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Sample records for irradiation significantly decreased

  1. Significance of irradiation of blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Eisuke; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1992-01-01

    Many reports of fatal GVHD occurring in non-immunocompromised patients after blood transfusion have been published in Japan. One explantation is that transfused lymphocytes were simulated and attack the recipient organs recognized as HLA incompatible. That is so called 'one-way matching'. To reduce the risk of post-transfusion GVHD, one of the most convenient methods is to irradiate the donated blood at an appropriate dose for inactivation of lymphocytes. Because no one knows about the late effect of irradiated blood, it is necessary to make the prospective safety control. (author)

  2. Significance of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Nobuko; Ogami, Koji; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Koga, Kenji; Waki, Norio; Higashi, Hidefumi; Hayashi, Asami; Shibata, Koichiro; Watanabe, Katsuji

    1986-01-01

    From 1978 through 1983, 27 patients were treated with surgery followed by irradiation (irradiated group) and 29 with surery alone (non-irradiated group). In the irradiated group, 10 had stage II and 17 stage III; in the non-irradiated group, 25 had stage II and 4 stage III. The most common histology was medullary tubular carcinoma (MTC). There was no significant difference in survivals at 3 years and 5 years between the groups. Similarly, no significant difference was seen among stage II patients. Patients with MTC tended to have worse survivals in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group, with no statistically significant difference. Among stage II patients, no major differences in local recurrence were seen between the groups; the incidence of distant metastases tended to be high in the irradiated group. The incidence of both local recurrence and distant metastases for stage III patients showed a tendency to be higher in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group. The results indicated no apparent benifit of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. A randomized clinical trial is needed for the evaluation of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Prognostic Significance of Preterm Isolated Decreased Fetal Movement

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    Ertuğrul Karahanoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the prognostic significance of isolated, preterm decreased fetal movement following normal initial full diagnostic workup. Study design: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary centre. The applied protocol was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Department of the hospital where the research was conducted. Obstetrics outcomes of preterm- and term-decreased fetal movement were compared following an initial, normal diagnostic work up. Evaluated outcomes were birth weight, mode of delivery, stillbirth rate, induction of labour, development of gestational hypertension, small for gestational age and oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios during the follow up period. Result: Obstetric complications related to placental insufficiency develops more frequently for decreased fetal movement in preterm cases with respect to that of in term cases. Following the diagnosis of decreased fetal movement, pregnancy hypertension occurred in 17% of preterm decreased fetal movement cases and in 4.7% of term decreased fetal movement cases. Fetal growth restriction developed in 6.6% of preterm decreased fetal movement and in 2.3% of term decreased fetal movement. Amniotic fluid abnormalities more frequently developed in preterm decreased fetal movement. Conclusion: Following an initial normal diagnostic workup, preterm decreased fetal movement convey a higher risk for the development of pregnancy complications associated with placental insufficiency. The patient should be monitored closely and management protocols must be developed for initial normal diagnostic workups in cases of preterm decreased fetal movement.

  4. Significance of primary irradiation creep in graphite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, C

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally primary irradiation creep is introduced into graphite analysis by applying the appropriate amount of creep strain to the model at the initial time-step. This is valid for graphite components that are subjected to high fast neutron flux...

  5. Delayed expression of enhanced reactivation and decreased mutagenesis of UV-irradiated adenovirus in UV-irradiated ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C.B.; Rainbow, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    In this study the authors examined UV-enhanced reactivation (UVER) and UV-enhanced mutagenesis (UVEM) of UV-irradiated adenovirus in AT fibroblasts. UVER factors for Ad V antigen expression were significantly less than normal in AT strains tested when infection occurred immediately after UV-irradiation of cells. However, UVER factors were >1 and similar to those found for normal strains when cells were infected 24 h after UV-irradiation, indicating delay in the expression of UVER for Ad V antigen in AT cells. UV-irradiation of both normal and AT cells 24 h prior to infection also resulted in a significant increase in progeny survival for UV-irradiated Ad. In normal cells, this progeny UVER was concomitant with a significant increase in the mutation frequency for UV-irradiated virus (increase in targeted mutagenesis) suggesting existence of an inducible error-prone DNA repair mode in normal human cells. In contrast, pre-UV-irradiation of AT cells resulted in a significant decrease in the mutation frequency for UV-irradiated virus. (author)

  6. Decreasing Irradiated Rat Lung Volume Changes Dose-Limiting Toxicity From Early to Late Effects

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    Veen, Sonja J. van der; Faber, Hette; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [KVI Center for Advanced Radiation Research, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijk, Peter van, E-mail: p.van.luijk@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Technological developments in radiation therapy result in smaller irradiated volumes of normal tissue. Because the risk of radiation therapy-induced toxicity generally depends on irradiated volume, changing volume could change the dose-limiting toxicity of a treatment. Recently, in our rat model, we found that early radiation-induced lung dysfunction (RILD) was closely related to irradiated volume dependent vascular remodeling besides inflammation. The exact relationship between early and late RILD is still unknown. Therefore, in this preclinical study we investigated the dose-volume relationship of late RILD, assessed its dependence on early and late pathologies and studied if decreasing irradiated volume changed the dose-limiting toxicity. Methods and Materials: A volume of 25%, 32%, 50%, 63%, 88%, or 100% of the rat lung was irradiated using protons. Until 26 weeks after irradiation, respiratory rates were measured. Macrovascular remodeling, pulmonary inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed at 26 weeks after irradiation. For all endpoints dose-volume response curves were made. These results were compared to our previously published early lung effects. Results: Early vascular remodeling and inflammation correlated significantly with early RILD. Late RILD correlated with inflammation and fibrosis, but not with vascular remodeling. In contrast to the early effects, late vascular remodeling, inflammation and fibrosis showed a primarily dose but not volume dependence. Comparison of respiratory rate increases early and late after irradiation for the different dose-distributions indicated that with decreasing irradiated volumes, the dose-limiting toxicity changed from early to late RILD. Conclusions: In our rat model, different pathologies underlie early and late RILD with different dose-volume dependencies. Consequently, the dose-limiting toxicity changed from early to late dysfunction when the irradiated volume was reduced. In patients, early and late

  7. Significant Decrease in Pertactin-Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Japan

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    Miyaji, Yusuke; Otsuka, Nao; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of pertactin-lacking Bordetella pertussis isolates has been observed worldwide. In Japan, however, we found that the frequency of pertactin-deficient isolates in 2014–2016 (8%) was significantly lower than the frequency in 2005–2007 (41%), 2008–2010 (35%), and 2011–2013 (25%). This reduction was closely associated with changes in genotypes. PMID:28322702

  8. Solid malignant neoplasms after childhood irradiation: decrease of the relative risk with time after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vathaire, F. de; Shamsaldin, A.; Grimaud, E.; Campbell, S.; Guerra, M.; Raquin, M.; Hardiman, C.; Jan, P.; Rumeau, N.; Diallo, I.; Nicolazic, G.; Lamon, A.; Oberlin, O.; Cervens, C. de; Suarez, A.; Meresse, V.; Eschwege, F.; Sancho-Garnier, H.; Chavaudra, J.; Lermerle, J.; Bessa, E.; Bell, J.; Hawkins, M.; Schlienger, J.Y.; Panis, X.; Lagrande, J.L.; Gaboriaud, G.; Zucker, J.M.; Daly-Schveitzer, N.

    1995-01-01

    The pattern of the temporal distribution of solid cancer incidence after irradiation in childhood is not well known, although, its importance in radioprotection is well known. We studied a cohort of 1 055 children from 8 European cancer centres, who received radiotherapy between 1942 and 1985 for a first cancer in childhood. After a mean follow-up of 19 years, 26 children developed a solid second malignant neoplasm (SMN), as compared to 5.6 expected from general population rates. Both the excess relative risk and the excess of absolute risk of solid SMN were higher among children who were younger at time of the irradiation. After reaching a maximum 15 to 20 years after irradiation, the excess relative risk of SMN decreased with time after irradiation, when controlling for age at irradiation and sex. The analysis of the risk of thyroid, brain and breast cancer together, as a function of the dose averaged on these 3 organs lead to similar results. (authors). 16 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Significance of apoptotic cell death after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.G.; Kim, I.H.; Ha, S.W.; Park, C.I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The objectives of this study are to investigate the significance of apoptotic death compared to total cell death after γ-ray irradiation in human Hand N cancer cell lines and to find out correlation between apoptosis and radiation sensitivity. Materials and Method: Head and neck cancer cell lines (PCI-1, PCI-13, and SNU-1066), leukemia cell line (CCRF-CEM), and fibroblast cell line (LM217) as a normal control were used for this study. Cells were irradiated using Cs-137 animal experiment irradiator. Total cell death was measured by clonogenic assay. Annexin-V staining was used to detect the fraction of apoptotic death. The resulting data was analyzed with two parameters, apoptotic index (AI) and apoptotic fraction(AF). AI is ratio of apoptotic cells to total cells, and AF is ration of apoptotic cell death to mutant frequencytion ex(Number of apoptotic cells) / (Number of total cells counted) AF = {(AI) / (1-survival fraction)} x 100 (%) Results. Surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) were 0.741, 0.544, 0.313, 0.302, and 0.100 for PCI-1, PCI-13, SNU-1066, CCRF-CEM, and LM217 cell lines, respectively. Apoptosis was detected in all cell lines. Apoptotic index reached peak value at 72 hours after irradiation in head and neck cancer cell lines, and that was at 24 hours in CCRF-CEM and LM217. Total cell death increased exponentially with increasing radiation dose from 0 Gy to 8 Gy, but the change was minimal in apoptotic index (Fig. 1.). Apoptotic fractions at 2 Gy were 46%, 48%, 46%, 24%, and 19% and at 6 Gy were 20%, 33%, 35%, 17%, and 20% for PCI-1, PCI-13, SNU-1066, CCRF-CEM, and LM217, respectively. The radioresistant cell lines showed more higher apoptotic fraction at 2 Gy (Table 1.), but there was not such correlation at 6 Gy. Conclusion: All cell lines used in this study showed apoptosis after irradiation, but time course of apoptosis was different from that of leukemia cell line and normal fibroblast cell line. Reproductive cell death was more important

  10. UV irradiation to mouse skin decreases hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic protein expression via HPA axis activation.

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    Han, Mira; Ban, Jae-Jun; Bae, Jung-Soo; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2017-11-14

    The skin senses external environment, including ultraviolet light (UV). Hippocampus is a brain region that is responsible for memory and emotion. However, changes in hippocampus by UV irradiation to the skin have not been studied. In this study, after 2 weeks of UV irradiation to the mouse skin, we examined molecular changes related to cognitive functions in the hippocampus and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. UV exposure to the skin decreased doublecortin-positive immature neurons and synaptic proteins, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2 A and postsynaptic density protein-95, in the hippocampus. Moreover, we observed that UV irradiation to the skin down-regulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and ERK signaling in the hippocampus, which are known to modulate neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. The cutaneous and central HPA axes were activated by UV, which resulted in significant increases in serum levels of corticosterone. Subsequently, UV irradiation to the skin activated the glucocorticoid-signaling pathway in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Interestingly, after 6 weeks of UV irradiation, mice showed depression-like behavior in the tail suspension test. Taken together, our data suggest that repeated UV exposure through the skin may negatively affect hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity along with HPA axis activation.

  11. Effect of endotoxin preparations (LPS) with irradiation decreased toxicity on the immune response of normal and irradiated rats

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    Elekes, E; Bertok, L [Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszsegugyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1979-03-01

    A comparison of the immunostimulating effect of parent and radiodetoxified with 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy (5, 10, 15 and 20 Mrad) /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays endotoxin preparations in normal and irradiated rats is given. By increasing the dose of irradiation the immunostimulating effect decreased. The preparations detoxified even with the highest (200 kGy) dose is characterized by a pronounced adjuvant effect in irradiated animals.

  12. Decrease of bacterial spoilage of bread by low-dose irradiation of its flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.

    1981-01-01

    A variant of Bacillus subtilis causing the ''rope'' defect of bread was isolated from spoiled bread and the heat resistance of its spores was investigated in a liquid medium similar in its composition to the soluble part of the bread dough. The spores almost completely survived a 64-min heat treatment at 25 0 C and only slightly more than one log-cycle destruction was observed after 30 min at 99.5 0 C. The radiation destruction of freeze-dried spores proved to be exponential in the 0 - 8.0 kGy dose range studied, and it showed a D 10 value of 1.9 kGy. Gamma irradiation considerably decreased the heat resistance of the surviving spores against moist heat. The dormancy of spores was also significantly decreased, by 1.0 kGy or higher doses. Baking trials were performed with untreated and irradiated (0.75 and 1.5 kGy) flour samples within two weeks and after two months of post-irradiation storage of wheat flour. The shelf-life of bread prepared from irradiated flour was longer by 50% than that of the control at 30 0 C. Development of surviving ''ropy'' spores into colonies inside the bread proved to be easily detectable by triphenyl-tetrazolium-chloride on the basis of their dehydrogenase activity. The favourable microbiological effect of radiation treatment of wheat flour did not diminish during its two-month post-irradiation storage. Organoleptic quality of the flour and that of the bread were not affected by the 0.75 kGy dose. Off-flavour formation was induced by the 1.5 kGy dose, which diminished, however, in the bread-making procedure. (author)

  13. Suppressed histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells by ultraviolet B irradiation: decreased diacylglycerol formation as a possible mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, K.; Fujii, K.; Tachibana, T.; Toda, K.; Horio, T.

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation on mast cell functions. Purified mast cells obtained from rat peritoneal cavity were irradiated with UVB and subsequently exposed to a degranulator, compound 48/80, or the calcium ionophore A-23187. The amount of histamine released from mast cells measured by the enzyme isotopic assay was significantly decreased by UVB irradiation (100-400 mJ/cm2). Within this dose range, UVB alone was not cytotoxic to the cells because it did not induce histamine release. The suppression was observed when mast cells were subjected to degranulation without intervals after UVB irradiation, and even after 5 h postirradiation. The wavelength of 300 nm from a monochromatic light source showed the maximum effect. When mast cells prelabeled with [ 3 H]arachidonate were irradiated and challenged by compound 48/80, label accumulation in diacylglycerol produced by the phosphatidylinositol cycle was considerably decreased by UVB irradiation. From these results, we hypothesize that, within an adequate irradiation dose, UVB irradiation suppresses histamine release from mast cells, probably by causing noncytotoxic damage to the membrane phospholipid metabolism, which is tied to the degranulation mechanisms

  14. Proliferation activity and radiosensitivity of CFU-S in their decreased compartments in continuously irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalina, I.; Vacek, A.; Brezani, P.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of the continuous irradiation (0.25 Gy/day) on proliferation activity and radiosensitivity (D 0 ) of CFU-S were studied in rats after accumulated doses of 1.75 Gy and 15 Gy, resp. The proliferation activity of CFU-S in continuously irradiated groups was increased 4 - 5 fold compared with the control group. D 0 values for CFU-S in their decreased compartments were not changed after long-term irradiation compared with the controls. (author)

  15. Irradiation in perspective - the significance for the mango industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Thord-Gray, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper briefly describes the progress made with the irradiation of mangoes intended for sea shipment to overseas markets, over the past seven years. Highlights are given on mango radurization experiments for the period 1975-1981. Combination treatment for food preservation is discussed. This includes data on the effect of hot water plus irradiation, heated fungicide and ethylene treatments on decay development and insect damage in cold-stored sensation mangoes

  16. Decrease of glucose-induced insulin secretion of rat pancreatic islets after irradiation in vitro

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    Heinzmann, D; Nadrowitz, R; Besch, W; Schmidt, W; Hahn, H J [Zentralinstitut fuer Diabetes, Karlsburg (German Democratic Republic); Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1983-01-01

    In vitro irradiation of rat pancreatic islets up to a dose of 2.5 Gy did neither alter glucose- nor isobutylmethyl xanthine (IBMX)-induced insulin secretion. Insulin as well as glucagon content of irradiated islets corresponded to that of the control tissue. So it was in islets irradiated with 25 Gy which were characterized by a decreased insulin secretion in the presence of glucose and IBMX, respectively. There was no indication of an enhanced hormone output in the radiation medium and it is to be suggested that higher radiation doses affect the insulin release of pancreatic islets in vitro. This must be taken into consideration for radioimmunosuppression experiments.

  17. Rapid decrease in brain enkephalin content after low-dose whole-body X-irradiation of the rat

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    Miyachi, Yukihisa (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.); Ogawa, Norio; Mori, Akitane

    1992-03-01

    Methionine-eckephalin (ME) contents in the hypothalamus and other rat brain structures were measured immediately after 10 or 20 cGy whole-body X-irradiation. The ME contents of homogenates of the striatum, hypothalamus, midbrain + thalamus, hindbrain and pituitary were assayed radioimmunologically with {sup 125}I. The contents of all the structure, except the pituitary, decreased significantly after 20 cGy irradiation. The reduction in the hypothalamus was transient, ME content gradually recovering with time. These results suggest that the central nervous system of mammals is one of the most radiosensitive organs as judged by changes in stress-induced mediators such as ME. (author).

  18. Decrease of glucose-induced insulin secretion of pancreatic rat islets after irradiation in vitro

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    Heinzmann, D; Nadrowitz, R; Besch, W; Schmidt, W; Hahn, H J

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation of pancreatic rat islets up to a dose of 2.5 Gy did neither alter glucose-nor IBMX-induced insulin secretion studied in vitro. The insulin as well as glucagon content of irradiated islets were similar as in the control tissue. This was also true in islets irradiated with 25 Gy which were characterized by a decreased insulin secretion in the presence of glucose and IBMX, respectively. Since we did not find indications of an enhanced hormone output in the radiation medium, we want to suggest that higher irradiation doses affect insulin release of pancreatic islets in vitro. This observation has to be taken into account for application of radioimmunosuppression for transplantation.

  19. On the decrease of ultimate elongation of gum elastomer by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masayuki

    1986-01-01

    The reason why the ultimate elongation of gum elastomer decreases by irradiation was studied. The sample used is tetrafluoroethylenepropylene copolymer vulcanized which is a heat resistant elastomer. The sample was irradiated by a electron beam at room temperature. Cross-linking predominate in the operation. (Case 1) Scission predominant condition (Case 2) was given by irradiation of Co-60 γ ray at 100 deg C. Alternative irradiation of γ ray and electron beam under above condition can keep the original cross-linking density by the appropriate choice of each of the doses. (Case 3) The three cases mentioned above involve all of the cases of radiation induced aging of elastomers. Therefor, the following explanation for three cases shows the reason why the ultimate elongation of gum elastomer decreases by irradiation. Case 1. Cross-linking predominant condition. Ultimate elongation is proportional to -0.5 power of the dose. This fact can be explicable by the model of Buche, i.e. the breaking of a short chain causes another to break and that so on throughout the whole sample. Case 2. Chain scission predominant condition. Ultimate elongation increases by irradiation for a certain dose. This fact can understand by the model of Buche. But from a certain dose ultimate elongation does not increase. In the period the structure of the sample turned to be the same structure as the low molecular weight amorphose polymer vulcanized. Case 3. Rate of cross-linking and scission is the same. The average chain length does not chainge in the condition. But the distribution of chain length became wider and wider by irradiation. The increase of short chain result the decrease in ultimate elongation. (author)

  20. Inhibition of EGFR nuclear shuttling decreases irradiation resistance in HeLa cells.

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    Wei, Hong; Zhu, Zijie; Lu, Longtao

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of mortality in women worldwide. The resistance to irradiation at the advanced stage is the main reason for the poor prognosis and high mortality. This work aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the radio-resistance. In this study, we determined the pEGFR-T654 and pDNA-PK-T2609 expression level changes in irradiated HeLa cells treated with T654 peptide, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) inhibitor, to inhibit EGFR nuclear transport. Cell viability, cell cycle and migratory capacity were analyzed. Xenograft animal model was used to evaluate the effect of EGFR nuclear transport inhibition on the tumor growth in vivo. The enhanced translocation of nuclear EGFR in the irradiated HeLa cells correlated with the increasing level of pEGFR-T654 and pDNA-PK-T2609. Inhibition of EGFR nuclear translocation by NLS peptide inhibitor attenuated DNA damage repair in the irradiated HeLa cells, decreased cell viability and promoted cell death through arrest at G0 phase. NLS peptide inhibitor impaired the migratory capacity of irradiated HeLa cells, and negatively affected tumorigenesis in xenograft mice. This work puts forward a potential molecular mechanism of the irradiation resistance in cervical cancer cells, providing a promising direction towards an efficient therapy of cervical cancer.

  1. Significant decreases in frontal and temporal [11C]-raclopride binding after THC challenge.

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    Stokes, Paul R A; Egerton, Alice; Watson, Ben; Reid, Alistair; Breen, Gerome; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Nutt, David J; Mehta, Mitul A

    2010-10-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) increases prefrontal cortical dopamine release in animals, but this is yet to be examined in humans. In man, striatal dopamine release can be indexed using [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET), and recent reports suggest that cortical [11C]-raclopride binding may also be sensitive to dopaminergic challenges. Using an existing dataset we examined whether THC alters [11C]-raclopride binding potential (BP(ND)) in cortical regions. Thirteen healthy volunteers underwent two [11C]-raclopride PET scans following either oral 10 mg THC or placebo. Significant areas of decreased cortical [11C]-raclopride BP(ND) were identified using whole brain voxel-wise analysis and quantified using a region of interest (ROI) ratio analysis. Effect of blood flow on binding was estimated using a simplified reference tissue model analysis. Results were compared to [11C]-raclopride test-retest reliability in the ROIs identified using a separate cohort of volunteers. Voxel-wise analysis identified three significant clusters of decreased [11C]-raclopride BP(ND) after THC in the right middle frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus. Decreases in [11C]-raclopride BPND following THC were greater than test-retest variability in these ROIs. R1, an estimate of blood flow, significantly decreased in the left superior frontal gyrus in the THC condition but was unchanged in the other ROIs. Decreased frontal binding significantly correlated to catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) val108 status. We have demonstrated for the first time significant decreases in bilateral frontopolar cortical and left superior temporal gyrus [11C]-raclopride binding after THC. The interpretation of these findings in relation to prefrontal dopamine release is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. How about food irradiation? Its history and usefulness. (3) Irradiation effects on food and decrease in fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Inhibiting germination of vegetables and grade control of maturity of fruits, destroy of insect pest and parasite, disinfection of meats and fishes, bactericidal action of dry foods such as spices, and taste and color change of irradiated foods and perfect bactericidal action are stated. Application of food irradiation contains inhibiting germination, insecticidal action, sterilization of insect pest, grade control of maturity, inhibition of food poisoning, decrease in fungi, improvement of properties, and perfect bactericidal action. Each treatment of foods is described by the effects of three exposure doses such as the low exposure dose until 1 kGy, middle exposure dose from 1 to 10 kGy and high from 10 to 75 kGy. (S.Y.)

  3. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

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    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  4. Radio-Protective Effects of Melatonin on Subventricular Zone in Irradiated Rat: Decrease in Apoptosis and Upregulation of Nestin.

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    Naseri, Shafigheh; Moghahi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Noori; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Roghani, Mehrdad; Shirazi, Ali Reza; Malek, Fatemeh; Rastegar, Tayebeh

    2017-10-01

    Neural stem cells are self-renewing, multipotent cells that can be found in subventricular (SVZ) and subgranular (SGZ) zones of the brain. These zones are susceptible to irradiation-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. Melatonin (MLT) is a natural protector of neural cells against toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MLT as a radio-protective material effective in reducing tissue lesions in the SVZ of the brain and changing local apoptotic potential in rats. Twenty-five Gray irradiation was applied on adult rat brain for this study. One hour before irradiation, 100 mg/kg/IP MLT was injected, and 6 h later, the animals were sacrificed. The antioxidant enzymes and MDA activity levels were measured post-sacrifice. Also, the expression level of Nestin and caspase 3 were studied by immunohistochemistry. Spectrophotometric analysis showed significant increases in the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the irradiation-exposed (RAD) group compared to that of the control (Co) group (P < 0.05). Pre-treatment with MLT (100 mg/kg) ameliorates the harmful effects of the aforementioned 25 Gy irradiation by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and decreasing MDA levels. A significant reduction in apoptotic cells was observed in rats treated with MLT 1 h before exposure (P < 0.001). Nestin-positive cells were also reduced in the RAD group (P < 0.001). Our results confirm the anti-apoptotic and antioxidant role of MLT. The MLT concentration used may serve as a threshold for significant protection against 25 Gy gamma irradiations on neural stem cells in SVZ.

  5. The decreasing effect of exogenous SOD on damage of mice irradiated with 5 Gy 60Co-γ rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fenju; Jiang Jiagui; Yi Jian

    1999-01-01

    The author presents a report on the activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and the content of LPO measured in tissue of Liver, heart and brain of mice irradiated by 60 Co-γ rays 5 Gy 1, 3, 5 and 8 days after irradiation respectively. After radiation exogenous SOD was immediately i.p. injected into mice. The variation of LPO content in the above mentioned three kinds of tissue has been observed. The result of the measurement shows that after radiation at a dose of 5 Gy 60 Co-γ rays, the LPO content and SOD activity of mice organs varied with radiation time. The LPO content varied earliest in liver, while the variation of LPO content in heart and cerebrum took place 8 days after radiation, meanwhile the activity of SOD in the tissues significantly decreased in comparison with that the control group (P<0.01). After injection with SOD, the LPO content and SOD activity of the organs irradiated for different time significantly decreased and increased in comparison with that in the control group. This shows that the enzyme of SOD is of significant anti-radiation effect

  6. Decrease of H1 histone and changes in chromatin structure and transcription in pea seedlings after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagi, G.; Hidvegi, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    Seeds and seedlings of pea have been irradiated between zero to 300 Gy doses of 60 Co gamma-irradiation and examinations were carried out on the chromatin of shoots of 1-week-old etiolated seedlings. There was only a slight change in the gross composition of chromatin after irradiation (in the mass ratios of DNA:RNA:histone:non-histone proteins). Separation of histones, however, showed that after 300 Gy irradiation the quantity of H1 histones decreased by 33% after seed irradiation and 43% after seedling irradiation. The ratio of H1 subfractions also changed. Enzymes DNAase II and micrococcal nuclease digested the chromatin of the irradiated sample 30% faster than the unirradiated one. Transcription kinetics of chromatin showed a gradual decrease of Ksub(m) value on increasing doses of irradiation. There was, however, no difference in the rate of transcription of DNAs, isolated from the chromatin of the control and irradiated samples. Protease and RNAase activity of whole shoots showed enhancement after irradiation. These data suggest that irradiation of either seeds or seedlings results in loosening of the seedling chromatin structure, while there is no change in basic nucleosomal structure. The specific degradation or dissociation of histone H1, localized in the internucleosomal region may be responsible for these changes in the higher order structure of chromatin. This may explain the easier accessibility of chromatin to DNAase II after irradiation and the more tightly bound RNA polymerase, exhibited in decreasing Ksub(m) values. (Auth.)

  7. Level of headaches after surgical aneurysm clipping decreases significantly faster compared to endovascular coiled patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Petridis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In incidental aneurysms, endovascular treatment can lead to post-procedural headaches. We studied the difference of surgical clipping vs. endovascular coiling in concern to post-procedural headaches in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Sixtyseven patients with aneurysmal subarachnoidal haemorrhage were treated in our department from September 1st 2015 - September 1st 2016. 43 Patients were included in the study and the rest was excluded because of late recovery or highgrade subarachnoid bleedings. Twenty-two were surgical treated and twenty-one were interventionally treated. We compared the post-procedural headaches at the time points of 24 h, 21 days, and 3 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (VAS for pain. After surgical clipping the headache score decreased for 8.8 points in the VAS, whereas the endovascular treated population showed a decrease of headaches of 3.3 points. This difference was highly statistical significant and remained significant even after 3 weeks where the pain score for the surgically treated patients was 0.68 and for the endovascular treated 1.8. After 3 months the pain was less than 1 for both groups with surgically treated patients scoring 0.1 and endovascular treated patients 0.9 (not significant. Clipping is relieving the headaches of patients with aneurysm rupture faster and more effective than endovascular coiling. This effect stays significant for at least 3 weeks and plays a crucial role in stress relieve during the acute and subacute ICU care of such patients.

  8. Significant decrease in congenital malformations in newborn infants of an unselected population of diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Mølsted-Pedersen, L

    1989-01-01

    In an unselected and consecutive series of 1858 newborn infants of diabetic mothers, born in the Rigshospital, Copenhagen, in the period 1967 to 1986, congenital malformations were studied. The malformation rate in White Classes B to F was remarkably constant from 1967 to 1981, but a significant...... decrease in major congenital malformations was found in the period 1982 to 1986 versus 1977 to 1981 (2.7% vs. 7.4%, p less than 0.05). This decrease was mainly due to a fourfold decline in major congenital malformations in White Classes D and F (p less than 0.01), and consequently a correlation between...... the severity of maternal diabetes and the frequency of congenital malformations was no longer present. In the offspring of a control group of 1715 nondiabetic women, major congenital malformations were found in 1.7% (p greater than 0.05). Seventy-five percent of the diabetic pregnancies were planned...

  9. An Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain Significantly Decreases Physical Activity across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Hubbard-Turner, Erik A. Wikstrom, Sophie Guderian, Michael J. Turner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We do not know the impact an ankle sprain has on physical activity levels across the lifespan. With the negative consequences of physical inactivity well established, understanding the effect of an ankle sprain on this outcome is critical. The objective of this study was to measure physical activity across the lifespan after a single ankle sprain in an animal model. Thirty male mice (CBA/J were randomly placed into one of three groups: the transected calcaneofibular ligament (CFL group, the transected anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL/CFL group, and a SHAM group. Three days after surgery, all of the mice were individually housed in a cage containing a solid surface running wheel. Physical activity levels were recorded and averaged every week across the mouse’s lifespan. The SHAM mice ran significantly more distance each day compared to the remaining two running groups (post hoc p = 0.011. Daily duration was different between the three running groups (p = 0.048. The SHAM mice ran significantly more minutes each day compared to the remaining two running groups (post hoc p=0.046 while the ATFL/CFL mice ran significantly less minutes each day (post hoc p = 0.028 compared to both the SHAM and CFL only group. The SHAM mice ran at a faster daily speed versus the remaining two groups of mice (post hoc p = 0.019 and the ATFL/CFL mice ran significantly slower each day compared to the SHAM and CFL group (post hoc p = 0.005. The results of this study indicate that a single ankle sprain significantly decreases physical activity across the lifespan in mice. This decrease in physical activity can potentially lead to the development of numerous chronic diseases. An ankle sprain thus has the potential to lead to significant long term health risks if not treated appropriately.

  10. Significance of bacterial flora in abdominal irradiation-induced inhibition of lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Ando, K.; Koike, S.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously reported that abdominal irradiation prior to i.v. injection of syngeneic tumor cells reduced metastases in lung. Our report described an investigation of the significance of intestinal organisms in the radiation effect. We found that eliminating intestinal organisms with antibiotics totally abolished the radiation effect. Monoassociation of germ-free mice revealed that the radiation effect was observable only for Enterobacter cloacae, never for Streptococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium adlesentis, or Escherichia coli. After abdominal irradiation of regular mice, E. cloacae multiplied in cecal contents, adhered to mucous membranes, invaded the cecal wall, and translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes. Intravenous administration of E. cloacae in place of abdominal irradiation inhibited metastases. E. cloacae-monoassociated mice developed fewer metastases than germ-free mice, and the reduction was further enhanced by abdominal irradiation. We concluded that abdominal irradiation caused the invasion of E. cloacae from the mucous membrane of the intestine and inhibited formation of lung metastases

  11. Development of the National Transplant Program Has Significantly Decreased but Not Ended Transplant Tourism in Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkovic, M; Basic Jukic, N; Kastelan, Z; Radunovic, D; Kavaric, P; Brezak, J; Topalovic Grkovic, M; Hudolin, T; Prelevic, V

    2018-06-01

    Organ transplantation has prolonged and improved the lives of many patients around the world. However, a widespread shortage of donors remains the main factor that has led to organ trafficking and transplant tourism. To stop transplant tourism and to provide optimal treatment for its citizens with end-stage renal disease, Montenegro started performing renal transplantations in September 2012. Thirty-five transplantations have been performed since that time, 34 from living donors and only 1 from a deceased donor. This practice has significantly decreased but not ended transplant tourism in Montenegro. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-Kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9-24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  13. Potential prognostic significance of decreased serum levels of TRAIL after acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Secchiero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since soluble TRAIL exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities both in vitro and in animal models, this study was designed to assess the relationship between the serum levels of TRAIL and clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Levels of TRAIL were measured by ELISA in serial serum samples obtained from 60 patients admitted for AMI, both during hospitalization and in a follow-up of 12 months, as well as in 60 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of TRAIL were significantly decreased in patients with AMI at baseline (within 24 hours from admission, compared with healthy controls, and showed a significant inverse correlation with a series of negative prognostic markers, such as CK, CK-MB and BNP. TRAIL serum levels progressively increased at discharge, but normalized only at 6-12 months after AMI. Of note, low TRAIL levels at the patient discharge were associated with increased incidence of cardiac death and heart failure in the 12-month follow-up, even after adjustment for demographic and clinical risk parameters (hazard ratio [HR] of 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89 to 0.97]; p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the number of patients studied was limited, our findings indicate for the first time that circulating TRAIL might represent an important predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of conventional risk markers.

  14. L-carnitine significantly decreased aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, Halimeh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Javanmardi, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to divide continuously and tissue regeneration potential during the transplantation. Aging and loss of cell survival, is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Since the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidant compounds can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is evaluate the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on proliferation and aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rADSC). rADSCs were isolated from inguinal region of 5 male Rattus rats. Oil red-O, alizarin red-S and toluidine blue staining were performed to evaluate the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of rADSCs, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis was done for investigating the cell surface markers. The methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method was used to determine the cell proliferation of rADSCs following exposure to different concentrations of LC. rADSCs aging was evaluated by beta-galactosidase staining. The results showed significant proliferation of rADSCs 48 h after treatment with concentrations of 0.2 mM LC. In addition, in the presence of 0.2 mM LC, rADSCs appeared to be growing faster than control group and 0.2 mM LC supplementation could significantly decrease the population doubling time and aging of rADSCs. It seems that LC would be a good antioxidant to improve lifespan of rADSCs due to the decrease in aging.

  15. Swimming immobility time decreased in prenatally x-irradiated microcephalic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Misako; Kiyono, Sigehiro; Shibagaki, Masamitsu

    1986-01-01

    Pregnant rats were X-irradiated (150 R) on gestation day 17, and the offspring were weaned at 21 days of age. After recording the spontaneous activity for one hour using Animex apparatus at 40 days of age, male offspring were tested for swimming immobility time on two consecutive days at 62 days of age. All X-irradiated pups were microcephalic, and their mean total brain weight was 78.5 % of the control group. Although no difference was found in spontaneous activity between the two groups, swimming immobility time was significantly shortened in the microcephalic group. The results suggest that the swimming immobility time is an indicator of adaptability to novel situation rather than an expression of helplessness, lowered mood or depressed state as originally proposed by Porsolt et al. (author)

  16. Perioperative use of tamsulosin significantly decreases rates of urinary retention in men undergoing pelvic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poylin, Vitaliy; Curran, Thomas; Cataldo, Thomas; Nagle, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    Urinary retention is a common complication of pelvic surgery, leading to urinary tract infection and prolonged hospital stays. Tamsulosin is an alpha blocker that works by relaxing bladder neck muscles. It is used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy and retention. We aim to investigate the potential benefits of preemptive tamsulosin use on rates of urinary retention in men undergoing pelvic surgery. This is a retrospective review of an institutional colorectal database. All men undergoing pelvic surgery between 2004 and 2013 were included. Patients given 0.4 mg of tamsulosin 3 days prior and after surgery at discretion of surgeon starting in 2007 were compared with patients receiving expectant postoperative management. One hundred eighty-five patients were included in the study (study group: N = 30; control group: N = 155). Study group patients were older (56.8 vs. 50.1 years). Overall urinary retention rate was 22% with significantly lower rates in the study group compared with control (6.7 vs. 25%; p = 0.029). Study group had higher rates of minimally invasive surgery (61 vs. 29.7%); however, this did not impact urinary retention rate (20.6 vs. 22.7% for minimally invasive surgery vs. open surgery; p = 0.85). Independent predictors of urinary retention included lack of preemptive tamsulosin (odds ratio (OR), 7.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-41.7) and cancer location in the distal third of the rectum (OR, 18.8; 95% CI, 2.1-172.8). Preemptive perioperative use of tamsulosin may significantly decrease the incidence of urinary retention in men undergoing pelvic surgery. This may play a role in avoidance of urinary retention, particularly in patients with distal rectal cancer.

  17. Chronic methamphetamine exposure significantly decreases microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven A; Corkill, Beau; Bruster, Matthew C; Roberts, Rick L; Shanks, Ryan A

    2017-07-01

    Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant drug and its use and abuse necessitates a better understanding of its neurobiobehavioral effects. The acute effects of binge dosing of methamphetamine on the neurons in the CNS are well studied. However, the long-term effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine are less well characterized, especially in other cell types and areas outside of the major dopamine pathways. Mice were administered 5mg/kg/day methamphetamine for ten days and brain tissue was analyzed using histochemistry and image analysis. Increased microglia activity in the striatum confirmed toxic effects of methamphetamine in this brain region using this dosing paradigm. A significant decrease in microglia activity in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus was observed with no effect noted on dopamine neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Given the importance of this area in homeostatic and neuroendocrine regulation, the current study highlights the need to more fully understand the systemic effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine use. The novel finding of microglia downregulation after chronic methamphetamine could lead to advances in understanding neuroinflammatory responses towards addiction treatment and protection from psychostimulant-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Results in Significant Decrease in Clinical Toxicities Compared With Conventional Wedge-Based Breast Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsolia, Asif; Kestin, Larry; Grills, Inga; Wallace, Michelle; Jolly, Shruti; Jones, Cortney; Lala, Moinaktar; Martinez, Alvaro; Schell, Scott; Vicini, Frank A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a static multileaf collimator process results in a more homogenous dose distribution compared with conventional wedge-based whole breast irradiation (WBI). In the present analysis, we reviewed the acute and chronic toxicity of this IMRT approach compared with conventional wedge-based treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 172 patients with Stage 0-IIB breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy followed by WBI. All patients underwent treatment planning computed tomography and received WBI (median dose, 45 Gy) followed by a boost to 61 Gy. Of the 172 patients, 93 (54%) were treated with IMRT, and the 79 patients (46%) treated with wedge-based RT in a consecutive fashion immediately before this cohort served as the control group. The median follow-up was 4.7 years. Results: A significant reduction in acute Grade 2 or worse dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation was seen with IMRT compared with wedges. A trend was found toward reduced acute Grade 3 or greater dermatitis (6% vs. 1%, p = 0.09) in favor of IMRT. Chronic Grade 2 or worse breast edema was significantly reduced with IMRT compared with conventional wedges. No difference was found in cosmesis scores between the two groups. In patients with larger breasts (≥1,600 cm 3 , n = 64), IMRT resulted in reduced acute (Grade 2 or greater) breast edema (0% vs. 36%, p <0.001) and hyperpigmentation (3% vs. 41%, p 0.001) and chronic (Grade 2 or greater) long-term edema (3% vs. 30%, p 0.007). Conclusion: The use of IMRT in the treatment of the whole breast results in a significant decrease in acute dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation and a reduction in the development of chronic breast edema compared with conventional wedge-based RT

  19. Radish juice and corn oil as adjuvants that decrease the destructive alterations in hypoglycemia rats subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafy, N.

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the decrease in different biochemical and histopathological alterations that may occur following the oral administration of aqueous extract of radish at the dose level (50 mg/100 g body weight) and the addition of 10% corn oil to the diet of hypoglycemia rats and /or exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation. The experiment included normal male albino rats and hypoglycemia ones.The hypoglycemia rats divided into tow groups; the first group was treated with radish juice or radish juice with diet containing corn oil and the other group was hypoglycemia rats exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation then treated also with radish juice or radish juice with diet containing 10% corn oil. Biochemical analysis included levels of blood sugar, total lipids, cholesterol, total protein and albumin, in addition to the activity of AST and ALT were evaluated. The level of TBARs and the histopathological changes in liver and kidney were also investigated. Treatment of irradiated hypoglycemia rats with radish juice either alone or combined with a diet containing 10% corn oil reverse the serum fasting glucose level nearly to the control level. Amelioration in lipid profile was recorded after the treatment of the hypoglycemia rats or those hypoglycemia irradiated then treated with radish juice and fed on a diet containing 10% corn oil. Also, significant amelioration was occurred in liver transaminases, total proteins, albumin and creatinine levels as compared to those of hypoglycemia group. TBARs levels showed remarkable decrease in liver and kidney tissues in comparison with control and hypoglycemia rats and/or gamma irradiated levels when it is treated with radish juice and diet containing corn oil. Also, the histopathological changes of the same tissues revealed the same trend. From the different observations , it is possible to conclude that treatment of rats with radish juice in addition to feeding on diet containing 10% corn oil could reduce the

  20. Nicaraven reduces cancer metastasis to irradiated lungs by decreasing CCL8 and macrophage recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chen; Luo, Lan; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Radiotherapy for cancer patients damages normal tissues, thereby inducing an inflammatory response and promoting cancer metastasis. We investigated whether nicaraven, a compound with radioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties, could attenuate radiation-induced cancer metastasis to the lungs of mice. Nicaraven and amifostine, another commercial radioprotective agent, had limited effects on both the radiosensitivity of Lewis lung carcinoma cells in vitro and radiation-induced tumor growth inhibition in vivo. Using experimental and spontaneous metastasis models, we confirmed that thorax irradiation with 5 Gy X-rays dramatically increased the number of tumors in the lungs. Interestingly, the number of tumors in the lungs was significantly reduced by administering nicaraven but not by administering amifostine daily after radiation exposure. Furthermore, nicaraven administration effectively inhibited CCL8 expression and macrophage recruitment in the lungs 1 day after thorax irradiation. Our data suggest that nicaraven attenuates radiation-induced lung metastasis, likely by regulating the inflammatory response after radiation exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Decreased Lung Perfusion After Breast/Chest Wall Irradiation: Quantitative Results From a Prospective Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, Adam L., E-mail: adamliss68@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Marsh, Robin B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kapadia, Nirav S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); McShan, Daniel L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Rogers, Virginia E. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Balter, James M.; Moran, Jean M.; Brock, Kristy K.; Schipper, Matt J.; Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Flaherty, Kevin R. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Frey, Kirk A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: To quantify lung perfusion changes after breast/chest wall radiation therapy (RT) using pre- and post-RT single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) attenuation-corrected perfusion scans; and correlate decreased perfusion with adjuvant RT dose for breast cancer in a prospective clinical trial. Methods and Materials: As part of an institutional review board–approved trial studying the impact of RT technique on lung function in node-positive breast cancer, patients received breast/chest wall and regional nodal irradiation including superior internal mammary node RT to 50 to 52.2 Gy with a boost to the tumor bed/mastectomy scar. All patients underwent quantitative SPECT/CT lung perfusion scanning before RT and 1 year after RT. The SPECT/CT scans were co-registered, and the ratio of decreased perfusion after RT relative to the pre-RT perfusion scan was calculated to allow for direct comparison of SPECT/CT perfusion changes with delivered RT dose. The average ratio of decreased perfusion was calculated in 10-Gy dose increments from 0 to 60 Gy. Results: Fifty patients had complete lung SPECT/CT perfusion data available. No patient developed symptoms consistent with pulmonary toxicity. Nearly all patients demonstrated decreased perfusion in the left lung according to voxel-based analyses. The average ratio of lung perfusion deficits increased for each 10-Gy increment in radiation dose to the lung, with the largest changes in regions of lung that received 50 to 60 Gy (ratio 0.72 [95% confidence interval 0.64-0.79], P<.001) compared with the 0- to 10-Gy region. For each increase in 10 Gy to the left lung, the lung perfusion ratio decreased by 0.06 (P<.001). Conclusions: In the assessment of 50 patients with node-positive breast cancer treated with RT in a prospective clinical trial, decreased lung perfusion by SPECT/CT was demonstrated. Our study allowed for quantification of lung perfusion defects in a prospective cohort of

  2. Decreased adventitial neovascularization after intracoronary irradiation in swine: a time course study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollum, Marc; Cottin, Yves; Chan, Rosanna C.; Kim, Han Soo; Bhargava, Balram; Vodovotz, Yoram; Waksman, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Background: Intracoronary radiation (IR) suppresses the formation of neointima after arterial injury in swine, through mechanisms incompletely understood. Neointimal development appears related to expansion of adventitial microvessels; we therefore examined the hypothesis that IR inhibits neointima formation through an anti-angiogenic effect. Methods and Results: Juvenile swine were treated with either 0 or 15 Gy 192 Ir (γ-source) and euthanized 3, 7, or 14 days later or treated with 18 Gy 90 Y (β-source) and euthanized after 14 days. Adventitial area (AA), intimal area (IA), IA corrected for medial fracture length, and adventitial vessel area were assessed in both injured and uninjured segments by computer-aided histomorphometry on Verhoeff-Von Giesson stained sections. Adventitial vessel count (AVC) was enumerated visually on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and confirmed by anti-factor VIII-associated antigen immunostaining for endothelial cells. AA and IA were reduced in injured arteries subjected to IR as compared to controls. The AVC was significantly lower in injured irradiated arterial segments as well as all uninjured segments as compared with injured control segments. In the injured and irradiated arteries, the AVC remained unchanged at 3, 7, and 14 days. The injured segments of arteries treated with IR demonstrated a significantly lower adventitial microvessel density (AVC/AA) as compared to the injured control segments. Comparison of γ- and β-irradiation at 14 days did not show any differences for vessel parameters and measurements of adventitial microvessels. IA and AVC were correlated positively (R 2 = 0.63, α = 0.79, p < 0.01). Conclusion: IR induced an early and sustained anti-angiogenic effect between 3 and 14 days. The relation between IA and AVC may indicate an antiproliferative effect associated with an anti-angiogenic effect independent of the type of radiation. CONDENSED ABSTRACT Intracoronary radiation suppresses neointima

  3. Decreased repopulation as well as increased reoxygenation contribute to the improvement in local control after targeting of the EGFR by C225 during fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Mechthild; Ostermann, Gernot; Petersen, Cordula; Yaromina, Ala; Hessel, Franziska; Harstrick, Andreas; Kogel, Albert J van der; Thames, Howard D; Baumann, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Inhibition of repopulation and enhanced reoxygenation has been suggested to contribute to improvement of local tumour control after fractionated irradiation combined with inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The present study addresses this hypothesis in FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma. For this tumour model marked repopulation and incomplete reoxygenation during fractionated irradiation has previously been demonstrated. Furthermore, the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody C225 has been shown to significantly improve the results of fractionated irradiation in this tumour. Materials and methods: FaDu tumours in nude mice were irradiated with 18 fractions in 18 days (18f/18d) or 18 fractions in 36 days (18f/36d). Three Gy fractions were given either under ambient or under clamp hypoxic conditions. C225 or carrier was applied four times during the course of treatment. Fractionated irradiations were followed by graded top-up doses to obtain complete dose-response curves for local tumour control. Tumour control dose 50% (TCD 50 ) was determined at day 120 after end of treatment. Results: Significant repopulation and reoxygenation occurred during fractionated irradiation of FaDu tumours (P-values between 0.028 and 50 for 18f/36d under ambient conditions (P=0.04). Bootstrap analysis revealed decreased repopulation and increased reoxygenation after application of C225 (P=0.06 for the combined effect). This was further corroborated by a significant effect of C225 on the 'repopulated' dose under ambient conditions which is influenced by both, reoxygenation and repopulation (P=0.012). Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that both decreased repopulation as well as increased reoxygenation contribute to the improvement of local control after targeting of EGFR by C225 during fractionated irradiation of FaDu tumours

  4. Angiogenic activity in patients with psoriasis is significantly decreased by Goeckerman's therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrys, C.; Borska, L.; Pohl, D.; Fiala, Z.; Hamakova, K.; Krejsek, J. [Faculty Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Dept. of Clinical Immunology & Allergy

    2007-03-15

    Goeckerman's therapy (GT) of psoriasis is based on daily application of pharmacy grade coal tar on affected skin with subsequent exposure to UV light. Goeckerman's therapy is still the first line therapy of psoriasis in the Czech Republic because of its low cost and long-term efficacy. Disturbances in angiogenic activity are characteristic for the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. An abnormal spectrum of cytokines, growth factors and proangiogenic mediators is produced by keratinocytes and inflammatory cells in patients suffering from the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of GT of psoriasis on angiogenic activities by comparing serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in 44 patients with psoriasis in peripheral blood samples collected before and after therapy. It was found that the angiogenic potential which is abnormally increased in patients with psoriasis is significantly alleviated by GT.

  5. The significance of eosinophilia during external irradiation for uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yuzo; Washizuka, Norio; Kishiyama, Kazutaka; Yamada, Ryuichi; Hasegawa, Tenmatsu

    1980-01-01

    To study the mechanism of eosinophilia, correlation between immunological skin test including DNCB, PHA and PPD test, the grade of diarrhea were evaluated 32 cases of uterine cancer which received external irradiation. Also the comparison of eosinophilia and diarrhea among the three fraction group and each score group of skin test were done. The maximum value of absolute eosinophils and multiple increase in eosinophils increased more significantly in 4750 rads/20f/5 weeks group than in other group, but did'nt correlate among each score group of skin test. Also eosinophilia did'nt correlate significantly to skin test and the grade of diarrhea. (author)

  6. Gemfibrozil Concentrations are Significantly Decreased in the Presence of Lopinavir/ritonavir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Kristin H.; Hadigan, Colleen; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M.; Formentini, Elizabeth; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Penzak, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of a two-week course of lopinavir-ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of the triglyceride-lowering agent, gemfibrozil. Methods: The study was conducted as an open label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study in healthy human volunteers. Gemfibrozil pharmacokinetic parameter values were compared using a students t test after a single 600 mg dose was administered to healthy volunteers before, and after two weeks of lopinavir-ritonavir (400/100 mg) twice daily. Results: Fifteen healthy volunteers (8 males) completed the study. All study drugs were generally well-tolerated and no subjects withdrew participation. The geometric mean ratio (GMR, 90% CI) for gemfibrozil area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir compared to baseline was 0.59 (0.52, 0.67) (P gemfibrozil AUC0-∞ after lopinavir-ritonavir (range: −6% to −74%). The GMRs for gemfibrozil apparent oral clearance (Cl/F) and maximum concentration (Cmax) were 1.69 (1.41, 1.97) and 0.67 (0.49, 0.86) after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir versus baseline, respectively (P Gemfibrozil elimination half-life did not change after lopinavir-ritonavir administration (P = 0.60). Conclusion: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly reduced the systemic exposure of gemfibrozil by reducing gemfibrozil absorption. Clinicians treating HIV-infected patients with hypertriglyceridemia should be aware of this drug interaction. PMID:19648824

  7. Gemfibrozil concentrations are significantly decreased in the presence of lopinavir-ritonavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Kristin H; Hadigan, Colleen; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M; Formentini, Elizabeth; Kovacs, Joseph A; Penzak, Scott R

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of a 2-week course of lopinavir-ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of the triglyceride-lowering agent, gemfibrozil. The study was conducted as an open label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study in healthy human volunteers. Gemfibrozil pharmacokinetic parameter values were compared using a Student t test after a single 600-mg dose was administered to healthy volunteers before and after 2 weeks of lopinavir-ritonavir (400/100 mg) twice daily. Fifteen healthy volunteers (eight males) completed the study. All study drugs were generally well tolerated and no subjects withdrew participation. The geometric mean ratio (90% confidence interval) for gemfibrozil area under the plasma concentration-time curve after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir compared with baseline was 0.59 (0.52, 0.67) (P gemfibrozil area under the plasma concentration-time curve after lopinavir-ritonavir (range, -6% to -74%). The geometric mean ratios for gemfibrozil apparent oral clearance and maximum concentration were 1.69 (1.41, 1.97) and 0.67 (0.49, 0.86) after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir versus baseline, respectively (P Gemfibrozil elimination half-life did not change after lopinavir-ritonavir administration (P = 0.60). Lopinavir-ritonavir significantly reduced the systemic exposure of gemfibrozil by reducing gemfibrozil absorption. Clinicians treating HIV-infected patients with hypertriglyceridemia should be aware of this drug interaction.

  8. Biological significance of the focus on DNA damage checkpoint factors remained after irradiation of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Suzuki, Keiji

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews recent reports on the focus formation and participation to checkpoint of (such phosphorylated (P-d) as below) ATM and H2AX, MDC1, 53BP1 and NBS1, and discusses their role in DNA damage checkpoint induction mainly around authors' studies. When the cell is irradiated by ionizing radiation, the subtype histone like H2AX is P-d and the formed focus', seen in the nucleus on immuno-fluorographic observation, represents the P-d H2AX at the damaged site of DNA. The role of P-d ATM (the product of causative gene of ataxia-telangiectasia mutation, a protein kinase) has been first shown by laser beam irradiation. Described are discussions on the roles and functions after irradiation in focus formation and DNA damage checkpoint of P-d H2AX (a specific histone product by the radiation like γ-ray as above), P-d ATM, MDC1 (a mediator of DNA damage check point protein 1), 53BP1, (a p53 binding protein) and NBS1 (the product of the causative gene of Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome). Authors have come to point out the remained focal size increase as implications of the efficient repair of damaged DNA, and the second cycled p53 accumulation, of tumor suppression. Thus evaluation of biological significance of these aspects, scarcely noted hitherto, is concluded important. (S.I.)

  9. Concomitant pilocarpine during head and neck irradiation is associated with decreased posttreatment xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, Robert P.; Mark, Rufus J.; Tran, Luu M.; Juillard, Guy F.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare subjective postirradiation xerostomia scores of patients who received concomitant oral pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and 3 months thereafter with those of similar cohorts who did not receive pilocarpine. Methods and Materials: Subjective xerostomia was assessed using a visual analog scale xerostomia questionnaire that measured oral dryness, oral comfort, difficulty with sleep, speech, and eating. The concomitant pilocarpine group had both parotid glands in the initial field treated to at least 45 Gy and received 5 mg pilocarpine hydrochloride four times per day (q.i.d.) beginning on the first day of radiotherapy and continuing for 3 months after completion of radiation. The control cohort had also received at least 45 Gy to both parotid glands and had not received pilocarpine at the time of evaluation. Scores on the visual analog scale were averaged and compared using the Student's t-test. Results: Seventeen patients who received concomitant pilocarpine during head and neck irradiation and 18 patients who had not been treated with pilocarpine were available for follow-up. The mean intervals between completion of radiation and evaluation of xerostomia were 17 months and 16 months, respectively. Only one of the pilocarpine-treated patients was still taking pilocarpine at the time of evaluation. For each of the individual components of xerostomia scored on the visual analog scale, as well as the composite of all components, the group that had received oral pilocarpine during radiation had significantly less xerostomia (p < 0.01 for each). Conclusions: The use of 5 mg oral pilocarpine q.i.d. during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and 3 months thereafter was associated with significantly less subjective xerostomia than that reported by a similar cohort of patients who had not received pilocarpine. The continued use of pilocarpine does not appear to be necessary to maintain this benefit in most patients

  10. Decreased weight, DNA, RNA and protein content of the brain after neutron irradiation of the 18-day mouse embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antal, S.; Fonagy, A.; Hidvegi, E.J.; Fueloep, Z.; Vogel, H.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Pregnant mice were irradiated with 0.5 Gy fission neutrons on the eighteenth day of gestation. Average litter size at birth was unchanged but mortality increased 5-6 fold in the first 3 days. Irradiated mice were the same weight as control mice at birth but showed a progressively increasing weight deficiency up to at least 36 days compared to controls. Brain weight was 37, 45 and 25% less in 2-, 3- and 52-week old irradiated animals; the ratio of brain weight to body weight was 25, 27 and 13% less. The concentrations of DNA, RNA and protein (mg/g wet tissue) were the same in irradiated and control mice in brain and liver at all three ages. Total DNA, RNA and protein contents of whole brain after irradiation were 56-75% of control levels. No definite decrease was observed in liver. Histological study at 6 hours after irradiation showed nuclear pyknosis in the central nervous system from definite to very severe according to the part examined. It is concluded that damage to the central nervous system of the 18-day mouse foetus is mainly due to killing and/or inhibition of the differentiation of neuroblasts. (author)

  11. The influence of continuous γ-irradiation at decreasing dose-rate on the survival rote and induction of gene mutations in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistova, T.P.; Elisova, E.V.; Stavrakova, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    Continuous γ-irradiation at decreasing dose-rate was shown to be less effective than acute exposure with regard to the lethal effect and frequency of mutations of resistance to 6-thioguanine in cultured Chinese hamster cells. The cell population subjected to continuons irradiation was d more radioresistant than the intact one. Lethal and genetic effects of continuous irradiation at decreasing dose-rate were mainly determined by the contribution of the radiation dose received during the first 24 h of exposure

  12. Accounting for the decrease of photosystem photochemical efficiency with increasing irradiance to estimate quantum yield of leaf photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinyou; Belay, Daniel W; van der Putten, Peter E L; Struik, Paul C

    2014-12-01

    Maximum quantum yield for leaf CO2 assimilation under limiting light conditions (Φ CO2LL) is commonly estimated as the slope of the linear regression of net photosynthetic rate against absorbed irradiance over a range of low-irradiance conditions. Methodological errors associated with this estimation have often been attributed either to light absorptance by non-photosynthetic pigments or to some data points being beyond the linear range of the irradiance response, both causing an underestimation of Φ CO2LL. We demonstrate here that a decrease in photosystem (PS) photochemical efficiency with increasing irradiance, even at very low levels, is another source of error that causes a systematic underestimation of Φ CO2LL. A model method accounting for this error was developed, and was used to estimate Φ CO2LL from simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence on leaves using various combinations of species, CO2, O2, or leaf temperature levels. The conventional linear regression method under-estimated Φ CO2LL by ca. 10-15%. Differences in the estimated Φ CO2LL among measurement conditions were generally accounted for by different levels of photorespiration as described by the Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry model. However, our data revealed that the temperature dependence of PSII photochemical efficiency under low light was an additional factor that should be accounted for in the model.

  13. The decrease of microbial charge in some spices by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, Mariana; Ferdes, Ovidiu

    2008-01-01

    The radiations of primary interest in food preservation are ionizing radiations; the use of electron accelerators offers certain advantages like high efficiency and flexibility in the choice of surface and depth treatments for a variety of food items. The paper presents the influence of ionising radiation on the microbial content in different spices: nutmeg, paprika, savory, ginger and oregano. The electron beam irradiation at doses within the range of 1-10 kGy reduced the values of CFU/g of total counts of aerobic germs and also of yeasts and moulds in these food products. The D 10 and D L for each sample were determined from the inactivation curves. For each food item the D L values for total aerobic microflora are higher than the corresponding D L values for fungi. In conclusion, values doses of 10 kGy are sufficient to reduce the microbial load of these spices under the values permitted by law. (authors)

  14. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  15. In situ PCR detection and significance of IL-3 gene expression in irradiated hematopoietic cells of mouse bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Ruiyun; Wang Dewen; Xiong Chengqi; Gao Yabing; Li Yanping; Yang Hong; Cui Yufang

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of endogenous interleukin 3(IL-3) gene expression in repair of irradiated mouse bone marrow. Methods: Seventy-eight LACA mice were subjected to total body irradiation with 60 Co γ-rays and were sacrificed within 4 weeks after irradiation. The bone marrow histopathological sections were stained with HE, and the expression of endogenous IL-3 gene was detected by means of immunocytochemistry,in situ hybridization(ISH) and in situ reverse transcription PCR(IS RT-PCR). Results: Obvious injury of bone marrow occurred after irradiation and then recovered within 4 weeks. IL-3 protein was obviously increased in the cytoplasm of recovering hematopoietic cells(HCs), especially on day 21 after irradiation, while its mRNA was poorly positive by ISH on days 10-21, especially day 15.IS RT-PCR showed that IL-3 mRNA was strongly positive in recovering HCs cytoplasm, especially on days 10 to 15. Conclusion: In situ RT-PCR can objectively reflect the regulation of IL-3 gene expression in bone marrow after irradiation, and the expression of endogenous IL-3 gene may play an important role in hematopoietic reconstruction of irradiated bone marrow

  16. Significance of endoscopic biopsy after preoperative irradiation therapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiguchi, Nobuhiro; Sarashina, Hiromi; Saito, Norio; Nunomura, Masao; Kohda, Keishi; Nakajima, Nobuyuki (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate the utility of endoscopic biopsy before and after preoperative irradiation therapy for rectal cancer, we examined histologically both biopsy specimens and resected materials of forty-three patients. Two pieces of biopsy materials were taken both before and after irradiation therapy (total dose 42.6 Gy) from the marginal wall of the tumor, cavity and transitional mucosa, respectively. In biopsy specimens, according to the degree of degeneration of cancer cells, cases with remarkable changes of nucleus, nucleolus, and cytoplasm due to irradiation were classified into the severely degenerated group. According to the histological examinations of resected materials, twenty-four cases were under Grade 1b (Gr I), and nineteen cases were over Grade 2 (Gr II). The rates of cancer cells found in biopsy materials after irradiation were 91.7% in Gr I and were 47.4% in Gr II, respectively (p<0.01). Among the cases, 54.5% in Gr I and 100% in Gr II belonged to the severely degenerated group (p<0.05). Transitional mucosas were not greatly damaged by irradiation. As a result, the greater the irradiation effect was, the fewer cancer cells were found and the more degenerated cancer cells were found in biopsy specimens. But the rate of severely degenerated cells found in the biopsy specimens of little effect cases was high. So it was thought to be too difficult to predict the histological radiation effect of resected specimens from only biopsy specimens. (author).

  17. No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblasts after alpha particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Burong; Zhu, Jiayun; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2013-02-01

    A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. After irradiation, chromosomal aberrations of cells were analyzed at designated time points using G2 phase premature chromosome condensation (G2-PCC) coupled with Giemsa staining and with multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH). Our Giemsa staining assay demonstrated that elevated yields of chromatid breaks were induced in the progeny of pure bystander primary fibroblasts up to 20 days after irradiation. mFISH assay showed no significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations were induced in the progeny of the bystander cell groups, while the fractions of gross aberrations (chromatid breaks or chromosomal breaks) significantly increased in some bystander cell groups. These results suggest that genomic instability occurred in the progeny of the irradiation associated bystander normal fibroblasts exclude the inheritable interchromosomal aberration.

  18. Decreases in left atrial compliance during early-stage exercise are related to exercise intolerance in asymptomatic significant mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi-Hyang; Jung, Hae Ok; Lee, Jung-Won; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2017-11-01

    Doppler-driven net atrioventricular compliance (C n ), which represents left atrial (LA) compliance, is an important determinant of pulmonary hypertension in mitral stenosis (MS). We hypothesized that decreases in C n during early-stage exercise underlie exercise intolerance in patients with MS. Thirty-three asymptomatic patients with significant MS (valve area 1.24 ± 0.16 cm 2 ) underwent resting and bicycle exercise echocardiography. LA compliance and conventional parameters were assessed at each workload. The patients were classified into two groups based on whether they developed dyspnea during exercise: an exercise-intolerance group (n = 22) and an exercise-tolerance group (n = 11). Moreover, "50 W" was defined as an early exercise stage. Although the groups had similar resting characteristics, there were striking differences in their echocardiographic parameters from the early stages of exercise. The relative C n decrease at 50 W (expressed as a percentage of the resting C n ) was significantly greater in the exercise-intolerance group (70.3 ± 15.4% vs 49.7 ± 9.7%, P intolerance group (P = .0005). Furthermore, differences in the trends in this parameter were observed between the two groups (P intolerance (adjusted OR 1.105, 95% CI 1.030-1.184) after adjustment for other conventional parameters. Decreases in C n during early-stage exercise are an important mechanism underlying exercise intolerance in MS. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Statewide ban on recreational fires resulted in a significant decrease in campfire-related summer burn center admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, David Manh; Reid, Dixie; Lentz, Christopher William

    2013-01-01

    Every summer, there is an increase in the number of burn injuries caused by accidents around campfires. Because of the prevalence of drought, high winds, and uncontrolled wild fires, a statewide ban on recreational fires was instituted in New Mexico from June to July 2011. We hypothesized that this legislation would have a significant impact on burn admissions caused by campfire-related injuries. A retrospective review of summer admissions to a state burn center was conducted to assess the effect of this ban on recreational fire injuries, and these data were compared with that of the previous summer when no ban was in effect. All burn admissions to a state burn center were reviewed from Memorial Day to Labor Day in 2010 and 2011. Data collected included cause, % TBSA, age, days of hospitalization, intensive care unit days, and total surface area grafted. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed with Fisher exact test for dichotomous data and Mann-Whitney test for continuous data with significance at P fires during the study period (n = 14 [17%] in 2010 and 4 [5%] in 2011; P = .02). This resulted in a decrease in the number of patient-days from 91 in 2010 to 25 in 2011. Half of the camp fire admissions required skin grafts to definitively close the wounds (6/14 in 2010 and 2/4 in 2011). Recreational fire bans targeted at controlling wildfires during conditions favoring rapid spread were associated with a 3- to 4-fold decrease in campfire-related burn admissions. Compared with a summer when no fire ban was in effect, the number of patient-days decreased from 91 to 25.

  20. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognitive responses in urban children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian eCalderon-Garciduenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children. We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1 and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty g of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11± 3.4 days (range 9 to 24 days to 18 children (10.55yrs, SD =1.45; 11F/7M. Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p=0.0002. Fifteen children (83% showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

  1. Decrease of CD4+ T lymphocytes in patients with H1N1 in early stage and its clinical significances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Lingyun; Zhao Wei; Zhao Hong; Yu Haiying; Sun Weiwei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the change of CD4 + T Lymphocytes in patients with H1N1 at early stage and figure out its clinical significances on the progress and therapeutic selection of H1N1. Methods: The absolute counts of T lymphocyte subset from the peripheral blood samples of 48 H1N1 patients in first ten days' duration were detected by flow cytometry, and the serial chest CT examinations were performed. Results: In all 48 clinical cases, 28 cases were in normal range of CD4 + lymphocyte absolute count, whose pulmonary lesions were limited and illness condition stayed in the stability, they didn't need steroid. In the other 20 cases with low level of CD4 + , 4 cases' illness presented the progressive development and needed to be treated with steroid and 16 cases with lightly decreased CD4 + level which had a stable condition without treatment with steroid. The result of Pearson correlation analysis showed that there were negative correlations between absolute count of CD4 + cells and pulmonary lesions (r=-0.299, P + cell absolute count of H1N1 patients at early stage indicates the worse condition of pulmonary lesions. The patients with remarkable decrease of CD4 + lymphocytes are in need of treatment with steroid. (authors)

  2. The effect of continuous gamma-irradiation at exponentially decreased dose rates on the nucleic acid content of haemopoietic organs and blood of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishurova, E.; Kropachova, K.; Reksa, R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of continuous gamma-irradiation at exponentially decreased dose rates on the nucleic acid content of rat hemopoietic tissues and blood was followed up. We have found that the dynamics of the changes seems to be similar to that observed after acute exposure, and the hemopoiesis recovery starts just at the time of irradiation. In evaluating the damage and recovery extent after accidental irradiation, we consider it expedient to complement the biological dosimetry with the indices studied work including the determination of DNA and RNA concentrations in blood of irradiated human beings

  3. Significance of Interleukin-6 Signaling in the Resistance of Pharyngeal Cancer to Irradiation and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Chen, W.-C.; Lu, C.-H.; Wang, W.-H.; Lin, P.-Y.; Lee, K.-D.; Chen, M.-F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor eradication by chemoradiotherapy for pharyngeal cancer has not been particularly successful. Targeting epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) could be a potential treatment strategy providing additional benefits, but only a subset of these tumors gives a clinically significant response to EGFR inhibitors. The aim has been to identify the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling and its predictive power in the treatment response of pharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Human pharyngeal cancer cell lines, including the hypopharyngeal cancer cell line FaDu and its derived cell line FaDu-C225-R, were selected. Changes in tumor growth, response to treatment, and responsible signaling pathway were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, 95 pharyngeal cancer tissue specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining, and correlations were made between levels of IL-6, IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), p-AKT, and p-STAT3 expression and the clinical outcome of patients. Results: In vitro, either extrinsic IL-6 stimulation of cancer cells or intrinsically activated IL-6 signaling detected in FADu-C225-R cells results in resistance to irradiation and EGFR inhibitor. Blocking IL-6 signaling attenuated aggressive tumor behavior and sensitized the cells to treatments. The responsible mechanisms included decreased p-STAT3, less nuclear translocation of EGFR, and subsequently attenuated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Regarding clinical data, staining of p-STAT3 and IL-6 was significantly linked with lower response rates to treatments and shorter survival in pharyngeal cancer patients. Conclusions: IL-6 and p-STAT3 may be significant predictors of pharyngeal carcinoma, and regulating IL-6 signaling can be considered a promising therapeutic approach.

  4. Gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions. [prebiotic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Graff, R. L.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions was studied under initially oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions in an attempt to determine the possible interconversion of malic acid into other carboxylic acids, specifically those associated with Krebs cycle. The effect of dose on product formation of the system was investigated. Gas-liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry was used as the principal means of identification of the nonvolatile products. Thin layer chromatography and direct probe mass spectroscopy were also employed. The findings show that a variety of carboxylic acids are formed, with malonic and succinic acids in greatest abundance. These products have all been identified as being formed in the gamma-irradiation of acetic acid, suggesting a common intermediary. Since these molecules fit into a metabolic cycle, it is strongly suggestive that prebiotic pathways provided the basis for biological systems.

  5. Mitigating the Effects of Xuebijing Injection on Hematopoietic Cell Injury Induced by Total Body Irradiation with γ rays by Decreasing Reactive Oxygen Species Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic injury is the most common side effect of radiotherapy. However, the methods available for the mitigating of radiation injury remain limited. Xuebijing injection (XBJ is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat sepsis in the clinic. In this study, we investigated the effects of XBJ on the survival rate in mice with hematopoietic injury induced by γ ray ionizing radiation (IR. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with XBJ daily for seven days after total body irradiation (TBI. Our results showed that XBJ (0.4 mL/kg significantly increased 30-day survival rates in mice exposed to 7.5 Gy TBI. This effect may be attributable to improved preservation of white blood cells (WBCs and hematopoietic cells, given that bone marrow (BM cells from XBJ-treated mice produced more granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM than that in the 2 Gy/TBI group. XBJ also decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS by increasing glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in serum and attenuated the increased BM cell apoptosis caused by 2 Gy/TBI. In conclusion, these findings suggest that XBJ enhances the survival rate of irradiated mice and attenuates the effects of radiation on hematopoietic injury by decreasing ROS production in BM cells, indicating that XBJ may be a promising therapeutic candidate for reducing hematopoietic radiation injury.

  6. Significant decrease of saturation index in erythrocytes membrane from subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Maria; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Tutino, Valeria; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Cozzolongo, Raffaele; Giannuzzi, Vito; De Nunzio, Valentina; De Leonardis, Giampiero; Abbrescia, Daniela I; Franco, Isabella; Intini, Vincenza; Mirizzi, Antonella; Osella, Alberto R

    2017-08-23

    The lipidomic profiling of erythrocyte membranes is expected to provide a peculiar scenario at molecular level of metabolic and nutritional pathways which may influence the lipid balance and the adaptation and homeostasis of the organism. Considering that lipid accumulation in the cell is important in promoting tissue inflammation, the purpose of this study is to analyze the fatty acid profile in red blood cell membranes of patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), in order to identify and validate membrane profiles possibly associated with the degree of hepatic damage. This work presents data obtained at baseline from 101 subjects that participated to a nutritional trial (registration number: NCT02347696) enrolling consecutive subjects with NAFLD. Diagnosis of liver steatosis was performed by using vibration-controlled elastography implemented on FibroScan. Fatty acids, extracted from phospholipids of erythrocyte membranes, were quantified by gas chromatography method. The subjects with severe NAFLD showed a significant decrease of the ratio of stearic acid to oleic acid (saturation index, SI) compared to controls, 1.281 ± 0.31 vs 1.5 ± 0.29, respectively. Low levels of SI in red blood cell membranes, inversely associated with degree of liver damage, suggest that an impairment of circulating cell membrane structure can reflect modifications that take place in the liver. Subjects with severe NAFLDalso showed higher levels of elongase 5 enzymatic activity, evaluated as vaccenic acid to palmitoleic acid ratio. Starting from these evidences, our findings show the importance of lipidomic approach in the diagnosis and the staging of NAFLD.

  7. Radiobiologic significance of apoptosis and micronucleation in quiescent cells within solid tumors following γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Suzuki, Minoru; Kinashi, Yuko; Takagaki, Masao

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency of apoptosis in quiescent (Q) cells within solid tumors following γ-ray irradiation, using four different tumor cell lines. In addition, to assess the significance of detecting apoptosis in these cell lines. Methods and Materials: C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII or FM3A tumors, Balb/c mice bearing EMT6/KU tumors, and C57BL mice bearing EL4 tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously for 5 days via implanted mini-osmotic pumps to label all proliferating (P) cells. The mice then received γ-ray irradiation at a dose of 4-25 Gy while alive or after tumor clamping. Immediately after irradiation, the tumors were excised, minced, and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions thus obtained were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker), and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (=Q cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, 6 hours after irradiation, tumor cell suspensions obtained in the same manner were fixed. The apoptosis frequency in Q cells was also determined with immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN and apoptosis frequency in total (P+Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. Results: In total cells, SCC VII, FM3A, and EMT6/KU cells showed reasonable relationships between MN frequency and surviving fraction (SF). However, fewer micronuclei were induced in EL4 cells than the other cell lines. In contrast, a comparatively close relationship between apoptosis frequency and SF was found in total cells of EL4 cell line. Less apoptosis was observed in the other cell lines. Quiescent tumor cells exhibited significantly lower values of MN and apoptosis frequency probably due to their large hypoxic fraction, similar to total tumor cells on clamped irradiation. Conclusion: γ-ray irradiation induced MN formation in SCC VII, FM3A, and EMT6/KU tumor cells, and the apoptosis was marked in EL4 cells compared with

  8. Distribution of haptoglobin types and their significance for changes in biochemical and immunological parameters of people irradiated at small doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tel'nov, V.I.; Vologodskaya, I.A.; Zhuntova, G.V.

    1995-01-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphism and its significance for changes in biochemical and immunological parameters was analyzed in personnel of a nuclear plant receiving doses of external and internal irradiation close to maximum permissible levels. The distribution of Hp types and frequencies of alleles Hp in the group of probands as a whole (1-1, 14.1; 2-1, 49.2%; and 2-2, 36.7%) and in probands subjected to different types and doses of irradiation (1-1, 13.6 - 16.0%; 2-1, 47.8 - 50.5%; and 2-2, 35.8 - 38.2%) did not differ from those expected or from corresponding parameters of the control group and population. An increase in the frequency of allele Hp 1 was observed for persons over 60 years of age. It was found that the levels of uric acid, the activities of acid phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and its isozymes, and the content of certain lymphocyte classes and immune complexes are initially higher in carriers of Hp type 1-1. In these probands, changes in certain parameters related to irradiation were observed less frequently. In some cases, opposite changes in immunological parameters were observed in persons with different Hp types after internal irradiation. 23 refs., 6 tabs

  9. Significance of Fractionated Administration of Thalidomide Combined With γ-Ray Irradiation in Terms of Local Tumor Response and Lung Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Sanada, Yu; Moriwaki, Takahiro; Tano, Keizo; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of fractionated administration of thalidomide combined with γ-ray irradiation in terms of local tumor response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of intratumor quiescent (Q) cells. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. The tumor-bearing mice then received γ-ray irradiation after thalidomide treatment through a single or two consecutive daily intraperitoneal administrations up to a total dose of 400 mg/kg in combination with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumors were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (= P + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumor-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Results Thalidomide raised the sensitivity of the total cell population more remarkably than Q cells in both single and daily administrations. Daily administration of thalidomide elevated the sensitivity of both the total and Q cell populations, but especially the total cell population, compared with single administration. Daily administration, especially combined with MTH, decreased the number of lung metastases. Conclusion Daily fractionated administration of thalidomide in combination with γ-ray irradiation was thought to be more promising than single administration because of its potential to enhance local tumor response and repress lung metastatic potential. PMID:29147396

  10. A chimera embryo assay reveals a decrease in embryonic cellular proliferation induced by sperm from X-irradiated male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obasaju, M.F.; Wiley, L.M.; Oudiz, D.J.; Raabe, O.; Overstreet, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. Mice in the experimental groups received one of three doses of acute X irradiation (1.73, 0.29, and 0.05 Gy) and together with the control unirradiated mice were then mated weekly to unirradiated female mice for a 9-week experimental period. Embryos were recovered from the weekly matings at the four-cell stage and examined by the chimera assay for proliferative disadvantage. Aggregation chimeras were constructed of embryos from female mice mated to irradiated males (experimental embryos) and embryos from females mated to unexposed males (control embryos) and contained either one experimental embryo and one control embryo (heterologous chimera) or two control embryos (control chimera). The control embryo in heterologous chimeras and either embryo in control chimeras were prelabeled with the vital dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), and the chimeras were cultured for 40 h and viewed under phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy to obtain total embryo cell number and the cellular contribution from the FITC-labeled embryo. Experimental and control embryos that were cultured singly were also examined for embryo cell number at the end of the 40-h culture period. In control chimeras, the mean ratio of the unlabeled cells:total chimera cell number (henceforth referred to as ''mean ratio'') was 0.50 with little or no weekly variation over the 9-week experimental period. During Weeks 4-7, the mean ratios of heterologous chimeras differed significantly from the mean ratio of control chimeras with the greatest differences occurring during Week 7 (0.41 for chimeras of 0.05 Gy dose group, 0.40 for chimeras of the 0.29 Gy dose group, and 0.17 for chimeras of the 1.73 Gy dose group)

  11. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  12. Hyoscine butylbromide significantly decreases motion artefacts and allows better delineation of anatomic structures in mp-MRI of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, T.; Quentin, M.; Schmaltz, A.K.; Rubbert, C.; Blondin, D.; Antoch, G.; Schimmoeller, L. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Arsov, C.; Rabenalt, R.; Albers, P. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) on visualisation of anatomical details and motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate at 3.0 Tesla. One hundred and three consecutive patients (65 ± 10 years) were included in this trial, powered to demonstrate an improvement of image quality after HBB administration, assessed on a 5-point scale by two blinded readers. All patients received high-spatial resolution axial T2-weighted TSE sequences at 3.0 T without spasmolytic agent, repeated after application of 40 mg HBB and followed by routine mp-MRI. Secondary endpoints were (1) susceptibility to side effects, (2) dependence of spasmolytic effect on patients and acute; weight, and (3) prostate volume. In 68% of patients, HBB significantly improved the anatomic score (mean 3.4 ± 0.9 before and 4.4 ± 0.7 after HBB for both readers, p = <0.001). In 67%, HBB significantly enhanced the artefact score (mean 3.2 ± 1 before and 4.2 ± 0.8 after HBB for reader 1, p = <0.001; 3.2 ± 1 and 4.1 ± 0.8 for reader 2, p = <0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between patients with different bodyweight or prostate volume. Inter-reader agreement was excellent (k = 0.95-0.98). Hyoscine butylbromide significantly improves image quality and reduces motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate independent of bodyweight or prostate volume. No side effects were reported. (orig.)

  13. Hyoscine butylbromide significantly decreases motion artefacts and allows better delineation of anatomic structures in mp-MRI of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, T.; Quentin, M.; Schmaltz, A.K.; Rubbert, C.; Blondin, D.; Antoch, G.; Schimmoeller, L.; Arsov, C.; Rabenalt, R.; Albers, P.

    2018-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) on visualisation of anatomical details and motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate at 3.0 Tesla. One hundred and three consecutive patients (65 ± 10 years) were included in this trial, powered to demonstrate an improvement of image quality after HBB administration, assessed on a 5-point scale by two blinded readers. All patients received high-spatial resolution axial T2-weighted TSE sequences at 3.0 T without spasmolytic agent, repeated after application of 40 mg HBB and followed by routine mp-MRI. Secondary endpoints were (1) susceptibility to side effects, (2) dependence of spasmolytic effect on patients and acute; weight, and (3) prostate volume. In 68% of patients, HBB significantly improved the anatomic score (mean 3.4 ± 0.9 before and 4.4 ± 0.7 after HBB for both readers, p = <0.001). In 67%, HBB significantly enhanced the artefact score (mean 3.2 ± 1 before and 4.2 ± 0.8 after HBB for reader 1, p = <0.001; 3.2 ± 1 and 4.1 ± 0.8 for reader 2, p = <0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between patients with different bodyweight or prostate volume. Inter-reader agreement was excellent (k = 0.95-0.98). Hyoscine butylbromide significantly improves image quality and reduces motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate independent of bodyweight or prostate volume. No side effects were reported. (orig.)

  14. Significant prolongation of hamster liver transplant survival in Lewis rats by total-lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine, and splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Halperin, E.C.; Harland, R.C.; Wyble, C.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine and splenectomy alone and in combination have been studied in liver transplants from the LVG hamster to the LEW rat. Neither CsA alone, splenectomy alone, nor TLI alone prolonged graft survival. CsA/splenectomy and TLI/CsA produced significant prolongation of graft survival. TLI/CsA/splenectomy prolonged graft survival by over sixfold compared with controls. While CsA alone was ineffective in reducing lymphocytotoxic antidonor antibody, splenectomy alone or CsA/splenectomy did significantly suppress production of antibody. Only very low levels of antibody could be detected in animals treated with TLI/CsA/splenectomy. TLI/CsA/splenectomy has an immunosuppressive effect sufficient to significantly prolong liver graft survival in the LVG hamster to LEW rat combination and may represent a promising treatment protocol in experimental cross-species transplantation

  15. Inflammatory process decrease by gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) low intensity laser irradiation on postoperative extraction of impacted lower third molar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atihe, Mauricio Martins

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed the observation of inflammatory process decrease by the use of GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser (λ=830 nm; 40 mW) irradiation. Five patients were selected and submitted to surgery of impacted lower third molars, both right and left sides at different occasions. On a first stage, a tooth of a random chosen side - right or left - was extracted by conventional surgery, without LILT. The inflammatory process was measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was then called 'control side'. After 21 days, period in which the inflammatory process of the first surgery was terminated, the other side surgery took place, this time using LILT (4 J at four spots) at postoperative, first and third days. As the previous surgery, the inflammatory process was also measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was called 'experimental or lased side'. The inflammatory process was evaluated by measuring its four characteristic signs: swelling, pain, color and temperature. It was clearly observed a decrease for swelling, pain and color on the lased side which presented significant inference and descriptive statistics. It can be concluded that GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser (λ=830 nm) can surely be used as an additional and important anti-inflammatory source on impacted lower third molar surgeries. (author)

  16. Tranexamic acid suppresses ultraviolet B eye irradiation-induced melanocyte activation by decreasing the levels of prohormone convertase 2 and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Yamate, Yurika; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medicinal amino acid used in skin whitening care. This study examined the effects of tranexamic acid on the melanocyte activation of the skin induced by an ultraviolet (UV) B eye irradiation. The eye or ear was locally exposed to UVB at a dose of 1.0 kJ/m(2) using a 20SE sunlamp after covering the remaining body surface with aluminum foil. UVB eye irradiation induced melanocyte activation of the skin, similar to that observed following UVB ear irradiation, which was suppressed by the administration of tranexamic acid treatment. The plasma α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) content was increased by UVB irradiation of the eye; however, the increase in α-MSH was suppressed by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, UVB eye irradiation induced the up-regulation of prohormone convertase (PC) 2 in the pituitary gland. Meanwhile, the increase in PC2 induced by UVB eye irradiation was suppressed by tranexamic acid treatment. These results clearly indicate that tranexamic acid decreases the expression of PC2, which cleavages from proopiomelanocortin to α-MSH in the pituitary gland, thereby suppressing melanocyte activation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Changes of lymphocyte subsets after local irradiation for early stage breast cancer and seminoma testis: long-term increase of activated (HLA-DR+) T-cells and decrease of ''naive'' (CD4-CD45R) T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ruysscher, D.; Aerts, R.; Vantongelen, K.; Schueren, E. van der; Waer, M.; Vandeputte, M.

    1992-01-01

    Blood lymphocyte subsets of early breast cancer patients and of men with stage I seminoma of the testis were studied up to 6 years after radiotherapy. Similar results were obtained in the two patient groups. After a temporary decrease, the CD4-w29 or ''memory'' T cells recovered completely, while the CD4-45R or ''naive'' T cells remained decreased up to 6 years after irradiation. The number of CD8 T lymphocytes did not change during or after treatment. Because of the decrease of a subset of CD4 cells, and the unchanged values of CD8 cells, the CD4/CD8 ratio decreased significantly after irradiation, and remained lower than before treatment up to 5-6 years after radiotherapy. The number of both HLA-DR positive CD4 and HLA-DR positive CD8 T cells (''activated'' T cells) increased significantly after irradiation. The natural killer (NK) cells were not affected by treatment. The authors propose that recovery of the CD4 cells is limited to the CD4-w29 (''memory'') population because of thymic dysfunction in older humans. (Author)

  18. Spared pre-irradiated area in pustular lesions induced by icotinib showing decreased expressions of CD1a+ langerhans cells and FGFR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiong; Wang Yi Na; Wang Bo

    2013-01-01

    Icotinib hydrochloride, a novel inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Up to date, cutaneous response to icotinib is largely unknown. Here we report an uncommon lesional phenomenon in a 56-year-old Chinese male with non-small-cell lung cancer, who received icotinib as a second-line treatment. Characteristic papulopustular rash on the chest and back was observed 4 days later. Interestingly, the rash completely spares a pre-irradiated area. The immunohistochemical study in the lesional skin area and spared skin area revealed a significant decrease in CD1a + Langerhans cells, Ki-67 as well as FGFR2 in the spared area than in the lesional area. Thus, the present case indicated that loss of the basal layer of proliferative cells and antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cell), as well as the down-regulation of FGFR2 signaling in the pre-irradiated skin area, may join forces in inhibiting icotinib-associated cutaneous reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both lesional area and lesion-spared area in a Chinese male receiving treatment with a new epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (icotinib). The immunohistochemical reactions described here also provide new insight into the pathogenesis of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related skin toxicities, and the role that other tyrosine kinase receptors (including FGFR) played in non-small-cell lung cancer. (author)

  19. Spared pre-irradiated area in pustular lesions induced by icotinib showing decreased expressions of CD1a+ langerhans cells and FGFR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiong; Wang, Yi Na; Wang, Bo

    2013-02-01

    Icotinib hydrochloride, a novel inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Up to date, cutaneous response to icotinib is largely unknown. Here we report an uncommon lesional phenomenon in a 56-year-old Chinese male with non-small-cell lung cancer, who received icotinib as a second-line treatment. Characteristic papulopustular rash on the chest and back was observed 4 days later. Interestingly, the rash completely spares a pre-irradiated area. The immunohistochemical study in the lesional skin area and spared skin area revealed a significant decrease in CD1a(+) Langerhans cells, Ki-67 as well as FGFR2 in the spared area than in the lesional area. Thus, the present case indicated that loss of the basal layer of proliferative cells and antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cell), as well as the down-regulation of FGFR2 signaling in the pre-irradiated skin area, may join forces in inhibiting icotinib-associated cutaneous reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both lesional area and lesion-spared area in a Chinese male receiving treatment with a new epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (icotinib). The immunohistochemical reactions described here also provide new insight into the pathogenesis of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related skin toxicities, and the role that other tyrosine kinase receptors (including FGFR) played in non-small-cell lung cancer.

  20. Radiographic changes following radiotherapy in the patients with lung cancer. Is the irradiated area of the mediastinum in the simulation film a significant factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Tang, J.T.; Inoue, T.; Teshima, T.; Ohtani, M.; Itou, M.; Takeuchi, E.; Inoue, T.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of the irradiated area of the mediastinum in the simulation film for radiation induced lung injury. A total of 208 patients with primary lung cancer treated with radiation therapy were analyzed for incidence of radiation induced lung injury. Lung injury was defined as the appearance of an abnormal shadow on the chest radiograph. CT images were used to differentiate recurrence or other conditions. Age, sex, irradition dose, irradiated lung area, T and N factors of the tumor, irradiated mediastinum area, performance status of patients, location of irradiated fields and use of chemotherapy were analyzed with Cox's multivariate regression model. The cumulative rate of radiation induced lung injury at 12 months was 85%. Significant factor of radiation induced lung injury was irradiated area of the mediastinum (p=0.03). Irradiated area of the lung (p=0.18, n.s.), total tumor dose (p=0.1, n.s.), use of chemotherapy (p=0.08, n.s.) and location of irradiated field (p=0.08, n.s.) may also have an effect on radiation induced lung injury. The irradiated area of the mediastinum is one of the significant factors in radiation induced lung injury. (orig.) [de

  1. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation, however, did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Pyung Chun; Koh, Kwang Kon; Sakuma, Ichiro; Lim, Soo; Lee, Yonghee; Lee, Seungik; Lee, Kyounghoon; Han, Seung Hwan; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-10-20

    Experimental studies demonstrate that higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) improves insulin sensitivity, however, we reported that n-3 FA 2g therapy, most commonly used dosage did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity despite reducing triglycerides by 21% in patients. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different dosages of n-3 FA in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Age, sex, and body mass index were matched among groups. All patients were recommended to maintain a low fat diet. Forty-four patients (about 18 had metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes mellitus) in each group were given placebo, n-3 FA 1 (O1), 2 (O2), or 4 g (O4), respectively daily for 2 months. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol and improved flow-mediated dilation, compared with placebo (by ANOVA). However, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly decrease high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, compared with placebo. O1 significantly increased insulin levels and decreased insulin sensitivity (determined by QUICKI) and O2 significantly decreased plasma adiponectin levels relative to baseline measurements. Of note, when compared with placebo, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly change insulin, glucose, adiponectin, glycated hemoglobin levels and insulin sensitivity (by ANOVA). We observed similar results in a subgroup of patients with the metabolic syndrome. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation. Nonetheless, n-3 FA therapy did not significantly improve acute-phase reactants and insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, regardless of dosages. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Clinical significance of serum beta2-microglobulin and carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with cervical cancer treated with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Tottori, Kosei; Higuchi, Akira; Takeuchi, Shoshichi

    1979-01-01

    β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -m) is a small polypeptide present in all body fluids. In recent years much attention has been paid to the high prevalence of elevated serum β 2 -m levels in malignancy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of β 2 -m in patients with cervical cancer treated with irradiation therapy. For comparison, as an established tumor marker, CEA was assayed in the same samples. The results were as follows: 1. Both β 2 -m and CEA values seemed to relate to the clinical stage of tumor growth. 2. The patients who ended in a poor prognosis retrospectively had the significantly elevated CEA and β 2 -m values compared to those of the patients with good prognosis. 3. CEA or β 2 -m assay by themselves had not so large value in the diagnosis of cervical cancer, but an increase in number of positive cases was obtained when the two markers were jointly considered. Because when the CEA was negative, the β 2 -m assay was capable of compensating for this deficiency. (author)

  3. Fukushima- the aftermath. The japanese power consumption has significantly decreased to adapt to a fading nuclear activity. Enerdata- Energy Efficiency and Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a series of analyses supported by graphs assess the power supply evolution in Japan since Fukushima, which has decreased by 11% of reactors in operation since December 2011. Measures implemented in summer 2011 to adapt demand to a lower supply and their significant impact on the power consumption are also analyzed. (authors)

  4. Ibuprofen therapy resulted in significantly decreased tissue bacillary loads and increased survival in a new murine experimental model of active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Marzo, Elena; Tapia, Gustavo; Diaz, Jorge; Garcia, Vanesa; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2013-07-15

    C3HeB/FeJ mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used in an experimental animal model mimicking active tuberculosis in humans to evaluate the effect of antiinflammatory agents. No other treatment but ibuprofen was given, and it was administered when the animals' health started to deteriorate. Animals treated with ibuprofen had statistically significant decreases in the size and number of lung lesions, decreases in the bacillary load, and improvements in survival, compared with findings for untreated animals. Because antiinflammatory agents are already on the market, further clinical trials should be done to evaluate this effect in humans as soon as possible, to determine their suitability as coadjuvant tuberculosis treatment.

  5. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  6. Electron Resonance Decay into a Biological Function: Decrease in Viability of E. coli Transformed by Plasmid DNA Irradiated with 0.5-18 eV Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouass Sahbani, S; Cloutier, P; Bass, A D; Hunting, D J; Sanche, L

    2015-10-01

    Transient negative ions (TNIs) are ubiquitous in electron-molecule scattering at low electron impact energies (0-20 eV) and are particularly effective in damaging large biomolecules. Because ionizing radiation generates mostly 0-20 eV electrons, TNIs are expected to play important roles in cell mutagenesis and death during radiotherapeutic cancer treatment, although this hypothesis has never been directly verified. Here, we measure the efficiency of transforming E. coli bacteria by inserting into the cells, pGEM-3ZfL(-) plasmid DNA that confers resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin. Before transformation, plasmids are irradiated with electrons of specific energies between 0.5 and 18 eV. The loss of transformation efficiency plotted as a function of irradiation energy reveals TNIs at 5.5 and 9.5 eV, corresponding to similar states observed in the yields of DNA double strand breaks. We show that TNIs are detectable in the electron-energy dependence of a biological process and can decrease cell viability.

  7. Early HIV Diagnosis Leads to Significantly Decreased Costs in the First 2 Years of HIV Care in an Urban Charity Hospital in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Jason; Katz, Morgan; Pathmanathan, Ishani; Myers, Leann; Van Sickels, Nicholas; Seal, Paula Sereebutra; Richey, Lauren E

    We undertook a retrospective cohort study of patients with a positive HIV test in the emergency department who were then linked to care. Inpatient, outpatient, and emergency costs were collected for the first 2 years after HIV diagnosis. Fifty-six patients met the inclusion criteria; they were predominantly uninsured (73%) and African American (89%). The median total cost for a newly diagnosed patient over the first 2 years was US$36 808, driven predominantly by outpatient costs of US$17 512. Median inpatient and total costs were significantly different between the lowest (499 cells/mm 3 ) CD4 count categories (US$21 878 vs US$6607, P <.05; US$61 378 vs US$18 837, P <.05, respectively). Total costs were significantly different between viral load categories <100 000 HIV-RNA copies/mL and ≥100 000 HIV-RNA copies/mL (US$28 219 vs US$49 482, P <.05). Costs were significantly lower among patients diagnosed earlier in their disease. Decreased cost is another factor supporting early diagnosis and linkage to care for patients with HIV.

  8. Phosphocreatine recovery overshoot after high intensity exercise in human skeletal muscle is associated with extensive muscle acidification and a significant decrease in phosphorylation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Korzeniewski, Bernard; Kulinowski, Piotr; Zapart-Bukowska, Justyna; Majerczak, Joanna; Jasiński, Andrzej

    2010-09-01

    The phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery overshoot in skeletal muscle is a transient increase of PCr concentration above the resting level after termination of exercise. In the present study [PCr], [ATP], [P(i)] and pH were measured in calf muscle during rest, during plantar flexion exercise until exhaustion and recovery, using the (31)P NMR spectroscopy. A significantly greater acidification of muscle cells and significantly lower phosphorylation potential (DeltaG (ATP)) at the end of exercise was encountered in the group of subjects that evidenced the [PCr] overshoot as well as [ADP] and [P(i)] undershoots than in the group that did not. We postulate that the role of the PCr overshoot-related transiently elevated [ATP]/[ADP(free)] ratio is to activate different processes (including protein synthesis) that participate in repairing numerous damages of the muscle cells caused by intensive exercise-induced stressing factors, such as extensive muscle acidification, a significant decrease in DeltaG (ATP), an elevated level of reactive oxygen species or mechanical disturbances.

  9. The significance of neuroendocrine system state in estimation of nonstochastic effects of small doses of internal irradiation. (An experimental study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedov, V.I.; Norets, T.A.; Stepanenko, V.F.; Dedenkov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Data on long-term complex investigations of nonstochastic effects of low doses of internal irradiation on the level of a whole organism are presented. Experiments have been carried out with mongrel rats of both sexes and different ages up to the moment of introduction of radioactive compounds. Action of relatively and uniformly distributing in the organism radiactive compounds of selenium - 75 and sulfur - 35, which were introduced once intravenously in quantities forming absorbed doses in average on the whole body and ovaries (0.5 Gy), on endocrine glands and critical organs (up to 1.0 Gy) has been used as models of internal radiation. Data, testifying to the fact that the neuroendocrinal system, despite the existing opinion, is sensitive to action of low doses of internal irradiation compared with the recommended one as an ultimate permissible one for nonstochastic effects ( 0.5 Sv), that permits to suggest for using factors of the functional state of the neuroendocrine system as an informative and sensitive criterium of estimation of biological action of low doses of internal radiation, have been obtained. These factors along with doses on critical organs permit to estimate the degree of dangerous action of different radionuclides on the organism level. Dynamic studying of activity factors of the neuroendocrine system with simultaneous analysis of the state of harmonically dependent processes permits to estimate functional possibilities of irradiated organism, its viability, especially under conditions requiring increased stress, as well as to take into account such factors modifying a biological effect as age, animal sex, the character of absorbed dose distribution

  10. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Diel, Diego G; Courtney, Sean; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Sundick, Roy S; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-08-08

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such it might have the potential to affect replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To assess the effect of IL-2 during NDV infection in chickens, we produced a recombinant virulent NDV strain expressing chicken IL-2 (rZJ1-IL2). The effects of IL-2 expression were investigated in vivo using the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks and pathogenesis experiments in 4-week-old chickens. In these studies, rZJ1-IL2 was compared to a control virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP). Assessed parameters included survival curves, detailed histological and immunohistochemical grading of lesions in multiple organs, and virus isolation in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. At the site of infection (eyelid), expression of IL-2 was demonstrated in areas of rZJ-IL2 replication, confirming IL-2 production in vivo. Compared to rZJ1-GFP strain, rZJ1-IL2 caused milder lesions and displayed decreased viral load in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. In the rZJ1-IL2-infected group, virus level in the blood peaked at day 4 post-infection (pi) (10(3.46) EID50 /0.1 ml) and drastically decreased at day 5 pi (10(0.9) EID50/0.1 ml), while in the rZJ1-GFP-infected group virus levels in the blood reached 10(5.35) EID50/0.1 ml at day 5. However, rZJ1-IL2-infected groups presented survival curves similar to control birds infected with rZJ1-GFP, with comparable clinical signs and 100 % mortality. Further, expression of IL-2 did not significantly affect the ICPI scores, compared to rZJ1-GFP strain. Increased

  11. BRCA1 and BRCA2 missense variants of high and low clinical significance influence lymphoblastoid cell line post-irradiation gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nic Waddell

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional consequences of missense variants in disease genes are difficult to predict. We assessed if gene expression profiles could distinguish between BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic truncating and missense mutation carriers and familial breast cancer cases whose disease was not attributable to BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations (BRCAX cases. 72 cell lines from affected women in high-risk breast ovarian families were assayed after exposure to ionising irradiation, including 23 BRCA1 carriers, 22 BRCA2 carriers, and 27 BRCAX individuals. A subset of 10 BRCAX individuals carried rare BRCA1/2 sequence variants considered to be of low clinical significance (LCS. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers had similar expression profiles, with some subclustering of missense mutation carriers. The majority of BRCAX individuals formed a distinct cluster, but BRCAX individuals with LCS variants had expression profiles similar to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Gaussian Process Classifier predicted BRCA1, BRCA2 and BRCAX status, with a maximum of 62% accuracy, and prediction accuracy decreased with inclusion of BRCAX samples carrying an LCS variant, and inclusion of pathogenic missense carriers. Similarly, prediction of mutation status with gene lists derived using Support Vector Machines was good for BRCAX samples without an LCS variant (82-94%, poor for BRCAX with an LCS (40-50%, and improved for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation carriers when the gene list used for prediction was appropriate to mutation effect being tested (71-100%. This study indicates that mutation effect, and presence of rare variants possibly associated with a low risk of cancer, must be considered in the development of array-based assays of variant pathogenicity.

  12. Genetic myostatin decrease in the golden retriever muscular dystrophy model does not significantly affect the ubiquitin proteasome system despite enhancing the severity of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Steven W; Kornegay, Joe N; Bogan, Daniel J; Wadosky, Kristine M; Patterson, Cam; Willis, Monte S

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that inhibiting the protein myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, may improve outcomes in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy by enhancing muscle mass. When the dystrophin-deficient golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dog was bred with whippets having a heterozygous mutation for the myostatin gene, affected GRMD dogs with decreased myostatin (GRippets) demonstrated an accelerated physical decline compared to related affected GRMD dogs with full myostatin. To examine the role of the ubiquitin proteasome and calpain systems in this accelerated decline, we determined the expression of the muscle ubiquitin ligases MuRF1, Atrogin-1, RNF25, RNF11, and CHIP: the proteasome subunits PSMA6, PSMB4, and PSME1: and calpain 1/2 by real time PCR in the cranial sartorius and vastus lateralis muscles in control, affected GRMD, and GRippet dogs. While individual affected GRMD and GRippet dogs contributed to an increased variability seen in ubiquitin ligase expression, neither group was significantly different from the control group. The affected GRMD dogs demonstrated significant increases in caspase-like and trypsin-like activity in the cranial sartorius; however, all three proteasome activities in the GRippet muscles did not differ from controls. Increased variability in calpain 1 and calpain 2 expression and activity in the affected GRMD and GRippet groups were identified, but no statistical differences from the control group were seen. These studies suggest a role of myostatin in the disease progression of GRMD, which does not significantly involve key components of the ubiquitin proteasome and calpain systems involved in the protein quality control of sarcomere and other structural skeletal muscle proteins.

  13. Age-related decrease in an early step of DNA-repair of normal human lymphocytes exposed to ultraviolet-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M.; Emmons, L.R.; Haener, M.M.; Mueller, H.J.B.; Boyle, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay has been used to detect age-related changes in the rate of loss of photoproduct antigenicity from the DNA of peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated with 10 J m-2 uv-C. Lymphocytes were obtained from 75 healthy volunteers whose ages ranged from 14 months to 82 years. The samples were divided by age decades into groups of 10 individuals, except the first decade which contained only 5 individuals. The mean loss of antigenicity +/- 1 standard deviation was determined for each group at 10, 30, and 60 min after irradiation. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and by the Kruskal-Wallis test. After a recovery period of 10 min the loss of antigenicity was most rapid in group I (0-9 years), less rapid in group II (10-19 years), and least rapid in all other groups. The differences between groups became less at 30 min and were not significant at 60 min incubation. These data obtained from normal cells concur with our previous conclusions, that reductions in the rate of loss of antigenicity in nondiseased cells isolated from patients with melanoma and dysplastic naevus syndrome reflect genetic abnormalities in these patients

  14. Polystyrene-Poly(methyl methacrylate) Silver Nanocomposites: Significant Modification of the Thermal and Electrical Properties by Microwave Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharaeh, Edreese H

    2016-06-13

    This work compares the preparation of nanocomposites of polystyrene (PS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and PSMMA co-polymer containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using in situ bulk polymerization with and without microwave irradiation (MWI). The AgNPs prepared were embedded within the polymer matrix. A modification in the thermal stability of the PS/Ag, PMMA/Ag, and PSMMA/Ag nanocomposites using MWI and in situ was observed compared with that of neat PSMMA, PS, and PMMA. In particular, PS/Ag, and PSMMA/Ag nanocomposites used in situ showed better thermal stability than MWI, while PMMA/Ag nanocomposites showed improved thermal stability. The electrical conductivity of the PS/Ag, PMMA/Ag, and PSMMA/Ag composites prepared by MWI revealed a percolation behavior when 20% AgNPs were used as a filler, and the conductivity of the nanocomposites increased to 103 S/cm, 33 S/cm, and 40 mS/cm, respectively. This enhancement might be due to the good dispersion of the AgNPs within the polymer matrix, which increased the interfacial interaction between the polymer and AgNPs. The polymer/Ag nanocomposites developed with tunable thermal and electrical properties could be used as conductive materials for electronic device applications.

  15. An Accurate Mass Determination for Kepler-1655b, a Moderately Irradiated World with a Significant Volatile Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Raphaëlle D.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Mortier, Annelies; Giles, Helen A. C.; López-Morales, Mercedes; Lopez, Eric D.; Malavolta, Luca; Charbonneau, David; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Dressing, Courtney D.; Nava, Chantanelle; Latham, David W.; Dumusque, Xavier; Lovis, Christophe; Molinari, Emilio; Pepe, Francesco; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Udry, Stéphane; Bouchy, François; Johnson, John A.; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Phillips, David; Piotto, Giampaolo; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Watson, Chris; Affer, Laura; Bonomo, Aldo S.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ciardi, David R.; Fiorenzano, Aldo F.; Harutyunyan, Avet

    2018-05-01

    We present the confirmation of a small, moderately irradiated (F = 155 ± 7 F ⊕) Neptune with a substantial gas envelope in a P = 11.8728787 ± 0.0000085 day orbit about a quiet, Sun-like G0V star Kepler-1655. Based on our analysis of the Kepler light curve, we determined Kepler-1655b’s radius to be 2.213 ± 0.082 R ⊕. We acquired 95 high-resolution spectra with Telescopio Nazionale Galileo/HARPS-N, enabling us to characterize the host star and determine an accurate mass for Kepler-1655b of 5.0{+/- }2.83.1 {M}\\oplus via Gaussian-process regression. Our mass determination excludes an Earth-like composition with 98% confidence. Kepler-1655b falls on the upper edge of the evaporation valley, in the relatively sparsely occupied transition region between rocky and gas-rich planets. It is therefore part of a population of planets that we should actively seek to characterize further.

  16. Site-Specific Fat-1 Knock-In Enables Significant Decrease of n-6PUFAs/n-3PUFAs Ratio in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjing Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans encodes a fatty acid desaturase which was widely studied due to its beneficial function of converting n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFAs to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs. To date, many fat-1 transgenic animals have been generated to study disease pathogenesis or improve meat quality. However, all of them were generated using a random integration method with variable transgene expression levels and the introduction of selectable marker genes often raise biosafety concern. To this end, we aimed to generate marker-free fat-1 transgenic pigs in a site-specific manner. The Rosa26 locus, first found in mouse embryonic stem cells, has become one of the most common sites for inserting transgenes due to its safe and ubiquitous expression. In our study, the fat-1 gene was inserted into porcine Rosa 26 (pRosa26 locus via Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9 system. The Southern blot analysis of our knock-in pigs indicated a single copy of the fat-1 gene at the pRosa26 locus. Furthermore, this single-copy fat-1 gene supported satisfactory expression in a variety of tissues in F1 generation pigs. Importantly, the gas chromatography analysis indicated that these fat-1 knock-in pigs exhibited a significant increase in the level of n-3PUFAs, leading to an obvious decrease in the n-6PUFAs/n-3PUFAs ratio from 9.36 to 2.12 (***P < 0.0001. Altogether, our fat-1 knock-in pigs hold great promise for improving the nutritional value of pork and serving as an animal model to investigate therapeutic effects of n-3PUFAs on various diseases.

  17. Cranberry juice concentrate does not significantly decrease the incidence of acquired bacteriuria in female hip fracture patients receiving urine catheter: a double-blind randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson AK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna-Karin Gunnarsson,1 Lena Gunningberg,2 Sune Larsson,1 Kenneth B Jonsson1 1Institution of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Institution of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common complication among patients with hip fractures. Receiving an indwelling urinary catheter is a risk factor for developing UTIs. Treatment of symptomatic UTIs with antibiotics is expensive and can result in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Cranberries are thought to prevent UTI. There is no previous research on this potential effect in patients with hip fracture who receive urinary catheters. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether intake of cranberry juice concentrate preoperatively decreases the incidence of postoperative UTIs in hip fracture patients that received a urinary catheter. Design: This study employed a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Method: Female patients, aged 60 years and older, with hip fracture (n=227 were randomized to receive cranberry or placebo capsules daily, from admission, until 5 days postoperatively. Urine cultures were obtained at admission, 5 and 14 days postoperatively. In addition, Euro Qual five Dimensions assessments were performed and patients were screened for UTI symptoms. Result: In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference between the groups in the proportion of patients with hospital-acquired postoperative positive urine cultures at any time point. When limiting the analysis to patients that ingested at least 80% of the prescribed capsules, 13 of 33 (39% in the placebo group and 13 of 47 (28% in the cranberry group (P=0.270 had a positive urine culture at 5 days postoperatively. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.270. Conclusion: Cranberry concentrate does not seem to effectively prevent UTIs in female patients with hip fracture and

  18. Significance of prophylactic para-aortic lymph node irradiation in the postoperatic treatment of the cervical cancer. Relationship between prognosis and lymph node metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Machiko; Arita, Shigehiro; Ishida, Osamu; Murano, Yoshihiko; Sumita, Mitsugu; Okumura, Masahiko; Nanbu, Hidekazu [Kinki Univ., Osaka-Sayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Between 1976 and 1989, 163 patients were treated by postoperative radiotherapy for cervical cancer stage Ib and IIb. Before irradiation for the whole pelvis, a total dose of 50 Gy was given in 5 weeks. Cumulative 5-year survival rates according to the number of pelvic lymph node metastasis were 100% for Ib L{sub 1} (one node involvement) in 10 patients, 60% for Ib L{sub 2} {up_arrow} (two or more involved) in 10, 73% for IIb L{sub 1} in 23, 78% for IIb L{sub 2} in 9, 47% for IIb L{sub 3} {up_arrow} in 18. The first recurrent sites of stage Ib were distant organ via lymphatic routes in 3 patients and hematogenous routes in 2. IIb were via lymphatic routes in 10 patients, hematogenous routes in 10, and regional recurrence in 6. After introduced para-aortic node irradiation, the pelvic plus para-aortic irradiation delivered 45 Gy in 5 weeks for two or more lymph nodes involvement. The cumulative 5-year survival rates were 100% for Ib L{sub 1} in 10 patients, 100% for Ib L{sub 2} in 7, 65% for Ib L{sub 3} {up_arrow} in 9, 82% for IIb L{sub 1} in 17, 68% for IIb L{sub 2} in 27, and 48% for IIb L{sub 3} {up_arrow} in 23. The first recurrent sites for Ib with introduction of para-aortic node irradiation were distant organs via lymphatic routes in 1 patient and hematogenous routes in 2, and the sites for IIb were via lymphatic routes in 10, hematogenous 7, peritonitis carcinomatous 1, and in the pelvic field of 6. Late effects developed in 3 (19%) of Ib and 19 (29%) of IIb. Side effects increased with prophylactic para-aortic node irradiation. No significant difference was observed in survival rates between pelvic and pelvic plus para-aortic node irradiation group. (S.Y.).

  19. Rheological and microstructural properties of Irradiated starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrous Turki, Hager

    2011-01-01

    Gamma irradiation ia s fast and efficient method to improve the functional properties of straches. Wheat and potato starches were submitted, in the present study, at 3,5,10 and 20 kGy radiation dose. The changes induced by irradiation on the rheological properties of these starches showed a decrease in the viscosity with increasing radiation dose. Chemicals bond's hydrolysis has been induced by free radicals that have been identified by EPR. Wheat starch presents five EPR signals after irradiation, whiles potato starch has a weak EPR signal. On the other hand, irradiation caused decrease in amylose content. This decrease is more pronounced in potato starch. Dry irradiated starch's MEB revealed no change in the shape, size and distribution of the granules. While, the observation of wheat starch allowed the complete disappearance of the granular structure and the dissolution of its macromolecules after irradiation which justifies the significant decrease in wheat starch's viscosity irradiated at 20 kGy.

  20. Decreased cell survival and DNA repair capacity after UVC irradiation in association with down-regulation of GRP78/BiP in human RSa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Ling; Kita, Kazuko; Wano, Chieko; Wu Yuping; Sugaya, Shigeru; Suzuki, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to extensive studies on the roles of molecular chaperones, such as heat shock proteins, there are only a few reports about the roles of GRP78/BiP, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced molecular chaperone, in mammalian cell responses to DNA-damaging stresses. To investigate whether GRP78/BiP is involved in resistance to a DNA-damaging agent, UVC (principally 254 nm in wavelength), we established human cells with down-regulation of GRP78/BiP by transfection of human RSa cells with antisense cDNA for GRP78/BiP. We found that the transfected cells showed higher sensitivity to UVC-induced cell death than control cells transfected with the vector alone. In the antisense-cDNA transfected cells, the removal capacities of the two major types of UVC-damaged DNA (thymine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts) in vivo and DNA synthesis activity of whole cell extracts to repair UVC-irradiated plasmids in vitro were remarkably decreased compared with those in the control cells. Furthermore, the antisense-cDNA transfected cells also showed slightly higher sensitivity to cisplatin-induced cell death than the control cells. Cisplatin-induced DNA damage is primarily repaired by nucleotide excision repair, like UVC-induced DNA damage. The present results suggest that GRP78/BiP plays a protective role against UVC-induced cell death possibly via nucleotide excision repair, at least in the human RSa cells tested

  1. Effect of irradiation on sweet corn preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie

    2002-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray was used to irradiate newly-harvested sweet corn and the results showed that the effects of irradiation on soluble solids, sucrose, starch and total sugar were not significant. The viscosity of starch decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose. The preservation duration of irradiated sweet corn was 7 days longer than that of CK, and the sweet, smell, taste of sweet corn had no abnormal change

  2. Decreased repopulation as well as increased reoxygenation contribute to the improvement in local control after targeting of the EGFR by C225 during fractionated irradiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, M.; Ostermann, G.; Petersen, C.; Yaromina, A.; Hessel, F.; Harstrick, A.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Thames, H.D.; Baumann, M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inhibition of repopulation and enhanced reoxygenation has been suggested to contribute to improvement of local tumour control after fractionated irradiation combined with inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The present study addresses this hypothesis in

  3. Ultraviolet-B irradiation decreases IFN-gamma and increases IL-4 expression in psoriatic lesional skin in situ and in cultured dermal T cells derived from these lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piskin, Gamze; Koomen, Cornelis W.; Picavet, Daisy; Bos, Jan D.; Teunissen, Marcel B. M.

    2003-01-01

    Type 1 cytokine producing T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation is effective in the treatment of this disease. In normal skin, UVB causes a change in dermal microenvironment, leading to a decrease of IFN-gamma expressing type 1 T cells and a

  4. Parvovirus B19 Is Associated with a Significant Decrease in Hemoglobin Level among Children <5 Years of Age with Anemia in Northwestern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizeba, Yustina A; Mirambo, Mariam M; Kayange, Neema; Mhada, Tumaini; Ambrose, Emmanuela E; Smart, Luke R; Mshana, Stephen E

    2017-12-13

    Parvovirus B19 (B19) can cause transient aplastic crisis and lead to acute severe anemia. This study investigated the relationship between B19 and anemia among children B19 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies among children with various categories of anemia according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A total of 265 children with median age of 28.5 months (interquartile range 18-39.5) were investigated. Eighty-six children (32.5%) had severe anemia. B19-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 24 (9%) and 46 (17.4%) children, respectively. Low hemoglobin (Hb) level (p = 0.031), Plasmodium falciparum infection (p = 0.001) and residing in rural areas (p = 0.025) independently predicted B19 IgM seropositivity. Acute B19 infection decreased Hb level by 1.1 g/dl (p = 0.003). In malaria endemic areas, acute B19 infections should be considered among children with severe anemia from rural areas. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Early life hormetic treatments decrease irradiation-induced oxidative damage, increase longevity, and enhance sexual performance during old age in the Caribbean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Early life events can have dramatic consequences on performance later in life. Exposure to stressors at a young age affects development, the rate of aging, risk of disease, and overall lifespan. In spite of this, mild stress exposure early in life can have beneficial effects on performance later in life. These positive effects of mild stress are referred to as physiological conditioning hormesis. In our current study we used anoxia conditioning hormesis as a pretreatment to reduce oxidative stress and improve organismal performance, lifespan, and healthspan of Caribbean fruit flies. We used gamma irradiation to induce mild oxidative damage in a low-dose experiment, and massive oxidative damage in a separate high-dose experiment, in pharate adult fruit flies just prior to adult emergence. Irradiation-induced oxidative stress leads to reduced adult emergence, flight ability, mating performance, and lifespan. We used a hormetic approach, one hour of exposure to anoxia plus irradiation in anoxia, to lower post-irradiation oxidative damage. We have previously shown that this anoxic-conditioning treatment elevates total antioxidant capacity and lowers post-irradiation oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. In this study, conditioned flies had lower mortality rates and longer lifespan compared to those irradiated without hormetic conditioning. As a metric of healthspan, we tracked mating both at a young age (10 d) and old age (30 d). We found that anoxia-conditioned male flies were more competitive at young ages when compared to unconditioned irradiation stressed male flies, and that the positive effects of anoxic conditioning hormesis on mating success were even more pronounced in older males. Our data shows that physiological conditioning hormesis at a young age, not only improves immediate metrics of organismal performance (emergence, flight, mating), but the beneficial effects also carry into old age by reducing late life oxidative damage and improving lifespan and

  6. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  7. Changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network during early period of ibrutinib therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients: the significant decrease in T regulatory cells number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhorecka, Monika; Goracy, Aneta; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Kowal, Malgorzata; Ibanez, Blanca; Jankowska-Lecka, Olga; Macheta, Arkadiusz; Nowaczynska, Aleksandra; Drab-Urbanek, Elzbieta; Chocholska, Sylwia; Jawniak, Dariusz; Hus, Marek

    2017-05-23

    B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation signal plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and kinase inhibitors directed toward the BCR pathway are now the promising anti-leukemic drugs. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, demonstrates promising clinical activity in CLL. It is reported that ibrutinib, additionally to directly targeting leukemic cells, also inhibits the interactions of these cells with T cells, macrophages and accessory cells. Assessment of these mechanisms is important because of their non -direct anti-leukemic effects and to identify possible side effects connected with long-term drug administration.The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL. The analysis was performed on a group of 19 patients during first month of ibrutinib therapy. The standard multicolor flow cytometry and cytometric bead array methods were used for assessment of T-cell subsets and cytokines/chemokines, respectively.The data obtained indicates that Ibrutinib treatment results in changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL patients. Particularly, a significant reduction of T regulatory cells in peripheral blood was observed. By targeting these populations of T cells Ibrutinib can stimulate rejection of tumor cells by the immune system.

  8. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M.

    1984-01-01

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation. (Auth.)

  9. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Neurobiology)

    1984-07-23

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation.

  10. Computer simulation and experimental self-assembly of irradiated glycine amino acid under magnetic fields: Its possible significance in prebiotic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Alejandro; Colín-García, María; Puig, Teresa Pi I; Alba-Aldave, Leticia; Meléndez, Adriana; Cruz-Castañeda, Jorge A; Basiuk, Vladimir A; Ramos-Bernal, Sergio; Mendoza, Alicia Negrón

    2017-12-01

    Ionizing radiation may have played a relevant role in chemical reactions for prebiotic biomolecule formation on ancient Earth. Environmental conditions such as the presence of water and magnetic fields were possibly relevant in the formation of organic compounds such as amino acids. ATR-FTIR, Raman, EPR and X-ray spectroscopies provide valuable information about molecular organization of different glycine polymorphs under static magnetic fields. γ-glycine polymorph formation increases in irradiated samples interacting with static magnetic fields. The increase in γ-glycine polymorph agrees with the computer simulations. The AM1 semi-empirical simulations show a change in the catalyst behavior and dipole moment values in α and γ-glycine interaction with the static magnetic field. The simulated crystal lattice energy in α-glycine is also affected by the free radicals under the magnetic field, which decreases its stability. Therefore, solid α and γ-glycine containing free radicals under static magnetic fields might have affected the prebiotic scenario on ancient Earth by causing the oligomerization of glycine in prebiotic reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  12. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Azusa [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Yonghong; Bu, Jiachuan; Mujcic, Hilda [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wouters, Bradly G. [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); DaCosta, Ralph S., E-mail: rdacosta@uhnres.utoronto.ca [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. Methods and Materials: A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular function and permeability, platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and tumor hypoxia for up to 14 days after 24-Gy irradiation. The hind leg model was used to monitor tumor size, hypoxia, and vascularity for up to 65 days after 24-Gy irradiation. Tumors were assessed histologically to validate in vivo observations. Results: In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed temporary vascular dysfunction in tumors irradiated with a single dose of 4 to 24 Gy, but most significantly with a single dose of 24 Gy. Vascular functional recovery was observed by 14 days after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, irradiation with 24 Gy caused platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium within hours to days after irradiation. Vascular permeability was significantly higher in irradiated tumors compared with nonirradiated controls 14 days after irradiation. This observation corresponded with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in irradiated tumors. In the hind leg model, irradiation with a single dose of 24 Gy led to tumor growth delay, followed by tumor regrowth. Conclusions: Irradiation of the BxPC3 tumors with a single dose of 24 Gy caused transient vascular dysfunction and increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Such biological changes may impact tumor response to high single-dose and hypofractionated irradiation, and further investigations are needed to better understand the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy.

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on wheat quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkaya, B.; Koksel, H.; Ozkaya, H.; Tutluer, H.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation at the doses of 2.5,5.0,7.5,10.0 and 12.5 kGy on two bread wheat samples (Bezostaya and Gerek) with distinct physical and technological properties was investigated in this study.Irradiation at the levels used had no significant effect on the flour yields of both varieties.No apparent changes were observed in ash,protein and wet gluten contents of the irradiated samples and control.However,as the radiation level was increased the falling number and sedimentation values of the irradiated samples showed a steady decrease.Thiamine and riboflavin contents also decreased significantly with irradiation.Farinograph absorption increased with increasing radiation exposure.However, dough development time,stability and valorimeter values decreased as radiation levels increased.Maximum resistance to extension(Rm), resistance at constant deformation (R 5) and area(A) values of extensograms decreased in both varieties as radiation levels increased

  14. Improving smoked herring quality by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, D.A.; Abd El-Wahab, S.A.; Hendy, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Smoked herring which is a highly purchasable product in Egypt, was exposed to different gamma irradiation doses (1.5,3.0 and 5.0 kGy) and stored at environmental temperature (12± 2 deg C) until spoilage of the control. Microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses were performed throughout storage to monitor the quality attributes. It is worthy to mention that irradiation reduced the population of bacteria and the effect was more pronounced at the highest dose used (5.0 kGy). At the same time 1.5 kGy completely eliminated staphylococcus aureus (coagulase + ve) and coliforms. By chemical analysis, there was significant decrease in average moisture content by different gamma irradiation doses and storage. Although the average thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased slightly by γ-irradiation, this increase was highly significant by storage . At the same time there was a significant (p< 0.05)decrease in the average trimethylamine (TMA) value of all irradiated samples compared with unirradiated control, this value increased significantly by storage. interestingly, the average histamine value decreased significantly in all irradiated samples. The sensory analysis revealed a highly significant difference in the average acceptability scores between different irradiation doses used and also by storage. Therefore it could be concluded that the quality of smoked herring during storage at environmental temperature (12 ± 2 deg C) could be improved by using 5.0 kGy γ -irradiation

  15. Cellular immunotherapy using irradiated lung cancer cell vaccine co-expressing GM-CSF and IL-18 can induce significant antitumor effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Dai, Lei; Chen, Xiaolei; Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Yang; Yu, Dechao; Wei, Yuquan; Deng, Hongxin; Shi, Gang; Yang, Guoyou; Zhang, Junfeng; Li, Yiming; Du, Tao; Wang, Jianzhou; Xu, Fen; Cheng, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Although the whole tumor cell vaccine can provide the best source of immunizing antigens, there is still a limitation that most tumors are not naturally immunogenic. Tumor cells genetically modified to secrete immune activating cytokines have been proved to be more immunogenic. IL-18 could augment proliferation of T cells and cytotoxicity of NK cells. GM-CSF could stimulate dendritic cells, macrophages and enhance presentation of tumor antigens. In our study, we used mouse GM-CSF combined with IL-18 to modify Lewis lung cancer LL/2, then investigated whether vaccination could suppress tumor growth and promote survival. The Lewis lung cancer LL/2 was transfected with co-expressing mouse GM-CSF and IL-18 plasmid by cationic liposome, then irradiated with a sublethal dose X ray (100 Gy) to prepare vaccines. Mice were subcutaneously immunized with this inactivated vaccine and then inoculated with autologous LL/2 to estimate the antitumor efficacy. The studies reported here showed that LL/2 tumor cell vaccine modified by a co-expressing mouse GM-CSF and IL-18 plasmid could significantly inhibit tumor growth and increased survival of the mice bearing LL/2 tumor whether prophylactic or adoptive immunotherapy in vivo. A significant reduction of proliferation and increase of apoptosis were also observed in the tumor treated with vaccine of co-expressing GM-CSF and IL-18. The potent antitumor effect correlated with higher secretion levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-18, GM-CSF, interferon-γ in serum, the proliferation of CD4 + IFN-γ + , CD8 + IFN-γ + T lymphocytes in spleen and the infiltration of CD4 + , CD8 + T in tumor. Furthermore, the mechanism of tumor-specific immune response was further proved by 51 Cr cytotoxicity assay in vitro and depletion of CD4, CD8, NK immune cell subsets in vivo. The results suggested that the antitumor mechanism was mainly depended on CD4 + , CD8 + T lymphocytes. These results provide a new insight into therapeutic mechanisms

  16. Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii irradiated with 255 Gy induces decrease of cysts and cerebral lesions in mice challenged with cysts of ME-49

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Galisteo Juniorm Andres Jimenez; Nascimento, Nanci do; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis can cause ocular lesions in normal individuals and several diseases in foetus, HIV infection and transplants. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle, involving cats, as the definitive host, and warm blood species, as intermediated hosts. The infection occurs by ingestion of food and water contaminated with infected cat faeces, contaminated milk and cheese or raw and undercook meat of the intermediated hosts. To date, there is no commercial vaccine of use in humans. In this work, tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain were irradiated with 255 Gy and inoculated in C57Bl/6j mice (3 doses, biweekly), after mice were challenged with 1, 5, 10, 20 and 25 cysts of ME-49 by oral gavage. The lesions and cysts in the brain were analyzed in all mice, after 4-week post infection. The mortality was 20% in control mice (ME-49 cysts only) and not one in immunized mice. The number of cysts was high in the control group, but low in immunized 255 Gy mice (n<100). Immunized mice showed less cerebral pathology and necrosis foci. Ionizing radiation is an important tool in the study toxoplasmosis and vaccine development. (author)

  17. Effects of irradiation on the vascularity of lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, K; Takegawa, Y; Nagase, M; Akiyama, H [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-06-01

    Effects of irradiation on the intravascular volume of the lung were studied with respect to changes in intravascular volume over a period of time after irradiation, the effect of fractionation of the dose and the influence of the irradiation dose rate. After a single irradiation with 1000 rad or 3000 rad, applied locally to the lung, the intravascular volume decreased significantly in 1 to 3 months after irradiation. The changes in the intravascular volumes of lungs could be lessened by fractionation of the dose or by low dose rate irradiation.

  18. Hemibody irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schen, B.C.; Mella, O.; Dahl, O.

    1992-01-01

    In a large number of cancer patients, extensive skeletal metastases or myelomatosis induce vast suffering, such as intolerable pain and local complications of neoplastic bone destruction. Analgetic drugs frequently do not yield sufficient palliation. Irradiation of local fields often has to be repeated, because of tumour growth outside previously irradiated volumes. Wide field irradiation of the lower or upper half of the body causes significant relief of pain in most patients. Adequate pretreatment handling of patients, method of irradiation, and follow-up are of importance to reduce side effects, and are described as they are carried out at the Department of Oncology, Haukeland Hospital, Norway. 16 refs., 2 figs

  19. Effects of sub-lethal dose of gamma-irradiation on levels of acid phosphatase in cerebellum of pigeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.C.; Gadhia, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    The changes in the activities of acid phosphatase in the sham-irradiated and γ-irradiated cerebellum of pigeons have been studied both biochemically as well as histochemically after 400 rads. The specific activity of acid phosphatase decreased significantly after 48h and 72h of irradiation. The histochemical observations following total body irradiation confirmed the results obtained by quantitative biochemical studies. (author)

  20. Application of gamma irradiation for the enhanced physiological properties of polysaccharides from seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Soo Chun, Byeong; Hyun Ahn, Dong; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Kim, Duk-Jin; Kim, Gwang Hoon; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Polysaccharides from seaweeds, fucoidan and laminarin, were irradiated with gamma rays, and their structural changes and anti-oxidative activities were investigated. The gamma irradiation decreased the average molecular weights of polysaccharides, and UV spectra of irradiated polysaccharides showed increases in the numbers of carboxyl and carbonyl groups and double bonds. DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of the gamma irradiated polysaccharides were significantly higher than those non-irradiated.

  1. Proteomic analysis of a model unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, during short-term exposure to irradiance stress reveals significant down regulation of several heat-shock proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahong, Bancha; Roytrakul, Suttiruk; Phaonaklop, Narumon; Wongratana, Janewit; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak

    2012-03-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms often suffer from excessive irradiance, which cause harmful effects to the chloroplast proteins and lipids. Photoprotection and the photosystem II repair processes are the mechanisms that plants deploy to counteract the drastic effects from irradiance stress. Although the protective and repair mechanisms seemed to be similar in most plants, many species do confer different level of tolerance toward high light. Such diversity may originate from differences at the molecular level, i.e., perception of the light stress, signal transduction and expression of stress responsive genes. Comprehensive analysis of overall changes in the total pool of proteins in an organism can be performed using a proteomic approach. In this study, we employed 2-DE/LC-MS/MS-based comparative proteomic approach to analyze total proteins of the light sensitive model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in response to excessive irradiance. Results showed that among all the differentially expressed proteins, several heat-shock proteins and molecular chaperones were surprisingly down-regulated after 3-6 h of high light exposure. Discussions were made on the possible involvement of such down regulation and the light sensitive nature of this model alga.

  2. Oxide particle size distribution from shearing irradiated and unirradiated LWR fuels in Zircaloy and stainless steel cladding: significance for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W. Jr.; West, G.A.; Stacy, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Sieve fractionation was performed with oxide particles dislodged during shearing of unirradiated or irradiated fuel bundles or single rods of UO 2 or 96 to 97% ThO 2 --3 to 4% UO 2 . Analyses of these data by nonlinear least-squares techniques demonstrated that the particle size distribution is lognormal. Variables involved in the numerical analyses include lognormal median size, lognormal standard deviation, and shear cut length. Sieve-fractionation data are presented for unirradiated bundles of stainless-steel-clad or Zircaloy-2-clad UO 2 or ThO 2 --UO 2 sheared into lengths from 0.5 to 2.0 in. Data are also presented for irradiated single rods (sheared into lengths of 0.25 to 2.0 in.) of Zircaloy-2-clad UO 2 from BWRs and of Zircaloy-4-clad UO 2 from PWRs. Median particle sizes of UO 2 from shearing irradiated stainless-steel-clad fuel ranged from 103 to 182 μm; particle sizes of ThO 2 --UO 2 , under these same conditions, ranged from 137 to 202 μm. Similarly, median particle sizes of UO 2 from shearing unirradiated Zircaloy-2-clad fuel ranged from 230 to 957 μm. Irradiation levels of fuels from reactors ranged from 9,000 to 28,000 MWd/MTU. In general, particle sizes from shearing these irradiated fuels are larger than those from the unirradiated fuels. In addition, variations in particle size parameters pertaining to samples of a single vendor varied as much as those between different vendors. The fraction of fuel dislodged from the cladding is nearly proportional to the reciprocal of the shear cut length, until the cut length attains some minimum value below which all fuel is dislodged. Particles of fuel are generally elongated with a long-to-short axis ratio usually less than 3. Using parameters of the lognormal distribution deduced from experimental data, realistic estimates can be made of fractions of dislodged fuel having dimensions less than specified values

  3. Oxide particle size distribution from shearing irradiated and unirradiated LWR fuels in Zircaloy and stainless steel cladding: significance for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W. Jr.; West, G.A.; Stacy, R.G.

    1979-03-22

    Sieve fractionation was performed with oxide particles dislodged during shearing of unirradiated or irradiated fuel bundles or single rods of UO/sub 2/ or 96 to 97% ThO/sub 2/--3 to 4% UO/sub 2/. Analyses of these data by nonlinear least-squares techniques demonstrated that the particle size distribution is lognormal. Variables involved in the numerical analyses include lognormal median size, lognormal standard deviation, and shear cut length. Sieve-fractionation data are presented for unirradiated bundles of stainless-steel-clad or Zircaloy-2-clad UO/sub 2/ or ThO/sub 2/--UO/sub 2/ sheared into lengths from 0.5 to 2.0 in. Data are also presented for irradiated single rods (sheared into lengths of 0.25 to 2.0 in.) of Zircaloy-2-clad UO/sub 2/ from BWRs and of Zircaloy-4-clad UO/sub 2/ from PWRs. Median particle sizes of UO/sub 2/ from shearing irradiated stainless-steel-clad fuel ranged from 103 to 182 ..mu..m; particle sizes of ThO/sub 2/--UO/sub 2/, under these same conditions, ranged from 137 to 202 ..mu..m. Similarly, median particle sizes of UO/sub 2/ from shearing unirradiated Zircaloy-2-clad fuel ranged from 230 to 957 ..mu..m. Irradiation levels of fuels from reactors ranged from 9,000 to 28,000 MWd/MTU. In general, particle sizes from shearing these irradiated fuels are larger than those from the unirradiated fuels; however, unirradiated fuel from vendors was not available for performing comparative shearing experiments. In addition, variations in particle size parameters pertaining to samples of a single vendor varied as much as those between different vendors. The fraction of fuel dislodged from the cladding is nearly proportional to the reciprocal of the shear cut length, until the cut length attains some minimum value below which all fuel is dislodged. Particles of fuel are generally elongated with a long-to-short axis ratio usually less than 3. Using parameters of the lognormal distribution estimates can be made of fractions of dislodged fuel having

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crucq, A.S.; Deridder, V.; Engalytcheff, A.; Slegers, C.; Tilquin, P.

    2005-01-01

    Several drugs (ceftazidime, vancomycin, glucagon, erythromycin and dobutamine) were studied in order to determine their radiostability. The methods used to measure the degradation of the drug were the potency and the colour change after irradiation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is currently being used to detect irradiated foodstuffs and may be a promising technique to detect irradiated drugs. Trapped radicals in cefazolin sodium were studied and quantified by ESR for this purpose. It is proposed that the trapped radicals play an important role in the formation of the final radiolytic compounds. The potency of ceftazidime was not significantly modified after an irradiation of 25 kGy, whereas the potency of erythromycin and dobutamine decreased slightly. Glucagon was revealed to be radiosensitive with a significant decrease in its potency after irradiation. The visible spectra of glucagon and dobutamine did not change significantly after irradiation. The absorbance of erythromycin and vancomycin increased after irradiation. According to European Pharmacopoeia standards, the colour change of ceftazidime is unacceptable. The ESR spectra reveal that the trapped radicals in cefazolin sodium are characteristic of an irradiation. The radical concentration is dependent on the irradiation dose and decays over time. Radical concentration in cefazolin sodium was reduced by 99% after 100 days of storage. These radicals are responsible for about 13% of the measured final radiolytic product. Ionic reactions could also lead to final radiolytic products. (author)

  5. A significant reduction in the frequency of HIV-1 drug resistance in Québec from 2001 to 2011 is associated with a decrease in the monitored viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Charest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance represents a major threat for effective treatment. We assessed the trends in the frequency of drug resistance mutations and the monitored viral load (VL in treatment-naïve (TN and treatment-experienced (TE individuals infected with HIV-1 in Québec, Canada, between 2001 and 2011. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Resistance data were obtained from 4,105 and 5,086 genotypic tests performed on TN and TE patients, respectively. Concomitantly, 274,161 VL tests were carried out in the Province. Changes over time in drug resistance frequency and in different categories of VL were assessed using univariate logistic regression. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between the rates of certain mutations and antiretroviral prescriptions. From 2001 to 2011, the proportion of undetectable VL test results continually increased, from 42.1% to 75.9%, while a significant decrease in the frequency of resistance mutations associated with protease inhibitors [PI (from 54% to 16%], nucleoside [NRTI (from 78% to 37% and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTI (from 44% to 31%] was observed in TE patients. In TN individuals, the overall frequency of transmitted drug resistance was 13.1%. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the introduction of co-formulated emtricitabine/tenofovir or emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz was positively associated with the decrease of the frequency of the M184I/V mutations observed overtime (p = 0.0004. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant decrease in the frequency of drug resistance mutations in TE patients, concomitant with a decrease in the proportion of patients with detectable viremia. These findings may be related to both the increased potencies and adherence to therapy associated with newer antiretroviral regimens. Nevertheless, our data demonstrate that broad use of antiretrovirals does not increase the level of circulating drug resistant

  6. Infusion of Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC prolongs the survival of acutely irradiated NOD/SCID mice by decreasing excessive inflammatory injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, JiangWei; Yang, ZaiLiang; Wang, Jun; Tang, YongYong; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Hu

    2013-01-01

    A protective reagent for ARI should have the ability to repair injured tissue caused by radiation and prevent continuous damage from secondary risk factors. Trx-1 was explored as a candidate therapy for ARI, as it scavenges reactive oxygen species, regulates cell growth and differentiation, participates in immune reactions, and inhibits apoptosis by acting inside and/or outside cells. Trx-1 can also decrease excessive inflammation in ARI by regulating the creation of inflamed media, by inhibiting the activation of complement, and by reducing the chemotaxis, adhesion, and migration of inflammatory cells. As effectively and stably expressing exogenous genes in the long term and regulating immune inflammation and tissue repair, MSC are a good choice for Trx-1 gene therapy. In this study, Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC-Trx-1 were obtained by adenoviral vector-mediated infection. We first measured the redox capacity of hucMSC-Trx-1 with an antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) assay, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content determination assay in vivo, a H2O2-induced oxidation hemolysis assay, and a lipid peroxidation assay in vitro. Then, we measured survival time, the protection of the hematopoietic system, and the regulation of inflammation in important organs in three treatment groups of NOD/SCID mice (treated with hucMSC-Trx-1, with hucMSC, and with saline) that were exposed to 4.5 Gy (60)Co-γ-ray radiation. The hucMSC-Trx-1 group achieved superior antioxidation results, protecting bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (Lin(-)CD117(+): hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, PTrx-1 vs. NS, PTrx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, PTrx-1 vs. NS, PTrx-1 vs. hucMSC, PTrx-1 vs. NS, PTrx-1 vs. hucMSC, PTrx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, PTrx-1 combines the merits of gene and cell therapy as a multifunctional radioprotector for ARI.

  7. Infusion of Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC prolongs the survival of acutely irradiated NOD/SCID mice by decreasing excessive inflammatory injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiangWei Hu

    Full Text Available A protective reagent for ARI should have the ability to repair injured tissue caused by radiation and prevent continuous damage from secondary risk factors. Trx-1 was explored as a candidate therapy for ARI, as it scavenges reactive oxygen species, regulates cell growth and differentiation, participates in immune reactions, and inhibits apoptosis by acting inside and/or outside cells. Trx-1 can also decrease excessive inflammation in ARI by regulating the creation of inflamed media, by inhibiting the activation of complement, and by reducing the chemotaxis, adhesion, and migration of inflammatory cells. As effectively and stably expressing exogenous genes in the long term and regulating immune inflammation and tissue repair, MSC are a good choice for Trx-1 gene therapy. In this study, Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC-Trx-1 were obtained by adenoviral vector-mediated infection. We first measured the redox capacity of hucMSC-Trx-1 with an antioxidant capacity (T-AOC assay, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content determination assay in vivo, a H2O2-induced oxidation hemolysis assay, and a lipid peroxidation assay in vitro. Then, we measured survival time, the protection of the hematopoietic system, and the regulation of inflammation in important organs in three treatment groups of NOD/SCID mice (treated with hucMSC-Trx-1, with hucMSC, and with saline that were exposed to 4.5 Gy (60Co-γ-ray radiation. The hucMSC-Trx-1 group achieved superior antioxidation results, protecting bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (Lin(-CD117(+: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.01, promoting the formation of red blood cells and hemoglobin (hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, P<0.05, reducing inflammation and damage in important organs (Bone marrow and lung: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.01; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05. Liver and intestine: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.05; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05, and prolonging survival (hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, P<0

  8. Appetite - decreased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...

  9. Effect of gamma-irradiation and extended storage on chemical quality in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, C.A.; Banek, S.A.; Curzio, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation and long-term storage on the chemical quality of the Valenciana sintética 14 onion variety were determined under warehouse conditions in two sets of bulbs grown consecutively in 1988 and 1989. In both years irradiated and non-irradiated bulbs showed similar behaviour in terms of carbohydrate and ascorbic acid contents throughout the 300 days of storage. It was found that the carbohydrate content significantly decreased in irradiated and non-irradiated samples up to 180 days of storage. The storage time was found not to have a significant effect on the ascorbic acid content of bulbs. The carbohydrate and ascorbic acid contents were found to be higher in the irradiated and non-irradiated bulbs grown in 1988. Neither storage time nor gamma-irradiation nor the specific year significantly affected dry matter or acidity. Gamma-irradiation did not significantly affect flavour strength in terms of total pyruvate content

  10. Physicochemical Characteristics and Biological Activity of Irradiated Pectin Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.H.; Kang, H.J.; Jo, C.O.; Jeong, I.Y.; Byun, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Pectin was dissolved in HCI, citric acid, and deionized distilled water (DW, 2%, v/v) and irradiated at different irradiation doses (2.5-50 kGy) by gamma ray to investigate its physicochemical characteristics and biological activity. Viscosity of pectin solution was significantly decreased by irradiation up to 10 kGy, then remained constant thereafter. Gamma-irradiation increased monosaccharide and polysaccharide levels up to 30-40 kDa. Electron donating ability of pectin solution was highest when DW was added was increased by increasing irradiation dose (p less than 0.05)

  11. Alterations in immune responses in prenatally irradiated dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nold, J.B.; Benjamin, S.A.; Miller, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    Immunologic responses were studied in beagle dogs following prenatal (35 days gestation) irradiation to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on the developing immune system. Each dog received 1.5 Gy 60 Co gamma irradiation or sham irradiation. Prenatally irradiated dogs exhibited a significant reduction in primary humoral antibody responses to inoculated sheep red blood cells, a T-dependent antigen, and a concurrent decrease in T-helper lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood at 3 to 4 months of age. Similarly, irradiated fetuses have been shown to have defects in epitheliostromal development of the thymus. It is suggested that the postnatal immunologic deficits may relate to the prenatal thymic injury

  12. Effects of irradiation on the volatile compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.J.; Yang, J.S.; Liu, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of 0.15 kGy gamma irradiation on the content of volatile compounds in garlic bulbs during storage at room temperature were evaluated. The content of diallyl disulphide decreased immediately after irradiation. However, at the end of 8-month storage both irradiated and unirradiated samples showed a significant increase in diallyl disulphide

  13. Study on the storage properties of irradiated ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shoujing; Yu Zihou; Sun Shouyi; Zou Jiwan; Zhang Qizhi; Sun Hongchun; Lv Tiexin; Liu Xiaoyong

    2004-01-01

    The γ-ray irradiation could cause the loss of Vc during the early stage of storage, however, after 150 days' storage there were no significant differences of Vc content between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. The content of reduced sugar was increased by irradiation especially with 150 and 250 Gy. When ginger were irradiated with 250 Gy and stored at room temperature for 120 days, the content of Met and Arg decreased obviously, but the contents of other 16 amino acids were not affected. The respiration rate of irradiated ginger reached its peak at 7-9 days of storage, and from then it kept lower level for the rest storage time. The electrolyte permeability increased slightly after γ-irradiation. Irradiation with 80-400 Gy had no effects on lipid isoenzyme zymogram

  14. The effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on seeds and branches of Euonymus fortunei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Yan; Inner Mongolia Agriculture Univ., Huhhot; Zhang Guosheng; Lu Renqiang; Pan Qinghua

    2006-01-01

    Seeds and plant branches of Euonymus fortunei were irradiated with 60 Co γ-ray. The results showed that after irradiation, seed germination rate, emergence rate and surviving rate were restrained, and it was negatively correlated with irradiation dose increasing significantly. The first euphylis period was delayed compared with control. Seedling height decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Semi-lethal dose of Euonymus fortunei seeds was 128.56 Gy. Branch irradiation could cause significantly number and length reduced, and it is correlated with irradiation dose increasing. The semi-lethal dose for Euonymus fortunei branches was 95.54 Gy. (authors)

  15. Topographic distribution of inguinal lymph nodes metastasis: significance in determination of treatment margin for elective inguinal lymph nodes irradiation of low pelvic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.J.; Chin, Y.Y.; Leung, Stephen Wan; Chen, H.C.; Sun, L.M.; Fang, F.M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To study the distribution of gross inguinal lymph node metastasis and, in particular, its correlation with major pelvic bony structures on a simulation film. Methods and Materials: Thirty-seven cases of low pelvic tumors having gross inguinal lymph node metastasis that were treated with radiation therapy between November 1987 and December 1992 were segregated for study. The patient's nodes were palpated and marked with lead wire before the simulation film was taken. The geometric center of the usually round or elliptical node on the film was assumed to be the origin of the previously uninfested node. A total of 84 such labeled nodes was obtained from these 37 cases. These centers were transferred to and mapped collectively on a new simulation film showing major pelvic bony structures of left hemipelvis and upper femur. Results: Distribution of gross inguinal lymph nodes was found confined to the following area, as related to major pelvic bony structure: laterally, just abutting the tangential line that passes through lateral border of the femoral head; medially: 3 cm away from the body's midline axis; superiorly: 1 cm below the line that joins both upper borders of the femoral head; inferiorly: 2.5 cm below the low borders of ischial tuberosity. According to this rectangular boundary, three nodes were out of field, nine nodes near the border less than 1 cm margin. This area adequately covered 86% (72 of 84) of the studied nodes. Conclusion: Distribution study is important in determining the treatment margin. In general, an additional 1-2 cm beyond the area described above is the recommended treatment margin for elective inguinal lymph nodes irradiation with high confidence level of coverage.

  16. MRI determination of the vertebral termination of the dural sac tip in a South African population: clinical significance during spinal irradiation and caudal anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Cilliers

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Knowing where the dural sac (DS ends is important, especially when placing the portal fields during craniospinal irradiation (CSI and performing caudal anesthesia. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the level of termination of the DS in relation to the spine in a group of South African patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the lumbosacral MR Imaging of 309 patients in each case identifying the tip of the DS. This level was recorded in relation to the adjacent vertebral body i.e. upper-, middle- and lower third and adjacent intervertebral disc. The overall mean of the DS position was at the middle third of S2. A notable percentage (13.9% of patients had a DS level lower than the lower third of S2 and (15.2% patients had a DS level higher than the S1-S2 intervertebral disc. This study failed to demonstrate a difference in the DS termination level, compared to the levels reported in various international studies; nor is there a statistical difference between gender, race and age. Our study shows that routine placement of the portal field at the lower border of S2 adequately treats the majority of CSI patients. However some patients (13.9% will be undertreated and some patients (15.2% will be overradiated. Using spinal MRI to establish the lower border of the CSI portal field will however benefit patients by ensuring adequate coverage of the entire neuroaxis as well as minimizing late gonadal toxicity due to overradiation.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of Syrian walnut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bachir, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Radiation Technology

    2001-12-01

    Walnut fruits of Baladi variety were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy of gamma irradiation. The irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at room temperature (15 to 18 Centigrade) and at a relative humidity of 50 to 70%. Fungal load, proximate composition, chemical changes and sensory properties of nuts were evaluated immediately after irradiation, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the fungal load. Used doses did not cause any significant change in proximate composition of walnuts. Immediately after irradiation, gamma irradiation increased total acidity and decreased iodine value and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN). whereas, after 12 months of storage, gamma irradiation decreased total acidity and peroxide value and increased iodine value and (VBN). Immediately after irradiation no significant differences were observed between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in flavor and aroma. Whereas, after 12 months of storage higher doses (1.5 and 2.0 kGy) had a negative effect on sensory characteristics. (author)

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of Syrian walnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2002-01-01

    Walnut fruits of Baladi variety were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy of gamma irradiation. The irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at room temperature (15 to 18 Centigrade) and at a relative humidity of 50 to 70%. Fungal load, proximate composition, chemical changes and sensory properties of nuts were evaluated immediately after irradiation, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the fungal load. Used doses did not cause any significant change in proximate composition of walnuts. Immediately after irradiation, gamma irradiation increased total acidity and decreased iodine value and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN). whereas, after 12 months of storage, gamma irradiation decreased total acidity and peroxide value and increased iodine value and (VBN). Immediately after irradiation no significant differences were observed between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in flavor and aroma. Whereas, after 12 months of storage higher doses (1.5 and 2.0 kGy) had a negative effect on sensory characteristics. (author)

  19. Changes in lens following 60Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsival, P.; Obenberger, J.; Sladkova, J.

    1985-01-01

    Chinchilla rabbit lenses were irradiated using a 60 Co gamma source, and the changes in the transport activities, native weight, water content and dry weight were observed. The heads of rabbits were irradiated with doses of 10 and 20 Gy and functional changes occurring in the lenses were studied till the twenty-fourth week after the irradiation. The weight of the rabbit lens irradiated with a dose of 20 Gy significantly increased after the twelfth week and was maximal 16 weeks after irradiation when also cataracts were observed. The increased weight of lenses was caused by accumulation of water. The decrease in the dry weight of lenses preceded the period of visible cataracts. A decreased uptake of rubidium occurring during in vitro cultivation of lenses was the most sensitive marker for the changes caused by 20 Gy irradiation. It was significantly decreased as early as 8 weeks after irradiation, preceding the increased hydration of lenses by 4 weeks and the presence of visible cataracts by as much as 8 weeks

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on the development and reproduction of the greasy cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three substerilizing doses 50, 100 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation were tested against full – grown male and female pupae or against full-grown male or female pupae of Agrotis ipsilon. The results showed that fecundity of irradiated females crossed with irradiated males was decreased by increasing irradiation dose. The decrease in egg – hatchability % and increase in sterility % induced by gamma radiation were found to be positively correlated with the dose level. The parentage of larval and pupal mortality increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05 with the increase of used doses. In addition, larval and pupal durations were found to be significantly prolonged as a result of gamma- irradiation treatment. In general, the results obtained indicated that the biological action of gamma irradiation against A. ipsilon larvae was more remarkable when both crossed females and males were irradiated followed by irradiated females crossed with non-irradiated males.

  1. Structural and functional changes in the intenstine of irradiated and hypothermic irradiated rats : a scanning and transmission electron microscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Chaudhuri, Swapna; Roy, Bijon

    1982-01-01

    Severe destructive changes in the intestine of rats following whole body exposure to gamma rays (832 rads) were observed by light microscope, scanning and transmission electron microscope studies. Hypothermia (15deg C rectal temperature) induced prior to irradiation protected the intestinal mucosa from destruction. A simultaneous study showed that glucose absorption decreased significantly in irradiated rats, whereas it was increased in hypothermic irradiated animals. (author)

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal and rheological properties of grain amaranth starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong Xiangli [School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Kasapis, Stefan [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, City Campus, Melbourne, Vic 3001 (Australia); Bao Jinsong [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province and Chinese Ministry of Agriculture for Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Huajiachi Campus, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Corke, Harold [School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: hcorke@yahoo.com

    2009-11-15

    Physical properties of starch from two cultivars of gamma-irradiated grain amaranth with different amylose content were investigated. Pasting viscosities decreased continuously with the increase in dosages of irradiation. Furthermore, different irradiation dosages resulted in modification of the thermal properties and crystallinity of starch. Dynamic oscillation on shear was also employed, temperature and frequency sweeps showed that changes in storage modulus and loss modulus were significant, with Tibet Yellow producing more elastic gels as compared to Hy030 at different irradiation dosages.

  3. Effect of irradiation on the malting quality of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avtar, S.; Tejinder, S.; Bains, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Two six-row barley cultivars, DL 70 and C164 were subjected to Co 60 gamma irradiation in the range of 0 to 250 Krad and malted with and without gibberellic acid treatment. Barley irradiated with doses up to 75 Krad produced normal malts when compared to the controls. Irradiation doses of 125 and 250 Krad significantly increased the malt yields but considerably decreased the α-amylase activity. Gibberellic acid significantly increased the enzyme activity and degree of modification of the irradiated and the control malts. (author)

  4. Epinephrine as a metabolic regulatory hormone in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.A.; Saada, H.N.; Roushdy, H.M.; Awad, O.M.; El-Sayed, M.M.; Azab, Kh.Sh.

    1997-01-01

    The role of epinephrine as a regulatory hormone was examined in normal and irradiated rats. Epinephrine was intraperitoneally injected into rats at a concentration of 200 Mg/kg body weight. Epinephrine was injected either 15 minutes before or just after whole body gamma irradiation 6 Gy 9 single dose). The variations in serum epinephrine,norepinephrine, triglycerides,lipase activity, glucose and lactic acid were selected as biochemical markers in this study. Biochemical estimations were undertaken at 1 hr, 4 hrs. 1,3 and 7 days treatment (after irradiation). The data obtained revealed that the treatment of normal rats with epinephrine induced a significant increase in serum epinephrine level 1 hr after injection, while the level of norepinephrine significantly increased at 4 hrs. Lipase activity significantly increased on the 1 ST hr post treatment. A significant decrease in the level of triglycerides was recorded 1 and 4 hrs post treatment. Serum glucose significantly increased at 1 and 4 hrs post treatment, while no significant changes were recorded for lactic acid. In gamma irradiated rats, the level of serum epinephrine significantly decreased at 1 hr followed by significant increases recorded at 1,3, and 7 days after irradiation. Norepinephrine levels significantly decreased after irradiation during all the experimental time periods. The levels of triglycerides show significant increases accompanied by decrease in lipase activity

  5. In-vitro Degradation Behaviour of Irradiated Bacterial Cellulose Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwis, D.; Khusniya, T.; Hardiningsih, L.; Nurlidar, F.; Winarno, H.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose membrane synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum in coconut water medium has potential application for Guided bone Regeneration. However, this membrane may not meet some application requirements due to its low biodegradation properties. In this paper, incorporation of gamma irradiation into the membrane is a developed strategy to increase its biodegradability properties. The in-vitro degradation study in synthetic body fluid (SBF) of the irradiated membrane has been analyzed during periods of 6 months by means of weight loss, mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopy observation compared to that the un-irradiated one. The result showed that weight loss of irradiated membrane with 25 kGy and 50 kGy and immersed in SBF solution for 6 months reached 18% and 25% respectively. While un-irradiated membrane did not give significant weight loss. Tensile strength of membranes decreases with increasing of irradiation dose and further decreases in tensile strength is observed when irradiated membrane was followed by immersion in SBF solution. Microscope electron image of cellulose membranes shows that un-irradiated bacterial cellulose membrane consists of dense ultrafine fibril network structures, while irradiation result in cleavage of fibrils network of cellulose. The fibrils network become loosely after irradiated membrane immersed in SBF solution due to released of small molecular weight carbohydrates formed during by irradiation from the structure (author)

  6. Enhancement of antimicrobial activity of chitosan by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, S.; Kume, T.

    1997-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of irradiated chitosan was studied against Escherichia coli B/r. Irradiation of chitosan at 100 kGy under dry conditions was effective in increasing the activity, and inhibited the growth of E. coli completely. The molecular weight of chitosan significantly decreased with the increase in irradiation dose, whereas the relative surface charge of chitosan was decreased only 3% by 100 kGy irradiation. Antimicrobial activity assay of chitosan fractionated according to molecular weight showed that 1 x 10 5 -3 x 10 5 fraction was most effective in suppressing the growth of E coli. This fraction comprised only 8% of the 100 kGy irradiated chitosan. On the other hand, chitosan whose molecular weight was less than 1 x 10 5 had no activity. The results show that low dose irradiation, specifically 100 kGy, of chitosan gives enough degradation to increase its antimicrobial activity as a result of a change in molecular weight. (Author)

  7. Improving Quality of Yoghurt By Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, E.M.; Nasr, E.H.; Shawki, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the possibility to utilize gamma irradiation to activate starter culture during incubation period and prolong the shelf-life of yoghurt. Starter culture of yoghurt was subjected to gamma irradiation with 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Gy to activate the starter then yoghurt was made. Effect of irradiation dose on titratable acidity and the sensory evaluation of all samples were evaluated during incubation period. The obtained results indicated that the irradiation doses 30, 35 and 40 Gy activated the starter and caused significant decreased of incubation period from 4 h to 3.5 h while irradiation doses that less than 30 Gy and more than 40 Gy did not significantly effect. Yoghurt samples were subjected to gamma irradiation with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 kGy to prolong the shelf-life of yoghurt samples. The sensory, microbial and chemical properties of yoghurt samples were evaluated during cold storage. The obtained results indicated that the counts of total viable bacteria, molds and yeasts were decreased by applying gamma irradiation. Irradiation treatment caused significant decrease in acidity. The overall acceptability scores, total solid and ph value of all treatments were gradually decreased as the storage period proceeded while total nitrogen of all treatments was not affected. In addition, treatments of yoghurt with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 kGy prolonged the shelf-life to 20, 28 and 36 days as compared to 12 days for control treatment

  8. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  9. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Madajczyk, D

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  10. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-01-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency

  11. Damage nucleation in Si during ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, O.W.; Fathy, D.; Narayan, J.

    1984-01-01

    Damage nucleation in single crystals of silicon during ion irradiation is investigated. Experimental results and mechanisms for damage nucleation during both room and liquid nitrogen temperature irradiation with different mass ions are discussed. It is shown that the accumulation of damage during room temperature irradiation depends on the rate of implantation. These dose rate effects are found to decrease in magnitude as the mass of the ions is increased. The significance of dose rate effects and their mass dependence on nucleation mechanisms is discussed

  12. Irradiation of microbial controlling on package tofu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Meixu; Li Shurong; Wang Li; Wang Shuo; Wang Ning

    2009-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on microbiological controlling, nutrient and sensory qualities of packaged tofu (bean curd) stored at commercial condition. Results showed that D 10 values of Listeria innocua and Samonella enteritidis inoculated in packaged tofu were 0.225 and 0.240kGy, respectively. Irradiation dose lower than 2.0kGy had no significant effects on content of crude protein and amino acid (p>0.05). γ-irradiation could decrease microbial in packaged tofu and 2.0kGy should be applied to ensure the hygienic quality of the products. (authors)

  13. HDR- and LDR-interstitial irradiation (IRT) in rat spinal cord: the effect of decreasing the dose rate and the impact of a rapid dose fall off over the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, L.A.M.; Plas, M. van der; Hanssen, A.E.J.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: Detailed knowledge of radiobiological parameters of the different tissues involved are warranted before HDR- and recently PDR-brachytherapy can be successfully introduced in clinical practice as an alternative to LDR- brachytherapy. The purpose of this study is to determine the α/β ratio and half time of repair of rat spinal cord during continuous irradiation at different dose rates and to investigate the impact of a rapid dose fall off over the spinal cord thickness. Material and methods: Two parallel catheters are inserted on each side of the vertebral bodies from the level of Th 10 to L 4 . These catheters were afterloaded with two 192 Ir- wires of 4 cm length each (activity 1- 10 mCi/cm) or connected to the HDR-microSelectron. Serial experiments have been carried out to obtain complete dose response curves at 5 different dose rates, resp. 0.5, 0.9, 1.6, 2.6 and 120 Gy/h. Paralysis of the hindlegs after 5-6 months and histopathological examination of the spinal cord of each animal are used as experimental endpoints. Dose-volume histograms of each irradiated rat have been analysed to evaluate the correlation between dose distribution and biological response and the histopathological damage seen. Results: The distribution of the histological damage was a good reflection of the rapid dose fall-off over the spinal cord, with white matter necrosis or demyelination predominantly seen in the dorsal tracts of the spinal cord or dorsal roots. With each reduction of the dose rate, spinal cord tolerance was significantly increased, with a maximum dose rate factor of 4.3 if the dose rate was reduced from 120 Gy/h to 0.53 Gy/h. Estimates of the repair parameters using different types of analysis revealed an α/β ratio of 2.44 Gy and a (mono- exponential) half time of repair (=t (1(2)) ) of 1.43 hours; for the maximum of 150 % of the prescribed dose these values were 3.67 Gy and 1.43 hours respectively. Conclusions: Spinal cord radiation tolerance is

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on physico-chemical charateristics of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inayatullah; Hussain, B.; Zeb, A.; Ahmad, M.; Khan, I.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation (0,25,50,100,250 and 500 Krad) on the physicochemical and cooking characteristics of Crawford, Dawson, Webber, Swat-84, S-76209 and Hobbit varieties of soybean was studied. Irradiation had no significant effect on proximate composition (water, protein, fat, ash, crude fiber, carbohydrate) and important mineral contents (calcium, phosphorous, iron) of soybean. Phytic acid content and cooking time were significantly decreased whereas peroxide value of soybean was significantly increased due to irradiation. (author)

  15. Antioxidant tolerance of kidney after irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukan, Neslihan; Güney, Yildiz; Hiçsönmez, Ayşe; Bilgihan, Ayşe

    2003-03-01

    Different doses of irradiation were performed in which group 1 (non-irradiated), group 2 (8 Gy/single dose/whole body) and group 3 (15 Gy/single dose/whole body) were formed of guinea pigs. After 24 hr of radiation exposure the levels of lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured in the whole kidney. The MDA content increased in animals irradiated with 8 and 15 Gy. And group 3 showed an increase the level of MDA. GSH contents of kidney in group 2 and 3 increased. The activity of SOD decreased markedly in group 3 when compared with control group. The activity of GSH-Px decreased significantly in group 2 and group 3 in comparison to controls. It may be concluded that a high dose of ionizing irradiation cause excessive oxidative stress in kidney.

  16. Immunocytoadherence and sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumariage, M.L.; Hiesche, K.; Revesz, L.; Haot, J.

    1975-01-01

    In sublethally irradiated CBA mice, the relative and absolute numbers of spontaneous rosette forming cells against sheep erythrocytes are markedly decreased in bone marrow. The decrease of the absolute number of spontaneous RFC is also important in the spleen in spite of an increase of the RFC relative number above the normal values between the 8th and 12th day after irradiation. The graft of normal bone marrow cells immediately after irradiation or the shielding of a medullary area during irradiation promotes the recovery of the immunocytoadherence capacity of the bone marrow cells but not of the spleen cells [fr

  17. Effect of irradiation on nutritional quality of chicken feet with pickled peppers in shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shurong; Zhou Linyan; Yi Jianyong; Feng Min; Li Li; Yang Ping; Wang Dening; Gu Guiqiang; Zhu Jiating

    2013-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on nutritional quality of soft packaged chicken feet with pickled peppers within shelf life were investigated. Chicken feet were irradiated by E-beam which max dose was 10 kGy, and all the samples were stored at 0 ∼ 10℃ and analyzed one month after irradiation treatment. Significant sterilizing effect was got for soft packaged chicken feet with pickled peppers by irradiation; The contents of protein and fat were changed after irradiation treatment; the contents of V_A, V_E and V_B_3 in irradiated chicken feet were increased; The total contents of amino acids increased when irradiation dose were more than 4 kGy; The contents of total acids decreased after irradiation treatment, but the contents of cholesterol and nitrite increased. Above all, irradiation treatment can be used to improve nutritional quality of chicken feet with pickled peppers in shelf life. (authors)

  18. Mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation: long-term outcome and prognostic significance of patient age and margin status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solin, Lawrence J.; Fourquet, Alain; Vicini, Frank A.; Haffty, Bruce; Taylor, Marie; McCormick, Beryl; McNeese, Marsha; Pierce, Lori J.; Landmann, Christine; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Borger, Jacques; Kim, Jung-Soo; Rochefordiere, Anne de la; Schultz, Delray J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to determine the long-term outcome for women with mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; intraductal carcinoma) of the breast treated with breast-conserving surgery followed by definitive breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: An analysis was performed of 422 mammographically detected intraductal breast carcinomas in 418 women from 11 institutions in North America and Europe. All patients were treated with breast-conserving surgery followed by definitive breast irradiation. The median follow-up time was 9.4 years (mean, 9.4 years; range, 0.1-19.8 years). Results: The 15-year overall survival rate was 92%, and the 15-year cause-specific survival rate was 98%. The 15-year rate of freedom from distant metastases was 94%. There were 48 local failures in the treated breast, and the 15-year rate of any local failure was 16%. The median time to local failure was 5.0 years (mean, 5.7 years; range, 1.0-15.2 years). Patient age at the time of treatment and final pathology margin status from the primary tumor excision were both significantly associated with local failure. The 10-year rate of local failure was 31% for patient age ≤ 39 years, 13% for age 40-49 years, 8% for age 50-59 years, and 6% for age ≥ 60 years (p=0.0001). The 10-year rate of local failure was 24% when the margins of resection were positive, 9% when the margins of resection were negative, 7% when the margins of resection were close, and 12% when the margins of resection were unknown (p=0.030). Patient age ≤ 39 years and positive margins of resection were both independently associated with an increased risk of local failure (p=0.0006 and p=0.023, respectively) in the multivariable Cox regression model. Conclusions: The 15-year results from the present study demonstrated high rates of overall survival, cause-specific survival, and freedom from distant metastases following the treatment of mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ of the

  19. Comparative study of the generative organs of tomatoes irradiated at various times of the ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulne-Pityinger, O.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the irradiation of tomato seed and plant on pollen germination and yield formation has been studied. The dose values, the phenological phase of irradiation and, the connection between the probable stimulating dose and yield formation were studied. According to the results the pollen germination ability was slightly increased by treatment with 500-1000 rad, whereas on the influence of 10000 rad it significantly decreased. In the case of plant irradiation, one tenth of the dose used for seed irradiation was applied. The germination percent increased significantly by 100 rad. From the viewpoint of irradiation treatment the three leaf age appeared to be the most advantageous phenological stage. (author)

  20. Shielding of the abdominal region during X-irradiation: Effect on haemopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrova, J.; Petyrek, P.

    1984-01-01

    The shielding of the abdominal region during X-irradiation is important for two reasons: 1) it prevents the development of the gastrointestinal syndrome following higher radiation doses; 2) it prevents the development of the lethal form of the bone marrow syndrome by shielding a portion of the spinal column bone marrow and the spleen. The dose reduction factor in partial irradiated mice compared to whole-body irradiated mice was 2.6. 15 mins after irradiation with the dose of 10 Gy, the number of spleen colony-forming cells (CFU-S) decreased in the femoral bone marrow of both the group receiving whole-body irradiation and the group having the abdominal region shielded. This decrease persisted in both groups for five hours after irradiation. 48 hours after whole-body irradiation, the number of CFU-S in the femoral bone marrow of the unshielded animals decreased almost to zero values. In shielded group, a statistically significant increase in the number of CFU-S in the femur was observed at 48 hours. At 120 hours, the number of CFU-S in so irradiated mice was at the level of the unirradiated group. In the spleen a great decrease in the number of CFU-S was caused by whole-body irradiation of mice as early as 15 mins after irradiation and the low-levels were recorded until the death of animals. In the shielded group, a statistically signifjcant decrease in the number of CFU-S was observed 15 mins after irradiation, which may have been due to the abscopal effect of irradiation. After a transient recovery 2 hours after irradiation, a significant decrease in the number of CFU-S in the spleens was observed in the subsequent interval from five to 120 hours after irradiation. (author)

  1. Irradiation and flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineccius, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Flavor will not be a significant factor in determining the success of irradiated foods entering the U.S. market. The initial applications will use low levels of irradiation that may well result in products with flavor superior to that of products from alternative processing techniques (thermal treatment or chemical fumigation). The success of shelf-stable foods produced via irradiation may be much more dependent upon our ability to deal with the flavor aspects of high levels of irradiation

  2. Effects of feeding irradiated wheat to malnourished children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskaram, C.; Sadasivan, G.

    1975-01-01

    Fifteen children suffering from severe protein-calorie malnutrition were divided into three groups of five each and received diets containing either unirradiated, freshly irradiated, or stored irradiated wheat. All the children were hospitalized for a period of 6 weeks and leukocyte cultures were done initially and at intervals of 2 weeks. Children receiving freshly irradiated wheat developed polyploid cells and certain abnormal cells in increasing number as the duration of feeding increased and showed a gradual reversal to basal level of nil after withdrawal of irradiated wheat. In marked contrast, none of the children fed unirradiated diet developed any abnormal cells while children fed stored irradiated wheat showed polyploid and abnormal cells in significantly decreased numbers. Though the biological significance of polyploidy is not clear, its association with malignancy makes it imperative that the wholesomeness of irradiated wheat for human consumption be very carefully assessed. (U.S.)

  3. Sensitivity of ice-nucleating bacteria to ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obata, Hitoshi; Tanahashi, Shinji; Kawahara, Hidehisa (Kansai Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the ice-nucleating activity of the ice-nucleating bacteria was examined. Bacterial suspension was irradiated with UV (254 nm, 6Wx2) for 5 min at a distance of 20 cm from UV source. Although no viable cells were detected, the ice-nucreating activity of the cells was not affected. Furthermore, after UV irradiation for 3 hr, the ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. syringae was only slightly decreased, although that of P. viridiflava and Erwinia herbicola was significantly lowered. We succeeded in killing the ice-nucleating bacteria, while retaining their ice-nucleating activity with UV irradiation. (author).

  4. Study on determination method of identifying irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Liping; Yu Xuejun; Yu Menghong; Fu Junjie; Zhang Shimin; Bao Jinsong

    2003-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the activities of aleipsis, peroxidase, perhydrol catalase and the peroxide values in chicken oil and effects of different storage time on self-oxidation of fat and lipa in irradiated chicken were studied. The results showed that the activities of aleipsis and perhydrol catalase in irradiated chicken decreased with increasing doses, and the peroxide activity and peroxide value of lipa increased with increase of doses. No significant effect of storage time on peroxide value was observed in the irradiated chicken

  5. Inflammatory process decrease by gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) low intensity laser irradiation on postoperative extraction of impacted lower third molar; Reducao de processo inflamatorio com aplicacao de laser de arseneto de galio aluminio ({lambda}=830 nm) em pos-operatorio de exodontia de terceiros molares inferiores inclusos ou semi-inclusos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atihe, Mauricio Martins

    2002-07-01

    This study aimed the observation of inflammatory process decrease by the use of GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser ({lambda}=830 nm; 40 mW) irradiation. Five patients were selected and submitted to surgery of impacted lower third molars, both right and left sides at different occasions. On a first stage, a tooth of a random chosen side - right or left - was extracted by conventional surgery, without LILT. The inflammatory process was measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was then called 'control side'. After 21 days, period in which the inflammatory process of the first surgery was terminated, the other side surgery took place, this time using LILT (4 J at four spots) at postoperative, first and third days. As the previous surgery, the inflammatory process was also measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was called 'experimental or lased side'. The inflammatory process was evaluated by measuring its four characteristic signs: swelling, pain, color and temperature. It was clearly observed a decrease for swelling, pain and color on the lased side which presented significant inference and descriptive statistics. It can be concluded that GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser ({lambda}=830 nm) can surely be used as an additional and important anti-inflammatory source on impacted lower third molar surgeries. (author)

  6. Inflammatory process decrease by gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) low intensity laser irradiation on postoperative extraction of impacted lower third molar; Reducao de processo inflamatorio com aplicacao de laser de arseneto de galio aluminio ({lambda}=830 nm) em pos-operatorio de exodontia de terceiros molares inferiores inclusos ou semi-inclusos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atihe, Mauricio Martins

    2002-07-01

    This study aimed the observation of inflammatory process decrease by the use of GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser ({lambda}=830 nm; 40 mW) irradiation. Five patients were selected and submitted to surgery of impacted lower third molars, both right and left sides at different occasions. On a first stage, a tooth of a random chosen side - right or left - was extracted by conventional surgery, without LILT. The inflammatory process was measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was then called 'control side'. After 21 days, period in which the inflammatory process of the first surgery was terminated, the other side surgery took place, this time using LILT (4 J at four spots) at postoperative, first and third days. As the previous surgery, the inflammatory process was also measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was called 'experimental or lased side'. The inflammatory process was evaluated by measuring its four characteristic signs: swelling, pain, color and temperature. It was clearly observed a decrease for swelling, pain and color on the lased side which presented significant inference and descriptive statistics. It can be concluded that GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser ({lambda}=830 nm) can surely be used as an additional and important anti-inflammatory source on impacted lower third molar surgeries. (author)

  7. Viscometric and Pulsed Photostimulated Luminescence Properties of Irradiated Glutinous Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.S.; Yi, S.D.; Chang, K.S.; Oh, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to establish a method for the detection of irradiated glutinous rice by measuring pulsed photostimulated luminescence (PPSL) and viscometric properties. Viscosity was determined using a Brookfield DV-III rotation viscometer at 3 deg. C and measured at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 210 rpm. All irradiated samples indicated a decrease in viscosity with increasing stirring speeds (rpm) and irradiation doses. Treatments with 2∼5 kGy significantly decreased the viscosity. The photon counts of the irradiated glutinous rice were measured by PPSL and the photon counts of the non-irradiated and irradiated glutinous rice measured immediately after irradiation exhibited an increase with increasing irradiation dose. The photon counts of irradiated glutinous rice almost disappeared with the lapse of time when stored under normal room conditions, but was still possible to detect after 12 months of darkroom storage. Consequently, these results indicate that the detection of irradiated glutinous rice is possible by both viscometric and PPSL methods

  8. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated fresh oysters during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Sek; Pak, Jae Nam; Park, Jin Gyu; Han, In Jun; Jung, Pil Mun; Song, Beaom Seok; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Han, Sang Bae

    2008-01-01

    The microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of gamma irradiated fresh oysters were evaluated regarding its shelf-life during refrigeration. Non-irradiated fresh oysters began to be putrefied after 14 days, while fresh oysters irradiated with 2 kGy showed 5.54 log CFU∙g-1 even after 28 days. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value increased more rapidly in the non-irradiated sample than the irradiated samples during storage. Especially the VBN value of the non-irradiated sample was eight fold higher then that of the the sample irradiated with 2 kGy. The pH of the non-irradiated fresh oysters significantly decreased during storage while the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy showed no significant change. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value increased in all samples during a storage period, and gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation. Sensory characteristics of fresh oysters were deteriorated as irradiation doses increased, and sensory scores of the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy were significantly decreased

  9. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated fresh oysters during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Sek; Pak, Jae Nam; Park, Jin Gyu; Han, In Jun; Jung, Pil Mun; Song, Beaom Seok; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Bae [Food and Risk Standardization Team, KFDA, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of gamma irradiated fresh oysters were evaluated regarding its shelf-life during refrigeration. Non-irradiated fresh oysters began to be putrefied after 14 days, while fresh oysters irradiated with 2 kGy showed 5.54 log CFU∙g-1 even after 28 days. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value increased more rapidly in the non-irradiated sample than the irradiated samples during storage. Especially the VBN value of the non-irradiated sample was eight fold higher then that of the the sample irradiated with 2 kGy. The pH of the non-irradiated fresh oysters significantly decreased during storage while the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy showed no significant change. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value increased in all samples during a storage period, and gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation. Sensory characteristics of fresh oysters were deteriorated as irradiation doses increased, and sensory scores of the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy were significantly decreased.

  10. Effect of low-dose gamma irradiation on storage properties in light salted Pseudosciaena crocea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoyan; Yang Xianshi; Li Xueying; Guo Quanyou

    2012-01-01

    To explore the preservation effect of γ irradiation on light salted Pseudosciaena crocea, the influence of 1 kGy low-dose γ irradiation on sensory quality, microbiological and chemical quality including TVC, TVB-N and TBARS contents of light salted P. crocea stored at 25 ℃ was discussed. The results showed that the number of total viable counts significantly decreased after irradiation, during the whole storage, the bacteria numbers of light salted P. crocea treated with irradiation were still less than the control. The concentrations of TVB-N was significantly reduced after irradiation, whereas lipid oxidation was less accelerated. The shelf life could be remarkably prolonged after low-dose γ irradiation. While the shelf life of control group were 9 and 11 days, the shelf life of irradiated light salted P. crocea were extended to 16 and 20 days, respectively. The results can provide technical references for commercial application of seafood irradiation. (authors)

  11. Stem cell migration after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothdurft, W.; Fliedner, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The survival rate of irradiated rodents could be significantly improved by shielding only the small parts of hemopoietic tissues during the course of irradiation. The populations of circulating stem cells in adult organisms are considered to be of some importance for the homeostasis between the many sites of blood cell formation and for the necessary flexibility of hemopoietic response in the face of fluctuating demands. Pluripotent stem cells are migrating through peripheral blood as has been shown for several mammalian species. Under steady state conditions, the exchange of stem cells between the different sites of blood cell formation appears to be restricted. Their presence in blood and the fact that they are in balance with the extravascular stem cell pool may well be of significance for the surveilance of the integrity of local stem cell populations. Any decrease of stem cell population in blood below a critical size results in the rapid immigration of circulating stem cells in order to restore local stem cell pool size. Blood stem cells are involved in the regeneration after whole-body irradiation if the stem cell population in bone marrows is reduced to less than 10% of the normal state. In the animals subjected to partial-body irradiation, the circulating stem cells appear to be the only source for the repopulation of the heavily irradiated, aplastic sites of hemopoietic organs. (Yamashita, S.)

  12. Natural β-carotene and whole body irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Amotz, A.; Rachmilevich, B.; Greenberg, S.; Sela, M.; Weshler, Z.

    1996-01-01

    β-Carotene and other carotenoids are reported to be potent free radical quenchers, singlet oxygen scavengers, and lipid antioxidants. Whole-body irradiation is known to cause an immunosuppression effect in mammals through the possible initiation and production of reactive oxygen species. We decided to test the possible antioxidative effect against whole-body irradiation of a natural β-carotene, composed of equal amounts of the all-trans and 9-cis isomers, obtained from the unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil. Rats were fed on ground commercial food enriched with natural β-carotene (50 mg/kg diet). On completion of 1 week with β-carotene, the rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 Gy whole-body irradiation, after which their livers and blood were removed for β-carotene and retinol analysis in comparison with control livers of animals irradiated or not, or supplemented with β-carotene after irradiation. A normal increase in body weight with no ill effects was noted in the groups of rats whose diet was supplemented by β-carotene before and after irradiation, compared with the reduction in the specific growth rate in the group of rats irradiated without β-carotene. Liver β-carotene and retinol decreased significantly after irradiation compared with the rats which were not irradiated. This decrease was not shown in rats fed β-carotene prior to irradiation, and the effect of irradiation was partially cured by supplementation with β-carotene after irradiation. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the irradiated animals showed a selective decline in 9-cis β-carotene and in retinol over all-trans β-carotene and retinyl esters. These results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene and retinol protect in vivo against the cellular damage by free radicals induced after whole-body irradiation. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Irradiation behavior evaluation of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel cladding tubes irradiated in JOYO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Shinichiro, E-mail: yamashita.shinichiro@jaea.go.jp; Yano, Yasuhide; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Yoshitake, Tsunemitsu; Kaito, Takeji; Koyama, Shin-ichi; Tanaka, Kenya

    2013-11-15

    Irradiation behavior of ODS steel cladding tubes was evaluated for the further progress in understanding of the neutron-irradiation effects on ODS steel. Two types of ODS (9Cr–ODS{sub F}/M, 12Cr–ODS{sub F}) steel cladding tubes with differences in basic compositions and matrix phases were irradiated in JOYO. Post-irradiation examination data concerning hardness, ring tensile property, and microstructure were obtained. Hardness measurement after irradiation showed that there was an apparent irradiation temperature dependence on hardness for 9Cr–ODS{sub F}/M steel whereas no distinct temperature dependence for 12Cr–ODS{sub F} steel. Also, there was no significant change in tensile strengths after irradiation below 923 K, but those above 1023 K up to 6.6 × 10{sup 26} n/m{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV) were decreased by about 20%. TEM observations showed that the radiation-induced defect cluster formation during irradiation was suppressed because of high density sink site for defect such as initially-existed dislocation, and precipitate interfaces. In addition, oxide particles were stable up to the maximum doses of this irradiation test.

  14. Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the microbial load, chemical and sensory quality of chicken kabab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bachir, M., E-mail: scientific5@aec.org.sy; Farah, S.; Othman, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the microbial load, chemical and sensory quality of chicken kabab was investigated. Chicken kabab was treated with 0, 2, 4 or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. Treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 deg. C). Microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken kabab were evaluated at 0-5 months of storage. Gamma irradiation decreased the microbial load and increased the shelf-life of chicken kabab. Irradiation did not influence the major constituents of chicken kabab (moisture, protein and fats). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed for total acidity between non-irradiated (control) and irradiated chicken kabab. Thiobarbitric acid (TBA) values (expressed as mg malonaldehyde (MDA)/kg chicken kabab) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) in chicken kabab were not affected by the irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples.

  15. Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the microbial load, chemical and sensory quality of chicken kabab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.; Othman, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the microbial load, chemical and sensory quality of chicken kabab was investigated. Chicken kabab was treated with 0, 2, 4 or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. Treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 deg. C). Microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken kabab were evaluated at 0-5 months of storage. Gamma irradiation decreased the microbial load and increased the shelf-life of chicken kabab. Irradiation did not influence the major constituents of chicken kabab (moisture, protein and fats). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed for total acidity between non-irradiated (control) and irradiated chicken kabab. Thiobarbitric acid (TBA) values (expressed as mg malonaldehyde (MDA)/kg chicken kabab) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) in chicken kabab were not affected by the irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples.

  16. Adhesion of thymus lymphocytes to aortic endothelial cells in rats irradiated with sup 60 Co-. gamma. -rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongjian, Geng; Zijun, Mao; Zhiwei, Yin [Suzhou Medical Coll., JS (China)

    1990-03-01

    Adhesion of thymus lymphocytes to aortic endothelial cells in Wistar rats irradiated with {sup 60}Co-{gamma}-rays was preliminarily investigated with a stereological method. The results of experiments suggest that the number of lymphocytes of thymus which adhered to aortic endothelial cells significantly (p < 0.01) decreased after irradiation at doses of 2 and 8 Gy. However, when both thymus and aorta were irradiated, there were more lymphocytes adhering to endothelial cells than that when only thymus was irradiated.

  17. Biophysical Properties of Irradiated Erythrocytes and Role of Antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eman Mohammed Elbakrawy, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation of blood and blood components with gamma-irradiation is recommended for the inactivation of T-lymphocytes and prevention of transfusion-associated graft versus host diseases. The aim of the present work is to ensure that the currently applied irradiation dose 25 Gy is a safe dose based on the study of the electrical behavior, rheological properties, membrane solubilization, membrane hemolysis and scanning electron microscope of stored erythrocytes. In addition it aims to study the possibility of increasing the irradiation doses to 50 and 100 Gy. Moreover Alpha lipoic acid (a potent natural antioxidant) was added to the stored erythrocytes before irradiation for radioprotection. Irradiation of erythrocytes with 25 Gy did not show significant changes for the calculated dielectric parameters. However, increasing the irradiation doses resulted in significant decrease in the calculated dielectric parameters reflecting the damaging effects of radiation on the membrane structure. The obtained results showed that α lipoic acid can play an important role in minimizing the radiation-induced damage to the erythrocytes and conserve their electrical properties. There were non-significant changes in viscosity after exposure to 25 Gy, while a significant increase at 50 Gy and a significant decrease at 100 Gy were observed. The study found that α lipoic acid (ALA) resulted in non-significant change in viscosity after exposure to 50 Gy and 100 Gy. A significant increase in the yield stress was observed after exposure to 25 and 50 Gy while at 100 Gy, the yield stress showed a remarkable decrease. Addition of .-lipoic acid before irradiation resulted in non-significant changes in the yield stress at doses 25, 50, 100 Gy.The obtained results of the average membrane solubilization (D 50 ) and the average membrane hemolysis (H 50 ) showed non-significant change at 25 Gy; while an observable decrease was observed at 50 Gy and 100 Gy. The addition of lipoic acid did not

  18. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on physical characteristics of Jordanian durum wheat and quality of semolina and lasagna products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, F. S.; Amr, A. S.

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of using varying gamma irradiation doses on the physiochemical and rheological properties of semolina and its products. Ash, protein and water content were not influenced with gamma irradiation, while falling number and fungi counts decreased with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation adversely affected wet gluten at 5 kGy dose. Dough stability was deteriorated vigorously with increasing irradiation dose. Sensory evaluation showed that lasagna produced from 0.25- and 1 kGy-irradiated semolina did not show any significant differences as compared with the control sample.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on physical characteristics of Jordanian durum wheat and quality of semolina and lasagna products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzeh, F.S. [Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Queen-Rania, Amman (Jordan)], E-mail: firasazzeh@yahoo.com; Amr, A.S. [Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Queen-Rania, Amman (Jordan)

    2009-09-15

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of using varying gamma irradiation doses on the physiochemical and rheological properties of semolina and its products. Ash, protein and water content were not influenced with gamma irradiation, while falling number and fungi counts decreased with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation adversely affected wet gluten at 5 kGy dose. Dough stability was deteriorated vigorously with increasing irradiation dose. Sensory evaluation showed that lasagna produced from 0.25- and 1 kGy-irradiated semolina did not show any significant differences as compared with the control sample.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on physical characteristics of Jordanian durum wheat and quality of semolina and lasagna products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzeh, F.S.; Amr, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of using varying gamma irradiation doses on the physiochemical and rheological properties of semolina and its products. Ash, protein and water content were not influenced with gamma irradiation, while falling number and fungi counts decreased with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation adversely affected wet gluten at 5 kGy dose. Dough stability was deteriorated vigorously with increasing irradiation dose. Sensory evaluation showed that lasagna produced from 0.25- and 1 kGy-irradiated semolina did not show any significant differences as compared with the control sample.

  2. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzeneva, Inna B.; Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Elizaveta S.; Skorodumova, Elena N.; Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V.; Volkova, Irina V.; Stepanova, Elena V.; Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat is resistant to double-strand breaks in the environment of a raised endonuclease activity. • Hybridization-based techniques are preferable for the analysis of damaged and/or oxidized genomic fragments, rather than the qRT-PCR method. • A chronic exposure to the low-dose IR induces an elevation of the rDNA content in the human circulating cfDNA as compared to cellular DNA. • An exposure to IR entails a decrease of the level of the human circulating satellite III (1q12) as compared to cellular DNA (RsatIII index). • The RrDNA/RsatIII ratio is a potential marker of a chronic IR individual exposure. - Abstract: A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N = 88) and tritium β-radiation (N = 88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the

  3. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190 Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Ershova, Elizaveta S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, 107031 (Russian Federation); Skorodumova, Elena N.; Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V.; Volkova, Irina V.; Stepanova, Elena V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190 Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, 107031 (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • A transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat is resistant to double-strand breaks in the environment of a raised endonuclease activity. • Hybridization-based techniques are preferable for the analysis of damaged and/or oxidized genomic fragments, rather than the qRT-PCR method. • A chronic exposure to the low-dose IR induces an elevation of the rDNA content in the human circulating cfDNA as compared to cellular DNA. • An exposure to IR entails a decrease of the level of the human circulating satellite III (1q12) as compared to cellular DNA (RsatIII index). • The RrDNA/RsatIII ratio is a potential marker of a chronic IR individual exposure. - Abstract: A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N = 88) and tritium β-radiation (N = 88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the

  4. Physicochemical, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocloo, Fidelis C.K.; Okyere, Abenaa A.; Asare, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) has been recognised as one of the best nutritional crops that can be used to augment the Ghanaian diet. The application of gamma irradiation as means of preserving tiger nut could modify the characteristics of resultant flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut. The yellow and black types of tiger nut were sorted, washed and dried in an air-oven at 60 o C for 24 h. The dried tiger nut samples were irradiated at 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy and then flours produced from them. Moisture, ash, pH, titratable acidity, water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power, solubility, bulk density and pasting properties of the flours were determined using appropriate analytical methods. Results showed that irradiation did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. Gamma irradiation significantly (P≤0.05) increased titratable acidity with concomitant decrease in pH of the flours. No significant differences were observed for water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power as well as bulk density. Solubility significantly (P≤0.05) increased generally with irradiation dose. Peak viscosity, viscosities at 92 °C and 55 °C, breakdown and setback viscosities decreased significantly with irradiation dose. Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a potential in complementary food formulations due to its low viscosity and increased solubility values. - Highlights: • Physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut were studied. • Irradiation did not affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. • Titratable acidity increased with decrease in pH of the flours from the irradiated tiger nut. • Solubility increased whereas peak viscosity decreased with irradiation dose. • Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a

  5. Food irradiation: progress in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada; non-regulatory developments (poultry irradiation; fish irradiation; Government willingness to fund industry initiated projects; Government willingness to establish food irradiation research and pilot plant facilities; food industry interest is increasing significantly; Canadian Consumers Association positive response; the emergence of new consulting and entrepreneurial firms). (U.K.)

  6. Oxidative stress as a significant factor for development of an adaptive response in irradiated and nonirradiated human lymphocytes after inducing the bystander effect by low-dose X-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermakov, Aleksei V., E-mail: avePlato@mail.ru [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Science, ul. Moskvorechye, 1, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Konkova, Marina S.; Kostyuk, Svetlana V.; Egolina, Natalya A.; Efremova, Liudmila V.; Veiko, Natalya N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Science, ul. Moskvorechye, 1, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-02

    X-radiation (10 cGy) was shown to induce in human lymphocytes transposition of homologous chromosomes loci from the membrane towards the centre of the nucleus and activation of the chromosomal nucleolus-forming regions (NFRs). These effects are transmitted by means of extracellular DNA (ecDNA) fragments to nonirradiated cells (the so-called bystander effect, BE). We demonstrated that in the development of the BE an important role is played by oxidative stress (which is brought about by low radiation doses and ecDNA fragments of the culture medium of the irradiated cells), by an enzyme of apoptosis called caspase-3, and by DNA-binding receptors of the bystander cells, presumably TLR9. Proposed herein is a scheme of the development of an adaptive response and the BE on exposure to radiation. Ionizing radiation induces apoptosis of the radiosensitive fraction of cells due to the development of the 'primary' oxidative stress (OS). DNA fragments of apoptotic cells are released into the intercellular space and interact with the DNA-binding receptors of the bystander cells. This interaction activates in lymphocytes signalling pathways associated with synthesis of the reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species, i.e., induces secondary oxidative stress accompanied by apoptosis of part of the cells, etc. Hence, single exposure to radiation may be followed by relatively long-lasting in the cellular population oxidative stress contributing to the development of an adaptive response. We thus believe that ecDNA of irradiated apoptotic lymphocytes is a significant factor of stress-signalling.

  7. Improvement of foaming ability of egg white product by irradiation and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Binna; Choe, Jun-Ho; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Kyong-Su; Kim, Dong-Ho; Jo, Cheorun

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the enhancement of foaming abilities of liquid egg white (LEW) and egg white powder (EWP) by irradiation and its application for bakery product, LEW and EWP were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 5 kGy by Co-60 gamma ray. There was no pH change found among treatments in both LEW and EWP. The viscosity of LEW decreased significantly by irradiation ( Pcake baked with irradiated LEW were significantly higher than those of unirradiated control ( Pcake were greater at 2 kGy only than those of control. A significant decrease in hardness, chewiness, and gumminess values and an increase in Hunter L* value were observed in the angel cakes prepared from irradiated egg white products ( P<0.05). Results indicated that irradiation of egg white could offer advantages in increasing foaming ability and improving quality of final bakery products.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial load and quality characteristics of Baladi cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.

    2001-12-01

    Baladi cheese (manufactured from raw milk) were treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial load, moisture, protein, lipid, free fatty acids, total volatile basic nitrogen, lipid oxidation, firmness, taste, flavour and color were determined immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The results showed that, all used doses of gamma irradiation reduced significantly the microbial load. Gamma irradiation decreased moisture, K + , Ca + , Na + , ash and free fatty acids, and increased protein contents of Baladi cheese. Volatile basic nitrogen and firmness of irradiated cheese were increased after irradiation and decreased after 12 months of storage. Gamma irradiation had no effect on sensory characteristics of Baladi cheese. (authors)

  9. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on The Microbial Load and Quality Characteristics of Baladi Cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.

    2004-01-01

    Baladi cheese (manufactured from raw milk) was treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial load, moisture, protein, lipid, free fatty acids, total volatile basic nitrogen, lipid oxidation, firmness, taste, flavour and color were determined Immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of cold storage in brine. The results showed that, all used doses of gamma irradiation reduced significantly the microbial load. Gamma irradiation decreased the the moisture content, Ca++, Na+ , K+, ash and free fatty acids, and increased the protein contents of Baladi cheese. Volatile basic nitrogen and firmness of irradiated cheese were increased after irradiation and decreased after 12 months of storage. Gamma irradiation had no effect on the sensory characteristics of Baladi cheese. (authors)

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial load and quality characteristics of Baladi cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bachir, M; Farah, S [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Radiation Technology

    2001-12-01

    Baladi cheese (manufactured from raw milk) were treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial load, moisture, protein, lipid, free fatty acids, total volatile basic nitrogen, lipid oxidation, firmness, taste, flavour and color were determined immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The results showed that, all used doses of gamma irradiation reduced significantly the microbial load. Gamma irradiation decreased moisture, K{sup +}, Ca{sup +}, Na{sup +}, ash and free fatty acids, and increased protein contents of Baladi cheese. Volatile basic nitrogen and firmness of irradiated cheese were increased after irradiation and decreased after 12 months of storage. Gamma irradiation had no effect on sensory characteristics of Baladi cheese. (authors)

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial load and quality characteristics of Baladi cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.

    2003-01-01

    Baladi cheese (manufactured from raw milk) were treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial load, moisture, protein, lipid, free fatty acids, total volatile basic nitrogen, lipid oxidation, firmness, taste, flavour and color were determined immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The results showed that, all used doses of gamma irradiation reduced significantly the microbial load. Gamma irradiation decreased moisture, K + , Ca 2+ , Na + , ash and free fatty acids, and increased protein contents of Baladi cheese. Volatile basic nitrogen and firmness of irradiated cheese were increased after irradiation and decreased after 12 months of storage. Gamma irradiation had no effect on sensory characteristics of Baladi cheese. (authors)

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation on food contact polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene: additives and other chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Sayama, Kayo; Yamada, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on additives, oligomers, and other chemicals in food contact polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene were investigated. Polyethylene and polypropylene products contained several antioxidants, lubricants and plasticizers. After gamma irradiation, the contents of all the antioxidants significantly decreased. Irgafos 168 disappeared the fastest. Lubricants and plasticizers decreased to some extent or not at all. 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol was detected not only after irradiation but also before irradiation, and 1,3-di-tert-butylbenzene and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone were detected only after irradiation. They were presumed to be degradation products of the irradiation, though the former should be also a degradation product of the manufacturing process. On the other hand, the polystyrene products contained styrene dimers and trimers and their contents did not change after the gamma irradiation. (author)

  13. Use of infrared spectroscopy to study the γ-irradiated dextran structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komar, V.P.; Bondarenko, N.T.; Zhbankov, R.G.; Markevich, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of the fractions of γ-irradiated dextran aqueous solutions have been investigated in the range 3800 -1 -400 cm -1 . Infrared spectra of the irradiated non-fractionated dextran do not differ from those of non-irradiated dextran whereas the spectra of the fractions beginning with the molecular weight 50x1O 3 dalton and lower differ considerably. With decreasing molecular weight of the fractions, more significant changes in the spectra are observed. A polymer obtained as a result of γ-irradiation of dextran differs in structure from the initial product. It is assumed that similar transformations can take place upon irradiation of other polysaccharides

  14. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  15. Dietary gamma oryzanol plays a significant role in the anti-inflammatory activity of rice bran oil by decreasing pro-inflammatory mediators secreted by peritoneal macrophages of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Sugasini, D; Lokesh, B R

    2016-10-28

    Ricebran oil (RBO) is promoted as heart friendly oil because of its ability to maintain serum lipids at desirable levels. Inflammation also plays an important role on cardiovascular health. The role of minor constituents present in unsaponifiable fraction (UF) of RBO on inflammatory markers is not well understood. To evaluate this, we have taken RBO with UF (RBO-N), RBO stripped of UF (RBO-MCR) and RBO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO (UFRBO) or Gamma-Oryzanol (γ-ORY) were added in AIN-93 diets which was then fed to Wistar rats for a period of 60 days. Groundnut oil with UF (GNO-N), UF removed GNO (GNO-MCR) and GNO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO or γ-ORY was also used for comparison. The peritoneal macrophages from the rats were activated and pro-inflammatory mediators such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), eicosanoids, cytokines, hydrolytic enzymes of lysosomal origin were monitored. The results indicated that UF of RBO and γ-ORY supplemented in the dietary oils play a significant role in reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by macrophages. Hence γ-ORY in RBO significantly contributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of RBO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanisms of an increased level of serum iron in gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Li-hua; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Hu, Xiao-dan; Min, Xuan-yu; Zhou, Qi-fu; Zhang, Hai-qian

    2016-01-01

    The potential mechanisms underlying the increase in serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice were studied. The gamma irradiation dose used was 4 Gy, and cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) source was used for the irradiation. The dose rate was 0.25 Gy/min. In the serum of irradiated mice, the concentration of ferrous ions decreased, whereas the serum iron concentration increased. The concentration of ferrous ions in irradiated mice returned to normal at 21 day post-exposure. The concentration of reactive oxygen species in irradiated mice increased immediately following irradiation but returned to normal at 7 day post-exposure. Serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice that were pretreated with reduced glutathione was significant lower (p < 0.01) than that in mice exposed to gamma radiation only. However, the serum iron concentration was still higher than that in normal mice (p < 0.01). This change was biphasic, characterized by a maximal decrease phase occurring immediately after gamma irradiation (relative to the irradiated mice) and a recovery plateau observed during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation, but serum iron recovery was still less than that in the gamma-irradiated mice (4 Gy). In gamma-irradiated mice, ceruloplasmin activity increased and serum copper concentration decreased immediately after irradiation, and both of them were constant during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation. It was concluded that ferrous ions in irradiated mice were oxidized to ferric ions by ionizing radiation. Free radicals induced by gamma radiation and ceruloplasmin mutually participated in this oxidation process. The ferroxidase effect of ceruloplasmin was achieved by transfer of electrons from ferrous ions to cupric ions. (orig.)

  17. Effects of 60Co gamma-ray local irradiation on rat liver on alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and catalase in the liver and serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa-Itoh, Youko; Ayakawa, Yoshio; Miyata, Nobuki

    1980-01-01

    Rats were given a single exposure of various doses (0, 5, 50, 500, and 5000 rads) to local irradiation of 60 Co γ-ray on liver. Activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and catalase in the serum and liver were measured at various time intervals after irradiation. These results were summarized as follows; 1. ALP activity in the serum had no effect on irradiation up to 500 rads, but in the case of 5000 rads irradiation exhibited a marked loss from 4 days after irradiation. ALP activity in the liver to 5000 rads exposure on 7 days after irradiation increased, on the other hand in the serum decreased, and the patterns of ALP activities in the liver and serum to the irradiation doses were opposite. 2. LDH activity in the serum by exposure to 5, 500 and 5000 rads increased at 4 days after irradiation, but at 7 days significantly decreased. LDH activity in the liver to the irradiation doses on 7 days after irradiation did not markedly change, but in the serum it tended to be low in inverse proportion to the irradiation doses. 3. Catalase activity in the serum to 50 and 500 rads exposure increased at 4 days after irradiation and decreased at 7 days, but to 5000 rads exposure it decreased in the course of time. Catalase activity in the liver and serum on 7 days after irradiation were inversely proportional to irradiation doses. It is difficult that catalase activity makes a index of clinical irradiation effects, because catalase activity decrease under the various conditions, such as cancer, anemia, infection of bacterias and so on. Since activities of ALP and LDH increase in almost disease, decrease of ALP activity and decrease following temporary increase of LDH activity by irradiation may be able to become a clinical indicator on irradiation effects. (author)

  18. Changes in activities of adaptive liver enzymes in rats after non-lethal x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropila, M.; Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Benova, K.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of a single dose of whole-body X-irradiation of 2.39 Gy (250 R) on the activities of selected adaptive rat liver enzymes and blood serum corticosterone concentrations was followed for a period of 28 days. Rats of Wistar strain SPF breeding (VELAZ Prague) were used. Both irradiated and control animals were fed in pairs with the same amount of feed as was consumed by irradiated animals in the pilot experiment. The feed intake of irradiated animals decreased significantly until the fourth day. During the rest of the experimental period no significant differences were recorded in feed intake between the experimental and control groups. The activity of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) in the liver of irradiated animals increased, with the exception of the initial period. Similar changes were recorded in the activity of tryptophane-2-3 dioxygenase (TO). A significant increase on the third day and a significant decrease from the seventh day after irradiation was recorded in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Similar changes were observed with alanine aminotransferase (ALT). It is necessary to stress that the activity of this enzyme decreased also on the first day after irradiation. Until the third day there was a marked increase of serum corticosterone in the irradiated animals. The results point not only towards significant changes to the parameters observed, caused by a non-lethal irradiation dose, but also towards the importance of the nutritional regime, so-called paired feeding

  19. Improvement of rice starch by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zhiying; Wu Dianxing; Shen Shengquan; Han Juanying; Xia Yingwu

    2003-01-01

    Three types of rice cultivars, Indica, Japonica and hybrid rice, with similar intermediate apparent amylose content (AAC) as well as early Indica rice cultivars with different amounts of AAC were selected for studying the effects of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity, physico-chemical properties and starch granule structure. Four major parameters of RVA profile, peak viscosity (PKV), hot paste viscosity (HPV), cool paste viscosity (CPV), setback viscosity (SBV) and consistence viscosity (CSV) were considerably decreased with increasing dose levels. Gamma irradiation reduced the amylose contents in the cultivars with low AAC, intermediate AAC, and glutinous rice, but had no effects on the high AAC cultivar. No visible changes in alkali spreading value (ASV) were detected after irradiation, but the peak time (PKT) were reduced with the dose level. Gel consistency (GC) were significantly increased in the tested cultivars, especially in the high AAC Indica rice, suggesting that it is promising to use gamma irradiation to improve eating and cooking quality of rice

  20. Irradiation Effect on Oxidative Condition and Tocopherol Content of Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Sflomos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect on induction period and tocopherol content after γ-irradiation onsamples of olive oil and seed oils (sunflower and soybean was determined. In seed oilsamples 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of δ-tocopherol were added before irradiation with 1, 2and 3kGy. The results of induction period showed that, after irradiation, all samplespresented a significant decreased in resistance to oxidation. However, this decrease wasminimized when δ-tocopherol was added. Irradiation significantly decreased the level oftocopherols. δ-Tocopherol appeared more sensitive in irradiation process than α- andγ-tocopherol. The addition of δ-tocopherol significantly reduced, in most cases, thedepletion of the other tocopherols.

  1. Studies On Quality Criteria For Irradiated Breaded Chicken Breast Fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, I.M.; IBRAHIM, M.T.; MAHMOUD, A.A.; SHAMS EL DIN, N.M.M.; MOHAMMAD, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Quality criteria of irradiated breaded chicken breast fillets were studied. Fresh boneless and skinless breaded chicken breast meats samples were divided into four separate batches and packed in plastic bags and sealed by an impulse sealer. Samples in plastic bags were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation (2.5, 5 and 7 kGy) at ambient temperature. Just after irradiation, the samples were stored at 4 ±1 0 C. All samples were evaluated for microbiological, chemical and sensorial properties after irradiation and throughout the storage periods. During storage, the total bacterial count was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all samples with higher rates of increase in non-irradiated samples. In all irradiated samples, Staphylococcus aureus did not detected up to 6 days then detected after 22 days in samples treated with 2.5 kGy as well as 31 days in samples treated with 5 kGy. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus was detected after 45 days in samples treated with 7 kGy. Salmonella sp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni could not detected in untreated and treated samples. The protein content showed significant decrease immediately after irradiation and during the refrigerated storage. The TVN values for non-irradiated samples were significantly higher (P<0.05) than irradiated samples. The present data showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in protein solubility percentages of irradiated samples at day 0 and 6 of refrigerated storage. The observed decrease was related to the increase of radiation dose. At the end of storage period (62 days), 2.5 kGy samples were significantly higher in TBA values than other irradiated samples. On the other hand, irradiation was significantly reduced (P<0.05) the amount of major mono unsaturated and poly unsaturated fatty acids. Sensory attributes of breaded chicken breast fillets did not affected by irradiation. It could be concluded that irradiation dose of 5 kGy can be used in chicken samples stored in

  2. Policaptil Gel Retard significantly reduces body mass index and hyperinsulinism and may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese children and adolescents with family history of obesity and T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Lapi, Elisabetta; Seminara, Salvatore; Pelosi, Paola; Del Greco, Paolo; Capirchio, Laura; Strano, Massimo; Giglio, Sabrina; Chiarelli, Francesco; de Martino, Maurizio

    2015-02-15

    Treatments for childhood obesity are critically needed because of the risk of developing co-morbidities, although the interventions are frequently time-consuming, frustrating, difficult, and expensive. We conducted a longitudinal, randomised, clinical study, based on a per protocol analysis, on 133 obese children and adolescents (n = 69 males and 64 females; median age, 11.3 years) with family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The patients were divided into three arms: Arm A (n = 53 patients), Arm B (n = 45 patients), and Arm C (n = 35 patients) patients were treated with a low-glycaemic-index (LGI) diet and Policaptil Gel Retard, only a LGI diet, or only an energy-restricted diet (ERD), respectively. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the Matsuda, insulinogenic and disposition indexes were calculated at T0 and after 1 year (T1). At T1, the BMI-SD scores were significantly reduced from 2.32 to 1.80 (p 1) in Arm A and from 2.23 to 1.99 (p 13.2% to 5.6%; p 1) and B (p 1) and B (p obese children and adolescents with family history of obesity and T2DM.

  3. Physicochemical and sensory properties of irradiated dry-cured ham

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Chul-Wook; Chung, Ki-Hwa; Jo, Kwang-Keun; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Hur, In-Chul; Jung, Eun-Young; Joo, Seon-Tea; Yang, Han-Sul

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of different irradiation doses on ready-to-eat (RTE) dry-cured shoulder hams, physicochemical and sensory attributes were analyzed during 8 weeks of refrigerated storage. The results show that irradiation reduced the redness value and increased the 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value as well as the irradiation aroma during storage. However, ham samples irradiated with 2.5 and 5.0 kGy did not show significant changes in lightness values compared to the control sample during 8 weeks of storage. TBARS values were lower in the sample irradiated with 2.5 kGy than in the other irradiated samples. The total plate counts of the 5.0 kGy-irradiated samples were not measured after 0 weeks. Sensory panels found that the 2.5- and 5.0 kGy-irradiated samples had better overall acceptability scores than the other irradiated samples. It was concluded that treatments with lower levels of irradiation (≤5.0 kGy) can enhance the microbial safety and sensory acceptance of dry-cured shoulder hams. - Highlights: ► Effect of different irradiation doses on quality properties of dry-cured hams. ► The 2.5 kGy irradiated sample did not show any changes in lipid oxidation. ► Irradiation at 5.0 kGy has the potential to greatly decrease the TPC. ► Low-dose irradiation can improve the microbial safety and maintain the sensory acceptance.

  4. Effect of irradiation on functional properties of Gum Tragacanth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Mollakhalili meybodi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: irradiation is a physical treatment in which products are exposed to ionized radiation such as gamma and x rays to improve the security and quality. Hydrocolloids are components that are used in food science to improve texture properties. Exposing to irradiation treatment may change structural and functional properties. By regard to the importance of irradiation on decontaminating of hydrocolloids in food application, the aim of this study is studying the effect of irradiation at different doses on functional properties of Gum Tragacanth in food application. Material and methods: effect of irradiation treatment was studied on the rheological properties, zeta potential, particle size distribution and surface tension of dispersion systems contained 0/5% w/ w gum tragacanth that is irradiated at different doses (0, 0.75. 3, 5 kGy. The effect of irradiation on rheological properties was monitored by rheometer. In order to monitor the effect of irradiation treatment on particle size distribution, zeta potential and surface tension, particle sizer, Brookhaven zeta plus and tensiometer sere used respectively. All treatments were performed three times and the data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Significant differences between means were identified (P values < 0.05 using Duncan test. Results: Irradiation, change rheologiacal properties and particle size distribution of dispersion contained gum tragacanth. Irradiation treatment up to 0.75 kGy increase zeta potential, but irradiating at higher doses decrease it again. Results of studying parameters showed that irradiation changes the functional properties by affecting on structure. These changes depend on irradiation dose Conclusion: Gum tragacanth irradiation may improve the functional properties by affecting on structure.

  5. Endolymphatic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, M.M.; Ianhez, L.E.; Sabbaga, E.

    1982-01-01

    The authors analysed the clinical evolution and the result of renal transplantation some years after irradiation in 24 patients (group I) who received endolymphatic 131 I as a pre-transplantation immunesuppresive measure. The control group (group II) consisted of 24 non-irradiated patients comparable to group I in age, sex, primary disease, type of donor and immunesuppressive therapy. Significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding such factors a incidence and reversibility of rejection crises in the first 60 post-transplantation days, loss of kidney due to rejection, and dosage of azathioprine. The authors conclude that this method, besides being harmless, has prolonged immunesuppressive action, its administration being advised for receptores of cadaver kidneys, mainly those who show positive cross-match against HLA antigens for painel. (Author) [pt

  6. Change in the enzymatic dual function of the peroxiredoxin protein by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Byung Chull; Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Jae Taek; Park, Chul-Hong; Lee, Sang Yeol; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-01-01

    PP1084 protein was exposed to gamma irradiation ranging from 5 to 500 kGy. Native PAGE showed minor structural changes in PP1084 at 5 kGy, and major structural changes at >15 kGy. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed the formation of a new shoulder peak when the protein was irradiated with 15 and 30 kGy, and a double peak appeared at 100 kGy. The results of PAGE and SEC imply that PP1084 protein is degraded by gamma irradiation, with simultaneous oligomerization. PP1084 chaperone activity reached the highest level at 30 kGy of gamma irradiation, and then, decreased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing gamma irradiation. However, the peroxidase activity significantly decreased following exposure to all intensities of gamma irradiation. The improvement of chaperone activity using gamma irradiation might be promoted by the oligomeric structures containing covalently cross-linked amino acids. Consequently, PP1084 modification using gamma irradiation could elevate chaperone activity by about 3–4 folds compared to the non-irradiated protein. - Highlights: ► The structure of PP1084 protein was drastically changed above 15 kGy gamma irradiation. ► PP1084 chaperone activity reached the highest level at 30 kGy of gamma irradiation. ► PP1084 modification using gamma irradiation could elevate chaperone activity by about 3–4 folds.

  7. Histochemical changes of capillaries in rat brain cortex after irradiation with supralethal doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarad, V.; Dosoudilova, M.

    1987-01-01

    Changes were studied in the activities of alkaline phosphatase, ATP-splitting enzyme, thiaminepyrophosphatase, acetylcholinesterase, and of butyrylcholinesterase in the capillary sheet of the rat brain cortex of the laterobasal section of a parietal lobe following irradiation with 150 and 300 Gy. The animals were exposed to local irradiation of the head with gamma radiation using 60 Co at a dose rate of 6.9 Gy per min. The material was removed at the intervals of 30 and 60 mins after irradiation. All the studied enzymes, except the ATP-splitting enzyme, showed identical reaction to irradiation. At both intervals, the reaction after irradiation with 300 Gy was lower when compared to that after irradiation with 150 Gy. 30 mins after irradiation with 150 Gy an increased enzyme activity was shown followed by a marked decrease in the activity 60 mins after irradiation, compared with findings obtained from control animals. No similar time dependence was observed after irradiation with 300 Gy. The ATP-splitting enzyme showed a significant decrease in the activity 30 mins after irradiation with 150 Gy. On the other hand, 60 mins after irradiation with 150 Gy and at both time intervals after irradiation with 300 Gy, the activity was higher than that in control animals. (author). 6 figs., 14 refs

  8. Characterization of blends of PP and SBS vulcanized with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Albano, C.; Candal, M.V.; Ichazo, M.N.; Hernandez, M.

    2005-01-01

    The present work has the objective of analyzing blends of PP with 30 wt% SBS vulcanized with gamma irradiation. In order to do so, SBS was irradiated at 10, 25 and 50 kGy with gamma rays. Results indicate that the gel fraction increases with irradiation dose, varying from 0.3% to 13.0% for the doses employed. Concerning tensile properties, it can be seen that the incorporation of SBS non-irradiated or irradiated decreases Young's modulus, while increasing elongation at break. Respect to thermal studies, it was detected that SBS decreases melting enthalpy of blends, fact that implies a decrease on crystallinity degree, being this effect more noticeable when SBS is irradiated at doses higher than 10 kGy. On the other hand, melting temperature diminishes slightly when adding SBS to PP, but does not show significant variations when SBS is irradiated. PPs MFI decreased with the addition of SBS, being the effect more notorious with irradiation dose. Finally, it can be concluded that SBS can be vulcanized by gamma irradiation, and that the crosslinking degree increases with irradiation dose

  9. RNA and protein synthesis of irradiated Ehrlich ascites tumour cells. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skog, S.; Tribukait, B.; Nygard, O.; Wenner-Gren-Center foer Vetenskaplig Forskning, Stockholm

    1985-01-01

    Poly(A)-containing RNA (m-RNA) was studied in in vivo growing Ehrlich ascites tumour cells following a roentgen irradiation dose of 5 Gy. m-RNA increased significantly during the first 12 hours after irradiation. Thus, the observed decrease in protein synthesis rate during this time seems not to be due to radiation induced changes at the transcriptional level. The protein synthesis rate of in vivo irradiated cells incubated in vitro in culture medium was unchanged. On the other hand, the protein synthesis rate of non-irradiated cells incubated in vitro in ascites fluid from irradiated animals was decreased. We concluded that factor(s) inhibiting protein synthesis or the lack of factor(s) promoting protein synthesis in the ascites fluid is(are) of significance for the reduced protein synthesis of tumour cells found in irradiated in vivo growing cells. (orig.)

  10. Effects of irradiation on renal vessels of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanayama, Hirotaka

    1982-01-01

    The male rabbits weighing approximately 3 kg were divided into two groups: one group received irradiation to the left kidney through 6 x 4 cm field size with doses of 5 Gy, while the other group was irradiated with 50 Gy. The vessel casts were observed using the injection replica scanning electron microscopic method. In 50 Gy irradiated group, the surface of blood vessel's lumen became irregular with a decrease in the number of glomeruli at 5 days. Partial narrowing was also seen in the cortex and glomerular vessels. The number of glomeruli decreased by 48% one week later and 90% 4 weeks later. The cortex vessels progressively narrowed, and irregularity of the net-like structure was also observed. Similarly, a decrease in the number of glomeruli and partial narrowing of the blood vessels were seen at 5 days on the nonirradiated side, but the damage was considerably less than that on the irradiated side. In the 5 Gy irradiated group, a decrease in the number of glomeruli was seen 5 days later and it became 71% 5 days later and 81% one week later. It returned to 95% 4 weeks later. No changes whatsoever were seen in the non-irradiated side after 4 weeks and changes in the number of glomeruli were not observed. The vasculation of medulla showed no changes in the 50 Gy or the 5 Gy irradiated group. There were seen no significant changes in the blood vessel diameter. (J.P.N.)

  11. Treatment with a belly-board device significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated and results in low acute toxicity in adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer: results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Joseph; Fitzpatrick, Kathryn; Horan, Gail; McCloy, Roisin; Buckney, Steve; O'Neill, Louise; Faul, Clare

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine whether treatment prone on a belly-board significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated in women receiving adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer, and to prospectively study acute small bowel toxicity using an accepted recording instrument. Material and methods: Thirty-two gynecologic patients underwent simulation with CT scanning supine and prone. Small bowel was delineated on every CT slice, and treatment was prone on the belly-board using 3-5 fields-typically Anterior, Right and Left Lateral, plus or minus Lateral Boosts. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy and all treatments were delivered in 1.8 Gy fractions. Concomitant Cisplatin was administered in 13 patients with cervical carcinoma. Comparison of small bowel dose-volumes was made between supine and prone, with each subject acting as their own matched pair. Acute small bowel toxicity was prospectively measured using the Common Toxicity Criteria: Version 2.0. Results: Treatment prone on the belly-board significantly reduced the volume of small bowel receiving ≥100; ≥95; ≥90; and ≥80% of the prescribed dose, but not ≥50%. This was found whether volume was defined in cubic centimeters or % of total small bowel volume. Of 29 evaluable subjects, 2 (7%) experienced 1 episode each of grade 3 diarrhoea. All other toxicity events were grade 2 or less and comprised diarrhoea (59%), abdominal pain or cramping (48%), nausea (38%), anorexia (17%), vomiting (10%). There were no Grade 4 events and no treatment days were lost due to toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment prone on a belly-board device results in significant small bowel sparing, during adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. The absence of Grade 4 events or Treatment Days Lost compares favorably with the published literature

  12. Effects of irradiation source and dose level on quality characteristics of processed meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Yun-Sang; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of irradiation source (gamma-ray, electron-beam, and X-ray) and dose levels on the physicochemical, organoleptic and microbial properties of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was studied, during 10 days of storage at 30±1 °C. The processed meat products were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy by three different irradiation sources. The pH of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was unaffected by irradiation sources or their doses. The redness of beef patties linearly decreased with increasing dose level (Pchanges in overall acceptability were observed for pork sausages regardless of irradiation source (P>0.05), while gamma-ray irradiated beef patties showed significantly decreased overall acceptability in a dose-dependent manner (Poxidation of samples was accelerated by irradiation depending on irradiation sources and dose levels during storage at 30 °C. E-beam reduced total aerobic bacteria of beef patties more effectively, while gamma-ray considerably decreased microbes in pork sausages as irradiation dose increased. The results of this study indicate that quality attributes of meat products, in particular color, lipid oxidation, and microbial properties are significantly influenced by the irradiation sources.

  13. Evaluation of the role of both irradiation and albenazole in the control of hydatidosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, M.A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The present study mainly aims to evaluate the role of irradiated hydatid cysts and treatment by albendazole on the control of hydatidosis. Eighty male mice were divided equally into four groups. The first group was infected with normal non-irradiated viable particular's. The second group was infected with non-irradiated particular's then treated with al bendazole at a dose of 0.52 mg/kg body weight. The third and fourth groups were infected with 45 Krad and 65 Krad irradiated protoscolices, respectively. Each animal was received 2000 protoscolices by intraperitoneal injection. After 12 and 16 weeks post-infection, parasitological and enzymatic aspects of the mice were examined. The group infected with irradiated protoscolices and the group infected with non-irradiated protoscolices then treated with albendazole showed significant decrease in the number of the developing cysts in both of the liver and omentum. Such decrease was more pronounced with higher dose level of gamma irradiation as compared to the control group (non-irradiated protoscolices). Furthermore, there were significant decreases in the enzyme levels of the liver of mice (y-GT, ALP, ALT and AST) in groups given irradiated viable protoscolices and group given albendazole drug after infection compared to groups given non-irradiated viable protoscolices (control group)

  14. Nutritional quality evaluation of velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens) exposed to gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Sridhar, Kandikere R; Seena, Sahadevan

    2008-06-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on Mucuna pruriens seeds at various doses (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 30 kGy) on the proximate composition, mineral constituents, amino acids, fatty acids and functional properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation resulted in a significant increase of crude protein at all doses, while the crude lipid, crude fibre and ash showed a dose-dependent decrease. Raw Mucuna seeds were rich in minerals (potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron and selenium). Sodium, copper and manganese were significantly decreased on irradiation at all the doses, while magnesium and iron showed a significant decrease only above 10 kGy. The essential amino acids of raw and gamma-irradiated Mucuna seeds were comparable with the FAO/WHO recommended pattern. A significant increase of in vitro protein digestibility was seen in seeds irradiated at 30 kGy. High amounts of unsaturated fatty acids in Mucuna seeds decreased significantly after irradiation. However, linoleic acid was not present in raw seeds but detected after irradiation and it was elevated to high level at 30 kGy. Behenic acid, a major anti-nutritional factor, was reduced significantly on irradiation, indicating the positive effect of gamma irradiation on Mucuna seeds. Significant enhancement in the water absorption and oil absorption capacities, protein solubility, emulsion activity and improvement in the gelation capacity was recorded after irradiation. Results of the present investigation reveal that application of gamma irradiation does not affect the overall nutritional composition and can be used as an effective method of preservation of Mucuna seed and their products.

  15. Effects on the glucose metabolism in type II diabetes model mice treated with dose-rates irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takaharu; Sakai, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The effects of low-dose rate gamma-irradiation on the type II diabetes mellitus were investigated in C57BL/KsJ-ab/db (db mouse). This mouse develops the type II diabetes within 8 weeks of the birth due to a dysfunction of the insulin receptors. As a result the db mouse shows obese and exhibits hyperinsulinism. Ten-week old female mice (12 mice in each group) were irradiated with gamma-rays at 0.35 mGy/hr, 0.65 mGy/hr or 1.2 mGy/hr in the low-dose rate irradiation facility in the Low Dose Radiation Research Center. The level of plasma glucose and insulin was measured. After 2 weeks irradiation, the glucose level slightly increased, however the difference between the irradiated mice and non-irradiated groups was not significant. The plasma insulin concentration decreased in the non-irradiated group to half of the initial level. In the irradiated group, it also decreased but in the group of 0.65 mGy/hr and 0.35 mGy/hr, it was significantly differed from that in the non-irradiated group. In the glucose tolerance test, plasma glucose level increased shortly after 0.1 mg/head glucose injection by mouth and reached to a peak at 90-120 min after the injection. The glucose level of the non-irradiated mice was slightly higher than that of irradiated mice. The plasma insulin level of non-irradiated group was enhanced after the injection and maintained the level during the test. However the levels of irradiated mice were decreased at 30-60 min after the injection. Both the level of non-irradiated an irradiated was almost same but the non-irradiated one was a little high. In all of mice, the plasma insulin level was highly elevated right after the 0.05 units/head insulin injection by i.p. and the levels were also gradually decreased. The level of the non-irradiated group was slowly decreased and was higher than the irradiated mice. The plasma glucose levels of all mice did not change after the test; however, the levels of irradiated mice were slightly lower than that of non-irradiated

  16. Effect of irradiation on nutrient quality of the frozen shelled shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Liu Bojing

    2004-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on nutrient quality including amino acids, protein, fatty acids, Vitamin A, and Vitamin E in the refrigerated shelled sea shrimp and river shrimp were studied. The results showed that there was no significant change on protein, fatty acids and amino acids of irradiation 2kGy at shrimps compared with the non-irradiated shrimp. Vitamin A, and Vitamin E were decreased with the increasing of dose

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  18. Development of blood irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This project is designed to improve the techniques of blood irradiation through the development of improved and portable blood irradiators. A portable blood irradiator, consisting of a vitreous carbon body and thulium-170 radiation source, was attached to dogs via a carotid-jugular shunt, and its effects on the immune system measured. The device has demonstrated both significant suppression of circulating lymphocytes and prolonged retention of skin allografts

  19. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect

  20. Lateral Squats Significantly Decrease Sprint Time in Collegiate Baseball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B. White

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the effect of prior performance of dumbbell lateral squats (DBLS on an agility movement-into-a-sprint (AMS test. Twelve collegiate, resistance-trained, baseball athletes participated in three sessions separated by three days. Session One consisted of AMS baseline test, DBLS 5-RM test, and experimental protocol familiarization. Subjects were randomly assigned the protocol order for Sessions Two and Three, which consisted of warm up followed by 1-min sitting (no-DBLS or performing the DBLS for 1 × 5 repetitions @ 5RM for each leg. Four minutes of slow recovery walking preceded the AMS test, which consisted of leading off a base and waiting for a visual stimulus. In reaction to stimulus, subjects exerted maximal effort while moving to the right by either pivoting or drop stepping and sprinting for 10 yards (yd. In Session Three, subjects switched protocols (DBLS, no-DBLS. Foot contact time (FCT, stride frequency (SF, stride length (SL, and 10-yd sprint time were measured. There were no differences between conditions for FCT, SF, or SL. Differences existed between DBLS (1.85 ± 0.09 s and no-DBLS (1.89 ± 0.10 s for AMS (p = 0.03. Results from the current study support the use of DBLS for performance enhancement prior to performing the AMS test.

  1. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro

    1991-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs

  2. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  3. Irradiation of ready made meals -Lasagne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkia, Ines

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the microbiological, nutritional, chemical and sensory quality of chilled ready-made meals was assessed. The ready meals used for this experimental work are lasagne. Following arrival at the semi-industrial Cobalt 60 irradiation facility, the meals were either left unirradiated or irradiated with doses of 2 or 4 kGy after which they were stored for up to 23 days at 3C. Results showed that 2 or 4 kGy doses of gamma irradiation decreased the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and increased the shelf-life of lasagne. In terms of nutritional quality, it was found that losses of vitamin A and E due to irradiation treatment were considerable at 4 kGy. Total acidity, and p H, were all well within the acceptable limit for up to one week for ready meals treated with 2 and 4 kGy whereas peroxide index showed high values at 4 kGy. Sensory results showed no significant differences between the non-irradiated and irradiated meals at 2 kGy. However, the results were less promising at 4 kGy since differences were significant. (Author). 60 refs

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  5. Cytologic studies on irradiated gestric cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isono, S; Takeda, T; Amakasu, H; Asakawa, H; Yamada, S [Miyagi Prefectural Adult Disease Center, Natori (Japan)

    1981-06-01

    The smears of the biopsy and resected specimens obtained from 74 cases of irradiated gastric cancer were cytologically analyzed for effects of irradiation. Irradiation increased the amount of both necrotic materials and neutrophils in the smears. Cancer cells were decreased in number almost in inverse proportion to irradiation dose. Clusters of cancer cells shrank in size and cells were less stratified after irradiation. Irradiated cytoplasms were swollen, vacuolated and stained abnormally. Irradiation with less than 3,000 rads gave rise to swelling of cytoplasms in almost all cases. Nuclei became enlarged, multiple, pyknotic and/or stained pale after irradiation. Nuclear swelling was more remarkable in cancer cells of differentiated adenocarcinomas.

  6. Effects of intraoperative electron irradiation in the dog on cell turnover in intact and surgically-anastomosed aorta and intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, W.F.; Morrow, B.M.; Travis, E.L.; Tepper, J.; Merkel, A.B.; Kranda, K.; Terrill, R.

    1983-01-01

    Adults dogs were subjected to laparotomy and intraoperative electron irradiation after division and reanastomosis of aorta or after construction of a blind loop of small intestine having a transverse suture line and an end-to-side anastomosis. Dogs received intraoperative irradiation of both intact and anastomosed aorta or intestine in doses of 0, 2000, 3000, or 4500 rad. Animals were sacrificed at seven days or three months following treatment. At 24 hours prior to sacrifice, dogs received 5 mCi tritiated thymidine intravenously. Irradiated and non-irradiated segments of aorta and small intestine, including intact and anastomotic regions, were analyzed for tritiated thymidine incorporation and were subjected to autoradiography. Incorporation studies showed diminution in tritiated thymidine uptake by irradiated portions of aorta and small intestine, in both intact and anastomotic regions. Autoradiograms revealed that irradiated areas of intact or anastomotic aorta or intestine had diminished labeling of stromal cells, suggesting a lowered cell proliferative capacity of irradiated tissue compared to non-irradiated portions. Inflammatory cells showed similar labeling indices in irradiated and non-irradiated tissues, both intact and surgically-manipulated, suggesting that irradiation does not significantly affect a subsequent local inflammatory response. Radiation-induced decreases in tritiated thymidine incoporation in irradiated aorta and small intestine were generally more marked at seven days than at three months following irradiation, suggesting that radiation-induced depression of cell turnover rates decreases with time

  7. The protective role of damsissa (Ambroosia Maritima) against gamma irradiation in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, O.A.; Mohamed, Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present work was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) for thirty consecutive days pre- irradiation exposure in controlling the post-irradiation hazards in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (Spraue Dowley strain) weighing about 120+- 10 g were used and blood samples were collected from tails of animals thirty days after treatment with damsissa and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysis such as liver functions, kidney function and lipid profile. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant decrease in the contents of total proteins accompanied by significant increase of urea level as recorded on the 7th days post irradiation. Data obtained in this study revealed that whole body gamma irradiation induced significant elevation in all tested blood lipid functions. There was significant increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) whole alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Damisissa (Ambrosia maritima) treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of damsissa may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  8. Gamma irradiation of pupae and adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, V.K.; Sethi, G.R.; Garg, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the effect of gamma irradiation of 2 to 3 day old pupae and 10 day old adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) revealed that adult emergence from irradiated pupae was negatively correlated with the radiation doses upto 10 Krad (100 Gy). At higher doses of 10 Krad to 50 Krad (100 Gy to 500 Gy), there was no further decrease in adult emergence. Mortality of adults emerging from the irradiated pupae, however, increased rapidly at doses of 10 Krad (100 Gy) and above and irradiation at 15 Krad to 50 Krad (150 Gy to 500 Gy) caused 100 per cent mortality of the adults within 15 days of exposure. Irradiation of 10 day old adults with doses upto 6 Krad (60 Gy) had no significant effect on mortality but this effect was quite pronounced at 8 Krad to 20 Krad (80 Gy to 200 Gy). The LD 50 value recorded 12 days after irradiation was 10.3 Krad (103 GY). Irradiation of adults with doses of 12 Krad (120 Gy) and above also decreased the longevity of the irradiated adults. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab

  9. Prenatal effects of ancestral irradiation in inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprackling, L.E.S.

    1975-01-01

    Mice from 13 inbred strains (S, Z, E, Bab, BaB, BrR, C, K, N, Q, G, CFW, CF1) received continuous cobalt 60 irradiation at low dose rates for varying numbers of consecutive generations. Some Bab and BaB mice had received continuous irradiation for from 24 to 31 generations and the other mice had up to six generations of continuous irradiation in their ancestry. At weaning, the mice were removed from the irradiation room and were mated within strains either to sibs or nonsibs. Ancestral and direct irradiation doses were calculated. The ancestral dose was the effective accumulated dose to the progeny of the mated mice. The direct dose was the amount of irradiation received by any mated female from her conception to her weaning. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the tenth day of pregnancy; the sum of moles, dead embryos, and live embryos was the total in utero litter size. A ratio of the living embryos to the total number of embryos in utero was determined for each litter. An increase in ancestral or direct irradiation dose significantly decreased fertility in 11 of the 13 strains. The fertility curves for the pooled data were sigmoid in the area of the doses below those that caused complete sterility. Among the controls, there were significant strain differences in total litter size and in the ratio. Strain X--Y plots, with ancestral or direct doses plotted against total litter size or ratio, revealed the tendency for litter size to decrease as dose increased. The only trend shown for ratio was for the litters with ratios of 0.50 or less to appear more frequently among the irradiated mice. The few corpora lutea counts revealed nothing of significance. Generally, there was a definite trend toward fewer mice alive in utero among the irradiated mice

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and quality characteristics of minced camel meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Zeinou, R.

    2006-12-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat has been evaluated. Camel meat were irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated meat were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 Centigrade). Immediately after irradiation, general composition and sensory evaluation of camel meat were done. Microbiological and chemical analyses of camel meat were evaluated at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks of storage. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and total coli form of camel meat. Thus the microbiological shelf-life of camel meat was significantly extended from less than 2 weeks (control) to more than 6 weeks (samples irradiated with 2, 4 or 6 kGy). No significant differences in moisture, protein, fat, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, total acidity, pH vale and fatty acids (C14: 0; C16: 0; C18:0) of camel meat were observed due to irradiation. Both total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation value in camel meat were effected by gamma irradiation. Immediately after treatment, VBN of irradiated camel meat increased and lipid oxidation values decreased. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and unirradiated camel meats. (author)

  11. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the flight activity of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    The duration and distance of flight and the flight velocity of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, were investigated by using a flight mill system. Mean flight duration of the normal female flies was significantly longer than that of the sterile ones which were irradiated with a dose of 7, 20, 30 KR γ-ray. No significant differences were recognized between normal and sterile male flies irradiated with 7 KR. No adverse effect of irradiation on the flight velocity was detected. Flight distance was the longest for the unirradiated flies and it decreased with the increase of the irradiation doses, but the difference among normal and sterile flies irradiated with either 7 or 20 KR was not statistically significant. Generally, the flight ability decreased with the increase of the irradiation doses. (author)

  13. Inhibition of alloxan diabetes by low dose {gamma}-irradiation before alloxan administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.; Takehara, Yoshiki; Yoshioka, Tamotsu; Utsumi, Kozo

    1994-10-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of whole body {sup 60}Co-{gamma} irradiation at a single low dose on alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats. (1) In rats that received alloxan, SOD activity in pancreas significantly decreased, but the decrease was inhibited by irradiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy. (2) Similarly, plasma peroxide, pancreatic peroxide, and blood glucose increased. However, the increase in pancreatic peroxide was inhibited by irradiation at a dose of 0.5 or 1.0 Gy and the increase in blood glucose by irradiation at 0.5 Gy. (3) After alloxan administration, degranulation was observed in cells, but this was inhibited by irradiation at 0.5 Gy. These results suggest that alloxan diabetes was inhibited by the increase of SOD activity in pancreas after low dose irradiation at 0.5 Gy. (author).

  14. Inhibition of alloxan diabetes by low dose γ-irradiation before alloxan administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Takehara, Yoshiki; Yoshioka, Tamotsu; Utsumi, Kozo.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of whole body 60 Co-γ irradiation at a single low dose on alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats. (1) In rats that received alloxan, SOD activity in pancreas significantly decreased, but the decrease was inhibited by irradiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy. (2) Similarly, plasma peroxide, pancreatic peroxide, and blood glucose increased. However, the increase in pancreatic peroxide was inhibited by irradiation at a dose of 0.5 or 1.0 Gy and the increase in blood glucose by irradiation at 0.5 Gy. (3) After alloxan administration, degranulation was observed in cells, but this was inhibited by irradiation at 0.5 Gy. These results suggest that alloxan diabetes was inhibited by the increase of SOD activity in pancreas after low dose irradiation at 0.5 Gy. (author)

  15. Irradiation damage in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Most superconductors are quite sensitive to irradiation defects. Critical temperatures may be depressed, critical currents may be increased, by irradiation, but other behaviours may be encountered. In compounds, the sublattice in which defects are created is of significant importance. 24 refs

  16. Effect of electronic beam irradiation on development of Plodia interpunctella (Huebner)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jialin; Chen Yuntang; Li Xuzhao; Guo Dongquan; Lu Xiaohua; Zhang Jianwei; Yang Bao'an; Liu Jiangyu; Tian Zhanjun; Zhang Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    The electronic beam irradiation effects on different developed stages of Plodia interpunctella Huebner were studied. The hatch rate, pupation rate, emergence rate and reproductive capacity of insect after irradiation were tested. The results showed that the order of sensitivity of the life stages of Plodia interpunctella Huebner to electron beam irradiation was: egg > larva > pupae > adult. The hatch rate, pupation rate, emergence rate and reproductive capacity significantly decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose (P<0.05). The egg, larvae, pupae couldn't grow to adults after irradiation at 100, 250 and 600 Gy, respectively. No new generation adult was found after the adults were irradiation at 600 Gy. It is concluded that 600 Gy irradiation could be used as a suitable dose to prevent the reproduction of Plodia interpunctella Huebner during the storage of tobacco. (authors)

  17. Fluctuation in hematology values in gamma irradiated rats subjected to pesticide ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    abdel-Hamid, F M [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Radiation Biology, cairo (Egypt); Roushdy, H M [Department, National Center for Radiation Reasrch and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Girgis, R B; Abu-Ghadir, A R [Atomic Energy Authority, and Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Male albino rats were exposed to gamma irradiation alone or after either oral daily administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane for 3 successive days; or daily administration of 200 mg kelthane mixed with food per kg body weight for 3,6 and 12 weeks. Relative spleen weight and certain hematological values were determined. Significant decrease could be estimated in relative spleen weight due to exposure only to gamma irradiation significant increase was recorded due to treatment with 50 and 100 mg kelthane. The data obtained on hematological levels revealed insignificant changes in erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration due to exposure to gamma irradiation and/.or kelthane treatment. Significant decrease was recorded in hematocrit value either for successive 30 days or due exposure to gamma irradiation after treatment with kelthane for short and long term periods. Leucocyte counts showed significant decrease for all animals groups. 2 tabs.

  18. fluctuation in hematology values in gamma irradiated rats subjected to pesticide ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    abdel-Hamid, F.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Girgis, R.B.; Abu-Ghadir, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    Male albino rats were exposed to gamma irradiation alone or after either oral daily administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane for 3 successive days; or daily administration of 200 mg kelthane mixed with food per kg body weight for 3,6 and 12 weeks. Relative spleen weight and certain hematological values were determined. Significant decrease could be estimated in relative spleen weight due to exposure only to gamma irradiation significant increase was recorded due to treatment with 50 and 100 mg kelthane. The data obtained on hematological levels revealed insignificant changes in erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration due to exposure to gamma irradiation and/.or kelthane treatment. Significant decrease was recorded in hematocrit value either for successive 30 days or due exposure to gamma irradiation after treatment with kelthane for short and long term periods. Leucocyte counts showed significant decrease for all animals groups. 2 tabs

  19. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etoh, H. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1980-10-01

    Effects of continual irradiation for a long term on fishes and aquatic invertebrates were outlined. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms were less than acute effects induced when the same dose was irradiated once. The radiosensitivity of the genital organ to continual irradiation was high. There was a difference in radiosensitivity of the genital organ between female and male, and the degree of the difference varied according to kinds of animals. In an experiment on continual irradiation of adult killifishes, ova recovered from radiation damage, but spermatozoa did not recover. Incubation rates of eggs obtained from aquatic organisms which lived in water where radioactive sewage flowed into decreased significantly, and the frequency of reverse position of salivary gland chromosomes which were peculiar to exposed organisms increased in larvae of Chironomus tentans.

  20. Studies on apple preservation by 60 -gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuanyao; Jiang Mengyue; Gao Meixu

    1992-01-01

    Studies on '60'Co-gamma irradiation of Golden Delicious apple have been carried out. The results showed that the optimum irradiation dosage for stored apple was ranged from 0.3-0.5 k Gy, with this dosage, the contents of vitamin c and titratalbe acidity in these apples had no significant change compared with unirradiated apples. The respiratory rate and the amount of ethylene release were decreased after irradiation. The mortality of the verticillate pathogenic fungi was 97% at the dose of 0.5 k Gy

  1. Effect of γ-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, R.; Sajeevkumar, V. A.; Sabapathy, S. N.; Vaijapurkar, S. G.; Kumar, D.; Kchawahha, A.; Bawa, A. S.

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of γ-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity.

  2. Effect of γ-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, R.; Sajeevkumar, V.A.; Sabapathy, S.N.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Kumar, D.; Kchawahha, A.; Bawa, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of γ-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity

  3. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Johnsy [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India)]. E-mail: g.johnsy@gmail.com; Kumar, R. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India); Sajeevkumar, V.A. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India); Sabapathy, S.N. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India); Vaijapurkar, S.G. [Defence Laboratory, Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur, Rajastan 342011 (India); Kumar, D. [Defence Laboratory, Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur, Rajastan 342011 (India); Kchawahha, A. [Defence Laboratory, Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur, Rajastan 342011 (India); Bawa, A.S. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India)

    2007-07-15

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of {gamma}-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity.

  4. Irradiation and Post-Irradiation Storage of Chicken: Effects on Fat and Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Tarboush, H.M.; Al-Kahtani, H.A.; Abou-Arab, A.A.; Atia, M.; Bajaber, A.S.; Ahmed, M.A.; El-Mojaddidi, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Chicken were subjected to gamma irradiation doses of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and post-irradiation storage of 21 days at 4±2º. The effects on fat and protein of chicken were studied. Rate of formation of total volatile basic-nitrogen was less in irradiated samples particularly in samples treated with 5.0KGy during the entire storage. Fatty acid profiles of chicken lipids were not significantly (P≤ 0.05) affected by irradiation especially at doses of 5.0 KGy. However, irradiation caused a large increase in thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values which continued gradually during storage. Changes in amino acids were minimal. Irradiated and unirradiated samples showed the appearance of protein subunits with molecular weights in the range of 10.0 to 88.0 and 10.0 to 67.0 KD, respectively. No changes were observed in the sarcoplasmic protein but the intensity of bands in all irradiated samples decreased after 21 days of storage

  5. Protection from radiation induced changes in liver and serum transaminase of whole body gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkashef, H.S.; Roushdy, H.M.; Saada, H.N.; Abdelsamie, M.

    1986-01-01

    Whole body gamma irradiation of rats with a dose of 5.5 Gy induced significant changes in the activity of liver and serum transaminase. The results indicated that this radiation dose caused a significant increase in the activity of serum Got and GPT on the third and seventh days after irradiation. This was followed by significant decreases on the fourteenth post-irradiation day. The activity of Got returned to is control activity, while the activity of GPT was significantly above the control on the twenty ones post-irradiation day. The activity of Got, in the liver of irradiated rats was elevated during the post-irradiation days, but on the twenty one day activity was about the normal value. The activity of liver GPT firstly decreased and then increased very much but attained the control level on the fourteenth after irradiation. The intraperitoneal injection of testosterone-vitamin E mixture 10 days before whole body gamma irradiation caused complete recovery for the activity of liver and serum Got. No indication of remarkable recovery in the case of GPT activity was recorded either in liver or in serum of irradiated rats. The applied mixture could protect against radiation induced changes in Got activity of liver and serum but could not protect or ameliorate the changes which occurred in the activity of GPT of the two tissues. 2 tab

  6. Irradiation-induced hypoxia in bones and soft tissues: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitasalo, K.; Aro, H.

    1986-01-01

    Bone marrow and subcutaneous tissue pO 2 and pCO 2 were measured by means of implanted tissue tonometers in irradiated and nonirradiated rabbit hind limbs. The x-ray dose was 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 3000 rads. Tissue gas tensions were measured 1 day and 5 and 11 weeks after radiation. The pCO 2 changes in both tissues were slight but not statistically significant. The subcutaneous tissue pO 2 decreased during the acute phase of irradiation injury, and the effect of irradiation was dose-dependent. Later on, irradiation had no significant effects on the subcutaneous pO 2 , although light microscopy of the affected tissues showed fibrosis and blood vessel changes. The response of the subcutaneous pO 2 to systemic hyperoxia also increased in the chronic phase of irradiation injury as a sign of improved microcirculation. The bone marrow showed a high radiosensitivity. Irradiation caused a rapid dose-dependent decrease of the marrow pO 2 , and the marrow pO 2 decreased with time during the chronic phase of irradiation injury. The marrow pO 2 responded slowly and marginally to an increment of arterial pO 2 during breathing 100% oxygen as further evidence of impaired vascular pattern. The results showed that irradiation causes only a transient impairment of tissue perfusion in the skin. However, irradiation-damaged marrow was characterized by progressive tissue hypoxia

  7. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo

    2000-01-01

    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7α- and 7β- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions

  8. Thermal conductivity of electron-irradiated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Asanka; Ramasubramaniam, Ashwin; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    We report results of a systematic analysis of thermal transport in electron-irradiated, including irradiation-induced amorphous, graphene sheets based on nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. We focus on the dependence of the thermal conductivity, k, of the irradiated graphene sheets on the inserted irradiation defect density, c, as well as the extent of defect passivation with hydrogen atoms. While the thermal conductivity of irradiated graphene decreases precipitously from that of pristine graphene, k0, upon introducing a low vacancy concentration, c reduction of the thermal conductivity with the increasing vacancy concentration exhibits a weaker dependence on c until the amorphization threshold. Beyond the onset of amorphization, the dependence of thermal conductivity on the vacancy concentration becomes significantly weaker, and k practically reaches a plateau value. Throughout the range of c and at all hydrogenation levels examined, the correlation k = k0(1 + αc)-1 gives an excellent description of the simulation results. The value of the coefficient α captures the overall strength of the numerous phonon scattering centers in the irradiated graphene sheets, which include monovacancies, vacancy clusters, carbon ring reconstructions, disorder, and a rough nonplanar sheet morphology. Hydrogen passivation increases the value of α, but the effect becomes very minor beyond the amorphization threshold.

  9. The decontamination effects of gamma irradiation on the edible gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Junjie; Shen, Weiqiao; Bao, Jinsong; Chen, Qinglong

    2000-01-01

    The decontamination effects of gamma irradiation on the edible gelatin were studied. The results indicated that the bacterium and mold in the gelatin decreased significantly with the dose of 5 kGy treatment. However, the content of crude protein, microelement, amino acid in the gelatin remained unchanged under the irradiation of 4 and 8 kGy. The viscosity of the gelatin decreased with the increase of the irradiation dose, but the gelatin with a dose of 5 kGy treatment still accorded with the standard of the second-order class. These results suggested that the optimum irradiation dose for edible gelatin for the purpose of decontamination was in the range 3-5 kGy. (author)

  10. Biological changes in experimental animals after irradiation with sublethal doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dae Seong; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Byun, Myung Woo; Jeong, Il Yun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The objective of the present study was to investigate general clinical aspects such as weekly body weight and blood changes, and weekly food intake in gamma-irradiated C57BL/6j male mice fed AIN-76A purified rodent diet for 14 weeks. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 0, 2, 4 and 6 Gy of gamma-rays (Gammacell 40 Exactor, {sup 137}Cs, MDS Nordion) at a dose rate of 1.8 {sub c}Gy per second. The mean body weight change of 6 Gy-irradiated mice significantly decreased when compared to that of the non-irradiated control mice. Moreover, high dose of radiation resulted in decreased levels of AST, ALT, but in increased levels of total cholersterol, triglyceride, HDL-C in mice.

  11. Identification of irradiated foods prospects for post-irradiation estimate of irradiation dose in irradiated dry egg products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katusin-Raxem, B.; Mihaljievic, B.; Razem, D.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation-induced chemical changes in foods are generally very small at the usual processing doses. Some exception is radiation degradation of lipids, which are the components most susceptible to oxidation. A possible use of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) as indicators of irradiation is described for whole egg and egg yolk powders. A sensitive and reproducible spectrophotometric method for LOOH measurement based on feric thiocyanate, as modified in our laboratory, was applied. This method enabled the determination of LOOH, including oleic acid hydroperoxides, which is usually not possible with some other frequently used methods. The lowest limit of 0.05 mmol LOOH/kg lipid could be measured. The measurements were performed in various batches of whole egg and egg yolk powders by the same producer, as well as in samples supplied by various producers. Baseline level in unirradiated egg powder 0.110 ± 0.067 mmol LOOH /kgL was established. The formation of LOOH with dose, as well as the influence of age, irradiation conditions, storage time and storage conditions on LOOH were investigated. The irradiation of whole egg and egg yolk powders in the presence of air revealed an initially slow increase of LOOH, caused by an inherent antioxidative capacity, followed by a fast linear increase after the inhibition dose (D o ). In all investigated samples D o of 2 kGy was determined. Hydroperoxides produced in irradiated materials decay with time. In whole egg and egg yolk powders, after an initially fast decay, the level of LOOH continued to decrease by the first-order decay. Nevertheless, after a six months storage it was still possible to unambiguously identify samples which had been irradiated with 2 kGy in the presence of air. Reirradiation of these samples revealed a significant reduction of D o to 1 kGy. In samples irradiated with 4 kGy and kept under the same conditions, the shortening of D o to 0.5 kGy was determined by reirradiation. This offers a possibility for the

  12. Gamma irradiation of fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1983-08-01

    At a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) meeting held in 1976, recommendations were made to rationalize the unnecessarily elaborate wholesomeness evaluation procedures for irradiated foodstuffs. Irradiation at the commercially recommended doses did not adversely affect the constituents of mangoes, papayas, litchis and strawberries at the edible-ripe stage. These favourable radiation-chemical results justified the development of a theoretical model mango which could be used for extrapolation of wholesomeness data from an individual fruit species to all others within the same diet class. Several mathematical models of varying orders of sophistication were evolved. In all of them, it was assumed that the radiant energy entering the system reacted solely with water. The extent of the reaction of the other components of the model fruit with the primary water radicals was then determined. No matter which mathematical treatment was employed, it was concluded that the only components which would undergo significant modification would be the sugars. In order to extrapolate these data from the mango to other fruits, mathematical models of three fruits containing less sugar than the mango, viz. the strawberry, tomato and lemon, were compiled. With these models, the conclusion was reached that the theoretical degradation spectra of these fruits were qualitatively similar to the degradation pattern of the model mango. Theory was again substantiated by the practical demonstration of the protective effect of the sugars in the tomato and lemon. The decrease in radiation damage was enhanced by the mutual protection of the components of the whole synthetic fruits with ultimate protection being afforded by the biological systems of the real fruits

  13. Effects of low-level gamma irradiation on the characteristics of fermented pork sausage during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Jo, C.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, E.J.; Ahn, D.U.; Kang, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kGy) on the quality of vacuum-packaged dry fermented sausages during refrigerated storage was evaluated. At Day 0 of irradiation, the pH, redness (CIE a ⁎ ), yellowness (CIE b ⁎ ), 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of samples irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy were higher (p ⁎ values (lightness) were lower than those of the non-irradiated control (p ⁎ , CIE a ⁎ and CIE b ⁎ -value of samples were not significantly influenced by irradiation. The CIE a ⁎ , and CIE b ⁎ -values of samples irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy decreased with the increase of storage time. The VBN, TBARS, and CIE L ⁎ -values of samples irradiated at 4 kGy were not changed significantly during refrigerated storage for 90 days (p>0.05). The total plate counts (TPC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the samples irradiated at 4 kGy were significantly lower (p<0.01) than those with lower irradiation doses. At the end of storage, the TPC, coliform, and LAB in the samples were not increased after irradiation at 1, 0.5 and 1 kGy, respectively. TPC and LAB were not detected in samples irradiated at 4 kGy at Day 90. In addition, no coliform bacteria were found in samples irradiated at 1 kGy during refrigerated storage. Sensory evaluation indicated that the rancid flavor of samples irradiated at 4 kGy was significantly higher, but aroma and taste scores were lower than those of the control at Day 3 of storage. Irradiation of dry fermented sausages at 2 kGy was the best conditions to prolong the shelf-life and decrease the rancid flavor without significant quality deterioration. - Highlights: ► Effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of vacuum-packaged dry fermented sausages during refrigerated storage was evaluated. ► At Day 90, the TPC, coliform, and LAB in the dry fermented sausages were not increased after irradiation at 2, 0.5 and 4 kGy, respectively. ► TPC and LAB were not detected in

  14. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  16. Effect of irradiation on the acinar cells of submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2003-01-01

    To observe the histologic changes and clusterin expression in the acinar cells of the submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting streptozotocin, while the control rats were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, rats in diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the submandibular gland were sectioned and observed using histologic and immunohistochemical methods. Morphologic change of acinar cells was remarkable in the diabetic group, but was not observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. Necrotic tissues were observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. Coloring of toluidine blue stain was most increased at 14 days in the diabetic group, however there were no significant change throughout the period of the experiment in the diabetic-irradiated group. Expression of clusterin was most significant at 14 days in the diabetic group, but gradually decreased with time after 7 days in the diabetic-irradiated group. Degeneration of clusterin was observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. This experiment suggests that the acinar cells of submandibular gland in rats are physiologically apoptosis by the induction of diabetes, but that the apoptosis is inhibited and the acinar cells necrotized after irradiation.

  17. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, John A.; Olson, Dennis G.

    1998-01-01

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  18. Canadian perspectives on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1988-01-01

    Canada has been in the forefront of irradiation technology for some 30 years. Nearly 90 of the 140 irradiators used worldwide are Canadian-built, yet Canadian food processors have been very slow to use the technology. The food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada, the factors that influence it, and some significant non-regulatory developments are reviewed. (author)

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  20. Role of NO in adrenergic regulation of the heart after chronic gamma irradiation in 1 Gy dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorova, T.A.; Lobanok, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic irradiation in 1 Gy dose significantly decreased adrenoreactivity of the heart. Modification of NO-mediated mechanisms plays an important role in radiation-induced changes of adrenergic control of heart functional activity and coronary flow. (authors)

  1. The effect of processing treatments on the radiation-induced ESR signal in the cuticle of irradiated Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, E.M.; Stevenson, M.H.; Gray, R.; McMurray, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    Cooked, frozen or chilled whole tails of Norway lobster were either not irradiated or given doses of 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 kGy using cobalt 60 source. The cuticle was removed, freeze-dried and ground before determination of the free radical concentration using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The ESR signal strength increased linearly with increasing irradiation dose. In comparison to the chilled samples, cooking before irradiation significantly increased (69%) signal intensity whereas cooking after irradiation decreased (27%) signal strength. Irradiating the samples in the frozen state did not significantly alter the free radical concentration in the cuticle. (author)

  2. Studies on the sugars development of irradiated potatoes receiving different nitrogen levels during growth and stored at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badshah, N.; Iritani, W.M.; Rom, C.R.; Patterson, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tubers of Russet Burbank potatoes from 0, 181.8 and 363.6 kg/ha nitrogen were irradiated with 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 kGy of gamma rays (Co 60 source) and stored for three months at temperatures of 10 and 15.5°C. Changes in reducing sugars and sucrose contents were significantly influenced by nitrogen and irradiation levels while storage temperatures had no significant effect. Nitrogen and irradiation significantly decreased reducing and non-reducing sugars while temperature had no significant effect. Reducing sugars decreased with increasing levels of nitrogen and irradiation. Tubers from zero fertilizer regime developed 1.5% reducing sugars. Irradiation at 0.2 kGy dosage decreased reducing sugars from 1.7 to 0.9%. The breakdown of non-reducing sugars increased with increasing nitrogen levels but decreased with irradiation. Tubers from the maximum nitrogen plot had a 36% decrease of non-reducing sugars. Irradiation at 0.1 kGy dosage had the least change (4.9% decrease) of non-reducing sugars. (author)

  3. Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-il [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Kyung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun-Jin [Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

  4. Quality properties of sausage made with gamma irradiated natural casing from intestine of pork or lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Lee, J.-W.; Cho, K.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Byun, M.-W.

    2002-01-01

    Quality properties in emulsion-type sausage stuffed into irradiated natural casing were studied. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterococci and coliform bacteria in the sausage prepared with irradiated natural pork and lamb casing were significantly decreased or eliminated compared to those prepared with the nonirradiated control. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value in the sausage with irradiated natural casing did not change significantly during storage with minor exceptions. The total working force of shear of the sausages were decreased in both irradiated casings but the sensory evaluation showed no difference. Therefore, the gamma irradiation was a useful technique to sanitize the natural pork and lamb casings and to extend the shelf-life of the sausage made with natural casings during distribution

  5. Quality properties of sausage made with gamma irradiated natural casing from intestine of pork or lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Lee, J.-W.; Cho, K.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2002-03-01

    Quality properties in emulsion-type sausage stuffed into irradiated natural casing were studied. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterococci and coliform bacteria in the sausage prepared with irradiated natural pork and lamb casing were significantly decreased or eliminated compared to those prepared with the nonirradiated control. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value in the sausage with irradiated natural casing did not change significantly during storage with minor exceptions. The total working force of shear of the sausages were decreased in both irradiated casings but the sensory evaluation showed no difference. Therefore, the gamma irradiation was a useful technique to sanitize the natural pork and lamb casings and to extend the shelf-life of the sausage made with natural casings during distribution.

  6. Long-term effects of x-ray irradiation on reproductive function in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, S.V.; Demchenko, V.N.; Chajkovskaya, L.V.; Reznikov, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    Reproductive function in male rats was studied in 1, 3 and 6 months after x-ray irradiation at doses of 2 and 3 Gy. It was been established that long-term effects of irradiation at a dose of 3 Gy are manifested through decrease in spermatozoa content in the epididymis and reduction of nucleie acid and protein content in the testes. Fertility of male rats under study significantly lowered shortly after irradiation and full recovery of fecundating ability was observed 6 months later. The effect of irradiation with a dose of 2 Gy was less pronounced

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  9. Irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrington, Hugh

    1988-06-01

    This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

  10. Interspecific transfer of only part of genome by fusion between non-irradiated protoplasts of Nicotiana glauca and X-ray irradiated protoplasts of N. Langsdorffii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Futsuhara, Y.

    1983-01-01

    To transfer only part of genome, X-ray irradiated suspension cell protoplasts of N. langsdorffii were fused with suspension cell protoplasts of N. glauca by polyethylene glycol. Somatic hybrid calli were selected by the growth in the hormone-free medium. Some of somatic hybrid calli from fusion with irradiated protoplasts indicated the loss of small subunit polypeptide of fraction 1 protein which was coded by N. langsdorffii nuclear DNA. Cytological analysis provided an information on significant decrease of chromosomes in somatic hybrid calli from fusion with irradiated protoplasts, compared with the somatic hybrid calli from fusion with non-irradiated protoplasts. In addition, isozyme analysis revealed that somatic hybrid calli from fusion with irradiated protoplasts lost particular bands of N. langsdorffli. These results demonstrate the tranfer of only part of genome from N, langsdorffii to N, glauca by fusion with X-ray irradiated protoplasts

  11. Changes in T cell populations due to local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Daigo

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the immune organs after head and neck irradiation. The numbers of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, the spleen and the thymus following local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla in mice were studied using three-color fluorometry and were compared with a non-irradiation group. In the peripheral blood, the absolute numbers of T cells, CD4 + SP cells and CD8 + SP cells decreased after irradiation, and the period of the decrease was longer than the decreases in number of leukocytes and lymphocytes. The ratio of CD4 + SP cells showed a significant decrease, and the ratio of CD8+ S P cells showed a significant increase 1 day after irradiation. In the spleen, the absolute number of T cells, the radio of CD4 + SP and CD8 + SP cell subsets showed a decrease, and the period of the decrease was longer than the decrease of the wet-weight of the spleen, and also longer than the decrease of the number of leukocytes. The number of CD4 + SP cells showed a signigicant increase, and CD8 + SP cells showed a significant decrease 21 days after irradiation. In the thymus, the absolute number of TCR αβ-thymocytes did not show a significant decrease. However, the number of DN thymocytes showed a marked decrease. These results indicate that the numbers of T cells in peripheral blood, the spleen and the thymus change immediately after irradiation, and the numbers of lymphocytes and the T cells in the spleen recover more slowly than that in the peripheral blood. As lymphoid tissues showed the suppression of immunological response for a long period, it was suggested that lymphoid tissues have to be observed carefully after irradiation to prevent cancer metastasis. (K.H.)

  12. Acute effects of irradiation on exocrine pancreatic secretion in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, P.; Scanff, P.; Joubert, C.; Vergnet, M.; Grison, S.

    1997-01-01

    Several reports on irradiation damages to the pancreas deal essentially with long-term morphologic changes but give few informations on pancreatic exocrine function. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of a whole body gamma irradiation on the volume and enzyme activities of the pancreatic juice. The volume of pancreatic juice daily secreted decreased one day after irradiation (-40%, p < 0.01) and remained lower that the control value all over the experimental period (-65%, p < 0.01). Same response was observed for the total proteins secreted in the pancreatic juice but significant decrease was observed only the fourth and the fifth days after irradiation. Therefore, concentration of total protein secreted in the pancreatic juice was not altered all over the experimental period. Total activities of proteolytic enzymes, lipase and amylase led to decrease on day after irradiation and except for trypsin, the attenuated activity became significant from the third day after exposure. On the other hand, specific activities of the proteolytic enzymes and amylase did not show marked modifications after irradiation, whereas lipase specific activity was decreased. In conclusion, a whole body gamma irradiation resulted in a rapid and marked decrease of exocrine pancreatic secretion, in terms of volume as well as secreted enzymes. These modifications may, in part, contribute to the malabsorption of nutrients and these acute effects may be due to some modifications in the regulation of the exocrine pancreatic secretion

  13. Acute effects of irradiation on exocrine pancreatic secretion in the pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, P; Scanff, P; Joubert, C; Vergnet, M; Grison, S [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-03-01

    Several reports on irradiation damages to the pancreas deal essentially with long-term morphologic changes but give few informations on pancreatic exocrine function. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of a whole body gamma irradiation on the volume and enzyme activities of the pancreatic juice. The volume of pancreatic juice daily secreted decreased one day after irradiation (-40%, p < 0.01) and remained lower that the control value all over the experimental period (-65%, p < 0.01). Same response was observed for the total proteins secreted in the pancreatic juice but significant decrease was observed only the fourth and the fifth days after irradiation. Therefore, concentration of total protein secreted in the pancreatic juice was not altered all over the experimental period. Total activities of proteolytic enzymes, lipase and amylase led to decrease on day after irradiation and except for trypsin, the attenuated activity became significant from the third day after exposure. On the other hand, specific activities of the proteolytic enzymes and amylase did not show marked modifications after irradiation, whereas lipase specific activity was decreased. In conclusion, a whole body gamma irradiation resulted in a rapid and marked decrease of exocrine pancreatic secretion, in terms of volume as well as secreted enzymes. These modifications may, in part, contribute to the malabsorption of nutrients and these acute effects may be due to some modifications in the regulation of the exocrine pancreatic secretion

  14. Status of food irradiation in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Quantum Beam Science Directorate, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Furuta, Masakazu [Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, 2-1-12 Kannonndai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Uenoyama, Naoki [Department of International Cooperation and Industrial Infrastructure Development, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Shimbashi Fuji Bld., 2-1-3, Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8605 Japan (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiko [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)], E-mail: kobayashi.yasuhiko@jaea.go.jp

    2009-03-15

    The status of food irradiation in the world in 2005 was investigated using published data, a questionnaire survey and direct visits. The results showed that the quantity of irradiated foods in the world in 2005 was 405,000 ton and comprised 1,86,000 ton (46%) for disinfection of spices and dry vegetables, 82,000 ton (20%) for disinfestation of grains and fruits, 32,000 ton (8%) for disinfection of meat and fish, 88,000 ton (22%) for sprout inhibition of garlic and potato, and 17,000 ton (4%) of other food items that included health foods, mushroom, honey, etc. Commercial food irradiation is increasing significantly in Asia, but decreasing in EU.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on bitter pit of apple fruits (Malus Domestica Borkh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.

    2000-12-01

    Tow varieties of apple fruits Golden and Starking were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 kGy and with 0, 1.0, 1.5 kGy respectively. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 centigrade and relative humidity of 80 to 90%. Fruit quality (firmness, skin thickness and bitter pit) and juice characteristics (moisture, ash, carbohydrates, organic acids, Ph, and viscosity), were determined during storage periods (0, 3 and 6 months). The used doses of gamma irradiation significantly decreased the percentage and intensity of bitter pit. Irradiated fruits were softer immediately after irradiation and through storage periods, there were no differences in firmness between irradiated and unirradiated fruits. Gamma irradiation increased the thickness of skin in Golden fruits and decreased it in Starking. Juice production from both varieties immediately after irradiation was not affected by gamma irradiation. However the juice produced from irradiated fruits had higher organic acids (citric and malic acids), viscosity and Ph values than the control. (author)

  16. Tensile properties of irradiated TZM and tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steichen, J.M.

    1975-04-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on the elevated temperature tensile properties of TZM and tungsten has been experimentally determined. Specimens were irradiated at a temperature of approximately 720 0 F to fluences of 0.4 and 0.9 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E greater than 0.1 MeV). Test parameters for both control and irradiated specimens included strain rates from 3 x 10 -4 to 1 s -1 and temperatures from 72 to 1700 0 F. The results of these tests were correlated with a rate-temperature parameter (T ln A/epsilon) to provide a concise description of material behavior over the range of deformation conditions of this study. The yield strength of the subject materials was significantly increased by decreasing temperature, increasing strain rate, and increasing fluence. Ductility was significantly reduced at any temperature or strain rate by increasing fluence. Cleavage fractures occurred in both unirradiated and irradiated specimens when the yield strength was elevated to the effective cleavage stress by temperature and/or strain rate. Neutron irradiation for the conditions of this study increased the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of tungsten by approximately 300 0 F and TZM by approximately 420 0 F. (U.S.)

  17. The effect of Gamma-irradiation on the functional properties of starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BenBettaieb, Nasreddine

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation is one of the effective methods able to change starch structure and its functional properties. In this research the effect of gamma-irradiation (3, 5, 10, 20 and 50kGy) on the rheological, structural, thermal and morphological properties of corn starch was studied. Viscoamylograph test showed that the maximal consistency of the starch paste and its corresponding temperature decrease with increasing irradiation dose. Textural analysis of paste starch using strain-relaxation test showed the dominance of behaviour elastic after irradiation. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) revealed a good discrimination of the irradiation doses among rheological parameters in the strain-relaxation test. FTIR spectra showed that the irradiated starch displayed a significant decrease in the intensity of the O.H stretch (3000.3600 cm 1 ), C.H stretch (2800.3000 cm 1 ), bending mode of water (1600.1800 cm 1 ) and bending mode of glycosidic linkage (900-950 cm-1). The X-ray diffraction spectra show that did not any modification in the sharp and intensity of peaks after irradiation dose. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of corn starch showed decreases in onset (To), final (Tf) and peak (Tp) gelatinisation temperature with increasing irradiation dose. icrophotographs of polarized light microscopy (LPM) showed that up to 50 kGy irradiation did not present any visible physical effect on the corn starch granule. (Author)

  18. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (total significance...... of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray......Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after...

  19. The effect of irradiation on the subcutaneous fatty layer and the perirectal tissue by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that the subcutaneous fatty layer is affected by irradiation, the available reports have not been able to find out yet. While, it is reported that the intrapelvic fat increases in volume after whole pelvic irradiation. This paper report a study about the effect of irradiation on subcutaneous fatty layer and intrapelvic fat. The subjects studied were 20 cases treated by whole pelvic irradiation. The x-ray CT film was used to measure the subcutaneous fatty layer and the intrapelvic fat. Three slices, the lower end of sacro-iliac joint, upper end of the femoral head and upper rim of the pubic symphysis, were chosen as the cross section level, and the thickness of subcutaneous fatty layer on 6 points of the body and the presacral space (PS) were measured. Irradiation group was followed by measuring the thickness of fatty layer; before irradiation, 1 month, 3 or 4 months, 6 or 7 months and 12 months after irradiation. At the three of four points, which are included within the irradiation area, the thickness of subcutaneous fatty layer tended to increase after irradiation, though it showed increase or decrease at each period. This tendency was prominent at the lower than the upper slice of the pelvis. The other points, which are out of the irradiation field, showed no significant change and some of them even showed the tendency of decrease. Fatty layer of the presacral space tended to increase following irradiation, but there was no correlation with the irradiation dose. It is considered that the injury of subcutaneous tissue by irradiation results in the disturbance of blood flow and then it accelerates deposition of fat to the irradiated area. (author)

  20. Characterization of Gamma-Irradiated Egyptian Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, H.H.; Attia, A. A.; Elsayed, A.A.; Ali, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Physical, rheological and baking properties of bread Shamy, prepared from gamma-irradiated Egyptian wheat flour up to 25 KGy as one of common types of bread in Egypt, were studied and the acceptability of bread was evaluated by sensory tests. All amylo-, farino-, and extensograph characteristics and also sample ph showed significant decrease as irradiation dose increased. Such results could be explained in terms of loss of unique elastic and cohesive properties of wheat gluten and starch damage upon increment of radiation dose. The improvement in properties of bread, baked from flour irradiated up to 7.5 KGy, could be explained on the basis of a simulation in gas production during dough fermentation due to increase in starch degradation products. However, bread, prepared from wheat samples irradiated above 7.5 KGy, exhibited significantly lower values of acceptance because of physico-chemical changes in both starch and gluten

  1. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northway, M G; Scobey, M W; Cassidy, K T; Geisinger, K R

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation.

  2. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references

  3. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston Salem, NC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references.

  4. Improvement of foaming ability of egg white product by irradiation and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Binna; Choe, Jun-Ho; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Kyong-Su; Kim, Dong-Ho; Jo, Cheorun

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the enhancement of foaming abilities of liquid egg white (LEW) and egg white powder (EWP) by irradiation and its application for bakery product, LEW and EWP were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 5 kGy by Co-60 gamma ray. There was no pH change found among treatments in both LEW and EWP. The viscosity of LEW decreased significantly by irradiation (P<0.05), whereas that of EWP was not affected by irradiation. The foaming ability of LEW and EWP was significantly increased by irradiation as a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The volume and the height of angel cake baked with irradiated LEW were significantly higher than those of unirradiated control (P<0.05). For EWP, the volume and the height of angel cake were greater at 2 kGy only than those of control. A significant decrease in hardness, chewiness, and gumminess values and an increase in Hunter L* value were observed in the angel cakes prepared from irradiated egg white products (P<0.05). Results indicated that irradiation of egg white could offer advantages in increasing foaming ability and improving quality of final bakery products

  5. Prophylactic Role of Spermine in Rats Intoxicated With Lead and/or Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habieb, M.E.; Mohamed, M.A.; Hawas, A.M.; Abu-Khudir, R.; Mohamed, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of spermine, a natural polyamine against toxicity of lead and /or gamma irradiation in male rats. Eight groups of rats were used in this study (control, irradiated group (6 GY), lead (40 mg/kg bw), spermine (10 mg/kg bw), lead plus irradiation, irradiation plus spermine, lead plus spermine, irradiation plus lead co-treated with spermine) for consecutive 14 days. Blood samples were used for complete blood count (CBC) and glucose 6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) levels. Moreover, malondialdhyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), metallothionein (MT) levels and catalase (CAT) activity were investigated in liver, kidney and brain. G6PD activity significantly decreased post exposure to lead and /or gamma irradiation. Hepatic, renal and brain MDA, GSH, MT and CAT were significantly increased in lead intoxicated group, while GSH, MT and CAT activity were significantly decreased in gamma-irradiated group. Spermine administration alleviated changes in CBC, G6PD, MDA, MT and CAT to normal control levels, but with significant increase in G6PD activity and platelets count. In conclusion, spermine acts as an antioxidant and plays a prophylactic role against intoxication with lead and/or gamma irradiation exposure.

  6. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Biological Properties of a PLGA-PEG-Hydroxyapatite Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Sima; Najafi, Farhood; Majdabadi, Abbas; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Haghbin Nazarpak, Masoumeh; Karimi, Batool

    2014-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is able to affect various structural and biological properties of biomaterials In this study, a composite of Hap/PLGA-PEG and their ingredients were submitted to gamma irradiation doses of 25 and 50 KGy. Various properties such as molecular weight (GPC), thermal behavior (DSC), wettability (contact angle), cell viability (MTT assay), and alkaline phosphatase activity were studied for the composites and each of their ingredients. The results showed a decrease in molecular weight of copolymer with no change in the glass transition and melting temperatures after gamma irradiation. In general gamma irradiation can increase the activation energy ΔH of the composites and their ingredients. While gamma irradiation had no effect on the wettability of copolymer samples, there was a significant decrease in contact angle of hydroxyapatite and composites with increase in gamma irradiation dose. This study showed an increase in biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite with gamma irradiation with no significant effect on cell viability in copolymer and composite samples. In spite of the fact that no change occurred in alkaline phosphatase activity of composite samples, results indicated a decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity in irradiated hydroxyapatites. These effects on the properties of PLGA-PEG-hydroxyapatite can enhance the composite application as a biomaterial. PMID:25574485

  7. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Biological Properties of a PLGA-PEG-Hydroxyapatite Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Shahabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation is able to affect various structural and biological properties of biomaterials In this study, a composite of Hap/PLGA-PEG and their ingredients were submitted to gamma irradiation doses of 25 and 50 KGy. Various properties such as molecular weight (GPC, thermal behavior (DSC, wettability (contact angle, cell viability (MTT assay, and alkaline phosphatase activity were studied for the composites and each of their ingredients. The results showed a decrease in molecular weight of copolymer with no change in the glass transition and melting temperatures after gamma irradiation. In general gamma irradiation can increase the activation energy ΔH of the composites and their ingredients. While gamma irradiation had no effect on the wettability of copolymer samples, there was a significant decrease in contact angle of hydroxyapatite and composites with increase in gamma irradiation dose. This study showed an increase in biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite with gamma irradiation with no significant effect on cell viability in copolymer and composite samples. In spite of the fact that no change occurred in alkaline phosphatase activity of composite samples, results indicated a decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity in irradiated hydroxyapatites. These effects on the properties of PLGA-PEG-hydroxyapatite can enhance the composite application as a biomaterial.

  8. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the physicochemical, functional and sensory properties of cocoyam. (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante, R.

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated for human nutrition, animal feed and cash income for both farmers and traders, the underground cormels of Xanthosoma sagittifolium provide easily digested starch; the leaves are nutritious spinach-like vegetable, which contain a lot of minerals, vitamins and thiamine. The high water content and the difficulty of storing, processing and transportation of roots and tubers have resulted in potentially very high postharvest losses in bulb and tuber crops. Radiation has the potential to control postharvest losses of a wide range of fresh produce including tuber crops such as yam and potato. This study, therefore, sought to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on the physical, chemical and sensory properties of stored cocoyam. Freshly harvested cocoyam cormels were obtained from Atia in the Ashanti region of Ghana and immediately transported to the Radiation Technology Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The cocoyam was stored in baskets and subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation; 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600Gy. Gamma irradiation significantly (p < 0.05) reduced sprouting in stored cocoyam cormels. Although stored significantly (p < 0.05) increased sprouting in tannia, application of a dose of 150Gy reduced sprouting by up to 80% whereas 300Gy achieved 89% reduction in sprouting. Storage significantly (p < 0.05) increased rotting of cocoyam cormels. Above 150Gy, gamma irradiation significantly (p < 0.05) increased rotting of cocoyam. Storage but not irradiation significantly (p < 0.05) reduced both moisture and ash contents of cocoyam. Functional properties of tannia are affected by both irradiation and storage. Water absorption capacity increased significantly (p < 0.05) with both irradiation and storage. Bulk density increased significantly (p < 0.05) with both irradiation and storage. Whereas swelling power of cocoyam flour was significantly (p < 0.05) increased by irradiation, storage generally decreased it. Irradiation as well as

  9. Physicochemical and functional properties of gamma irradiated buckwheat and potato starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ruchi; Jan, Shumaila; Rani, Savita; Jan, Kulsum; Swer, Tanya L.; Prakash, Kumar S.; Dar, M. Z.; Bashir, Khalid

    2018-03-01

    Starches isolated from buckwheat and potato were subject to different doses of irradiation at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. Native and irradiated starch samples were evaluated for their physicochemical and functional properties to assess the effect of gamma irradiation. Apparent amylose content decreased significantly from 26.84% to 22.12% and 27.01 to 16.11% for buckwheat and potato starch respectively as the dose increased. A significant decrease was observed in pH, swelling power and syneresis as the dose increased for both buckwheat and potato starch. pH decreased from 5.20 to 3.81 and 5.81 to 3.95 for buckwheat and potato starch, respectively. Carboxyl content, freeze thaw stability, water and oil absorption capacity and transmittance showed increasing trend with increasing irradiation dose. Carboxyl content increased from 0% to 0.23% and 0-0.22% for buckwheat and potato starch, respectively.

  10. Effect of Dietary Supplementation by Irradiated Full-Fat Rapeseed on Biochemical Changes in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farga, D. M. H.; El-Shennawy, H. M.; Soliman, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    Supplementation of 230 gk 1 of raw and irradiated full-fat rapeseed at 20 kGy in the food of male albino rats for ten weeks of age, caused significantly lower total plasma protein concentration as compared with those fed control diet, heated seeds and seeds irradiated at 50 and 70 kGy diets. On the other hand, the highest total plasma protein value was obtained from the control group flowed in descending order by heated and seeds irradiated at 70 kGy, and 50 kGy. Plasma albumin decreased significantly in rats fed either raw or rapeseed irradiated at 20 and 50 kGy as compared with rats fed control diet, heated or irradiated rapeseed at 70 kGy diets. The same result was observed with plasma globulin and A/G ratio. Supplementing the diet of rats with raw and irradiated rapeseed at 20 and 50 kGy caused significantly higher plasma transaminases activities (GOT and GPT) as compared with those fed control diet, heated or rapeseed irradiated at 70 kGy. However, rats fed raw and rapeseed irradiated at 20 kGy caused a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase as compared with those fed control diet, heated or irradiated seeds at 50 or 70 kGy diets. Moreover, there was no significant discrepancy between groups fed heated seed and seeds irradiated at 50 or 70 kGy as compared with those fed control diets. Level of plasma creatinine was significantly higher in groups of rats fed row and irradiated seeds at 20 kGy as compared with those fed heat processed and irradiated seeds at 50 kGy and 70 kGy and control diets. The results confirm that the applied radiation doses are insufficient enough to bring a complete detoxification of processed seeds. Increasing the applied radiation doses might be be beneficial in this respect

  11. Foodstuff irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Report written on behalf of the Danish Food Institute summarizes national and international rules and developments within food irradiation technology, chemical changes in irradiated foodstuffs, microbiological and health-related aspects of irradiation and finally technological prospects of this conservation form. Food irradiatin has not been hitherto applied in Denmark. Radiation sources and secondary radiation doses in processed food are characterized. Chemical changes due to irradiation are compared to those due to p.ex. food heating. Toxicological and microbiological tests and their results give no unequivocal answer to the problem whether a foodstuff has been irradiated. The most likely application fields in Denmark are for low radiation dosis inhibition of germination, riping delay and insecticide. Medium dosis (1-10 kGy) can reduce bacteria number while high dosis (10-50 kGy) will enable total elimination of microorganisms and viruses. Food irradiation can be acceptable as technological possibility with reservation, that further studies follow. (EG)

  12. Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular system following testicular X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verjans, H.L.; Eik-Nes, K.B.

    1976-01-01

    Testes of adult, male rats were exposed to a total dose of 1500 R of X-irradiation. Testicular weight decreased from day 8 after X-ray treatment. This decrease was, however, precded by an increment of the testis weight on day 4 following treatment. X-ray treatment of testes was associated with significant increase in serum FSH. Testicular irradiation had, however, no effect on ventral prostate and seminal vesicles weights. Serum testosterone increased only on day 1, 2 and 4 after irradiation, while serum LH levels tended to increase from day 8 post-irradiation. These changes were not significant, however, when compared with non-irradiated controls. At 7, 13 and 20 days following 1500 R of bilateral, testicular X-irradiation, the hypothalamic-pituitary unit was still capable of responding to exogenous gonadotrophin releasing factor. Serum FSH may in male rats be regulated at least partly by circulating steroids of testicular origin and partly by an unknown factor of non-interstitial cell nature. (author)

  13. Changes in some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of irradiated meatballs during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gecgel, U., E-mail: ugecgel@nku.edu.tr [Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Namik Kemal University, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey)

    2013-05-15

    Meatball samples were irradiated using a {sup 60}Co irradiation source (with the dose of 1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy) and stored (1, 2 and 3 weeks at 4 Degree-Sign C) to appraise some physicochemical properties and the fatty acid composition. The physicochemical results showed no significant differences in moisture, protein, fat and ash content of meatballs because of irradiation. However, total acidity, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values increased significantly as a result of irradiation doses and storage period. The fatty acid profile in meatball samples changed with irradiation. While saturated fatty acids (C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, and C20:0) increased with irradiation, monounsaturated (C14:1, C15:1, C18:1, and C20:1) and polyunsaturated (C18:2, C18:3, and C22:2) fatty acids decreased with irradiation. Trans fatty acids (C16:1trans, C18:1trans, C18:2trans, C18:3trans) increased with increasing irradiation doses. Meatball samples irradiated at 7 kGy had the highest total trans fatty acid content. This research shows that some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of meatballs can be changed by gamma irradiation. (author)

  14. Changes in some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of irradiated meatballs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecgel, Umit

    2013-06-01

    Meatball samples were irradiated using a (60)Co irradiation source (with the dose of 1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy) and stored (1, 2 and 3 weeks at 4°C) to appraise some physicochemical properties and the fatty acid composition. The physicochemical results showed no significant differences in moisture, protein, fat and ash content of meatballs because of irradiation. However, total acidity, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values increased significantly as a result of irradiation doses and storage period. The fatty acid profile in meatball samples changed with irradiation. While saturated fatty acids (C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, and C20:0) increased with irradiation, monounsaturated (C14:1, C15:1, C18:1, and C20:1) and polyunsaturated (C18:2, C18:3, and C22:2) fatty acids decreased with irradiation. Trans fatty acids (C16:1trans, C18:1trans, C18:2trans, C18:3trans) increased with increasing irradiation doses. Meatball samples irradiated at 7 kGy had the highest total trans fatty acid content. This research shows that some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of meatballs can be changed by gamma irradiation.

  15. Changes in some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of irradiated meatballs during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gecgel, U.

    2013-01-01

    Meatball samples were irradiated using a 60 Co irradiation source (with the dose of 1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy) and stored (1, 2 and 3 weeks at 4 °C) to appraise some physicochemical properties and the fatty acid composition. The physicochemical results showed no significant differences in moisture, protein, fat and ash content of meatballs because of irradiation. However, total acidity, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values increased significantly as a result of irradiation doses and storage period. The fatty acid profile in meatball samples changed with irradiation. While saturated fatty acids (C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, and C20:0) increased with irradiation, monounsaturated (C14:1, C15:1, C18:1, and C20:1) and polyunsaturated (C18:2, C18:3, and C22:2) fatty acids decreased with irradiation. Trans fatty acids (C16:1trans, C18:1trans, C18:2trans, C18:3trans) increased with increasing irradiation doses. Meatball samples irradiated at 7 kGy had the highest total trans fatty acid content. This research shows that some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of meatballs can be changed by gamma irradiation. (author)

  16. Changes of lymphocytes in spleen and liver by local irradiation to the maxilla in mice. Th1/Th2 balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamazawa, Ken; Satoh, Daigo; Yosue, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    This study was to examine changes in cell-mediated immunity by local irradiation, in particular focusing on the Th1/Th2 balance. We investigated influence due to local irradiation (10 Gy) of a portion of the maxilla in mice. The wet-weight of spleen, the percentage and the absolute numbers of the lymphocytes in spleen, wet-weight of the liver, the percentage of lymphocytes in liver were measured using a flow cytometer and values were compared with those obtained from non-irradiated animals. Furthermore, we analysed the percentage and absolute numbers of T helper 1 (Th1) cells, T cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) cells by the intracellular cytokine. The following results were obtained: Wet-weight of the spleen showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. Wet-weight of the liver did not show any significant change after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and one of the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed an extreme increase one and three days after irradiation. The absolute numbers of the Th1-like cells and the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. In liver, the percentage of the Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and the percentage of the Th2-like cells did not show any significant change after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed a significant increase one day after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of the Th1 cells and Tc1 cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, but neither of the absolute numbers showed any significant change after irradiation. These results indicated that the characteristic changes of Th1/Th2 balance shifted to a Th1-dominant status by irradiation, and the ability from irradiation therapy to the

  17. Reproductive function in mice exposed to ancestral and direct irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.J.; Sprackling, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    Reproduction was studied in 13 inbred strains of mice that had been exposed continuously to 60 Co gamma radiation for varying numbers of generations. At weaning the mice were removed from the irradiation chamber and were tested for reproductive performance. Ancestral and direct levels of irradiation were determined for each animal. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile, and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the 10th day of pregnancy. The number of resorptions, dead embryos, and live embryos were counted, and the ratio of living embryos to the total number of embryos was determined for each litter. The overall fertility curves were sigmoid in the range of doses below those which caused complete sterility, which indicated some sort of cumulative damage. In 11 of the 13 strains studied, an increase in ancestral and/or direct irradiation led to significant decreases in fertility. The means of the number alive in the litters for the control and irradiated mice in each strain showed a definite trend toward fewer live mice in utero after irradiation. Least-squares analyses of variance were made to detect possible effects of any of six irradiation variables (ancestral linear, ancestral quadratic, ancestral cubic, direct linear, direct quadratic, or direct cubic) or of strain differences on total litter size and on ratio. Strain effects were significant in each instance. Litter size was more likely to be affected by radiation variables than ratios were

  18. Short-term effects of regional irradiation on lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazarin, C.; Roche, H.; Bugat, R.; Pris, F.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-three cancer patients treated only by regional irradiation were studied. Radiotherapy was delivered to the pelvis in 14 patients and to the mediastinum in 9. T lymphocytes were evaluated with the Jondal technique. Before treatment, lymphocyte counts were identical in patients and control. Decreases in total lymphocytes and T lymphocytes became significant in both groups after 40 Gy. Significant rises in eosinophil counts were found only after abdominal irradiation and seemed unrelated to variations in lymphocyte counts [fr

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.P.; Dhar, D.N.

    1988-06-01

    In vitro and in vivo effects of varying levels of gamma irradiation on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin were studied. Radiation doses of 100 Gy onwards caused a decrease in the viability of protoscoleces in vitro. However, infectivity of protoscoleces was not affected at radiation doses of 300 Gy in golden hamsters and 200 Gy in mice although number and size of cysts developing from infections with irradiated protoscoleces in these animals was small in comparison to cysts developing from infections with normal protoscoleces. Four hundred E. granulosus protoscoleces, normal or 100 Gy irradiated, proved fatal for mice. A significant progressive decline in worm establishment was observed in pups given an infection of E. granulosus protoscoleces exposed to increasing levels of gamma irradiation from 100 to 600 Gy. No worms established in pups infected with protoscoleces irradiated at 400 and 600 Gy, respectively. Worms developing from irradiated infections in pups were stunted and showed developmental abnormalities.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.P.; Dhar, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo effects of varying levels of gamma irradiation on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin were studied. Radiation doses of 100 Gy onwards caused a decrease in the viability of protoscoleces in vitro. However, infectivity of protoscoleces was not affected at radiation doses of 300 Gy in golden hamsters and 200 Gy in mice although number and size of cysts developing from infections with irradiated protoscoleces in these animals was small in comparison to cysts developing from infections with normal protoscoleces. Four hundred E. granulosus protoscoleces, normal or 100 Gy irradiated, proved fatal for mice. A significant progressive decline in worm establishment was observed in pups given an infection of E. granulosus protoscoleces exposed to increasing levels of gamma irradiation from 100 to 600 Gy. No worms established in pups infected with protoscoleces irradiated at 400 and 600 Gy, respectively. Worms developing from irradiated infections in pups were stunted and showed developmental abnormalities. (author)

  1. Microbial growth and sensory quality of dried potato slices irradiated by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Song, Kyung-Bin

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation was applied to secure the microbial safety of dried purple sweet potato. After purple sweet potato slices had been dehydrated with 20% (w/w) maltodextrin solution, the samples were irradiated at doses 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and then stored at 20 o C for 60 days. Microbiological data indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria and of yeast and molds significantly decreased with increase in irradiation dosage. Specifically, microbial load was reduced by about three log cycles at 6 kGy compared to those of the control. Based on the color measurement of the potato slices, electron beam irradiation treatment did not affect the color quality. Sensory evaluation results also showed that electron beam irradiation did not affect overall sensory scores during storage. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be useful for improving microbial safety without impairing the quality of the potato slices during storage.

  2. Irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on residual nitrite, ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin, and color in sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Joo; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kee-Hyuk; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2003-02-26

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on emulsion-type cooked pork sausage during storage for 4 weeks. CO(2) (100%), N(2) (100%), or 25% CO(2)/75% N(2) packaged sausage were irradiated at 0, 5, and 10 kGy, and residual nitrite, residual ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin (NO-Mb), color values, and their correlation were observed. Irradiation significantly reduced the residual nitrite content and caused partial reduction of NO-Mb during storage. No difference was observed in ascorbic acid content by irradiation. Irradiation decreased the Hunter color a value of sausage. CO(2) or CO(2)/N(2) packaging were more effective for reducing residual nitrite and inhibiting the loss of the red color of sausage compared to N(2) packaging. Results indicated that the proper combination of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging could reduce the residual nitrite in sausage with minimization of color change.

  3. Preventive and Therapeutic Effects of Propolis in Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; El-Shahat, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to stimulate the generation of oxygen radicals which destabilize organic molecules resulting in a decrease of the system's antioxidant potential. Propolis (bee glue) is a complex mixture of natural substances that exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities. As the possibility exists that it may exert a radio protections role, the present study aimed to examine the preventive and therapeutic effects of propolis on the gamma irradiation-induced changes in antioxidant status and certain biochemical parameters. HPLC chromatography for analysis of propolis showed that the number of identified phenols was 6 compounds (natural antioxidants). Male albino rats were exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation. The efficiency of propolis was evaluated when propolis was administered orally to rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg as follow: non-irradiated rats received orally propolis extract for 6 weeks (positive control) and rats received orally propolis extract for 3 weeks before or after gamma irradiation. The obtained results revealed that propolis given to rats before gamma irradiation protect the hazardous effects of gamma irradiation. In addition, administration of propolis to gamma irradiated rats caused significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes (glutathion reductase; GR and catalase; CAT) and total antioxidant capacity associated with a remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Also, it significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum levels of glucose and liver enzymes; aminotransferases (AST, ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). In conclusion, the positive results obtained in the gamma irradiated rats given propolis indicated that propolis could be considered as effective

  4. Influence of operation and irradiation on cell-mediated immunity in patients with oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Tominaga, Naohiro; Tokuhisa, Michio

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of operation and irradiation on cell-mediated immunity in patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma, several parameters, including NK activity, LAK activity, and IL-2 production, were selected. Twenty-two patients who underwent operation and/or irradiation from 1989 to 1993 were evaluated. Perioperatively, no significant change of immunologic parameters was observed except increased number of peripheral leukocytes at two weeks after operation. Immediately and/or one month after irradiation, significantly decreased numbers of leukocytes and lymphocytes as well as significantly depressed levels of blastoid transformation of lymphocytes, LAK activity, and IL-2 production were observed. By three months after irradiation, values of immunologic parameters returned to preirradiation values. The number of monocytes and level of NK activity showed little change after irradiation. (author)

  5. Effects of 5-Gy irradiation on fertility and mating behaviour of Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, A.; Cokl, A.; Sersa, G.

    2002-01-01

    Background. The polyphagous and cosmopolitan species Nezara viridula is one of the most important insect pests. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy that involves sterilising males by exposing them to ionising radiation. Sterile males, released into wild population, mate with females, but eggs are not fertilised and the population gradually declines. Exposing insects to radiation during their growth stage might require lower sterilising dose. The aim of our study was to test whether 5-Gy irradiation of 5 th instar nymphs significantly affects: (1) moulting and further development of the irradiated nymphs, (2) the male's and female's reproductive system and (3) the mating competitiveness of treated males, with special focus on vibrational communication. Methods: The 5 th instar nymphs were irradiated with 5 Gy using X-ray generator and monitored daily. Results: The observed effects of irradiation were: prolonged moulting, increased mortality during development and during the first day of adult life, decreased males to females ratio, decreased fecundity, egg production, proportion of fertile eggs and progeny survival. The reaction of a male to stimulation with the model female calling song was tested. The irradiated and non-irradiated males responded to stimulation with emission of the courtship song (MCrS). Temporal parameters of MCrS emitted by non-irradiated males differed when compared with those of irradiated ones. Conclusions: The 5-Gy irradiation of 5 th instar nymphs did not affect mating behaviour. However since the irradiation during growth stage decreased the fertility and fecundity of emerged adults, this technique, in combination with certain other suppression techniques, could be a successful control strategy for management of Nezara viridula. On the other hand observed effects on moulting and further development of the irradiated nymphs could decrease the efficiency and application of this strategy. (author)

  6. Effects of whole-body cobalt 60 gamma irradiation on the young korean native goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Gyu; Sung, Jai Ki

    1989-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of whole-body cobolt-60 gamma irradiation on clinical signs, mortality, hematological, blood chemical, chromosomal and pathologic changes in the young Korean native goats. Groups of goats were exposed to 200, 400, 600 and 800 rads of gamma irradiation from a cobalt-60 source. Clinical signs such as diarrhea, anorexia, weakness and depression of the irradiated goats were observed. Mortalities were 66.7 percent in the group irradiated with 200 rads and 100 percent in the groups irradiated with higher doses. Death times were shortened with the increment of irradiation doses. With time after irradiation, the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin and packed cell volume decreased in the 200 and 400 rads groups and increased in the 600 and 800 rads groups. The number of total leukocytes of the irradiated goats decreased significantly in all irradiated groups. The degrees of decrease were severe as the irradiated doses were increased. Significant decrease of lymphocyte counts were observed from 6 hours in the 800 rads group and 1 day post irradiation(PI) in all other groups. Post irradiation times for significant reduction of neutrophils were 1, 3, 3 and 5 days for 800, 600, 400 and 200 rads groups, respectively. Serum sorbitol dehydrogenase and serum aspartate aminotransferase activities increased remarkably at 6 hours PI in the 800 rads group and 1 day PI in all other groups. Thereafter the activities returned to normal values. Since mitoses of lymphocytes were completely inhibited in blood cultures of all irradiated goats, chromosomal pictures could not be observed. However, mitoses were observed on 28 days PI in 200 rads group and no abberration in the number and structures of lymphocyte chromosomes were detected. Histopathologic findings in various organs of the irradiated goats were severe necrosis and depletion of lymphoid cells in the lymph nodes and spleen, hypoplasia of hemopoietic cells in the bone marrow

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on the appearance and composition of edible mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Darwish, Y.M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Fresh edible mushrooms picked with closed caps, and irradiated at 0, 1.0 and 2.5 kGy doses were stored for 8 days at 20+-2 0 C and investigated for the changes in ascorbic acid, protein contents, free alpha-amino N and total phenols. It was observed that during storage free alpha-amino N decreased significantly, while the protein contents remained somewhat constant till 4th day of storage. The ascorbic acid increased in the beginning and then decreased significantly. Total phenols decreased in the beginning and then accumulated during further storage. Irradiation had no effect on the proteins, but decreased ascorbic acid contents of mushrooms. The levels of free alpha-amino N and total phenols were significantly higher in irradiated treatments as compared to unirradiated mushrooms. (author)

  8. Cranial irradiation alters dendritic spine density and morphology in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanabha Chakraborti

    Full Text Available Therapeutic irradiation of the brain is a common treatment modality for brain tumors, but can lead to impairment of cognitive function. Dendritic spines are sites of excitatory synaptic transmission and changes in spine structure and number are thought to represent a morphological correlate of altered brain functions associated with hippocampal dependent learning and memory. To gain some insight into the temporal and sub region specific cellular changes in the hippocampus following brain irradiation, we investigated the effects of 10 Gy cranial irradiation on dendritic spines in young adult mice. One week or 1 month post irradiation, changes in spine density and morphology in dentate gyrus (DG granule and CA1 pyramidal neurons were quantified using Golgi staining. Our results showed that in the DG, there were significant reductions in spine density at both 1 week (11.9% and 1 month (26.9% after irradiation. In contrast, in the basal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, irradiation resulted in a significant reduction (18.7% in spine density only at 1 week post irradiation. Analysis of spine morphology showed that irradiation led to significant decreases in the proportion of mushroom spines at both time points in the DG as well as CA1 basal dendrites. The proportions of stubby spines were significantly increased in both the areas at 1 month post irradiation. Irradiation did not alter spine density in the CA1 apical dendrites, but there were significant changes in the proportion of thin and mushroom spines at both time points post irradiation. Although the mechanisms involved are not clear, these findings are the first to show that brain irradiation of young adult animals leads to alterations in dendritic spine density and morphology in the hippocampus in a time dependent and region specific manner.

  9. Effect of irradiation on Brazilian honeys' consistency and their acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, A.H.; Sabato, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    Contamination of bee products may occur during packing or even during the process of collection. Gamma irradiation was found to decrease the number of bacteria and fungi. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma irradiation on viscosity which is an important property of honey. In this work the viscosity of two varieties of Brazilian honey was measured when they were irradiated at 5 and 10 kGy. The viscosity was measured at four temperatures (25 deg. C, 30 deg. C, 35 deg. C and 40 deg. C) for both samples and compared with control and within the doses. The sensory evaluation was carried on for the parameters color, odor, taste and consistency, using a 9-point hedonic scale. All the data were treated with a statistical tool (Statistica 5.1, StatSoft, 1998). The viscosity was not impaired significantly by gamma irradiation in doses 5 and 10 kGy (p<0.05). The effect of gamma irradiation on sensorial characteristics (odor, color, taste and consistency) is presented. The taste for Parana type indicated a significant difference among irradiation doses (p<0.05) but the higher value was for 5 kGy dose, demonstrating the acceptability for this case. The Organic honey presented the taste parameter for 10 kGy, significantly lower than the control mean but it did not differ significantly from the 5 kGy value

  10. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after...... the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (... of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray...

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  13. Irradiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira

    1977-01-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures. (Kanao, N.)

  14. Irradiation proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, A [Osaka Kita Tsishin Hospital (Japan)

    1977-06-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures.

  15. Clotting mechanism in beagles irradiated by 4.5 Gy γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhenhu; Wang Ning; Li Ming; Xing Shuang; Huang Haixiao; Ou Hongling; Xiong Guolin; Zhao Yanfang; Xie Ling; Wang Jinxiang; Miao Jingcheng; Zhu Nankang; Zhang Xueguang; Luo Qingliang; Cong Yuwen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clotting mechanism in beagles irradiated by 4.5 Gy γ-rays after treatment with supportive care, or supportive care and combined cytokines. Methods: Sixteen beagles were divided into irradiation control group, Supportive care group and combined cytokines treatment group. Platelet aggregation test, thrombelastography (TEG) and the time measurement were analyzed in vitro. Results: In irradiation group and supportive care group, the platelet aggregation rates in beagles were decreased markedly and the k value of TEG was increased 7 d post-irradiation, while those indexes in combined cytokines treatment group changed little. At 14 d post-irradiation, each parameter of TEG in irradiated group changed obviously. The values of r, k, r + k and M were elevated significantly, clotting time and the maximum coagulation time of thrombus delayed, the Ma value was decreased markedly, and the maximum elasticity amplitude of thrombus was diminished. All parameters in combined cytokines treatment group were better than those in supportive care group. The thrombin time was prolonged obviously in irradiated group 14 d post-irradiation, while the thrombin time was the longest at 2-3 weeks post irradiation in supportive care group and combined cytokines treatment group (P>0.05). Conclusions: Cytokines could improve the platelet aggregation and the blood clotting functions of beagles suffering from acute radiation sickness. (authors)

  16. Low dose irradiation influence on yield and quality of fruit juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.; Isaacs, A.R.; Williams, D.J.; McLauchlan, R.L.; Nottingham, S.M.; Hammerton, K.

    1991-01-01

    Granny Smith apples, Valencia oranges, and Pearlette grapes grown in Queensland, Australia were irradiated at 0, 75, 300 and 600 Gy. Following irradiation, juice was extracted and analysed for quality and compositional changes. Irradiation treatment significantly (p0.05) decreased yield of apple juice (by 6.3% w/w at 600 Gy) and grape juice (by 4.8% w/w at 600 Gy) but did not significantly (p0.05) affect yield of orange juice (OJ). Acceptability significantly (p0.05) decreased in OJ after 600 Gy treatment. Other changes in quality and composition were minimal. Juice from irradiated apples and oranges stored at 5 degrees C for 8 wk showed similar results

  17. A study on UV irradiated HDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Haibo; Liu Zimin; Wu Shishan; Shen Jian

    2006-01-01

    The structure and properties of HDPE irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) in ozone atmosphere were studied by FT-IR, XPS, gel, and water contact angle test. The oxygen-containing groups such as C=O, C-O and C(=O)O were introduced onto high density polyethylene (HDPE) chains through ultraviolet irradiation in ozone atmosphere, their content increased with the UV irradiation time. Under the same UV irradiation conditions, amount of the oxygen-containing groups introduced in ozone atmosphere was more than that in air atmosphere, indicating that the speed of oxygen-containing groups introduced through UV irradiation in ozone atmosphere was faster than that in air. Therefore, HDPE could be quickly functionalized through UV irradiation in ozone atmosphere. There was no gel formed in the HDPE irradiated in ozone atmosphere. After UV irradiation, the water contact angle of HDPE decreased, and its hydrophilicity was improved, suggesting that the compatibility between the irradiated HDPE and polar polymer or inorganic fillers may be better. Compared with HDPE, the temperature of initial weight loss for irradiated HDPE decreased. The structure and properties of irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend were also investigated. The results showed that the compatibility and interfacial action of the irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend were improved compared to that of HDPE/CaCO 3 blend. The mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend increased with increasing irradiation time. (authors)

  18. Garlic protects the glutathione redox cycle in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Ghadeer, A.R.M.; Osman, S.A.A.; Abbady, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible radioprotective role of garlic oil on the glutathione redox cycle (GSH, GSH-Px, GR and G6-PD) in blood and tissues (liver, spleen and intestine) of irradiated rats. Garlic oil was orally administered to rats (100 mg/Kg- b.w.) for 7 days before exposure to a fractionated of whole body gamma irradiation up to 9 Gy (3 Gy X 3 at 2 days intervals) and during the whole period of irradiation. The data showed that radiation exposure caused significant inhibition of the biochemical parameters in blood and tissue of irradiated rats all over the investigation periods (3,7 and 15 days). Garlic oil ameliorated the decrease in the tested parameters with noticeable effect on the 15 Th. day after radiation exposure. It is concluded that garlic oil could control the radiation induced changes in the glutathione redox cycle and provided some radioprotective effect

  19. Mitosis dynamics in bone marrow of continuously irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlebovsky, O; Praslicka, M; Chlebovska, K [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1975-01-01

    Values were investigated of the mitotic index (MI) and the metaphase/prophase ratio (M/P) in rats continuously irradiated with daily doses of 0.5 to 82.5 R. Changes resulting from the continuous irradiation were manifest in two stages, viz.: 1. adaptation stage up to the 30th day of irradiation - the values fluctuated considerably; 2. steady-state stage since the 30th day till the end of irradiation - the values stabilized at a certain level. During the adaptation stage, MI values decreased till the 25th day; then they increased and remained at a certain lower value till the end of the experiment. M/P values showed a considerable variability between the 5th and the 25th days and a significant increase in the steady-state stage, mainly at higher dose rates.

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  1. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  2. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  3. Influence of gamma irradiation and low temperature storage on the quality and shelf life of squid (Doryteuthis sibogae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjanaik, B.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation is considered as an efficient method for the reduction of microorganisms in food. It has been used to improve the safety and shelf life of food products. The present investigation is aimed at studying the influence of gamma irradiation (3 and 5 kGy and subsequent storage at refrigeration temperature (4oC on the chemical, microbial qualities and extended shelf life of squid (Doryteuthis sibogae. The total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N and trimethyl amine nitrogen values (TMA-N of the irradiated squid samples significantly decreased in comparison with the control (non-irradiated stored at 4oC. The thiobarbituric acid values for the irradiated squid was significantly lower than of the non-irradiated samples stored at 4oC (p<0.05. The pH value of the squid was affected significantly by both, irradiation dose and storage temperature (p<0.05. The total microbial load for the non-irradiated squid samples was higher than those of irradiated samples at 4oC temperature. The results revealed that the combination of irradiation and refrigerated storage resulted in a significant reduction of microbial growth and stabilized the biochemical characteristics of squid.

  4. Irradiation of dehydrated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterhuyse, A; Esterhuizen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The reason for radurization was to decreased the microbial count of dehydrated vegetables. The average absorbed irradiation dose range between 2kGy and 15kGy. The product catagories include a) Green vegetables b) White vegetables c) Powders of a) and b). The microbiological aspects were: Declining curves for the different products of T.P.C., Coliforms, E. Coli, Stap. areus, Yeast + Mold at different doses. The organoleptical aspects were: change in taste, flavour, texture, colour and moisture. The aim is the marketing of irradiated dehydrated vegetables national and international basis

  5. Effect of individual or combined treatment by γ-irradiation or temperature (high or low) on bacillus subtilis spores and its application for sterilization of ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Mostafa, S.A.; Awny, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    The combination of two lethal agents such as irradiation and temperature (high or sub zero) resulted in synergistic death or B. subtilis spores (as indicated by decrease in the thermal D-value). The extent of this synergism in killing a spore population depended mainly on the sequence on application of the two physical agents. Irradiation-temperature (high or sub zero) sequence killed more but injured less B. subtilis spores than temperature irradiation sequence or irradiation and temperature applied separately. Storage at -20 0 C killed more spores than storage at -2 0 C if carried after irradiation, while the reverse was true of storage was prior irradiation. An irradiation dose of 8 KGY followed by thermal exposure to 70 0 C for 1 hr is suggested for the sterilization of ground beef. Irradiation induced certain quantitative changes on the amino-N, protein-N, RNA and DNA of the first subcultures of irradiated spores with stimulatory effect at low irradiation doses and inhibitory effect at the high irradiation doses. This might explain the increased sensitivity of irradiated spores to subsequent exposure to unfavourable temperature (high or sub zero). Exposure of B. subtilis spore to 70 0 C induced a stimulation in the amino- and protein-N of the resulting cells while exposure to 80 0 C resulted in a significant decrease in the amino-N. The protein-N remained more or less the same

  6. Neutron irradiation of rat embryos in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In the rat radiation is most effective in producing congenital anomalies during the organ-forming period (days 9 to 13), which is approximately equivalent to the 14th to 50th days of human pregnancy. We have exposed female Sprague--Dawley rats on the 18th day of pregnancy to single whole-body doses of fission neutrons (20 to 150 rads). After 20 rads there was a small decrease in body weight which lasted from birth to weaning. During this period 9% of the irradiated rats died compared with 4% of the controls. After 50 rads, 65/275 (23.6%) of the rats died between birth and weaning, and the body-weight loss of the survivors was increased. After 100 rads, 62/133 (47%) died at birth or day 1 and 103/133 (77.4%) died before weaning. A large and significant decrease in body weight persisted in the survivors. After 150 rads of fission neutrons, all 95 rats died within 48 hr of birth. From cross-fostering experiments, we believe this is a direct effect of radiation on the embryos and not an indirect action through the mother or her milk. The LD 50 for the period from birth to weaning is approximately 75 rads of fission neutrons. Studies of organ weight were conducted daily for the first week after birth in an attempt to find the cause of radiation mortality. Body weight of the irradiated animals averaged only about one-half that of the controls. The liver, kidney, brain, and testes of the neutron-irradiated rats weighed significantly less than those of the controls. The weights of the spleen, lungs, duodenum, and stomach were decreased but not significantly. The bone marrow appeared depleted in the irradiated long bones, but the spleen maintained active hematopoiesis 1 to 2 months after neutron exposure

  7. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Quality Characteristic and Microbiological Safety of Rape (Brassica napus) Pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Jeong, Su-Ji; Kim, Dam; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kwang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    This study is carried out to sanitize rape (Brassica napus) pollen by gamma irradiation. Rape pollens were treated with 0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy gamma irradiations, and then analyzed for the following: general composition, microbial population, reducing sugar, Hunter color values, TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values, and VBN (volatile basic nitrogen). Mold and coliform bacteria were not detected in the samples irradiated at 5 kGy or more. Yeasts and total aerobic bacteria were not detected in the samples irradiated at 10 kGy or more (102 CFU/g). Moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrate, reducing sugar and the contents of volatile basic nitrogen in the irradiated pollen did not show any significant changes by irradiation. Hunter color values, L, a and b values were decreased with increment of irradiation dose. TBARS values were increased with an increment of irradiation dose. In conclusion, gamma irradiation at 5 kGy was considered to be an effective treatment to control for mycotoxin producing fungi in rape pollen to minimize changes of general composition and physicochemical properties. Further studies should be investigated to reduce the detrimental effects induced by irradiation

  8. Fluctuation in haematological values in gamma irradiated rats subjected to pesticide ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hamid, F.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abu-Ghadeer, A.R.; Girgis, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Male albino rats were exposed to gamma irradiation alone or after either oral daily administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane for 3 successive days; or daily administration of 200 mg kelthane mixed with food per kg body weight for 3,6 and 12 weeks. Relative spleen weight and certain hematological values were determined. Significant decrease could be estimated in relative spleen weight due to exposure to gamma irradiation. Significant increase was recorded due to treatment with 50 and 100 mg kelthane. The data obtained on hematological levels revealed insignificant changes in erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration due to exposure to gamma irradiation and / or kelthane treatment. Significant decrease was recorded in hematocrit value either for successive 30 days or due to exposure to gamma radiation after treatment with kelthane for short and long term periods. Leucocyte counts showed significant decrease for all animal groups. 2 tabs

  9. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC–MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added. - Highlights: ► Garlic and red wine were added to ground beef and irradiated at 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. ► When the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly and it affected sensory score. ► Thus, addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation. ► This effect was consistent when additives, such as garlic and red wine, were added into ground beef.

  10. Mechanism of liver lipid accumulation in X-irradiated rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyar, A.S.; De, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    The incorporation, both in vivo and in vitro, of 14 C-acetate into hepatic lipids, notably the triglyceride and free fatty acid fractions, is greatly reduced following whole-body irradiation and is indicative of significantly reduced lipogenesis. Irradiation results in a several-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation, by the liver in vitro as well as in the whole animal, during the phase of active hepatic lipid accumulation. Small increases in lipoprotein lipase activity of adipose, immediately following irradiation and up to 24 hours, and the attendant marked fall in adipose lipids are suggestive of increased mobilization of peripheral lipids during the early period. However, in view of the fact that maximum lipid accumulations occurs very much later, inflow of extra-hepatic lipid into liver does not appear to be of major etiological significance. There is three-fold experimental evidence in support of an impairment of trigylceride transport from liver being primarily responsible for the build-up of liver lipids: (I) Triton WR-1339 induced hypertriglyceridemia is totally absent in the irradiated rat during the period when liver lipids increase significantly; (II) the rate of disappearance of radioactivity from pre-labeled hepatic lipids is considerably lower in the irradiated rats; and (III) the irradiated rats show decrease in lipoproteins of liver cell-sap and of serum, the latter being more marked and a lowered synthesis of the lipoproteins, as assessed by labeling of the protein moiety. (orig.) [de

  11. Mechanism of liver lipid accumulation in X-irradiated rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiyar, A S; De, A K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1978-03-01

    The incorporation, both in vivo and in vitro, of /sup 14/C-acetate into hepatic lipids, notably the triglyceride and free fatty acid fractions, is greatly reduced following whole-body irradiation and is indicative of significantly reduced lipogenesis. Irradiation results in a several-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation, by the liver in vitro as well as in the whole animal, during the phase of active hepatic lipid accumulation. Small increases in lipoprotein lipase activity of adipose, immediately following irradiation and up to 24 hours, and the attendant marked fall in adipose lipids are suggestive of increased mobilization of peripheral lipids during the early period. However, in view of the fact that maximum lipid accumulations occurs very much later, inflow of extra-hepatic lipid into liver does not appear to be of major etiological significance. There is three-fold experimental evidence in support of an impairment of trigylceride transport from liver being primarily responsible for the build-up of liver lipids: (I) Triton WR-1339 induced hypertriglyceridemia is totally absent in the irradiated rat during the period when liver lipids increase significantly; (II) the rate of disappearance of radioactivity from pre-labeled hepatic lipids is considerably lower in the irradiated rats; and (III) the irradiated rats show decrease in lipoproteins of liver cell-sap and of serum, the latter being more marked and a lowered synthesis of the lipoproteins, as assessed by labeling of the protein moiety.

  12. Analytic study of regional changes in carcinoma of the cervix uteri following linac irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Michitaka

    1978-01-01

    Histological evaluation was made on regional changes in 60 cases of carcinoma of the cervix uteri following Linac therapy which was employed prior to any other therapy. Correlation between this result and the effect of irradiation on the primary lesion was evaluated. Changes in carcinomatous cells following Linac irradiation were remarkably found in swelling, vacuolation hyalinization and decrease of nuclear division of the cytoplasm, and in swelling, vacuolation, concentration, and clasmatosis of nuclei, and also in swelling of nucleus. Changes in the interstice were hyperplasia of the surrounding connective tissues which became remarkable as a dose of the irradiation increased. However, the changes in the interstice seemed to appear a little late after the changes in the carcinomatous cells occurred. The density of blood-vessel distribution remained high until the irradiation of 3000r, and it became lower following the irradiation of 3000r or more. Thickening of the blood-vessel wall and obstruction of the blood-vessel cavity were marked following the irradiation of 3000r. Infiltration of the lymphoid cells was most advanced following the irradiation of 3000r. When the effectiveness of irradiation and histological changes were compared, there was a highly significant difference (p<0.01) in swelling of nuclei between remarkably effective cases and ineffective cases following the irradiation of 1000r or 2000r. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in swelling of the cytoplasm following the irradiation of 1000r or 2000r, clasmatosis of the nuclei following the irradiation of 3000r, the density of blood-vessel distribution before the therapy and following the irradiation of 2000r, and infiltration of lymphoid cells following the irradiation of 1000 or 3000r between two. (Ueda, J.)

  13. Studies of Sterile Irradiation Effects on the White-striped Fruit Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, Wanitch; Tannarin, Thodsapol; Khongratarpon, Titima; Segsarnviriya, Suchada

    2011-06-01

    Full text: In general, sterile irradiation can affect vigor and mating competitiveness of the fruit flies. The objective of the experiments was to study the effects of sterile irradiation on the white-striped oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), developed for sterile fly detection. A day before adult emergence, the pupae were irradiated at the dose of 90 Grays. No effects on adult emergence and flight ability were observed. However, it induced complete sterility in both sexes. Also, it decreased male mating competitiveness significantly, while increasing sexual competitiveness significantly

  14. Rat behaviour reactions and brain synaptic membrane lipids under the chronical gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, T.P.; Medvinskaya, N.I.; Potekhina, N.I.; Kolomijtseva, I.K.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of low level chronical ionising irradiation (12.9 cGy/day on the sensory attention to the stimuli of different modalities (somatosensor, visual, odor) of Wistar rats were studied. Analysis of animals behaviour was made after they had received the different doses of irradiation: 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 Gy. It was founded, that the attention and exploratory activity of rats is significantly decreased up to 20-30% after 4-6 Gy. The irradiation doses 8 Gy did not change animal behaviour as compared to control animals, but doses 10, 15 and 20 Gy decreased the exploratory activity as well as sensory attention of rats to 3-5-times as compared to previous dose. Such a wave-like way of behaviour reflects the functioning of an adaptive mechanism. Biochemical data indicated that after 5 months of the irradiation (dose 20 Gy) the level of phospholipids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatdylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol were decreased

  15. Post-irradiation repairing processes of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase from Hansenula Polymorpha yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Carmen; Postolache, Cristian; Dinu, Diana; Dinischiotu, Anca; Sahini, Victor Emanuel

    2002-01-01

    The post-irradiation repairing mechanisms of two Hansenula Polymorpha yeast enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, were studied. The kinetic parameters of the selected enzymes were investigated over one month since the moment of γ-irradiation with different doses in the presence of oxygen. Dose dependent decrease of initial reaction rates was noticed for both enzymes. Small variation of initial reaction rate was recorded for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase over one month, with a decreasing tendency. No significant electrophoretic changes of molecular forms of this enzyme were observed after irradiation. Continuous strong decrease of catalase activity was evident for the first 20 days after irradiation. Partial recovery process of the catalytic activity was revealed by this study. (authors)

  16. Dislocation loops and their depth profiles in He[sup +] and D[sup +] ion irradiated nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwase, K [Dept. of Physics, Hyogo Univ. of Teacher Education, Yashiro (Japan); Ezawa, T [Dept. of Material Physics, Faculty of Engineering Science, Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan); Tanabe, T [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan); Kiritani, M [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Fujita, F E [Dept. of Material Physics, Faculty of Engineering Science, Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan)

    1993-07-01

    Effects of implanted deuterium and helium on the formation of dislocation loops in Ni have been systematically investigated in terms of the irradiation temperature and dose by means of transmission electron microscopy. Significant enhancement of loop formation is observed only for He[sup +] irradiation. The number density of loops at 200 C for He[sup +] irradiation is about one order of magnitude higher than that of D[sup +] irradiation and the difference increases at higher temperatures. Significant decrease in the density occurs at about 300 C for D[sup +] irradiation, but it appears at about 600 C for He[sup +] irradiation. Below 200 C, continuous nucleation of loops is observed only for He[sup +] irradiation. The change in the loop depth distribution suggests that the nucleation of loops for He[sup +] irradiation is enhanced by some defects with a low mobility such as small He-vacancy complexes. The significant decrease in the loop density above 600 C is explained by the decrease in the concentration of the small He-vacancy complexes due to their absorption by large cavities or their escape to the specimen surface. (orig.)

  17. Effect of infection by irradiated Trichinella Spirals larvae on mice and assessment the role of Al bendazole in treating them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, M.A.F.; Amin, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of infection with irradiated Trichinella Spiralis larvae on mice and to asses the role of albendazole in treating them. This study included parasitological and histopathological studies on mice infected with irradiated Trichinella Spiralis larvae in comparison with mice infected with non-irradiated Trichinella Spiralis only or with mice treated after infection by albendazole. The obtained data revealed that, in mice infected with irradiated Trichinella Spiralis larvae (50 Krad or 80 Krad), the number and length of worms in the small intestine, as well as, the number of encysted larvae in muscles of mice, especially diaphragm and tongue, were significantly decreased. Also, using al bendazole 24 hours after infection with irradiated larvae lead to high significant decrease in all the previously mentioned parameters

  18. Effects of environmentally differential rearing upon maze performance in prenatally irradiated microcephalic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, M.L.; Inouye, M.; Kiyono, S.; Shibagaki, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pregnant rats received 100 rads of X-irradiation on day 17 of gestation. Control pregnant rats were sham-irradiated on the same gestation day. The male offspring were reared under environmentally enriched, standard colony, and impoverished conditions for 30 days after weaning. Then the Hebb-Williams maze test was carried out. All the prenatally X-irradiated rats were microcephalic: their mean cerebral wet weight was 15.5% less than controls. The effect of X-irradiation was not significant in error scores and running times, whereas the effect of environment was significant in these items; initial and total error scores and running times were decreased in enriched groups compared to impoverished groups in controls as well as in X-irradiated animals

  19. Study on effects of gamma-ray irradiation on TlBr semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Motohiro; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uritani, Akira; Kimura, Norihisa; Nagano, Nobumichi; Hitomi, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    Radiation hardness of thallium bromide (TlBr) semiconductor detectors to 60 Co gamma-ray irradiation was evaluated. The energy spectra and μτ products of electrons were measured to evaluate the irradiation effects. No significant degradation of spectroscopic performance of the TlBr detector for 137 Cs gamma-rays was observed up to 45 kGy irradiation. Although the μτ products of electrons in the TlBr detector slightly decreased, position of the photo-peak was stable without significant degradation after the gamma-ray irradiation. We confirmed that the TlBr semiconductor detector has a high tolerance for gamma-ray irradiation at least up to 45 kGy. (author)

  20. Fast neutron irradiation deteriorates hippocampus-related memory ability in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Hwanseong; Kim, Juhwan; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Joong-Sun; Shin, Taekyun; Moon, Changjong

    2012-03-01

    Object recognition memory and contextual fear conditioning task performance in adult C57BL/6 mice exposed to cranial fast neutron irradiation (0.8 Gy) were examined to evaluate hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction following acute exposure to relatively low doses of fast neutrons. In addition, hippocampal neurogenesis changes in adult murine brain after cranial irradiation were analyzed using the neurogenesis immunohistochemical markers Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In the object recognition memory test and contextual fear conditioning, mice trained 1 and 7 days after irradiation displayed significant memory deficits compared to the sham-irradiated controls. The number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells decreased significantly 24 h post-irradiation. These results indicate that acute exposure of the adult mouse brain to a relatively low dose of fast neutrons interrupts hippocampal functions, including learning and memory, possibly by inhibiting neurogenesis.

  1. Protection effect of ginkgo albumin extract on γ-ray irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Qianchun; Duan Huike; Wang Lan; Xie Bijun; Chen Chunyan

    2005-01-01

    Water soluble ginkgo albumin extract (GAE), which was extracted for the first time from seeds of Ginkgo bilbo L in our laboratory has good antioxidant and anti-aging activity. In this paper, protective effect of GAE on γ-rays irradiated mice was studied. The results showed that the mice irradiated to 8.5 Gy were zero, whereas survival rate of the high dosage GAE group was 20 percent. Blood picture of the 8.5 Gy irradiated mice suffered damages of different degrees, while blood picture index of the GAE group decreased slower and recovered faster significantly than the irradiation control group. GAE and Vitamin C could significantly enhance serum SOD activity in serum and increase DNA content in bone marrow cells, and also promote recovery of damaged immunology function of the irradiated mice. These suggest that GAE may protect mice from the radiation damages by enhancement of antioxidant activity, hemopoiesis function and immunologic function of mice. (authors)

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecher, O.

    1979-01-01

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  4. AGC-2 Irradiation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Windes, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled, very high temperature reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. In past applications, graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) designs.[ , ] Nuclear graphite H 451, used previously in the United States for nuclear reactor graphite components, is no longer available. New nuclear graphites have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for the new NGNP reactor design. To support the design and licensing of NGNP core components within a commercial reactor, a complete properties database must be developed for these current grades of graphite. Quantitative data on in service material performance are required for the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of each graphite grade with a specific emphasis on data related to the life limiting effects of irradiation creep on key physical properties of the NGNP candidate graphites. Based on experience with previous graphite core components, the phenomenon of irradiation induced creep within the graphite has been shown to be critical to the total useful lifetime of graphite components. Irradiation induced creep occurs under the simultaneous application of high temperatures, neutron irradiation, and applied stresses within the graphite components. Significant internal stresses within the graphite components can result from a second phenomenon—irradiation induced dimensional change. In this case, the graphite physically changes i.e., first shrinking and then expanding with increasing neutron dose. This disparity in material volume change can induce significant internal stresses within graphite components. Irradiation induced creep relaxes these large internal stresses, thus reducing the risk of crack formation and component failure. Obviously, higher irradiation creep levels tend to relieve more internal stress, thus allowing the

  5. Low-dose-rate radiation exposure leads to testicular damage with decreases in DNMT1 and HDAC1 in the murine testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Eun Ji; Son, Tae Gen; Yang, Kwangmo; Heo, Kyu; Kim, Joong Sun; Shin, In Sik

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of continuous low-dose-rate radiation exposure (3.49 mGy/h) of gamma rays on mice testicles. C57BL/6 mice were divided into sham and radiation groups (n = 8 each), and were exposed to either sham irradiation or 2 Gy for 21 days, 0.2 Gy for 2 days, or 0.02 Gy for 6 h of low-dose-rate irradiation. Testicular weight, seminiferous tubular diameter, and seminiferous epithelial depth were significantly decreased in the mice irradiated with 2 Gy at 1 and 9 days after exposure. Moreover, the low-dose-rate radiation exposure induced an increase in malondialdehyde levels, and a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in the testis of mice irradiated with 2 Gy at 1 and 9 days after exposure. The sperm count and motility in the epididymis also decreased in mice irradiated with 2 Gy at 1 and 9 days after exposure, whereas there was no significant effect on the proportion of abnormal sperm. The expressions of DNA methlytransferases-1 and histone deacetylases 1 in testes irradiated with 2 Gy were significantly decreased compared with the sham group. In conclusion, the damage exerted on the testes and epididymis largely depended on the total dose of low-dose-rate radiation. (author)

  6. Hyperparathyroidism After Irradiation for Childhood Malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, Todd; Bodie, Greg; Gill, Anthony; Ihre-Lundgren, Catharina; Shun, Albert; Bergin, Mary; Stevens, Graham; Delbridge, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the occurrence of hyperparathyroidism in a cohort of patients undergoing combined parathyroid and thyroid surgery after previous head-and-neck irradiation for childhood malignancy. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective cohort study for the years 1996 to 2007. The study group comprised patients undergoing surgery in University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit who had received previous head-and-neck irradiation in childhood and who were identified as having pathologic thyroid and parathyroid characteristics. Results: A total of 53 patients were identified in whom head-and-neck irradiation for the treatment of childhood malignancy had been documented. In each of the cases, thyroid disease was the primary reason for referral for surgery. Five of these patients (10%) were found to exhibit coexisting hyperparathyroidism. The latency period for hyperparathyroidism was less than 20 years in 4 of the 5 cases. There were four conventional parathyroid adenomas and one parathyroid lipoadenoma. All patients exhibited a significant decrease in postoperative calcium levels after surgery. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the significant risk of hyperparathyroidism after radiation exposure for childhood malignancy. The timeframe for development of disease is much shorter than that published for individuals who have undergone irradiation for benign diseases. High doses of therapeutic radiation at a young age make childhood survivors of malignancy at especially high risk for developing hyperparathyroidism

  7. Hyperparathyroidism after irradiation for childhood malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Todd; Bodie, Greg; Gill, Anthony; Ihre-Lundgren, Catharina; Shun, Albert; Bergin, Mary; Stevens, Graham; Delbridge, Leigh

    2009-03-15

    To examine the occurrence of hyperparathyroidism in a cohort of patients undergoing combined parathyroid and thyroid surgery after previous head-and-neck irradiation for childhood malignancy. This is a retrospective cohort study for the years 1996 to 2007. The study group comprised patients undergoing surgery in the University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit who had received previous head-and-neck irradiation in childhood and who were identified as having pathologic thyroid and parathyroid characteristics. A total of 53 patients were identified in whom head-and-neck irradiation for the treatment of childhood malignancy had been documented. In each of the cases, thyroid disease was the primary reason for referral for surgery. Five of these patients (10%) were found to exhibit coexisting hyperparathyroidism. The latency period for hyperparathyroidism was less than 20 years in 4 of the 5 cases. There were four conventional parathyroid adenomas and one parathyroid lipoadenoma. All patients exhibited a significant decrease in postoperative calcium levels after surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the significant risk of hyperparathyroidism after radiation exposure for childhood malignancy. The timeframe for development of disease is much shorter than that published for individuals who have undergone irradiation for benign diseases. High doses of therapeutic radiation at a young age make childhood survivors of malignancy at especially high risk for developing hyperparathyroidism.

  8. Effect of thyroid gland function following 60Co-γ ray irradiation on rabbit pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Shigenori

    1987-01-01

    Cobalt 60 gamma-ray irradiation using a single exposure at 10 Gy or 20 Gy was applied to the hypophysis in rabbits in order to study the relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (T 4 ) after irradiation, and the histopathologic features were observed together with determination of the blood T 4 levels. The histopathologic features were observed with special reference to changes in the β cells of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis involved in TSH secretion using mainly hematoxylin and eosin staining. Blood T 4 level was determined by radioimmunoassay, and the histopathologic features and hormone levels were compared between the 10 Gy- and 20 Gy-irradiation groups. The following results were obtained: 1) The T 4 level rapidly decreased the day following irradiation in both groups, continuing for 3 days and 7 days, respectively. subsequently, the level rapidly returned to the pre-irradiation level about 14 days after irradiation in the 10 Gy group, while the level in the 20 Gy group continued to decrease at a rate significantly different from that in the 10 Gy group even after 14 days following irradiation. However, the level was restored to the pre-irradiation level in both groups 28 days after irradiation. 2) Histopathologic examination of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis revealed a decrease in the number of β cells until about 14 days after irradiation in both groups, and thereafter there were only a few changes. However, pyknosis and vacuolar degeneration of other cells and dilatation of sinusoidal capillaries were present for a relatively long period, which were not relieved even 28 days after irradiation, particularly in the 20 Gy group. 3) There was a relatively close relationship between changes in the β cells of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis and changes in blood T 4 level, but histopathologic changes in the hypophysis seemed to remain for a relatively long period. (author)

  9. Hematological changes after single large dose half-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.; Friedrich, S.; Jochem, I.; Eberhardt, H.J.; Koch, R.; Knorr, A.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of different peripheral blood parameters aimed at the study of side effects on the hematological cellular system following a 5 - 8 Gy single large dose half-body irradiation in 20 patients. Compared to the initial values the leukocytes between the 6. and 14., the thrombocytes between the 14. and 21. postirradiation day as well as the lymphocytes between 3 hours and 4 weeks postirradiation were significantly decreased without exhibiting complications such as hemorrhages or infections. The hemoglobin, hematocrit and reticulocyte values revealed but a slight decrease normalized within a 28 days postirradiation period. Transfusions were necessary when a tumor-caused anemia was present prior to irradiation. Changes in serum activity of aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase occured during the first hours after irradiation and were due to enzyme release from destroyed tumor cells

  10. Stimulation effects of low dose-rate irradiation on pancreatic antioxidant activity in type II diabetes model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takaharu; Sakai, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of low dose-rate gamma irradiation on the type II diabetes mellitus were investigated in BKS.Cg-+Lepr db /+Lepr db /Jcl (DB mice). Ten-week-old female DB mice (5 mice in each group) were irradiated with gamma ray at 0.35, 0.70, or 1.2 mGy/hr. During the course of the 12 weeks the glucose level slightly increased with little difference between the irradiated and the non-irradiated groups. The plasma insulin concentration decreased within the first 4 weeks in all groups. The level was kept low in the non-irradiated mice; while the insulin level in the irradiated groups showed a tendency to increase. In the 0.70 mGy/hr group the increase was statistically significant after 12 weeks of irradiation. Total activity of SOD, one of antioxidative enzymes, decreased both in non-irradiated and irradiated groups; however the decrease was less in the irradiated groups, especially 0.70 mGy/hr group. In the 0.70 mGy/hr group Mn-SOD activity, one of the components of total SOD activity, increased after 12-week irradiation. A pathological examination of the pancreas revealed that damage to β cells responsible for the secretion of insulin was much less in the 0.70 mGy/hr group compared to that in the non-irradiated group. These results indicated that the low dose-rate irradiation increase the antioxidative capacity in the pancreas to protect β cells from oxidative damage, and the to increase the insulin level. This mechanism would lead the mice to the recovery from the disease and the prolongation of the life span as is demonstrated in our previous report. (author)

  11. Gastroprotective effect of kefir on ulcer induced in irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Hanan A; Ismail, Amel F M

    2015-03-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the protective effect of kefir milk on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in γ-irradiated rats. The results of the present study revealed that treatment with γ-irradiation and/or ethanol showed a significant increase in ulcers number, total acidity, peptic, H(+)K(+)ATPase, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and MDA level, which were accompanied by a significant decrease in the mucus content, the stomach GSH level, the GSH-Px activity and DNA damage. Pre-treatment with kefir milk exert significant improvement in all the tested parameters. Kefir milk exerts comparable effect to that of the antiulcer drug ranitidine. In conclusion, the present study revealed that oral administration of kefir milk prevents ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in γ-irradiated rats that could attribute to its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and radio-protective activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Outcome of Venom Bradykinin Potentiating Factor on Renin Angiotensin System in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.; Farouk, H.; Moustafa, M.; Abu Sinn, G.; Abd ElBaset, A.

    2011-01-01

    Scorpion Venom contains a strong bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) exhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI). Irradiation and stimulation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) induce oxidative stress. Interruption of the RAS by an ACEI or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) losartan (LOS) and/or gamma-rays (4 Gy) were evaluated. Rats received 6 doses of BPF (1μg/g body wt) or of LOS (5 μg/g body wt). Treatment with BPF induced significant elevation in the level of potassium (K) and significant drop in the level of sodium (Na) and uric acid. Treatment with LOS significantly depressed the level of Na and uric acid compared to control. Irradiation discerned a significant elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), aldosterone, Na, urea and creatinine, and a significant drop in the haematological values, glutathione (GSH), calcium (Ca) and uric acid. A significant decrease in MDA, aldosterone, urea, creatinine and uric acid compared to irradiated group was observed in irradiated treated groups. Irradiated animals treated with LOS showed a significant decrease in Na and chloride (Cl) compared to the irradiated group. Considerable amelioration of radiation-induced depression in haematopoiesis, improvement of oxidative stress and kidney function by BPF as ACEI or LOS as ARB are detected. Results add further identification to the properties of BPF

  13. Low-intensity laser irradiation at 660 nm stimulates cytochrome c oxidase in stressed fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houreld, Nicolette N; Masha, Roland T; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2012-07-01

    Low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) has been used to modulate a variety of biological processes, including diabetic wound healing. The mechanism of action is thought to exist primarily with the mitochondria. This study aimed to determine the effect of irradiation on normal, diabetic, and ischemic mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes. Normal, diabetic and ischemic human skin fibroblast mitochondria were irradiated in vitro at a wavelength of 660 nm and a fluence of either 5 or 15 J/cm(2). Non-irradiated mitochondria served as controls. Enzyme activities of mitochondrial complexes I, II, III, and IV were determined immediately post-irradiation. Normal, diabetic, and ischemic cells were irradiated and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and active mitochondria were determined by luminescence and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Irradiated diabetic mitochondria at a fluence of 15 J/cm(2) showed a significant decrease in complex III activity (P < 0.05). Normal (P < 0.01) and diabetic (P < 0.05) mitochondria irradiated at either 5 or 15 J/cm(2) showed a significant increase in complex IV activity. ATP results showed a significant increase in irradiated normal cells (5 J/cm(2); P < 0.05) and diabetic cells (15 J/cm(2); P < 0.01). There was a higher accumulation of active mitochondria in irradiated cells than non-irradiated cells. Irradiation at 660 nm has the ability to influence mitochondrial enzyme activity, in particular cytochrome c oxidase. This leads to increased mitochondrial activity and ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ameliorating Effects of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Zinc Supplementation on Physiological and Immunological Changes in Gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.; Soliman, M.; Mahmoud, N.; Abd Elnaby, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was carried out to determine the prophylactic impact of zinc sulphate administration to irradiated rats treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) as indicated by the hematological and immunologic response as well as oxidative stress. Material and methods: Rats were injected orally with zinc sulphate, 10 mg/kg body wt, daily for 2 weeks before whole body 5 Gy gamma irradiation and intravenous injection of bone marrow cells, one hour post irradiation. Results: The results revealed a significant decrease in red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), glutathione (GSH) and zinc superoxide dismutase (Zn/SOD), splenocyte count as well as bone marrow lymphocyte count and viability of irradiated rats. Regarding immunological data: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF– ) and interleukin 2 (IL–2) recorded a significant decrease while interleukin 6 (IL–6) and lipid peroxidation product (MDA) in the serum and spleen were conversely elevated. Zn supplementation before irradiation and BMT and showed significant decrease of serum and tissue MDA compared to the irradiated group. Lymphocytes, bone marrow viability percentage, splenocytes percentage, IL–2, IL–6 and GSH were significantly elevated compared to irradiated group. Conclusion: Protection with Zn, enforcing significant innate response, could trigger and augment adaptive immune response by BMT which suggests its use to protect against radiation hazards. (author)

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  17. Changes in thymocytes due to local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla in mice. A study of NKT cells and γδT cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satho, Taigo; Tamasawa, Ken; Yosue, Takashi; Arai, Thiaki

    2000-01-01

    We have been investigating the changes of lymphocyte subsets in immune organs after head and neck irradiation. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of local irradiation (10 Gy) of a portion of the maxilla on the thymocyte subsets, specifically NKT cells and γδT cells in mice. The thymocyte subsets were analyzed following irradiation using a fluorometer (anti-CD4, CD8, TCRαβ, TCRγδ and NK1.1 monoclonal antibodies) and the outcome compared with that obtained from no-irradiation groups. The following results were obtained: The total number of thymocytes showed a significant decrease one day and three days after irradiation. The absolute number of DN (double negative; CD4 - CD8 - ), CD4 + SP (CD4 + single positive; CD4 + CD8 - ) and CD8 + SP (CD8 + single positive; CD4 - CD8 + ) thymocytes showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. The absolute number of DP (double positive; CD4 + CD8 + ) thymocytes showed a significant decrease one day and three days after irradiation. The absolute number of NKT and γδT cells showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. In conclusion, the results suggest that NKT cells and γδT cells exhibit behavior which is the same as main stream thymocytes, except DP thymocytes. (author)

  18. Changes in thymocytes due to local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla in mice. A study of NKT cells and {gamma}{delta}T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satho, Taigo; Tamasawa, Ken; Yosue, Takashi [Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, Thiaki

    2000-07-01

    We have been investigating the changes of lymphocyte subsets in immune organs after head and neck irradiation. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of local irradiation (10 Gy) of a portion of the maxilla on the thymocyte subsets, specifically NKT cells and {gamma}{delta}T cells in mice. The thymocyte subsets were analyzed following irradiation using a fluorometer (anti-CD4, CD8, TCR{alpha}{beta}, TCR{gamma}{delta} and NK1.1 monoclonal antibodies) and the outcome compared with that obtained from no-irradiation groups. The following results were obtained: The total number of thymocytes showed a significant decrease one day and three days after irradiation. The absolute number of DN (double negative; CD4{sup -} CD8{sup -}), CD4{sup +} SP (CD4{sup +} single positive; CD4{sup +} CD8{sup -}) and CD8{sup +} SP (CD8{sup +} single positive; CD4{sup -} CD8{sup +}) thymocytes showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. The absolute number of DP (double positive; CD4{sup +} CD8{sup +}) thymocytes showed a significant decrease one day and three days after irradiation. The absolute number of NKT and {gamma}{delta}T cells showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. In conclusion, the results suggest that NKT cells and {gamma}{delta}T cells exhibit behavior which is the same as main stream thymocytes, except DP thymocytes. (author)

  19. Influence of Gamma and Electron Beam Irradiation on Microbial Load of Pueraria mirifica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eamsiri, J.; Pewlong, W.; Sajjabut, S.; Chookaew, S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of gamma ray and electron beam on the microbial load of Pueraria mirifica at selected storage period post exposure to irradiation. The samples were irradiated at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy and then analyzed for the total bacteria, total yeast and mold, and the presence of Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens after 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of storage. Results demonstrated that both irradiation techniques significantly reduced microbial contamination. As the reduction in bacteria count decreased linearly with the absorbed dose, the dose of 5 kGy was found to be sufficient in eliminating pathogens with the total bacteria count decreased to the value accepted by the Thai Industrial standard 1441/2552. In addition, we found that total bacteria, total yeast and mold and pathogens did not change significantly after storage up to 12 months post irradiation.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation and cold storage at 4±1 on components of buffalo meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAHMOUD, A. A.; SHALABY, M. T.; DOMA, M. B.; HUSSEIN, M. A.; EMAM, O.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 KGy and cold storage at 4± 1 on some components of buffalo meat was studied. The results showed that no significant differences effect on the chemical composition of buffalo meat such as moisture content, crude protein, crude fat and ash content. While cold storage caused a slight decrease in the above mentioned parameters. irradiation treatment did not affect significantly on the total nitrogen and non-protein nitrogen. Gradual increase in the solubility of protein and slight decrease in the total nitrogen was observed during cold storage. Total volatile nitrogen and free amino nitrogen increased during cold storage. Total free amino acids increased gradually with different rates depending on the applied irradiation dose. Directly after irradiation isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and arginine exhibit a proportional relationship with the dose level used with the buffalo meat tissues.4 tab

  1. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  2. Irradiation of spices and herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiss, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma irradiation has been extensively studied as a means of reducing the microbial contamination of spices. Experiments indicate that spices, with water contents of 4.5-12%, are very resistant to physical or chemical change when irradiated. Since spices are used primarily as food flavoring agents, their flavor integrity must not be changed by the process. Sensory and food applications analysis indicate no significant difference between irradiated samples and controls for all spices tested

  3. Canadian perspectives on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada has been in the forefront of irradiation technology for over 30 years. Some 83 of the 147 irradiators used worldwide are Canadian-built, yet Canadian food processors have been very slow to use the technology. This paper is an update on the food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada and the factors that influence it. It also reviews some significant non-regulatory developments. (author)

  4. Effect of electron beam irradiation on nutritional ingredient of Tegillarca granosa meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chao; Yang Wenge; Xu Dalun; Ou Changrong; Shi Huidong

    2011-01-01

    The influences of 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 kGy electron beam irradiation on the contents of protein and amino acid and the composition of amino acids and fatty acids in Tegillarca granosa meat were investigated. The results showed that the electron beam had no significant effect on contents of moisture, ash and protein. Fat was sensitive to electron beam irradiation, which decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose. The composition of amino acids remained stable with different doses. The values of EAA/TAA and EAA/NEAA were kept in accordance with FAO/WHO protein model. Besides, electron beam irradiation made no effect on the limiting amino acid (the first and second limiting amino acids were Met + Cys and Val, respectively). The relative content of PUFA increased significantly 1 ∼ 7 kGy irradiation. Electron beam irradiation produced a notable impact on the essential fatty acid, induced the increase of linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid at the doses of 5 ∼ 9 kGy. After the irradiation of 9 kGy, the increments of relative contents of the three essential fatty acids reached 94.61%, 41.37% and 89.91%, respectively. Electron beam irradiation had positive effect on EPA with the doses of 3, 5 and 9 kGy. However, DHA was sensitive to electron beam irradiation, whose relative content decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose and undetected at the dose of 9 kGy. According to the research of decontamination effect, the recommended dose of electron beam irradiation on Tegillarca granosa ws fixed at 3 ∼ 5 kGy. (authors)

  5. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  6. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  9. Improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of date plum, persimmon and mulberry on UVB-induced skin damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Shin, Jae Young; Fang, Chong Zhou; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of Date Plum, Persimmon and Mulberry (γ-DPME) on UVB induced skin damage. The samples were gamma irradiated at doses of 10 kGy. γ-DPME treatment tended to decrease UVB-induced immune cell infiltration and erthyderma index than the groups treated with non-gamma-irradiated DPME (n-DPME) and L-ascobic acid (AA). In addition, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased skin thickness, melanin index and mast cell infiltration in UVB-irradiated skin. Moreover, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased the compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and immune cell infiltration than n-DPME group. These results show that gamma irradiation can be used to increase the physiological activities of DPME.

  10. Societal benefits of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Food irradiation has a direct impact on society by reducing the occurrence of food-borne illness, decreasing food spoilage and waste, and facilitating global trade. Food irradiation is approved in 40 countries around the world to decontaminate food of disease and spoilage causing microorganisms, sterilize insect pests, and inhibit sprouting. A recent estimate suggests that 500,000 metric of food is currently irradiated worldwide, primarily to decontaminate spices. Since its first use in the 1960s the use of irradiation for food has grown slowly, but it remains the major technology of choice for certain applications. The largest growth sector in recent years has been phytosanitary irradiation of fruit to disinfest fruit intended for international shipment. For many countries which have established strict quarantine standards, irradiation offers as an effective alternative to chemical fumigants some of which are being phased out due to their effects on the ozone layer. Insects can be sterilized at very low dose levels, thus quality of fruit can be maintained. Irradiation is also highly effective in destroying microbial pathogens such as Salmonella spp., E. coli, and Listeria, hence its application for treatment of spices, herbs, dried vegetables, frozen seafood, poultry, and meat and its contribution to reducing foodborne illnesses. Unfortunately the use of irradiation for improving food safety has been under-exploited. This presentation will provide details on the use, benefits, opportunities, and challenges of food irradiation. (author)

  11. Lipid Peroxidation and Electrolytes in Irradiated Rats Treated with Caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gawad, I.I.; Ahmed, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    This Study was conducted to elarify the potential role of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl xanthine), a major component of coffee, against damages induced by gamma rays. Thirty adult female albino rats (130+10) were divided into three groups, each of ten animals. The first group acted as control animals. The second was sujected to a single dose of (7) Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The third group was injected intraperitoneally with a single dose (80mg/kg body weight) of caffeine one-hour prior irradiation. Blood samples were collected five time intervals 1,3,7,15 and 30 days post-irradiation. The content of serum lipid peroxides was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Electrolytes as calcium (Ca2 + ), sodium (Na + ) and potassium (K + ) and levels were estimated and Na + /K + ratio was calculated. Also serum enzymes as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminotransaminases (AST and ALT) activity levels were measured. The data revealed significant increase in TBARS, AST and ALT levels in serum due to irradiation exposure. While, radiation induced significant decrease in serum level of ALP, level of electrolytes Ca 2+ , Ma + , and Na + /K + ratio. On the other hand, group injected intraperitoneally with caffeine pre-irradiation exhibited reduction in the changes produced by gamma-radiation with variable degree. The data showed that this antioxidant confers protection damage inflicted by radiation when given prior to irradiation exposure on the examined parameters

  12. Blood biochemical studies on toxicological aspects of dicophane pesticide in gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2003-01-01

    The present work deals with the effect of feeding 150 mg dicophane/ kg, an organochlorine pesticide, and / or 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation on albino rats which produced several alternations in blood biochemical components. Alkaline phosphatase (AP), cholinesterase (ChE), creatinine and urea were increased significantly for dicophane and or gamma irradiation treatment, while protein level was increased after dicophane treatment and decreased by radiation. On the other hand, serum levels of bilirubin tended to decrease allover the experimental periods. Dicophane feeding caused decrease in cholesterol and glucose levels till 7 and 15 days, respectively, then increased significantly after 30 days, and also significant increase were observed in their levels after dicophane and/ or gamma irradiation treatments

  13. Low dose irradiation effects on DIN 1.4948 mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der; Vries, M.I. de

    For the SNR 300 the licensing authorities require the determination of the lower boundaries of post-irradiation mechanical properties for DIN 1.4948 parent metal and welded joints. It has been established that with decreasing strain rate the post-irradiation tensile ductility decreases. A transition strain rate has been observed, above which there is no effect of irradiation on ductility. The transition strain rate increases with increasing temperature. Coarse grained heats show lower ultimate tensile strength above 800 K than fine grained heats. There is no significant effect of irradiation on load controlled high cycle fatigue with frequencies of 1 Hz or higher. In low cycle fatigue numbers of cycles to failure decrease with decreasing frequency. Increasing the test temperature reduces the number of cycles to failure even more. The frequency effect is more evident at 823 K. Parent metal has a better fatigue resistance than welded joints in unirradiated and irradiated condition. Creep strength is reduced by irradiation due to loss of ductility. It is shown that with increasing grain size the rupture strength decreases. The ductility of welded joints after irradiation is low, in some cases as low as 0.5% creep strain. After irradiation, tensile, creep and fatigue fracture surfaces show many more intergranular features than in the equivalent unirradiated condition. The promotion of intergranular fracture by irradiation and the consequent degradation of low strain rate mechanical properties is explained by the presence of helium on grain boundaries. Several measures to increase the helium content threshold can be taken, such as grain refinement, homogeneous boron distribution and promotion of helium bubble initiation. In cases where helium embrittlement is encountered, life reduction factors on unirradiated material properties must be applied

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on nylon 6 films : swelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L.P.; Chaudhuri, N.K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports on swelling studies of γ-irradiated nylon 6 films undertaken to investigate the effects of γ-irradiation in finer details. Benzyl alcohol has been used as the swelling agent. The kinetics of weight swelling of γ-irradiated nylon 6 films in benzyl alcohol was studied at different irradiation doses in the range 0 - 28.8 Mrad. It is observed that with increasing irradiation dose upto 14.4 Mrad the swelling, and hence the diffusion process are retarded; moreover, the sigmoidal nature of the percentage weight swelling vs (time)sup(1/2) plot is augmented. Above this critical dose the swelling and diffusion processes are accelerated. Besides, the sigmoidal behaviour recedes and is converted into linear behaviour at 28.8 Mrad. This behaviour indicates that a relaxation-controlled non-Fickian diffusion process is at work below 28.8 Mrad while at 28.8 Mrad a Fickian process is established. A significant effect on the equilibrium swelling in benzyl alcohol is observed. The plot of equilibrium weight swelling vs irradiation dose at 23deg C shows an initial decrease of swelling upto 3.6 Mrad at which swelling starts decreasing at accelerated rate in the dose range 3.6 - 7.6 Mrad. The rate slows down appreciably between 7.00 and 14.4 Mrad, above which there is a rapid fall. The results are correlated with scission and crosslinking processes through relative viscosity determination of formic acid solutions of the irradiated samples. It is established by combining viscosity data with kinetics and equilibrium swelling data that, besides scission, crosslinking processes are also at work in nylon 6 in the irradiation dose range 0 - 3.6 Mrad. It has been possible to bring out this point because the swelling technique seems to be preferentially sensitive towards crosslinking. (author)

  15. Beta irradiation inhibits neo-intimal formation in vein grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang Xiaoou; Ji Shenquan; Zeng Ke; Li Jun; Liu Bingbing; Ma Wenfeng; Zhang Qiang

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study was to evaluate the effect of beta irradiation on intimal proliferation response in vein grafts. Methods: An autogenous vein graft model was established in 40 rats by transplanting internal branch of jugular vein to carotid artery by end-to-end anastomosis. The vein was irradiated by 32 P before anastomosis. Four dose schedules were studied: (1) control graft (nonirradiated); (2) irradiated with 8 Gy; (3) 18 Gy; and (4) 36 Gy. The grafted veins were harvested at 2 weeks after the operation. IH (intimal hyperplasia) and SMC (smooth muscle cell) proliferation were histologically and immuno-histochemically observed and analyzed by a computer digitalising system. Results: In 18 Gy and 36 Gy-irradiated grafts compared with the control, there was a significant decrease in the average intimal thickness (P 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis of PCNA indicated decrease of positive cells in both 18 Gy and 36 Gy groups compared with 8 Gy and the control group (P 0.05) groups, and there was also no significant difference between 8 Gy and the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: These preliminary results demonstrate that proper dose of beta irradiation in vein graft inhibits smooth muscle cells proliferation and neo-intimal hyperplasia in rat

  16. Effects of single doses of X-rays on renal function in the pig after the irradiation of both kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.E.C.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation of a single kidney in the pig with relatively low doses of X-rays, in the order of 8 Gy, produces a pronounced reduction in both glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). This apparent high radiosensitivity may be due, in part, to the compensatory hypertrophy displayed by the contralateral unirradiated kidney. This could suppress any potential for recovery by the irradiated kidney. To test this hypothesis, both kidneys of 14-week-old Large White pigs were sequentially irradiated with single doses of 250 kV X-rays, in the range 8.8 to 12.6 Gy. Two weeks after irradiation, GFR and ERPF increased markedly in all irradiated kidneys; levels then declined in a dose-dependent manner. Following a dose of 8.8 Gy renal haemodynamics returned to control values within 4 weeks of irradiation. After higher doses, GFR and ERPF decreased markedly and remained below control values up to 24 weeks after irradiation. At all doses the mean functional status of irradiated kidneys in animals in which both kidneys were irradiated was significantly greater than that previously observed in the irradiated kidney of pigs in which only one kidney was irradiated. The findings support the above hypothesis, and indicate that individual kidneys in the same animal may differ in their response to a similar nephrotoxic insult. 35 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Microbiological Safety of Minimally Processed White Radish in Modified Atmosphere Packaging Combined with Irradiation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.K.; Jo, C.U.; Kim, H.J.; Lee, J.W.; Hwang, H.J.; Byun, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    White radish was minimally processed, packed with air, CO@@@(100g), and CO@@@/N@@@(25/75%), and irradiated at 0, 1, and 2 kGy, and its microbiological quality and pH were investigated during storage for 2 weeks at 4℃. Irradiation significantly reduced total aerobic, coli-form, and lactic acid bacteria counts. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) enhanced microorganism control during storage. Acidity decreased by MAP but was restored during storage

  18. Study of homing patterns of x-irradiated murine lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of in vitro x-ray exposure of murine lymphoid cells on their subsequent in vivo homing patterns were studied. The homing of lymphoid cells to various tissues and organs was followed by using radio-labeled cell preparations or by following the distribution of cells with a specific immunological memory. X irradiation of 51 Cr-labeled spleen, lymph node, bone marrow, or thymus cells was found to significantly alter their subsequent in vivo distribution. Irradiated cells demonstrated an increased distribution to the liver and a significantly lower retention in the lungs. Cells going to the lymph nodes of Peyer's patches showed a significant exposure dependent decrease in homing following irradiation. Irradiated lymph node cells homed in greater numbers to the spleen and bone marrow, while irradiated cells from other sources showed a decrease or no change indistribution to the same tissues. Lymph node cell suspensions from dinitrophenyl-bovine gamma globulin (DNP-BGG) immune LBN rats were prepared, irradiated (0 and 200 R) and injected into intermediate (LBN) hosts and controls. Irradiated memory cells provided a secondary antibody response, which was delayed but not suppressed when compared to unirradiated cells. Alteration in homing of lymphocytes caused by various physical and chemical agents was a result of effects on cell membrane characteristics which controlled some aspects of the phenomenon. Radiation (100 to 200 R) may have had a similar effect or it may have resulted in the selective elimination of a population of cells. (U.S.)

  19. Nucleic acids in the mosquito, Culex Pipiens L. As affected by Gamma irradiation of the pupae. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansouh, A.H.; Amin, A.H.; Shoman, A.A.; Wakid, A.M.; Aly, M.A.S.

    1996-01-01

    Pupae of the mosquito, Culex Pipiens L. Were gamma-irradiated with 3 doses (40, 60 and 80 Gy) and compared with nonirradiated group for nucleic acids in the newly emerged adults; 24, 48 and 72 hours post-emergence. Nucleic acids were estimated in starved adults or blood-fed females. The results showed that RNA content in the normal or irradiated unfed males or females decreased with time after emergence. Irradiation at different doses decreased RNA content in males after 48 and 72 hours. However, in females, irradiation at low doses had no effect after 24 hours but the effect was clear after 48 and hours. Gamma irradiation led to decreased RNA content in females after 72 hours post feeding on blood. This decrease was insignificant at 40 Gy but highly significant at 60 and 80 Gy. Normal males had a constant DNA content at all periods. However, irradiation reduced this content at 40 and 60 Gy, especially after 72 hours. At 80 Gy, DNA showed an increase at first then was reduced reaching the control value after 72 hours. Irradiation and time slightly reduced the DNA content, especially at 72 hours. Irradiation with 60 and 80 Gy showed a pronounced increase in DNA content in the blood-fed females 72 hours post feeding. The RNA/DNA ratio decreased by irradiation of non-fed males and females, while in the control blood-fed females, this ratio was higher after 72 hours post feeding than that unfed ones. The ratio decreased in irradiated females with increasing gamma dose after 72 hours post feeding. 8 figs

  20. Nucleic acids in the mosquito, Culex Pipiens L. As affected by Gamma irradiation of the pupae. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kansouh, A H; Amin, A H; Shoman, A A [Plant protection Dept., Fac. of Agriculture, Ain Shams Univ. Cairo (Egypt); Wakid, A M [Applied Biology Dept., NRC, Atomic Energy Authority. Cairo (Egypt); Aly, M A.S. [Radio Isotope Dept., NBC, Atomic Energy Authority. Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Pupae of the mosquito, Culex Pipiens L. Were gamma-irradiated with 3 doses (40, 60 and 80 Gy) and compared with nonirradiated group for nucleic acids in the newly emerged adults; 24, 48 and 72 hours post-emergence. Nucleic acids were estimated in starved adults or blood-fed females. The results showed that RNA content in the normal or irradiated unfed males or females decreased with time after emergence. Irradiation at different doses decreased RNA content in males after 48 and 72 hours. However, in females, irradiation at low doses had no effect after 24 hours but the effect was clear after 48 and hours. Gamma irradiation led to decreased RNA content in females after 72 hours post feeding on blood. This decrease was insignificant at 40 Gy but highly significant at 60 and 80 Gy. Normal males had a constant DNA content at all periods. However, irradiation reduced this content at 40 and 60 Gy, especially after 72 hours. At 80 Gy, DNA showed an increase at first then was reduced reaching the control value after 72 hours. Irradiation and time slightly reduced the DNA content, especially at 72 hours. Irradiation with 60 and 80 Gy showed a pronounced increase in DNA content in the blood-fed females 72 hours post feeding. The RNA/DNA ratio decreased by irradiation of non-fed males and females, while in the control blood-fed females, this ratio was higher after 72 hours post feeding than that unfed ones. The ratio decreased in irradiated females with increasing gamma dose after 72 hours post feeding. 8 figs.

  1. Changes in Serum Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin Levels of Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.; Shaban, H.A.; El Gohary, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Rats are whole body irradiated with different Gamma radiation doses. Zinc and Copper, two important trace elements in the biological processes and Ceruloplasmin, a protein which carries more than 95% of serum Cu and has important roles in many vital processes are followed up in the irradiated rat sera. This work aimed to determine the changes in the serum levels of the three parameters (Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin) through eight weeks follow up period (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week) post whole body gamma irradiation with three sub-lethal doses (2, 3.5 and 5 Gy) of rats. All the experimental animals did not receive any medical treatment. Zinc and Copper were measured using discrete nebulization flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ceruloplasmin was measured using a colorimetric method. The statistical analyses of the results show that the Zinc levels of the irradiated groups decreased significantly post irradiation and then were recovered at the 6th week post irradiation. The Copper levels of the irradiated groups increased significantly and then were recovered at 6th week post irradiation. The levels of Ceruloplasmin in the same groups increased significantly throughout the whole follow up period. The conclusion is that, Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin levels changed significantly in the irradiated groups compared to the control group with a maximum effect noted in the groups irradiated with the higher doses and that the lower dose irradiated groups recover earlier than the higher ones. Also the correlation between Copper and Zinc is reversible at different doses and that between Copper and Ceruloplasmin is direct

  2. Deuterium ion irradiation induced precipitation in Fe–Cr alloy: Characterization and effects on irradiation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.P.; Yu, R.; Zhu, Y.M.; Zhao, M.Z.; Bai, J.W.; Wan, F.R.; Zhan, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new phase precipitated in Fe–Cr alloy after deuterium ion irradiation at 773 K. • B2 structure was proposed for the Cr-rich new phase. • Strain fields around the precipitate have been measured by GPA. • The precipitate decrease growth rate of dislocation loop under electron irradiation. - Abstract: A new phase was found to precipitate in a Fe–Cr model alloy after 58 keV deuterium ion irradiation at 773 K. The nanoscale radiation-induced precipitate was studied systematically using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), image simulation and in-situ ultrahigh voltage transmission electron microscopy (HVEM). B2 structure is proposed for the new Cr-rich phase, which adopts a cube-on-cube orientation relationship with regard to the Fe matrix. Geometric phase analysis (GPA) was employed to measure the strain fields around the precipitate and this was used to explain its characteristic 1-dimensional elongation along the 〈1 0 0〉 Fe direction. The precipitate was stable under subsequent electron irradiation at different temperatures. We suggest that the precipitate with a high interface-to-volume ratio enhances the radiation resistance of the material. The reason for this is the presence of a large number of interfaces between the precipitate and the matrix, which may greatly reduce the concentration of point defects around the dislocation loops. This leads to a significant decrease in the growth rate

  3. Gemstone dedicated gamma irradiation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omi, Nelson M.; Rela, Paulo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: nminoru@ipen.br; prela@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The gemstones gamma irradiation process to enhance the color is widely accepted for the jewelry industry. These gems are processed in conventional industrial gamma irradiation plant which are optimized for other purposes, using underwater irradiation devices with high rejection rate due to its poor dose uniformity. A new conception design, which states the working principles and manufacturing ways of the device, was developed in this work. The suggested device's design is based on the rotation of cylindrical baskets and their translation in circular paths inside and outside a cylindrical source rack as a planetary system. The device is meant to perform the irradiation in the bottom of the source storage pool, where the sources remain always shielded by the water layer. The irradiator matches the Category III IAEA classification. To verify the physical viability of the basic principle, tests with rotating cylindrical baskets were performed in the Multipurpose Irradiator constructed in the CTR, IPEN. Also, simulations using the CADGAMMA software, adapted to simulate underwater irradiations, were performed. With the definitive optimized irradiator, the irradiation quality will be enhanced with better dose control and the production costs will be significantly lower than market prices due to the intended treatment device's optimization. This work presents some optimization parameters and the expected performance of the irradiator. (author)

  4. Protective Effect of HemoHIM on Epidermal Melanocytes in Ultraviolet-B irradiated Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae June [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Choon; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran; Jo, Sung Kee [Jeongeup Campus of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Tae Hwan [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We induced the activation of melanocytes in the epidermis of C57BL/6 mice by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation, and observed the effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM, HH) on the formation, and decrease of UV-B-induced epidermal melanocytes. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated by UV-B 80 mJ:cm{sup -2} (0.5 mW:sec{sup -1}) daily for 7 days, and HH was intraperitoneally, orally or topically applied pre- or post-irradiation. For the estimation of change of epidermal melanocytes, light microscopic observation with dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) stain was performed. Split epidermal sheets prepared from the ear of untreated mice exhibited 13∼15 melanocytes:mm{sup -2}, and one week after UV irradiation, the applied areas showed an increased number of strongly DOPA-positive melanocytes with stout dendrites. But intraperitoneal, oral or topical treatment with HH before each irradiation interrupted UV-B-induced pigmentation and resulted in a marked reduction in the number of epidermal melanocytes as compared to the number found in UV-B-irradiated, untreated control skin. The number and size of DOPA-positive epidermal melanocytes were also significantly decreased in intraperitoneally injected or topically applicated group after irradiation with HH at 3rd and 6th weeks after irradiation. The present study suggests the HH as inhibitor of UV-B-induced pigmentation, and depigmenting agent.

  5. Effects of irradiation and heating on extraction of carbohydrates from brown seaweed, gagome Kjellmaniella crassifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yoshie, Y.; Shirai, T.; Hirano, T.

    1993-01-01

    Changes in dissolved carbohydrates from Gagome Kjemaniella crassifolia by gamma-irradiation and boiling were investigated. When pulverized Gagome was irradiated in the dry state, solubilized carbohydrate levels did not change at dose levels up to 50 kGy; however, the molecular weights of main components in the soluble matter decreased. The amount of dissolved carbohydrates increased with dosage increments of gamma rays when irradiated in water, and their molecular weights decreased markedly. When Gagome was irradiated with a dose of 10 kGy in the dry state, and then boiled in water, the amounts of carbohydrates dissolved were markedly high at 80 degree C during 10-h boiling in comparison with those of the non-irradiated control. On the other hand, at 100 degree C no difference was observed after 4-h boiling. There was no significant difference in the quantity of dissolved carbohydrates or their molecular weights between irradiated and non-irradiated samples heated at 120 degree C for up to 12 h. From these results dietary fibers in Gagome were found to be extracted and degradated by irradiation

  6. Effect of gamma - irradiation on the volatile flavor profile of fennel (foeniculum vulgare mill.) from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Jamila, N.; JI YEON Choi, J. Y.; Nho, E. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Hussain, I.

    2015-01-01

    The volatile flavor compounds of non-irradiated and 1, 5, 10 and 20 kGy gamma-irradiated seeds of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) from Pakistan were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 82 compounds were identified in the non irradiated fennel, with EAnethole (36.74 percentage), Estragole (26.31 percentage), and β-Limonene (15.99 percentage) as the major compounds. The irradiation doses caused slight variations in the number and contents of the volatile components. Though several volatile compounds showed increase after Υ-irradiation, the contents of major compounds such as beta-Limonene and estrgole were decreased. The overall number of the volatile compounds showed increase up to the recommended irradiation doses of 10 kGy but their contents decreased. In general no major change was noted in the overall major flavor compounds of the subject spice. Therefore the application of Υ--irradiation is feasible without any significant qualitative or quantitative loss of volatile flavor compounds when exposed to 10 kGy Υ--irradiation. (author)

  7. Behavior of ferritic/martensitic steels after n-irradiation at 200 and 300 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijasevic, M.; Lucon, E.; Almazouzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    High chromium ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels are considered as the most promising structural materials for accelerator driven systems (ADS). One drawback that needs to be quantified is the significant hardening and embrittlement caused by neutron irradiation at low temperatures with production of spallation elements. In this paper irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of F/M steels have been studied and comparisons are provided between two ferritic/martensitic steels, namely T91 and EUROFER97. Both materials have been irradiated in the BR2 reactor of SCK-CEN/Mol at 300 deg. C up to doses ranging from 0.06 to 1.5 dpa. Tensile tests results obtained between -160 deg. C and 300 deg. C clearly show irradiation hardening (increase of yield and ultimate tensile strengths), as well as reduction of uniform and total elongation. Irradiation effects for EUROFER97 starting from 0.6 dpa are more pronounced compared to T91, showing a significant decrease in work hardening. The results are compared to our latest data that were obtained within a previous program (SPIRE), where T91 had also been irradiated in BR2 at 200 deg. C (up to 2.6 dpa), and tested between -170 deg. C and 300 deg. C. Irradiation effects at lower irradiation temperatures are more significant

  8. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.

  9. Irradiation's promise: fewer foodborne illnesses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.

    1986-01-01

    Food irradiation offers a variety of potential benefits to the food supply. It can delay ripening and sprouting of fruits and vegetables, and substitute for chemical fumigants to kill insects. However, one of the most important benefits of food irradiation is its potential use for destroying microbial pathogens that enter the food supply, including the two most common disease causing bacteria: salmonella and campylobacter. Animal products are one of the primary carriers of pathogens. Food borne illnesses are on the rise, and irradiation of red meats and poultry could significantly reduce their occurrence. Food irradiation should be examined more closely to determine its possible benefits in curtailing microbial diseases

  10. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  11. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  12. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  13. Acute dose and low dose-rate irradiation of carcinoma cells expressing human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncoproteins - the significance of p53, Rb and G1 arrest status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWeese, Theodore L.; Walsh, Jonathan C.; Dillehay, Larry E.; Shao, Y.; Kessis, Theodore D.; Cho, Kathleen R.; Nelson, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The development of carcinomas in a number of sites including the cervix, vulva and anus have been associated with cellular infection by human papillomaviruses (HPV), including HPV 16 and HPV 18. The mechanism by which these viruses contribute to tumor development or progression seems in part to be related to the integration of the viral genome into the host cells DNA, and the binding of p53 protein by the HPV E6 oncoprotein as well as the binding of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and Rb-like proteins by the HPV E7 oncoprotein. These interactions lead to loss of p53 and Rb function including loss of the G 1 cell cycle checkpoint. Although it is believed that both p53 and Rb play a role in the radiosensitivity of the cell, whether alteration in either protein enhances or diminishes cellular radiation response is not clear from the literature. Because HPV-associated tumors such as cervical cancer are often treated with acute dose and/or low dose-rate radiation, we set out to evaluate the radiation response of several carcinoma cell sublines expressing either oncogenic E6 or E7 to both types of radiation, and to determine if p53/Rb dependent G 1 arrest is an important determinant of cell fate after irradiation. Materials and Methods: We have previously developed a series of RKO colorectal carcinoma cell sublines expressing both low-risk (HPV 11) and high-risk (HPV 16) E6 and E7 genes. p53-dependent G 1 arrest is intact in RKO parental cells and cells expressing low-risk E6 proteins, while the G 1 arrest is abrogated in cells expressing high-risk E6 or E7. Clonogenic survival was assessed after exposure to acute dose (1 Gy/min) and low dose-rate (0.25 Gy/hour) radiation. The radiobiologic parameters α, β and the surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) were determined. SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting was carried out to assess both p53 and p21 WAF1/CIP1 levels after exposure to radiation. Flow cytometry was performed before and after exposure to low dose-rate radiation to

  14. Changes In Certain Enzymes Activities In Tribolium CONFUSUM As Affected By Vanillin Or GAMMA Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOHAMED, S.A.; SHOMAN, A.A.; AHMED, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of 1 or 4 g vanillin/100 g whole wheat flour on the alkaline phosphatase of one day old larvae revealed that the mean enzyme activity was highly significantly increased in male and non-significant in female Triboluim confusum. As pupae were irradiated, the mean enzyme activity was significantly decreased in males and females (except at dose 300 Gy). Alanine transaminase (ALT or GPT) activity was decreased in males due to the effect of 4% vanillin and increased by irradiation while in female, the activity of ALT was increased when the larvae were reared on flour containing 1% or 4% vanillin and increased when pupae were irradiated at all doses used. There was a positive relationship between all treatments and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST or GOT) in both sexes. The activity of AST was increased when the male or female larvae were reared on wheat flour containing 1 or 4 % vanillin and when pupae of males or females were irradiated. The choline esterase enzyme in T. confusum adults of both sexes was inhibited according to the effect of treatments with vanillin or gamma irradiation. Treated larvae with 1 or 4 % vanillin or irradiated as pupae at 300, 600 and 800 Gy led to decrease in the activity of choline esterase enzyme with the same pattern in both sexes.

  15. Rrol of Zinc Cystenine in the Regulation of Metallothionnein Induction in whole body gamma irradiation rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azab, Kh. Sh.; Zaharn, A.M.; Noaman, E.

    2004-01-01

    The antioxidant competence of metallothionein (MT) in cellular injury lunched by free radicals released in view of ionizing radiation has been proposed. The present work was conducted to elucidate the role of Zinc cysteine in the regulation of metallothionein induction in whole body gamma irradiated rats. cysteine was delivered to rats via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection at a concentration of 25-mg/kg body weight/day for two successive 2 days. The second injection was 30- min. pre irradiation. Whole body γ- irradiation at dose level 6.5 Gy induced significant increase in the levels of metallothionein in all investigated tissues (serum, liver and kidney) accompanied with significant increase in the levels of Zn in the liver. Cu concentrations increased in serum and kidney and decreased significantly in liver tissues. Data of lipid peroxidation demonstrated significant increase in TBARS as compared with control valuws in serum, liver and kidney. Iron was decreased significantly in serum and liver but a significant increase was recorded in kidney at 7 days after irradiation. Ca increased significantly in the liver only as compared with control rats. In addition, K concentration increased significantly in serum, liver and kidney while, P increased in serum and liver when compared with control values. The administration of zinc cysteine pre-irradiation induces significant increases in liver metallothionin from irradiated rat's value. It is only serum show significant decrease in level of MT from the irradiated rat's value on the 1st day post irradiation. However, the changes observed in the levels of Zn, Cu, Iron and Ca, K and P are less manifested when compared with values of irradiated animals. The reduction in the levels of TBARS was obvious comparing with irradiated rat's data. The amelioration occurred in the levels of Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, P and K when, zinc cysteine administrated before irradiation postulate the positive role zinc cysteine in the adjustment of

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on fungi in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal Abidin Mior Ahmad.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on fungi infecting rice stored in various packaging materials. The agar plate test method was used. It was observed that the percentage of fungi did not appear to decrease with the increase of irradiation up to 2 kGy and also no indication of any significant reduction in percentage of fungi isolated with increasing time of storage at all levels of radiation treatment. The majority of the fungi isolated were Aspergillus and Penicillium species. (A.J.)

  17. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu.

    1989-01-01

    In an irradiation device for irradiating radiation rays such as electron beams to pharmaceuticals, etc., since the distribution of scanned electron rays was not monitored, the electron beam intensity could be determined only indirectly and irradiation reliability was not satisfactory. In view of the above, a plurality of monitor wires emitting secondary electrons are disposed in the scanning direction near a beam take-out window of a scanning duct, signals from the monitor wires are inputted into a display device such as a cathode ray tube, as well as signals from the monitor wires at the central portion are inputted into counting rate meters to measure the radiation dose as well. Since secondary electrons are emitted when electron beams pass through the monitor wires and the intensity thereof is in proportion with the intensity of incident electron beams, the distribution of the radiation dose can be monitored by measuring the intensity of the emitted secondary electrons. Further, uneven irradiation, etc. can also be monitored to make the radiation of irradiation rays reliable. (N.H.)

  18. Steroidogenesis in the testes and the adrenals of adult male rats after γ-irradiation in utero at late pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keiko; Takahashi, Masakazu; Ishii-Ohba, Hiroko; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Inano, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant rats were irradiated with 2.1Gy γ-ray of 60 Co at day 20 of gestation. Seventy days after birth, the body weight of the fetally irradiated male pups was significantly lower than the control. The testes, ventral prostates and seminal vesicles were atrophied by irradiation, whereas no decreased weight of the adrenals was observed. Histological examination of the testes of the irradiated rats revealed a complete disappearance of germinal cells. Sertoli cells and Leydig cells appeared normal, and no apparent histological difference was observed in the adrenals between the control and the irradiated rats. Examination of steroidgenesis in testes and adrenals led to the conclusion that irreversible damage was induced in spermatogenesis and androgen production by the fetal irradiation, whereas corticoidogenesis was not affected. (author)

  19. Therapeutic effects of gingerol on hematopoietic and antioxidative damage of 60Co γ-rays irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Yanyan; Xie Zhenfei; Zhou Yu; Zeng Xianyin

    2012-01-01

    18 female Kunming mice were chosen and randomly divided into three groups, and the therapeutic effects of gingerol on hemopoietic and antioxidative system in liver of 60 Co γ-rays irradiated mice were developed in this study. Control group was given distilled water intragastrically once a day for five days. Mice in the irradiated group and irradiated + gingerol group were both irradiated at 3 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays and were given distilled water and gingerol intragastrically within 30 min after irradiation respectively, once a day for five days. The mice were sacrificed and sampled in 48 hours after intragastric administration. Compared with control group, the relative spleen index and WBC numbers significantly decreased (P 60 Co γ-rays irradiated mice. (authors)

  20. The PHENIX experimental irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.; Courcon, P.; Coulon, P.

    1985-03-01

    The PHENIX experimental irradiation program represents a substancial volume of work. For example, more than forty experiments were in the core during the 33rd PHENIX irradiation cycle at the end of 1984. This program ensures the implementation, optimization and qualification of new solutions for the future developpment of French LMFBRs in three significant areas: fissile, fertile and absorber elements

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on biopolymer composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol) and bacterial cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jipa, Iuliana Mihaela; Stroescu, Marta [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta, E-mail: stoica.anicuta@gmail.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Dobre, Tanase; Jinga, Sorin [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Zaharescu, Traian [Advanced Research Institute for Electrical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Unirii, 030138 Bucharest (Romania)

    2012-05-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper reports the obtaining of composite materials between PVA and BC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite films were {gamma}-irradiated at doses up to 50 kGy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films have a good resistance, being suitable as food packaging materials. - Abstract: Composite materials containing in different ratios poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), bacterial cellulose (BC) and glycerol (G) as plasticizer were obtained and exposed to different {gamma} radiation doses using an irradiator GAMMATOR provided with {sup 137}Cs source. These films successively received up to 50 kGy absorbed doses at a dose rate of 0.4 kGy/h at room temperature. In order to study the chemical and structural changes during {gamma} irradiation, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used. Water vapour permeability (WVP), Hunter colour parameters and hardness were also measured for the irradiated samples. Investigation revealed that WVP was not significantly affected by the irradiation. Colour measurements indicated a slight decrease of pure PVA films transparency and it made clear that all samples became more reddish and yellowish after irradiation. The samples hardness was not affected by the irradiation doses used. However, the results showed no drastic structural or chemical changes of the irradiated samples, which prove, in consequence, a good durability. These composite materials could be used as packaging materials for {gamma} irradiated products.

  2. Influence of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid on Some Biochemical Alterations in Irradiated and Streptozotocin Treated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of GABA on some metabolic complications in STZ-treated, γ- irradiated and STZ-treated-γ-irradiated rats. Animals sacrificed 3 weeks after the different treatments showed that the intraperitoneal administration of STZ (60 mg/Kg) to male albino Sprague Dawley rats induced hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency (DM type 1). While whole body γ-irradiation with 6 Gy using Cs-137 source provoked hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance (DM type 2) and whole body γ-irradiation of STZ-treated rats induced hyperglycemia, insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. Dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-C and decreased HDL-C) was recorded in STZ-treated, γ-irradiated and STZ-treated-γ-irradiated rats. Oxidative stress evidenced by significant decreases of SOD, catalase and GSH-Px activities and significant increases of MDA and AOPP was recorded in pancreas, liver and kidney tissues. Oxidative stress in pancreatic tissues was associated with damage of islets of Langerhans and significant decreases of GABA level and GAD activity. Oxidative stress in liver was accompanied by significant elevation of serum ALT and AST activities. Oxidative stress in kidney tissues was associated with significant increases of urea and creatinine levels. The administration of GABA daily via gavages (200 mg/Kg/day) during 3 weeks to STZ-treated, γ-irradiated and STZ-treated-γ-irradiated rats rectified insulin, glucose and lipid levels, reduced oxidative stress in pancreatic tissues accompanied by regenerating pancreatic islets of Langerhans and elevation of GABA level and GAD activity. GABA reduced also oxidative stress in liver and kidney tissues accompanied by lower serum ALT and AST activities and urea and creatinine levels

  3. Biochemical study on the effect of some antioxidants on apoptosis in irradiated male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo Kodous, A.Sh.H.

    2011-01-01

    Male albino rats were whole body subjected to 2 Gy every other day up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Animals sacrificed on the 8th day after irradiation showed significant decreases in testis/body weight ratio. Biochemical analysis in testicular tissues showed significant decreases in SOD and CAT activities, concomitant with significant increase in XO activity and TBARS contents. Radiation exposure induced also significant increases in testicular DNA fragmentation, significant increases in mitochondrial NO and Ca +2 contents associated with significant decrease in nuclear GSH content. Testicular LDL-C content showed a significant increase which was much higher than its increase in serum, the content of HDL-C increased significantly, contrarily to serum where a significant decrease was recorded. Histological examination through electron microscope revealed apoptosis in testicular tissue. Either allopurinol (50 mg/kg body weight supplied via intra peritoneal injection) or Hesperidine (200 mg/kg body weight supplied orally by gastric intubation) or allopurinol + hesperidine supplied to rats during 7 consecutive days before irradiation or during 7 consecutive days after irradiation resulted in significant decrease of apoptosis associated with significant amelioration in the disequilibrium between antioxidants and oxidants. All treatments have improved the biochemical alteration in testicular tissues as well as mitochondrial and nuclear changes. However, the improvement was significantly higher when allopurinol, or hesperidine or allopurinol + hesperidine were administered pre-irradiation than post-irradiation. According to the results obtained in the current study, it could be concluded that antioxidants supplementation would protect testicular tissues from apoptosis.

  4. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Gi [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun, E-mail: yhsuny@naver.co [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20+-3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  5. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon; Kim, Hong-Gi; Yook, Hong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20±3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  6. Effect of thermal annealing on property changes of neutron-irradiated non-graphitized carbon materials and nuclear graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Hideto

    1991-06-01

    Changes in dimension of non-graphitized carbon materials and nuclear graphite, and the bulk density, electrical resistivity, Young's modulus and thermal expansivity of nuclear graphite were studied after neutron irradiation at 1128-1483 K and the successive thermal annealing up to 2573 K. Carbon materials showed larger and anisotropic dimensional shrinkage than that of nuclear graphite after the irradiation. The irradiation-induced dimensional shrinkage of carbon materials decreased during annealing at temperatures from 1773 to 2023 K, followed by a slight increase at higher temperatures. On the other hand, the irradiated nuclear graphite hardly showed the changes in length, density and thermal expansivity under the thermal annealing, but the electrical resistivity and Young's modulus showed a gradual decrease with annealing temperature. It has been clarified that there exists significant difference in the effect of thermal annealing on irradiation-induced dimensional shrinkage between graphitized nuclear graphite and non-graphitized carbon materials. (author)

  7. The effect of embryonal thymic calf extracts on neonatally thymectomized mice and on mice lethally irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaplicki, J.; Blonska, B.; Stec, L.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of embryonal thymic calf extracts (ETCE) on mice thymectomized at birth was investigated. ETCE was found to induce an increase in leukopenia and decrease in the level of serum gamma globulins; it also reduced survival time in mice. The effect of ETCE on lethally irradiated mice was also examined. Only long-term administration of ETCE prior to gamma irradiation at 750 rad prolonged the survival time of mice (40% permanent survival) as compared with irradiated controls; the leukocytes from mice retained mitotic capability. Neither long-term treatment with ETCE prior to irradiation at 1000 rad, nor short-term administration prior to 750 rad affected survival time. ETCE administered after irradiation of mice with 750 rad caused a rapid decrease in blood leukocytes and a significantly lowered survival time. (Auth.)

  8. Characterization of gamma irradiated peanut kernels stored one year under ambient and frozen conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, R.Y.Y.; Shyu, S.L.; Tsai, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Peanut kernels were gamma irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 20 KGy, and stored 1 yr at ambient and frozen (-14 degrees C) conditions. Irradiated peanuts lost germination capabilities during storage. Molds were detected only on peanuts irradiated with 2.5 KGy and stored at ambient temperature. Peanut oil in kernels stored at -14 degrees C was comparatively more stable than that in peanuts stored at ambient temperature. Oxidation of oil was not significantly changed by irradiation. Changes in fatty acid content varied slightly with exception of linoleic and linolenic acids which decreased with increased radiation depending on storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein patterns of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage

  9. Radiation-Induced Fluidity and Glass-Liquid Transition in Irradiated Amorphous Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the fluidity behaviour of continuously irradiated glasses using the Congruent Bond Lattice model in which broken bonds 'configurons' facilitate the flow. Irradiation breaks the bonds creating configurons which at high concentrations provide the transition of material from the glassy to liquid state. An explicit equation of viscosity has been derived which gives results in agreement with experimental data. This equation provides correct viscosity data for non-irradiated materials and shows a significant increase of fluidity in radiation fields. It demonstrates a decrease of activation energy of flow for irradiated glasses. A simple equation for glass-transition temperature was also obtained which shows that irradiated glasses have lower glass transition temperatures and are readily transformed from glassy to liquid state e.g. fluidized in strong radiation fields. (authors)

  10. Magnetic properties of a stainless steel irradiated with 6 MeV Xe ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoliang; Liu, Xiangbing; Qian, Wangjie; Li, Yuanfei

    2017-11-01

    Specimens of austenitic stainless steel were irradiated with 6 MeV Xe ions at room temperature to 2, 7, 15 and 25 dpa. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PLS) were carried out to analysis the magnetic properties and microstructural variations. The magnetic hysteresis loops indicated that higher irradiation damage causes more significant magnetization phenomenon. The equivalent saturated magnetization Mes and coercive force Hc were obtained from magnetic hysteresis loops. It is indicated that the Mes increases with irradiation damage. While Hc increases first to 2 dpa and then decreases continuously with irradiation damage. The different contributions of irradiation defects and ferrite precipitates on Mes and Hc can explain these phenomena.

  11. Effects of condition in vitro on the irradiation sensitivity of scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongxue; Wang Dan; Zhang Zhiwei

    2007-01-01

    The effects of irradiation and the interactions between irradiation and the ingredients of culture medium and the type of explants on radiation sensitivity of scales of lily were studied. The results showed that when lily scales were exposed to after cultured in vitro for about six days. The survival rate of scales in vitro decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Irradiation significantly inhibited the sprouting rate and the number of sprouts of scales in vitro. During the bud induction, the effects of ingredients of culture medium on radiation sensitivity of scales were obvious at certain degree, and also the culture time. Both exterior scales and middle scales appeared an identical irradiation sensitivity. (authors)

  12. The effect of gamma irradiation on physical and nutritional quality of Penaeus Monodon shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.L.; Jobin, M.; Latreille, B.; Nouchpramool, K.; Gagnon, M.

    1995-01-01

    Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thailand ''PENAEUS MONODON'' Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the chemical and physical qualities of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the color measurement expressed in terms of lightness (L*) showed a relative stability during storage of processed shrimps. However, based on the value (θ) a more intense red color was observed for the control and the reference. The cooked irradiated and nonirradiated shrimps presented a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.01) of 22% in firmness during the first week of storage. Thus, irradiation did not impair the firmness of shrimps after treatment or during storage. Also, based on the statistical analysis, the irradiation treatment did not affect the content of amino acids of precooked shrimps. (Author)

  13. In vitro assessment of cardiac performance after irradiation using an isolated working rat heart preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, J.; Laarse, A. van der; Ravels, F.J.M. van; Wermeskerken, A.-M. van; Verhoeve, H.R.; Graaf, B.W. de; Leer, J.W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on cardiac function was assessed using an isolated working rat heart preparation. The animals were given single doses of X-rays in the range 15-30 Gy to their hearts. Cardiac output (CO = aortic flow + coronary flow), heart weight and body weight were followed for a period of 10 months after treatment. Irradiation led to a decrease in cardiac function. This reduction was dose-dependent and progressive with time after treatment. The shape of the Frank-Starling curves constructed for irradiated hearts suggests a loss of contractile function of the myocardium. Coronary flow rates measured in 'working' hearts and in 'Langendorff' hearts were not significantly changed by the irradiation treatment. The isolated working rat heart preparation proved to be a simple and suitable animal model for the investigation of irradiation-induced cardiotoxicity. (author)

  14. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the phenolic acids of some Indian spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variyar, P.S.; Bandyopadhyay, C.; Thomas, P.

    1998-01-01

    Five commercially important spices, namely cinnamon, clove, cardamom, nutmeg and mace, were subjected to gamma-irradiation using a dose of 10 kGy, which is recommended for microbial decontamination. Various phenolic acids present in these spices were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In clove and nutmeg, quantitatively significant changes were noted in some of the phenolic acids upon irradiation. The content of gallic and syringic acids in irradiated clove increased by 2.2- and 4.4-fold respectively, whereas in irradiated nutmeg many of the phenolic acids showed wide increases and decreases in the range of two- to sixfold compared with the control samples. No qualitative and major quantitative changes were, however, observed in the phenolic acids of cinnamon, cardamom and mace upon irradiation. The possibility that gamma-radiation induced breakdown of tannins could be responsible for the changes in phenolic acids content of clove and nutmeg is discussed

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  16. Vinca irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymery, R.

    1976-10-01

    The development programme of the VINCA radiosterilisation centre involves plans for an irradiator capable of working in several ways. Discontinuous operation. The irradiator is loaded for a certain period then runs automatically until the moment of unloading. This method is suitable as long as the treatment capacity is relatively small. Continuous operation with permanent batch loading and unloading carried out either manually or automatically (by means of equipment to be installed later). Otherwise the design of the apparatus is highly conventional. The source is a vertical panel submersible in a pool. The conveyor is of the 'bucket' type, with 4 tiers to each bucket. The batches pass successively through all possible irradiation positions. Transfert into and out of the cell take place through a maze, which also provides access to the cell when the sources are in storage at the bottom of the pool [fr

  17. Hemorrhages and hemostasis in guinea-pigs exposed to irradiation at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovskij, V.N.; Daniyarov, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    Hemorrhagic intensity, hemostasis and blood vessel wall resistance to mechanical effects were studied in guinea-pigs exposed to whole-body irradiation (3.0 Gy). The animals were irradiated at low altitude (760 m above sea level) and at high altitude (3200 m above sea level) after 1 and 31 days of adaptation. It was demonstrated that hemorrhagic intensity in both groups of guinea-pigs irradiated at high altitude was significantly reduced in comparison with that at low altitude. The decrease of radiation-induced hemorrhages at high altitude is associated with less severe changes in thrombopoiesis, blood vessel wall and blood coagulation

  18. Digestibility and composition of broiler litter, as affected by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out to study the effect of 6 doses of gamma irradiation (0-350 kilo Gray, kGy) on in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), digestible energy, gross energy (GE), total nitrogen (N), crude fibre (CF), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and acid-detergent lignin (ADL) in broiler litter. The results indicate that gamma irradiation increased the IVOMD and IVDE, except the dose of 50 kGy, and decreased the values of CF, NDF, ADF and ADL significantly (P 0.05) effect of irradiation on GE and N. (author)

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of stored pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour

    OpenAIRE

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T

    2013-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P < 0.05) value of protein and little or no effect on moisture content. There were slight decreases in c...

  20. Effect of UV-B (302 nm) irradiation on isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, S.; Habibullah, C.M.; Ayesha, Q.; Khan, A.A.; Srinivas, V.K.; Naithani, R.

    1995-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of UV-B irradiation on the functional integrity, and the metabolic and detoxifying capacity of isolated rat hepatocytes. Isolated rat hepatocytes were irradiated in various doses (400 Jm -2 , 600 Jm -2 , 800 Jm -2 and 1000 Jm -2 ). The cells were assayed for total lactate dehydrogenase, Na + -K + -ATPase, ATPase, ornithine carbamyltransferase activity (OCT) and urea production capacity. Lactate dehydrogenase and Na + -K + -ATPase activity were significantly decreased in all four irradiated groups (P<0.001), whereas viability, OCT and urea production capacity showed no alterations. (au) 22 refs

  1. Protective Effect Of Avocado Oil Against Biochemical And Histological Changes In Whole Body Gamma Irradiation In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.A.; Abd El Azime, A.SH.; Sherif, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    Avocado oil, extracted from the pulp of the fruit, is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, linolenic, oleic acids and the monounsaturated fatty acid. It also contains B-sitosterol, B-carotene, lecithin, minerals and vitamins A, C, D and E. Avocado oil lowers the blood levels of serum lipids and has antioxidant properties as a free radical scavenger. Male albino rats were divided into 5 groups. 1- Control group: rats not subjected to any treatment, 2- Avocado treated group: rats received avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3- Irradiated group: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 4- Avocado + irradiated group: rats received avocado oil for 21 days then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation with 7 Gy and 5- Radiation + avocado group: rats were exposed to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then received avocado oil for 21 days. Avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) was given to rats, receiving a standard diet, for 21 days before exposure to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then the treatment was continued for 10 days after irradiation. Several investigations were carried out such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), lipid profile and blood sugar. High significant increase in MDA was observed and treatment with avocado before irradiation caused significant increase in GSH, CAT and SOD and significant decrease in MDA as compared to the irradiated groups. The results also showed that treatment with avocado oil significantly diminished the radiation-induced alterations observed in the levels of lipid profile and glucose. The results demonstrated that whole body gamma irradiated rats showed significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose. By studying the lipid profile, significant increases in cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels were recorded while significant decrease was

  2. Prognostic significance of the initial cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) involvement of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treated without cranial irradiation: results of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Children Leukemia Group study 58881.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvent, Nicolas; Suciu, Stefan; Rialland, Xavier; Millot, Frédéric; Benoit, Yves; Plantaz, Dominique; Ferster, Alice; Robert, Alain; Lutz, Patrick; Nelken, Brigitte; Plouvier, Emmanuel; Norton, Lucilia; Bertrand, Yves; Otten, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of the initial cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) involvement of children with ALL enrolled from 1989 to 1996 in the EORTC 58881 trial. Patients (2025) were categorised according to initial central nervous system (CNS) status: CNS-1 (CNS negative, n=1866), CNS-2 (treatment were each related to a lower CNS relapse risk. The presence of initial CNS involvement has no prognostic significance in EORTC 58881. Intensification of CNS-directed chemotherapy, without CNS radiation, is an effective treatment of initial meningeal leukaemic involvement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative effects of irradiation, fumigation, and storage on the free amino acids and sugar contents of green, black and oolong teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, Tusneem; Akram, Kashif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Food irradiation or chemical fumigation can be used to ensure the hygienic quality of teas. The comparative effects of gamma irradiation (5 and 10 kGy) and fumigation (MeBr and PH 3 ) were investigated on the amino acids and sugar contents of Camellia sinensis (green, black and oolong teas) during storage (15±12 °C). The major amino acids found in teas were theanine and glutamic acid. Irradiation increased amino acids such as, leucine, alanine, and glutamic acid, and decreased the histidine. PH 3 fumigation resulted in a decrease of tyrosine content; however, the effect of MeBr fumigation was negligible. Storage showed no significant effect on the amino acid content of the irradiated and fumigated teas. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents significantly increased upon gamma irradiation (p≤0.05). However, fumigation and subsequent storage did not affect the sugar contents. Irradiation could be a preferred alternative choice to address food safety problems as fumigation is restricted in many countries. - Highlights: ► Teas were investigated for the changes during storage on irradiation and fumigation. ► The effect on amino acid contents was more prominent on irradiation than fumigation. ► The sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents increased on gamma irradiation. ► Fumigation and storage did not affect the sugar contents in the teas. ► Irradiation could be an effective alternative for fumigants

  4. A study of the physiological changes and the nutritional qualities of irradiated apples and the effect of irradiation on apples stored at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuanyao; Jiang Mengyue; Gao Meixu; Ma Xiuye; Zhang Shufen; Liu Shucheng

    1993-01-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation on the metabolism and nutritional qualities of Golden Delicious apples and on the lethality of pathogenic fungi have been studied. The storage effect of irradiation on apples at room temperature has been observed. Results showed that the respiratory intensity of irradiated apple at 0.3-0.5 kGy was near or lower than that of unirradiated apple after 15 days irradiation. The amount of ethylene release was obviously inhibited when fruits were irradiated with 0.3-0.7 kGy. The flesh firmness of apples irradiated with 0.3-0.9 kGy was higher than that of unirradiated apple with increased storage time. The negative correlations between the flesh firmness and the activities of pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG) were observed when the dosage was lower than 1.5 kGy. The 2.0 kGy irradiation damaged the ultrastructure of cells, induced the softening of apple. When apples were irradiated with 0.7-2.0 kGy, the contents of 4 important volatile components of apple would be decreased. However, this dose had no effects on the pure chemicals. Studies showed that there was no significant effect of irradiation with 0.3-2.0 kGy on the nutritional qualities of apples and this dose range could effectively control the verticillate pathogenic fungi. The result of storage experiment showed that rotting of fruits decreased by 0.3-0.9 kGy irradiation. (author)

  5. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  6. Effect of irradiation on carbohydrates content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantharasakul, S.

    1971-01-01

    Effect of gamma radiation on vitamin C and total acidity contents of Hom Tong banana was described. There was a slight decrease in vitamin C contents in both irradiated and non-irradiated banana during storage. No difference was detected in term of vitamin C contents between irradiated and non-irradiated banana at any storage time. The total acidity of the banana increased with increasing time of storage owing to the ripening effect of the fruit. Higher total acidity content of non-irradiated banana during storage indicated the faster rate of ripening of the fruit

  7. The Optimum Irradiation Dose in Preservation of Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl.) As Anticancer Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendig Winarno; Ermin Katrin W; Wisnurahadi; Swasono R Tamat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to obtain the optimum irradiation dose, in order to preserve and protect the damage of anticancer compounds in mahkota dewa bark. The specimens of mahkota dewa bark were irradiated using 60 Co at the variation doses of 0; 5; 7,5 ; 10; 15; and 20 kGy, respectively at the dose rate of 10 kGy/h. The irradiated and control samples were macerated in n-hexane and ethyl acetate, respectively, then the ethyl acetate extract was then fractionated using chromatography column to obtain 8 fractions. The examination of irradiated and control samples of mahkota dewa bark against microbe contaminants showed that irradiation at doses ≥5 kGy could inhibit the growth of bacteria, mold and yeast and destroyed them. The cytotoxicity test of irradiated ethyl acetate extract of mahkota dewa bark against leukemia L1210 cell showed that irradiation at the dose up to 20 kGy can decreased cytotoxic activities performance, however these IC 50 values lower than 50 μg/ml, which is the cytotoxic activity threshold for extract. The cytotoxic activity test of fraction 6, the most active fraction in mahkota dewa bark, showed that irradiation at the dose up to 20 kGy can also decreased the cytotoxic activities performance, however these IC 50 values was lower than 20 μg/ml, which is the cytotoxic activity threshold for fraction. Analysis of 2,4’-dihydroxy-4 methoxy benzophenone-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in fraction 6 of irradiated samples showed that the concentration of this compound in irradiated samples significantly decreased, compared to the control sample. Decreasing the concentration of 2,4’-dihydroxy-4 methoxy benzophenone-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside was not comparable to the cytotoxic activity of ethyl acetate extract or fraction 6, therefore this compound can not be used as marker of irradiation effect on decreasing the cytotoxic activity of the mahkota dewa bark. Irradiation at doses of 5 up to 20 k

  8. Properties of soya milk and tofu prepared with gamma-irradiated soya beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.W.; Kang, I.J.

    1995-01-01

    Soya beans (Glycine max) 'hwang keum' were gamma-irradiated at dose levels of 0, 2 5, 5, 10 and 20 kGy and the effects of the irradiated soya beans on soya milk and tofu properties were studied. An irradiation dose of 5 kGy caused an increase in yield of soya milk and tofu while having very little effect on their quality. The properties of tofu prepared with the soya beans irradiated at 2.5-5 kGy showed no significant difference from the non-irradiated control. However, at higher doses (10-20 kGy), decreases in yield, water holding capacity and sag value of tofu were observed. Compared with the non-irradiated control, hardness and fracturability in the texture of tofu were both significantly increased when the soya bean had been irradiated at 10-20 kGy, while cohesiveness and adhesiveness decreased. The changes in color values of soya milk and tofu were pronounced at 20 kGy

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on the physical and structural properties of β-glucan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Eui-Hong; Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il; Lim, Seong-Taek; Kim, Kwang-Hoon; Yook, Hong-Sun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the physical and structural properties of β-glucan. β-Glucan solution (10%, w/v) was exposed to a cobalt-60 source (10, 30, and 50 kGy). Gel permeation chromatography data showed that the average molecular weight of irradiated β-glucan significantly decreased as the irradiation dose increased. In addition, gamma irradiation improved the solubility and decreased the viscosity of β-glucan by the radiolysis of the glycosidic bonds, and this effect was dependent upon the absorbed dose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that the functional groups of β-glucan were not significantly affected by gamma irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the irradiated β-glucan was deformed into smaller granules. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be used in commercial processes as an effective method to resolve the physical problems involved in the use of β-glucan with high viscosity and low solubility

  10. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  11. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  12. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  13. The Radioprotective Role of Selenium in The Improvement of Some Biological and Biochemical Aspects of Gamma Irradiated Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis Capitata (Wield.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kholy, E.M.S.; Fadel, A.M.; Fadl, A.M.; Awad, H.H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite (SS) at different concentrations (10 - 6 ; 5×10 - 6 ; 10 - 5 ; 5×10 - 5 ; 10 - 4 M) added to larval diet of irradiated Ceratitis capitata on some biological and biochemical parameters. The resulting pupae were exposed to the sterilizing dose of gamma irradiation (90Gy).The percent of adult emergence showed a significant decrease with low concentrations. A significant decrease was in the percent of hatch ability at 90Gy alone or combined with different SS concentrations. The combined effect of SS with the concentrations (10 - 4 ; 5×10 - 5 ; 10 - 5 ) and gamma irradiation significantly decreased the number of eggs laid daily after mating with SS treated males, while the concentration 10 - 4 increased the number of eggs laid daily after mating normal males with SS treated females. The combined effect of SS with gamma irradiation showed an increase in total protein and total carbohydrate levels while total lipid levels decreased significantly in irradiated pupae. A significant increase was observed in total carbohydrates at concentrations 5×10 - 6 ,10 - 5 , 5×10 - 5 and 10 - 4 M of SS. However, the combined effect of 10 - 6 SS with gamma irradiation showed a significant decrease in total carbohydrate levels compared to irradiated pupae. The glucose levels were significantly increased at the concentrations 5×10 - 6 , 10 - 5 , 5×10 - 5, 10 - 4 M of SS combined with the sterilizing dose. Generally, the combined treatment of selenium and gamma irradiation could be used successfully in order to improve performance of the irradiated adults and could subsequently be applied in the integrated pest management program (IPM) to help in the success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) of med fly

  14. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    During the course of external radiation exposures of burros to establish a dose-response curve for acute mortality after total irradiation, some of the animals at the three lowest exposures to gamma photons survived. These groups of 10, 9, and 10 burros were exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively. There were 10 unirradiated controls. In 1953, 20 burros were exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/week increments without acute mortality and were added to the life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros were exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons, and 14 controls were added. The total number of irradiated burros in the study was increased to 88 by the addition of 6 animals irradiated with 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a Godiva-type reactor in 1959. In this experiment two acute deaths occurred which were not included in the analysis. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures, there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia, obviously related to radiation-induced bone-marrow damage. After that period, however, deaths were from common equine diseases; no death has resulted from a malignant neoplasm. Of the original 112 burros, 15 survive (10 irradiated and 5 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma- and gamma-irradiated burros showed significant differences. The mean survival times were: controls, 28 years; gamma irradiation only, 26 years; and neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 years. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Estimation of γ irradiation induced genetic damage by Ames test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, Eiko

    1999-01-01

    Mutation by 60 Co γ irradiation was studied in five different histidine-requiring auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium. The strains TA98 (sensitive to frameshift) and TA100 (sensitive to base-pair substitution) were irradiated (10-84 Gy and 45-317 Gy, respectively) and revertants were counted. TA98 exhibited radiation-induced revertants, 2.8 fold of spontaneous revertants, although no significant increase was detected in TA100. Then, three other frameshift-sensitive strains TA1537, TA1538 and TA94 were irradiated in a dose of 61-167 Gy. Only in TA94, revertants increased 3.5 fold. Since spontaneous revertants are known to be independent of cell density, a decrease of bacterial number by γ irradiation was confirmed not to affect the induced revertants by dilution test. Thus the standard Ames Salmonella assay identified γ irradiation was confirmed not to affect the induced revertants by dilution test. Thus the standard Ames Salmonella assay identified γ irradiation as a mutagenetic agent. The mutagenicity of dinitropyrene, a mutagen widely existing in food, and dismutagenicity of boiling water insoluble fraction of Hizikia fusiforme, edible marine alga, were tested on γ induced revertant formation in TA98 and TA94. Dinitropyrene synergistically increased γ induced revertants and Hizikia insoluble fraction reduced the synergistic effect of dinitropyrene dependently on the concentration. (author)

  16. Production measurements affected by x irradiation of chicken semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zartman, D.L.; Urquhart, N.S.; Francis, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    Single Comb White Leghorn (S.C.W.L.) and Dark Cornish semen was x-irradiated with 1000 R and introduced into S.C.W.L. hens to produce S.C.W.L. and crossbred chicks. The irradiation reduced the fertilizing capacity of the semen about 25% and the hatchability of the embryos about 38%. Semen of the two breeds was affected differently since there was much less alteration of embryonic development among purebred, S.C.W.L. chicks than among Cornish-sired crossbreds. As is typical, crossbred chicks gained weight faster than purebred S.C.W.L. irrespective of radiation damage. After irradiation, live weight was 4% less at 16 weeks of age for the crossbreds but no substantial effect on growth was evident for the S.C.W.L., although they were significantly heavier at hatching in the irradiated population. The rate of egg production in the first 30 days declined 15% under pressure from the irradiation damage. The distribution, as well as the frequency, of embryonic mortalities changed after parental semen irradiation. The majority of embryonic deaths occurred during the first 6 days of incubation with a coincidental decrease in the proportion of deaths occurring late during incubation. Posthatching mortalities were not affected for S.C.W.L. but were doubled for Cornish up to 16 weeks old

  17. Biosolubilization gamma irradiate ion result coal by mould trichoderma sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingkan Aditiawati; Dea Indriani Astuti; Irawan Sugoro; Dwiwahju Sasongko

    2011-01-01

    Biosolubilization of coal is process of converting solid coal to liquid fuel/chemicals by mean of microorganism. The aim of this research was to study the effect of gamma rays irradiation with varian doses of irradiation into solubilization of subbituminous coal by Trichoderma sp. The dosage used was 5, 10, and 20 kGy and unirradiated coal as control. The method was submerged culture in MSS+ medium and incubated at room temperature and agitated at 150 rpm for 21 th days. The parameters observed were colonization, pH and biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm and GC/MS analysis for the best treatment. The results showed that coal biosolubilization could be increased by gamma irradiation. The mould could growth well in medium containing irradiated coal and the medium of pH was decreased after incubation. The biosolubilization was increased but the irradiation dosage of coal didn't affect significantly. The best dose was 20 kGy with product biosolubilization similar to gasoline and solar. Based on the result, the pre-treatment of gamma irradiation on coal has potency to increased biosolubilization. (author)

  18. Centurion -- a revolutionary irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Dan; Perrins, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The facility characteristics for irradiation of red meat and poultry differ significantly from those of medical disposables. This paper presents the results of the market requirement definition which resulted in an innovative conceptual design. The process and the 'state of the art tools' used to bring this abstract idea into a proof of concept are presented. (author)

  19. Identification methods for irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shengtao; Kume, Tamikazu; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1992-02-01

    The effect of irradiation on wheat seeds was examined using various kinds of analytical methods for the identification of irradiated seeds. In germination test, the growth of sprouts was markedly inhibited at 500Gy, which was not affected by storage. The decrease in germination percentage was detected at 3300Gy. The results of enzymatic activity change in the germ measured by Vita-Scope germinator showed that the seeds irradiated at 10kGy could be identified. The content of amino acids in ungerminated and germinated seeds were analyzed. Irradiation at 10kGy caused the decrease of lysine content but the change was small which need very careful operation to detect it. The chemiluminescence intensity increased with radiation dose and decreased during storage. The wheat irradiated at 10kGy could be identified even after 3 months storage. In the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum analysis, the signal intensity with the g value f 2.0055 of skinned wheat seeds increased with radiation dose. Among these methods, germination test was the most sensitive and effective for identification of irradiated wheat. (author)

  20. Physicochemical changes taking place in bovine globulins under the influence of gamma irradiation studied by thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesla, K.; Vansant, E.F.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation modification of protein based polymers as well as the development of gamma irradiation techniques as a method of food sterilisation and preservation induces necessity of better recognition of the physicochemical changes occurring in proteins after gamma irradiation. Recently differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was applied widely in structural studies of proteins. Also thermoanalytical methods (TG, DTG) applied for proteins pyrolysis were also found to be useful in characterisation of proteins structure and the properties of proteins containing tissues. In presented paper, the aforementioned methods were applied for investigation of the gamma irradiation influence on thermal decomposition of gamma and alpha globulins and the results were related to their structural modifications. It has been found, that irradiation influences the course of decomposition of gamma and alpha globulins. Irradiation of solid native proteins result in decreased temperature of decomposition, especially decreased temperature of the last stage. The effects of irradiation performed for water suspensions were clearly more significant. The relatively large differences between decomposition of the irradiated and non-irradiated samples were detected by DSC and thermogravimetry already after irradiation of water suspensions

  1. Trypsin inhibitory activity in blood and cervical mucus of sheep following chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnarova, M.; Arendarcik, J.; Pastorova, B.

    1982-01-01

    The effect was investigated of chronic gamma irradiation for a period of 7 days to a total dose of 6.7 Gy. A decrease was found in TIA (trypsin inhibition activity) of blood plasma to 73.6% of the value prior to irradiation. The low-molecular fraction of TIA increased to 194.6%. Later in the experiment the values decreased. The TIA dynamics of the cervical mucus had the reverse character. The values increased; at the 16th day after irradiation they increased up to 392% of the initial values. A comparison with previous experiments shows that acute local irradiation with an almost three-fold dose of the hypothalamo-pituitary area and of the ovaries does not induce significant changes in the blood plasma TIA. (M.D.)

  2. Photochemical decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid in aqueous periodate with VUV and UV light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, M.H.; Wang, B.B.; Yu, H.S.; Wang, L.L.; Yuan, S.H.; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The photochemical decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in aqueous periodate (IO 4 - ) was investigated under two types of low-pressure mercury lamps: one emits at 254 nm light (UV light) and the other emits both 254 nm and 185 nm light (VUV light). PFOA decomposed efficiently under VUV light irradiation while it decomposed poorly under UV light irradiation. The addition of IO 4 - significantly increased the rate of decomposition and defluorination of PFOA irradiated with UV light whereas it decreased both processes under VUV irradiation. Reactive radical (IO 3 ·) generated by photolysis of IO 4 - initiated the oxidation of PFOA in UV process. Aquated electrons (e aq - ), generated from water homolysis, scavenged IO 4 - resulting in decrease of reactive radical species production and PFOA decomposition. The shorter-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) formed in a stepwise manner from long-chain PFCAs.

  3. Protective effects of nelumbo nucifera against {gamma}-irradiation-induced lipid peroxidation in mice urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Il Yun; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Caang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo Jung [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The radioprotective effect of isoquercitrin-abundant fraction (IAF) of N. nucifera Gaertn. Ieaf extract against {gamma}-irradiation-induced oxidative stress was evaluated by the lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes (LPDAs) as a marker for oxidative risk in mice urine, and the DNA damage using comet assay in RAW 264.7 cells. Mice that were treated with IAF (50 mg/kg) and {gamma}-irradiation showed considerably decreased LPDA levels relative to those that had received {gamma}-irradiation alone. Furthermore, pretreatment with IAF resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of DNA damage in cells. It is demonstrated that pretreatment with IAF of N. nucifera Gaertn. gives protection against irradiation-induced cellular damage.

  4. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Mohd Hafez Mohd; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Hasan, Abu Bakar; Fadilah, Nur Izzah Md; Hassan, Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically.

  5. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, Mohd Hafez Mohd; Hasan, Abu Bakar; Fadilah, Nur Izzah Md; Hassan, Abdul Rahman; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2016-01-01

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically

  6. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isa, Mohd Hafez Mohd, E-mail: m.hafez@usim.edu.my; Hasan, Abu Bakar; Fadilah, Nur Izzah Md; Hassan, Abdul Rahman [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically.

  7. Late effects of x-irradiation in rats, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic-Stejin, V.D.; Kanazir, D.T.

    1978-01-01

    The present cytogenetic study was made on the bone marrow cells of 48 male rats killed after 9 to 17 months following acute whole-body x-irradiation. We found that exposure to a dose of 700 rads of x-rays, delivered to animals at a high dose-rate (100 rads/min) resulted in a widespread karyotype variability. The number of cell types were existing independently in the haemopoietic tissue within the first week after irradiation, decreased with time. The selection process of persisting abnormalities as well a further evolution of the cells with new karyotypes to clones, were evident after a month following irradiation. Consequently, the analysis of haemopoietic tissue revealed, in 92% of the late survivors, a genetically heterogeneous cell population in which the number of normal diploid cells decreased to a considerable extent. Clones increased in size with elapsing time from exposure to radiation. Thus, the mean clone cell frequency for animals killed after 9 to 17 months following irradiation ranged from 20.6 +- 3.42% to 61.6 +- 4.26%. Analysis of the data showed a significant positive correlation between development of clones in vivo and the survival time after irradiation (r = 0.820; P<0.01). For such a finding, the occurrence of large clones especially in the bone marrow of rats with growing tumors was of the great influence. Relationship between the degree of mutagenesis on the chromosome level and the process of tumor advancement is discussed. (auth.)

  8. Anti-biofilm efficacy of 100 MeV gold ion irradiated polycarbonate against Salmonella typhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R. P.; Hareesh, K.; Bankar, A.; Sanjeev, G.; Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D.; Dahiwale, S. S.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Polycarbonate (PC) films were irradiated by 100 MeV gold (Au7+) ions and characterized to study changes in its optical, chemical, surface morphology and thermal properties. UV-Visible spectroscopic results revealed the decrease in the optical band gap of PC after ion irradiation due to chain scission mainly at the carbonyl group which is corroborated by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic results. X-ray diffractogram study showed decrease in crystallinity of PC film after irradiation. Scanning electron microscopic results showed the micropores formation in PC which results in surface roughening. Differential scanning calorimetric results revealed decrease in glass transition temperature indicating the decrease in molecular weight of PC corroborated by rheometric studies. PC films irradiated by 100 MeV Au7+ ions showed increased anti-biofilm activity against the human pathogen, Salmonella typhi (S. typhi). Morphology of S. typhi was changed due to stress of Au7+ irradiated PC. Cells length was increased with increasing fluences. The average cell length, cell volume and surface area was increased significantly (PBiofilm formation was inhibited ≈ 20% at lower fluence and 96% at higher fluence, which observed to be enhanced anti-biofilm activity in Au7+ irradiated PC.

  9. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V.; Ares, M. Ines

    2009-01-01

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  10. Impairment of liver and kidney functions in gamma irradiation rats suffering pesticide toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushdy, H M; Abdel-Hamid, F M; Abu-Ghadir, A R [Radiation biology department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Radio isotope Department, Nuclear Reseach Center, and atomic Energy, Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The effect of exposure to single whole body gamma irradiation dose at 6.5 Gy and/or either oral administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane/kg kelthane/kg body weight/day for successively 3 days, or daily feeding with 200 mg kelthane/kg body weight for 3, 6, and 12 weeks has been studied on relative liver and kidney weights, certain serum and liver enzymes creatinine and inorganic phosphorous clearance, as well as percentage of tubular phosphorous reabsorption in male animals. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma-irradiation alone or combined with kelthane treatment caused significant increase in the relative spleen weight besides significant decrease in serum and liver alkaline phosphatase and serum cholinesterase. Exposure to gamma irradiation after orally administration of 100 mg or feeding dietary kelthane caused significant decrease in liver glucose-6-phosphatase. Non significant changes in aspartic and alanine transaminases could be recorded due to gamma-irradiation and/or kelthane treatment. Endogenous clearance of creatinine and phosphorous as well as tubular phosphorous reabsorption were determined to assess the glomerular filtration and tubular function. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma-irradiation either alone or after treatment with kelthane caused significant decrease in creatinine and phosphorous clearance while phosphorous reabsorption was not appreciably affected. 4 tabs.

  11. Impairment of liver and kidney functions in gamma irradiation rats suffering pesticide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; Abdel-Hamid, F.M.; Abu-Ghadir, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exposure to single whole body gamma irradiation dose at 6.5 Gy and/or either oral administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane/kg kelthane/kg body weight/day for successively 3 days, or daily feeding with 200 mg kelthane/kg body weight for 3, 6, and 12 weeks has been studied on relative liver and kidney weights, certain serum and liver enzymes creatinine and inorganic phosphorous clearance, as well as percentage of tubular phosphorous reabsorption in male animals. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma-irradiation alone or combined with kelthane treatment caused significant increase in the relative spleen weight besides significant decrease in serum and liver alkaline phosphatase and serum cholinesterase. Exposure to gamma irradiation after orally administration of 100 mg or feeding dietary kelthane caused significant decrease in liver glucose-6-phosphatase. Non significant changes in aspartic and alanine transaminases could be recorded due to gamma-irradiation and/or kelthane treatment. Endogenous clearance of creatinine and phosphorous as well as tubular phosphorous reabsorption were determined to assess the glomerular filtration and tubular function. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma-irradiation either alone or after treatment with kelthane caused significant decrease in creatinine and phosphorous clearance while phosphorous reabsorption was not appreciably affected. 4 tabs

  12. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking considerations at temperatures below 288 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, E.P.; Jones, R.H.; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) occurs above a critical neutron fluence in light-water reactor (LWR) water environments at 288 C, but very little information exists to indicate susceptibility as temperatures are reduced. Potential low-temperature behavior is assessed based on the temperature dependencies of intergranular (IG) SCC in the absence of irradiation, radiation-induced segregation (RIS) at grain boundaries and micromechanical deformation mechanisms. IGSCC of sensitized SS in the absence of irradiation exhibits high growth rates at temperatures down to 200 C under conditions of anodic dissolution control, while analysis of hydrogen-induced cracking suggests a peak crack growth rate near 100 C. Hence from environmental considerations, IASCC susceptibility appears to remain likely as water temperatures are decreased. Irradiation experiments and model predictions indicate that RIS also persists to low temperatures. Chromium depletion may be significant at temperatures below 100C for irradiation doses greater than 10 displacements per atom (dpa). Macromechanical effects of irradiation on strength and ductility are not strongly dependent on temperature below 288 C. However, temperature does significantly affect radiation effects on SS microstructure and micromechanical deformation mechanisms. The critical conditions for material susceptibility to IASCC at low temperatures may be controlled by radiation-induced grain boundary microchemistry, strain localization due to irradiation microstructure and irradiation creep processes. 39 refs

  13. Response of tissue lysosomes in Gamma-irradiated rats and possible modulation through diclofenac treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.H.S.; Abu-Ghadeer, A.R.M.; Osman, S.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of pre and post-irradiation treatment of rats with diclofenac (5 mg kg-1) for modulating the damaging effect of radiation on tissue lysosomes was investigated. The parameters used for this study were the activity level of acid phosphatase (ACP) and acid ribonuclease (RNase) activities, both being hydrolytic enzymes of lysosomes. The activities of ACP and RNase in liver, spleen, intestine, kidney, lung and brain were determined at different times up to 14 days after irradiation (4(Gy). Lysosomal affection was represented by time dependent significant increase in ACP activity in all the tissue homogenates of the investigated organs 3, 7 and 14 days after irradiation at 4 Gy. Gamma irradiation at 4 Gy resulted also in a significant rise in RNase activity of all the tissue organs 3 days post-irradiation. However, gradual decrease in the enzyme activity was recorded 7 and 14 days following irradiation. Diclofenac, pre (as prophylactic) and post (as therapeutic) irradiation treatment of rats successfully restored the increase in the enzymatic activities of ACP and RNase nearly to their normal levels in all the investigated organs. The beneficial effect of diclofenac inhibited completely the effect of irradiation at 14 days post-exposure. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Studies on extension of shelf-life of rawa by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudha Rao, V.; Srirangarajan, A.N.; Kamat, A.S.; Adhikari, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Semolina, a wheat product, popularly termed as rawa, was packed in 500g pouches prepared individually from high density polyethylene (HDP), biaxially oriented polypropylene : low density polyethylene laminate (BOPP/LDP), polyester : low density polyethylene laminate (PET/LDP) and irradiated using a Cobalt-60 source at dose of 0.15 to 0.50 kGy. At the end of six months' storage at room temperature, the unirradiated rawa developed infestation, whereas the irradiated samples were completely free of any infestation, thereby indicating a complete destruction of all stages of the insects due to irradiation. There was no significant difference in the moisture content and the total bacterial as well as mould counts of the irradiated and unirradiated rawa. Gamma irradiation significantly decreased the gelatinization viscosity of rawa. In sensory evaluation tests, irradiated rawa scored the same on a 9-point Hedonic scale, thereby showing that overall acceptability of the rawa was not altered due to irradiation upto 0.25 kGy. Amongst the packaging materials used, BOPP/LDP was found to be better, because of its comparatively higher resistance to penetration by insects. Gamma irradiation at 0.25 kGy could thus be recommended for effectively extending the shelf-life of rawa, prepacked in pouches made from BOPP/LDP laminate, for six months. (author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. An experimental study of the effect of irradiation (Co60) on wound healing of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, Shingo; Sugiura, Yoshiaki; Yonekawa, Hajime; Ogata, Toshiro; Matsuyama, Shigeo

    1982-01-01

    The cervical esophagus of 22 adult mongrel dogs was irradiated in a schedule of 300 rad per fraction, 3 times a week, to either a total dose of 3000 or 6000 rad. 2 weeks after completion of irradiation, 1 cm of the esophagus in the irradiation field was resected, and Olsen type 1 layered anastomosis was performed. All of the animals were sacrificed for comparison with a non-irradiated group 2 weeks after surgery. Failure of the sutures occurred in 1 of 18 non-irradiated dogs (5.6%), 1 of 9 dogs given 3000 rad (11.1%), with no significant difference, and 5 of 7 given 6000 rad (71.4%), with a significant difference from the other two groups. Irradiation of 3000 or 6000 rad provoked decrease of the interstitial content of hydroxyproline to 70% or 85%, respectively. Although an increasing tendency was observed 2 weeks after anastomosis, the values of the irradiated groups were lower than those of the non-irradiated group. Histopathologically, a strong reaction, chiefly edema, was noted in the submucosal layer. (Chiba, N.)

  16. Effect of Gamma and Electron Beam Irradiation on Textile Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selambakkannu, S.; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Ting, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this studies gamma and electron beam irradiation was used to treat textile waste water. Comparisons between both types of irradiation in terms of effectiveness to degrade the pollutants present in textile waste water was done. Prior to irradiation, the raw wastewater was diluted using distilled water to a target concentration of COD 400 mg/l. The sample was irradiated at selected doses between the ranges of 10 kGy to 100 kGy. The results showed that irradiation has significantly contributed in the reduction of the highly colored refractory organic pollutants. The COD removal at the lowest dose, 10 kGy, was reduced to 390 mg/l for gamma and 400 mg/l for electron beam. Meanwhile, at the highest dose, 100 kGy, the COD was reduced to 125 mg/l for gamma and 144 mg/l for electron beam. The degree of removal is influenced by the dose introduced during the treatment process. As the dose increased, the higher the removal of organic pollutant was recorded. However, gamma irradiation is more effective although the differences are not significant between gamma and electron beam irradiation. On the other hand, other properties of the wastewater such as pH, turbidity, suspended solid, BOD and color also shows a gradual decrease as the dose increases for both types of irradiation. (author)

  17. Physicochemical, rheological, thermal, and bread making properties of flour obtained from irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Carolina Sobral

    2006-01-01

    Most of the methods that are nowadays used for food preservation derive from old times. Besides these methods, new non-thermal methods have been developed in order to improve food quality during its processing. Irradiation technology has a great contribution potential to improve preservation, storage and distribution of foods. Several studies from international literature have reported the efficiency of irradiation process on microbiological control of grains and their products. Due to the low technological quality of national wheat, Brazil depends on its import. Wheat is the main ingredient of bread which is one of the most important products of Brazilian people's diet. The objective of this work was to study the effect of ionizing radiation on wheat on physicochemical, rheological, and thermal properties of flour produced from this wheat, and consequently, its performance on bread making. All experiments were conducted on laboratory scale. Wheat was submitted to irradiation on different doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy) and flour produced underwent physicochemical, rheological, thermal and microbiological analyses. Flour bread making performance was measured through quality of bread. None of the physicochemical, rheological or thermal parameters was influenced by irradiation, with the exception of Falling Number, which decreased significantly with the increase of irradiation dose, indicating the effect of irradiation on wheat starch, and consequently on dough's gelatinization. Bread quality parameters did also not show significant differences, and sensory analysis showed that bread produced from irradiated and non irradiated wheat did not present perceivable flavor. (author)

  18. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  19. Changes of initiation, promotion and metastatic enzyme system in human breast cancer with the proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, K. S.; Mo, J. Y. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Proton irradiations in the cells were significantly decreased cell viability but increased the QR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability was 92.3%, 88.4%, 81.8%, 72.4%, 68.9% at doses of 0.5, 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, respectively. At doses of 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, QR activity was increased 1.27-, 1.31-, 1.45- and 2.08-fold. However, negligible GST activity in the cells was detected and the activity was not changed by proton irradiation. Proton irradiation also increased GSH contents by 1.18- and 1.21-fold at doses of 0.5 and 2 Gy. In contrast, the ODC activity, a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis and tumor promotion, was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. We also investigated anti-metastatic effects of proton beam irradiation in breast cancer cells. Invasion and wound healing assay showed that metastatic activities in breast cancer cells were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner by proton beam irradiation. In zymography of MMP-9, the activity was slightly diminished. These results suggest that breast cancer chemopreventive potential was increased with proton irradiation by increasing the QR activity and the GSH levels and by inhibiting the ODC activity.

  20. High Temperature Tensile Properties of Unirradiated and Neutron Irradiated 20 Cr-35 Ni Austenitic Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R B; Solly, B

    1966-12-15

    The tensile properties of an unirradiated and neutron irradiated (at 40 deg C) 20 % Cr, 35 % Ni austenitic steel have been studied at 650 deg C, 750 deg C and 820 deg C. The tensile elongation and mode of fracture (transgranular) of unirradiated specimens tested at room temperature and 650 deg C are almost identical. At 750 deg C and 820 deg C the elongation decreases considerably and a large part of the total elongation is non-uniform. Furthermore, the mode of fracture at these temperatures is intergranular and microscopic evidence suggests that fracture is caused by formation and linkup of grain boundary cavities. YS and UTS decrease monotonically with temperature. Irradiated specimens show a further decrease in ductility and an increase in the tendency to grain boundary cracking. Irradiation has no significant effect on the YS, but the UTS are reduced. The embrittlement of the irradiated specimens is attributed to the presence of He and Li atoms produced during irradiation and the possible mechanisms are discussed. Prolonged annealing of irradiated and unirradiated specimens at 650 deg C appears to have no significant effect on tensile properties.

  1. Melatonin, a potential effective protector in whole body γ-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S; El-Nashar, D.E; Ahmed, M.M; Hanafy, Z.E

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the chief hormone of pineal gland, is widely distributed in animal kingdom. It is claimed for its antioxidant and free radical properties. The present study aimed to examine the radio protective potentiality and efficacy of melatonin against damages induced in whole body γ-irradiated rats. Animals received melatonin (10 mg/ kg body wt/ day) for 10 successive days pre-exposure to 3 Gy of γ-radiation (acute dose). Rats sacrificed at 10 and 20 days post the irradiation time. The results revealed that the prolonged administration of melatonin has ameliorated the radiation- induced depletion in brain, testis and serum glutathione (GSH) level and a decrease in serum glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity when compared with their matched values in irradiated rats. In addition, remarkable decreases in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (LPO) product; malondialdhyde (MDA) was observed in brain, testis and serum of rats received melatonin pre-radiation exposure. As well as, significant decreases in disulphide glutathione (GSSG) were observed in serum.Histopathological examination of brain and testis showed that administration of melatonin pre-irradiation according to the present regimen has attenuated radiation induced tissue damages and improved tissue architecture. Cytogenetically, the chromosomal aberration (CA) assay in bone marrow pointed out a significant difference between rats received melatonin pre-irradiation and γ-irradiated rats in most CA types. Accordingly, it could be postulated the tissue diversity and cytogenetic impact of the administrated melatonin against acute ion syndrome in rat model.

  2. Changes of initiation, promotion and metastatic enzyme system in human breast cancer with the proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, K. S.; Mo, J. Y.

    2010-04-01

    Proton irradiations in the cells were significantly decreased cell viability but increased the QR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability was 92.3%, 88.4%, 81.8%, 72.4%, 68.9% at doses of 0.5, 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, respectively. At doses of 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, QR activity was increased 1.27-, 1.31-, 1.45- and 2.08-fold. However, negligible GST activity in the cells was detected and the activity was not changed by proton irradiation. Proton irradiation also increased GSH contents by 1.18- and 1.21-fold at doses of 0.5 and 2 Gy. In contrast, the ODC activity, a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis and tumor promotion, was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. We also investigated anti-metastatic effects of proton beam irradiation in breast cancer cells. Invasion and wound healing assay showed that metastatic activities in breast cancer cells were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner by proton beam irradiation. In zymography of MMP-9, the activity was slightly diminished. These results suggest that breast cancer chemopreventive potential was increased with proton irradiation by increasing the QR activity and the GSH levels and by inhibiting the ODC activity.

  3. Post-irradiation diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerwaldt, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    In radiotherapy of pelvic cancers, the X-ray dose to be delivered to the tumour is limited by the tolerance of healthy surrounding tissue. In recent years, a number of serious complications of irradiation of pelvic organs were encountered. Modern radiotherapy necessitates the acceptance of a calculated risk of complications in order to achieve a better cure rate. To calculate these risks, one has to know the radiation dose-effect relationship of normal tissues. Of the normal tissues most at risk when treating pelvic tumours only the bowel is studied. In the literature regarding post-irradiation bowel complications, severe and mild complications are often mixed. In the present investigation the author concentrated on the group of patients with relatively mild symptoms. He studied the incidence and course of post-irradiation diarrhea in 196 patients treated for carcinoma of the uterine cervix or endometrium. The aims of the present study were: 1) to determine the incidence, course and prognostic significance of post-irradiation diarrhea; 2) to assess the influence of radiotherapy factors; 3) to study the relation of bile acid metabolism to post-irradiation diarrhea; 4) to investigate whether local factors (reservoir function) were primarily responsible. (Auth.)

  4. Energy and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1978-01-01

    The energy used in food systems in the US amounts to about 16.5% of total US energy. An analysis has been made of the energy used in the many steps of the food-irradiation process. It is found that irradiation pasteurization uses only 21kJ/kg and radappertization 157kJ/kg, which is much less than the energy used in the other food processes. A comparison has also been made with other methods of preserving, distributing and preparing the meat for servings. It is found that the food irradiation can save significant amounts of energy. In the case of heat-sterilized and radiation-sterilized meats the largest fraction of the energy is used in the packaging, while in the frozen meats the largest energy consumption is by refrigeration in the distribution channels and in the home. (author)

  5. Study of inhibition on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Yiming

    2006-03-01

    It was studied that the effect factors of irradiation dose, preservation temperature, oxygen content and antioxidant on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. A mechanism was explained on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. The results showed that irradiation might aggravate lipid oxidation of pork and that decreased preservation temperature and oxygen content of the packaging, added antioxidant also could effectively inhibit lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. (authors)

  6. Facts about food irradiation: Controlling the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet briefly reviews the procedures that exist to control the process of food irradiation. It also summarizes the difficulties in identifying irradiated food, which stem from the fact that irradiation does not physically change the food or cause significant chemical changes in foods. 4 refs

  7. Evaluation of irradiation hardening of proton irradiated stainless steels by nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro; Kuribayashi, Yutaka; Nogami, Shuhei; Kasada, Ryuta; Hasegawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Ion irradiation experiments are useful for investigating irradiation damage. However, estimating the irradiation hardening of ion-irradiated materials is challenging because of the shallow damage induced region. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to prove usefulness of nanoindentation technique for estimation of irradiation hardening for ion-irradiated materials. SUS316L austenitic stainless steel was used and it was irradiated by 1 MeV H + ions to a nominal displacement damage of 0.1, 0.3, 1, and 8 dpa at 573 K. The irradiation hardness of the irradiated specimens were measured and analyzed by Nix–Gao model. The indentation size effect was observed in both unirradiated and irradiated specimens. The hardness of the irradiated specimens changed significantly at certain indentation depths. The depth at which the hardness varied indicated that the region deformed by the indenter had reached the boundary between the irradiated and unirradiated regions. The hardness of the irradiated region was proportional to the inverse of the indentation depth in the Nix–Gao plot. The bulk hardness of the irradiated region, H 0 , estimated by the Nix–Gao plot and Vickers hardness were found to be related to each other, and the relationship could be described by the equation, HV = 0.76H 0 . Thus, the nanoindentation technique demonstrated in this study is valuable for measuring irradiation hardening in ion-irradiated materials

  8. Genomic instability induced by 137Cs γ-ray irradiation in CHL surviving cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Jingyin; Liu Bingchen; Wu Hongying; Zhou Jiwen; Mu Chuanjie

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study in parallel several possible manifestations of instability of surviving CHL cells after irradiation, namely the frequencies of mutation at locus, micronuclei and apoptosis. Methods: The frequencies of mutation at HGPRT locus, micronuclei and apoptosis were assayed at various times in surviving cells irradiated with γ-rays. Results: The surviving cells showed a persistently increased frequency of mutation at the HGPRT locus after irradiation until 53 days. Mutant fraction as high as 10 -4 was scored, tens of times higher than those assayed in control cells studied in parallel. The frequency of bi nucleated cells with micronuclei determined within 24 hours after irradiation increased with dose and reached a peak value of (26.58 +- 2.48)% at 3 Gy, decreasing at higher doses to a plateau around 20%. The micronucleus frequency decreased steeply to about (14.47 +- 2.39)% within the first 3 days post-irradiation, and fluctuated at around 10% up to 56 days post-irradiation. The delayed efficiency of irradiated cells was significantly decreased. The frequency of apoptosis peaked about (24.90 +- 4.72)% at 10 Gy 48 h post-irradiation (γ-ray dose between 3-10 Gy) and then decreased to about 12% within 3 days. It was significantly higher than in control cells until 14 days. Conclusions: It shows that genomic instability induced by radiation can be transmitted to the progeny of surviving cells and may take many forms of expression such as lethal mutation, chromosome aberrations, gene mutation, etc

  9. Ameliorative Effect of Honey and Propolis Mixture on Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemieda, S.F.; Abd-El Nour, K.N.; Hassan, A.I.; Abdou, M.I.; Khalil, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the ameliorative effect of honey and propolis mixture treatment on some biochemical and biophysical parameters in rats exposed to oxidative stress of gamma irradiation. Male rats were exposed to a fractionated dose gamma irradiation of total 5 Gy in five successive days. A mixture of dose 250 mg/kg/day honey and 90 mg/kg/day propolis was administrated to rats, ten days before irradiation, five days during irradiation and 14 days post irradiation. Blood samples were collected at 1 st , 7 th and 14 th day post the 5 th day of irradiation. Biochemical parameters such as serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST), serum renal function as (BUN and Creatinine) and serum total antioxidants were estimated. Also biophysical studies including hemoglobin investigations (Hb absorption spectra and dielectric measurements) were investigated.The results demonstrated that the levels of AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine were significantly elevated, while levels of total antioxidants were significantly reduced post irradiation. Moreover the absolute values of permittivity ε', dielectric loss ε'' and ac - conductivity σ ac increased in addition to a pronounced decrease in the absorbance at Sort band after irradiation compared to control group.Treatment of the irradiated group with honey and propolis mixture showed significant amelioration in the levels of the biochemical parameters. Also, the values of ε', ε'' and σ ac were nearly close to those of control group. Finally, the average value of peak height of Sort band was significantly increased compared to irradiated rat.