin-7 overexpression is associated with sunburn/apoptotic keratinocytes. Transfection of a galectin-7 expression vector results in a significant increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end labeling-positive keratinocytes. The present findings demonstrate a keratinocyte-specific protein involved in the UV-induced apoptosis, an essential process in the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis. PMID:10500176

  7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF UV-C AND UV-B RADIATION INFLUENCE ON PLANT OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Міхєєв

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available General aim of work – comparative research of temporal regularities of growth processes of pea,that was grown under normal conditions and with application of UV-C and UV-B irradiation ofstem part, and also detection of irradiation dose relations to parameter of root and stem part sproutsgrowth rate of Aronis pea. Research subject of UV-C and UV-B irradiation influence on dynamicsof plant growth parameters in each set of experiments was alteration of growth rate, pecularities ofgrowth dynamics in different conditions of experiment, detection of UV-C and UV-B irradiationdoses range, that stimulate or inhibit growth parameters of pea sprouts. The investigation resulted indetermination 1,3 times higher efficiency of UV-V irradiation comparing to UV-B irradiation.Reaction of root didn’t depend on the type of UV-radiation

  8. Effects of Increased UVB radiation on plant-insect interactions: Plantago lanceolata and Junonia coenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloud, E.S.; Berenbaum, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of P. lanceolata were collected from a local population and 4 replicates of 42 maternal families were grown for 90 days in the greenhouse with at two levels of supplemental UVB radiation (6 and 12 kJ day -1 BE 300 ). Higher UVB radiation increased leaf hair density and decreased plant size during early growth; family identity affected these also. Leaves excised from a subset of the plants were fed to ultimate instar larvae of J. coenia and assayed for iridoids. Increased UVB radiation did not alter the iridoid content of the leaves or the growth of the larvae. In a separate experiment, P. lanceolata growing under the two levels of UVB irradiation were infested with neonate larvae and larval growth was monitored. Larval growth was not markedly altered by enhanced UVB. These findings suggest that increased UVB is unlikely to alter the suitability of P. lanceolata as a host for J. coenia

  9. Growth of antarctic cyanobacteria under ultraviolet radiation: UVA counteracts UVB inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, A.; Mouget, J.L.; Vincent, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    A mat-forming cyanobacterium (Phormidium murayi West and West) isolated from an ice-shelf pond in Antarctica was grown under white light combined with a range of UVA and UVB irradiance. The 4-day growth rate decreased under increasing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, with a ninefold greater response to UVB relative to UVA. In vivo absorbance spectra showed that UVA and to a greater extent UVB caused a decrease in phycocyanin/chlorophyll a and an increase in carotenoids/chlorophyll a. The phycocyanin/chlorophyll a ratio was closely and positively correlated to the UVB-inhibited growth rate. Under fixed spectral gradients of UV radiation, the growth inhibition effect was dominated by UVB. However, at specific UVB irradiances the inhibition of growth depended on the ratio of UVB to UVA, and growth rates increased linearly with increasing UVA. These results are consistent with the view that UVB inhibition represents the balance between damage and repair processes that are each controlled by separate wavebands. They also underscore the need to consider UV spectral balance in laboratory and field assays of UVB toxicity. 49 refs., 6 figs

  10. Continuous-flow solar UVB disinfection reactor for drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonimpa, Eric Gentil; Vadheim, Bryan; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2012-05-01

    Access to safe, reliable sources of drinking water is a long-standing problem among people in developing countries. Sustainable solutions to these problems often involve point-of-use or community-scale water treatment systems that rely on locally-available resources and expertise. This philosophy was used in the development of a continuous-flow, solar UVB disinfection system. Numerical modeling of solar UVB spectral irradiance was used to define temporal variations in spectral irradiance at several geographically-distinct locations. The results of these simulations indicated that a solar UVB system would benefit from incorporation of a device to amplify ambient UVB fluence rate. A compound parabolic collector (CPC) was selected for this purpose. Design of the CPC was based on numerical simulations that accounted for the shape of the collector and reflectance. Based on these simulations, a prototype CPC was constructed using materials that would be available and inexpensive in many developing countries. A UVB-transparent pipe was positioned in the focal area of the CPC; water was pumped through the pipe to allow exposure of waterborne microbes to germicidal solar UVB radiation. The system was demonstrated to be effective for inactivation of Escherichia coli, and DNA-weighted UV dose was shown to govern reactor performance. The design of the reactor is expected to scale linearly, and improvements in process performance (relative to results from the prototype) can be expected by use of larger CPC geometry, inclusion of better reflective materials, and application in areas with greater ambient solar UV spectral irradiance than the location of the prototype tests. The system is expected to have application for water treatment among communities in (developing) countries in near-equatorial and tropical locations. It may also have application for disaster relief or military field operations, as well as in water treatment in areas of developed countries that receive

  11. Skin pigmentation kinetics after UVB exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    There have been few previous studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure, and these have included only fair-skinned persons. The current study investigated pigmentation increase to steady state and fading in 12 Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis. Over...... a period of 3 weeks the subjects were UV-irradiated 6 times on the right side of the back and 12 times on the left side using a Solar Simulator and narrowband UVB with equal sub-Minimal Melanogenesis Doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured from skin remittance at 555 urn and 660 nm...... (allowing correction for erythema). The absolute pigmentation increase was independent of pre-exposure pigmentation, therefore the percentage pigmentation increase was higher in fair-skinned volunteers. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in darker-skinned persons for single and multiple UV...

  12. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high......-arctic regions, manipulation experiments with various set-ups have been performed. Activation of plant defence mechanisms by production of UV-B absorbing compounds was significant in ambient UV-B in comparison to a filter treatment reducing the UV-B radiation. Despite the UV-B screening response, ambient UV...... (mycorrhiza) or in the biomass of microbes in the soil of the root zone. However, the composition of the soil microbial community was different in the soils under ambient and reduced UV radiation after three treatment years. These results provide new insight into the negative impact of current UV-B fluxes...

  13. OMI/Aura Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Daily L3 Global 1.0x1.0 deg Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Aura-OMI Daily Gridded Surface UV Irradiance Product (OMUVBd) is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES...

  14. UV-B affects photosynthesis, ROS production and motility of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, University of Incheon, Incheon, 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Woongghi [Department of Biology, Chungnam University, Daejeon, 306 764 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Marine Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, University of Incheon, Incheon, 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, University of Incheon, Incheon, 406 840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    %, respectively. Following 24 h in dim light, the percentage of motile cells increased to between 66% and 95% of the initial value. The velocity of non-irradiated cells was 60 {mu}m s{sup -1}, which decreased to 16-35 {mu}m s{sup -1} immediately following exposure for 15-60 min. After periods of time in dim light (6, 12 and 24 h) velocities had recovered to between 44 and 81% of the initial value. In untreated controls, the r-value was 0.23, indicating random movement of E. agilis, but it increased to 0.35 and 0.72 after exposure to UV-B for 30 and 60 min, respectively. There was a tendency towards vertical downward movement of cells proportional to the duration of exposure. The compactness of E. agilis decreased from 2.9 in controls to 1.8-2.3 in cells treated with UV-B although significant recovery followed. UV-B dose-dependent interaction between photosynthetic activity, ROS production and movement is discussed in terms of a UV-protective mechanism in E. agilis.

  15. The effects of simulated solar UVB radiation on early developmental stages of the Northwestern Salamander (Ambystoma gracile) from three lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Hoffman, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) has received much attention as a factor that could play a role in amphibian population declines. UV can be hazardous to some amphibians, but the resultant effects depend on a variety of environmental and behavioral factors. In this study, the potential effects of UV on the Northwestern Salamander, Ambystoma gracile, from three lakes were assessed in the laboratory using a solar simulator. We measured the survival of embryos and the survival and growth of larvae exposed to four UV treatments in controlled laboratory studies, the UV absorbance of egg jelly, oviposition depths in the lakes, and UV absorbance in water samples from the three lakes. Hatching success of embryos decreased in the higher UV treatments as compared to the control treatments, and growth of surviving larvae was significantly reduced in the higher UVB irradiance treatments. The egg jelly exhibited a small peak of absorbance within the UVB range (290–320 nm). The magnitude of UV absorbance differed among egg jellies from the three lakes. Oviposition depths at the three sites averaged 1.10 m below the water surface. Approximately 66% of surface UVB radiation was attenuated at 10-cm depth in all three lakes. Results of this study indicate that larvae may be sensitive to UVB exposure under laboratory conditions; however, in field conditions the depths of egg deposition in the lakes, absorbance of UV radiation by the water column, and the potential for behavioral adjustments may mitigate severe effects of UV radiation.

  16. Response of growth and antioxidant enzymes in Azolla plants (Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides) exposed to UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Amjad; Zeeshan, M; Abraham, G

    2008-06-01

    Effect of ultravilolet-B (0.4 Wm(-2)) irradiation on growth, flavonoid content, lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation and activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase was comparatively analysed in Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides. Growth measured as increment in dry weight reduced considerably due to all UV-B treatments. However, the reduction was found to be severe in A. filiculoides as compared to A. pinnata. The level of UV-absorbing compound flavonoids increased significantly in A. pinnata plants whereas only a slight increase in the flavonoid content was observed in A. filiculoides. UV-B exposure led to enhanced production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in A. filiculoides than A. pinnata. Proline accumulation also showed a similar trend. Marked differences in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) was noticed in both the plants exposed to UV-B. Our comparative studies indicate A. pinnata to be better tolerant to UV-B as compared with A. filiculoides which appears to be sensitive.

  17. Effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on accumulation of catechins in tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of UV-B irradiation time on accumulation of foliar catechins in two tea cultivars was investigated. Low influence rate and short term irradiation of UV-B stimulated accumulation of major tea catechins, resulting in an increase in level of total catechins. Excessive irradiation of UV-B supressed the accumulation of tea ...

  18. Human psychophysics and rodent spinal neurones exhibit peripheral and central mechanisms of inflammatory pain in the UVB and UVB heat rekindling models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Jessica; Sikandar, Shafaq; McMahon, Stephen B; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-09-01

    Translational research is key to bridging the gaps between preclinical findings and the patients, and a translational model of inflammatory pain will ideally induce both peripheral and central sensitisation, more effectively mimicking clinical pathophysiology in some chronic inflammatory conditions. We conducted a parallel investigation of two models of inflammatory pain, using ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation alone and UVB irradiation with heat rekindling. We used rodent electrophysiology and human quantitative sensory testing to characterise nociceptive processing in the peripheral and central nervous systems in both models. In both species, UVB irradiation produces peripheral sensitisation measured as augmented evoked activity of rat dorsal horn neurones and increased perceptual responses of human subjects to mechanical and thermal stimuli. In both species, UVB with heat rekindling produces central sensitisation. UVB irradiation alone and UVB with heat rekindling are translational models of inflammation that produce peripheral and central sensitisation, respectively. The predictive value of laboratory models for human pain processing is crucial for improving translational research. The discrepancy between peripheral and central mechanisms of pain is an important consideration for drug targets, and here we describe two models of inflammatory pain that involve ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, which can employ peripheral and central sensitisation to produce mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats and humans. We use electrophysiology in rats to measure the mechanically- and thermally-evoked activity of rat spinal neurones and quantitative sensory testing to assess human psychophysical responses to mechanical and thermal stimulation in a model of UVB irradiation and in a model of UVB irradiation with heat rekindling. Our results demonstrate peripheral sensitisation in both species driven by UVB irradiation, with a clear mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity of

  19. Dose/dose-rate responses of shrimp larvae to UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damkaer, D.M.; Dey, D.B.; Heron, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 Wm/sup -2/sub((DNA)) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activity, development, or survival. Beyond that dose-rate threshold, shrimp larvae are significantly affected if the total dose exceeds about 85 Jm/sup -2/sub((DNA)). Predictions cannot be made without both the dose-rate and the dose. These dose/dose-rate thresholds are compared to four-year mean dose/dose-rate solar UV-B irradiances at the experimental site, measured at the surface and calculated for 1 m depth. The probability that the shrimp larvae would receive lethal irradiance is low for the first half of the season of surface occurrence, even with a 44% increase in damaging UV radiation.

  20. Effects of reducing the ambient UV-B radiation in the high Arctic on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, K.R.; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    , transmitting λ > 400 nm) were used to reduce UV-B radiation and UV-B+A respectively. A UV transparent film (Teflon, transmitting λ > 280 nm) and no film were used as controls. Field measurements showed that the plants under Teflon, Mylar and Lexan received app. 91%, 39% and 17% of the ambient UV-B irradiance...

  1. Long-term uvb forecasting on the basis of spectral and broad-band measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérces, A.; Gáspár, S.; Kovács, G.; Rontó, G.

    2003-04-01

    The stratospheric ozone concentration has been investigated by several methods, e.g. determinations of the ozone layer using a network of ground based spectrophotometers, of the Dobson and the Brewer types. These data indicate significant decrease of the ozone layer superimposed by much larger seasonal changes at specific geographical locations. The stratospheric ozone plays an important role in the attenuation of the short-wavelength components of the solar spectrum, thus the consequence of the decreased ozone layer is an increased UVB level. Various pyranometers measuring the biological effect of environmental UV radiation have been constructed with spectral sensitivities close to the erythema action spectrum defined by the CIE. Using these erythemally weighted broad-band instruments to detect the tendency of UVB radiation controversial data have been found. To quantify the biological risk due to environmental UV radiation it is reasonable to weight the solar spectrum by the spectral sensitivity of the DNA damage taking into account the high DNA-sensitivity at the short wavelength range of the solar spectrum. Various biological dosimeters have been developed e.g. polycrystalline uracil thin layer. These are usually simple biological systems or components of them. Their UV sensitivity is a consequence of the DNA-damage. Biological dosimeters applied for long-term monitoring are promising tools for the assessment of the biological hazard. Simultaneous application of uracil dosimeters and Robertson-Berger meters can be useful to predict the increasing tendency of the biological UV exposure more precisely. The ratio of the biologically effective dose obtained by the uracil dosimeter (a predominately UVB effect) and by the Robertson-Berger meter (insensitive to changes below 300 nm) is a sensitive method for establishing changes in UVB irradiance due to changes in ozone layer.

  2. The significance of eosinophilia during external irradiation for uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yuzo; Washizuka, Norio; Kishiyama, Kazutaka; Yamada, Ryuichi; Hasegawa, Tenmatsu

    1980-01-01

    To study the mechanism of eosinophilia, correlation between immunological skin test including DNCB, PHA and PPD test, the grade of diarrhea were evaluated 32 cases of uterine cancer which received external irradiation. Also the comparison of eosinophilia and diarrhea among the three fraction group and each score group of skin test were done. The maximum value of absolute eosinophils and multiple increase in eosinophils increased more significantly in 4750 rads/20f/5 weeks group than in other group, but did'nt correlate among each score group of skin test. Also eosinophilia did'nt correlate significantly to skin test and the grade of diarrhea. (author)

  3. Effects of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and type I procollagen in UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung-Eun; Mun, Sukyeong; Pyun, Hee-Bong; Kim, Myung-Suk; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes premature skin aging that is associated with upregulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and decreased collagen synthesis. Macelignan, a natural lignan compound isolated from Myristica fragrans HOUTT. (nutmeg), has been reported to possess antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. This study assessed the effects of macelignan on photoaging and investigated its mechanisms of action in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts (Hs68) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results show that macelignan attenuated UV-induced MMP-1 expression by suppressing phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) induced by reactive oxygen species. Macelignan also increased type I procollagen expression and secretion through transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling. These findings indicate that macelignan regulates the expression of MMP-1 and type I procollagen in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts by modulating MAPK and TGF-β/Smad signaling, suggesting its potential as an efficacious antiphotoaging agent. (author)

  4. Adverse Effects of UV-B Radiation on Plants Growing at Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaswant; Singh, Rudra P

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the impacts of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation over a 28-day period on the levels of pigments of Umbilicaria aprina and Bryum argenteum growing in field. The depletion of stratospheric ozone is most prominent over Antarctica, which receives more UV-B radiation than most other parts of the planet. Although UV-B radiation adversely affects all flora, Antarctic plants are better equipped to survive the damaging effects of UV-B owing to defenses provided by UV-B absorbing compounds and other screening pigments. The UV-B radiations and daily average ozone values were measured by sun photometer and the photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by the standard spectrophotometric methods of exposed and unexposed selected plants. The daily average atmospheric ozone values were recorded from 5 January to 2 February 2008. The maximum daily average for ozone (310.7 Dobson Units (DU)) was recorded on 10 January 2008. On that day, average UV-B spectral irradiances were 0.016, 0.071, and 0.186 W m(-2) at wavelengths of 305, 312, and 320 nm, respectively. The minimum daily average ozone value (278.6 DU) was recorded on 31 January 2008. On that day, average UV-B spectral irradiances were 0.018, 0.085, and 0.210 W m(-2) at wavelengths of 305, 312, and 320 nm, respectively. Our results concludes that following prolonged UV-B exposure, total chlorophyll levels decreased gradually in both species, whereas levels of UV-B absorbing compounds, phenolics, and carotenoids gradually increased.

  5. Biological significance of the focus on DNA damage checkpoint factors remained after irradiation of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Suzuki, Keiji

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews recent reports on the focus formation and participation to checkpoint of (such phosphorylated (P-d) as below) ATM and H2AX, MDC1, 53BP1 and NBS1, and discusses their role in DNA damage checkpoint induction mainly around authors' studies. When the cell is irradiated by ionizing radiation, the subtype histone like H2AX is P-d and the formed focus', seen in the nucleus on immuno-fluorographic observation, represents the P-d H2AX at the damaged site of DNA. The role of P-d ATM (the product of causative gene of ataxia-telangiectasia mutation, a protein kinase) has been first shown by laser beam irradiation. Described are discussions on the roles and functions after irradiation in focus formation and DNA damage checkpoint of P-d H2AX (a specific histone product by the radiation like γ-ray as above), P-d ATM, MDC1 (a mediator of DNA damage check point protein 1), 53BP1, (a p53 binding protein) and NBS1 (the product of the causative gene of Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome). Authors have come to point out the remained focal size increase as implications of the efficient repair of damaged DNA, and the second cycled p53 accumulation, of tumor suppression. Thus evaluation of biological significance of these aspects, scarcely noted hitherto, is concluded important. (S.I.)

  6. The effects of different UV-B radiation intensities on morphological and biochemical characteristics in Ocimum basilicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalauskaitė, Jurga; Viskelis, Pranas; Dambrauskienė, Edita; Sakalauskienė, Sandra; Samuolienė, Giedrė; Brazaitytė, Aušra; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Urbonavičienė, Dalia

    2013-04-01

    The effects of short-term ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv. Cinnamon) plants at the 3-4 leaf pair and flowering stages were examined in controlled environment growth chambers. Plants were exposed to 0 (reference), 2 and 4 kJ UV-B m(-2) day(-1) over 7 days. Exposure of basil plants to supplementary UV-B light resulted in increased assimilating leaf area, fresh biomass and dry biomass. Stimulation of physiological functions in young basil plants under either applied UV-B dose resulted in increased total chlorophyll content but no marked variation in carotenoid content. At the flowering stage the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of basil were affected by supplementary UV-B radiation, decreasing with enhanced UV-B exposure. Both total antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay) and total phenolic compound content were increased by UV-B light supplementation. Young and mature basil plants differed in their ascorbic acid content, which was dependent on UV-B dose and plant age. UV-B radiation resulted in decreased nitrate content in young basil plants (3-4 leaf pair stage). These results indicate that the application of short-exposure UV-B radiation beneficially influenced both growth parameters and biochemical constituents in young and mature basil plants. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on growth and physiology of the dune grassland species Calamagrostis epigeios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosserams, M.; Rozema, J.

    1995-01-01

    Seedlings of Calamagrostis epigeios were exposed to four levels of UV-B radiation (280-320 nm), simulating up to 44% reduction of stratospheric ozone concentration during summertime in The Netherlands, to determine the response of this plant species to UV-B irradiation. After six weeks of UV-B treatment, total biomass of all UV-B treated plants was higher, compared to plants that had received no UV-B radiation. The increase of biomass did not appear to be the result of a stimulation of net photosynthesis. Also, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were not altered by UV-B at any exposure level. Pigment analysis of leaf extracts showed no effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on chlorophyll content and accumulation of UV absorbing pigments. UV-B irradiance, however, did reduce the transmittance of visible light (400-700 nm) of intact attached leaves, suggesting a change in anatomical characteristics of the leaves. Additionally, the importance of including an ambient UV-B treatment in indoor experiments is discussed

  8. Ambient UV-B radiation decreases photosynthesis in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, K.R.; Ro-Poulsen, H. (Univ. of Copenhagen, Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology, Copenhagen (DK)); Mikkelsen, T.N. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (DK))

    2008-06-15

    An UV-B-exclusion experiment was established in high arctic Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, to investigate the possible effects of ambient UV-B on plant performance. During almost a whole growing season, canopy gas exchange and Chl fluorescence were measured on Vaccinium uliginosum (bog blueberry). Leaf area, biomass, carbon, nitrogen and UV-B-absorbing compounds were determined from a late season harvest. Compared with the reduced UV-B treatment, the plants in ambient UV-B were found to have a higher content of UV-B-absorbing compounds, and canopy net photosynthesis was as an average 23% lower during the season. By means of the JIP-test, it was found that the potential of processing light energy through the photosynthetic machinery was slightly reduced in ambient UV-B. This indicates that not only the UV-B effects on PSII may be responsible for some of the observed reduction of photosynthesis but also the effects on other parts of the photosynthetic machinery, e.g. the Calvin cycle, might be important. The 60% reduction of the UV-B irradiance used in this study implies a higher relative change in the UV-B load than many of the supplemental experiments do, but the substantial effect on photosynthesis clearly indicates that V. uliginosum is negatively affected by the current level of UV-B. (au)

  9. Ambient UV-B radiation decreases photosynthesis in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Kristian R; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2008-06-01

    An UV-B-exclusion experiment was established in high arctic Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, to investigate the possible effects of ambient UV-B on plant performance. During almost a whole growing season, canopy gas exchange and Chl fluorescence were measured on Vaccinium uliginosum (bog blueberry). Leaf area, biomass, carbon, nitrogen and UV-B-absorbing compounds were determined from a late season harvest. Compared with the reduced UV-B treatment, the plants in ambient UV-B were found to have a higher content of UV-B-absorbing compounds, and canopy net photosynthesis was as an average 23% lower during the season. By means of the JIP-test, it was found that the potential of processing light energy through the photosynthetic machinery was slightly reduced in ambient UV-B. This indicates that not only the UV-B effects on PSII may be responsible for some of the observed reduction of photosynthesis but also the effects on other parts of the photosynthetic machinery, e.g. the Calvin cycle, might be important. The 60% reduction of the UV-B irradiance used in this study implies a higher relative change in the UV-B load than many of the supplemental experiments do, but the substantial effect on photosynthesis clearly indicates that V. uliginosum is negatively affected by the current level of UV-B.

  10. UV-B Radiation Contributes to Amphibian Population Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    UV-B (280-315 nm) radiation is the most significant biologically damaging radiation at the terrestrial surface. At the organismal level, UV-B radiation can slow growth rates, cause immune dysfunction and result in sublethal damage. UV-B radiation can lead to mutations and cell death. Over evolutionary time, UV radiation has been an important stressor on living organisms. Natural events, including impacts from comets and asteroids, volcanic activity, supernova explosions and solar flares, can cause large-scale ozone depletion with accompanying increases in UV radiation. However, these natural events are transient. Moreover, the amount of ozone damage due to natural events depends upon a number of variables, including the magnitude of the event. This is different from modern-day human-induced production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other chemicals that deplete stratospheric ozone continuously, resulting in long-term increases in UV-B radiation at the surface of the earth. We will briefly review the effects of UV-B exposure in one group of aquatic organisms_amphibians. UV-B has been implicated as a possible factor contributing to global declines and range reductions in amphibian populations.

  11. Improvement in Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Production and Pharmaceutical Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by Ultraviolet-B Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Ashkani, Sadegh; Baghdadi, Ali; Pazoki, Alireza; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-09-09

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m²) and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h) was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m² increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold), catechin (0.85-fold), kaempferol (0.65-fold) rutin (0.68-fold) and luteolin (1.00-fold) content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid) was observed in the 3.60 W/m² of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h) except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m² of UV-B irradiation. UV-B

  12. Improvement in Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Production and Pharmaceutical Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. by Ultraviolet-B Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m2 and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC and total phenolic content (TPC were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m2 increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold, catechin (0.85-fold, kaempferol (0.65-fold rutin (0.68-fold and luteolin (1.00-fold content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid was observed in the 3.60 W/m2 of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m2 of UV-B irradiation. UV-B

  13. (UVB)-induced DNA damage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    dependent cytogenetic lesions were assessed by the micronucleus test (MNT). It was found that POE effectively reduced the extent of DNA breakages and cytogenetic lesions upon exposure to UVB (erythemal ultraviolet (EUV);.

  14. The effect of UVB on flavonoid biosynthesis in wild type and mutant petunia and arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, K.G.; Swinny, E.E.; Markham, K.R.; Winefield, C.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Flavonoids may protect plants against damage by UVB radiation. Flavonoid composition and mRNA expression were determined following growth of plants under natural light, and under natural light with low UVB and with enhanced UVB. In wild-type Arabidopsis and Petunia, UVB induced an increase in total levels of flavonols and this was due to an up-regulation of, several genes coding for key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. In addition, UVB induced a higher rate of production of the di-hydroxylated si flavonol, quercetin glycoside than of the mono-hydroxylated equivalent, of kaempferol glycoside. Thus the ratio of quercetin to kaempferol increased with UVB treatment in wild type plants, and this suggests that the flavonoid r 3'hydroxylase (F3'H) enzyme, which converts dihydrokaempferol to dihydroquercetin, may play a key role in plant protection from UVB. Mutant plants of both species lacking this F3'H gene were grown under similar UV conditions. Leaves of the mutant Arabidopsis plant (tt7) did not contain quercetin, even under the enhanced UVB treatment. Under the low UVB treatment the total amount of flavonol was similar to the wild-type (Ler), but with increasing UVB, total flavonol (i.e. kaempferol) levels were significantly higher than in similarly treated wild type plants. In the Petunia F3'H mutant, low levels of quercetin were found even in the low UVB treatment, which indicates this variety may be producing some quercetin via an alternative pathway. Under UVB radiation, total flavonoids increased to levels significantly higher than in similarly treated wild type plants, and most of this material was kaempferol. These observations suggest that quercetin is the preferred protective flavonol in wild type plants, due perhaps to enhanced antioxidant or free radical scavenging activity. In mutant plants lacking the F3'H enzyme, the response is to produce a larger amount of a less effective photoprotectant

  15. The gender differences in the inhibitory action of UVB-induced melanocyte activation by the administration of tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Yamate, Yurika; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    Tranexamic acid has an inhibitory action on ultraviolet (UV) B-induced melanocyte activation. This study examined the sex differences in the inhibitory action of tranexamic acid on UVB-induced melanocyte activation. We irradiated the eye and ear of male and female mice with UVB at a dose of 1.0 kJ/m(2) using a 20SE sunlamp. We orally administered tranexamic acid (750 mg/kg/day) at 30 min before UVB exposure. Tranexamic acid inhibited the UVB-induced epidermal melanocyte activation, and the effect was more remarkable under UVB eye irradiation than under UVB ear irradiation. Furthermore, the melanocyte activity suppression effect was stronger in female mice than in male mice. Following the administration of tranexamic acid, the female displayed increased blood levels of β-endorphin and μ-opioid receptor and estradiol receptor β expression in comparison with the male. Furthermore, the effect of melanocyte activity suppression in the female mice was decreased by the administration of tamoxifen (antagonist of estrogen receptor) or naltrexone (antagonist of μ-opioid receptor). These results suggest that the suppression by tranexamic acid of the UVB-induced melanocyte activation (UVB sensitivity) is stronger in female mice than in male mice and that female hormones and β-endorphin play an important role in this sex difference. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cyclobutane-type pyrimidine photodimer formation and induction of ornithine decarboxylase in human skin fibroblasts after UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niggli, H.J.; Roethlisberger, R.

    1988-01-01

    Cyclobutane-type pyrimidine photodimers as well as the induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) may serve as biochemical markers of the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet light (UV). For this reason, it is important to compare the formation of pyrimidine dimers with the induction of ODC in human skin fibroblasts after irradiation with UVC (200-290 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm). In our studies we determined cytosine-thymine (C-T) as well as thymine-thymine dimer yields (T-T) by high-pressure liquid chromatography in cultures of neonatal normal human foreskin-derived fibroblasts after irradiation with UVC and UVB light. It was found that the yield of dimerization and the ratio of T-T/C-T decreased from the UVC to the UVB region. Time-course studies of ODC-induction in the same cells indicated that the maximal activity after UVB irradiation was retarded compared to UVC exposure. For the UV-induced ODC-levels, however, no significant difference in maximal induction could be measured after UVC and UVB irradiation at fluences where comparable yields of thymine dimerization are produced. Similar ODC-maxima were obtained with strains from children, while cells from adults showed significantly less pronounced ODC induction, indicating that ODC-response decreases with age and may therefore be used as a marker of aging

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of ultraviolet B irradiation on atopic dermatitis in NC/NGA mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuko Mutou; Shuji Kojima; Yuko Ibuki

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common pruritic inflammatory skin disease with severe itching which occurs primarily in childhood. Overexpression of serum IgE are also a characteristic feature in many patient. Furthermore, Th2-type T cell cytokine, such as IL-4, IL-5, and Il-10, are produced in AD lesions. Recently, ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation may increase according to depletion of the ozone layer. Furthermore, phototherapy is used to treat AD patient, but the mechanism involved is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether UVB irradiation influences atopic dermatitis in the NC/Nga mouse model. Methods: The mice were separated into 3 groups, control, AD-control (immunized with mite antigens), and AD + UVB-irradiated (immunized with mite antigens and UVB irradiation) groups. The mice of the irradiation group were exposed to 1 kJ/m 2 /day twice a week from 6 to 12 weeks of age. Animals of the control and AD-control groups were shaved, but not irradiated. Results: In the AD + UVB-irradiated group, the atopy score, ear thickness, and total IgE were increased in comparison with the AD-control group. On day 40, the levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 in the spleen lymphocytes were significantly increased compared with the AD-control group, resulting in a marked decrease of the IFN-Γ/IL-4 ratio compared with the AD-control group. In addition, the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and NO X production by peritoneal macrophages were significantly elevated. Conclusion: These results indicate that UVB irradiation promotes the development of AD-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice, with an increased inflammatory response owing to increases of both IgE and NO X . In addition, systemic immune responses to local UVB were observed. It is possible that upstream proteins involved in IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, and NO X production play roles in the UVB-induced inflammatory responses. Our results also suggest that sunlight may aggravate the

  18. Dichotomy in response to indomethacin in uv-C and uv-B induced ultraviolet light inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaglstein, W.H.; Marsico, A.R.

    1975-01-01

    In subjects irradiated with both UV-C and UV-B ultraviolet light (UVL), 10 μg of intradermal indomethacin decreased the redness in all 13 of the UV-B irradiated areas but in only 2 of 13 of the UV-C irradiated areas. Higher doses of intradermal indomethacin (50 μg and 100 μg) decreased the redness produced by UV-C irradiation in 6 subjects. It is suggested that the failure of 10 μg of indomethacin to decrease the redness of the UV-C induced inflammation, while decreasing the redness in the UV-B induced inflammation, is consistent with the possibility that prostaglandins participate in UV-B but not UV-C induced inflammation

  19. Experimental skin carcinoma by UVB application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrada Iftode

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND The aim of this research study was to evaluate the harmful effects at skin level induced by concomitant and repeated exposure to three toxic agents: UVB radiation, DMBA and TPA. MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental mice were divided in thw following groups (n=5 mice/group: group 1 – healthy mice, group 2 – mice exposed to UVB – radiation and topical administration of acetone and group 3 – mice exposed to UVB – radiation and topical application of DMBA and TPA solutions (phase I - double tumor initiation and phase II - tumor promotion. RESULTS Application of these compounds led to the development of skin papilloma and to significant changes in skin parameters. CONCLUSIONS The barrier function of the skin was degraded in UVB exposed mice. DMBA and TPA depended on carcinogens schedule and corelated with skin carcinoma. Graphical abstract: Schematic protocol of experimental skin carcinoma REFERENCES 1. Lee Ja, Ko Jh, Jung Bg, Kim Th, Hong Ji, Park Ys, Lee Bj. Fermented Prunus mume with Probiotics Inhibits 7,12- Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-OTetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate Induced Skin Carcinogenesis through Alleviation of Oxidative Stress. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:2973-2978. 2. Firooz A, Sadr B, Babakoohi S, Sarraf-Yazdy M, Fanian F, Kazerouni-Timsar A, NassiriKashani M, Naghizadeh MM, Dowlati Y. Variation of Biophysical Parameters of the Skin with Age, Gender, and Body Region. Scientific World Journal. 2012; doi.org/10.1100/2012/386936 3. Gheorgheosu (Coricovac D, Borcan F, Balasz NI, Soica C, Simu G, Kemeny L, Dehelean CA. Evaluation of skin parameters in C57BL/6J mice exposed to chemical and environmental factors using non-invasive methods. J Agroalim Proc Technol. 2014;20:14-20.

  20. In vitro study of platelet function confirms the contribution of the ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in the lesions observed in riboflavin/UVB-treated platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abonnenc, Mélanie; Sonego, Giona; Crettaz, David; Aliotta, Alessandro; Prudent, Michel; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2015-09-01

    Platelet inactivation technologies (PITs) have been shown to increase platelet storage lesions (PSLs). This study investigates amotosalen/ultraviolet (UV)A- and riboflavin/UVB-induced platelet (PLT) lesions in vitro. Particular attention is given to the effect of UVB alone on PLTs. Buffy coat-derived PLT concentrates (PCs) were treated with amotosalen/UVA, riboflavin/UVB, or UVB alone and compared to untreated PCs throughout storage. In vitro PLT function was assessed by blood gas and metabolite analyses, flow cytometry-based assays (CD62P, JC-1, annexin V, PAC-1), hypotonic shock response, and static adhesion to fibrinogen-coated wells. In our experimental conditions, riboflavin/UVB-treated PCs showed the most pronounced differences compared to untreated and amotosalen/UVA-treated PCs. The riboflavin/UVB treatment led to a significant increase of anaerobic glycolysis rate despite functional mitochondria, a significant increase of CD62P on Day 2, and a decrease of JC-1 aggregates and increase of annexin V on Day 7. The expression of active GPIIbIIIa (PAC-1) and the adhesion to fibrinogen was significantly increased from Day 2 of storage in riboflavin/UVB-treated PCs. Importantly, we showed that these lesions were caused by the UVB radiation alone, independently of the presence of riboflavin. The amotosalen/UVA-treated PCs confirmed previously published results with a slight increase of PSLs compared to untreated PCs. Riboflavin/UVB-treated PCs present significant in vitro PSLs compared to untreated PCs. These lesions are caused by the UVB radiation alone and probably involve the generation of reactive oxygen species. The impact of these observations on clinical use must be investigated. © 2015 AABB.

  1. Ultraviolet B (UVB) induced DNA damage affects alternative splicing in skin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, M.J.; Nieto Moreno, N.; Kornblihtt, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun that reaches the Earth's surface is a combination of low (UVA, 320-400 nm) and high (UVB, 290-320 nm) energy light. UVB light causes two types of mutagenic DNA lesions: thymine dimers and (6-4) photo-products. UVB mutagenesis is a critical step in the generation of different forms of skin cancer, which develops almost exclusively in sun exposed areas. We have previously shown that RNA polymerase II (pol II) hyperphosphorylation induced by UVC (254 nm) irradiation of non-skin cells inhibits pol II elongation rates which in turn affects alternative splicing (AS) patterns, altering the synthesis of pro- and anti-apoptotic isoforms of key proteins like Bcl-x or Caspase 9 (C9). Since the UVC radiation is fully filtered by the ozone layer and AS regulation in skin pathologies has been poorly studied, we decided to extend our studies to human keratinocytes in culture treated with UVB (302 nm) light. We observed that pol II hyperphosphorylation is increased upon UVB irradiation, being this modification necessary for the observed change in AS of a model cassette exon. Moreover, UVB irradiation induces the proapoptotic mRNA isoforms of Bcl-x and C9 consistently with a key role of AS in skin response to DNA damage. (authors)

  2. Study of hemoglobin response to mid-ultraviolet (UVB) radiation using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. Y.; Li, N.; Zhou, S. N.; Huang, Z. T.; Zhuang, Z. F.

    2017-09-01

    Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is employed to monitor the damage to haemoglobin from mid-ultraviolet (UVB) radiation. We obtained the Raman spectra of an erythrocyte, which indicated that a peroxidation reaction occurs after UVB radiation. Further, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of isolated haemoglobin show that the intensities of the 1375 and 1399 cm-1 bands, which are markers of haem aggregation, obviously increase with prolonged UVB irradiation. This increase reveals that haem aggregation occurs in the peroxidation of erythrocytes. The UV-Vis spectra of isolated haemoglobin indicate that the Soret band, which is indicative of excitonic interactions in the aggregated haems, has a redshift ( 12 nm) after 30 min of UVB irradiation of erythrocytes. It can be deduced that an excitonic interaction occurs in the aggregated haems, which is caused by haemoglobin denaturation following UVB irradiation. In addition, the changes of the Raman marker bands during aggregation primarily originate from excitonic interactions. Throughout the process, a higher UVB radiation dose causes greater damage to haemoglobin.

  3. Effect of UV-B on enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in the cyanobacterium Nostoc calcicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Sinha, R.P.; Häder, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280–315 nm) irradiation on nitrogenase and nitrate reductase (NR) activity have been studied in the filamentous and heterocystous N 2 -fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc calcicola. Exposure of cultures to UV-B (5W/m 2 ) for as little as 30 min caused complete inactivation of nitrogenase activity whereas nitrate reductase activity was stimulated twofold in comparison to one exposed to fluorescent white light. GS activity was also inhibited by UV-B treatment, but there was no total loss of activity even after 4 h. NR activity showed a gradual stimulation up to 4 h and thereafter it became constant. Stimulation was also obtained in reductant deficient cultures (12 h incubation in the dark) suggesting independence of NR of PS-II under UV-B. NR activity was also unaffected in the presence of DCMU, a known inhibitor of PS-II. However, both O 2 evolution and 14 CO 2 uptake were completely abolished following 30 min of UV-B treatment. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol (25 μg/mL) to cultures did not show any inhibitory effect on NR activity. SDS-PAGE analysis of UV-B treated cultures elicited gradual loss of protein bands with increasing duration of exposure. Our findings suggest that UV-B irradiance has differential effects on the enzymes of the nitrogen metabolism in the cyanobacterium Nostoc calcicola. Further studies are needed to reveal the exact mechanism involved in the stimulation of NR activity by UV-B. Whether UV-B has a direct effect on NO 2 − accumulation in the cells needs detailed investigation. (author)

  4. Physiological and growth responses of two African species, Acacia karroo and Themeda triandra, to combined increases in CO2 and UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, S.J.E.; Midgley, G.F.; Musil, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    The interactive effects of increased carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration and ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280–320 nm) radiation on Acacia karroo Hayne, a C 3 tree, and Themeda triandra Forsk., a C 4 grass, were investigated. We tested the hypothesis that A. karroo would show greater CO 2 -induced growth stimulation than T. triandra, which would partially explain current encroachment of A. karroo into C4 grasslands, but that increased UV-B could mitigate this advantage. Seedlings were grown in open-top chambers in a greenhouse in ambient (360 μmol mol -1 ) and elevated (650 μmol mol-1) CO 2 , combined with ambient (1.56 to 8.66 kJ m -2 day -1 ) or increased (2.22 to 11.93 kJ m -2 day -1 ) biologically effective (weighted) UV-B irradiances. After 30 weeks, elevated CO 2 had no effect on biomass of A. karroo, despite increased net CO 2 assimilation rates. Interaction between UV-B and CO 2 on stomatal conductance was found, with conductances decreasing only where elevated CO 2 and UV-B were supplied separately. Increases in water use efficiencies, foliar starch concentrations, root nodule numbers and total nodule mass were measured in elevated CO 2 . Elevated UV-B caused only an increase in foliar carbon concentrations. In T. triandra, net CO 2 assimilation rates were unaffected in elevated CO 2 , but stomatal conductances and foliar nitrogen concentrations decreased, and water use efficiencies increased. Biomass of all vegetative fractions, particularly leaf sheaths, was increased in elevated CO 2 . and was accompanied by increased leaf blade lengths and individual leaf and leaf sheath masses. However, tiller numbers were reduced in elevated CO 2 . Significantly moderating effects of elevated UV-B were apparent only in individual masses of leaf blades and sheaths, and in total sheath and shoot biomass. The direct CO 2 -induced growth responses of the species therefore do not support the hypothesis of CO 2 -driven woody encroachment of C 4 grasslands. Rather, differential

  5. Distinct physiological and metabolic reprogramming by highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivars revealed during long-term UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo Escobar, Ana; Alberdi, Miren; Acevedo, Patricio; Machado, Mariana; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2017-05-01

    Despite the Montreal protocol and the eventual recovery of the ozone layer over Antarctica, there are still concerns about increased levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation in the Southern Hemisphere. UV-B induces physiological, biochemical and morphological stress responses in plants, which are species-specific and different even for closely related cultivars. In woody plant species, understanding of long-term mechanisms to cope with UV-B-induced stress is limited. Therefore, a greenhouse UV-B daily course simulation was performed for 21 days with two blueberry cultivars (Legacy and Bluegold) under UV-B BE irradiance doses of 0, 0.07 and 0.19 W m -2 . Morphological changes, photosynthetic performance, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and metabolic features were evaluated. We found that both cultivars behaved differently under UV-B exposure, with Legacy being a UV-B-resistant cultivar. Interestingly, Legacy used a combined strategy: initially, in the first week of exposure its photoprotective compounds increased, coping with the intake of UV-B radiation (avoidance strategy), and then, increasing its antioxidant capacity. These strategies proved to be UV-B radiation dose dependent. The avoidance strategy is triggered early under high UV-B radiation in Legacy. Moreover, the rapid metabolic reprogramming capacity of this cultivar, in contrast to Bluegold, seems to be the most relevant contribution to its UV-B stress-coping strategy. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Non-photosynthetic mechanisms of growth reduction in pea (Pisum sativum L.) exposed to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Mepsted, R.; Wellburn, A.R.; Paul, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    Pisum sativum cv. Guido grown under controlled environment conditions was exposed to either low or high UV-B radiation (2·2 or 9·9 kJ m –2 d –1 plant-weighted UV-B, respectively). Low or high UV-B was maintained throughout growth (LL and HH treatments, respectively) or plants were transferred between treatments when 22 d old (giving LH and HL treatments). High UV-B significantly reduced plant dry weight and significantly altered plant morphology. The growth and morphology of plants transferred from low to high UV-B were little affected, when compared with those of LL plants. By contrast, plants moved from high to low UV-B showed marked increases in growth when compared with HH plants. This contrast between HL and LH appeared to be related to the effect of UV-B on plant development. Exposure to high UV-B throughout development consistently reduced leaf areas. In fully expanded leaves there was no significant UV-B effect on cell area and reduced leaf area could be attributed to reduced cell number, suggesting effects on leaf primordia. Further reductions in the leaf area of younger leaves were the result of the slower development rate of plants grown at high UV-B, which also resulted in significant reductions in leaf number. (author)

  7. Changes of MMP-1 and collagen type Ialpha1 by UVA, UVB and IRA are differentially regulated by Trx-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, Nicole; Schroeder, Peter; Jakob, Sascha; Kunze, Kerstin; Maresch, Tanja; Calles, Christian; Krutmann, Jean; Haendeler, Judith

    2008-07-01

    Exposure of human skin to solar radiation, which includes ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVA and UVB) visible light and infrared radiation, induces skin aging. The effects of light have been attributed to irradiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, but the specific signaling pathways are not well understood. Detrimental effects of solar radiation are dermal diseases and photoaging. Exposure of cultured human dermal fibroblasts to UVA, UVB or IRA increased ROS formation in vitro. One important redox regulator is the oxidoreductase thioredoxin-1 (Trx). Trx is ubiquitously expressed and has anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties. Besides its function to reduce H(2)O(2), Trx binds to and regulates transcription factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Trx influences the regulation of MMP-1 and collagen Ialpha1 by UVA, UVB and IRA. We irradiated human dermal fibroblasts with UVA, UVB and IRA. UVA, UVB and IRA upregulated MMP-1 expression. Trx inhibited UVA-induced MMP-1 upregulation in a NFkappaB dependent manner. UVA, UVB and IRA reduced collagen Ialpha1 expression. Incubation with Trx inhibited the effects of UVB and IRA on collagen Ialpha1 expression. In conclusion, MMP-1 and collagen Ialpha1, which play important roles in aging processes, seems to be regulated by different transcriptional mechanisms and Trx can only influence distinct signaling pathways induced by UVA, UVB and probably IRA. Thus, Trx may serve as an important contributor to an "anti-aging therapeutic cocktail".

  8. Changes in plasma (hydrocortisone) levels after whole-body irradiation with ultraviolet rays of defined wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    One hour after whole-body irradiation with a radiation source having its maximum of emission in the UVB range, at a radiation dose of 0.44 J/cm 2 , a significant fall in the mean values of the blood plasma hydrocortisone level (p [de

  9. The evolutionary response of plants to increased UV-B radiation: Field studies with Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbull, V.L.; Paige, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    The response of a species to any environmental change is determined by both phenotypic and evolutionary adjustments. To date, the majority of research concerning the response of terrestrial plants to increased UV-B radiation has focused on phenotypic adjustments. Recently we have initiated field studies aimed at assessing genetic variation for UV-B sensitivity within a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana. This population consists of at least eight discrete genotypes that have been confirmed by RAPD analysis. We used an incomplete block design to assess the impact of UV-B (ambient and ambient + 6 kJ) and PAR (low and high) on these genotypes. The high UV-B treatment caused a significant reduction in fruit number and plant height while the high PAR treatment caused a significant increase in these variables. In addition, there was a marginally significant (p=0.1) UV-B x PAR x maternal line interaction for fruit number, indicating that genetic variation for UV-B sensitivity within this population depends on the PAR environment. The combination of high UV-B and high PAR caused a change in fruit number (relative to the ambient UV-B/high PAR treatment) ranging from an increase of 24% to a decrease of 47%. This range was much smaller in the low PAR treatment. These results indicate the potential for increased UV-B radiation to act as an agent of natural selection within this population

  10. The UVR8 UV-B Photoreceptor: Perception, Signaling and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Arongaus, Adriana B.; Binkert, Melanie; Heijde, Marc; Yin, Ruohe; Ulm, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is an intrinsic part of sunlight that is accompanied by significant biological effects. Plants are able to perceive UV-B using the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 which is linked to a specific molecular signaling pathway and leads to UV-B acclimation. Herein we review the biological process in plants from initial UV-B perception and signal transduction through to the known UV-B responses that promote survival in sunlight. The UVR8 UV-B photoreceptor exists as a homodimer that instantly monomerises upon UV-B absorption via specific intrinsic tryptophans which act as UV-B chromophores. The UVR8 monomer interacts with COP1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, initiating a molecular signaling pathway that leads to gene expression changes. This signaling output leads to UVR8-dependent responses including UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and the accumulation of UV-B-absorbing flavonols. Negative feedback regulation of the pathway is provided by the WD40-repeat proteins RUP1 and RUP2, which facilitate UVR8 redimerization, disrupting the UVR8-COP1 interaction. Despite rapid advancements in the field of recent years, further components of UVR8 UV-B signaling are constantly emerging, and the precise interplay of these and the established players UVR8, COP1, RUP1, RUP2 and HY5 needs to be defined. UVR8 UV-B signaling represents our further understanding of how plants are able to sense their light environment and adjust their growth accordingly. PMID:23864838

  11. Prolongation of rat heart allografts by donor-specific blood transfusion treated with ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluwole, S.F.; Iga, C.; Lau, H.; Hardy, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of donor-specific blood transfusion was compared to that of UVB-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion on heart allograft survival in inbred rats with major histocompatibility differences. In one series ACI rats received heterotopic heart grafts from Lewis rats and 1 mL transfusion of donor-type blood at 1, 2, and 3 weeks prior to the transplantation. Fifty percent of the grafts were permanently accepted (survival greater than 200 days). Following UVB-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion, 55% of the grafts survived indefinitely. In a mixed lymphocyte reaction ACI lymphocytes are weak responders to Lewis lymphocytes. In another series, Lewis rats received ACI hearts. Donor-specific transfusions at 1, 2, and 3 weeks prior to transplantation did not significantly alter the survival of heart allografts. Lewis lymphocytes react strongly to ACI stimulator cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. However, when the donor blood was UVB-irradiated prior to transfusion, the ACI allograft survival was significantly prolonged in this ACI-to-Lewis strain combination. When Lewis rats received W/F hearts following either donor-specific or UVB-irradiated donor-specific transfusions, the hearts' survival was similarly and significantly prolonged, but did not become permanent. Mixed lymphocyte reaction reveals that the stimulation index of Lewis lymphocytes against W/F lymphocytes is greater than that of ACI versus Lewis, but is less than that between Lewis responder cells against ACI stimulators

  12. UV-B effect on constituents of Azolla caroliniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Mostafa, Eazaz M

    2007-01-01

    Changes in growth and ultrastructure of Azolla caroliniana in response to elevated UV-B radiation were investigated. Exposure of plants to UV-B radiation for 1, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h exhibited a significant decrease in biomass and relative growth rate. This decrease resulted in an increase in doubling time over the control. Also, Chl a and b contents were significantly decreased especially after 16 h. The reduction was accompanied by a decrease in 5-aminolaevulinic acid content (precursor of chlorophyll). On the other hand, contents of carotenoid and UV-absorbing phenolic compounds (flavonoids and anthocyanins) were increased.

  13. Crosstalk between MAV and MEP pathways in vitro grape plants exposed to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, M.; Bottini, R.; Piccoli, P.; Pontin, M.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of terpenoids from IPP (isopentenyl diphosphate) proceeds in plants throughout two pathways, the MVA (mevalonic acid) in cytosol and the MEP (2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate) in plastids. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation induced the synthesis of terpenes in in vitro grape plants according to the fluence rate. Low intensity UV-B promoted the MVA pathway while high intensity UV-B stimulated the MEP pathway. Mevastatin is known to inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase blocking terpene synthesis in cytosol. In vitro plants growing 45 days under 16 h-photoperiod (100 μmol m - 2 s - 1) were fed at the apex with mevastatin and then exposed to an UV-B dose administrated at two intensities: low UV-B (8.25 μW cm - 2,16 h) or high UV-B (33 μW cm - 2,4 h). Methanol: chloroform extracts were analyzed by GC-EIMS and compared with controls without mevastatin. Levels of γ-Sitosterol and Stigmasterol were significantly increased under low intensity UV-B in the controls. The plants treated with the inhibitor showed a significant decrease of both sterols and a decrease in the plastidial terpenes but sterols were higher under UV-B. These results suggest an IPP crosstalk between the MAV and MEP pathways under restrictive conditions. (authors)

  14. Skin hardening effect in patients with polymorphic light eruption: comparison of UVB hardening in hospital with a novel home UV-hardening device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, S M; Genders, R E; de Gruijl, F R; Rustemeyer, T; Pavel, S

    2013-01-01

    An effective prophylactic treatment of patients with polymorphic light eruption (PLE) consists of repeated low, gradually increasing exposures to UVB radiation. This so-called UV(B) hardening induces better tolerance of the skin to sunlight. SunshowerMedical company (Amsterdam) has developed an UV (B) source that can be used during taking shower. The low UV fluence of this apparatus makes it an interesting device for UV hardening. In a group of PLE patients, we compared the effectiveness of the irradiation with SunshowerMedical at home with that of the UVB treatment in the hospital. The PLE patients were randomized for one of the treatments. The hospital treatment consisted of irradiations with broad-band UVB (Waldmann 85/UV21 lamps) twice a week during 6 weeks. The home UV-device was used each day with the maximal irradiation time of 6 min. The outcome assessment was based on the information obtained from patients' dermatological quality of life (DLQI) questionnaires, the ability of both phototherapies to reduce the provocation reaction and from the patients' evaluation of the long-term benefits of their phototherapies. Sixteen patients completed treatment with SunshowerMedical and thirteen completed treatment in hospital. Both types of phototherapy were effective. There was a highly significant improvement in DLQI with either treatment. In most cases, the hardening reduced or even completely suppressed clinical UV provocation of PLE. The patients using SunshowerMedical at home were, however, much more content with the treatment procedure than the patients visiting the dermatological units. Both treatments were equally effective in the induction of skin tolerance to sunlight in PLE patients. However, the home treatment was much better accepted than the treatment in the hospital. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Nitric oxide-releasing sulindac is a novel skin cancer chemopreventive agent for UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Singh, Tripti; Kapur, Puneet; Weng, Zhiping; Arumugam, Aadithya; Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd, Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) which have been synthesized to reduce gastro-intestinal and cardiovascular toxicities of NSAIDs, possess anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer activities. Here, we show that NO-sulindac inhibited UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice. Topical application of NO-sulindac reduced tumor incidence, number (p < 0.05) and volume (p < 0.005) as compared to UVB (alone)-irradiated vehicle-treated mice. An increase in TUNEL-positive cells in skin lesions was accompanied by the enhanced Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. The expression of pro-apoptotic Bax was increased whereas anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 reduced. However, proliferation was identified as the major target of NO-sulindac in this study. A reduced expression of PCNA and cyclin D1 associated with the dampening of cell cycle progression was observed. The mechanism of this inhibition was related to the reduction in UVB-induced Notch signaling pathway. UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by NO-sulindac as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases Erk1/2, p38 and JNK1/2. In this regard, NO-sulindac also inhibited NFκB by enhancing IκBα as evidenced by the reduced expression of iNOS and COX-2, the direct NFκB transcription target proteins. NO-sulindac significantly diminished the progression of benign lesions to invasive carcinomas by suppressing the tumor aggressiveness and retarding epithelial–mesenchymal transition. A marked decrease in the expression of mesenchymal markers such as Fibronectin, N-cadherin, SNAI, Slug and Twist and an increase in epithelial cell polarity marker E-cadherin were noted in NO-sulindac-treated tumors. Our data suggest that NO-sulindac is a potent inhibitor of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis and acts by targeting proliferation-regulatory pathways. - Highlights: ► NO-sulindac is a potent chemopreventive agent for UVB-induced skin cancer. ► NO

  16. Uv - b irradiation effects on biological activities and cytological behavior of sainfoin (onobrychis viciifolia scop.) grown in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajer, S.; Taha, R. M.; Mohajer, M.; Javan, I. Y.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of UV-B irradiation (312 nm), seeds of Onobrychis viciifolia were exposed to five different intensities for determining the effectiveness of cellular behavior, nutritional constituents and biological activities in In vivo and In vitro growth cultures. The atomic spectroscopy analysis confirmed that concentrations of two macronutrients (P and N) improved after UV-B exposure as compared with control plants. Near infrared radiation conducted on both In vivo and In vitro plants showed significant differences on dry matter digestibility (DMD) and crude fiber (CF). Flavonoid and phenolic compounds were increased in both growth cultures by 40 percentage intensity of UV-B irradiation, although In vitro plants had the higher compounds than intact plants. Increasing the UV-B irradiation intensity was also found to yield positive effect on anthocyanin. Observations on cellular behavior such as determination of nuclear and cell areas, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations were proven to be essential in deducing the effectiveness of UV-B irradiation to induce somaclonal variation in sainfoin. (author)

  17. In situ PCR detection and significance of IL-3 gene expression in irradiated hematopoietic cells of mouse bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Ruiyun; Wang Dewen; Xiong Chengqi; Gao Yabing; Li Yanping; Yang Hong; Cui Yufang

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of endogenous interleukin 3(IL-3) gene expression in repair of irradiated mouse bone marrow. Methods: Seventy-eight LACA mice were subjected to total body irradiation with 60 Co γ-rays and were sacrificed within 4 weeks after irradiation. The bone marrow histopathological sections were stained with HE, and the expression of endogenous IL-3 gene was detected by means of immunocytochemistry,in situ hybridization(ISH) and in situ reverse transcription PCR(IS RT-PCR). Results: Obvious injury of bone marrow occurred after irradiation and then recovered within 4 weeks. IL-3 protein was obviously increased in the cytoplasm of recovering hematopoietic cells(HCs), especially on day 21 after irradiation, while its mRNA was poorly positive by ISH on days 10-21, especially day 15.IS RT-PCR showed that IL-3 mRNA was strongly positive in recovering HCs cytoplasm, especially on days 10 to 15. Conclusion: In situ RT-PCR can objectively reflect the regulation of IL-3 gene expression in bone marrow after irradiation, and the expression of endogenous IL-3 gene may play an important role in hematopoietic reconstruction of irradiated bone marrow

  18. Changes in UV absorption of sunscreens after UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarras-Wahlberg, N.; Stenhagen, G.; Larkö, O.; Rosén, A.; Wennberg, A.-M.; Wennerström, O.

    2000-03-01

    In the present investigation we have studied the change in the absorption spectrum of some photoactive organic species in sunscreens after UVA and UVB irradiation in a dose normally encountered during a full day in the sun. The absorbance of 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate was reduced significantly, while 3-(4-methylbenzyliden)camphor seemed to be rather stable. The benzophenones studied seemed to be relatively stable. In the case of 4-tert.butyl-4´-methoxy-dibenzoylmethane there was a rapid decrease in the UVA absorption leading to unsatisfactory protection in the UVA region. 4-Isopropyl-dibenzoylmethane also lost most of its UV protective capacity after irradiation with UVA. UVB seemed to have a minor effect on all the samples. The present study including gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis indicates that some of the photoactive organic species commonly used today in sunscreens are unstable following UV irradiation.

  19. Improved UV-B screening capacity does not prevent negative effects of ambient UV irradiance on PSII performance in High Arctic plants. Results from a six year UV exclusion study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term responses of ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum in a High Arctic heath ecosystem in Zackenberg, northeast Greenland. Over a period of six years, UV exclusion was conducted in the growing season by means of filters: 60% UV......, exposing the vegetation to high spring UV-B, and to be present in the future to the degree the ozone layer is not fully recovered....

  20. Effects of simulated solar UVB radiation on early developmental stages of the northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile) from three lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, R.D.; Little, E.E.; Pearl, C.A.; Hoffman, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) has received much attention as a factor that could play a role in amphibian population declines. UV can be hazardous to some amphibians, but the resultant effects depend on a variety of environmental and behavioral factors. In this study, the potential effects of UV on the Northwestern Salamander, Ambystoma gracile, from three lakes were assessed in the laboratory using a solar simulator. We measured the survival of embryos and the survival and growth of larvae exposed to four UV treatments in controlled laboratory studies, the UV absorbance of egg jelly, oviposition depths in the lakes, and UV absorbance in water samples from the three lakes. Hatching success of embryos decreased in the higher UV treatments as compared to the control treatments, and growth of surviving larvae was significantly reduced in the higher UVB irradiance treatments. The egg jelly exhibited a small peak of absorbance within the UVB range (290-320 nm). The magnitude of UV absorbance differed among egg jellies from the three lakes. Oviposition depths at the three sites averaged 1.10 m below the water surface. Approximately 66 of surface UVB radiation was attenuated at 10-cm depth in all three lakes. Results of this study indicate that larvae may be sensitive to UVB exposure under laboratory conditions; however, in field conditions the depths of egg deposition in the lakes, absorbance of UV radiation by the water column, and the potential for behavioral adjustments may mitigate severe effects of UV radiation. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  1. Nitrate limitation and ocean acidification interact with UV-B to reduce photosynthetic performance in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Gao, K.; Beardall, J.

    2015-04-01

    It has been proposed that ocean acidification (OA) will interact with other environmental factors to influence the overall impact of global change on biological systems. Accordingly we investigated the influence of nitrogen limitation and OA on the physiology of diatoms by growing the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin under elevated (1000 μatm; high CO2 - HC) or ambient (390 μatm; low CO2 - LC) levels of CO2 with replete (110 μmol L-1; high nitrate - HN) or reduced (10 μmol L-1; low nitrate - LN) levels of NO3- and subjecting the cells to solar radiation with or without UV irradiance to determine their susceptibility to UV radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm). Our results indicate that OA and UVB induced significantly higher inhibition of both the photosynthetic rate and quantum yield under LN than under HN conditions. UVA or/and UVB increased the cells' non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) regardless of the CO2 levels. Under LN and OA conditions, activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were enhanced, along with the highest sensitivity to UVB and the lowest ratio of repair to damage of PSII. HC-grown cells showed a faster recovery rate of yield under HN but not under LN conditions. We conclude therefore that nutrient limitation makes cells more prone to the deleterious effects of UV radiation and that HC conditions (ocean acidification) exacerbate this effect. The finding that nitrate limitation and ocean acidification interact with UV-B to reduce photosynthetic performance of the diatom P. tricornutum implies that ocean primary production and the marine biological C pump will be affected by OA under multiple stressors.

  2. Differences in the sensitivity to UVB radiation of two cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidema, J.; Kang, H.S.; Kumagai, T.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of UVB radiation on the growth of two cultivars of Japanese lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.), Sasanishiki and Norin 1, were examined in a phytotron. Supplementation of visible radiation with UVB radiation reduced plant length, tiller number, the fresh and dry weights of the aboveground parts of plants, an the amounts of total leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll, soluble protein and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) in the eight leaf, the youngest fully expanded leaf. By contrast, UVB radiation significantly increased the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds. There was a difference between the two cultivars in the resistance to the effects of UVB radiation. The reduction in the amounts of Rubisco was smaller in Sasanishiki, while the increase in the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds was greater in Sasanishiki. Parameters of plant growth, with the exception of the amount of Rubisco, decreased in direct proportion to decreases in total leaf nitrogen in plants grown under lower or the Rubisco content of Norin 1 grown under a high dose of UVB radiation was exceptionally marked, and was not observed similarly in Sasanishiki. The results suggest that the remarkable reduction in rubisco content in NOrin 1 might have been due to the specific effects of UVB radiation. It is also suggested that the difference between cultivars in the resistance to UVB radiation might be due to the differences in the levels of Rubisco and in UV-absorbing compounds that are induced by UVB radiation

  3. Significance of endoscopic biopsy after preoperative irradiation therapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiguchi, Nobuhiro; Sarashina, Hiromi; Saito, Norio; Nunomura, Masao; Kohda, Keishi; Nakajima, Nobuyuki (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate the utility of endoscopic biopsy before and after preoperative irradiation therapy for rectal cancer, we examined histologically both biopsy specimens and resected materials of forty-three patients. Two pieces of biopsy materials were taken both before and after irradiation therapy (total dose 42.6 Gy) from the marginal wall of the tumor, cavity and transitional mucosa, respectively. In biopsy specimens, according to the degree of degeneration of cancer cells, cases with remarkable changes of nucleus, nucleolus, and cytoplasm due to irradiation were classified into the severely degenerated group. According to the histological examinations of resected materials, twenty-four cases were under Grade 1b (Gr I), and nineteen cases were over Grade 2 (Gr II). The rates of cancer cells found in biopsy materials after irradiation were 91.7% in Gr I and were 47.4% in Gr II, respectively (p<0.01). Among the cases, 54.5% in Gr I and 100% in Gr II belonged to the severely degenerated group (p<0.05). Transitional mucosas were not greatly damaged by irradiation. As a result, the greater the irradiation effect was, the fewer cancer cells were found and the more degenerated cancer cells were found in biopsy specimens. But the rate of severely degenerated cells found in the biopsy specimens of little effect cases was high. So it was thought to be too difficult to predict the histological radiation effect of resected specimens from only biopsy specimens. (author).

  4. No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblasts after alpha particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Burong; Zhu, Jiayun; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2013-02-01

    A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. After irradiation, chromosomal aberrations of cells were analyzed at designated time points using G2 phase premature chromosome condensation (G2-PCC) coupled with Giemsa staining and with multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH). Our Giemsa staining assay demonstrated that elevated yields of chromatid breaks were induced in the progeny of pure bystander primary fibroblasts up to 20 days after irradiation. mFISH assay showed no significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations were induced in the progeny of the bystander cell groups, while the fractions of gross aberrations (chromatid breaks or chromosomal breaks) significantly increased in some bystander cell groups. These results suggest that genomic instability occurred in the progeny of the irradiation associated bystander normal fibroblasts exclude the inheritable interchromosomal aberration.

  5. Effects of ultraviolet-B irradiation on seedling growth in the Pinaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.H.; Teramura, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Ten conifer species were grown in an unshaded greenhouse at the University of Maryland under 3 levels of biologically effective ultraviolet-B radiation. Ultraviolet-B radiation was supplied by Westinghouse FS-40 sunlamps and effective daily doses were 0, 12.4, and 19.1 kJ m-2. During the irradiation period, seedling growth and the development of stress symptoms were monitored. After 22 weeks of irradiation, seedlings were harvested and morphological characteristics analyzed. Visual symptoms included needle discoloration and stunting in three of the ten species tested. Seedling height was significantly reduced by supplemental UV-B in Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine), Pinus resinosa (red pine), and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Biomass increased in Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce). Abies fraseri (Fraser fir), Pinus edulus (pinyon pine), and Pinus nigra (black pine) were unaffected by UV-B while biomass reductions exceeding 5% were observed in all other species tested. These deleterious effects occurred despite the presence of morphological characteristics which would tend to reduce UV-B effectiveness. Generally, the effects of supplemental UV-B dose were less for those species native to higher elevations, implying the presence of natural adaptations to UV-B

  6. Rapid maize leaf and immature ear responses to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casati, P.; Morrow, D.; Fernandes, J.; Walbot, V.

    2011-01-01

    Plants have evolved adaptations to environmental factors, including solar radiation. In addition to acting as a developmental and physiological signal, UV-B photons also cause cellular damage. Elevated UV-B radiation has pleiotropic effects on plant development, morphology, and physiology, but the regulation of systemic responses is not well-understood. To gain a better understanding of the initial events in UV-B acclimation, we have analyzed a 10min to 1h time course of transcriptome responses in irradiated and shielded leaves, and immature maize ears to unravel the systemic physiological and developmental responses in exposed and shielded organs. To identify metabolites as possible signaling molecules, we looked for compounds that increased within 5-90 min in both irradiated and shielded leaves, to explain the kinetics of profound transcript changes within 1h. We found that myoinositol is one such candidate metabolite, and it also has support from RNA profiling: after 1h UV-B, transcripts for myoinositol-1-phosphate synthase, are decreased in both irradiated and shielded leaves suggesting down-regulation of biogenesis. We also demonstrate that if 0.1mM myoinositol is applied to leaves of greenhouse maize, some metabolites that are changed by UV-B are also changed similarly by the chemical treatment. (author)

  7. The sensitivity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants to UV-B radiation is altered by nitrogen status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Cechin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Interaction effects between nitrogen and UV-B radiation were studied in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. variety IAC-Iarama plants grown in a greenhouse under natural photoperiod conditions. Plants were irradiated with 0.8W m-2 (control or 8.0W m-2 (+UV-B of UV-B radiation for 7h per day. The plants were grown in pots containing vermiculite and watered with 70% of full strength nitrogen-free Long Ashton solution, containing either low (42.3ppm or high (282ppm nitrogen as ammonium nitrate. High nitrogen increased dry matter of stem, leaves and shoot, photosynthetic pigments and photosynthesis (A without any alteration in stomatal conductance (gs nor transpiration (E while it reduced the intercellular CO2 (Ci concentration, and malondialdehyde (MDA content. High UV-B radiation had negative effects on dry matter production, A, gs and E with the effects more marked under high nitrogen, whereas it increased Ci under high nitrogen. Activity of PG-POD was reduced by high UV-B radiation under low nitrogen but it was not changed under high nitrogen. The UV-B radiation increased the MDA content independently of nitrogen level. Results indicate that the effects of UV-B radiation on sunflower plants are dependent of nitrogen supply with high nitrogen making their physiological processes more sensitive to UV-B radiation.

  8. Enhanced UV-B radiation has little effect on growth, delta13C values and pigments of pot-grown rice (Oryza sativa) in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Nouchi, I.; Yoneyama, T.

    1996-01-01

    Predicted increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B: 280–320 mn) radiation may have adverse impacts on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.), as has been found in studies hitherto. However, most of the studies were conducted in growth chambers or greenhouses where the plants are generally more sensitive to UV-B than in the field, presumably because of the distorted balance between UV-B and ultraviolet-A as well as PAR. This study was conducted to address the effects of enhanced UV-B on growth and yield of rice under a realistic spectral balance in the field. Three cultivars, “Koshihikari”,‘IR 45’and‘IR 74’were pot-grown and irradiated with enhanced UV-B for most of the growing season in the field at Tsukuba, Japan (36°01′N, 140°07′E). The UV-B enhancement simulated ca 38% depletion of stratospheric ozone at Tsukuba. The results showed no UV-B effects on plant height, numbers of tillers and panicles, dry weight of the plant parts or the grain yield for any of the 3 cultivars. Natural abundance of 13 C in the flag leaves was not altered by the UV-B enhancement either. While UV-absorbing compounds showed no response to the UV-B enhancement, chlorophyll contents decreased with enhanced UV-B. However, the decrease of chlorophyll was limited to an early growth stage with no effect later. We thus found no extraordinary impact of the nearly doubled UV-B radiation on rice in the field, and it would appear that a reliable prediction of the effects of UV-B will require experiments carried out over a number of years under various climatic and solar UV-B regimes. (author)

  9. UVB pretreatment of rat bone marrow allografts. Prevention of GVHD and induction of allochimerism and donor-specific unresponsiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.A.; Pepino, P.; Wasfie, T.; Stegall, M.D.; Marboe, C.; Hardy, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ultraviolet B irradiation has been used to pretreat blood and islets to prevent subsequent graft rejection. In this study the optimal dose of UVB irradiation of bone marrow was determined in syngeneic recipients and was subsequently applied to in-vitro treatment of bone marrow allografts. UVB pretreatment of donor bone marrow inoculum led to complete prevention of GVHD in allogeneic rat recipients without major marrow or other toxicity. Long-standing recipients of allogeneic UVB-BM became stable adult chimeras. The recipients of allogeneic BM were populated by donor-type peripheral blood lymphocytes and did not reject host or donor-type heart grafts. The BM allograft recipients were immunocompetent as measured by their ability to normally reject third-party cardiac allografts. We suggest that the prevention of GVHD and induction of stable chimerism in adult recipients of allogeneic UVB-BM may be mediated by suppressor mechanisms

  10. UVB pretreatment of rat bone marrow allografts. Prevention of GVHD and induction of allochimerism and donor-specific unresponsiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabot, J.A.; Pepino, P.; Wasfie, T.; Stegall, M.D.; Marboe, C.; Hardy, M.A. (Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Ultraviolet B irradiation has been used to pretreat blood and islets to prevent subsequent graft rejection. In this study the optimal dose of UVB irradiation of bone marrow was determined in syngeneic recipients and was subsequently applied to in-vitro treatment of bone marrow allografts. UVB pretreatment of donor bone marrow inoculum led to complete prevention of GVHD in allogeneic rat recipients without major marrow or other toxicity. Long-standing recipients of allogeneic UVB-BM became stable adult chimeras. The recipients of allogeneic BM were populated by donor-type peripheral blood lymphocytes and did not reject host or donor-type heart grafts. The BM allograft recipients were immunocompetent as measured by their ability to normally reject third-party cardiac allografts. We suggest that the prevention of GVHD and induction of stable chimerism in adult recipients of allogeneic UVB-BM may be mediated by suppressor mechanisms.

  11. The sensitivity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants to UV-B radiation is altered by nitrogen status

    OpenAIRE

    Cechin, Inês; Gonzalez, Gisely Cristina; Corniani, Natália; Fumis, Terezinha de Fátima

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Interaction effects between nitrogen and UV-B radiation were studied in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. variety IAC-Iarama) plants grown in a greenhouse under natural photoperiod conditions. Plants were irradiated with 0.8W m-2 (control) or 8.0W m-2 (+UV-B) of UV-B radiation for 7h per day. The plants were grown in pots containing vermiculite and watered with 70% of full strength nitrogen-free Long Ashton solution, containing either low (42.3ppm) or high (282ppm) nitrogen as ammoniu...

  12. Evaluation of the UVB-screening capacity and restorative effects exerted by farnesol gel on UVB-caused sunburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan Xuan; Huang, Han Hsiang; Chang, Huoy Rou; Kuo, Shyh Ming

    2018-04-01

    Farnesol, a natural 15-carbon organic compound, has various microbiological and cellular activities. It has been found to exert apoptosis-inducing effects against carcinoma cells as well as antiallergic and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. In the current study, a series of formulations composed of various concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with the addition of hyaluronan (HA) and xanthan gum (XG) was designed to evaluate the UVB-screening and H 2 O 2 -eliminating effects of farnesol in normal fibroblasts. Farnesol at 0.005, 0.0075, and 0.01% exhibited significant capacity for H 2 O 2 scavenging; at 0.0025%, it showed insignificant effects. Under 120-min UVB exposure, screening with plural gel composed of 0.0025% farnesol, 0.5% HA, and 0.5% XG containing 1.5% or 2% HPMC retained normal fibroblast viability. After 60-min exposure to UVB, screening with plural gel composed of farnesol, HA, XG, and 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, or 2% HPMC decreased the ratio of the G1 phase and increased ratio of the S phase in comparison with the accumulated cell cycle of the normal fibroblasts without screening. The gel with 2% HPMC displayed the strongest cell cycle-reversal ability. In vivo histopathological results showed that the prepared plural gels with 0.5% or 2% HPMC and farnesol, HA, and XG had greater antiphotoaging and reparative effects against UVB-induced changes and damage in the skin. In conclusion, the current in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that the prepared plural composed of 0.0025% farnesol, 0.5% HA, 0.5% XG, and 2% HPMC possessed the greatest UVB-screening capacity and the strongest restorative effects on UVB-induced sunburned skin. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T; Murata, M; Iwabuchi, N; Odamaki, T; Wakabayashi, H; Yamauchi, K; Abe, F; Xiao, J Z

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative effect on skin photoaging induced by short term UV irradiation, however, the underlying mechanisms and the effect of probiotics on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation in hairless mice. Mice were irradiated with UVB three times weekly and orally administered B. breve B-3 (2×10(9) cfu/mouse /day) for 7 weeks. Nonirradiated mice and UVB-irradiated mice without probiotic treatment were used as controls. B. breve B-3 significantly suppressed the changes of transepidermal water loss, skin hydration, epidermal thickening and attenuated the damage to the tight junction structure and basement membrane induced by chronic UVB irradiation. Administration of B. breve B-3 tended to suppress the UV-induced interleukin-1β production in skin (P=0.09). These results suggest that B. breve B-3 could potentially be used to prevent photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation.

  14. UVA, UVB Light Doses and Harvesting Time Differentially Tailor Glucosinolate and Phenolic Profiles in Broccoli Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Rodríguez, Melissa; Nair, Vimal; Benavides, Jorge; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2017-06-26

    Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting glucosinolate and phenolic compounds that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV). Here, the effect of UVA or UVB radiation on glucosinolate and phenolic profiles was assessed in broccoli sprouts. Sprouts were exposed for 120 min to low intensity and high intensity UVA (UVA L , UVA H ) or UVB (UVB L , UVB H ) with UV intensity values of 3.16, 4.05, 2.28 and 3.34 W/m², respectively. Harvest occurred 2 or 24 h post-treatment; and methanol/water or ethanol/water (70%, v / v ) extracts were prepared. Seven glucosinolates and 22 phenolics were identified. Ethanol extracts showed higher levels of certain glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin, whereas methanol extracts showed slight higher levels of phenolics. The highest glucosinolate accumulation occurred 24 h after UVB H treatment, increasing 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin, glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin by ~170, 78 and 73%, respectively. Furthermore, UVA L radiation and harvest 2 h afterwards accumulated gallic acid hexoside I (~14%), 4- O -caffeoylquinic acid (~42%), gallic acid derivative (~48%) and 1-sinapoyl-2,2-diferulolyl-gentiobiose (~61%). Increases in sinapoyl malate (~12%), gallotannic acid (~48%) and 5-sinapoyl-quinic acid (~121%) were observed with UVB H Results indicate that UV-irradiated broccoli sprouts could be exploited as a functional food for fresh consumption or as a source of bioactive phytochemicals with potential industrial applications.

  15. Photomorphogenic effects of UV-B radiation on plants: consequences for light competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.W.; Ballaré, C.L.; Caldwell, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    A combination of field and labotatory studies were conducted to explore the nature of photomorphogenic effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280–320 nm) on plant morphology and to evaluate the ecological consequences of these alterations in morphology for interspecific competition. Under laboratory conditions, seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) exhibited appreciable (ca. 50%) and rapid (< 3h) inhibition in hypocotyl elongation in response to UV-B exposure. In cucumber, this inhibition was reversible, occurred without any associated changes in dry matter production and was caused by UV-B incident on the cotyledons and not the stem or growing tip. Inhibition of stem elongation in etiolated tomato seedlings occurred at least 3 h prior to the onset of accumulation of UV-absorbing pigments and monochromatic UV supplied against a background of visible radiation revealed maximum effectiveness in inhibition around 300 nm. Collectively, these findings suggest that a specific, but yet unidentified, UV-B photoreceptor is involved in mediating certain morphological responses to UV-B. For mixtures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and wild oat (Avena fatua L.), a common weedy competitor, supplemental UV-B irradiation in the field differentially altered shoot morphology which resulted in changes in canopy structure, light interception and calculated stand photosynthesis. It is argued that, because of its asymmetrical nature, competition for light can potentially amplify the effects of UV-B on shoot morphology and may, therefore, be an important mechanism by which changes in the solar UV-B spectrum associated with stratospheric ozone reduction could alter the composition and character of terrestrial vegetation

  16. Gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions. [prebiotic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Graff, R. L.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions was studied under initially oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions in an attempt to determine the possible interconversion of malic acid into other carboxylic acids, specifically those associated with Krebs cycle. The effect of dose on product formation of the system was investigated. Gas-liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry was used as the principal means of identification of the nonvolatile products. Thin layer chromatography and direct probe mass spectroscopy were also employed. The findings show that a variety of carboxylic acids are formed, with malonic and succinic acids in greatest abundance. These products have all been identified as being formed in the gamma-irradiation of acetic acid, suggesting a common intermediary. Since these molecules fit into a metabolic cycle, it is strongly suggestive that prebiotic pathways provided the basis for biological systems.

  17. Effects of solar UVB radiation on growth, flowering and yield of central and southern European maize cultivars (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, U.; Saile-Mark, M.; Tevini, M.

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.) originating from Central and South Europe were grown from June to September 1994 for 16 weeks in two greenhouses covered with different UVB-absorbing (280-320 nm) plastic foils. Using the ambient UVB radiation level of a southern location (Portugal, 38.7 o N) in one of the greenhouses as an enhanced radiation compared to the reduced radiation in the second greenhouse, an increase of about 12% of UVB was simulated. Six of the eight cultivars examined showed significant reductions in height of up to 18.9% at all developmental stages under increased UVB. In contrast to this, the fresh and dry weight as well as the leaf area was reduced under UVB only at early developmental stages, but with ongoing development the UVB stressed plants caught up. The total content of absorbing compounds of the maize cultivars was completely unaffected by UVB. A flowering delay up to a maximum of 5 days was observed under higher UVB in several cultivars. Probably due to this delay in the cob development the yield decreased to 27.7% under higher UVB at the first harvest after 12 and 14 weeks, whereas at the second harvest after 14 and 16 weeks yield reduction levelled off. (Author)

  18. Antioxidant Responses Induced by UVB Radiation in Deschampsia antarctica Desv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Köhler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Deschampsia antarctica Desv. is one of two vascular plants that live in the Maritime Antarctic Territory and is exposed to high levels of ultraviolet-B (UVB radiation. In this work, antioxidant physiology of D. antarctica was studied in response to UVB induced oxidative changes. Samples were collected from Antarctica and maintained in vitro culture during 2 years. Plants were sub-cultured in a hydroponic system and exposed to 21.4 kJ m-2 day-1, emulating summer Antarctic conditions. Results showed rapid and significant increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS at 3 h, which rapidly decreased. No dramatic changes were observed in photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content, and level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (MDA. The enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD and total peroxidases, POD and non-enzymatic antioxidant activity (total phenolic increased significantly in response to UVB treatment. These findings suggest that tolerance of D. antarctica to UVB radiation could be attributed to its ability to activate both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems.

  19. Trichome density and its UV-B protective potential are affected by shading and leaf position on the canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liakoura, V.; Stefanou, M.; Manetas, Y.; Cholevas, C.; Karabourniotis, G.

    1997-01-01

    In Olea europaea trichome density and UV-B absorbing compounds of leaf hairs and the lamina proper of leaves located in south-facing, north-facing and the internal of the canopy were positively correlated to the UV-B midday instant irradiance measured in September at these three different positions of the canopy. The correlation between these three parameters and the receiving photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), however, was weaker. In Quercus ilex, trichome density and its UV-B absorbing capacity were considerably higher in the exposed, south-facing leaves, compared to the deeply shaded ones; the UV-B absorbing capacity of the de-haired lamina, however, was the same. In the broad-leaved, alpine rosette of Verbascum speciosum, one could distinguish two areas on the leaves, one exposed and one shaded by the superimposed lamina. Although trichome density and the UV-B absorbing compounds of the de-haired leaf were the same in the two areas, the UV-B absorbing capacity of hairs was considerably increased in the exposed region. In V. speciosum, exposure induced also qualitative changes in the UV-B absorbance profile, apparently due to the formation of new flavonoid compounds absorbing maximally at 345–350 nm. In all other cases, the differences were mainly quantitative. The results support the postulate of a function of leaf hairs as a UV-B radiation screen and suggest that trichome density and/or its UV-B absorbing capacity may depend on irradiance during leaf development

  20. Recovery Effects of Oral Administration of Glucosylceramide and Beet Extract on Skin Barrier Destruction by UVB in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Tokudome

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purified glucosylceramide from beet extract (beet GlcCer and beet extract containing an equal amount of GlcCer were administered orally to ultra violet B (UVB-irradiated mice, and differences in the protective effects against skin barrier dysfunction caused by UVB irradiation were compared. In the beet GlcCer group, epidermal thickening and the decrease in stratum corneum (SC ceramide content caused by UVB irradiation were reduced. In the group that was orally administered beet extract containing glucosylceramide, effects similar to those in the beet GlcCer group were observed. Oral administration of beet GlcCer had no obvious effects against an increase in TEWL or decrease in SC water content after UVB irradiation, but there was improvement in the beet extract group. Oral administration of beet GlcCer is effective in improving skin barrier function in UVB-irradiated mice. Beet extract contains constituents other than GlcCer that are also effective in improving skin barrier function.

  1. He-Ne laser treatment improves the photosynthetic efficiency of wheat exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huize; Han, Rong

    2014-01-01

    The level of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on the Earth’s surface has increased due to depletion of the ozone layer. Here, we explored the effects of continuous wave He-Ne laser irradiation (632 nm, 5 mW mm –2 , 2 min d –1 ) on the physiological indexes of wheat seedlings exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation (10 KJ m –2 d –1 ) at the early growth stages. Wheat seedlings were irradiated with enhanced UV-B, He-Ne laser treatment or a combination of the two. Enhanced UV-B radiation had deleterious effects on wheat photosynthesis parameters including photosystem II (chlorophyll content, Hill reaction, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, electron transport rate (ETR), and yield), the thylakoid (optical absorption ability, cyclic photophosphorylation, Mg 2+ -ATPase, and Ca 2+ -ATPase) and some enzymes in the dark reaction (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), carbonic anhydrase (CA), malic dehydrogenase (MDH), and chlorophyllase). These parameters were improved in UV-B-exposed wheat treated with He-Ne laser irradiation; the parameters were near control levels and the enzyme activities increased, suggesting that He-Ne laser treatment partially alleviates the injury caused by enhanced UV-B irradiation. Furthermore, the use of He-Ne laser alone had a favourable effect on seedling photosynthesis compared with the control. Therefore, He-Ne laser irradiation can enhance the adaptation capacity of crops. (paper)

  2. Biological responses of two soybean cultivars exposed to enhanced UVB radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Surney, S.J.; Tschaplinski, T.J.; Edwards, N.T.; Shugart, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    A UVB exposure and monitoring system has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Global Climate Change Research Facility. The system consists of a power supply, and data acquisition and exposure equipment to accomplish controlled, elevated exposure of terrestrial plants to UVB. Plant biomass, selected compounds that absorb UV radiation, and DNA integrity/damage were measured for two soybean cultivars [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Forrest and Essex exposed to elevated UVB (32% above ambient) in this system. The biomass of each major plant organ was observed to be less in soybean cultivar Forrest upon exposure to enhanced UVB with the greatest response in seed pods and stems. In contrast, soybean cultivar Essex showed no biomass response to elevated UVB. Enhanced UVB caused significant (P < 0.1) changes in concentrations of UV-absorbing compounds in both soybean cultivars. The Essex cultivar had an increase in UV-absorbing compounds, whereas a decline was observed for soybean Forrest. There was a decrease in the integrity of DNA, as measured by strand breaks, from both cultivars at 30 and 52 days to exposure. DNA pyrimidine dimers in isolated plant DNA were measured with Micrococcus luteus UV endonuclease. DNA from soybean Forrest exposed to UVB and sampled at 30 and 52 days of exposure had significantly greater (P<0.05) pyrimidine dimer concentration (dimer frequency ≈ 1 dimer per 28,000 DNA bases) than either cultivar exposed to UV treatment for 1 day or Essex at days 30–52 (dimer frequencies < /1 per 120,000 bases of DNA). Decrease in DNA integrity and biomass production in Forrest under elevated UVB may be related to the inability to maintain high concentrations of UV-absorbing compounds in leaves. The tolerant cultivar Essex increased the concentration of UV-absorbing compounds while maintaining biomass production and DNA integrity under elevated UVB

  3. UVB shielding role of FeCl{sub 3} and certain cyanobacterial pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.; Tyagi, M.B.; Srinivas, G.; Singh, N.; Kumar, H.D. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany; Sinha, R.P. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany]|[Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet, Erlangen (Germany). Institut fuer Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie; Haeder, D.P. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet, Erlangen (Germany). Institut fuer Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie

    1996-08-01

    The shielding role of ferric iron (FeCl{sub 3}) and certain cyanobacterial pigments (a brown-colored pigment from Scytonema hofmanii culture filtrate and a pink extract from Nostoc spongiaeforme) against UVB-induced damage in the filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum has been demonstrated. Addition of these colored compounds to agarose gels (1-3 mm thick) resulted in a considerable decrease in UVB transmittance through the gels. The lowest UVB transmittance (15%) occurred through a 3 mm gel containing 0.01% FeCl{sub 3}, followed by S. hofmanii culture filtrate (40%) and N. spongiaeforme extract (50%). These substances appear to act as very efficient UVB-absorbing screens. Percent survival and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} uptake of N. muscorum increased significantly if UVB exposure was given on gels containing FeCl{sub 3} or other UVB-shielding substances. The highest protection of N. muscorum was recorded with FeCl{sub 3}, followed by S. hofmanii culture filtrate and N. spongiaeforme extract. Such UV-shielding substances if present in required concentration range may enhance the survival of cyanobacteria exposed to high levels of UVB. (author).

  4. UVB shielding role of FeCl3 and certain cyanobacterial pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Tyagi, M.B.; Srinivas, G.; Singh, N.; Kumar, H.D.; Sinha, R.P.; Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet, Erlangen; Haeder, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    The shielding role of ferric iron (FeCl 3 ) and certain cyanobacterial pigments (a brown-colored pigment from Scytonema hofmanii culture filtrate and a pink extract from Nostoc spongiaeforme) against UVB-induced damage in the filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum has been demonstrated. Addition of these colored compounds to agarose gels (1-3 mm thick) resulted in a considerable decrease in UVB transmittance through the gels. The lowest UVB transmittance (15%) occurred through a 3 mm gel containing 0.01% FeCl 3 , followed by S. hofmanii culture filtrate (40%) and N. spongiaeforme extract (50%). These substances appear to act as very efficient UVB-absorbing screens. Percent survival and 14 CO 2 uptake of N. muscorum increased significantly if UVB exposure was given on gels containing FeCl 3 or other UVB-shielding substances. The highest protection of N. muscorum was recorded with FeCl 3 , followed by S. hofmanii culture filtrate and N. spongiaeforme extract. Such UV-shielding substances if present in required concentration range may enhance the survival of cyanobacteria exposed to high levels of UVB. (author)

  5. Interleukin 1 gene expression in cultured human keratinocytes is augmented by ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupper, T.S.; Chua, A.O.; Flood, P.; McGuire, J.; Gubler, U.

    1987-01-01

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a family of polypeptides initially found to be produced by activated monocytes and macrophages that mediate a wide variety of cellular responses to injury and infection. Epidermal epithelial cells (keratinocytes) produce ''epidermal cell-derived thymocyte activating factor'' or ETAF, which has been recently shown to be identical to IL-1. Human epidermis is normally exposed to significant amounts of solar ultraviolet radiation. Certain ultraviolet wavelengths (UVB, 290-320 nm) are thought to be responsible for most of the immediate and long-term pathological consequences of excessive exposure to sunlight. In this study, we asked whether exposure to UVB irradiation induced IL-1 gene expression in cultured human keratinocytes. Cultured human keratinocytes contain detectable amounts of IL-1 alpha and beta mRNA and protein in the absence of apparent stimulation; these levels could be significantly enhanced 6 h after exposure to 10 ng/ml of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Exposure to UVB irradiation with an emission spectrum comparable to that of sunlight (as opposed to that of an unfiltered artificial UV light source) significantly increased the steady state levels IL-1 alpha and beta mRNA in identical populations of human keratinocytes. This was reflected in the production of increased IL-1 activity by these cultures in vitro. In the same cell population, exposures to UVB irradiation did not alter the level of actin mRNA; therefore, the effect of UV irradiation on IL-1 represents a specific enhancement of IL-1 gene expression. Local increases of IL-1 may mediate the inflammation and vasodilation characteristic of acute UVB-injured skin, and systemic release of this epidermal IL-1 may account for fever, leukocytosis, and the acute phase response seen after excessive sun exposure

  6. Effect of ultraviolet irradiation on mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikai, K.; Danno, K.; Horio, T.; Narumiya, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of UV irradiation on the skin was investigated in (WB-W/+) X (C57BL/6J-Wv/+)F1-W/Wv mice, which are genetically deficient in tissue mast cells. Their congenic littermates (+/+) and normal albino mice (ICR or BALB/c) were used as controls. Mice were irradiated with 500 mJ/cm2 of UVB and the increment of ear thickness was measured before and 6, 12, and 24 h after irradiation. Ear swelling in W/Wv mice at 12 and 24 h after irradiation was significantly smaller than that in +/+ and ICR mice. In contrast, the number of sunburn cells formed 24 h after UVB irradiation (200 or 500 mJ/cm2) was similar in W/Wv, +/+ and ICR mice. On the other hand, when mice were treated with 8-methoxy-psoralen (0.5%) plus UVA irradiation (4 J/cm2) (topical PUVA), ears of W/Wv and BALB/c mice, which were both white in color, were thickened similarly 72 h after treatment, but less swelling was observed in +/+ mice, which were black in skin color. The amount of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in ears, determined by radioimmunoassay specific for PGD2, was elevated 3-fold in +/+ and ICR mice at 3 h after irradiation with 500 mJ/cm2 of UVB in comparison with basal level without irradiation. However, such elevation was not observed in W/Wv mice. These results suggest that mast cells play an important role in UVB-induced inflammation, and PGs from mast cells are responsible at least in part for the development of this reaction. However, neither mast cells nor PGs contribute to the sunburn cell formation and ear swelling response by PUVA treatment

  7. Impact of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic assimilation of 14C-bicarbonate and inorganic 15N-compounds by cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler, G.; Biermann, I.; Zink, J.

    1986-01-01

    The cyanobacteria Anabaena cylindrica and Synechococcus leopoliensis (=Anacystis nidulans) were grown at different levels of UV-B radiation (439, 717, 1230 and 1405 J m -2 d -1 , weighted according Caldwell, 1971) for 2 days. Dry weight was hardly affected but phycocyanin content of both species decreased linearly to the level of UV-B radiation. Contents of protein, carotenoids and chlorophyll a were reduced only after exposure to high doses (1230 J m -2 d -1 ) of UV-B radiation. Photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation of Anabaena cells was reduced linearly with increasing UV-B dose whereas no effect could be observed in Synechococcus. A depression of photosynthetic 15 N-nitrate uptake was found after UV-B stress in both species. UV-B irradiance caused an increase of 15 N-incorporation into glutamine, but no effect was noted for incorporation into alanine or aspartic acid. An increase of 15 N-excess in glutamic acid linear with the UV-B dose was observed in Synechococcus, only. Patterns of 14 C-labelled photosynthetic products were either less affected by UV-B radiation (Anabaena) or an enhancement of 14 C-label in total amino acids was detected (Synechococcus). The amount of total free amino acids increased parallel to the level of UV-B radiation. Only, the high dose of UV-B (1405 J m -2 d -1 , weighted) results in a decrease of the glutamine pool. Our results indicate an inhibition of glutamate synthase by UV-B irradiation in Anabaena, only. Results were discussed with reference to the damage of the photosynthetic apparatus. (orig.)

  8. Influence of UV-B radiation on developmental changes, ethylene, CO2 flux and polyamines in cv. Doyenne d'Hiver pear shoots grown in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predieri, S.; Krizek, D.T.; Wang, C.Y.; Mirecki, R.M.; Zimmerman, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    In vitro shoots of cv. Doyenne d'Hiver pear (Pyrus communis L.) were irradiated under controlled environments for 6 h per day at 5 different levels of biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B BE ). UV-B exposure caused a progressive increase in apical necrosis above background levels and stimulated leaf abscission. Shoots grown for 2 weeks at 7. 8 mol m −2 day −1 of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) and treated with 8. 4 or 12. 0 kJ m −2 day −1 UV-B BE produced up to 4 times more ethylene than those given 2. 2 or 5. 1 kJ m −2 day −1 UV-B BE or untreated controls. Exposure of shoots to 12 kJ m −2 day −1 of UV-BBE caused an increase in free putreseine content after 4 to 14 days of irradiation. Shoots showed a decrease in CO2 uptake after 3 days of UV-B: thereafter, they appeared to recover their photosynthetic capacity. Under typical PPF conditions used in micropropagation (90 μmol m −2 s −1 ). 8. 4 kJ m −2 day −1 of UV-B radiation was injurious to realatively tender tissues of in vitro pear shoots: increasing the level of UV-B BE to 12 kJ m −2 day −1 produced even more adverse effects. (author)

  9. UV-B inhibition of hypocotyl growth in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is a consequence of cell cycle arrest initiated by photodimer accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biever, Jessica J.; Brinkman, Doug; Gardner, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important constituent of sunlight that determines plant morphology and growth. It induces photomorphogenic responses but also causes damage to DNA. Arabidopsis mutants of the endonucleases that function in nucleotide excision repair, xpf-3 and uvr1-1, showed hypersensitivity to UV-B (280–320nm) in terms of inhibition of hypocotyl growth. SOG1 is a transcription factor that functions in the DNA damage signalling response after γ-irradiation. xpf mutants that carry the sog1-1 mutation showed hypocotyl growth inhibition after UV-B irradiation similar to the wild type. A DNA replication inhibitor, hydroxyurea (HU), also inhibited hypocotyl growth in etiolated seedlings, but xpf-3 was not hypersensitive to HU. UV-B irradiation induced accumulation of the G2/M-specific cell cycle reporter construct CYCB1;1-GUS in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings that was consistent with the expected accumulation of photodimers and coincided with the time course of hypocotyl growth inhibition after UV-B treatment. Etiolated mutants of UVR8, a recently described UV-B photoreceptor gene, irradiated with UV-B showed inhibition of hypocotyl growth that was not different from that of the wild type, but they lacked UV-B-specific expression of chalcone synthase (CHS), as expected from previous reports. CHS expression after UV-B irradiation was not different in xpf-3 compared with the wild type, nor was it altered after HU treatment. These results suggest that hypocotyl growth inhibition by UV-B light in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings, a photomorphogenic response, is dictated by signals originating from UV-B absorption by DNA that lead to cell cycle arrest. This process occurs distinct from UVR8 and its signalling pathway responsible for CHS induction. PMID:24591052

  10. Impacts of UVB radiation on food consumption of forest specialist tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, James Eduardo Lago; Dos Santos, Caroline Peripolli; Segatto, Ana Lúcia Anversa; Passaglia Schuch, André

    2017-09-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) is an important environmental stressor for amphibian populations due to its genotoxicity, especially in early developmental stages. Nonetheless, there is an absence of works focused on the UVB effects on tadpoles' food consumption efficiency. In this work, we investigated the effects of the exposure to a low environmental-simulated dose of UVB radiation on food consumption of tadpoles of the forest specialist Hypsiboas curupi [Hylidae, Anura] species. After UVB treatment tadpoles were divided and exposed to a visible light source or kept in the dark, in order to indirectly evaluate the efficiency of DNA repair performed by photolyases and nucleotide excision repair (NER), respectively. The body mass and the amount of food in tadpoles' guts were verified in both conditions and these data were complemented by the micronuclei frequency in blood cells. Furthermore, the keratinized labial tooth rows were analyzed in order to check for possible UVB-induced damage in this structure. Our results clearly show that the body weight decrease induced by UVB radiation occurs due to the reduction of tadpoles' food consumption. This behavior is directly correlated with the genotoxic impact of UVB light, since the micronuclei frequency significantly increased after treatments. Surprisingly, the results indicate that photoreactivation treatment was ineffective to restore the food consumption activity and body weight values, suggesting a low efficiency of photolyases enzymes in this species. In addition, UVB treatments induced a higher number of breaks in the keratinized labial tooth rows, which could be also associated with the decrease of food consumption. This work contributes to better understand the process of weight loss observed in tadpoles exposed to UVB radiation and emphasizes the susceptibility of forest specialist amphibian species to sunlight-induced genotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultraviolet irradiation in transplantation biology. Manipulation of immunity and immunogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeg, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation, particularly in the UVB range, has profound effects on immunological mechanisms. Optimum and tolerable doses of exposure vary from species to species, and from organ to organ. As a result of limited depth penetration and possibly significant energy absorption in nontargeted cells, every model requires diligent determination of an effective nontoxic approach. Nevertheless, it is clear that UVB and UVC irradiation can abolish proliferative and stimulatory ability as well as accessory/antigen-presenting ability of leukocytes in vitro. UV treatment alters cell-surface properties, calcium mobilization, cytokine production and release, and other subcellular processes. Preliminary data suggest that these manipulations also suppress immunity and reduce immunogenicity in vivo. Exposure of solid organs and of large volumes of blood is difficult due to technical problems--in particular poor depth penetration and absorption of UV energy in generally available transfusion bags. 111 references

  12. Radiobiologic significance of apoptosis and micronucleation in quiescent cells within solid tumors following γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Suzuki, Minoru; Kinashi, Yuko; Takagaki, Masao

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency of apoptosis in quiescent (Q) cells within solid tumors following γ-ray irradiation, using four different tumor cell lines. In addition, to assess the significance of detecting apoptosis in these cell lines. Methods and Materials: C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII or FM3A tumors, Balb/c mice bearing EMT6/KU tumors, and C57BL mice bearing EL4 tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously for 5 days via implanted mini-osmotic pumps to label all proliferating (P) cells. The mice then received γ-ray irradiation at a dose of 4-25 Gy while alive or after tumor clamping. Immediately after irradiation, the tumors were excised, minced, and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions thus obtained were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker), and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (=Q cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, 6 hours after irradiation, tumor cell suspensions obtained in the same manner were fixed. The apoptosis frequency in Q cells was also determined with immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN and apoptosis frequency in total (P+Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. Results: In total cells, SCC VII, FM3A, and EMT6/KU cells showed reasonable relationships between MN frequency and surviving fraction (SF). However, fewer micronuclei were induced in EL4 cells than the other cell lines. In contrast, a comparatively close relationship between apoptosis frequency and SF was found in total cells of EL4 cell line. Less apoptosis was observed in the other cell lines. Quiescent tumor cells exhibited significantly lower values of MN and apoptosis frequency probably due to their large hypoxic fraction, similar to total tumor cells on clamped irradiation. Conclusion: γ-ray irradiation induced MN formation in SCC VII, FM3A, and EMT6/KU tumor cells, and the apoptosis was marked in EL4 cells compared with

  13. Distribution of haptoglobin types and their significance for changes in biochemical and immunological parameters of people irradiated at small doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tel'nov, V.I.; Vologodskaya, I.A.; Zhuntova, G.V.

    1995-01-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphism and its significance for changes in biochemical and immunological parameters was analyzed in personnel of a nuclear plant receiving doses of external and internal irradiation close to maximum permissible levels. The distribution of Hp types and frequencies of alleles Hp in the group of probands as a whole (1-1, 14.1; 2-1, 49.2%; and 2-2, 36.7%) and in probands subjected to different types and doses of irradiation (1-1, 13.6 - 16.0%; 2-1, 47.8 - 50.5%; and 2-2, 35.8 - 38.2%) did not differ from those expected or from corresponding parameters of the control group and population. An increase in the frequency of allele Hp 1 was observed for persons over 60 years of age. It was found that the levels of uric acid, the activities of acid phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and its isozymes, and the content of certain lymphocyte classes and immune complexes are initially higher in carriers of Hp type 1-1. In these probands, changes in certain parameters related to irradiation were observed less frequently. In some cases, opposite changes in immunological parameters were observed in persons with different Hp types after internal irradiation. 23 refs., 6 tabs

  14. Evaluating the combined effects of pretilachlor and UV-B on two Azolla species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Kumar, Sushil; Parihar, Parul; Singh, Anita; Singh, Rachana

    2016-03-01

    The present study assessed the comparative responses of two agronomic species of Azolla (A.microphylla and A. pinnata) exposed to man-made and natural stressors by evaluating biomass accumulation, pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid contents), photosynthetic activity and nitrogen metabolism. The study was carried out in field where two species of Azolla were cultured and treated with various concentrations (5, 10 and 20 μg ml(-1)) of herbicide; pretilachlor [2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N-(2-propoxyethyl) acetanilide] and enhanced levels (UV-B1: ambient +2.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1) and UV-B2: ambient +4.4 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) of UV-B, alone as well as in combination. Biomass accumulation, photosynthetic pigments; chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, photosynthetic oxygen yield and photosynthetic electron transport activities i.e. photosystem II (PS II) and photosystem I (PS I) in both the species declined with the increasing doses of pretilachlor and UV-B radiation, which further declined when applied in combination. The lower doses (5 and 10 μg ml(-1)) of pretilachlor and UV-B (UV-B1 and UV-B2) alone, damaged mainly the oxidation side of PS II, whereas higher dose (20 μg ml(-1)) of pretilachlor alone and in combination with UV-B1 and UV-B2 caused damage to PS II reaction centre and beyond this towards the reduction side. A significant enhancement in respiration was also noticed in fronds of both the Azolla species following pretilachlor and UV-B treatment, hence indicating strong damaging effect. The nitrate assimilating enzymes - nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase and ammonium assimilating enzymes - glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase were also severely affected when treated either with pretilachlor and/or UV-B while glutamate dehydrogenase exhibited a stimulatory response. The study suggests that both the species of Azolla showed considerable damage under pretilachlor and UV-B treatments alone, however, in combination the effect was more intense. Further, in

  15. Response of antioxidant defense system to laser radiation apical meristem of Isatis indigotica seedlings exposed to UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ping

    2009-07-01

    To determine the response of antioxidant defense system to laser radiation apical meristem of Isatis indigotica seedlings, Isatis indigotica seedlings were subjected to UV-B radiation (10.08 kJ m(-2)) for 8 h day(-1) for 8 days (PAR, 220 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and then exposed to He-Ne laser radiation (633 nm; 5.23 mW mm(-2); beam diameter: 1.5 mm) for 5 min each day without ambient light radiation. Changes in free radical elimination systems were measured, the results indicate that: (1) UV-B radiation enhanced the concentration of Malondialdahyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in seedlings compared with the control. The concentration of MDA was decreased and the activities of SOD, CAT and POD were increased when seedlings were subjected to elevated UV-B damage followed by laser; (2) the concentration of UV absorbing compounds and proline were increased progressively with UV-B irradiation, laser irradiation and He-Ne laser irradiation plus UV-B irradiation compared with the control. These results suggest that laser radiation has an active function in repairing UV-B-induced lesions in seedlings.

  16. UVB and its global variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Because of geographic differences in ozone distributions and the noncircular orbit of the earth about the sun, the biologically damaging UV is at least 10-15% greater at Southern mid-latitudes than at Northern mid-latitudes. Model calculations show that at mid latitudes, biologically damaging UV should have increased 5-10% from the depletions in global ozone in the 1980s. UVB levels experienced in New Zealand are 1.5 times greater than those at compared latitudes in Europe. The larger than expected difference is due mainly to a build up of tropospheric ozone in Europe (author). 8 refs., 1 fig

  17. Low-dose ultraviolet-B irradiation of donor corneal endothelium and graft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dana, M.R.; Olkowski, S.T.; Ahmadian, H.; Stark, W.J.; Young, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    Donor rabbit corneal endothelium was pretreated with different doses of ultraviolet (UV-B) irradiation (302 nm) before grafting to test whether allograft survival could be favorably affected in comparison with untreated corneas grafted into the same recipients. Endothelial rejection was observed in 19 of 32 (59%) eyes that received no treatment compared with five of 32 (16%) eyes that received UV-B (P less than 0.001), and increasing doses of UV-B were associated with lower rejection rates (P less than 0.05). Although exposure of donor endothelium significantly reduced endothelial rejection at all doses tested, it resulted in primary graft failure in a substantial proportion of corneas treated at high doses. Class II (Ia) antigen staining of corneal tissue was present in conjunction with clinical evidence of rejection, and the magnitude of staining correlated with the histologic extent of inflammation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed various endothelial cell surface irregularities and membrane defects in high-dose UV-treated corneas. Endothelial cell cultures exposed in vitro to UV-B light showed a dose-dependent loss in cell viability. These data suggest that UV-B pretreatment of donor corneal endothelium prolongs graft survival but that toxic side effects must be carefully controlled

  18. Interference of silibinin with IGF-1R signalling pathways protects human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells from UVB-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weiwei; Otkur, Wuxiyar; Li, Lingzhi; Wang, Qiong; He, Hao; Zang, Linghe; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Tashiro, Shin-ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Xia, Mingyu; Ikejima, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silibinin protects A431 cells from UVB irradiation-induced apoptosis. ► Up-regulation of the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways by UVB induces cell apoptosis. ► Silibinin inhibits IGF-1R pathways to repress caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet B (UVB) from sunlight is a major cause of cutaneous lesion. Silibinin, a traditional hepatic protectant, elicits protective effects against UVB-induced cellular damage. In A431 cells, the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was markedly up-regulated by UVB irradiation. The activation of the IGF-1R signalling pathways contributed to apoptosis of the cells rather than rescuing the cells from death. Up-regulated IGF-1R stimulated downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). The subsequent activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 led to apoptosis. The activation of IGF-1R signalling pathways is the cause of A431 cell death. The pharmacological inhibitors and the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting IGF-1R suppressed the downstream activation of JNK/ERK-caspases to help the survival of the UVB-irradiated A431 cells. Indeed, silibinin treatment suppressed the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways and thus protected the cells from UVB-induced apoptosis

  19. Penetration of UV-B radiation in foliage: evidence that the epidermis behaves as a non-uniform filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, T.A.; Martin, G.; Vogelmann, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    In some plants, particularly herbaceous species, a considerable proportion of incident ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) penetrates into the leaf mesophyll where it is potentially damaging to nucleic acids and the photosynthetic machinery. We used optical techniques to look at the spatial variation in UV-B penetration through the epidermis of foliage of two herbaceous species (Chenopodium album and Smilacina stellata) and a conifer (Picea pungens). Measurements of UV-B penetration in intact foliage with a fibre-optic microprobe revealed that 300 nm radiation reached 161±36μm (mean±SD) into leaves of C. album, 154±40μm in S. stellata and 17±2μm in P. pungens, with epidermal transmittance being 39±14%, 55±19% and 0%, respectively. A thin polymer film was developed which fluoresced blue when irradiated by UV-B. Fresh epidermal leaf peels were placed over the film and irradiated with UV-B, and microscopic examination of the film from below allowed us to determine the spatial pattern of UV-B penetration through the epidermis. In herbaceous species, film fluorescence below cell walls, but not epidermal and guard cell protoplasts indicated that UV-B transmittance was much greater through anticlinal cell wall regions than protoplasts. Ultraviolet-B transmittance through large areas of epidermal cells could be induced by plasmolysis. Epidermal transmittance was also relatively high through stomal pores (and what appear to be nuclei in Smilacina), but relatively low through stomatal guard cells. Results from the fluorescing film technique were substantiated by direct measurements of UV-B transmittance through epidermal peels with a fibre-optic microprobe run paradermally along the bottom or inner side of irradiated peels. In Smilacina, we estimate that UV-B epidermal transmittance was up to 90% through anticlinal cell wall regions, but <10% through protoplast areas. In contrast to herbaceous species, we did not detect any UV-B transmittance through the

  20. Diurnal changes in CN metabolism and response of rice seedlings to UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyejin; Lim, Sunhyung; Kim, Yangmin X; Lee, Yejin; Lee, Seulbi; Lee, Deogbae; Park, Keewoong; Sung, Jwakyung

    2018-03-13

    Plants regulate a number of primary metabolites, including carbohydrates, organic acids, and amino acids, in response to UV-B radiation. Therefore, it is essential to understand the time-dependent response of rice plants to UV-B stress. This study focused on the response of plants to UV-B at different leaf developmental phases (emerging, growing, and maturing) in an attempt to fully comprehend the metabolic shift. We analyzed the expression levels of genes related to starch/sucrose metabolism in the leaf blades of rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. "Saechuchenog") exposed to UV-B irradiation for short (1 day) and long terms (5 days) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We also examined the diurnal variations in the contents of primary metabolites using an established GCTOF-MS (gas chromatography time of flight-mass spectrometry) method. The results showed that the levels of primary metabolites were largely dependent upon the diurnal rhythm and leaf developmental phase. The young leaves (sink) produced and accumulated starch rather than sucrose. The short-term (4 h, 1 day) UV-B exposure inhibited sucrose synthesis, which could be the first target of UV-B radiation. Following short- and long-term (5 days) exposure to UV-B radiation, the dynamic response of primary metabolites was evaluated. It was found that the content of carbohydrates decreased throughout the period of exposure to UV-B stress, especially in terms of sucrose concentration. However, the content of the majority of amino acids increased after an early decrease. Our data revealed that the metabolic response, as well as the gene expression, differed with the period (intensity) of exposure to UV-B radiation and with the phase of leaf development. These findings provide new insights for a better understanding of the metabolic response of a variety of plant species exposed to a wide range of UV-B radiation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. An extract of Polygonum multiflorum protects against free radical damage induced by ultraviolet B irradiation of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Hwang

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the incidence of ultraviolet B (UVB-related skin problems has been increasing. Damages induced by UVB radiation are related to mutations that occur as a result of direct DNA damage and/or the production of reactive oxygen species. We investigated the anti-oxidant effects of a Polygonum multiflorum thumb extract against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation. Female SKH-1 hairless mice were divided into three groups: control (N = 7, distilled water- (N = 10, and P. multiflorum extract-treated (PM, N = 10 groups. The PM (10 g was extracted with 100 mL distilled water, cryo-dried and 9.8 g was obtained. The animals received a topical application of 500 µL distilled water or PM extract (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16%, w/v, dissolved in distilled water for 30 min after UVB irradiation (wavelength 280-320 nm, 300 mJ/cm²; 3 min of the dorsal kin for 14 days, and skin immunohistochemistry and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 activity were determined. SOD1 immunoreactivity, its protein levels and activities in the skin were significantly reduced by 70% in the distilled water-treated group after UVB irradiation compared to control. However, in the PM extract-treated groups, SOD1 immunoreactivity and its protein and activity levels increased in a dose-dependent manner (1-16%, w/v, PM extract compared to the distilled water-treated group. SOD1 protein levels and activities in the groups treated with 8 and 16%, w/v, PM extract recovered to 80-90% of the control group levels after UVB. These results suggest that PM extract strongly inhibits the destruction of SOD1 by UV radiation and probably contains anti-skin photoaging agents.

  2. Cell-type-specific roles for COX-2 in UVB-induced skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    In human tumors, and in mouse models, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels are frequently correlated with tumor development/burden. In addition to intrinsic tumor cell expression, COX-2 is often present in fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells of the tumor microenvironment, and in infiltrating immune cells. Intrinsic cancer cell COX-2 expression is postulated as only one of many sources for prostanoids required for tumor promotion/progression. Although both COX-2 inhibition and global Cox-2 gene deletion ameliorate ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced SKH-1 mouse skin tumorigenesis, neither manipulation can elucidate the cell type(s) in which COX-2 expression is required for tumorigenesis; both eliminate COX-2 activity in all cells. To address this question, we created Cox-2 flox/flox mice, in which the Cox-2 gene can be eliminated in a cell-type-specific fashion by targeted Cre recombinase expression. Cox-2 deletion in skin epithelial cells of SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + mice resulted, following UVB irradiation, in reduced skin hyperplasia and increased apoptosis. Targeted epithelial cell Cox-2 deletion also resulted in reduced tumor incidence, frequency, size and proliferation rate, altered tumor cell differentiation and reduced tumor vascularization. Moreover, Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + papillomas did not progress to squamous cell carcinomas. In contrast, Cox-2 deletion in SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox; LysMCre + myeloid cells had no effect on UVB tumor induction. We conclude that (i) intrinsic epithelial COX-2 activity plays a major role in UVB-induced skin cancer, (ii) macrophage/myeloid COX-2 plays no role in UVB-induced skin cancer and (iii) either there may be another COX-2-dependent prostanoid source(s) that drives UVB skin tumor induction or there may exist a COX-2-independent pathway(s) to UVB-induced skin cancer. PMID:24469308

  3. Psoriasis treatment: faster and long-standing results after bathing in geothermal seawater. A randomized trial of three UVB phototherapy regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysteinsdóttir, Jenna Huld; Ólafsson, Jón Hjaltalín; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Lúðvíksson, Björn Rúnar; Sigurgeirsson, Bárður

    2014-02-01

    The combination of seawater baths and narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) is a known treatment for psoriasis. This study evaluates two treatment regimens that combine bathing in geothermal seawater and NB-UVB therapy in comparison with NB-UVB monotherapy. Sixty-eight psoriasis patients were randomly assigned to outpatient bathing in geothermal seawater combined with NB-UVB therapy three times a week, intensive daily treatment involving bathing in geothermal seawater combined with NB-UVB therapy, or NB-UVB therapy alone three times a week; treatment period was 6 weeks. Disease severity [Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and Lattice System Physician's Global Assessment scores], quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index) and histological changes were evaluated before, during and after treatment. The primary end point was the proportion of patients who achieved PASI 75 at 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the percentage of patients who achieved PASI 75 and PASI 90 was significantly greater for both regimens, bathing in geothermal seawater three times a week (68.1% and 18.2%, respectively) and intensive treatment with geothermal seawater (73.1% and 42.3%, respectively) than for NB-UVB monotherapy (16.7% and 0%, respectively) (P seawater combined with NB-UVB therapy in psoriasis induces faster clinical and histological improvement, produces longer remission time and permits lower NB-UVB doses than UVB therapy alone. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Biochemical and ultrastructural changes in pollen of Zea mays L. grown under enhanced UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.; Almeida, J.M.; Santos, I.; Salema, R.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on the development of the male gametophyte was studied in Zea mays L. cv. LG12 grown in a growth chamber under PAR light supplemented with UV-B radiation and compared with a second set of plants grown under PAR light. Pollen samples collected from both groups of plants were cultured on germination medium and it was found that UV-B had no effect on pollen germination. Total pollen protein content was not affected but UV-B absorbing pigments increased. Some ultrastructural alterations were observed in pollen and pollen tubes, in particular large amounts of electron dense deposits were seen throughout the cytoplasm and in association with the pollen wall. In mature spikes of UV-B treated plants, anthers retained numerous pollen grains in their loculi while anthers of control plants were almost empty. UV-B treatment delayed flowering by 2±3 d. These results show that UV-B treatment of maize plants interferes with flowering, pollen ultrastructure and anther maturation even though pollen germination is unaffected. The significant increase of UV-B absorbing pigments in pollen grains could represent a defence mechanism that enables plants to complete their reproductive cycle. (author)

  5. The influence of enhanced UV-B radiation on Batrachium trichophyllum and Potamogeton alpinus -- aquatic macrophytes with amphibious character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germ, Mateja; Mazej, Zdenka; Gaberscik, Alenka; Häder, Donat P

    2002-02-01

    The responses of two amphibious species, Batrachium trichophyllum and Potamogeton alpinus to different UV-B environments were studied. Plant material from natural environments, as well as from outdoor treatments was examined. In long-term outdoor experiments plants were grown under three different levels of UV-B radiation: reduced and ambient UV-B levels, and a UV-B level simulating 17% ozone depletion. The following parameters were monitored: contents of total methanol soluble UV-absorbing compounds and chlorophyll a, terminal electron transport system (ETS) activity and optimal and effective quantum yield of photosystem II. No effect of the different UV-B levels on the measured parameters was observed. The amount of UV-B absorbing compounds seems to be saturated, since no differences were observed between treatments and no increase was found in peak season, when natural UV-B levels were the highest. Physiological measurements revealed no harmful effects; neither on potential and actual photochemical efficiency, nor on terminal ETS activity. The contents of UV-B absorbing compounds were examined also in plant material sampled in low and high altitude environments during the growth season. Both species exhibited no seasonal dynamics of production of UV-absorbing compounds. The contents were variable and showed no significant differences between high and low altitude populations.

  6. High-fat diet exacerbates inflammation and cell survival signals in the skin of ultraviolet B-irradiated C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeran, Syed M.; Singh, Tripti; Nagy, Tim R.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation induced by chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases. We formulated the hypothesis that a high-fat diet may influence the UV-induced inflammatory responses in the skin. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet or control diet and exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm 2 ) three times/week for 10 weeks. The mice were then sacrificed and skin and plasma samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. We found that the levels of inflammatory biomarkers were increased in the UVB-exposed skin of the mice fed the high-fat diet than the UVB-exposed skin of the mice fed the control diet. The levels of inflammatory biomarkers of early responses to UVB exposure (e.g., myeloperoxidase, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin-E 2 ), proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser 473 ) were higher in high-fat-diet-fed mouse skin than control-diet-fed mouse skin. The plasma levels of insulin growth factor-1 were greater in the UVB-irradiated mice fed the high-fat diet than the UVB-irradiated mice fed the control diet, whereas the levels of plasma adiponectin were significantly lower. This pronounced exacerbation of the UVB-induced inflammatory responses in the skin of mice fed a high-fat diet suggests that high-fat diet may increase susceptibility to inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  7. UVB-induced systemic immunosuppression: role of mast cells and histamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, P.H.; Grimbaldeston, M.A.; Finlay-Jones, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: UVB radiation (290-320 nm) is immunosuppressive by multiple mechanisms allowing the outgrowth of UV-induced tumours in both mouse and man. Furthermore, patients with non-melanoma skin cancers have a higher risk of death from other cancers which could be explained by UV-induced immunomodulation. The mechanism(s) of suppression by UVB depend on whether the sensitising antigen is applied to the irradiated site ('local') or to non-irradiated sites ('systemic'). In the former, the activity of UV-induced TNFα is important as it affects the migration of Langerhans cells to draining lymph nodes. In contrast, histamine from dermal mast cells is critical to the early events by which UVB can suppress systemic immune responses. The prevalence of dermal mast cells in 7 strains and substrains of mice correlates directly with their susceptibility to UVB-induced systemic immunosuppression. Furthermore, mast cell depleted mice (Wf/Wf) are resistant to UVB-induced systemic immunomodulation. However, they become susceptible after reconstitution of the site to be irradiated with bone marrow derived mast cell precursors. The mice also gain susceptibility to cis-urocanic acid-induced systemic immunomodulation. There is considerable evidence that histamine is the mast cell product critical to downstream immunosuppressive events. Firstly, physiological concentrations of histamine suppress contact hypersensitivity responses. Secondly, histamine receptor antagonists halve UVB-induced systemic immunosuppression. Thirdly, mice with different UVB-susceptibilities are equally susceptible to histamine-induced immunosuppression, and finally, histamine can suppress contact hypersensitivity responses in Wf/Wf mice. We suggest that histamine may be immunomodulatory by multiple pathways. Histamine can induce the production of immunosuppressive prostanoids from keratinocytes. A lymphocyte-derived, histamine-induced suppressor factor was reported in the 1970's. More recently histamine has

  8. ER signaling is activated to protect human HaCaT keratinocytes from ER stress induced by environmental doses of UVB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mera, Kentaro; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Tada, Ko-ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro; Kanekura, Takuro

    2010-01-01

    Proteins are folded properly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Various stress such as hypoxia, ischemia and starvation interfere with the ER function, causing ER stress, which is defined by the accumulation of unfolded protein (UP) in the ER. ER stress is prevented by the UP response (UPR) and ER-associated degradation (ERAD). These signaling pathways are activated by three major ER molecules, ATF6, IRE-1 and PERK. Using HaCaT cells, we investigated ER signaling in human keratinocytes irradiated by environmental doses of ultraviolet B (UVB). The expression of Ero1-Lα, an upstream signaling molecule of ER stress, decreased at 1-4 h after 10 mJ/cm 2 irradiation, indicating that the environmental dose of UVB-induced ER stress in HaCaT cells, without growth retardation. Furthermore, expression of intact ATF6 was decreased and it was translocated to the nuclei. The expression of XBP-1, a downstream molecule of IRE-1, which is an ER chaperone whose expression is regulated by XBP-1, and UP ubiquitination were induced by 10 mJ/cm 2 UVB at 4 h. PERK, which regulates apoptosis, was not phosphorylated. Our results demonstrate that UVB irradiation generates UP in HaCaT cells and that the UPR and ERAD systems are activated to protect cells from UVB-induced ER stress. This is the first report to show ER signaling in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

  9. Thread Embedding Acupuncture Inhibits Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Photoaging in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Jung Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thread embedding acupuncture (TEA is an acupuncture treatment applied to many diseases in Korean medical clinics because of its therapeutic effects by continuous stimulation to tissues. It has recently been used to enhance facial skin appearance and antiaging, but data from evidence-based medicine are limited. To investigate whether TEA therapy can inhibit skin photoaging by ultraviolet B (UVB irradiation, we performed analyses for histology, histopathology, in situ zymography and western blot analysis in HR-1 hairless mice. TEA treatment resulted in decreased wrinkle formation and skin thickness (Epidermis; P=0.001 versus UV in UVB irradiated mice and also inhibited degradation of collagen fibers (P=0.010 versus normal by inhibiting proteolytic activity of gelatinase matrix-metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. Western blot data showed that activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK induced by UVB (P=0.002 versus normal group was significantly inhibited by TEA treatment (P=0.005 versus UV with subsequent alleviation of MMP-9 activation (P=0.048 versus UV. These results suggest that TEA treatment can have anti-photoaging effects on UVB-induced skin damage by maintenance of collagen density through regulation of expression of MMP-9 and related JNK signaling. Therefore, TEA therapy may have potential roles as an alternative treatment for protection against skin damage from aging.

  10. Response of oxidative stress defense systems in rice (Oryza sativa) leaves with supplemental UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Q.; Yan, B.; Huang, S.; Liu, X.; Peng, S.; Miranda, M.L.L.; Chavez, A.Q.; Vergara, B.S.; Olszyk, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280–320 nm) on membrane systems and lipid peroxidation, and possible involvement of active oxygen radicals was investigated in leaves of two UV-B susceptible rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L. cvs IR74 and Dular). Rice seedlings were grown in a greenhouse for 10 days and then treated with biologically effective UV-B (UV-B BE ) radiation for 28 days. Oxidative stress effects were evaluated by measuring superoxide anion (O 2 ) generation rate, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and relative electrolyte conductivity (EC) for IR74 and Dular at 0 (control), 6 or 13 kJ m −2 day −1 UV-B BE . Significant increases in these parameters were found in rice plants grown at 13 vs 0 kJ m −2 day −1 UV-B BE after 28 days; indicating that disruption of membrane systems may be an eventual reason for UV-B-induced injury in rice plants. There was a positive correlation between O 2 − generation and increases in EC or MDA in leaves. Activities of enzymatic and nonenzymatic free radical scavengers were measured for IR74 after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of exposure to 13 or 0 UV-B BE to evaluate dynamics of these responses over time. Activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (but not ascorbate peroxidase) and concentrations of ascorbic acid and glutathione were enhanced by 13 vs 0 UV-B BE after 14 days of UV-B exposure. Further exposure to 28 days of UV-B was associated with a decline in enzyme activities and ascorbic acid, but not glutathione. It is suggested that UV-B-induced injury may be associated with disturbance of active oxygen metabolism through the destruction and alteration of both enzymatic and nonenzymatic defense systems in rice. (author)

  11. The protective roles of TiO2 nanoparticles against UV-B toxicity in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-09-01

    Aquatic environments are increasingly under environmental stress due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and potential inputs of nanoparticles with intense application of nanotechnology. In this study, we investigated the interaction between UV-B radiation and titanium nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs) in a model freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. UV-B toxicity to Daphnia magna was examined when the daphnids were exposed to a range of TiO 2 -NPs concentrations with an initial 5 or 10min of 200μW/cm 2 UV-B radiation. In addition, UV-B toxicity was also examined in the presence of TiO 2 -NPs in the body of daphnids. Our results demonstrated that the daphnid mortality under UV-B radiation decreased significantly in the presence of TiO 2 -NPs both in the water and in the body, indicating that TiO 2 -NPs had some protective effects on D. magna against UV-B. Such protective effect was mainly caused by the blockage of UV-B by TiO 2 -NPs adsorption. UV-B produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the water and in the daphnids, which was not sufficient to cause mortality of daphnids over short periods of radiation. Previous studies focused on the effects of TiO 2 -NPs on the toxicity of total UV radiation, and did not attempt to differentiate the potential diverse roles of UV-A and UV-B. Our study indicated that TiO 2 -NPs may conversely protect the UV-B toxicity to daphnids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Different levels of UV-B resistance in Vaccinium corymbosum cultivars reveal distinct backgrounds of phenylpropanoid metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo Escobar, Ana; Magnum de Oliveira Silva, Franklin; Acevedo, Patricio; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2017-09-01

    UV-B radiation induces several physiological and biochemical effects that can influence regulatory plant processes. Vaccinium corymbosum responds differently to UV-B radiation depending on the UV-B resistance of cultivars, according to their physiological and biochemical features. In this work, the effect of two levels of UV-B radiation during long-term exposure on the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and the expression of genes associated with flavonoid biosynthesis as well as the absolute quantification of secondary metabolites were studied in two contrasting UV-B-resistant cultivars (Legacy, resistant and Bluegold, sensitive). Multivariate analyses were performed to understand the role of phenylpropanoids in UV-B defense mechanisms. The amount of phenylpropanoid compounds was generally higher in Legacy than in Bluegold. Different expression levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes for both cultivars were transiently induced, showing that even in longer period of UV-B exposure; plants are still adjusting their phenylpropanoids at the transcription levels. Multivariate analysis in Legacy indicated no significant correlation between gene expression and the levels of the flavonoids and phenolic acids. By contrast, in the Bluegold cultivar higher number of correlations between secondary metabolite and transcript levels was found. Taken together, the results indicated different adjustments between the cultivars for a successful UV-B acclimation. While the sensitive cultivar depends on metabolite adjustments to respond to UV-B exposure, the resistant cultivar also possesses an intrinsically higher antioxidant and UV-B screening capacity. Thus, we conclude that UV-B resistance involves not only metabolite level adjustments during the acclimation period, but also depends on the intrinsic metabolic status of the plant and metabolic features of the phenylpropanoid compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of different levels of UV-B radiation on marine epilithic communities: a short-term microcosm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Danilov

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Epilithic communities from brackish coastal water of the east coast of Sweden were studied in order to reveal their responses to different levels of UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted for seven days in an indoor microcosm system. The epilithic communities were exposed daily to different doses of UV-B radiation: 1, 3, 5 and 7 hours, respectively. The intensity of the UV-B radiation used was similar to that in natural environments. After seven days clear shifts both in species composition and community structure were observed. All species of diatoms showed negative correlation with enhanced levels of UV-B. On the other hand, abundance of cyanobacteria was positively correlated with enhanced levels of UV-B (Calothrix aeruginea, R=0.49;Oscillatoria amphibia, R=0.93; Pseudanabaena mucicola, R=0.26. Communities dominated by diatoms and green algae at the initial stage of the experiment did show a drastic decrease in diatom abundance under UV-B stress and finally became dominated by cyanobacteria. Among green algae the abundance of Cladophora sericea correlated positively (R=0.33 with enhanced exposure to UV-B, while Monoraphidium-species exhibited negative correlation to UV-B. Otherwise, no significant correlation between other green algae species identified and UV-B stress could be detected. We conclude that UV-B radiation, even at lower levels, is capable to induce severe changes to marine epilithic communities. The trends revealed in the present study predict a shift from communities dominated by diatoms and green algae to those dominated by cyanobacteria.

  14. Beneficial effects of solar UV-B radiation on soybean yield mediated by reduced insect herbivory under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Carlos A; Giménez, Patricia I; Kantolic, Adriana G; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2013-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B: 280-315 nm) has damaging effects on cellular components and macromolecules. In plants, natural levels of UV-B can reduce leaf area expansion and growth, which can lead to reduced productivity and yield. UV-B can also have important effects on herbivorous insects. Owing to the successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol, current models predict that clear-sky levels of UV-B radiation will decline during this century in response to ozone recovery. However, because of climate change and changes in land use practices, future trends in UV doses are difficult to predict. In the experiments reported here, we used an exclusion approach to study the effects of solar UV-B radiation on soybean crops, which are extensively grown in many areas of the world that may be affected by future variations in UV-B radiation. In a first experiment, performed under normal management practices (which included chemical pest control), we found that natural levels of UV-B radiation reduced soybean yield. In a second experiment, where no pesticides were applied, we found that solar UV-B significantly reduced insect herbivory and, surprisingly, caused a concomitant increase in crop yield. Our data support the idea that UV-B effects on agroecosystems are the result of complex interactions involving multiple trophic levels. A better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate the anti-herbivore effect of UV-B radiation may be used to design crop varieties with improved adaptation to the cropping systems that are likely to prevail in the coming decades in response to agricultural intensification. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  15. Significant prolongation of hamster liver transplant survival in Lewis rats by total-lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine, and splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Halperin, E.C.; Harland, R.C.; Wyble, C.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine and splenectomy alone and in combination have been studied in liver transplants from the LVG hamster to the LEW rat. Neither CsA alone, splenectomy alone, nor TLI alone prolonged graft survival. CsA/splenectomy and TLI/CsA produced significant prolongation of graft survival. TLI/CsA/splenectomy prolonged graft survival by over sixfold compared with controls. While CsA alone was ineffective in reducing lymphocytotoxic antidonor antibody, splenectomy alone or CsA/splenectomy did significantly suppress production of antibody. Only very low levels of antibody could be detected in animals treated with TLI/CsA/splenectomy. TLI/CsA/splenectomy has an immunosuppressive effect sufficient to significantly prolong liver graft survival in the LVG hamster to LEW rat combination and may represent a promising treatment protocol in experimental cross-species transplantation

  16. The effect of cold stress on UVB injury in mouse skin and cultured keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Toshiaki; Hanada, Katsumi; Hashimoto, Isao

    1996-01-01

    The effect of cold stress on skin damage caused by UVB irradiation was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Ear skin of mice that had been exposed to cold stress at 0 o C for 20 min and at 5 o C for 24 h was exposed to UVB radiation. Sunburn cell production was less in mice exposed to the lower temperature. In addition, the effect of cold stress on the survival rate of UVB-irradiated rat keratinocytes was examined in a cytoxicity test, with the results showing that keratinocytes exposed to cold stress of 0 o C had a higher survival rate than control cells. To pursue a promising clue for explaining the result, we examined metallothionein (MT) production in rat keratinocytes that had been exposed to cold stress at 0 o C. Microfluorometric quantification showed a positive correlation between the time course and the intensity of immunofluorescence for MT, indicating that the molecule is inducible by exposure to cold stress in our experimental system. These results suggest that epidermal cells that have been exposed to cold stress maintain a higher resistance to UV radiation than nonexposed controls in vivo and in vitro, and that MT with radical-scavenging activity might contribute, at least in part, to photoprotection against UVB-induced oxidative damage in mammalian skin. (Author)

  17. The effect of cold stress on UVB injury in mouse skin and cultured keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Toshiaki; Hanada, Katsumi; Hashimoto, Isao [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-12-01

    The effect of cold stress on skin damage caused by UVB irradiation was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Ear skin of mice that had been exposed to cold stress at 0{sup o}C for 20 min and at 5{sup o}C for 24 h was exposed to UVB radiation. Sunburn cell production was less in mice exposed to the lower temperature. In addition, the effect of cold stress on the survival rate of UVB-irradiated rat keratinocytes was examined in a cytoxicity test, with the results showing that keratinocytes exposed to cold stress of 0{sup o}C had a higher survival rate than control cells. To pursue a promising clue for explaining the result, we examined metallothionein (MT) production in rat keratinocytes that had been exposed to cold stress at 0{sup o}C. Microfluorometric quantification showed a positive correlation between the time course and the intensity of immunofluorescence for MT, indicating that the molecule is inducible by exposure to cold stress in our experimental system. These results suggest that epidermal cells that have been exposed to cold stress maintain a higher resistance to UV radiation than nonexposed controls in vivo and in vitro, and that MT with radical-scavenging activity might contribute, at least in part, to photoprotection against UVB-induced oxidative damage in mammalian skin. (Author).

  18. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of two Syrian crops; wheat (Triticum durum desf. var. Horani) and broad beans field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.; Mohammed, A.

    1998-01-01

    Wheat and broad beans were exposed, under field conditions, to a daily UVB of 20 % above the ambient UVB. The plant height, tiller number, number of flowers, spikletes, dry weight and leaf area in both species showed positive responses to UVB treatment. At harvest, the seeds weight of broad beans was virtually equal in exposed and unexposed plants. In wheat, seeds yield increased significantly by 15 %. In conclusion, broad beans can be considered as a tolerant cultivar to enhanced UVB, while wheat is more tolerant. (Author)

  19. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of two Syrian crops, wheat (Triticum durum desf. var. horani) and broad beans (Vicia Faba L.) under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    Wheat and broad beans were exposed, under field conditions, to a daily UVB of 20 % above the ambient UVB. The plant height, tiller number, number of flowers, spikletes, dry weight and leaf area in both species showed positive responses to UVB treatment. At harvest, the seeds weight of broad beans was virtually equal in exposed and unexposed plants. In wheat, seeds yield increased significantly by 15 %. In conclusion, broad beans can be considered as a tolerant cultivar to enhanced UVB, while wheat is more tolerant. (Author). 17 Tabs. 36 Refs

  20. UVB radiation and New Zealand agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.

    1993-01-01

    UV has variable effects on plant growth and yields. Over 300 species have been screened for UVB sensitivity, and over half showed sensitivity. In some cases, UV has been shown to reduce yields of some varieties while having little effect or even increasing the yields of others. These experiments included a wide variety of important crop plants (eg wheat, soybean, trees, (conifers) etc). The data show that selective breeding might be used to improve UVB tolerance of various important species. (author)

  1. Nuclear DNA damage-triggered NLRP3 inflammasome activation promotes UVB-induced inflammatory responses in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Nakashima, Masaya; Suzuki, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight can result in DNA damage and an inflammatory reaction of the skin commonly known as sunburn, which in turn can lead to cutaneous tissue disorders. However, little has been known about how UV-induced DNA damage mediates the release of inflammatory mediators from keratinocytes. Here, we show that UVB radiation intensity-dependently increases NLRP3 gene expression and IL-1β production in human keratinocytes. Knockdown of NLRP3 with siRNA suppresses UVB-induced production of not only IL-1β, but also other inflammatory mediators, including IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α, and PGE_2. In addition, inhibition of DNA damage repair by knockdown of XPA, which is a major component of the nucleotide excision repair system, causes accumulation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. In vivo immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that NLRP3 expression is also elevated in UV-irradiated human epidermis. Overall, our findings indicate that UVB-induced DNA damage initiates NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to release of various inflammatory mediators from human keratinocytes. - Highlights: • UVB radiation induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human keratinocytes. • NLRP3 knockdown suppresses production of UVB-induced inflammatory mediators. • UVB-induced DNA damage triggers NLRP3 inflammasome activation. • NLRP3 expression in human epidermis is elevated in response to UV radiation.

  2. Nuclear DNA damage-triggered NLRP3 inflammasome activation promotes UVB-induced inflammatory responses in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuya, E-mail: tatsuya.hasegawa@to.shiseido.co.jp; Nakashima, Masaya; Suzuki, Yoshiharu

    2016-08-26

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight can result in DNA damage and an inflammatory reaction of the skin commonly known as sunburn, which in turn can lead to cutaneous tissue disorders. However, little has been known about how UV-induced DNA damage mediates the release of inflammatory mediators from keratinocytes. Here, we show that UVB radiation intensity-dependently increases NLRP3 gene expression and IL-1β production in human keratinocytes. Knockdown of NLRP3 with siRNA suppresses UVB-induced production of not only IL-1β, but also other inflammatory mediators, including IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α, and PGE{sub 2}. In addition, inhibition of DNA damage repair by knockdown of XPA, which is a major component of the nucleotide excision repair system, causes accumulation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. In vivo immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that NLRP3 expression is also elevated in UV-irradiated human epidermis. Overall, our findings indicate that UVB-induced DNA damage initiates NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to release of various inflammatory mediators from human keratinocytes. - Highlights: • UVB radiation induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human keratinocytes. • NLRP3 knockdown suppresses production of UVB-induced inflammatory mediators. • UVB-induced DNA damage triggers NLRP3 inflammasome activation. • NLRP3 expression in human epidermis is elevated in response to UV radiation.

  3. Effects of UV-B radiation and water stress on gas exchange of soybeans under two different nitrogen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.M.; Forseth, I.N.

    1993-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic destruction of stratospheric ozone, UV-B radiation is projected to increase in the near future. Other potential global climate changes in temperature and precipitation patterns raise the need for research into plant responses to multiple environmental stresses. The objective of this study was to document UV-B and water stress effects on gas exchange of soybean (Glycine max Merr.) under two nitrogen levels. Two soybean cultivars differing in sensitivity to UV-B were tested at fluence rates of 19.1 or 8.5 kJ m -2 day -1 (enhance and natural levels of UV-B, respectively). Measurements of photosaturated CO 2 uptake at ambient CO 2 (A). stomatal conductance. photosaturated O 2 evolution at saturating CO 2 (A max ), long term water use efficiency (using δ 13 C), and nitrogen fixation (using 15 N) were performed. No significant treatment effects on A could be detected. However A max was significantly increased, and stomatal conductance reduced (p<0.01) by increased UV-B at all levels of water and nitrogen for both cultivars, suggesting a stronger stomal limitation of photosynthesis under UV-B. Water and nitrogen use efficiency also decreased under increased UV-B in both cultivars (p<0.01)

  4. A morphological and cytological study of Petunia hybrida exposed to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staxén, I.; Bornmann, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cytoskeleton, and in particular the microtubular system, is affected by enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B (280–320 nm, 9 kJ m −2 day −1 biologically effective UV-B radiation) radiation in epidermal cells of Petunia x hybrida Vilm, isolated from leaves of plants grown under UV-B radiation and visible light. In addition, morphological changes during development were monitored. In a previous study microtubules were depolymerized and delays in the different stages of the cell cycle were found when protoplasts of Petunia were irradiated with UV-B radiation (Staxén et al. 1993. Protoplasma 173: 70–76). Thus it was of interest to ascertain whether the cytoskeleton would be similarly affected in an intact system. Assuming an effect of UV-B radiation on the microtubular system, we wished to determine whether this could be correlated to concomitant changes in leaf morphology. Plants of Petunia hybrida were grown in greenhouse conditions in the presence or absence of UV-B radiation. During the course of the experiment, samples were taken from young, expanding leaves and from older, fully expanded leaves and prepared for localization and analysis of microtubules from the adaxial epidermal cells. Morphology rather than the cytoskeleton was affected by UV radiation, despite the fact that the epidermal cytoskeleton would most likely be affected, since it is located in the cells which form the first intercepting layer for incident radiation. Morphological changes under UV-B radiation, as compared to those under control conditions, were reflected in earlier flowering and an increase in leaf number. Cell division was thus stimulated as was also evidenced from the increased leaf area. Our results indicate that the number of stomata differentiated on a leaf area basis was not altered although the number of stomata per epidermal cell was reduced. (author)

  5. Inhibition of Cartilage Acidic Protein 1 Reduces Ultraviolet B Irradiation Induced-Apoptosis through P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Yinghong Ji; Xianfang Rong; Dan Li; Lei Cai; Jun Rao; Yi Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation can easily induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) and further lead to various eye diseases including cataract. Here for the first time, we investigated the role of cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) gene in UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Methods: Three groups of HLECs were employed including model group, empty vector group, and CRTAC1 interference group. Results: After UVB irradiation, the percentage of primary ap...

  6. Effects of UVB-induced oxidative stress on protein expression and specific protein oxidation in normal human epithelial keratinocytes: a proteomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Marco Federico

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UVB component of solar ultraviolet irradiation is one of the major risk factors for the development of skin cancer in humans. UVB exposure elicits an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are responsible for oxidative damage to proteins, DNA, RNA and lipids. In order to examine the biological impact of UVB irradiation on skin cells, we used a parallel proteomics approach to analyze the protein expression profile and to identify oxidatively modified proteins in normal human epithelial keratinocytes. Results The expression levels of fifteen proteins - involved in maintaining the cytoskeleton integrity, removal of damaged proteins and heat shock response - were differentially regulated in UVB-exposed cells, indicating that an appropriate response is developed in order to counteract/neutralize the toxic effects of UVB-raised ROS. On the other side, the redox proteomics approach revealed that seven proteins - involved in cellular adhesion, cell-cell interaction and protein folding - were selectively oxidized. Conclusions Despite a wide and well orchestrated cellular response, a relevant oxidation of specific proteins concomitantly occurs in UVB-irradiated human epithelial Keratinocytes. These modified (i.e. likely dysfunctional proteins might result in cell homeostasis impairment and therefore eventually promote cellular degeneration, senescence or carcinogenesis.

  7. Protective Effect of HemoHIM on Epidermal Melanocytes in Ultraviolet-B irradiated Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae June [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Choon; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran; Jo, Sung Kee [Jeongeup Campus of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Tae Hwan [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We induced the activation of melanocytes in the epidermis of C57BL/6 mice by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation, and observed the effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM, HH) on the formation, and decrease of UV-B-induced epidermal melanocytes. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated by UV-B 80 mJ:cm{sup -2} (0.5 mW:sec{sup -1}) daily for 7 days, and HH was intraperitoneally, orally or topically applied pre- or post-irradiation. For the estimation of change of epidermal melanocytes, light microscopic observation with dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) stain was performed. Split epidermal sheets prepared from the ear of untreated mice exhibited 13∼15 melanocytes:mm{sup -2}, and one week after UV irradiation, the applied areas showed an increased number of strongly DOPA-positive melanocytes with stout dendrites. But intraperitoneal, oral or topical treatment with HH before each irradiation interrupted UV-B-induced pigmentation and resulted in a marked reduction in the number of epidermal melanocytes as compared to the number found in UV-B-irradiated, untreated control skin. The number and size of DOPA-positive epidermal melanocytes were also significantly decreased in intraperitoneally injected or topically applicated group after irradiation with HH at 3rd and 6th weeks after irradiation. The present study suggests the HH as inhibitor of UV-B-induced pigmentation, and depigmenting agent.

  8. Radiographic changes following radiotherapy in the patients with lung cancer. Is the irradiated area of the mediastinum in the simulation film a significant factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Tang, J.T.; Inoue, T.; Teshima, T.; Ohtani, M.; Itou, M.; Takeuchi, E.; Inoue, T.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of the irradiated area of the mediastinum in the simulation film for radiation induced lung injury. A total of 208 patients with primary lung cancer treated with radiation therapy were analyzed for incidence of radiation induced lung injury. Lung injury was defined as the appearance of an abnormal shadow on the chest radiograph. CT images were used to differentiate recurrence or other conditions. Age, sex, irradition dose, irradiated lung area, T and N factors of the tumor, irradiated mediastinum area, performance status of patients, location of irradiated fields and use of chemotherapy were analyzed with Cox's multivariate regression model. The cumulative rate of radiation induced lung injury at 12 months was 85%. Significant factor of radiation induced lung injury was irradiated area of the mediastinum (p=0.03). Irradiated area of the lung (p=0.18, n.s.), total tumor dose (p=0.1, n.s.), use of chemotherapy (p=0.08, n.s.) and location of irradiated field (p=0.08, n.s.) may also have an effect on radiation induced lung injury. The irradiated area of the mediastinum is one of the significant factors in radiation induced lung injury. (orig.) [de

  9. Ultraviolet radiation levels associated with the use of fluorescent general lighting, UV-A and UV-B lamps in the workplace and home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillock, M.; Clark, I.E.; McKinlay, A.F.; Todd, C.D.; Mundy, S.J.

    1988-09-01

    A detailed programme of measurements was undertaken by NRPB to determine the ultraviolet irradiance levels likely to be encountered in the workplace and in the home, where fluorescent lighting is used. Assessments have been made of the possible potential risk of the induction of acute effects (photokeratitis, erythema) and of inducing malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma skin cancers resulting from exposure to commonly used fluorescent lamps. The optical absorption properties of materials commonly used in diffusers and controllers in commercial and domestic lighting units were also measured. Irradiance data, both weighted (for biological effectiveness) and unweighted, for various lamp types are presented in the report, together with some typical spectral output distributions. The results show that at commonly used illumination levels the UVR emissions from general and special fluorescent lamps presented neither an acute nor a significant chronic hazard. High UV-B emission levels were measured from 'UV-B' lamps used in this study, and exposure to these lamps would result in acute injury within a short time. Great care should be taken in the use of these lamps, and advice should be provided to workers to ensure safe working conditions and procedures. (author)

  10. Protective effect of infrared-A radiation against damage induced by UVB radiation in the melan-a cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portantiolo Lettnin, Aline; Teixeira Santos Figueiredo Salgado, Mariana; Gonsalez Cruz, Camila; Manoel Rodrigues da Silva-Júnior, Flávio; Cunha Gonzalez, Vinícius; de Souza Votto, Ana Paula; Santos Trindade, Gilma; de Moraes Vaz Batista Filgueira, Daza

    2016-10-01

    The present work evaluated the infrared-A (IR-A) protective effect using a light-emitting diode (LED) lamp against the cytotoxic effects of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB). Effects on cell viability (Trypan blue assay), DNA damage (comet assay), lipid peroxidation (FOX method), reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant capacity were analyzed in melan-a, a non-tumoral murine melanocytic cell line. To define the doses used in the interaction experiments between IR-A+UVB, dose/response curves were made after exposure to IR-A or UVB. The IR-A dose chosen was 0.8J/cm(2) because this dose caused no significant inhibition of proliferation effects and viability decreased. For UVB exposure, a dose of 0.015J/cm(2), which showed a decrease in viable cell number by approximately 50% in relation to control until 72h, was selected. For IR-A+UVB, cell proliferation recovery was showed, decreasing DNA damage and lipid peroxide content when compared to UVB alone. Besides, the results obtained for ROS and antioxidant capacity showed that the protection observed was probably not related to decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, non-thermal IR-A was capable of protecting the melan-a cells from UVB induced damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultraviolet radiation levels associated with the use of fluorescent general lighting, UV-A and UV-B lamps in the workplace and home

    CERN Document Server

    Whillock, M; MacKinlay, Alistair F; Mundy, S J; Todd, Carl David

    1988-01-01

    A detailed programme of measurements was undertaken by NRPB to determine the ultraviolet irradiance levels likely to be encountered in the workplace and in the home, where fluorescent lighting is used. Assessments have been made of the possible potential risk of the induction of acute effects (photokeratitis, erythema) and of inducing malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma skin cancers resulting from exposure to commonly used fluorescent lamps. The optical absorption properties of materials commonly used in diffusers and controllers in commercial and domestic lighting units were also measured. Irradiance data, both weighted (for biological effectiveness) and unweighted, for various lamp types are presented in the report, together with some typical spectral output distributions. The results show that at commonly used illumination levels the UVR emissions from general and special fluorescent lamps presented neither an acute nor a significant chronic hazard. High UV-B emission levels were measured from 'U...

  12. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation as an elicitor of flavonoid production in callus cultures of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvero-Bascos, E.M.; Ungson, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    Callus cultures of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) grown in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA, 20 microM) and 6-furfurylaminopurine (kinetin, 20 microM) were exposed to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to investigate its potential as an abiotic elicitor of flavonoid production. Prior to irradiation, the levels of the flavonoids, apigenin, vitexin and isovitexin in the leaf and callus extracts were determined through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that vitexin and isovitexin were the dominant flavonoids in the leaves while only apigenin was detected in the calli, suggesting a correlation between the degree of differentiation and biosynthesis of flavonoids in plant tissues. Irradiation of callus cultures for 7 d using two UV-B doses (12.6 and 25.3 kJ/sq m) induced synthesis of all three flavonoids (up to 780 micro g/g dw increase) to levels similar to or higher than those found in whole leaves. The combined levels of the three flavonoids in the cultures treated with the higher UV-B dose were 20-fold higher than the control and were comparable to concentrations found in leaves while a 10-fold increase in combined flavonoid levels was observed in calli irradiated with the lower UV-B dose. Furthermore, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses of DNA extracts from the leaves and calli revealed that UV-B irradiation enhanced flavonoid synthesis without altering DNA sequence. These results further support the supposed involvement of UV-B in the transcriptional regulation of the expression of flavonoid biosysnthetic genes. Overall, the findings showed that elicitation through UV-B irradiation is an effective strategy to induce flavonoid production in dedifferentiated J. curcas cultures that have lost their capacity to produce the flavonoids normally synthesized in intact organs. (author)

  13. Protective effect of 4-coumaric acid from UVB ray damage in the rabbit eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodovici, Maura; Caldini, Silvia; Morbidelli, Lucia; Akpan, Victor; Ziche, Marina; Dolara, Piero

    2009-01-08

    UV-induced oxidation damage seems to play a major role in a number of specific pathological conditions of intraocular tissues, such as cataract formation and retinal degeneration. Therefore, antioxidant and/or scavenger compounds might protect the eyes from UV-induced cellular damage. We previously reported that 4-coumaric acid (4-CA) is able to protect rabbit corneal-derived cells (SIRC) from UVB-induced oxidation damage. In this study we evaluated the protective effect of 4-CA against UVB-induced cell damage in rabbit cornea in vivo. Twelve male New Zealand albino rabbits were used; four rabbits were used as a control and received vehicle in one eye and 4-CA acid in the contralateral eye; eight rabbits were exposed to UVB rays (79.2mJ/cm(2)) and three days before to UV exposure each animal received 1 drop/day of vehicle in one eye and 1 drop/day of vehicle containing 4-CA (164ng) in the contralateral eye. Corneal and sclera tissues were removed and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) levels were measured. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities were determined in aqueous humour. UVB-induced vessel hyper-reactivity was strongly reduced at 4 and 24h after UVB exposure after local treatment with 4-CA, 8-oxodGuo levels, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, were significantly increased (Peyes. Our results indicate that the administration of 4-CA protects eye tissues, thus reducing the harmful effect of UVB radiation at low concentration, probably through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Therefore, 4-CA may be useful in protecting the eye from free radical damage following UVB exposure from sunlight, UV lamps and welding torches.

  14. UVB-induced nuclear translocation of TC-PTP by AKT/14-3-3σ axis inhibits keratinocyte survival and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihwa; Morales, Liza D; Baek, Minwoo; Slaga, Thomas J; DiGiovanni, John; Kim, Dae Joon

    2017-10-31

    Understanding protein subcellular localization is important to determining the functional role of specific proteins. T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) contains bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSI and NLSII) in its C-terminus. We previously have demonstrated that the nuclear form of TC-PTP (TC45) is mainly localized to the cytoplasm in keratinocytes and it is translocated to the nucleus following UVB irradiation. Here, we report that TC45 is translocated by an AKT/14-3-3σ-mediated mechanism in response to UVB exposure, resulting in increased apoptosis and decreased keratinocyte proliferation. We demonstrate that UVB irradiation increased phosphorylation of AKT and induced nuclear translocation of 14-3-3σ and TC45. However, inhibition of AKT blocked nuclear translocation of TC45 and 14-3-3σ. Site-directed mutagenesis of 14-3-3σ binding sites within TC45 showed that a substitution at Threonine 179 (TC45/T179A) effectively blocked UVB-induced nuclear translocation of ectopic TC45 due to the disruption of the direct binding between TC45 and 14-3-3σ. Overexpression of TC45/T179A in keratinocytes resulted in a decrease of UVB-induced apoptosis which corresponded to an increase in nuclear phosphorylated STAT3, and cell proliferation was higher in TC45/T179A-overexpressing keratinocytes compared to control keratinocytes following UVB irradiation. Furthermore, deletion of TC45 NLSII blocked its UVB-induced nuclear translocation, indicating that both T179 and NLSII are required. Taken together, our findings suggest that AKT and 14-3-3σ cooperatively regulate TC45 nuclear translocation in a critical step of an early protective mechanism against UVB exposure that signals the deactivation of STAT3 in order to promote keratinocyte cell death and inhibit keratinocyte proliferation.

  15. Effective ultraviolet irradiation of platelet concentrates in teflon bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capon, S.M.; Sacher, R.A.; Deeg, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Several plastic materials used in blood storage were evaluated for their ability to transmit ultraviolet B (UVB) light. A plastic bag manufactured from sheets of transparent Teflon efficiently (78-86%) transmitted UVB light and was employed in subsequent functional studies of lymphocytes and platelets exposed to UVB light while contained in these bags. In vitro experiments showed a UVB dose-dependent abrogation of lymphocyte responder and stimulator functions, with concurrent preservation of platelet aggregation responses. In a phase I pilot study, UVB-treated platelet concentrates were administered to four bone marrow transplant recipients. Adverse effects attributable to the transfusions were not observed, and patients showed clinically effective transfusion responses. No patient developed lymphocytotoxic HLA or platelet antibodies. These studies suggest that platelets can be effectively irradiated with UVB light in a closed system. However, numerous variables, including container material, volume and composition of contents, steady exposure versus agitation, and exact UV wavelength, must be considered

  16. The global and UV-B radiation over Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    BASSET, H. A.; KORANY, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    This work studies the relation between UV-B radiation and global radiation over Egypt. The relationships between the global solar radiation and UV-B radiation at four stations in Egypt have been studied, and linear empirical formulas for estimating UV-B from global radiation at these stations has been deduced. The deduced equations were applied to calculate the UV-B radiation for other stations where measurements were unavailable, using records of global radiation at these stations. Because o...

  17. Experimental assessment of cumulative temperature and UV-B radiation effects on Mediterranean plankton metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2015-07-07

    The Mediterranean Sea is a vulnerable region for climate change, warming at higher rates compare to the global ocean. Warming leads to increased stratification of the water column and enhanced the oligotrophic nature of the Mediterranean Sea. The oligotrophic waters are already highly transparent, however, exposure of Mediterranean plankton to ultraviolet radiation (UV-B and UV-A) may increase further if the waters become more oligotrophic, thereby, allowing a deeper UV radiation penetration and likely enhancing impacts to biota. Here we experimentally elucidate the cumulative effects of warming and natural UV-B radiation on the net community production (NCP) of plankton communities. We conducted five experiments at monthly intervals, from June to October 2013, and evaluated the responses of NCP to ambient UV-B radiation and warming (+3°C), alone and in combination, in a coastal area of the northwest Mediterranean Sea. UV-B radiation and warming lead to reduced NCP and resulted in a heterotrophic (NCP < 0) metabolic balance. Both UV-B radiation and temperature, showed a significant individual effect in NCP across treatments and time. However, their joint effect showed to be synergistic as the interaction between them (UV × Temp) was statistically significant in most of the experiments performed. Our results showed that both drivers, would affect the gas exchange of CO2−O2 from and to the atmosphere and the role of plankton communities in the Mediterranean carbon cycle.

  18. Experimental assessment of cumulative temperature and UV-B radiation effects on Mediterranean plankton metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara S. eGarcia-Corral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is a vulnerable region for climate change, warming at higher rates compare to the global ocean. Warming leads to increased stratification of the water column and enhanced the oligotrophic nature of the Mediterranean Sea. The oligotrophic waters are already highly transparent, however, exposure of Mediterranean plankton to ultraviolet radiation (UV-B and UV-A may increase further if the waters become more oligotrophic, thereby, allowing a deeper UV radiation penetration and likely enhancing impacts to biota.Here we experimentally elucidate the cumulative effects of warming and natural UV-B radiation on the net community production (NCP of plankton communities. We conducted five experiments at monthly intervals, from June to October 2013, and evaluated the responses of NCP to ambient UV-B radiation and warming (+3ºC, alone and in combination, in a coastal area of the northwest Mediterranean Sea. UV-B radiation and warming lead to reduced net community production and resulted in a heterotrophic (NCP<0 metabolic balance. Both UV-B radiation and temperature, showed a significant individual effect in NCP across treatments and time. However, their joint effect showed to be synergistic as the interaction between them (UV x Temp was statistically significant in most of the experiments performed. Our results showed that both drivers, would affect the gas exchange of CO2-O2 from and to the atmosphere and the role of plankton communities in the Mediterranean carbon cycle

  19. UV-B Radiation Impacts Shoot Tissue Pigment Composition in Allium fistulosum L. Cultigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin R. Abney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants from the Allium genus are valued worldwide for culinary flavor and medicinal attributes. In this study, 16 cultigens of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L. were grown in a glasshouse under filtered UV radiation (control or supplemental UV-B radiation [7.0 μmol·m−2·s−2 (2.68 W·m−2] to determine impacts on growth, physiological parameters, and nutritional quality. Supplemental UV-B radiation influenced shoot tissue carotenoid concentrations in some, but not all, of the bunching onions. Xanthophyll carotenoid pigments lutein and β-carotene and chlorophylls a and b in shoot tissues differed between UV-B radiation treatments and among cultigens. Cultigen “Pesoenyj” responded to supplemental UV-B radiation with increases in the ratio of zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin to zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin + violaxanthin, which may indicate a flux in the xanthophyll carotenoids towards deepoxydation, commonly found under high irradiance stress. Increases in carotenoid concentrations would be expected to increase crop nutritional values.

  20. Site and strand specificity of UVB mutagenesis in the SUP4-o gene of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.D.; Kunz, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    DNA sequencing was used to characterize 208 mutations induced in the SUP4-o tRNA gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by UVB (285-320 nm) radiation. The results were compared to those for an analysis of 211 SUP4-o mutations induced by 254-nm UVC light. In each case, greater than 90% of the mutations were single base-pair changes but G.C----A.T transitions predominated and accounted for more of the mutations induced by UVB than UVC. Double substitutions, single base-pair deletions, and more complex events were also recovered. However, UVB induced 3-fold more tandem substitutions than UVC and nontandem double events were detected only after irradiation with UVC. Virtually all induced substitutions occurred at sites where the pyrimidine of the base pair was part of a dipyrimidine sequence. Although the site specificities were consistent with roles for cyclobutane dimers and pyrimidine-pyrimidone(6-4) lesions in mutation induction, preliminary photoreactivation data implicated cyclobutane dimers as the major form of premutational DNA damage for both agents. Intriguingly, there was a preference for both UVB- and UVC-induced mutations to occur at sites where the dipyrimidine was on the transcribed strand

  1. UVB-Stimulated TNFα Release from Human Melanocyte and Melanoma Cells Is Mediated by p38 MAPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visalini Muthusamy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation activates cell signaling pathways in melanocytes. As a result of altered signaling pathways and UV-induced cellular damage, melanocytes can undergo oncogenesis and develop into melanomas. In this study, we investigated the effect of UV-radiation on p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase, JNK and NFκB pathways to determine which plays a major role in stimulating TNFα secretion in human HEM (melanocytes and MM96L (melanoma cells. MM96L cells exhibited 3.5-fold higher p38 activity than HEM cells at 5 min following UVA + B radiation and 1.6-fold higher JNK activity at 15–30 min following UVB+A radiation, while NFκB was minimally activated in both cells. Irradiated HEM cells had the greatest fold of TNFα secretion (UVB: 109-fold, UVA + B: 103-fold & UVB+A: 130-fold when co-exposed to IL1α. The p38 inhibitor, SB202190, inhibited TNFα release by 93% from UVB-irradiated HEM cells. In the UVB-irradiated MM96L cells, both SB202190 and sulfasalazine (NFκB inhibitor inhibited TNFα release by 52%. Although, anisomycin was a p38 MAPK activator, it inhibited TNFα release in UV-irradiated cells. This suggests that UV-mediated TNFα release may occur via different p38 pathway intermediates compared to those stimulated by anisomycin. As such, further studies into the functional role p38 MAPK plays in regulating TNFα release in UV-irradiated melanocyte-derived cells are warranted.

  2. UVB suscetibilidade como fator de risco para o desenvolvimento da hanseníase virchowiana UVB susceptibility as a risk factor to the development of lepromatous leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mecciene Mendes Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    susceptibility or resistance to UVRB through the application of a 2% dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB disc to a previously irradiated area with twice the minimal erythema dose (MED. After 21 days, a similar disc soaked in 0.05% DNCB was applied to the scapular area (unexposed to UVRB to check for sensitiveness, with reading of the results after 48 hours. The patients that showed a positive reaction to DNCB were considered resistant (UVB-R and those who did not show any reaction were considered susceptible (UVB-S. RESULTS: The frequency of UVB-S individuals was 63.2% (24 patients in the LL group and 34.4% (30 patients in the TT group (OR=3.26; IC=1.36 - 7.87; x²=7.73; p=0.005. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that UVB-susceptibility is a risk factor to the development of lepromatous leprosy (LL.

  3. Clinical significance of serum beta2-microglobulin and carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with cervical cancer treated with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Tottori, Kosei; Higuchi, Akira; Takeuchi, Shoshichi

    1979-01-01

    β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -m) is a small polypeptide present in all body fluids. In recent years much attention has been paid to the high prevalence of elevated serum β 2 -m levels in malignancy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of β 2 -m in patients with cervical cancer treated with irradiation therapy. For comparison, as an established tumor marker, CEA was assayed in the same samples. The results were as follows: 1. Both β 2 -m and CEA values seemed to relate to the clinical stage of tumor growth. 2. The patients who ended in a poor prognosis retrospectively had the significantly elevated CEA and β 2 -m values compared to those of the patients with good prognosis. 3. CEA or β 2 -m assay by themselves had not so large value in the diagnosis of cervical cancer, but an increase in number of positive cases was obtained when the two markers were jointly considered. Because when the CEA was negative, the β 2 -m assay was capable of compensating for this deficiency. (author)

  4. Prevention of experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis by extracts of Isatis tinctoria compared to pure tryptanthrin and its impact on UVB-induced erythema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Christian; Schliemann-Willers, Sibylle; Oberthür, Christine; Hamburger, Matthias; Elsner, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Lipophilic extracts of Isatis tinctoria L. exhibit significant activity against several clinically relevant targets of inflammation. The alkaloid tryptanthrin was identified as one of the active principles in woad and characterised as a potent dual inhibitor of COX-2 and 5-LOX. Here, the anti-inflammatory efficacy of topical application of three different Isatis extracts and tryptanthrin was investigated in human volunteers. Two different models were used, namely the sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and UVB-induced erythema. Twenty healthy volunteers without any skin disease participated in the study. Cumulative irritant contact dermatitis was induced on test fields on the volunteers' backs by twice daily application of 0.5 % sodium lauryl sulphate over a period of four days. Half of the test fields were treated with the test substances during the eliciting phase, while the remaining test fields were treated over a period of 4 days after induction of dermatitis. In the second model, a UVB erythema on the volunteers' lower backs was induced using the double minimal erythema dose (MED). Twenty-four hours after irradiation the test fields were treated with the test substances over a period of 3 days. All reactions were assessed visually and by non-invasive bioengineering methods (evaporimetry and chromametry). Treatment with extracts during the ICD eliciting phase led to a significantly smaller increase of visual scores and transepidermal water loss compared to the untreated test field. For tryptanthrin this benefit was also observed, but the improvement was not statistically significant. When treatment was performed after completing the eliciting phase, accelerated resolution of the irritant reaction could not be observed. In the UVB erythema model anti-inflammatory effects of the test substances were not observed.

  5. [Effects of silicon supply on diurnal variations of physiological properties at rice heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Lou, Yun-sheng; Meng, Yan; Wang, Wei-qing; Cui, He-yang

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of silicon (Si) supply on diurnal variations of photosynthesis and transpiration-related physiological parameters at rice heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation. The experiment was designed with two UV-B radiation levels, i.e. ambient UV-B. (ambient, A) and elevated UV-B (elevated by 20%, E), and four Si supply levels, i.e. Sio (control, 0 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si, (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 . hm2), Si3 (slag fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 . hm-2). The results showed that, compared with ambient UV-B radiation, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) , intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductivity (gs) and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3%, 5.5%, 10.4%, 20.3% and 6.3%, respectively, in the treatment without Si supply (Si, level), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8%-5.5%, 0.7%-4.8%, 4.0%-8.7%, 7.4%-20.2% and 0.7%-5.9% in the treatments with Si supply (Si1, Si2 and Si3 levels) , respectively. Namely, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the photosynthesis and transpiration-related physiological parameters, but silicon supply could obviously mitigate the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, compared with control (Si0 level), silicon supply increased Pn, Ci, gs and WUE by 16.9%-28.0%, 3.5%-14.3%, 16.8% - 38.7% and 29.0% - 51.2%, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9% - 10.8% in the treatments with Si supply (Si1 , Si2 and Si3 levels). That is, silicon supply could mitigate the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation through significantly increasingnP., CigsgK and WUE, but decreasing T,. However, the difference existed in ameliorating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among the treatments of silicon supply, with the sequence of Si3>Si2>1i >Si0. This study suggested that fertilizing slag was

  6. Inhibitory effects of ambient levels of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation in growth of cv. New Red Fire lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizek, D.T.; Britz, S.J.; Mirecki, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation at Beltsville, MD, USA, on growth of Lactuca sativa L. (cv. New Red Fire lettuce) was examined during early summer of 1996 and 1997. Plants were grown from seed in plastic window boxes covered with Llumar to exclude UV-A and UV-B, polyester to exclude UV-B, or tefzel (1996) or teflon (1997) to transmit UV-A and UV-B radiation. After 31-34 days, plants grown in the absence of solar UV-B radiation (polyester) had 63 and 57% greater fresh weight and dry weight of tops, respectively, and 57, 72 and 47% greater dry weight of leaves, stems and roots, respectively, as compared to those grown under ambient UV-B (tefzel or teflon). Plants protected from UV-A radiation as well (Llumar) showed an additional 43 and 35% increase, respectively, in fresh and dry weight of tops and a 33 and 33% increase, respectively, in dry weight of leaves and stems, but no difference in root biomass over those grown under polyester. Excluding ambient UV-B (polyester) significantly reduced the UV absorbance of leaf extracts at 270, 300 and 330 nm (presumptive flavonoids) and the concentration of anthocyantins at 550 nm as compared to those of leaf extract from plants grown under ambient UV-A and UV-B. Additional removal of ambient UV-A (Llumar) reduced the concentration of anthocyanins, but had no further effect on UV absorbance at 270, 300 or 330 nm. These findings provide evidence that UV-B radiation is more important than UV-A radiation for flavonoid induction in this red-pigmented lettuce cultivar. Although previous workers have obtained decreases in lettuce yield under enhanced UV-B, this is the first evidence for inhibitory effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on lettuce growth. (au)

  7. Inhibitory effects of ambient levels of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation in growth of cv. New Red Fire lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krizek, D.T.; Britz, S.J.; Mirecki, R.M. [Climate Stress Laboratory, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The influence of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation at Beltsville, MD, USA, on growth of Lactuca sativa L. (cv. New Red Fire lettuce) was examined during early summer of 1996 and 1997. Plants were grown from seed in plastic window boxes covered with Llumar to exclude UV-A and UV-B, polyester to exclude UV-B, or tefzel (1996) or teflon (1997) to transmit UV-A and UV-B radiation. After 31-34 days, plants grown in the absence of solar UV-B radiation (polyester) had 63 and 57% greater fresh weight and dry weight of tops, respectively, and 57, 72 and 47% greater dry weight of leaves, stems and roots, respectively, as compared to those grown under ambient UV-B (tefzel or teflon). Plants protected from UV-A radiation as well (Llumar) showed an additional 43 and 35% increase, respectively, in fresh and dry weight of tops and a 33 and 33% increase, respectively, in dry weight of leaves and stems, but no difference in root biomass over those grown under polyester. Excluding ambient UV-B (polyester) significantly reduced the UV absorbance of leaf extracts at 270, 300 and 330 nm (presumptive flavonoids) and the concentration of anthocyantins at 550 nm as compared to those of leaf extract from plants grown under ambient UV-A and UV-B. Additional removal of ambient UV-A (Llumar) reduced the concentration of anthocyanins, but had no further effect on UV absorbance at 270, 300 or 330 nm. These findings provide evidence that UV-B radiation is more important than UV-A radiation for flavonoid induction in this red-pigmented lettuce cultivar. Although previous workers have obtained decreases in lettuce yield under enhanced UV-B, this is the first evidence for inhibitory effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on lettuce growth. (au) 34 refs.

  8. Evaluation of the role of damage to photosystem II in the inhibition of CO2 assimilation in pea leaves on exposure to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogues, S.; Baker, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    Mature pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Meteor) leaves were exposed to two levels of UV-B radiation, with and without supplementary UV-C radiation, during 15 h photoperiods. Simultaneous measurements of CO 2 assimilation and modulated chlorophyll fluorescence parameters demonstrated that irradiation with UV-B resulted in decreases in CO 2 assimilation that are not accompanied by decreases in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) primary photochemistry. Increased exposure to UV-B resulted in a further loss of CO 2 assimilation and decreases in the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII primary photochemistry, which were accompanied by a loss of the capacity of thylakoids isolated from the leaves to bind atrazine, thus demonstrating that photodamage to PSII reaction centres had occurred. Addition of UV-C to the UV-B treatments increased markedly the rate of inhibition of photosynthesis, but the relationships between CO 2 assimilation and PSII characteristics remained the same, indicating that UV-B and UV-C inhibit leaf photosynthesis by a similar mechanism. It is concluded that PSII is not the primary target site involved in the onset of the inhibition of photosynthesis in pea leaves induced by irradiation with UV-B. (author)

  9. Differences in the photosynthetic UV-B response between European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) saplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šprtová, M.; Marek, M.V.; Urban, O.; Kalina, J.; Špunda, V.

    2008-01-01

    Cloned saplings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) (7 years old) were exposed to enhanced UV-B irradiation (+25%) continuously over three growing seasons (1999-2001). Selected parameters of variable chlorophyll alpha fluorescence and pigment composition were analysed in the late summer of the third growing season to evaluate the influence of long-term elevated UV-B irradiation on broadleaf and conifer tree species. To obtain information on the xanthophyll cycle, the de-epoxidation state (DEPS) was calculated. These tree species responded differentially to the long-term effects of enhanced UV-B radiation, Norway spruce was more sensitive compared to the European beech. The results show that in Norway spruce long-term exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation under field conditions caused negative changes at the level of primary photosynthetic reactions. Contrary to the beech, this had higher degree of UV-B protective responses. UV-B radiation is not effective stressor to its primary photosynthetic reaction

  10. Improvement effect of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract mixture against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Shin, Jae Young; Che, Denis Nchang; Hwang, Young Min; Lee, Hyun Seo; Choi, Ji Won; Jang, Seon Il; Ryu, Cheol

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic protective effects of mixtures of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract (CPG mixture) against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus in mice. The results showed that treatment with CPG mixture exhibited much stronger suppressive effect on erythema and melanin index as well as melanin formation than treatment with ascorbic acid (AA) in UVB-irradiated mice. Moreover, the treatment with CPG mixture showed ameliorative effect on immune cell infiltration and collagen fiber destruction in UV-irradiated mice. The treatment with CPG mixture inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in UVB-irradiated mice. Furthermore, the treatment with CPG mixture inhibited compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and histological changes in mice. Taken together, these results indicated that CPG mixture has potentials as functional and therapeutic materials against skin damage and itch-related skin diseases

  11. The effect of UV-B and UV-C radiation on Hibiscus leaves determined by ultraweak luminescence and fluorescence induction [chlorophyll fluorescence induction, ultraweak luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, I.; Bornman, J.F.; Björn, L.O.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of UV-C (254 nm) and UV-B (280-320 nm) on chlorophyll fluorescence induction and ultraweak luminescence (UL) in detached leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. were investigated. UL from leaves exposed to UV-B and UV-C radiation reached a maximum 72 h after irradiation. In both cases most of the light was of a wavelength over 600 nm. An increase in the percentage of long wavelength light with time was detected. UV radiation increased peroxidase activity, which also reached a maximum 72 h after irradiation. UV-B and UV-C both reduced variable chlorophyll fluorescence. No effect on the amount of chlorophyll or UV screening pigments was observed with the short-term irradiation used in this investigation. (author)

  12. Improvement effect of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract mixture against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Shin, Jae Young; Che, Denis Nchang; Hwang, Young Min; Lee, Hyun Seo; Choi, Ji Won; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Cheol [Hyangmiwon Corporation, Gimje (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic protective effects of mixtures of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract (CPG mixture) against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus in mice. The results showed that treatment with CPG mixture exhibited much stronger suppressive effect on erythema and melanin index as well as melanin formation than treatment with ascorbic acid (AA) in UVB-irradiated mice. Moreover, the treatment with CPG mixture showed ameliorative effect on immune cell infiltration and collagen fiber destruction in UV-irradiated mice. The treatment with CPG mixture inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in UVB-irradiated mice. Furthermore, the treatment with CPG mixture inhibited compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and histological changes in mice. Taken together, these results indicated that CPG mixture has potentials as functional and therapeutic materials against skin damage and itch-related skin diseases.

  13. Photonic activation of plasminogen induced by low dose UVB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Correia

    Full Text Available Activation of plasminogen to its active form plasmin is essential for several key mechanisms, including the dissolution of blood clots. Activation occurs naturally via enzymatic proteolysis. We report that activation can be achieved with 280 nm light. A 2.6 fold increase in proteolytic activity was observed after 10 min illumination of human plasminogen. Irradiance levels used are in the same order of magnitude of the UVB solar irradiance. Activation is correlated with light induced disruption of disulphide bridges upon UVB excitation of the aromatic residues and with the formation of photochemical products, e.g. dityrosine and N-formylkynurenine. Most of the protein fold is maintained after 10 min illumination since no major changes are observed in the near-UV CD spectrum. Far-UV CD shows loss of secondary structure after illumination (33.4% signal loss at 206 nm. Thermal unfolding CD studies show that plasminogen retains a native like cooperative transition at ~70 ºC after UV-illumination. We propose that UVB activation of plasminogen occurs upon photo-cleavage of a functional allosteric disulphide bond, Cys737-Cys765, located in the catalytic domain and in van der Waals contact with Trp761 (4.3 Å. Such proximity makes its disruption very likely, which may occur upon electron transfer from excited Trp761. Reduction of Cys737-Cys765 will result in likely conformational changes in the catalytic site. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that reduction of Cys737-Cys765 in plasminogen leads to an increase of the fluctuations of loop 760-765, the S1-entrance frame located close to the active site. These fluctuations affect the range of solvent exposure of the catalytic triad, particularly of Asp646 and Ser74, which acquire an exposure profile similar to the values in plasmin. The presented photonic mechanism of plasminogen activation has the potential to be used in clinical applications, possibly together with other enzymatic treatments for the

  14. The effect of UV-B radiation on photosynthesis and respiration of phytoplankton, benthic macroalgae and seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkum, A W; Wood, W F

    1993-04-01

    Several species of marine benthic algae, four species of phytoplankton and two species of seagrass have been subjected to ultraviolet B irradiation for varying lengths of time and the effects on respiration, photosynthesis and fluorescence rise kinetics studied. No effect on respiration was found. Photosynthesis was inhibited to a variable degree in all groups of plants after irradiation over periods of up to 1 h and variable fluorescence was also inhibited in a similar way. The most sensitive plants were phytoplankton and deep-water benthic algae. Intertidal benthic algae were the least sensitive to UV-B irradiation and this may be related to adaptation, through the accumulation of UV-B screening compounds, to high light/high UV-B levels. Inhibition of variable fluorescence (Fv) of the fluorescence rise curve was a fast and sensitive indicator of UV-B damage. Two plants studied, a brown alga and a seagrass, showed very poor recovery of Fv over a period of 32 h.

  15. Dosimetry of narrow band UVB treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, D.H.; Mannering, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: For many years psoriasis has been treated with broad band UVB lamps. These lamps have a bell shaped spectrum which peaks at 305 nm and extends from 280 nm to 350 nm. However research with monochromatic UV radiation has shown that wavelengths between 300 nm and 320 nm are the most efficacious for clearing psoriasis while wavelengths below 305 nm are most effective for producing the undesirable side effect of erythema (sunburn). In response to these findings Philips developed a narrow band UVB tube in which a large fraction of the output was confined to a narrow peak (bandwidth 2.5 nm) situated at 311 nm. Christchurch Hospital replaced broad band UVB with narrow band treatments in August 1995 and as this required UV exposures to be substantially increased new protocols had to be developed. Three aspects needed to be addressed. These were translating the dose from broad band to narrow band for current patients, determining the initial dose for new patients and developing a formula for increasing subsequent exposures to both types of patient. To translate doses the spectral irradiance (μW/cm 2 /nm) that would fall on the patient was measured in both the old broad band and the new narrow band treatment units and from this UV doses were calculated. All doses were expressed in mJ/cm 2 of unweighted UV over the range 250 nm to 400 nm. The erythemal effectiveness of the two units were compared by using the CIE 1987 curve to express doses in terms of the equivalent exposure of monochromatic 297 nm radiation. It was found that an exposure of 3.96 mJ/cm 2 from the broad band FS40 tubes and 12.79 mJ/cm 2 from the narrow band TL/01 tubes were both equivalent to 1.00 mJ/cm 2 of monochromatic 297 nm radiation so when transferring patients all broad band doses needed to be increased by a factor of 3.2. Before transferring any patients this factor was confirmed by conducting two minimal erythema dose (MED) tests on a normal subject, one in each unit. For new patients a

  16. Significance of Interleukin-6 Signaling in the Resistance of Pharyngeal Cancer to Irradiation and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Chen, W.-C.; Lu, C.-H.; Wang, W.-H.; Lin, P.-Y.; Lee, K.-D.; Chen, M.-F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor eradication by chemoradiotherapy for pharyngeal cancer has not been particularly successful. Targeting epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) could be a potential treatment strategy providing additional benefits, but only a subset of these tumors gives a clinically significant response to EGFR inhibitors. The aim has been to identify the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling and its predictive power in the treatment response of pharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Human pharyngeal cancer cell lines, including the hypopharyngeal cancer cell line FaDu and its derived cell line FaDu-C225-R, were selected. Changes in tumor growth, response to treatment, and responsible signaling pathway were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, 95 pharyngeal cancer tissue specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining, and correlations were made between levels of IL-6, IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), p-AKT, and p-STAT3 expression and the clinical outcome of patients. Results: In vitro, either extrinsic IL-6 stimulation of cancer cells or intrinsically activated IL-6 signaling detected in FADu-C225-R cells results in resistance to irradiation and EGFR inhibitor. Blocking IL-6 signaling attenuated aggressive tumor behavior and sensitized the cells to treatments. The responsible mechanisms included decreased p-STAT3, less nuclear translocation of EGFR, and subsequently attenuated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Regarding clinical data, staining of p-STAT3 and IL-6 was significantly linked with lower response rates to treatments and shorter survival in pharyngeal cancer patients. Conclusions: IL-6 and p-STAT3 may be significant predictors of pharyngeal carcinoma, and regulating IL-6 signaling can be considered a promising therapeutic approach.

  17. Retardation of hypocotyl elongation of ornamental and vegetable seedlings by ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, E.; Inamoto, K.; Doi, M.; Imanishi, H.

    1998-01-01

    Seedlings of cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephara), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were irradiated by a UV-B lamp (fluorescent sun lamp) or a three-band fluorescent lamp (control) for 72 hr just after sowing. Hypocotyl elongation was repressed by all species during the irradiation with UV-B. The retarding effects of UV-B persisted when these seedlings were placed in dark or a greenhouse with 30% shade after irradiation. The most effective timing of UV-B irradiation for cosmos and ornamental kale seedlings was from 48 hr to 72 hr after sowing, when the seedlings were rapidly increasing their surface area to UV-B

  18. Endogenous glutathione protects human skin fibroblasts against the cytotoxic action of UVB, UVA and near-visible radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrell, R.M.; Pidoux, Mireille

    1986-01-01

    Both the UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-380 nm) regions of sunlight damage human skin cells but, particularly at the longer wavelengths, information is scant concerning the mechanism(s) of damage induction and the roles of cellular defense mechanisms. Following extensive glutathione depletion of cultured human skin fibroblasts, the cells become strongly sensitized to the cytotoxic action of near-visible (405 nm), UVA (334 nm, 365 nm) and UVB (313 nm) but not UVC (254 nm) radiations. In the critical UVB region, the magnitude of the protection afforded by endogenous glutathione approaches that of the protection provided by excision repair. The results suggest that a significant fraction of even UVB damage can be mediated by free radical attack and that a major role of glutathione in human skin cells is to protect them from the cytotoxic action of sunlight. (author)

  19. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on Mentha spicata essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karousou, R.; Grammatikopoulos, G.; Lanaras, T.; Manetas, Y.; Kokkini, S.

    1998-01-01

    In vitro propagated plantlets representing two distinct chemotypes of Mentha spicata, viz. plants producing essential oils rich in piperitone oxide and piperitenone oxide (chemotype I) and rich in carvone and dihydrocarvone (chemotype II), were grown in the field under ambient or ambient plus supplemental UV-B radiation, biologically equivalent to a 15% ozone depletion over Patras (38.3°N, 29.1°E), Greece. Enhanced UV-B radiation stimulated essential oil production in chemotype II substantially, while a similar, non-significant trend was observed in chemotype I. No effect was found on the qualitative composition of the essential oils, whereas the quantitative composition was slightly modified in chemotype I. This is the first investigation reporting an improved essential oil content under UV-B supplementation in aromatic plants under field conditions

  20. Phenylpropanoid pigment synthesis and growth reduction as adaptive reactions to increased UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellmann, E.

    1982-01-01

    In bean leaves isoflavonoids occur strictly correlated with visible symptoms of damage in response to UV-B irradiation. Even long-term solar irradiations will not bring about this effect. The action spectra clearly show the principle difference in spectral effectivity in the cases of pigment formation in bean leaves (side effect of cell damage) and in parsley cell cultures (effective protective reaction). The cell cultures were found to be representative for flavonoid regulation in the intact plant and are used as a model system for studying the UV-induction mechanism at the molecular level. (orig./AJ)

  1. Effect of ultra violet irradiation on the interplay between Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Y Abo Elnazar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although UV radiation is used to treat several diseases, including rickets, psoriasis, eczema and jaundice, prolonged human exposure to UV radiation may result in acute and chronic health effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Aim: this study is carried out to show the effect of UV on both splenocyte lymphoproliferative response and their capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. Methods: mice were exposed to whole body UVB and tested for the effect of recovery times on splenocyte proliferation and cytokine production. In addition, direct irradiation of spleens and lymphocyte suspension was done. Basal and mitogen-stimulated splenocyte proliferation was assessed by MTT assay while IL-10 and IL-12 were measured using ELISA. Results showed significant suppression in splenocyte proliferation in comparison with control. IL-12 levels were significantly reduced while IL-10 was increased. ConA and PWM had no significant changes in IL-10 while Con A caused a highly significant increase in IL-12 at day six recovery in UVB body irradiation. Conclusion: Exposure to UVB radiation could cause a state of immune suppression and shifts Th1/Th2 cell response. This effect is closely associated with the reduction of Th1 cytokines' expression and increase in Th2 cytokines' levels.

  2. Response to UVB radiation and oxidative stress of marine bacteria isolated from South Pacific Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matallana-Surget, S; Villette, C; Intertaglia, L; Joux, F; Bourrain, M; Lebaron, P

    2012-12-05

    Marine bacterial strains isolated from South Pacific and Mediterranean Sea were studied for their resistance to UVB radiation, their repair capacity under photoreactivating light, as well as their oxidative stress response using concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), as an oxidizer. A total of 30 marine bacteria were isolated from the hyper-oligotrophic waters of the South Pacific Gyre to the eutrophic waters of the Chilean coast during the BIOSOPE cruise (2004), and 10 strains from surface Mediterranean coastal waters. One third of bacteria presented a high resistance to UVB and almost all isolates presented an efficient post-irradiation recovery. Only few strains showed cell survival to high concentration of H(2)O(2). No correlation between the sampling sites and the bacterial UVB resistance was observed. Two marine bacteria, Erythrobacter flavus and Ruegeria mobilis, were of particular interest, presenting a good response to the three parameters (UVB and H(2)O(2) resistance/efficient repair). Unexpectedly, two resistant strains were again identified as Ruegeria species underlining that this geographically widespread genus, resist to UVB regardless the environment from which the isolates originate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne V; Philipsen, Peter A; Thieden, Elisabeth; Wulf, Hans C

    2010-02-01

    UVB radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D), but the influence of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol has not been well characterized. To determine the importance of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol on 25(OH)D production after UVB exposure, 182 persons were screened for 25(OH)D level. A total of 50 participants with a wide range in baseline 25(OH)D levels were selected to define the importance of baseline 25(OH)D level. Of these, 28 non-sun worshippers with limited past sun exposure were used to investigate the influence of skin pigmentation and baseline total cholesterol. The participants had 24% of their skin exposed to UVB (3 standard erythema doses) four times every second or third day. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D levels were measured before and after the irradiations. Total cholesterol was measured at baseline. The increase in 25(OH)D level after UVB exposure was negatively correlated with baseline 25(OH)D level (Ppigmentation. In addition, we paired a dark-skinned group with a fair-skinned group according to baseline 25(OH)D levels and found no differences in 25(OH)D increase after identical UVB exposure.

  4. On the interaction of UV-B radiation (280-315 mm) with water stress in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakumar, T.; Vincent, V.H.B.; Paliwal, K.

    1993-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings (3-day-old) were subjected to 4 kinds of experimental treatments: (1) control without exposure to any stress (-D-UV), (2) moderate water stress with no UV-B irradiation (+D-UV), (3) no water stress but exposure to UV-B radiation (-D+UV), and (4) moderate water stress and exposure to UV-B (+D+UV). UV-B and drought stress in the combined form elicited beneficial effects on the morphological and growth characteristics, and a few additive inhibitory effects in some functional processes. An increase in the specific leaf weight (SLW) was observed in the combination of stresses, which could be a defence mechanism against UV-B. The combination of stresses promoted the synthesis of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds. The responses of plants to the combination of stresses indicate that during simultaneous exposure of plants to multiple stresses, one form of stress could minimize the damage by the other. The enhancement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities appear to serve as acclimation mechanisms to scavenge the toxic, free radicals of oxygen produced under stress conditions. However, the inhibition in nitrate metabolism was greater in the combined stresses than in either of the stresses imposed separately. The results of this study illustrate that the interaction of stresses during simultaneous multiple stress conditions brings out certain beneficial effects. (author)

  5. Ultra-violet B (UVB)-induced skin cell death occurs through a cyclophilin D intrinsic signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Chao [Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210024, Jiangsu (China); Yang, Bo [Department of Dermatology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Yang, Zhi; Tu, Ying [Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Yunnan Provincial Institute of Dermatology, Kunming 650032, Yunnan (China); Yang, Yan-li [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210024, Jiangsu (China); He, Li, E-mail: heli2662@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210024, Jiangsu (China); Bi, Zhi-Gang, E-mail: eltonbibenqhospital@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Dermatology, BenQ Medical Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210019, Jiangsu (China)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UVB radiated skin keratinocytes show cyclophilin D (Cyp-D) upregulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAC inhibits UVB induced Cyp-D expression, while H{sub 2}O{sub 2} facilitates it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyp-D-deficient cells are significantly less susceptible to UVB induced cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of Cyp-D causes spontaneous keratinocytes cell death. -- Abstract: UVB-induced skin cell damage involves the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), which leads to both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Cyclophilin D (Cyp-D) translocation to the inner membrane of mitochondrion acts as a key component to open the mPTP. Our Western-Blot results in primary cultured human skin keratinocytes and in HaCaT cell line demonstrated that UVB radiation and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) induced Cyp-D expression, which was inhibited by anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). We created a stable Cyp-D deficiency skin keratinocytes by expressing Cyp-D-shRNA through lentiviral infection. Cyp-D-deficient cells were significantly less susceptible than their counterparts to UVB- or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death. Further, cyclosporine A (Cs-A), a Cyp-D inhibitor, inhibited UVB- or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced keratinocytes cell death. Reversely, over-expression of Cyp-D in primary keratinocytes caused spontaneous keratinocytes cell death. These results suggest Cyp-D's critical role in UVB/oxidative stress-induced skin cell death.

  6. Ultra-violet B (UVB)-induced skin cell death occurs through a cyclophilin D intrinsic signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chao; Yang, Bo; Yang, Zhi; Tu, Ying; Yang, Yan-li; He, Li; Bi, Zhi-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► UVB radiated skin keratinocytes show cyclophilin D (Cyp-D) upregulation. ► NAC inhibits UVB induced Cyp-D expression, while H 2 O 2 facilitates it. ► Cyp-D-deficient cells are significantly less susceptible to UVB induced cell death. ► Over-expression of Cyp-D causes spontaneous keratinocytes cell death. -- Abstract: UVB-induced skin cell damage involves the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), which leads to both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Cyclophilin D (Cyp-D) translocation to the inner membrane of mitochondrion acts as a key component to open the mPTP. Our Western-Blot results in primary cultured human skin keratinocytes and in HaCaT cell line demonstrated that UVB radiation and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) induced Cyp-D expression, which was inhibited by anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). We created a stable Cyp-D deficiency skin keratinocytes by expressing Cyp-D-shRNA through lentiviral infection. Cyp-D-deficient cells were significantly less susceptible than their counterparts to UVB- or H 2 O 2 -induced cell death. Further, cyclosporine A (Cs-A), a Cyp-D inhibitor, inhibited UVB- or H 2 O 2 -induced keratinocytes cell death. Reversely, over-expression of Cyp-D in primary keratinocytes caused spontaneous keratinocytes cell death. These results suggest Cyp-D’s critical role in UVB/oxidative stress-induced skin cell death.

  7. Narrowband UVB emitting (LaGd)B3O6:Bi3+ phosphor for phototherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatkar, N.V.; Thakare, D.S.; Bhatkar, V.B.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) phototherapy is useful for treating more than 40 types of skin diseases and disorders, such as psoriasis, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis, morphea, scleroderma, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, etc. Action spectrum studies have shown that the peak therapeutic activity is between 295 - 310 nm. A recent advance in phototherapy of psoriasis has been the introduction of narrowband UVB using a fluorescence irradiation device delivering virtually monochromatic light at 311 nm. Combining narrowband UVB with calcipotriol, a vitamin D 3 analogue, is considered a very effective treatment for psoriasis. Narrowband UVB is a useful therapy for the treatment of Vitiligo. Research into the influence of wavelength on therapeutic efficacy in phototherapy, confirmed that narrowband UVB is more effective and probably has no greater risk than conventional wideband UVB phototherapy in the treatment of skin disease. In addition, it was recognized that this would be an opportunity for better control and evaluation of treatment, faster and easier treatment time and potentially improved clearance. Lanthanum metaborate (LaGd)B 3 O 6 :Bi 3+ is a well- known commercial narrowband emitting phosphor used in phototherapy lamps for the treatment of psoriasis. The phosphor was prepared by a novel method which is a variation of the solution combustion synthesis. Heat generated in the exothermic reaction between ammonium nitrate and urea is used to carry out the synthesis. The XRD pattern of the prepared phosphor matches with the standard ICDD data. The PL emission of the prepared phosphor shows a narrowband emission spectrum centered around 310 nm in good agreement with the literature. (author)

  8. Elevated UV-B radiation increased the decomposition of Cinnamomum camphora and Cyclobalanopsis glauca leaf litter in subtropical China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xinzhang Z.; Zhang, Huiling L.; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shuquan Q. [Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry Univ., Lin' an (China). The Nurturing Station for the State Key Lab. of Subtropical Silviculture; Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry Univ., Lin' an (China). Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Carbon Cycling and Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems; Chang, Scott X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Peng, Changhui H. [Quebec Univ., Montreal (Canada). Inst. of Environment Sciences

    2012-03-15

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the earth's surface has been increasing due to ozone depletion and can profoundly influence litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. The role of UV-B radiation in litter decomposition in humid environments is poorly understood; we thus investigated the effect of UV-B radiation on litter decomposition and nitrogen (N) release in a humid subtropical ecosystem in China. We conducted a field-based experiment using the litterbag method to study litter decomposition and N release under ambient and elevated (31% above ambient) UV-B radiation, using the leaf litter of two common tree species, Cinnamomum camphora and Cyclobalanopsis glauca, native to subtropical China. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly increased the decomposition rate of C. camphora and C. glauca leaf litter by 16.7% and 27.8%, respectively, and increased the N release from the decomposing litter of C. glauca but not C. camphora. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly accelerated the decomposition of litter of two native tree species and the N release from the decomposition litter of C. glauca in humid subtropical China, which has implications for soil carbon flux and forest productivity. (orig.)

  9. Redox-Phen solution: A water equivalent dosimeter for UVA, UVB and X-rays radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, A.; Ciribolla, C.; Lazzeri, L.; d'Errico, F.

    2018-06-01

    Polysulphone films are the only type of UV passive dosimeters that are widely adopted for research and personal monitoring. Even though many studies concentrated on the development and characterization of these films, they still present some shortcomings. The more important limitations of them are that they can measure only UVB radiations and that they change color at 330 nm, requiring special equipment to read them. To overcome these limitations we developed an aqueous dosimeter that is sensitive to UVA, UVB and X-rays named Redox-Phen solution. This dosimeter is inexpensive and water equivalent, being made of more than 99 wt% of water. It changes color in the visible region upon irradiation, thus it can be measured via simple optical method, and an evaluation of the exposition can be made also by naked eyes.

  10. Effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) pretreatment on UV-B stress tolerance in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esringu, Aslıhan; Aksakal, Ozkan; Tabay, Dilruba; Kara, Ayse Aydan

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is one of the most important abiotic stress factors that could influence plant growth, development, and productivity. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important plant growth regulator involved in a wide variety of physiological processes. In the present study, the possibility of enhancing UV-B stress tolerance of lettuce seedlings by the exogenous application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was investigated. UV-B radiation increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD) and total phenolic concentrations, antioxidant capacity, and expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene in seedlings, but the combination of SNP pretreatment and UV-B enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, total phenolic concentrations, antioxidant capacity, and PAL gene expression even more. Moreover, UV-B radiation significantly inhibited chlorophylls, carotenoid, gibberellic acid (GA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents and increased the contents of abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2•(-)) in lettuce seedlings. When SNP pretreatment was combined with the UV-B radiation, we observed alleviated chlorophylls, carotenoid, GA, and IAA inhibition and decreased content of ABA, SA, MDA, H2O2, and O2•(-) in comparison to non-pretreated stressed seedlings.

  11. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation of adaxial leaf surface micromorphology and epicuticular wax biosynthesis of sugar maple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, D.C.; Percy, K.E.; Riding, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum [Marsh.]) seedlings were exposed to UV-B BE ranging from 0.61 kJ m -2 d -1 to 12.48 kJ m -2 d -1 . Increasing UV-B intensity was associated with changes in micromorphological characteristics of the adaxial leaf surface. In vivo incorporation of [1- 14 C] acetate into sugar maple adaxial leaf surface epicuticular wax indicated (p<0.05) a UV-B sensitivity threshold at or near 6.2 kJ m -2 d -1 . Exposure to dosages greater than 6.2 kJ m -2 d -1 resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in wax biosynthesis. The proportion of [1- 14 C] acetate incorporated into each of the different epicuticular wax classes changed with increasing UV-B. Incorporation of [1- 14 C] acetate into alkyl esters decreased while incorporation into alkanes increased with increasing UV-B dose. The effects of enhanced UV-B dose recorded in this experiment may have implications for cuticle function. (author)

  12. Effects of lanthanum(III) on nitrogen metabolism of soybean seedlings under elevated UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Huang, Xiao-hua; Zhou, Qing; Cheng, Xiao-ying

    2007-01-01

    The hydroponic culture experiments of soybean bean seedlings were conducted to investigate the effect of lanthanum (La) on nitrogen metabolism under two different levels of elevated UV-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm). The whole process of nitrogen metabolism involves uptake and transport of nitrate, nitrate assimilation, ammonium assimilation, amino acid biosynthesis, and protein synthesis. Compared with the control, UV-B radiation with the intensity of low level 0.15 W/m2 and high level 0.45 W/m2 significantly affected the whole nitrogen metabolism in soybean seedlings (p nitrogen-metabolism-related enzymes, such as: nitrate reductase (NR) to the nitrate reduction, glutamine systhetase (GS) and glutamine synthase (GOGAT) to the ammonia assimilation, while it increased the content of free amino acids and decreased that of soluble protein as well. The damage effect of high level of UV-B radiation on nitrogen metabolism was greater than that of low level. And UV-B radiation promoted the activity of the anti-adversity enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), which reduced the toxicity of excess ammonia in plant. After pretreatment with the optimum concentration of La (20 mg/L), La could increase the activity of NR, GS, GOGAT, and GDH, and ammonia assimilation, but decrease nitrate and ammonia accumulation. In conclusion, La could relieve the damage effect of UV-B radiation on plant by regulating nitrogen metabolism process, and its alleviating effect under low level was better than that under the high one.

  13. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on nitrogen fixation in arctic ecosystems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solheim, B.; Zielke, M.; Bjerke, J.W.; Rozema, J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent global climate models predict a further significant loss of ozone in the next decades, with up to 50% depletion of the ozone layer over large parts of the Arctic resulting in an increase in ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) (280-315 nm) reaching the surface of the Earth. The percentage of total

  14. Amelioration of ultraviolet-B-induced down-regulation of mRNA levels for chloroplast proteins, by high irradiance, is mediated by photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackerness, S.A. H.; Butt, P.J.; Jordan, B.R.; Thomas, B.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism by which increasing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) reduces the sensitivity of RNA transcripts to UV-B radiation was studied in pea (Pisum sativum L.). mRNA transcript levels for rbc S, rbc L, cab and psb A were measured over an 8 d experimental period in pea, plants supplemented with UV-B radiation under a range of conditions. Under low light (150 mu-mol m -2 s -1 ), UV-B resulted in a significant decline in the levels of transcripts for all four genes which was prevented by increasing the background irradiance to 350 mu-mol m -2 s -1 (high light) with white light from fluorescent lamps. Increasing CO 2 levels to give photosynthesis rates equivalent to the high light treatment partially protected rbc S and cab transcripts and fully protected rbc L transcripts but did not prevent visible injury. Increasing light with low pressure sodium lamps, which increase photosynthesis but are not effective for activation of the DNA repair enzyme, photolyase, gave results which were not significantly different from white fluorescent high light treatments. Protection by high light was lost in the presence of the photosynthesis inhibitors CCCP and DCMU. The UV-B induced increase in the expression of chalcone synthase (chs) genes was delayed by the treatments which increased photosynthesis rates and conferred protection. The results indicate that photosynthesis plays a key role in the amelioration of UV-B induced decline in mRNA levels for proteins. The minimal role of DNA repair by photolyase indicates that reduction in photosynthesis gene transcripts in response to UV-B represents a specific regulation rather than being a consequence of DNA damage. (author)

  15. UV-B-irradiation effect on growth reactions of phytopathogenic fungus fusarium solani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gushcha, M.Yi.; Dyachenko, A.Yi.; Dmitryijev, O.P.

    2002-01-01

    The UV-B irradiation effect on spore germination and hyphae growth of phythopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani was studied. Spores irradiation by small doses of 0,1 - 1,0 kJ/m 2 results in growth stimulation of primary hyphae. Adaptive effect of UV-B small doses for fungi was shown. Preliminary irradiation in doses of 0,1 - 0,5 kJ/m 2 increased spore radioresistance and diminished the effect of the next damaging dose

  16. Inhibition of Cartilage Acidic Protein 1 Reduces Ultraviolet B Irradiation Induced-Apoptosis through P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghong Ji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ultraviolet B (UVB irradiation can easily induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs and further lead to various eye diseases including cataract. Here for the first time, we investigated the role of cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1 gene in UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Methods: Three groups of HLECs were employed including model group, empty vector group, and CRTAC1 interference group. Results: After UVB irradiation, the percentage of primary apoptotic cells was obviously fewer in CRTAC1 interference group. Meanwhile, inhibition of CRTAC1 also reduced both reactive oxygen species (ROS production and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, but the level of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm was increased in HLECs. Further studies indicated that superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and total antioxidative (T-AOC level were significantly increased in CRTAC1-inhibited cells, while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were significantly decreased. ELISA analysis of CRTAC1-inhibited cells showed that the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were significantly decreased, but the concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10 was significantly increased. Western blot analyses of eight apoptosis-associated proteins including Bax, Bcl-2, p38, phospho-p38 (p-p38, Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1/2, phospho-JNK1/2 (p-JNK1/2, calcium-sensing receptor (CasR, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII indicated that the inhibition of CRTAC1 alleviated oxidative stress and inflammation response, inactivated calcium-signaling pathway, p38 and JNK1/2 signal pathways, and eventually reduced UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Conclusion: These results provided new insights into the mechanism of cataract development, and demonstrated that CRTAC1 could be a potentially novel target for cataract treatment.

  17. Inhibition of Cartilage Acidic Protein 1 Reduces Ultraviolet B Irradiation Induced-Apoptosis through P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yinghong; Rong, Xianfang; Li, Dan; Cai, Lei; Rao, Jun; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation can easily induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) and further lead to various eye diseases including cataract. Here for the first time, we investigated the role of cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) gene in UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Three groups of HLECs were employed including model group, empty vector group, and CRTAC1 interference group. After UVB irradiation, the percentage of primary apoptotic cells was obviously fewer in CRTAC1 interference group. Meanwhile, inhibition of CRTAC1 also reduced both reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, but the level of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was increased in HLECs. Further studies indicated that superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total antioxidative (T-AOC) level were significantly increased in CRTAC1-inhibited cells, while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly decreased. ELISA analysis of CRTAC1-inhibited cells showed that the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly decreased, but the concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) was significantly increased. Western blot analyses of eight apoptosis-associated proteins including Bax, Bcl-2, p38, phospho-p38 (p-p38), Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1/2), phospho-JNK1/2 (p-JNK1/2), calcium-sensing receptor (CasR), and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) indicated that the inhibition of CRTAC1 alleviated oxidative stress and inflammation response, inactivated calcium-signaling pathway, p38 and JNK1/2 signal pathways, and eventually reduced UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. These results provided new insights into the mechanism of cataract development, and demonstrated that CRTAC1 could be a potentially novel target for cataract treatment. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Global atmospheric change and herbivory: Effects of elevated levels of UV-B radiation, atmospheric CO2 and temperature on boreal woody plants and their herbivores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veteli, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280- 320 nm), atmospheric CO 2 , temperature and soil nitrogen level on the growth and chemical quality of boreal deciduous woody plants and on performance of the herbivorous insects feeding on them. Eggs and larvae of Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) were subjected to elevated UV-B radiation in the laboratory. Two willow species, Salix phylicifolia L. (Salicaceae) and S. myrsinifolia Salisb., were grown in an UV-B irradiation field where the responses of both plants and their herbivorous insects were monitored. S. myrsinifolia, Betula pendula Ehrh. (Betulaceae) and B. pubescens Roth. were subjected to elevated CO 2 and temperature and different fertilisation levels in closed-top climatic chambers. To assess the indirect effects of the different treatments, the leaves of experimental willows and birches were fed to larvae of Phratora vitellinae (L.) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and adults of Agellastica alni L. in the laboratory. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly decreased the survival and performance of eggs and larvae of O. brumata. It also increased concentrations of some flavonoids and phenolic acids in S. myrsinifolia and S. phylicifolia, while the low-UV-B- absorbing phenolics, e. g. condensed tannins, gallic acid derivatives and salicylates, either decreased or remained unaffected. Both the height growth and biomass of one S. phylicifolia clone was sensitive to elevated levels of UV-B radiation. Abundance of adults and larvae of a willow- feeding leaf beetle, P. vitellinae, was increased under elevated UV-B; but this did not lead to increased leaf damage on the host plants. There were no significant differences in performance of the larvae feeding on differentially treated willow leaves, but adult A. alni preferred UV-B-treated leaves to ambient control leaves. Elevated CO 2 and temperature significantly increased the height growth of S

  19. Study of Oxidative Stress in Vitiligo and Use of Narrow Band UVB-311 as a Method of Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzy, N.; Rashed, L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disease characterized by circumscribed depigmenting macules devoid of identifiable melanocytes. The disease has uncertain aetiopathogenesis. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as antioxidants and Nitric oxide and superoxide anion as oxidants in vitiligo patients and evaluate the clinical effectiveness of narrow band UVB (NB-UVB-311) as a method of treatment and repairing the oxidative stress-induced damage. This study included twenty vitiligo patients and fifteen-age and sex matched control. There was statistically significant increase in the levels of SOD in active vitiligo lesions compared to control (P<0.001). There was statistically significant decrease in the level of CAT in vitiligo skin lesions compared to skin of control. After using NB-UVB- 311 the level of SOD was significantly decreased and CAT level was significantly increased (P<0.001). There was statistically significant increase in the level of nitric oxide and superoxide in vitiligo patients compared to control. After using NB-UVB-311 as treatment, the level of nitric oxide and superoxide anion was significantly decreased (P<0.001) in vitiligo patients. These results provide some evidence regarding the oxidant /antioxidant balance in vitiligo patients and the positive role of narrow band UVB- 311 as a treatment of vitiligo

  20. Photoactivation of corticosteroids in UVB-exposed skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miolo, G; Caffieri, S; Dalzoppo, D; Gallocchio, F; Fasani, E; Beyersbergen van Henegouwen, G M J

    2011-04-04

    The photodegradation of flumethasone (FM) and fluocinolone acetonide (FC) was studied in solution and in the pig skin. Both glucocorticosteroids applied to the pig skin were unstable under UVB light. The photoproducts formed in the skin were the lumi-, photolumi- and andro-derivatives for FM, the same found in vitro. Instead, FC hydroperoxide formed in solution was not found in the skin: the reactivity and oxidative ability of this photoproduct towards biological substrates (lipids, proteins) seems the reason of the lack of its detection in the ex vivo model. In fact, it demonstrated to quickly oxidize amino acids and peptides, and to react with BSA both in the dark and under irradiation. Moreover, the presence in the irradiated pig skin of the FC andro-derivative, which usually forms in H-donating environment, seems consistent with the mechanism of Norrish I fragmentation followed by H-abstraction, likely from the surrounding biological substrates. These findings indicate that photoreactivity of these compounds may take place in the skin of patients exposing themselves to sunlight and is a warning about possible skin damage as a result of that. Furthermore, photolability of these drugs in the skin might cause loss of their therapeutic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on accumulation of catechins in tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... Effect of UV-B irradiation time on accumulation of foliar catechins in two tea cultivars was investigated. Low influence rate ... it is of concern that the amount of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's ..... Food Chem. 80: 283-290.

  2. Enzymatic recognition of DNA damage induced by UVB-photosensitized titanium dioxide and biological consequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: evidence for oxidatively DNA damage generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, A Viviana; Deodato, Elder L; Cardoso, Janine S; Oliveira, Eliza F; Machado, Sérgio L; Toma, Helena K; Leitão, Alvaro C; de Pádula, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    Although titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) has been considered to be biologically inert, finding use in cosmetics, paints and food colorants, recent reports have demonstrated that when TiO(2) is attained by UVA radiation oxidative genotoxic and cytotoxic effects are observed in living cells. However, data concerning TiO(2)-UVB association is poor, even if UVB radiation represents a major environmental carcinogen. Herein, we investigated DNA damage, repair and mutagenesis induced by TiO(2) associated with UVB irradiation in vitro and in vivo using Saccharomyces cerevisiae model. It was found that TiO(2) plus UVB treatment in plasmid pUC18 generated, in addition to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), specific damage to guanine residues, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG), which are characteristic oxidatively generated lesions. In vivo experiments showed that, although the presence of TiO(2) protects yeast cells from UVB cytotoxicity, high mutation frequencies are observed in the wild-type (WT) and in an ogg1 strain (deficient in 8-oxoG and FapyG repair). Indeed, after TiO(2) plus UVB treatment, induced mutagenesis was drastically enhanced in ogg1 cells, indicating that mutagenic DNA lesions are repaired by the Ogg1 protein. This effect could be attenuated by the presence of metallic ion chelators: neocuproine or dipyridyl, which partially block oxidatively generated damage occurring via Fenton reactions. Altogether, the results indicate that TiO(2) plus UVB potentates UVB oxidatively generated damage to DNA, possibly via Fenton reactions involving the production of DNA base damage, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enzymatic recognition of DNA damage induced by UVB-photosensitized titanium dioxide and biological consequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Evidence for oxidatively DNA damage generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, A. Viviana, E-mail: alicia.pinto@incqs.fiocruz.br [Laboratorio de Diagnostico Molecular e Hematologia, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21941-540, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratorio de Radiobiologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Deodato, Elder L. [Laboratorio de Diagnostico Molecular e Hematologia, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21941-540, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratorio de Radiobiologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cardoso, Janine S. [Laboratorio de Radiobiologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, Eliza F.; Machado, Sergio L.; Toma, Helena K. [Laboratorio de Diagnostico Molecular e Hematologia, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21941-540, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Leitao, Alvaro C. [Laboratorio de Radiobiologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Padula, Marcelo de [Laboratorio de Diagnostico Molecular e Hematologia, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21941-540, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-06-01

    Although titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) has been considered to be biologically inert, finding use in cosmetics, paints and food colorants, recent reports have demonstrated that when TiO{sub 2} is attained by UVA radiation oxidative genotoxic and cytotoxic effects are observed in living cells. However, data concerning TiO{sub 2}-UVB association is poor, even if UVB radiation represents a major environmental carcinogen. Herein, we investigated DNA damage, repair and mutagenesis induced by TiO{sub 2} associated with UVB irradiation in vitro and in vivo using Saccharomyces cerevisiae model. It was found that TiO{sub 2} plus UVB treatment in plasmid pUC18 generated, in addition to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), specific damage to guanine residues, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG), which are characteristic oxidatively generated lesions. In vivo experiments showed that, although the presence of TiO{sub 2} protects yeast cells from UVB cytotoxicity, high mutation frequencies are observed in the wild-type (WT) and in an ogg1 strain (deficient in 8-oxoG and FapyG repair). Indeed, after TiO{sub 2} plus UVB treatment, induced mutagenesis was drastically enhanced in ogg1 cells, indicating that mutagenic DNA lesions are repaired by the Ogg1 protein. This effect could be attenuated by the presence of metallic ion chelators: neocuproine or dipyridyl, which partially block oxidatively generated damage occurring via Fenton reactions. Altogether, the results indicate that TiO{sub 2} plus UVB potentates UVB oxidatively generated damage to DNA, possibly via Fenton reactions involving the production of DNA base damage, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine.

  4. Enzymatic recognition of DNA damage induced by UVB-photosensitized titanium dioxide and biological consequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Evidence for oxidatively DNA damage generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A. Viviana; Deodato, Elder L.; Cardoso, Janine S.; Oliveira, Eliza F.; Machado, Sergio L.; Toma, Helena K.; Leitao, Alvaro C.; Padula, Marcelo de

    2010-01-01

    Although titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has been considered to be biologically inert, finding use in cosmetics, paints and food colorants, recent reports have demonstrated that when TiO 2 is attained by UVA radiation oxidative genotoxic and cytotoxic effects are observed in living cells. However, data concerning TiO 2 -UVB association is poor, even if UVB radiation represents a major environmental carcinogen. Herein, we investigated DNA damage, repair and mutagenesis induced by TiO 2 associated with UVB irradiation in vitro and in vivo using Saccharomyces cerevisiae model. It was found that TiO 2 plus UVB treatment in plasmid pUC18 generated, in addition to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), specific damage to guanine residues, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG), which are characteristic oxidatively generated lesions. In vivo experiments showed that, although the presence of TiO 2 protects yeast cells from UVB cytotoxicity, high mutation frequencies are observed in the wild-type (WT) and in an ogg1 strain (deficient in 8-oxoG and FapyG repair). Indeed, after TiO 2 plus UVB treatment, induced mutagenesis was drastically enhanced in ogg1 cells, indicating that mutagenic DNA lesions are repaired by the Ogg1 protein. This effect could be attenuated by the presence of metallic ion chelators: neocuproine or dipyridyl, which partially block oxidatively generated damage occurring via Fenton reactions. Altogether, the results indicate that TiO 2 plus UVB potentates UVB oxidatively generated damage to DNA, possibly via Fenton reactions involving the production of DNA base damage, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine.

  5. Redox proteomic evaluation of oxidative modification and recovery in a 3D reconstituted human skin tissue model exposed to UVB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, J M; Haines, S R; Thomas, A; Wang, W; Walls, R J; Clerens, S; Harland, D P

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to UV in humans resulting in sunburn triggers a complex series of events that are a mix of immediate and delayed damage mediation and healing. While studies on the effects of UV exposure on DNA damage and repair have been reported, changes in the oxidative modification of skin proteins are poorly understood at the molecular level, despite the important role played by structural proteins in skin tissue, and the effect of the integrity of these proteins on skin appearance and health. Proteomic molecular mapping of oxidation was here applied to try to enhance understanding of skin damage and recovery from oxidative damage and UVB exposure. A redox proteomic-based approach was applied to evaluating skin protein modification when exposed to varying doses of UVB after initial oxidative stress, via tracking changes in protein oxidation during the healing process in vitro using a full-thickness reconstituted human skin tissue model. Bioassays and structural evaluation confirmed that our cultured skin tissues underwent a normal physiological response to UVB exposure. A set of potential skin marker peptides was generated, for use in tracking skin protein oxidative modification. Exposure to UVB after thermal oxidative stress was found to result in higher levels of skin protein oxidation than a non-irradiated control for up to seven days after exposure. Recovery of the skin proteins from oxidative stress, as assessed by the overall protein oxidation levels, was found to be impaired by UVB exposure. Oxidative modification was largely observed in skin structural proteins. Exposure of skin proteins to UVB exacerbates oxidative damage to structural skin proteins, with higher exposure levels leading to increasingly impaired recovery from this damage. This has potential implications for the functional performance of the proteins and inter-related skin health and cosmetic appearance. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Attenuation of UV-B exposure-induced inflammation by abalone hypobranchial gland and gill extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuanpradit, Chitraporn; Jaisin, Yamaratee; Jungudomjaroen, Sumon; Akter Mitu, Shahida; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat; Sobhon, Prasert; Cummins, Scott F

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UV-B) is a known causative factor for many skin complications such as wrinkles, black spots, shedding and inflammation. Within the wavelengths 280‑320 nm, UV-B can penetrate to the epidermal level. This investigation aimed to test whether extracts from the tropical abalone [Haliotis asinina (H. asinina)] mucus-secreting tissues, the hypobranchial gland (HBG) and gills, were able to attenuate the inflammatory process, using the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Cytotoxicity of abalone tissue extracts was determined using an AlamarBlue viability assay. Results showed that HaCaT cells could survive when incubated in crude HBG and gill extracts at concentrations between abalone extract from both the HBG and gill (0, 0.1, 2.5, 5 µg/ml). A significant increase in cell viability was observed (P2.5 µg/ml extract showed a significant decrease in intensity for COX‑2, phospho‑p38 and phospho‑SPK/JNK. The present study demonstrated that abalone extracts from the HGB and gill can attenuate inflammatory proteins triggered by UV-B. Hence, the contents of abalone extract, including cellmetabolites and peptides, may provide new agents for skin anti‑inflammation, preventing damage due to UV-B.

  7. Plant Responses to Increased UV-B Radiation: A Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAntoni, H. L.; Skiles, J. W.; Armstrong, R.; Coughlan, J.; Daleo, G.; Mayoral, A.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    because there is anecdotal evidence of plant damage on the saguaros that has been linked to increased UV radiation, and (3) the forests of Nothofagus spp. and the steppe of Patagonia where the risk of plant damage at 35S is 5% and increases to as much as 15% at 55S due to increased UV-B radiation. Measurements of UV-B radiation impinging on the surface at 55S largely exceed the predicted UV-B radiation values at 50 latitude and 0% ozone depletion. Preliminary HPLC analyses of UV-B absorbing compounds in Nothofagus antartica, N. pumilio, N. betuloides and Rumex sp. in natural conditions show species-specific patterns. The spectrum of N. antartica grown at 38S differs significantly from that of N. antartica in natural conditions in Ushuaia (55S). These results suggest that the selected main area (Patagonia) is appropriate for assessing the problem and its magnitude and that Nothofagus is appropriate for our study.

  8. Field measurements of the global UV-B radiation: a comparison between a broad-band radiometer and a Brewer spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anav, A.; Moriconi, M.L.; Di Menno, M.; Giannoccolo, S.

    1996-01-01

    The spectral responsivity shape plays an important role in the prospect of a wide use of broad-band meters in the UV-B monitoring. As most UV-B broad-band meters have a responsivity approximating an erythemal action spectrum, a measurement campaign was planned to verify if such an instrument could be successfully used to measure the unfiltered global irradiance. A Yankee radiometer mod. UV-B 1 and a Brewer spectrophotometer, considered as a reference meter, were compared for this purpose. A short theoretical treatment of the Yankee radiometer response and some results of the comparison are shown. Only clear-sky days data are selected so that the UV-B radiation reaching the ground could be modelled as the sum of the direct and isotropic diffuse components. The comparison results show a good agreement between the two instruments and confirm the capability of a broad-band UV-B radiometer of correctly measuring the global irradiance

  9. A class I (Senofilcon A) soft contact lens prevents UVB-induced ocular effects, including cataract, in the rabbit in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J; Lin, Li-Ren; Leverenz, Victor R; Dang, Loan

    2011-06-01

    UVB radiation from sunlight is known to be a risk factor for human cataract. The purpose in this study was to investigate the ability of a class I UV-blocking soft contact lens to protect against UVB-induced effects on the ocular tissues of the rabbit in vivo. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to UVB light for 30 minutes (270-360 nm, peak at 310 nm, 1.7 mW/cm(2) on the cornea). Eyes were irradiated in the presence of either a UV-blocking senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-blocking lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Effects on the cornea and lens were evaluated at various times after exposure. Eyes irradiated with no contact lens protection showed corneal epithelial cell loss plus lens epithelial cell swelling, vacuole formation, and DNA single-strand breaks, as well as lens anterior subcapsular opacification. The senofilcon A lens protected nearly completely against the UVB-induced effects, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The results indicate that use of a senofilcon A contact lens is beneficial in protecting ocular tissues of the rabbit against the harmful effects of UVB light, including photokeratitis and cataract.

  10. The significance of neuroendocrine system state in estimation of nonstochastic effects of small doses of internal irradiation. (An experimental study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedov, V.I.; Norets, T.A.; Stepanenko, V.F.; Dedenkov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Data on long-term complex investigations of nonstochastic effects of low doses of internal irradiation on the level of a whole organism are presented. Experiments have been carried out with mongrel rats of both sexes and different ages up to the moment of introduction of radioactive compounds. Action of relatively and uniformly distributing in the organism radiactive compounds of selenium - 75 and sulfur - 35, which were introduced once intravenously in quantities forming absorbed doses in average on the whole body and ovaries (0.5 Gy), on endocrine glands and critical organs (up to 1.0 Gy) has been used as models of internal radiation. Data, testifying to the fact that the neuroendocrinal system, despite the existing opinion, is sensitive to action of low doses of internal irradiation compared with the recommended one as an ultimate permissible one for nonstochastic effects ( 0.5 Sv), that permits to suggest for using factors of the functional state of the neuroendocrine system as an informative and sensitive criterium of estimation of biological action of low doses of internal radiation, have been obtained. These factors along with doses on critical organs permit to estimate the degree of dangerous action of different radionuclides on the organism level. Dynamic studying of activity factors of the neuroendocrine system with simultaneous analysis of the state of harmonically dependent processes permits to estimate functional possibilities of irradiated organism, its viability, especially under conditions requiring increased stress, as well as to take into account such factors modifying a biological effect as age, animal sex, the character of absorbed dose distribution

  11. [Effects of silicon supply on rice growth and methane emission from paddy soil under elevated UV-B radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Cui, He-yang; Wang, Wei-qing

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of silicon supply on rice growth and methane (CH4) emission in paddy field under elevated UV-B radiation. The experiment was designed with two UV-B radiation levels, i.e. ambient UV-B (ambient, A) and elevated UV-B radiation (elevated by 20%, E) ; with four silicon supply levels, i.e., Si0 (control, without silicon), Si2 (as sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si2 (as sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 hm-2) and Si3 (as slag fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 . hm-2). The results indicated that, silicon supply obviously alleviated the depressive effect of elevated UV-B radiation on rice growth, and increased the tiller numbers, chlorophyll content, and shoot and root dry masses. Silicon supply promoted rice growth, which increased with the silicon supply level (sodium silicate). Slag fertilizer was better than*sodium silicate in promoting rice growth. CH4 flux and accumulated CH4emission were obviously increased by elevated UV-B radiation, but significantly decreased by silicon application. CH4 emission was reduced with increasing the silicon supply level. Under the same silicon supply level, slag fertilizer was better than sodium silicate in inhibiting CH4 flux and accumulated CH4 emission. This research suggested that fertilizing slag in rice production was helpful not only in utilizing industrial wastes, but also in significantly mitigating CH4 emissions in rice paddy under elevated UV-B radiation.

  12. Repeated exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation in successive generations increases developmental instability (leaf fluctuating asymmetry) in a desert annual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgley, G.F.; Wand, S.J.E.; Musil, C.F.

    1998-01-01

    Populations of the desert annual Dimorphotheca sinuata, derived from a common seed stock, were exposed concurrently over four successive generations to either ambient (representing no stratospheric ozone depletion) or elevated (representing 20% stratospheric ozone depletion) UV-B levels during their complete life cycle. Leaf fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was measured in populations of plants grown from seeds of selected generations which had experienced different UV-B exposure histories, and from seeds collected from a wild population of this species which grows in a naturally enhanced UV-B environment. These measured plants had been grown in a greenhouse under essentially UV-B-free conditions. Leaf FA was significantly increased by greater numbers of enhanced UV-B exposures in the parentage of the seed. There was a linear to exponential dose–response relationship between number of UV-B exposure iterations in seed parentage and leaf FA, suggesting that damage to DNA caused by UV-B exposure during plant development may not be fully repaired, and thus be inherited by offspring and accumulated over successive generations in this species. Leaf FA of plants grown from seed from the wild population was not significantly greater than that of control plants whose parentage experienced only ambient UV-B exposures, although this negative result may have been due to low sampling intensity and measurement resolution, and the relatively low UV-B enhancement experienced by the wild population. We conclude that leaf FA may constitute a relatively sensitive yet inexpensive means of quantifying UV-B damage to plants. (author)

  13. Effects of UV-B radiation levels on concentrations of phytosterol, ergothioneine, and polyphenolic compounds in mushroom powder used as dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compositional changes of powder dietary supplement made from mushrooms previously exposed to different levels of UV-B irradiation were evaluated for the bioactive naturally occurring mushroom anti-oxidant, ergothioneine, other natural polyphenolic anti-oxidants: e.g. flavonoids, lignans, and others,...

  14. Simultaneous assessment of blood flow in UVB-inflamed human skin by laser Doppler flowmetry and the 133-xenon cashout technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare skin bloood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and the 133-Xenon washout technique in UVB-inflamed human skin. Six healthy subjects participated in the study. Forearm skin blood flow was measured prior to irradiation and then 8, 24, 48 and 72 h...

  15. UVB-induced photoperoxidation of lipids of human low and high density lipoproteins. A possible role of tryptophan residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, S.; Maziere, J.C.; Santus, R.; Bouchemal, N.; Morliere, P.

    1990-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation of the UVB region readily destroys tryptophan (Trp) residues of low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins. The photooxidation of tryptophan residues is accompanied by peroxidation of low and high density lipoproteins unsaturated fatty acids, as measured by thiobarbituric acid assay. Moreover, low and high density lipoproteins are natural carriers of vitamin E and carotenoids. These two antioxidants are also rapidly bleached by UVB. The UVA radiation promotes neither tryptophan residue destruction nor lipid photoperoxidation. The redox cycling Cu 2+ ions considerably increase lipid photoperoxidation. The synergistic action of photo and auto (Cu 2+ -induced) peroxidation induces marked post-irradiation modifications of apolipoproteins as illustrated by degradation of most tryptophan residues after overnight incubation in the dark of pre-irradiated samples. (author)

  16. Photo-protective effect of calcipotriol upon skin photoreaction to UVA and UVB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, J.I.; Park, B.S.; Chung, J.H.; Lee, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 has a photo-protective effect against UVB injury in mouse skin and cultured rat keratinocytes by induction of metallothionein (MT). Calcipotriol is a synthetic analogue of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 with equi-potent cell regulating properties, but with a lower risk of calcium-related side effects. The aim of the present study was to see whether calcipotriol has a photo-protective property both in vitro and in vivo. We examined the effect of calcipotriol on UV-induced damage of cultured human keratinocytes through a cell viability assay, and measurement of DNA synthesis by cultured keratinocytes, on UV-induced damage of mouse skin and on minimal erythema dose (MED). We found that calcipotriol was protective against UVB-induced reduction in DNA synthetic activity of cultured keratinocytes in relatively low doses (20 and 40 mJ/cm 2 ) of UVB. With photo-testing following application of calcipotriol, five subjects among 10 healthy volunteers and three among six psoriasis patients showed an increase in MED compared with the vehicle-treated site. These findings imply that calcipotriol may be photo-protective and that more extensive studies with various doses of UV irradiation and modes of calcipotriol delivery are required. (au)

  17. Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandau, Dan F; Lewis, Davina A; Somani, Ally-Khan; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2012-06-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a disease primarily afflicting geriatric patients as evidenced by the fact that 80% of all non-melanoma skin cancers are diagnosed in patients over the age of 60 years. As such, geriatric skin responds to cancer-inducing UVB irradiation in a manner that allows the establishment of tumor cells. Currently, the only effective treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer is the removal of the tumors after they appear, indicating the need for a more cost-effective prophylactic therapy. Geriatric volunteers were treated with fractionated laser resurfacing therapy on either sun-protected (upper buttocks) or chronically sun-exposed (dorsal forearm) skin. Fractionated laser resurfacing therapy was shown to decrease the occurrence of senescent fibroblasts in geriatric dermis, increase the dermal expression of IGF-1, and correct the inappropriate UVB response observed in untreated geriatric skin. These responses to fractionated laser resurfacing were equal to the effects seen previously using the more aggressive wounding following dermabrasion. Furthermore, fractionated laser resurfacing was equally effective in both sun-protected and sun-exposed skin. The ability of fractionated laser resurfacing treatment to protect against the occurrence of UVB-damaged proliferating keratinocytes indicates the potential of fractionated laser resurfacing to reduce or prevent aging-associated non-melanoma skin cancer.

  18. Photo-protective effect of calcipotriol upon skin photoreaction to UVA and UVB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, J.I.; Park, B.S.; Chung, J.H. [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Dept. of Dermatology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.H. [Inha Univ. College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    It has been shown that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} has a photo-protective effect against UVB injury in mouse skin and cultured rat keratinocytes by induction of metallothionein (MT). Calcipotriol is a synthetic analogue of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} with equi-potent cell regulating properties, but with a lower risk of calcium-related side effects. The aim of the present study was to see whether calcipotriol has a photo-protective property both in vitro and in vivo. We examined the effect of calcipotriol on UV-induced damage of cultured human keratinocytes through a cell viability assay, and measurement of DNA synthesis by cultured keratinocytes, on UV-induced damage of mouse skin and on minimal erythema dose (MED). We found that calcipotriol was protective against UVB-induced reduction in DNA synthetic activity of cultured keratinocytes in relatively low doses (20 and 40 mJ/cm{sup 2}) of UVB. With photo-testing following application of calcipotriol, five subjects among 10 healthy volunteers and three among six psoriasis patients showed an increase in MED compared with the vehicle-treated site. These findings imply that calcipotriol may be photo-protective and that more extensive studies with various doses of UV irradiation and modes of calcipotriol delivery are required. (au). 21 refs.

  19. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the responds of desert cyanobacterium Nostoc sp under UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Hu, Chunxiang; Liu, Yongding

    Cyanobacteria are renowned for tolerating extremes of desiccation, UV radiation, freezethaw cycles, hypersalinity and oligotrophy, which make them as candidate par excellence for terraforming in extraterrestrial planet. Recently Raman spectrum was applied to study the biochemical information changes in different field of life science. In this study, we investigated the respond of desert cyanobactreium Nostoc sp under UV-B radiation via FT-Raman spectra. It was found that the spectral biomarkers of protectant molecular of UV radiation such as β-carotene and scytonemin were induced by UV-B radiation, but Chlorophyll a content was decreased, and also the photosynthesis activity was inhibited significantly. After light adaptation without UV-B radiation, the Chlorophyll a content and photosynthesis activity returned to high level, butβ-carotene and scytonemin content remained in the cells. Those results indicated that desert Cyanobacteria have good adaptation ability for UV-B radiation and synthesis of protectant molecular may be an effective strategy for its adaptation in evolution.

  20. The effect of topical piperine combined with narrowband UVB on vitiligo treatment: A clinical trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Anoosh; Hoormand, Mahmood; Shahidi-Dadras, Mohammad; Abadi, Alireza

    2018-05-21

    Vitiligo is the most common acquired hypopigmentary disease in the community. Piperine as an herbal extract derived from black pepper has strong impact on the melanocyte proliferation and adverse side effects less than synthetic drugs such as corticosteroids. For the first time, this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of topical piperine combined with narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) on vitiligo treatment. In this double-blind clinical trial, 63 patients with facial vitiligo were randomly divided into 2 groups: treated with piperine (case) and placebo (control). Also, both groups received NB-UVB phototherapy every other day for 3 months. In the case group, 10 patients have burning sensation on their skin areas (p value = .002). Also, redness of the treated areas was observed in 6 patients (p value = .028). Both side effects were temporary. Regarding repigmentation at time intervals of 1, 2, and 3 months after treatment, its level in the case group was significantly higher than the control group (p value topical piperine has more influence on facial vitiligo than that of NB-UVB alone. It could be concluded that the simultaneous use of NB-UVB and topical piperine has a remarkable effect on treatment of vitiligo. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [Temperature sensitivity of wheat plant respiration and soil respiration influenced by increased UV-B radiation from elongation to flowering periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Tao; Hu, Zheng-Hua; Li, Han-Mao; Ji, Yu-Hong; Yang, Yan-Ping

    2009-05-15

    Field experiment was carried out in the spring of 2008 in order to investigate the effects of increased UV-B radiation on the temperature sensitivity of wheat plant respiration and soil respiration from elongation to flowering periods. Static chamber-gas chromatography method was used to measure ecosystem respiration and soil respiration under 20% UV-B radiation increase and control. Environmental factors such as temperature and moisture were also measured. Results indicated that supplemental UV-B radiation inhibited the ecosystem respiration and soil respiration from wheat elongation to flowering periods, and the inhibition effect was more obvious for soil respiration than for ecosystem respiration. Ecosystem respiration rates, on daily average, were 9%, 9%, 3%, 16% and 30% higher for control than for UV-B treatment forthe five measurement days, while soil respiration rates were 99%, 93%, 106%, 38% and 10% higher for control than for UV-B treatment. The Q10s (temperature sensitivity coefficients) for plant respiration under control and UV-B treatments were 1.79 and 1.59, respectively, while the Q10s for soil respiration were 1.38 and 1.76, respectively. The Q10s for ecosystem respiration were 1.65 and 1.63 under CK and UV-B treatments, respectively. Supplemental UV-B radiation caused a lower Q10 for plant respiration and a higher Q10 for soil respiration, although no significant effect of supplemental UV-B radiation on the Q10 for ecosystem respiration was found.

  2. Molecular Insights into SIRT1 Protection Against UVB-Induced Skin Fibroblast Senescence by Suppression of Oxidative Stress and p53 Acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ki Wung; Choi, Yeon Ja; Park, Min Hi; Jang, Eun Ji; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Byung Hyun; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2015-08-01

    Stresses, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation and those associated with aging, are known to cause premature cellular senescence that is characterized by growth arrest and morphological and gene expression changes. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) on the UVB-induced premature senescence. Under in vitro experimental conditions, exposure to a subcytotoxic dose of UVB enhanced human skin fibroblasts senescence, as characterized by increased β-galactosidase activity and increased levels of senescence-associated proteins. However, adenovirus-mediated SIRT1 overexpression significantly protected fibroblasts from UVB-induced cellular deterioration. Exposure to UVB-induced cell senescence was associated with oxidative stress and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Molecular analysis demonstrated that deacetylation of Forkhead box O3α (FOXO3α) by SIRT1 changed the transcriptional activity of FOXO3α and increased resistance to the oxidative stress. In addition, SIRT1 suppressed UVB-induced p53 acetylation and its transcriptional activity, which directly affected the cell cycle arrest induced by UVB. Further study demonstrated that SIRT1 activation inhibited cell senescence in the skin of the HR1 hairless mouse exposed to UVB. The study identifies a new role for SIRT1 in the UVB-induced senescence of skin fibroblats and provides a potential target for skin protection through molecuar insights into the mechanisms responsible for UVB-induced photoaging. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling the natural UV irradiation and comparative UV measurements at Moussala BEO (BG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyutyundzhiev, N.; Angelov, Ch; Lovchinov, K.; Nitchev, Hr; Petrov, M.; Arsov, T.

    2018-03-01

    Studies of and modeling the impact of natural UV irradiation on the human population are of significant importance for human activity and economics. The sharp increase of environmental problems – extraordinary temperature changes, solar irradiation abnormalities, icy rains – raises the question of developing novel means of assessing and predicting potential UV effects. In this paper, we discuss new UV irradiation modeling based on recent real-time measurements at Moussala Basic Environmental Observatory (BEO) on Moussala Peak (2925 m ASL) in Rila Mountain, Bulgaria, and highlight the development and initial validation of portable embedded devices for UV-A, UV-B monitoring using open-source software architecture, narrow bandpass UV sensors, and the popular Arduino controllers. Despite the high temporal resolution of the VIS and UV irradiation measurements, the results obtained reveal the need of new assumptions in order to minimize the discrepancy with available databases.

  5. Abscisic acid and ethylene in mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana differing in their resistance to ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakitina, T.Ya.; Vlasov, P.V.; Jalilova, F.Kh.; Kefeli, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet irradiation (between 280 and 320 nm) on plant survival, ethylene evolution, and abscisic acid (ABA) content were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heunh. plants. Three genetic lines of Arabidopsis differing in their resistance to ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation stress were used. UV-B irradiation had detrimental effects on plant survival, enhanced ethylene evolution, and increased ABA content in the plants of all three lines. The higher ultraviolet dose was absorbed, the less was the number of surviving plants and the higher were the levels of both phytohormones. The maximum ethylene evolution occurred during the initial two to four hours after irradiation, but the ABA content peaked only after 24 h. The most resistant line showed the highest ABA content and the fastest ethylene evolution, whereas, in the susceptible line, both indices were the lowest. After UV-B treatment, the ABA-deficient Arabidopsis mutant evolved four to six times more ethylene than the plants with normal ABA content. Stress ethylene production evidently did not depend on the level of endogenous ABA as the kinetics of ethylene evolution was similar in the ABA-deficient mutant and in other studied Arabidopsis lines

  6. Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin

    OpenAIRE

    Spandau, Dan F; Lewis, Davina A.; Somani, Ally-Khan; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a disease primarily afflicting geriatric patients as evidenced by the fact that 80% of all non-melanoma skin cancers are diagnosed in patients over the age of 60 years. As such, geriatric skin responds to cancer-inducing UVB irradiation in a manner that allows the establishment of tumor cells. Currently, the only effective treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer is the removal of the tumors after they appear, indicating the need for a more cost-effective prophylacti...

  7. UVB-induced epidermal hyperproliferation is modified by a single, topical treatment with a mitosis inhibitory epidermal pentapeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, W.M.; Elgjo, K.

    1990-01-01

    A single application of a water-miscible cream base containing the recently identified mitosis inhibitory epidermal pentapeptide pyroGlu-Glu-Asp-Ser-GlyOH (EPP) to hairless mouse skin is followed by a long-lasting period of reduced epidermal cell proliferation. To examine if a similar growth inhibition could be achieved in stimulated and rapidly proliferating epidermis, EPP was applied at two different concentrations, 0.005 or 0.02%, to hairless mouse skin immediately after exposure of the left flank to an erythemic dose of ultraviolet B light (UVB). This dose of UVB alone induces a sustained period of rapid epidermal cell proliferation, starting at about 18 h after the irradiation. Epidermal cell proliferation was followed from 18 to 54 h (0.005% cream) or from 18 to 30 h (0.02% cream) after the treatment by estimating the rate of G2-M cell flux (the mitotic rate) by means of Colcemid, and epidermal DNA synthesis by counting labeled cells after pulse-labeling with 3H-thymidine. The unirradiated side of the mice was used as reference. The results showed that topical treatment with a 0.02% EPP cream partially inhibited UVB-induced epidermal hyperproliferation, while the 0.005% EPP cream inhibited as well as stimulated the UVB-induced hyperproliferation. Thus, EPP is effective even in rapidly proliferating epidermal cell populations, but the outcome is obviously dose-dependent in this test system

  8. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häder, D.-P.

    Solar UV degrades dissolved organic carbon photolytically so that they can readily be taken up by bacterioplankton. On the other hand solar UV radiation inhibits bacterioplankton activity. Bacterioplankton productivity is far greater than previously thought and is comparable to phytoplankton primary productivity. According to the "microbial loop hypothesis," bacterioplankton is seen in the center of a food web, having a similar function to phytoplankton and protists. The penetration of UV and PAR into the water column can be measured. Marine waters show large temporal and regional differences in their concentrations of dissolved and particulate absorbing substances. A network of dosimeters (ELDONET) has been installed in Europe ranging from Abisko in Northern Sweden to Gran Canaria. Cyanobacteria are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen which is then made available to higher plants. The agricultural potential of cyanobacteria has been recognized as a biological fertilizer for wet soils such as in rice paddies. UV-B is known to impair processes such as growth, survival, pigmentation, motility, as well as the enzymes of nitrogen metabolism and CO 2 fixation. The marine phytoplankton represents the single most important ecosystem on our planet and produces about the same biomass as all terrestrial ecosystems taken together. It is the base of the aquatic food chain and any changes in the size and composition of phytoplankton communities will directly affect food production for humans from marine sources. Another important role of marine phytoplankton is to serve as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Recent investigations have shown a large sensitivity of most phytoplankton organisms toward solar short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UV-B); even at ambient levels of UV-B radiation many organisms seem to be under UV stress. Because of their requirement for solar energy, the phytoplankton dwell in the top layers of the water column. In this near-surface position

  9. Significance of Fractionated Administration of Thalidomide Combined With γ-Ray Irradiation in Terms of Local Tumor Response and Lung Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Sanada, Yu; Moriwaki, Takahiro; Tano, Keizo; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of fractionated administration of thalidomide combined with γ-ray irradiation in terms of local tumor response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of intratumor quiescent (Q) cells. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. The tumor-bearing mice then received γ-ray irradiation after thalidomide treatment through a single or two consecutive daily intraperitoneal administrations up to a total dose of 400 mg/kg in combination with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumors were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (= P + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumor-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Results Thalidomide raised the sensitivity of the total cell population more remarkably than Q cells in both single and daily administrations. Daily administration of thalidomide elevated the sensitivity of both the total and Q cell populations, but especially the total cell population, compared with single administration. Daily administration, especially combined with MTH, decreased the number of lung metastases. Conclusion Daily fractionated administration of thalidomide in combination with γ-ray irradiation was thought to be more promising than single administration because of its potential to enhance local tumor response and repress lung metastatic potential. PMID:29147396

  10. Ultraviolet B irradiation induces changes in the distribution and release of arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in human keratinocytes in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that derivatives of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, the eicosanoids, play an important role in the inflammatory responses of the human skin. To better understand the metabolic fate of fatty acids in the skin, the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation (280-320 nm) on the distribution and release of 14 C-labeled arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in human keratinocytes in culture was investigated. Ultraviolet B irradiation induced the release of all three 14 C-labeled fatty acids from the phospholipids, especially from phosphatidylethanolamine, and this was accompanied by increased labeling of the nonphosphorus lipids. This finding suggests that UVB induces a significant liberation of eicosanoid precursor fatty acids from cellular phospholipids, but the liberated fatty acids are largely reincorporated into the nonphosphorus lipids. In conclusion, the present study suggests that not only arachidonic acid but also dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid might be involved in the UVB irradiation-induced inflammatory reactions of human skin

  11. Polystyrene-Poly(methyl methacrylate) Silver Nanocomposites: Significant Modification of the Thermal and Electrical Properties by Microwave Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharaeh, Edreese H

    2016-06-13

    This work compares the preparation of nanocomposites of polystyrene (PS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and PSMMA co-polymer containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using in situ bulk polymerization with and without microwave irradiation (MWI). The AgNPs prepared were embedded within the polymer matrix. A modification in the thermal stability of the PS/Ag, PMMA/Ag, and PSMMA/Ag nanocomposites using MWI and in situ was observed compared with that of neat PSMMA, PS, and PMMA. In particular, PS/Ag, and PSMMA/Ag nanocomposites used in situ showed better thermal stability than MWI, while PMMA/Ag nanocomposites showed improved thermal stability. The electrical conductivity of the PS/Ag, PMMA/Ag, and PSMMA/Ag composites prepared by MWI revealed a percolation behavior when 20% AgNPs were used as a filler, and the conductivity of the nanocomposites increased to 103 S/cm, 33 S/cm, and 40 mS/cm, respectively. This enhancement might be due to the good dispersion of the AgNPs within the polymer matrix, which increased the interfacial interaction between the polymer and AgNPs. The polymer/Ag nanocomposites developed with tunable thermal and electrical properties could be used as conductive materials for electronic device applications.

  12. An Accurate Mass Determination for Kepler-1655b, a Moderately Irradiated World with a Significant Volatile Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Raphaëlle D.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Mortier, Annelies; Giles, Helen A. C.; López-Morales, Mercedes; Lopez, Eric D.; Malavolta, Luca; Charbonneau, David; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Dressing, Courtney D.; Nava, Chantanelle; Latham, David W.; Dumusque, Xavier; Lovis, Christophe; Molinari, Emilio; Pepe, Francesco; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Udry, Stéphane; Bouchy, François; Johnson, John A.; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Phillips, David; Piotto, Giampaolo; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Watson, Chris; Affer, Laura; Bonomo, Aldo S.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ciardi, David R.; Fiorenzano, Aldo F.; Harutyunyan, Avet

    2018-05-01

    We present the confirmation of a small, moderately irradiated (F = 155 ± 7 F ⊕) Neptune with a substantial gas envelope in a P = 11.8728787 ± 0.0000085 day orbit about a quiet, Sun-like G0V star Kepler-1655. Based on our analysis of the Kepler light curve, we determined Kepler-1655b’s radius to be 2.213 ± 0.082 R ⊕. We acquired 95 high-resolution spectra with Telescopio Nazionale Galileo/HARPS-N, enabling us to characterize the host star and determine an accurate mass for Kepler-1655b of 5.0{+/- }2.83.1 {M}\\oplus via Gaussian-process regression. Our mass determination excludes an Earth-like composition with 98% confidence. Kepler-1655b falls on the upper edge of the evaporation valley, in the relatively sparsely occupied transition region between rocky and gas-rich planets. It is therefore part of a population of planets that we should actively seek to characterize further.

  13. Proteomic profiling of human keratinocytes undergoing UVB-induced alternative differentiation reveals TRIpartite Motif Protein 29 as a survival factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Bertrand-Vallery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposures to UVB of human keratinocytes lacking functional p16(INK-4a and able to differentiate induce an alternative state of differentiation rather than stress-induced premature senescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 2D-DIGE proteomic profiling of this alternative state of differentiation was performed herein at various times after the exposures to UVB. Sixty-nine differentially abundant protein species were identified by mass spectrometry, many of which are involved in keratinocyte differentiation and survival. Among these protein species was TRIpartite Motif Protein 29 (TRIM29. Increased abundance of TRIM29 following UVB exposures was validated by Western blot using specific antibody and was also further analysed by immunochemistry and by RT-PCR. TRIM29 was found very abundant in keratinocytes and reconstructed epidermis. Knocking down the expression of TRIM29 by short-hairpin RNA interference decreased the viability of keratinocytes after UVB exposure. The abundance of involucrin mRNA, a marker of late differentiation, increased concomitantly. In TRIM29-knocked down reconstructed epidermis, the presence of picnotic cells revealed cell injury. Increased abundance of TRIM29 was also observed upon exposure to DNA damaging agents and PKC activation. The UVB-induced increase of TRIM29 abundance was dependent on a PKC signaling pathway, likely PKCdelta. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that TRIM29 allows keratinocytes to enter a protective alternative differentiation process rather than die massively after stress.

  14. Ultra-violet B (UVB)-induced skin cell death occurs through a cyclophilin D intrinsic signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chao; Yang, Bo; Yang, Zhi; Tu, Ying; Yang, Yan-li; He, Li; Bi, Zhi-Gang

    2012-09-07

    UVB-induced skin cell damage involves the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), which leads to both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Cyclophilin D (Cyp-D) translocation to the inner membrane of mitochondrion acts as a key component to open the mPTP. Our Western-Blot results in primary cultured human skin keratinocytes and in HaCaT cell line demonstrated that UVB radiation and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced Cyp-D expression, which was inhibited by anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). We created a stable Cyp-D deficiency skin keratinocytes by expressing Cyp-D-shRNA through lentiviral infection. Cyp-D-deficient cells were significantly less susceptible than their counterparts to UVB- or H(2)O(2)-induced cell death. Further, cyclosporine A (Cs-A), a Cyp-D inhibitor, inhibited UVB- or H(2)O(2)-induced keratinocytes cell death. Reversely, over-expression of Cyp-D in primary keratinocytes caused spontaneous keratinocytes cell death. These results suggest Cyp-D's critical role in UVB/oxidative stress-induced skin cell death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of the temperature and the exclusion of UVB radiation on the phenolics and iridoids in Menyanthes trifoliata L. leaves in the subarctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, Francoise [Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, POB 122, FI-96101 Rovaniemi (Finland); Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, POB 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi (Finland); Turunen, Minna, E-mail: minna.turunen@ulapland.f [Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, POB 122, FI-96101 Rovaniemi (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta [Natural Product Research Laboratories, Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, POB 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Lakkala, Kaisa [Arctic Research Centre, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI-ARC), Taehtelaentie, 62, FI-99600 Sodankylae (Finland); Sutinen, Marja-Liisa [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, POB 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi (Finland); Department of Biology, University of Oulu, POB 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    The long-term effects of UVB exclusion and temperature on the methanol extractable (ME) phenolics (flavonoids, phenolic acids) and iridoids of Menyanthes trifoliata L. (Mt) leaves were studied in northern Finland (68 deg. N) using wooden frames covered with filters for UVB exclusion (polyester filter), control (cellulose acetate filter) and ambient (no filter) conditions. Analysis of ambient plots showed no effect of the daily mean temperature (2sigma = 1.58 deg. C) on the leaf ME compound content and composition, but minimum temperatures decreased the flavonol content. UVB exclusion did not affect the total ME compound content but significantly decreased the proportion of flavonols concomitantly with an increase in iridoids. Due to its high iridoid content, Mt appears as an interesting model plant for studying the iridoid biosynthesis and its regulation under stress conditions. - This study shows that exclusion of UVB radiation modified the content of flavonols and iridoids but not chlorogenic acids in leaves of Menyanthes trifoliata in the subarctic.

  16. Significance of prophylactic para-aortic lymph node irradiation in the postoperatic treatment of the cervical cancer. Relationship between prognosis and lymph node metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Machiko; Arita, Shigehiro; Ishida, Osamu; Murano, Yoshihiko; Sumita, Mitsugu; Okumura, Masahiko; Nanbu, Hidekazu [Kinki Univ., Osaka-Sayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Between 1976 and 1989, 163 patients were treated by postoperative radiotherapy for cervical cancer stage Ib and IIb. Before irradiation for the whole pelvis, a total dose of 50 Gy was given in 5 weeks. Cumulative 5-year survival rates according to the number of pelvic lymph node metastasis were 100% for Ib L{sub 1} (one node involvement) in 10 patients, 60% for Ib L{sub 2} {up_arrow} (two or more involved) in 10, 73% for IIb L{sub 1} in 23, 78% for IIb L{sub 2} in 9, 47% for IIb L{sub 3} {up_arrow} in 18. The first recurrent sites of stage Ib were distant organ via lymphatic routes in 3 patients and hematogenous routes in 2. IIb were via lymphatic routes in 10 patients, hematogenous routes in 10, and regional recurrence in 6. After introduced para-aortic node irradiation, the pelvic plus para-aortic irradiation delivered 45 Gy in 5 weeks for two or more lymph nodes involvement. The cumulative 5-year survival rates were 100% for Ib L{sub 1} in 10 patients, 100% for Ib L{sub 2} in 7, 65% for Ib L{sub 3} {up_arrow} in 9, 82% for IIb L{sub 1} in 17, 68% for IIb L{sub 2} in 27, and 48% for IIb L{sub 3} {up_arrow} in 23. The first recurrent sites for Ib with introduction of para-aortic node irradiation were distant organs via lymphatic routes in 1 patient and hematogenous routes in 2, and the sites for IIb were via lymphatic routes in 10, hematogenous 7, peritonitis carcinomatous 1, and in the pelvic field of 6. Late effects developed in 3 (19%) of Ib and 19 (29%) of IIb. Side effects increased with prophylactic para-aortic node irradiation. No significant difference was observed in survival rates between pelvic and pelvic plus para-aortic node irradiation group. (S.Y.).

  17. Soybean resistance to stink bugs (Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii) increases with exposure to solar UV-B radiation and correlates with isoflavonoid content in pods under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Jorge A; Mazza, Carlos A; Dillon, Francisco M; Chludil, Hugo D; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2015-05-01

    Solar UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) has a significant influence on trophic relationships in natural and managed ecosystems, affecting plant-insect interactions. We explored the effects of ambient UV-B radiation on the levels of herbivory by stink bugs (Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii) in field-grown soybean crops. The experiments included two levels of UV-B radiation (ambient and attenuated UV-B) and four soybean cultivars known to differ in their content of soluble leaf phenolics. Ambient UV-B radiation increased the accumulation of the isoflavonoids daidzin and genistin in the pods of all cultivars. Soybean crops grown under attenuated UV-B had higher numbers of unfilled pods and damaged seeds than crops grown under ambient UV-B radiation. Binary choice experiments with soybean branches demonstrated that stink bugs preferred branches of the attenuated UV-B treatment. We found a positive correlation between percentage of undamaged seeds and the contents of daidzin and genistin in pods. Our results suggest that constitutive and UV-B-induced isoflavonoids increase plant resistance to stink bugs under field conditions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Responses of membrane lipid peroxidation and endogenous hormones of soybean seedlings to UV-B radiation and rare earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shengrong; Yang Chunhe; Zhang Yuequn

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to provide strategies for development of rare earth and control of environmental pollution. [Method] Responses of membrane lipid peroxidation and endogenous hormones of soybean seedlings to UV-B radiation and rare earth were studied through hydroponics in laboratory. [Result] The results showed that under irradiation of UV-B(T1-0.15 W/m2 and T2-0.45 W/m2), chlorophyll and indole-3-acetic acid(IAA) contents firstly decreased during the stress phase (1-5d) and then increased during the restoration phase (6-9d) while contents of malonadialdehyde(MDA) and abscisic acid(ABA) gradually increased during the imposition of UV-B radiation (1-5d) and subsequently decreased during recovery from UV-B stress (6-9d) . With adding of La (Ⅲ) with the concentration of 20mg•L-1, the decline/rise trend of chlorophyll, IAA, MDA and ABA contents was slowed down during the stress period while the rise/decline speed was accelerated during the recovery period. [Conclusion] It suggests that the regulation of La (Ⅲ) on membrane lipid peroxidation and endogenous hormones could increase chlorophyll and IAA contents, improve the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibit membrane lipid peroxidation, decrease the accumulation amount of ABA and alleviate injury of UV-B radiation to soybean seedlings. Further, the protective potential of La (Ⅲ) was better under low UV-B radiation than under high one

  19. Modulation of accelerated repopulation in mouse skin during daily irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.-R.; Shirazi, A.; Heasman, F.

    1999-01-01

    Background and purpose: The timing of acceleration of repopulation in the epidermis during daily irradiation is related to the development of skin erythema and epidermal hypoplasia. Therefore, the relationship between impairment of the epidermal barrier function, the dermal inflammatory response and epidermal hypoplasia with the acceleration of repopulation was investigated.Materials and purpose: Skin fields of approximately 1 cm 2 on the thighs of TUC mice were given five daily fractions of 3 Gy in each week followed by top-up doses at the end of the first, the second, or the third week to determine residual epidermal tolerance and to calculate repopulation rates in weeks 1, 2, or 3. Systemic modulation of repopulation was attempted by daily indomethacine during fractionated irradiation whereas tape stripping or UV-B exposure before the start of fractionated irradiation attempted local modulation. In parallel experiments, the water permeability coefficient of the epidermis was determined ex vivo by studying transepidermal transport of tritiated water.Results: Without modulation, no repopulation was found in the first week of daily fractionation but repopulation compensated 30% of the dose given in week two and 70% of the dose given in week three. Only tape stripping before the start of fractionated irradiation accelerated repopulation in week one. UV-B had no effect on repopulation although it stimulated proliferation as much as tape stripping. Indomethacin did not suppress acceleration of repopulation. A significant increase in transepidermal water loss was found but only after repopulation had already accelerated.Conclusions: Acceleration of repopulation in mouse epidermis during daily-fractionated irradiation is not related to the simultaneous development of an inflammatory response. Also, the loss of the epidermal barrier function is not involved in the development of the acceleration response, which rather seems to be triggered directly by the decreased

  20. Risks of increased UV-B radiation: higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, W.; Hofmann, H.

    1994-01-01

    The question pursued within the Bavarian climate research programme (BayFORKLIM) in the present context was as follows: Does the fact that UV-B radiation increases with growing site elevation mean that the low sensitivity of predominantly alpine plants compared with that of lowland plants is attributable to their different genetic constitution, possibly as a result of selective pressure and/or de alpine species have a greater capacity to develop protective mechanisms? Pairs and triplets of species belonging to the same genus but occuring at different site elevations were grown from seeds in a greenhouse that is, without UV-B. In order to determine their capacity to adapt to UV-B radiation, some of the plants were additionally exposed to UV-B for 5-6 weeks prior to sensitivity testing. Sensitivity was tested by exposing the plants to additional UV-B of different intensities in test chambers. Visible damage, ranging from light bronzing or yellowing to withering, served as an assessment criterion. Levels of UV-B absorbing substances (phenylpropane species, usually flavonoids) were also measured in these plants. The results obtained permit the following conclusions: The greater UV-B resistance of alpine species compared with that of lowland species of the same genus is not attributable to their genetic constitution but rather to their superior adaptability. Superior resistance is in part due to a greater accumulation of UV-B absorbing substances. Distinct differences in sensitivity between different genera could lead to population shifts within ecosystems as a result of increased UV-B radiation. (orig./KW) [de

  1. ATPase and morphologic changes induced by UVB on Langerhans cells in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanau, D.; Fabre, M.; Lepoittevin, J.P.; Stampf, J.L.; Grosshans, E.; Benezra, C.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have devised, in guinea pigs, an improved ATPase technique which enables one to proceed from light to electron microscope study while preserving, on the ultrastructural level, the various membranous structures, in particular the Langerhans cell (LC) granules. Using this method, they have been able to confirm the action of acute, low-dose UVB on the surface enzymatic marker, ATPase. Moreover, this study has shown that the ATPase-negative LC contain abnormal LC granules or, more often, are deficient in LC granules. In a previous work, the authors have shown that, after epicutaneous application of a hapten, one successively observes an extensive adsorptive pinocytosis process, the disappearance of the membranous ATPase system, and the appearance of LC granules in the cytoplasm. Therefore, the authors may suppose that, after UVB irradiation, the disappearance of the ATPase system and/or the possible alteration of the adsorptive pinocytosis process interrupts or alters the formation of LC granules. These successive events might play a vital role in the formation of the hapten--carrier protein-Ia antigen complex. In their absence in a large number of LC, following UV irradiation, epicutaneous application of a hapten would lead to the development of a state of immune tolerance

  2. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on motile microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeder, D.P.

    1985-02-01

    The effect of slightly increased UV-B radiation was studied in four taxonomically very different microorganisms: the gliding prokaryotic cyanobacterium, Phormidium, the unicellular green alga Cosmarium, the flagellate Euglena and the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. UV-B doses which can be expected as a result of a slight decrease of the protective ozone layer in the stratosphere, do not kill or damage the microorganisms visibly. However, such UV-B doses impair the development, motility and photoorientation of these organisms. Due to the inhibition of these physiological important parameters the organisms cannot respond adequately to the changing factors in their environment, which prevents the survival of the populations. (orig.) [de

  3. UV-B damage amplified by transposons in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walbot, V.

    1999-01-01

    While absorbing visible light energy for photosynthesis, plants are unavoidably exposed to ultraviolet radiation, which is particularly harmful at shorter wavelengths (UV-B radiation). Ozone depletion in the atmosphere means that plants receive episodic or steadily increasing doses of UV-B, which damages their photosynthetic reaction centres, crosslinks cellular proteins, and induces mutagenic DNA lesions. Plant adaptive mechanisms of shielding and repair are therefore critical to survival — for example, somatic tissues of maize and Arabidopsis defective in phenolic sunscreen pigments incur increased DNA damage, and mutants defective in DNA repair are killed by UV-B

  4. UV Irradiance Enhancements by Scattering of Solar Radiation from Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Feister

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scattering of solar radiation by clouds can reduce or enhance solar global irradiance compared to cloudless-sky irradiance at the Earth’s surface. Cloud effects to global irradiance can be described by Cloud Modification Factors (CMF. Depending on strength and duration, irradiance enhancements affect the energy balance of the surface and gain of solar power for electric energy generation. In the ultraviolet region, they increase the risk for damage to living organisms. Wavelength-dependent CMFs have been shown to reach 1.5 even in the UV-B region at low altitudes. Ground-based solar radiation measurements in the high Andes region at altitudes up to 5917 m a.s.l showed cloud-induced irradiance enhancements. While UV-A enhancements were explained by cloud scattering, both radiation scattering from clouds and Negative Ozone Anomalies (NOA have been discussed to have caused short-time enhancement of UV-B irradiance. Based on scenarios using published CMF and additional spectroradiometric measurements at a low-altitude site, the contribution of cloud scattering to the UV-B irradiance enhancement in the Andes region has been estimated. The range of UV index estimates converted from measured UV-B and UV-A irradiance and modeled cloudless-sky ratios UV-B/erythemal UV is compatible with an earlier estimate of an extreme UV index value of 43 derived for the high Andes.

  5. Responses of photosynthetic properties and chloroplast ultrastructure of two moss crusts from a desert biological soil crust to supplementary UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Rong; Li, Xinrong; Zhao, Yang; Pan, Yanxia

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of plant responses to supplementary ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion has improved over recent decades. However, research on biological soil crusts (BSCs) is scarce and it remains controversial. Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the influence of UV-B radiation on the Bryum argenteum and Didymodon vinealis isolated from BSCs, which are both dominant species in moss crusts found within patches of shrubs and herbs in the Tengger Desert of northern China. The aim of the current work was to evaluate whether supplementary UV-B radiation affected photosynthetic properties and chloroplast ultrastructure of two moss crusts and whether response differences were observed between the crusts. Four levels of UV-B radiation of 2.75 (control), 3.08, 3.25, and 3.41 W m-2 was achieved using fluorescence tube systems for 10 days, simulating 0, 6, 9, and 12% of stratospheric ozone at the latitude of Shapotou, respectively. We measured photosynthetic apparatus as assessed by chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic pigment contents, and observations of chloroplast ultrastructure. Additionally, soluble proteins and UV-B absorbing compounds were simultaneously investigated. The results of this study showed that chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters (i.e., the maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, the effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, and photochemical quenching coefficient), photosynthetic pigment contents, soluble protein contents, total flavonoid contents and the ultrastructure were negatively influenced by elevated UV-B radiation and the degree of detrimental effects significantly increased with the intensity of UV-B radiation. Moreover, results demonstrated that the negative effects on photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure were more serious in B. argenteum than that in D. vinealis. These results may not only provide a potential mechanism for supplemental UV-B effects on

  6. Induction of B-cell lymphoma by UVB Radiation in p53 Haploinsufficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullrich Stephen E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has increased over recent years. The exact etiology of lymphoma remains unknown. Ultraviolet light exposure has been associated with the development of internal lymphoid malignancies and some reports suggest that it may play a role in the development of lymphoma in humans. Here we describe the characterization and progression of lymphoma in p53 heterozygous mice exposed to UVB irradiation. Methods UVB-irradiated p53+/- mice developed enlargement of the spleen. Isolated spleen cells were transplanted into Rag deficient hosts. The UV-induced tumor cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The tumor cells were tagged with GFP to study their metastatic potential. SKY and karyotypic analysis were carried out for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities. Functional assays included in vitro class switch recombination assay, immunoglobulin rearrangement assay, as well as cytokine profiling. Results UVB-exposed mice showed enlargement of the spleen and lymph nodes. Cells transplanted into Rag deficient mice developed aggressive tumors that infiltrated the lymph nodes, the spleen and the bone marrow. The tumor cells did not grow in immune competent syngeneic C57Bl/6 mice yet showed a modest growth in UV-irradiated B6 mice. Phenotypic analysis of these tumor cells revealed these cells are positive for B cell markers CD19+, CD5+, B220+, IgM+ and negative for T cell, NK or dendritic cell markers. The UV-induced tumor cells underwent robust in vitro immunoglobulin class switch recombination in response to lipopolysaccharide. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a t(14;19 translocation and trisomy of chromosome 6. These tumor cells secret IL-10, which can promote tumor growth and cause systemic immunosuppression. Conclusion UV-irradiated p53+/- mice developed lymphoid tumors that corresponded to a mature B cell lymphoma. Our results suggest that an indirect mechanism is involved in the development of internal

  7. Induction of B-cell lymphoma by UVB Radiation in p53 Haploinsufficient Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puebla-Osorio, Nahum; Miyahara, Yasuko; Coimbatore, Sreevidya; Limón-Flores, Alberto Y; Kazimi, Nasser; Ullrich, Stephen E; Zhu, Chengming

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has increased over recent years. The exact etiology of lymphoma remains unknown. Ultraviolet light exposure has been associated with the development of internal lymphoid malignancies and some reports suggest that it may play a role in the development of lymphoma in humans. Here we describe the characterization and progression of lymphoma in p53 heterozygous mice exposed to UVB irradiation. UVB-irradiated p53 +/- mice developed enlargement of the spleen. Isolated spleen cells were transplanted into Rag deficient hosts. The UV-induced tumor cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The tumor cells were tagged with GFP to study their metastatic potential. SKY and karyotypic analysis were carried out for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities. Functional assays included in vitro class switch recombination assay, immunoglobulin rearrangement assay, as well as cytokine profiling. UVB-exposed mice showed enlargement of the spleen and lymph nodes. Cells transplanted into Rag deficient mice developed aggressive tumors that infiltrated the lymph nodes, the spleen and the bone marrow. The tumor cells did not grow in immune competent syngeneic C57Bl/6 mice yet showed a modest growth in UV-irradiated B6 mice. Phenotypic analysis of these tumor cells revealed these cells are positive for B cell markers CD19 + , CD5 + , B220 + , IgM + and negative for T cell, NK or dendritic cell markers. The UV-induced tumor cells underwent robust in vitro immunoglobulin class switch recombination in response to lipopolysaccharide. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a t(14;19) translocation and trisomy of chromosome 6. These tumor cells secret IL-10, which can promote tumor growth and cause systemic immunosuppression. UV-irradiated p53 +/- mice developed lymphoid tumors that corresponded to a mature B cell lymphoma. Our results suggest that an indirect mechanism is involved in the development of internal tumors after chronic exposure to UV light. The

  8. RNA-Seq transcriptomic analysis of the Morus alba L. leaves exposed to high-level UVB with or without dark treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qijie; Yu, Jiaojiao; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Bingxian; Li, Yaohan; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2018-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation induces oxidative stress in plant cells due to the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species. Morus alba L. (M. abla) is an important medicinal plant used for the treatment of human diseases. Also, its leaves are widely used as food for silkworms. In our previous research, we found that a high level of UVB irradiation with dark incubation led to the accumulation of secondary metabolites in M. abla leaf. The aim of the present study was to describe and compare M. alba leaf transcriptomics with different treatments (control, UVB, UVB+dark). Leaf transcripts from M. alba were sequenced using an Illumina Hiseq 2000 system, which produced 14.27Gb of data including 153,204,462 paired-end reads among the three libraries. We de novo assembled 133,002 transcripts with an average length of 1270bp and filtered 69,728 non-redundant unigenes. A similarity search was performed against the non-redundant National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database, which returned 41.08% hits. Among the 20,040 unigenes annotated in UniProtKB/SwissProt database, 16,683 unigenes were assigned 102,232 gene ontology terms and 6667 unigenes were identified in 287 known metabolic pathways. Results of differential gene expression analysis together with real-time quantitative PCR tests indicated that UVB irradiation with dark incubation enhanced the flavonoid biosynthesis in M. alba leaf. Our findings provided a valuable proof for a better understanding of the metabolic mechanism under abiotic stresses in M. alba leaf. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Photomorphogenic responses to UV radiation III: a comparative study of UVB effects on anthocyanin and flavonoid accumulation in wild-type and aurea mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, K.; Giannini, A.; Lercari, B.

    1995-01-01

    The UV-mediated induction of anthocyanin and UV-absorbing compounds was characterized in etiolated hypocotyls of wild-type and aurea (au) mutant tomato seedlings. Ultraviolet radiation induced significant increases of anthocyanin and UV-absorbing compounds in hypocotyls of the au mutant and of its isogenic wild-type, but the differences in the time courses of UV-induced pigment accumulation indicate that different photoregulatory mechanisms are involved for each of these two groups of pigments. It appears that prolonged presence of adequate levels of UVB (290-320 nm) energy and consequently the action of a specific UVB photoreceptor are indispensable for the photoinduction of anthocyanin accumulation in UV-irradiated hypocotyl of the au mutant that is missing the labile phytochrome pool. The large difference found between the wild-type and the au mutant strongly indicate the involvement of labile phytochrome as the primary functional photoreceptor for the photoinduction of anthocyanin accumulation in wild-type tomato hypocotyls. (author)

  10. Effects of stratocumulus, cumulus, and cirrus clouds on the UV-B diffuse to global ratio: Experimental and modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, María Laura; Palancar, Gustavo G.; Toselli, Beatriz M.

    2012-01-01

    Broadband measurements of global and diffuse UV-B irradiance (280-315 nm) together with modeled and measured diffuse to global ratios (DGR) have been used to characterize the influence of different types of clouds on irradiance at the surface. Measurements were carried out during 2000-2001 in Córdoba City, Argentina. The Tropospheric Ultraviolet Visible (TUV) model was used to analyze the behavior of the modeled DGRs for different cloud optical depths and at different altitudes and solar zenith angles (SZA). Different cloud altitudes were also tested, although only the results for a cloud placed at 1.5-2.5 km of altitude are shown. A total of 16 day with stratocumulus, 12 with cumulus, and 16 with cirrus have been studied and compared among them and also against 21 clear sky days. Different behaviors were clearly detected and also differentiated through the analysis of the averages and the standard deviations of the DGRs: 1.02±0.06 for stratocumulus, 0.74±0.18 for cumulus, 0.63±0.12 for cirrus, and 0.60±0.13 for the clear sky days, respectively. Stratocumulus clouds showed a low variability in the DGR values, which were concentrated close to one at all SZAs. DGR values for cumulus clouds presented a large variability at all SZAs, mostly associated with the different optical depths. Finally, the closeness between the DGR values for cirrus clouds and the DGR values for clear days showed that these clouds generally do not strongly affect the UV-B irradiance at the surface at any SZA. In the opposite side, stratocumulus clouds were identified as those with the largest effects, at all SZAs, on the UV-B irradiance at the surface.

  11. Synthesis of lipid mediators during UVB-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in rats and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sisignano

    Full Text Available Peripheral sensitization during inflammatory pain is mediated by a variety of endogenous proalgesic mediators including a number of oxidized lipids, some of which serve endogenous modulators of sensory TRP-channels. These lipids are eicosanoids of the arachidonic acid and linoleic acid pathway, as well as lysophophatidic acids (LPAs. However, their regulation pattern during inflammatory pain and their contribution to peripheral sensitization is still unclear. Here, we used the UVB-model for inflammatory pain to investigate alterations of lipid concentrations at the site of inflammation, the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs as well as the spinal dorsal horn and quantified 21 lipid species from five different lipid families at the peak of inflammation 48 hours post irradiation. We found that known proinflammatory lipids as well as lipids with unknown roles in inflammatory pain to be strongly increased in the skin, whereas surprisingly little changes of lipid levels were seen in DRGs or the dorsal horn. Importantly, although there are profound differences between the number of cytochrome (CYP genes between mice and rats, CYP-derived lipids were regulated similarly in both species. Since TRPV1 agonists such as LPA 18∶1, 9- and 13-HODE, 5- and 12-HETE were elevated in the skin, they may contribute to thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia during UVB-induced inflammatory pain. These results may explain why some studies show relatively weak analgesic effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in UVB-induced skin inflammation, as they do not inhibit synthesis of other proalgesic lipids such as LPA 18∶1, 9-and 13-HODE and HETEs.

  12. The Role of Altered Nucleotide Excision Repair and UVB-Induced DNA Damage in Melanomagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Budden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available UVB radiation is the most mutagenic component of the UV spectrum that reaches the earth’s surface and causes the development of DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts. UV radiation usually results in cellular death, but if left unchecked, it can affect DNA integrity, cell and tissue homeostasis and cause mutations in oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes. These mutations, if unrepaired, can lead to abnormal cell growth, increasing the risk of cancer development. Epidemiological data strongly associates UV exposure as a major factor in melanoma development, but the exact biological mechanisms involved in this process are yet to be fully elucidated. The nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway is responsible for the repair of UV-induced lesions. Patients with the genetic disorder Xeroderma Pigmentosum have a mutation in one of eight NER genes associated with the XP complementation groups XP-A to XP-G and XP variant (XP-V. XP is characterized by diminished repair capacity, as well as a 1000-fold increase in the incidence of skin cancers, including melanoma. This has suggested a significant role for NER in melanoma development as a result of UVB exposure. This review discusses the current research surrounding UVB radiation and NER capacity and how further investigation of NER could elucidate the role of NER in avoiding UV-induced cellular death resulting in melanomagenesis.

  13. Phototoxicity and oxidative stress responses in Daphnia magna under exposure to sulfathiazole and environmental level ultraviolet B irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jungkon; Park, Yena; Choi, Kyungho

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics frequently occur in aquatic environments. In this study, phototoxicity of sulfathiazole (STZ) and its mechanism of action were investigated using Daphnia magna. We evaluated the changes of molecular level stress responses by assessing gene expression, enzyme induction and lipid peroxidation, and the related organism-level effects in D. magna. In the presence of ultraviolet B (UV-B) light (continuous irradiation with 13.8 ± 1.0 μW cm -2 d -1 ), STZ (at the nominal concentration of 94.9 mg/L) caused a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) showed concentration-dependent increases caused by the exposure. Exposure to STZ and UV-B light caused apparent up-regulation of α-esterase, hemoglobin, and vitellogenin mRNA. The survival of daphnids was significantly affected by the co-exposure to STZ and UV-B. The biochemical and molecular level observations in combination with organism-level effects suggest that the phototoxicity of STZ was mediated in part by ROS generated by oxidative stress in D. magna

  14. Phototoxicity and oxidative stress responses in Daphnia magna under exposure to sulfathiazole and environmental level ultraviolet B irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungkon [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: koguma@snu.ac.kr; Park, Yena [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: elohim@snu.ac.kr; Choi, Kyungho [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kyungho@snu.ac.kr

    2009-01-18

    Sulfonamide antibiotics frequently occur in aquatic environments. In this study, phototoxicity of sulfathiazole (STZ) and its mechanism of action were investigated using Daphnia magna. We evaluated the changes of molecular level stress responses by assessing gene expression, enzyme induction and lipid peroxidation, and the related organism-level effects in D. magna. In the presence of ultraviolet B (UV-B) light (continuous irradiation with 13.8 {+-} 1.0 {mu}W cm{sup -2} d{sup -1}), STZ (at the nominal concentration of 94.9 mg/L) caused a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) showed concentration-dependent increases caused by the exposure. Exposure to STZ and UV-B light caused apparent up-regulation of {alpha}-esterase, hemoglobin, and vitellogenin mRNA. The survival of daphnids was significantly affected by the co-exposure to STZ and UV-B. The biochemical and molecular level observations in combination with organism-level effects suggest that the phototoxicity of STZ was mediated in part by ROS generated by oxidative stress in D. magna.

  15. Effects of UV-B radiation on leaf hair traits of invasive plants-Combining historical herbarium records with novel remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Václavík, Tomáš; Beckmann, Michael; Cord, Anna F; Bindewald, Anja M

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a key but under-researched environmental factor that initiates diverse responses in plants, potentially affecting their distribution. To date, only a few macroecological studies have examined adaptations of plant species to different levels of UV-B. Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L. with a novel UV-B dataset to examine differences in leaf hair traits between the plants' native and alien ranges. We analysed scans of 336 herbarium specimens using standardized measurements of leaf area, hair density (both species) and hair length (H. pilosella only). While accounting for other bioclimatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation) and effects of herbivory, we examined whether UV-B exposure explains the variability and geographical distribution of these traits in the native (Northern Hemisphere) vs. the alien (Southern Hemisphere) range. UV-B explained the largest proportion of the variability and geographical distribution of hair length in H. pilosella (relative influence 67.1%), and hair density in E. vulgare (66.2%). Corresponding with higher UV-B, foliar hairs were 25% longer for H. pilosella and 25% denser for E. vulgare in records from the Southern as compared to those from the Northern Hemisphere. However, focusing on each hemisphere separately or controlling for its effect in a regression analysis, we found no apparent influence of UV-B radiation on hair traits. Thus, our findings did not confirm previous experimental studies which suggested that foliar hairs may respond to higher UV-B intensities, presumably offering protection against detrimental levels of radiation. We cannot rule out UV-B radiation as a possible driver because UV-B radiation was the only considered variable that differed substantially between the hemispheres, while bioclimatic conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation) and other considered variables (herbivory damage, collection date) were at similar

  16. Effects of UV-B radiation on leaf hair traits of invasive plants—Combining historical herbarium records with novel remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cord, Anna F.; Bindewald, Anja M.

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a key but under-researched environmental factor that initiates diverse responses in plants, potentially affecting their distribution. To date, only a few macroecological studies have examined adaptations of plant species to different levels of UV-B. Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L. with a novel UV-B dataset to examine differences in leaf hair traits between the plants’ native and alien ranges. We analysed scans of 336 herbarium specimens using standardized measurements of leaf area, hair density (both species) and hair length (H. pilosella only). While accounting for other bioclimatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation) and effects of herbivory, we examined whether UV-B exposure explains the variability and geographical distribution of these traits in the native (Northern Hemisphere) vs. the alien (Southern Hemisphere) range. UV-B explained the largest proportion of the variability and geographical distribution of hair length in H. pilosella (relative influence 67.1%), and hair density in E. vulgare (66.2%). Corresponding with higher UV-B, foliar hairs were 25% longer for H. pilosella and 25% denser for E. vulgare in records from the Southern as compared to those from the Northern Hemisphere. However, focusing on each hemisphere separately or controlling for its effect in a regression analysis, we found no apparent influence of UV-B radiation on hair traits. Thus, our findings did not confirm previous experimental studies which suggested that foliar hairs may respond to higher UV-B intensities, presumably offering protection against detrimental levels of radiation. We cannot rule out UV-B radiation as a possible driver because UV-B radiation was the only considered variable that differed substantially between the hemispheres, while bioclimatic conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation) and other considered variables (herbivory damage, collection date) were at similar

  17. Effects of silicon application on diurnal variations of physiological properties of rice leaves of plants at the heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Lixuan, Ren; Meng, Yan; Shidi, Zhao; Huaiwei, Zhu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of silicon (Si) application on diurnal variations of photosynthetic and transpiration physiological parameters in potted rice ( Oryza sativa L. cv Nanjing 45) at the heading stage. The plants were subjected to two UV-B radiation levels, i.e., reference UV-B (A, ambient, 12.0 kJ m-2 day-1) and elevated UV-B radiation (E, a 20 % higher dose of UV-B than the reference, 14.4 kJ m-2 day-1), and four Si application levels, i.e., Si0 (no silicon supplementation, 0 kg SiO2 ha-1), Si1 (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 ha-1), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 ha-1), and Si3 (slag silicon fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 ha-1). Compared with the reference, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the diurnal mean values of the net photosynthetic rate ( Pn), intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ( Ci), transpiration rate ( Tr), stomatal conductivity ( Gs), and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.3, and 6.3 %, respectively, in plants not supplemented with silicon (Si0), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8-5.5, 0.7-4.8, 4.0-8.7, 7.4-20.2, and 0.7-5.9 %, respectively, in plants treated with silicon (Si1, Si2, and Si3), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, silicon application (Si1, Si2, and Si3) increased the diurnal mean values of Pn, Ci, Gs, and WUE by 16.9-28.0, 3.5-14.3, 16.8-38.7, and 29.0-51.2 %, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9-10.8 %, compared with plants not treated with silicon (E+Si0), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation by significantly increasing the P n, C i, G s, and WUE and decreasing the T r of rice. Evident differences existed in mitigating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among different silicon application treatments, exhibiting as Si3>Si2>Si1>Si0. In addition to recycling steel industrial wastes, the

  18. Effects of silicon application on diurnal variations of physiological properties of rice leaves of plants at the heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Lixuan, Ren; Meng, Yan; Shidi, Zhao; Huaiwei, Zhu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of silicon (Si) application on diurnal variations of photosynthetic and transpiration physiological parameters in potted rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Nanjing 45) at the heading stage. The plants were subjected to two UV-B radiation levels, i.e., reference UV-B (A, ambient, 12.0 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) and elevated UV-B radiation (E, a 20% higher dose of UV-B than the reference, 14.4 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), and four Si application levels, i.e., Si0 (no silicon supplementation, 0 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), Si1 (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), and Si3 (slag silicon fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 ha(-1)). Compared with the reference, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the diurnal mean values of the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductivity (Gs), and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.3, and 6.3%, respectively, in plants not supplemented with silicon (Si0), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8-5.5, 0.7-4.8, 4.0-8.7, 7.4-20.2, and 0.7-5.9%, respectively, in plants treated with silicon (Si1, Si2, and Si3), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, silicon application (Si1, Si2, and Si3) increased the diurnal mean values of Pn, Ci, Gs, and WUE by 16.9-28.0, 3.5-14.3, 16.8-38.7, and 29.0-51.2%, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9-10.8%, compared with plants not treated with silicon (E+Si0), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation by significantly increasing the P n, C i, G s, and WUE and decreasing the T r of rice. Evident differences existed in mitigating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among different silicon application treatments, exhibiting as Si3>Si2>Si1>Si0. In addition to recycling steel industrial wastes, the

  19. Effects of UV-B radiation on leaf hair traits of invasive plants-Combining historical herbarium records with novel remote sensing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Václavík

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet-B (UV-B radiation is a key but under-researched environmental factor that initiates diverse responses in plants, potentially affecting their distribution. To date, only a few macroecological studies have examined adaptations of plant species to different levels of UV-B. Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L. with a novel UV-B dataset to examine differences in leaf hair traits between the plants' native and alien ranges. We analysed scans of 336 herbarium specimens using standardized measurements of leaf area, hair density (both species and hair length (H. pilosella only. While accounting for other bioclimatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation and effects of herbivory, we examined whether UV-B exposure explains the variability and geographical distribution of these traits in the native (Northern Hemisphere vs. the alien (Southern Hemisphere range. UV-B explained the largest proportion of the variability and geographical distribution of hair length in H. pilosella (relative influence 67.1%, and hair density in E. vulgare (66.2%. Corresponding with higher UV-B, foliar hairs were 25% longer for H. pilosella and 25% denser for E. vulgare in records from the Southern as compared to those from the Northern Hemisphere. However, focusing on each hemisphere separately or controlling for its effect in a regression analysis, we found no apparent influence of UV-B radiation on hair traits. Thus, our findings did not confirm previous experimental studies which suggested that foliar hairs may respond to higher UV-B intensities, presumably offering protection against detrimental levels of radiation. We cannot rule out UV-B radiation as a possible driver because UV-B radiation was the only considered variable that differed substantially between the hemispheres, while bioclimatic conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation and other considered variables (herbivory damage, collection date were at

  20. UV-B absorbing pigments in spores: biochemical responses to shade in a high-latitude birch forest and implications for sporopollenin-based proxies of past environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry V. Callaghan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current attempts to develop a proxy for Earth's surface ultraviolet-B (UV-B flux focus on the organic chemistry of pollen and spores because their constituent biopolymer, sporopollenin, contains UV-B absorbing pigments whose relative abundance may respond to the ambient UV-B flux. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR microspectroscopy provides a useful tool for rapidly determining the pigment content of spores. In this paper, we use FTIR to detect a chemical response of spore wall UV-B absorbing pigments that correspond with levels of shade beneath the canopy of a high-latitude Swedish birch forest. A 27% reduction in UV-B flux beneath the canopy leads to a significant (p<0.05 7.3% reduction in concentration of UV-B absorbing compounds in sporopollenin. The field data from this natural flux gradient in UV-B further support our earlier work on sporopollenin-based proxies derived from sedimentary records and herbaria collections.

  1. Temporal variation of erythemally effective UVB/UVA ratio at Chilton, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooke, R. J.; Pearson, A. J.; O'Hagan, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the temporal variation in the erythemally weighted UVB/UVA irradiance ratio using spectral data collected from a monitoring site in Chilton, UK (51 deg. N) for the 5-y period from 2004 to 2008 is presented. The variation in the diurnal ratio was found to be bell-shaped, with minima on average 1 h after sunrise and before sunset. The minima were found to be indicative of the point at which UVB becomes undetectable by the spectro-radiometer and therefore the outer boundary of useful data. A potential flaw entailed in the erythemal weighting of low-level spectral UV data is described. The peak daily ratio value was found to have a bell-shaped distribution over the course of a year with a maximum in July rather than at the summer solstice-a result explained by the ozone cycle. The peak daily ratio was found to vary by a factor of 4 over the course of the year; this range of variation was also found to occur over a single day in the summer. (authors)

  2. Influence of PUVA and UVB radiation on delayed hypersensitivity in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morison, W.L.; Parrish, J.A.; Woehler, M.E.; Krugler, J.I.; Bloch, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Exposure of guinea pigs to UVA (320--400 nm) radiation following administration of 8-methoxypsoralen by gavage (referred to by the acronym, PUVA) or exposure to UVB (290--320 nm) radiation, produced suppression of the cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reaction at the site of exposure to radiation and at distant nonexposed sites. In these experiments, the animals were immunized by injection of dinitrophenyl-bovine gamma-globulin (DNP-BGG) in complete Freund's adjuvant and delayed hypersensitivity responses were provoked by intradermal injections of DNP-BGG, DNP and BGG on the flanks. Exposure to erythemogenic doses of either PUVA or UVB radiation for 7 days prior to immunization and for the 7 days between immunization and challenge (total period of radiation: 14 days) produced inhibiton of responses to each of the test substances. In addition, treatment with erythemogenic doses of PUVA either for 7 days prior to immunization or during the interval between immunization and challenge with DNP-BGG, inhibited the delayed hypersensitivity responses at the site of irradiation and at a nonexposed site. These findings suggest that in vivo exposure to nonionizing radiation leads to both local and systemic alteration of certain immune responses

  3. UVA, UVB Light Doses and Harvesting Time Differentially Tailor Glucosinolate and Phenolic Profiles in Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Moreira-Rodríguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting glucosinolate and phenolic compounds that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV. Here, the effect of UVA or UVB radiation on glucosinolate and phenolic profiles was assessed in broccoli sprouts. Sprouts were exposed for 120 min to low intensity and high intensity UVA (UVAL, UVAH or UVB (UVBL, UVBH with UV intensity values of 3.16, 4.05, 2.28 and 3.34 W/m2, respectively. Harvest occurred 2 or 24 h post-treatment; and methanol/water or ethanol/water (70%, v/v extracts were prepared. Seven glucosinolates and 22 phenolics were identified. Ethanol extracts showed higher levels of certain glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin, whereas methanol extracts showed slight higher levels of phenolics. The highest glucosinolate accumulation occurred 24 h after UVBH treatment, increasing 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin, glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin by ~170, 78 and 73%, respectively. Furthermore, UVAL radiation and harvest 2 h afterwards accumulated gallic acid hexoside I (~14%, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (~42%, gallic acid derivative (~48% and 1-sinapoyl-2,2-diferulolyl-gentiobiose (~61%. Increases in sinapoyl malate (~12%, gallotannic acid (~48% and 5-sinapoyl-quinic acid (~121% were observed with UVBH Results indicate that UV-irradiated broccoli sprouts could be exploited as a functional food for fresh consumption or as a source of bioactive phytochemicals with potential industrial applications.

  4. Involvement of inositol biosynthesis and nitric oxide in the mediation of UV-B induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro I Lytvyn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of NO-signaling in ultraviolet B (UV-B induced oxidative stress in plants is an open question. Inositol biosynthesis contributes to numerous cellular functions, including the regulation of plants tolerance to stress. This work reveals the involvement of inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1 (IPS1, a key enzyme for biosynthesis of myo-inositol and its derivatives, in the response to NO-dependent oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. Homozygous mutants deficient for IPS1 (atips1 and wild-type plants were transformed with a reduction-oxidation-sensitive green fluorescent protein 2 (grx1-rogfp2 and used for the dynamic measurement of UV-B-induced and SNP (sodium nitroprusside-mediated oxidative stresses by confocal microscopy. atips1 mutants displayed greater tissue-specific resistance to the action of UV-B than the wild type. SNP can act both as an oxidant or repairer depending on the applied concentration, but mutant plants were more tolerant than the wild type to nitrosative effects of high concentration of SNP. Additionally, pretreatment with low concentrations of SNP (10, 100 μM before UV-B irradiation resulted in a tissue-specific protective effect that was enhanced in atips1. We conclude that the interplay between nitric oxide and inositol signaling can be involved in the mediation of UV-B-initiated oxidative stress in the plant cell.

  5. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne; Philipsen, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    UVB radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D), but the influence of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol has not been well characterized. To determine the importance of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total...... cholesterol on 25(OH)D production after UVB exposure, 182 persons were screened for 25(OH)D level. A total of 50 participants with a wide range in baseline 25(OH)D levels were selected to define the importance of baseline 25(OH)D level. Of these, 28 non-sun worshippers with limited past sun exposure were used...... to investigate the influence of skin pigmentation and baseline total cholesterol. The participants had 24% of their skin exposed to UVB (3 standard erythema doses) four times every second or third day. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D levels were measured before and after the irradiations. Total cholesterol...

  6. Protective effects of polyamines against UV-A and UV-B illumination in Physcia semipinnata thalli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmer Işıl

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The damage to DNA induced by UV-A and UV-B and protective effects of the polyamines putrescine (put, spermidine (spd and spermine (spm were investigated on the lichen Physcia semipinnata in the present study. Our results suggest that significant alterations of the photosynthetic quantum yield ratio occurred in response to increased UV-A and UV-B exposure time. The photosynthetic quantum yield ratio gradually decreased in P. semipinnata following exposure to UV-A and UV-B. Physcia semipinnata thalli which were treated with a polyamine in a concentration of 1 mM were not affected by UV-A exposure for 72 h. In the case of UV-B treatment, the protective polyamine dosage was 0.25 mM. We also used the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique to detect DNA damage. The main changes observed in the RAPD profiles, which were obtained using 12 RAPD primers, were the appearance or disappearance of different bands and variation of their intensities. The use of at least three different primers allowed detection of specific band patterns in both UV-A- and UV-B-exposed samples treated with polyamines as compared to untreated ones.

  7. Pinus densiflora extract protects human skin fibroblasts against UVB-induced photoaging by inhibiting the expression of MMPs and increasing type I procollagen expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoe-Yune Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ultraviolet (UV light can cause skin photoaging, which is associated with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and downregulation of collagen synthesis. It has been reported that MMPs, especially MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9, decrease the elasticity of the dermis by degrading collagen. In this study, we assessed the effects of Pinus densiflora extract (PDE on photoaging and investigated its mechanism of action in human skin fibroblast (Hs68 cells after UVB exposure using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and enzymatic activity assays. PDE exhibited an antioxidant activity and inhibited elastase activities in vitro. We also found that PDE inhibited UVB-induced cytotoxicity, MMP-1 production and expression of MMP-1, -3 and -9 mRNA in Hs68 cells. In addition, PDE decreased UVB-induced MMP-2 activity and MMP-2 mRNA expression. Moreover, PDE prevented the decrease of type I procollagen mediated by exposure to UVB irradiation, an effect that is linked to the upregulation and downregulation of Smad3 and Smad7, respectively. Another effect of UV irradiation is to stimulate activator protein 1 (AP-1 activity via overexpression of c-Jun/c-Fos, which, in turn, upregulates MMP-1, -3, and -9. In this study, we found that PDE suppressed UV-induced c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PDE regulates UVB-induced expression of MMPs and type I procollagen synthesis by inhibiting AP-1 activity and restoring impaired Smad signaling, suggesting that PDE may be useful as an effective anti-photoaging agent.

  8. The role of lipid raft translocation of prohibitin in regulation of Akt and Raf-protected apoptosis of HaCaT cells upon ultraviolet B irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Wu, Shiyong

    2017-07-01

    Prohibitin (PHB) plays a role in regulation of ultraviolet B light (UVB)-induced apoptosis of human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. The regulatory function of PHB appears to be associated with its lipid raft translocation. However, the detailed mechanism for PHB-mediated apoptosis of these keratinocytes upon UVB irradiation is not clear. In this report, we determined the role of lipid raft translocation of PHB in regulation of UVB-induced apoptosis. Our data show that upon UVB irradiation PHB is translocated from the non-raft membrane to the lipid rafts, which is correlated with a release of both Akt and Raf from membrane. Overexpression of Akt and/or Raf impedes UVB-induced lipid raft translocation of PHB. Immunoprecipitation analysis indicates that UVB alters the interactions among PHB, Akt, and Raf. Reduced expression of PHB leads to a decreased phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, as well as a decreased activity of Akt, and increased apoptosis of the cells upon UVB irradiation. These results suggest that PHB regulates UVB-induced apoptosis of keratinocytes via a mechanism that involves detachment from Akt and Raf on the plasma membrane, and sequential lipid raft translocation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Caffeine decreases phospho-Chk1 (Ser317) and increases mitotic cells with cyclin B1 and caspase 3 in tumors from UVB-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao-Ping; Lou, You-Rong; Peng, Qing-Yun; Nghiem, Paul; Conney, Allan H

    2011-07-01

    Oral administration of caffeine to mice inhibits UVB-induced carcinogenesis, and these results are paralleled by epidemiology studies indicating that caffeinated coffee and tea intake (but not decaffeinated beverage intake) is associated with decreased incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Topical applications of caffeine to the skin of SKH-1 mice that had previously been treated with UVB inhibited subsequent skin tumor development and stimulated apoptosis in tumors but not in nontumor areas of the epidermis. This study sought to determine the basis of these differential effects on tumor versus nontumor sites that can be induced by caffeine, long after all UVB treatment has ceased. The activation status of the ATR/Chk1 pathway in UVB-induced tumors and uninvolved skin was determined by quantitating phospho-Chk1 (Ser317) and induction of lethal mitosis in vivo in the presence and absence of topical caffeine treatment. In the absence of caffeine, we found that UVB-induced tumors often had islands of phospho-Chk1 (Ser317) staining cells that were not present in nontumor areas of the epidermis. Treatment of mice with topical caffeine significantly diminished phospho-Chk1 (Ser317) staining and increased the number of mitotic cells that expressed cyclin B1 and caspase 3 in tumors, consistent with caffeine-induced lethal mitosis selectively in tumors. We hypothesize that compared with adjacent uninvolved skin, UVB-induced skin tumors have elevated activation of, and dependence on, the ATR/Chk1 pathway long after UVB exposure has ceased and that caffeine can induce apoptosis selectively in tumors by inhibiting this pathway and promoting lethal mitosis.

  10. Above- and below-ground responses of Calamagrostis purpurea to UV-B radiation and elevated CO{sub 2} under phosphorus limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussell, J.S.; Gwynn-Jones, D.; Griffith, G.W.; Scullion, J. (Aberystwyth Univ., IBERS, Wales (United Kingdom))

    2012-08-15

    UV-B radiation and elevated CO{sub 2} may impact rhizosphere processes through altered below-ground plant resource allocation and root exudation, changes that may have implications for nutrient acquisition. As nutrients limit plant growth in many habitats, their supply may dictate plant response under elevated CO{sub 2}. This study investigated UV-B exposure and elevated CO{sub 2} effects, including interactions, on plant growth, tissue chemistry and rooting responses relating to P acquisition. The sub-arctic grass Calamagrostis purpurea was subjected to UV-B (0 or 3.04 kJ m-2day-1) and CO{sub 2} (ambient 380 or 650 ppmv) treatments in a factorial glasshouse experiment, with sparingly soluble P (0 or 0.152 mg P per plant as FePO{sub 4}) a further factor. It was hypothesized that UV-B exposure and elevated CO{sub 2} would change plant resource allocation, with CO{sub 2} mitigating adverse responses to UV-B exposure and aiding P uptake. Plant biomass and morphology, tissue composition and rhizosphere leachate properties were measured. UV-B directly affected chemical composition of shoots and interacted with CO{sub 2} to give a greater root biomass. Elevated CO{sub 2} altered the composition of both shoots and roots and increased shoot biomass and secondary root length, while leachate pH decreased. Below-ground responses to CO{sub 2} did not affect P acquisition although P limitation progressively reduced leachate pH and increased secondary root length. Although direct plant growth, foliar composition and below-ground nutrient acquisition responses were dominated by CO{sub 2} treatments, UV-B modified these CO{sub 2} responses significantly. These interactions have implications for plant responses to future atmospheric conditions. (Author)

  11. Contrasting Responses of Marine and Freshwater Photosynthetic Organisms to UVB Radiation: A Meta-Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Duarte, Carlos M.; Agusti, Susana

    2017-01-01

    artificial lamps. We found that marine photosynthetic organisms tend to be more sensitive than freshwater photosynthetic organisms to UVB radiation; responses to either decreased or increased UVB radiation vary among taxa; the mortality rate is the most

  12. Sinapate esters provide greater UV-B attenuation than flavonoids in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheahan, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Mutants affected in flavonoid (tt4) or sinapate ester (fah1) biosynthesis were used to assess the relative importance of these phenolic UV photoprotectants in Arabidopsis. Flavonoid and sinapate ester absorption was more specific for UV-B than major nonphenolic chromophores in crude extracts. A new method of evaluating phenolic UV-B attenuation was developed using fluorescence analysis. When excited by UV-B, sinapate ester containing leaves and cotyledons had enhanced sinapate ester fluorescence and reduced chlorophyll fluorescence relative to those without sinapate esters. Although fluorescence analysis gave no evidence of UV-B attenuation by flavonoids, enhanced chlorophyll and protein loss were observed upon UV-B exposure in flavonoid-deficient leaves, suggesting they have another mechanism of UV-B protection. The hydroxycinnamates have been largely ignored as UV-B attenuating pigments. and the results indicate that greater attention should be paid to their role in attenuating UV-B

  13. Alleviation of UV-B stress in Arabidopsis using tea catechins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... synthase gene and lighter stress of the UV-B exposed plant. ... mechanism of tea catechins against UV-B stress is considered to be their sunscreen property .... ZRX-1000DC, Qianjiang Instruments and Equipment Co. Ltd.,.

  14. Oxidative Damage and Mutagenic Potency of Fast Neutron and UV-B Radiation in Pollen Mother Cells and Seed Yield of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram Abdel Haliem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by exposure of crop plant cells to physical radiations. Henceforth, the current study was planned to compare oxidative stress and mutagenic potential of different irradiation doses of fast neutron (FN and UV-B on meiotic-pollen mother cells (PMCs, pollen grains (PGs and seeds yielded from irradiated faba beans seedlings. On the cytogenetic level, each irradiation type had special interference with DNA of PMC and exhibited wide range of mutagenic action on the frequency and type of chromosomal anomalies, fertility of PGs and seed yield productivity based on the irradiation exposure dose and radiation sensitivity of faba bean plants compared with un-irradiated ones. On the molecular level, SDS-PAGE and RPAD-PCR analyses of seeds yielded from irradiated seedlings exhibited distinctive polymorphisms based on size, intensity, appearance, and disappearance of polypeptides bands compared with un-irradiated ones. The total values of protein and DNA polymorphisms reached 88% and 90.80% respectively. The neutron fluency (2.3 × 106 n/cm2 and UV-B dose for 1 hr were recorded as bio-positive effects. The present study proved that genetic variations revealed by cytogenetic test could be supported by gene expression (alterations in RAPD and protein profiles.

  15. The deceptive nature of UVA tanning versus the modest protective effects of UVB tanning on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Yoshinori; Coelho, Sergio G; Schlenz, Kathrin; Batzer, Jan; Smuda, Christoph; Choi, Wonseon; Brenner, Michaela; Passeron, Thierry; Zhang, Guofeng; Kolbe, Ludger; Wolber, Rainer; Hearing, Vincent J

    2011-02-01

    The relationship between human skin pigmentation and protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important element underlying differences in skin carcinogenesis rates. The association between UV damage and the risk of skin cancer is clear, yet a strategic balance in exposure to UV needs to be met. Dark skin is protected from UV-induced DNA damage significantly more than light skin owing to the constitutively higher pigmentation, but an as yet unresolved and important question is what photoprotective benefit, if any, is afforded by facultative pigmentation (i.e. a tan induced by UV exposure). To address that and to compare the effects of various wavelengths of UV, we repetitively exposed human skin to suberythemal doses of UVA and/or UVB over 2 weeks after which a challenge dose of UVA and UVB was given. Although visual skin pigmentation (tanning) elicited by different UV exposure protocols was similar, the melanin content and UV-protective effects against DNA damage in UVB-tanned skin (but not in UVA-tanned skin) were significantly higher. UVA-induced tans seem to result from the photooxidation of existing melanin and its precursors with some redistribution of pigment granules, while UVB stimulates melanocytes to up-regulate melanin synthesis and increases pigmentation coverage, effects that are synergistically stimulated in UVA and UVB-exposed skin. Thus, UVA tanning contributes essentially no photoprotection, although all types of UV-induced tanning result in DNA and cellular damage, which can eventually lead to photocarcinogenesis. 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Shungite against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Easter Joy Sajo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As fullerene-based compound applications have been rapidly increasing in the health industry, the need of biomedical research is urgently in demand. While shungite is regarded as a natural source of fullerene, it remains poorly documented. Here, we explored the in vivo effects of shungite against ultraviolet B- (UVB- induced skin damage by investigating the physiological skin parameters, immune-redox profiling, and oxidative stress molecular signaling. Toward this, mice were UVB-irradiated with 0.75 mW/cm2 for two consecutive days. Consecutively, shungite was topically applied on the dorsal side of the mice for 7 days. First, we found significant improvements in the skin parameters of the shungite-treated groups revealed by the reduction in roughness, pigmentation, and wrinkle measurement. Second, the immunokine profiling in mouse serum and skin lysates showed a reduction in the proinflammatory response in the shungite-treated groups. Accordingly, the redox profile of shungite-treated groups showed counterbalance of ROS/RNS and superoxide levels in serum and skin lysates. Last, we have confirmed the involvement of Nrf2- and MAPK-mediated oxidative stress pathways in the antioxidant mechanism of shungite. Collectively, the results clearly show that shungite has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action against UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice.

  17. Synergistic interactions within disturbed habitats between temperature, relative humidity and UVB radiation on egg survival in a diadromous fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J H Hickford

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic impacts, including urbanization, deforestation, farming, and livestock grazing have altered riparian margins worldwide. One effect of changes to riparian vegetation is that the ground-level light, temperature, and humidity environment has also been altered. Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, lays eggs almost exclusively beneath riparian vegetation in tidally influenced reaches of rivers. We hypothesized that the survival of these eggs is greatly affected by the micro-environment afforded by vegetation, particularly relating to temperature, humidity and UVB radiation. We experimentally reduced riparian vegetation height and altered shading characteristics, tracked egg survival, and used small ground-level temperature, humidity and UVB sensors to relate survival to ground-level effects around egg masses. The ground-level physical environment was markedly different from the surrounding ambient conditions. Tall dense riparian vegetation modified ambient conditions to produce a buffered temperature regime with constant high relative humidity, generally above 90%, and negligible UVB radiation at ground-level. Where vegetation height was reduced, frequent high temperatures, low humidity, and high UVB irradiances reduced egg survival by up to 95%. Temperature effects on egg survival were probably indirect, through reduced humidity, because developing eggs are known to survive in a wide range of temperatures. In this study, it was remarkable how such small variations in relatively small sites could have such a large effect on egg survival. It appears that modifications to riparian vegetation and the associated changes in the physical conditions of egg laying sites are major mechanisms affecting egg survival. The impacts associated with vegetational changes through human-induced disturbances are complex yet potentially devastating. These effects are particularly important because they

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  19. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Azusa [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Yonghong; Bu, Jiachuan; Mujcic, Hilda [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wouters, Bradly G. [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); DaCosta, Ralph S., E-mail: rdacosta@uhnres.utoronto.ca [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. Methods and Materials: A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular function and permeability, platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and tumor hypoxia for up to 14 days after 24-Gy irradiation. The hind leg model was used to monitor tumor size, hypoxia, and vascularity for up to 65 days after 24-Gy irradiation. Tumors were assessed histologically to validate in vivo observations. Results: In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed temporary vascular dysfunction in tumors irradiated with a single dose of 4 to 24 Gy, but most significantly with a single dose of 24 Gy. Vascular functional recovery was observed by 14 days after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, irradiation with 24 Gy caused platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium within hours to days after irradiation. Vascular permeability was significantly higher in irradiated tumors compared with nonirradiated controls 14 days after irradiation. This observation corresponded with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in irradiated tumors. In the hind leg model, irradiation with a single dose of 24 Gy led to tumor growth delay, followed by tumor regrowth. Conclusions: Irradiation of the BxPC3 tumors with a single dose of 24 Gy caused transient vascular dysfunction and increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Such biological changes may impact tumor response to high single-dose and hypofractionated irradiation, and further investigations are needed to better understand the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy.

  20. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects against UVB-induced photoaging by enhancing collagen synthesis via regulation of TGF-β/Smad signals and attenuation of AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bom; Hwang, Eunson; Seo, Seul A; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2018-01-01

    UV irradiation triggers the overproduction of matrix metalloproteinases and collagen degradation, which in turn causes increased pigmentation, dryness, and deep wrinkling of the skin. These chronic symptoms are collectively referred to as photoaging. Eucalyptus globulus is an evergreen tree that is widely used in cosmetics because of its antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of 50% ethanol extracts of Eucalyptus globulus on UV-induced photoaging in vitro and in vivo. Normal human dermal fibroblasts were treated with Eucalyptus globulus at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL after UVB or non-UVB irradiation. We found that Eucalyptus globulus suppressed the expression of MMPs and IL-6, but increased the expression of TGF-β1 and procollagen type 1. In addition, Eucalyptus globulus inhibited activation of the AP-1 transcription factor, an inducer of MMPs. Eucalyptus globulus was also found to regulate TGF-β/Smad signaling by reversing the activity of negative Smad regulators. Lastly, in vivo studies showed that topical application of Eucalyptus globulus on UVB-irradiated hairless mice reduced wrinkle formation and dryness by down-regulating MMP-1 and up-regulating expression of elastin, TGF-β1, and procollagen type 1. Taken together, these data suggest that Eucalyptus globulus may be a useful agent in cosmetic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE SOLAR UV-B RADIATION AT TROPICAL COASTAL STATION BAKKHALI IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    R. BHATTACHARYA; A. BHOUMICK

    2012-01-01

    Surface solar ultraviolet irradiance has been measured at Bakkhali (21.8ºN, 87.8ºE), a tropical rural station on the coast of Bay of Bengal, India in West Bengal. The measurements show a remarkable variation in UV-B load exists with a peak value at noon. The blockage of direct UV radiation in mangrove forest of costal site appears low when compared with UV load beneath the multiple trees of Mangifera indica in an inland site of Kalyani (22058' N, 88028' E), West Bengal. Mangrove forests have ...

  2. Ultraviolet-B irradiation decreases IFN-gamma and increases IL-4 expression in psoriatic lesional skin in situ and in cultured dermal T cells derived from these lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piskin, Gamze; Koomen, Cornelis W.; Picavet, Daisy; Bos, Jan D.; Teunissen, Marcel B. M.

    2003-01-01

    Type 1 cytokine producing T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation is effective in the treatment of this disease. In normal skin, UVB causes a change in dermal microenvironment, leading to a decrease of IFN-gamma expressing type 1 T cells and a

  3. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Aloe saponaria Haw in a model of UVB-induced paw sunburn in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariane Arnoldi; Trevisan, Gabriela; Hoffmeister, Carin; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Walker, Cristiani Isabel Banderò; Klafke, Jonatas Zeni; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Silva, Cássia Regina; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Ferreira, Juliano

    2014-04-05

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation mainly affects biological tissues by inducing an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production which leads to deleterious outcomes for the skin, including pain and inflammation. As a protective strategy, many studies have focused on the use of natural products. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Aloe saponaria on nociceptive, inflammatory, and oxidative parameters in a model of UVB-induced sunburn in adult male Wistar rats. Sunburned animals were topically treated with vehicle (base cream), 1% silver sulfadiazine (positive control) or A. saponaria (10%) once a day for 6days. UVB-induced nociception (allodynia and hyperalgesia), inflammation (edema and leukocyte infiltration) and oxidative stress (increases in H2O2, protein carbonyl levels and lipid peroxidation and a decrease in non protein thiol content) were reduced by both A. saponaria and sulfadiazine topical treatment. Furthermore, A. saponaria or its constituents aloin and rutin reduced the oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in skin homogenates in vitro. Our results demonstrate that topical A. saponaria treatment displayed anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in a UVB-induced sunburn model, and these effects seem to be related to its antioxidant components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic reduction of phenylpropanoid compounds in primary leaves of rye (Secale cereale L.) leads to increased UV-B sensitivity of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuber, S.; Leitsch, J.; Krause, G.H.; Weissenböck, G.

    1993-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to investigate the suitability of certain markers for UV plant response. In addition, we attempted to link the internal tissue distribution of specific UV-absorbing compounds to profiles of radiation gradients within intact primary rye leaves (Secale cereale L. cv. Kustro). Etiolated rye seedlings irradiated with low visible light (LL) and/or UV radiation were used to study enzyme activities of the two key enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS), together with the tissue-specific accumulation of soluble phenylpropanoid products. Plants grown under relatively high visible light (HL) with or without supplementary UV-B radiation were used for further characterization. Apparent quantum yield and fluorescence quenching parameters were monitored to assess potential physiological changes due to UV-B exposure in HL-grown seedlings. A quartz fibreoptic microprobe was used to characterize the internal UV-B gradient of the leaf. The response of the phenylpropanoid metabolism to UV radiation was similar in primary leaves of both etiolated and HL-treated green plants. The epidermis-specific flavonoids together with CHS activity turned out to be suitable markers for assessing the effect of UV on the phenolic metabolism. The functional role of phenylpropanoid compounds was strongly implicated in protecting rye from UV-B radiation

  5. Changes of diffuse UV-B radiation on clear sky days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon, H.; Ichibayashi, R.; Matsuoka, N.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of global and diffuse UV-B radiation have been carried out in Matsudo City (35.3 deg N, 139.9 deg E), Japan. Forty clear sky days were chosen and the annual variation of global and diffuse UV-B radiation was analyzed. The dependence of the diffuse component on visibility was also examined. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The maximum of daily global UV-B was beyond 40kJrec mE-2 daysup(-1) and was recorded in late July. The maximum of daily diffuse UV-B was recorded in early July. There was a tendency for the diffuse UV-B to be larger than the direct UV-B during a year in Matsudo. 2. The fraction of diffuse UV-B to global UV-B changed a lot each day. The observed minimum value of the fraction during a year was recorded in early August. 3. There was a tendency for the fraction of diffuse UV-B to global UV-B to decrease when visibility increased. 4. The diffuse components that change a lot each day were properly estimated by using the expected minimum fraction and visibility. Key words: Diffuse UV-B, Ultraviolet, UV-B, Visibility

  6. Responses of secondary chemicals in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings to UV-B, springtime warming and nitrogen additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, E.P.S.; Hutchinson, T.C. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada). Environmental Studies

    2006-10-15

    Elevated UV-B radiation due to climatic change and ozone depletion may represent a significant springtime environmental stressor to germinating seedlings in temperate forest regions. This study aimed to determine the effects of UV-B, nitrogen (N) fertilization and climate warming on the concentrations of base cations and secondary metabolites in the foliage of sugar maple seedlings growing in acid or alkaline soils. The influence of measured flavonoids and phenolics on herbivore activity was examined, as well as the relationship between foliar concentrations of calcium (Ca); manganese (Mn); and N and the production of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Experimental plots were established in mature hardwood forests in alkaline and acid soil locations in Bobcaygeon and Haliburton, Ontario. Pentagonal open-top chambers were used to lengthen the growing season and simulate an earlier spring. Ammonium nitrate was applied at a rate comparable with an additional deposition of 5 g N per m per year. Fertilizer was applied on 3 separate occasions. Ambient UV-B radiation was screened out with Mylar D polyester film. Sites, treatments and time of sampling had complex effects on foliar elemental chemistry, production of secondary compounds and herbivory. Foliar concentrations of individual phenols were higher in seedlings in the UV-B exclusion treatments. At both sites, removal of ambient UV-B led to increases in flavonoids and chlorogenic acid, and reduced herbivore activity. At Haliburton, ammonium nitrate fertilization led to further increases in foliar Mn. Nitrogen additions led to decreases in the concentrations of some flavonoids at both sites. It was concluded that the composition of the forest soil governs the response of seedlings when they are exposed to abiotic stressors. 63 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. Prevention of alloimmunization by ultraviolet-B irradiation. Inactivation of leukocytes and the generation of active oxygen and radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tsuneo; Mogi, Yuko; Sekiguchi, Sadayoshi; Akasaka, Junichi; Kamo, Naoki; Kuwabara, Mikinori.

    1994-01-01

    UV-B irradiation of platelet concentrates (PC) has been tried in several institutes to inactivate leukocytes in PC and prevent alloimmunization on platelet transfusion. However, the mechanism of inactivation of leukocytes contaminating PC has not been fully understood. It is known that UV-B light is absorbed by photosensitizers in cells and produces active oxygen and radicals, such as singlet oxygen, superioxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. These active oxygen or radicals should injure cellular components and this could cause the suppression of cellular functions. In this study, we investigated the relationships among UV-B irradiation, free radical generation and leukocyte inactivation. We found the evidence that active oxygen and radicals were produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by UV-B irradiation. UV-B irradiation suppressed the stimulatory function of leukocytes in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), and the suppression depended on the dosage of UV-B. Even a low dosage of UV-B, 10 J/m 2 , could inhibit the MLR if the irradiated cells were incubated at 37degC for 24 hours before co-culture with responder cells. Treatments of cells with the exogenous singlet oxygen or superoxide anions also caused suppression of the stimulatory function in the MLR, inhibition of capping formation of HLA-DR antigens, and an increase of intracellular free Ca 2+ levels as did the UV-B treatment. These results indicate that the active oxygen or radicals generated in UV-B-irradiated leukocytes could be one of the causes of leukocyte inactivation. (author0

  8. Photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet irradiance absorbance of Cucurbita pepo L. leaves exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation (280 to 315 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Net photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet (uv) radiation absorbance were determined for the first leaf of Cucurbita pepo L. exposed to two levels of uv-B irradiation and a uv-B radiation-free control treatment. Absorbance by extracted flavonoid pigments and other uv-B radiation-absorbing compounds from the first leaves increased with time and level of uv-B radiation impinging on leaf surfaces. Although absorbance of uv-B radiation by extracted pigments increased substantially, uv-B radiation attenuation apparently was insufficient to protect completely the photosynthetic apparatus or leaf growth processes. Leaf expansion was repressed by daily exposure to 1365 Joules per meter per day of biologically effective uv-B radiation by not by exposure to 660 Joules per meter per day. Photosynthesis measured through ontogenesis of the first leaf was depressed by both uv-B radiation treatments. Repression of photosynthesis by uv-B radiation was especially evident during the ontogenetic period of maximum photosynthetic activity

  9. Tranexamic acid suppresses ultraviolet B eye irradiation-induced melanocyte activation by decreasing the levels of prohormone convertase 2 and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Yamate, Yurika; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medicinal amino acid used in skin whitening care. This study examined the effects of tranexamic acid on the melanocyte activation of the skin induced by an ultraviolet (UV) B eye irradiation. The eye or ear was locally exposed to UVB at a dose of 1.0 kJ/m(2) using a 20SE sunlamp after covering the remaining body surface with aluminum foil. UVB eye irradiation induced melanocyte activation of the skin, similar to that observed following UVB ear irradiation, which was suppressed by the administration of tranexamic acid treatment. The plasma α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) content was increased by UVB irradiation of the eye; however, the increase in α-MSH was suppressed by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, UVB eye irradiation induced the up-regulation of prohormone convertase (PC) 2 in the pituitary gland. Meanwhile, the increase in PC2 induced by UVB eye irradiation was suppressed by tranexamic acid treatment. These results clearly indicate that tranexamic acid decreases the expression of PC2, which cleavages from proopiomelanocortin to α-MSH in the pituitary gland, thereby suppressing melanocyte activation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  11. Irradiation of skin with visible light induces reactive oxygen species and matrix-degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Frank; Kaur, Simarna; Ruvolo, Eduardo; Kollias, Nikiforos; Southall, Michael D

    2012-07-01

    Daily skin exposure to solar radiation causes cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are a primary factor in skin damage. Although the contribution of the UV component to skin damage has been established, few studies have examined the effects of non-UV solar radiation on skin physiology. Solar radiation comprises UV, and thus the purpose of this study was to examine the physiological response of skin to visible light (400-700 nm). Irradiation of human skin equivalents with visible light induced production of ROS, proinflammatory cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression. Commercially available sunscreens were found to have minimal effects on reducing visible light-induced ROS, suggesting that UVA/UVB sunscreens do not protect the skin from visible light-induced responses. Using clinical models to assess the generation of free radicals from oxidative stress, higher levels of free radical activity were found after visible light exposure. Pretreatment with a photostable UVA/UVB sunscreen containing an antioxidant combination significantly reduced the production of ROS, cytokines, and MMP expression in vitro, and decreased oxidative stress in human subjects after visible light irradiation. Taken together, these findings suggest that other portions of the solar spectrum aside from UV, particularly visible light, may also contribute to signs of premature photoaging in skin.

  12. The Suppressive Activity of Fucofuroeckol-A Derived from Brown Algal Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura on UVB-Induced Mast Cell Degranulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Sang Vo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available UV light, especially UVB, is known as a trigger of allergic reaction, leading to mast cell degranulation and histamine release. In this study, phlorotannin Fucofuroeckol-A (F-A derived from brown algal Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura was evaluated for its protective capability against UVB-induced allergic reaction in RBL-2H3 mast cells. It was revealed that F-A significantly suppress mast cell degranulation via decreasing histamine release as well as intracellular Ca2+ elevation at the concentration of 50 μM. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of F-A on IL-1β and TNF-α productions was also evidenced. Notably, the protective activity of F-A against mast cell degranulation was found due to scavenging ROS production. Accordingly, F-A from brown algal E. stolonifera was suggested to be promising candidate for its protective capability against UVB-induced allergic reaction.

  13. Foraging behavior of honey bees (hymenoptera: Apidae) on Brassica nigra and B. rapa grown under simulated ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.A.; Robinson, G.E.; Conner, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    Two species of mustard, Brassica nigra and B. rapa, were grown under simulated ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and exposed to pollinators, Apis mellifera L. Observations were made to determine whether UV-B-induced changes in these plants affected pollinator behavior. Total duration of the foraging trip, number of flowers visited, foraging time per flower, search time per flower, total amount of pollen collected, and pollen collected per flower were measured. There were no significant differences between UV-B treatments in any of the behaviors measured or in any of the pollen measurements. These results suggest that increases in the amount of solar UV-B reaching the earth's surface may not have a negative effect on the relationship between these members of the genus Brassica and their honey bee pollinators. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Foraging behavior of honey bees (hymenoptera: Apidae) on Brassica nigra and B. rapa grown under simulated ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S.A.; Robinson, G.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Conner, J.K. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Two species of mustard, Brassica nigra and B. rapa, were grown under simulated ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and exposed to pollinators, Apis mellifera L. Observations were made to determine whether UV-B-induced changes in these plants affected pollinator behavior. Total duration of the foraging trip, number of flowers visited, foraging time per flower, search time per flower, total amount of pollen collected, and pollen collected per flower were measured. There were no significant differences between UV-B treatments in any of the behaviors measured or in any of the pollen measurements. These results suggest that increases in the amount of solar UV-B reaching the earth`s surface may not have a negative effect on the relationship between these members of the genus Brassica and their honey bee pollinators. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Impact of UV-B (290-320 nm) radiation on photosynthesis-mediated uptake of 15N-ammonia and 15N-nitrate of several marine diatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler, G.; Stolter, H.

    1986-01-01

    The marine diatoms Ditylum brigthwellii, Lithodesmium variabile, Odontella sinensis, Synedra planctonica and Thalassiosira rotula grown at 18 0 C under normal air conditions (0.035 vol.% CO 2 ) were exposed to different levels (439 and 717 J m -2 d -1 , weighted) of UV-B radiation for 2 d (5 h/d). Pigmentation, protein and total nitrogen content were reduced linearly to the dose of UV-B radiation. Photosynthesis-mediated uptake of 15 N-ammonia was more affected by UV-B irradiance in all tested diatoms than that of 15 N-nitrate. A species-dependent behavior in the assimilation of inorganic nitrogenous compounds has been observed: Synedra was a very sensitive species to UV-B radiation whereas the same UV-B doses had no effect on the assimilation rate of ammonia and nitrate of the Lithodesmium cells. The results were discussed with reference to the inhibition of the enzymes of the nitrogen metabolism. (author)

  16. UV-B and Mediterranean forest species: Direct effects and ecological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, E.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results from plants receiving elevated doses of UV-B radiation generally show that Mediterranean forest species are well protected against increases in UV-B radiation. Natural adaptations to water stress and excess light (elevated concentrations of UV-B screening compounds, leaf hairs, thick cuticle and epidermis), and UV-B responses (thickening of the cuticle, increase in carotenoids) may avoid or counter-balance UV-B radiation damage. This response confirms that Mediterranean forest vegetation is adapted to face oxidative stress factors, such as elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations, drought and high radiation, including UV-B. Nevertheless, in the long term, species-specific and season-specific differential responses in growth, physiology, phenology and reproductive behaviour may alter the interactions between species and lead to slow but important changes in ecosystem structure and function. - Mediterranean plant adaptations against water stress and excess light may also afford protection against UV-B

  17. The response of human skin commensal bacteria as a reflection of UV radiation: UV-B decreases porphyrin production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhan Wang

    Full Text Available Recent global radiation fears reflect the urgent need for a new modality that can simply determine if people are in a radiation risk of developing cancer and other illnesses. Ultraviolet (UV radiation has been thought to be the major risk factor for most skin cancers. Although various biomarkers derived from the responses of human cells have been revealed, detection of these biomarkers is cumbersome, probably requires taking live human tissues, and varies significantly depending on human immune status. Here we hypothesize that the reaction of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes, a human resident skin commensal, to UV radiation can serve as early surrogate markers for radiation risk because the bacteria are immediately responsive to radiation. In addition, the bacteria can be readily accessible and exposed to the same field of radiation as human body. To test our hypothesis, P. acnes was exposed to UV-B radiation. The production of porphyrins in P. acnes was significantly reduced with increasing doses of UV-B. The porphyrin reduction can be detected in both P. acnes and human skin bacterial isolates. Exposure of UV-B to P. acnes- inoculated mice led to a significant decrease in porphyrin production in a single colony of P. acnes and simultaneously induced the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD in the epidermal layers of mouse skin. Mass spectrometric analysis via a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ-Orbitrap XL showed that five peptides including an internal peptide (THLPTGIVVSCQNER of a peptide chain release factor 2 (RF2 were oxidized by UV-B. Seven peptides including three internal peptides of 60 kDa chaperonin 1 were de-oxidized by UV-B. When compared to UV-B, gamma radiation also decreased the porphyrin production of P. acnes in a dose-dependent manner, but induced a different signature of protein oxidation/de-oxidation. We highlight that uncovering response of skin microbiome to radiation will facilitate the development of pre

  18. The response of human skin commensal bacteria as a reflection of UV radiation: UV-B decreases porphyrin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhan; Zhu, Wenhong; Shu, Muya; Jiang, Yong; Gallo, Richard L; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Recent global radiation fears reflect the urgent need for a new modality that can simply determine if people are in a radiation risk of developing cancer and other illnesses. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been thought to be the major risk factor for most skin cancers. Although various biomarkers derived from the responses of human cells have been revealed, detection of these biomarkers is cumbersome, probably requires taking live human tissues, and varies significantly depending on human immune status. Here we hypothesize that the reaction of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a human resident skin commensal, to UV radiation can serve as early surrogate markers for radiation risk because the bacteria are immediately responsive to radiation. In addition, the bacteria can be readily accessible and exposed to the same field of radiation as human body. To test our hypothesis, P. acnes was exposed to UV-B radiation. The production of porphyrins in P. acnes was significantly reduced with increasing doses of UV-B. The porphyrin reduction can be detected in both P. acnes and human skin bacterial isolates. Exposure of UV-B to P. acnes- inoculated mice led to a significant decrease in porphyrin production in a single colony of P. acnes and simultaneously induced the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the epidermal layers of mouse skin. Mass spectrometric analysis via a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ)-Orbitrap XL showed that five peptides including an internal peptide (THLPTGIVVSCQNER) of a peptide chain release factor 2 (RF2) were oxidized by UV-B. Seven peptides including three internal peptides of 60 kDa chaperonin 1 were de-oxidized by UV-B. When compared to UV-B, gamma radiation also decreased the porphyrin production of P. acnes in a dose-dependent manner, but induced a different signature of protein oxidation/de-oxidation. We highlight that uncovering response of skin microbiome to radiation will facilitate the development of pre-symptomatic diagnosis

  19. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. ► The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. ► The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. ► The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. ► OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  20. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Hyun [National Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Boung-Jun [BioControl Center, Jeonnam 516-942 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ho Won, E-mail: hwjung@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Soo, E-mail: chungys@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  1. Fractional Er:YAG laser assisting topical betamethasone solution in combination with NB-UVB for resistant non-segmental vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ru; Yuan, Jinping; Chen, Hongqiang; Li, Yuan-Hong; Wu, Yan; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2017-09-01

    Resistant non-segmental vitiligo is difficult to be treated. Ablative erbium-YAG (Er:YAG) laser has been used in the treatment of vitiligo, but the ablation of entire epidermis frustrated the compliance of patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of fractional Er:YAG laser followed by topical betamethasone and narrow band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) therapy in the treatment of resistant non-segmental vitiligo. The vitiligo lesions of each enrolled patient were divided into four treatment parts, which were all irradiated with NB-UVB. Three parts were, respectively, treated with low, medium, or high energy of Er:YAG laser, followed by topical betamethasone solution application. A control part was spared with laser treatment and topical betamethasone. The treatment period lasted 6 months. The efficacy was assessed by two blinded dermatologists. Treatment protocol with high energy of 1800 mJ/P of fractional Er:YAG laser followed by topical betamethasone solution and in combination with NB-UVB made 60% patients achieve marked to excellent improvement in white patches. The protocol with medium energy of 1200 mJ/P of laser assisted approximate 36% patients achieve such improvement. The two protocols, respectively, showed better efficacies than NB-UVB only protocol. However, fractional Er:YAG laser at low energy of 600 mJ/P did not provide such contributions to the treatment of vitiligo. The fractional Er:YAG laser in combination with topical betamethasone solution and NB-UVB was suitable for resistant non-segmental vitiligo. The energy of laser was preferred to be set at relatively high level.

  2. Inter-comparison of the solar UVB, UVA and global radiation clearness and UV indices for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea), Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudish, A.I.; Lyubansky, V.; Evseev, E.G.; Ianetz, A.

    2005-01-01

    An inter-comparison of the clearness indices for the solar UVB, UVA and global radiation for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea) are presented utilizing radiation data measured from January 1995 through December 2001 for which there is a one-to-one correspondence between the measurements, viz., any day for which a hourly value for one of the sites was missing is rejected and not included in the analysis for that particular radiation type. Beer Sheva is located ca. 65 km to the west and is approximately 700 m above Neve Zohar, which is located on the western shore of the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea is the lowest terrestrial point on the earth, approximately 400 m below mean sea level. The relative magnitudes of the global, UVB and UVA radiation intensities at the two sites can be attributed to the enhanced scattering at the Dead Sea due to the longer optical path length the solar radiation must traverse at the Dead Sea. The degree of attenuation due to scattering phenomena is inversely proportional to the wavelength raised to some power and, consequently, it is greatest for UVB and very small for global radiation. The UVB and UVA solar constants were determined from the extraterrestrial radiation values tabulated by Froehlich and Wehrli [Spectral distribution of solar irradiance from 25000 nm to 250nm, in: M. Iqbal, An introduction to solar radiation, Academic Press, New York, 1981, Appendix C, pp. 380-381]. The clearness indices for global and UVA radiation were of similar magnitude, whereas those for UVB radiation were of two orders of magnitude smaller. In addition, the monthly average hourly UV Index at both sites has also been determined and an inter-comparison of the values has been performed for all available hourly values from January 1995 through August 2002 for both sites. It is observed that the monthly average hourly UV Index values at the Dead Sea are never in the extreme range

  3. Cooling Down Thermomorphogenesis by UV-B Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ruohe

    2017-06-01

    PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) is a key transcriptional regulator promoting plant responses to elevated ambient temperatures. A recent study reported that the ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) photoreceptor UVR8 signaling pathway inhibits PIF4 via multiple mechanisms to repress plant responses to high ambient temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contrasting Responses of Marine and Freshwater Photosynthetic Organisms to UVB Radiation: A Meta-Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2017-03-14

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation is a global stressor that has profound impacts on freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, an analysis of the patterns of sensitivity to UVB radiation across aquatic photosynthetic organisms has not yet been published. Here, we performed a meta-analysis on results reported in 214 studies compiled from the published literature to quantify and compare the magnitude of responses of aquatic photosynthetic organisms to changes in UVB radiation. The meta-analysis was conducted on observations of marine (n = 893) and freshwater macroalgae (n = 126) and of marine (n = 1,087) and freshwater (n = 2,889) microalgae (total n = 4,995). Most of these studies (85%) analyzed the performance of organisms exposed to natural solar radiation when UVB was partially or totally reduced compared with the organismal performance under the full solar radiation spectrum, whereas the remaining 15% of the studies examined the responses of organisms to elevated UVB radiation mostly using artificial lamps. We found that marine photosynthetic organisms tend to be more sensitive than freshwater photosynthetic organisms to UVB radiation; responses to either decreased or increased UVB radiation vary among taxa; the mortality rate is the most sensitive of the trait responses to elevated UVB radiation, followed by changes in cellular and molecular traits; the sensitivity of microalgae to UVB radiation is dependent on size, with small-celled microalgae more sensitive than large-celled microalgae to UVB radiation. Thick macroalgae morphotypes were the less sensitive to UVB, but this effect could not be separated from phylogenetic differences. The high sensitivity of marine species, particularly the smallest photosynthetic organisms, to increased UVB radiation suggests that the oligotrophic ocean, a habitat comprising 70% of the world\\'s oceans with high UVB penetration and dominated by picoautotrophs, is extremely vulnerable to changes in UVB radiation.

  5. BRCA1 and BRCA2 missense variants of high and low clinical significance influence lymphoblastoid cell line post-irradiation gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nic Waddell

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional consequences of missense variants in disease genes are difficult to predict. We assessed if gene expression profiles could distinguish between BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic truncating and missense mutation carriers and familial breast cancer cases whose disease was not attributable to BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations (BRCAX cases. 72 cell lines from affected women in high-risk breast ovarian families were assayed after exposure to ionising irradiation, including 23 BRCA1 carriers, 22 BRCA2 carriers, and 27 BRCAX individuals. A subset of 10 BRCAX individuals carried rare BRCA1/2 sequence variants considered to be of low clinical significance (LCS. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers had similar expression profiles, with some subclustering of missense mutation carriers. The majority of BRCAX individuals formed a distinct cluster, but BRCAX individuals with LCS variants had expression profile