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Sample records for irradiation results show

  1. Results from irradiation of tobacco seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyrbev, B.; Velikov, S.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out in the Struma river valley with tobacco seedlings in the period 1984-1987. The seeds were gamma irradiated with 1000 R and 2000 R and sowed after 2-3 days with and without fertilizers. The results from phenological observations and biometrical measurements of the seedlings showed no positive radiation effect on the sprouting and phenophase transition. No significant changes between irradiated plants and controls were detected in the total weight of the seedlings, the number, height, length and width of the leaves, the yield and quality of tobacco. In conclusion the authors do not recommend gamma irradiation of tobacco seeds as a plant growth stimulation agent. 3 tabs

  2. Review of recent irradiation-creep results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coghlan, W.A.

    1982-05-01

    Materials deform faster under stress in the presence of irradiation by a process known as irradiation creep. This phenomenon is important to reactor design and has been the subject of a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations. The purpose of this work is to review the recent experimental results to obtain a summary of these results and to determine those research areas that require additional information. The investigations have been classified into four subgroups based on the different experimental methods used. These four are: (1) irradiation creep using stress relaxation methods, (2) creep measurements using pressurized tubes, (3) irradiation creep from constant applied load, and (4) irradiation creep experiments using accelerated particles. The similarity and the differences of the results from these methods are discussed and a summary of important results and suggested areas for research is presented. In brief, the important results relate to the dependence of creep on swelling, temperature, stress state and alloying additions. In each of these areas new results have been presented and new questions have arisen which require further research to answer. 65 references

  3. Preliminary irradiation test results from the Yankee Atomic Electric Company reactor vessel test irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biemiller, E.C.; Fyfitch, S.; Campbell, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Yankee Atomic Electric Company test irradiation program was implemented to characterize the irradiation response of representative Yankee Rowe reactor vessel beltline plate materials and to remove uncertainties in the analysis of existing irradiation data on the Yankee Rowe reactor vessel steel. Plate materials each containing 0.24 w/o copper, but different nickel contents at 0.63 w/o and 0.19 w/o, were heat treated to simulate the Yankee vessel heat treatment (austenitized at 1800 deg F) and to simulate Regulatory Guide 1.99 database materials (austenitized at 1600 deg. F). These heat treatments produced different microstructures so the effect of microstructure on irradiation damage sensitivity could be tested. Because the nickel content of the test plates varied and the copper level was constant, the effect of nickel on irradiation embrittlement was also tested. Correlation monitor material, HSST-02, was included in the program to benchmark the Ford Nuclear Reactor (U. of Michigan Test Reactor) which had never been used for this type of irradiation program. Materials taken from plate surface locations (vs. 1/4T) were included to test whether or not the improved toughness properties of the plate surface layer, resulting from the rapid quench, is maintained after irradiation. If the improved properties are maintained, pressurized thermal shock calculations could utilize this margin. Finally, for one experiment, irradiations were conducted at two irradiation temperatures (500 deg. F and 550 deg. F) to determine the effect of irradiation temperature on embrittlement. The preliminary results of the irradiation program show an increase in T 30 shift of 69 deg. F for a decrease in irradiation temperature of 50 deg. F. The results suggest that for nickel bearing steels, the superior toughness of plate surface material is maintained after irradiation and for the copper content tested, nickel had no apparent effect on irradiation response. No apparent microstructure

  4. Updated Results of Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 4112, Idaho Falls, ID, 38415-3840 (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Keller, Paul; Montgomery, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd. Richland, WA, 99354 (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL, 60439 (United States); Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian [Pennsylvania State University, 212 Earth and Engr. Sciences Building, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave. Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rempe, Joy [Rempe and Associates, LLC, 360 Stillwater, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States); Villard, J.F. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives, Centre d' etudes de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. A multi-National Laboratory collaboration funded by the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation (NEET-ASI) program also provided initial support for this effort. This irradiation, which started in February 2014, is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data are collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The irradiation is ongoing and will continue to approximately mid-2015. To date, very encouraging results have been attained as several transducers continue to operate under irradiation. (authors)

  5. Biosolubilization gamma irradiate ion result coal by mould trichoderma sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingkan Aditiawati; Dea Indriani Astuti; Irawan Sugoro; Dwiwahju Sasongko

    2011-01-01

    Biosolubilization of coal is process of converting solid coal to liquid fuel/chemicals by mean of microorganism. The aim of this research was to study the effect of gamma rays irradiation with varian doses of irradiation into solubilization of subbituminous coal by Trichoderma sp. The dosage used was 5, 10, and 20 kGy and unirradiated coal as control. The method was submerged culture in MSS+ medium and incubated at room temperature and agitated at 150 rpm for 21 th days. The parameters observed were colonization, pH and biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm and GC/MS analysis for the best treatment. The results showed that coal biosolubilization could be increased by gamma irradiation. The mould could growth well in medium containing irradiated coal and the medium of pH was decreased after incubation. The biosolubilization was increased but the irradiation dosage of coal didn't affect significantly. The best dose was 20 kGy with product biosolubilization similar to gasoline and solar. Based on the result, the pre-treatment of gamma irradiation on coal has potency to increased biosolubilization. (author)

  6. Spirogyra varians mutant generated by high dose gamma-irradiation shows increased antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak-Jyung; Yoon, Minchul; Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant (Mut) produced by gamma irradiation. Methanol extracts were prepared from Spirogyra varians wild-type and Mut plants, and their antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. Antioxidant parameters, including the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, were higher in the Mut extract. Moreover, the TPC level was higher (P<0.05) in the Mut methanol extract. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation-induced S. varians Mut has superior antioxidant properties. - Highlights: ► The antioxidative properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant produced by gamma-irradiation was investiated. ► The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content levels were higher in mutant strain. ► These results suggest that gamma-irradiation induced algae mutant with superior antioxidant properties.

  7. VVER fuel. Results of post irradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.P.; Markov, D.V.; Smirnov, A.V.; Polenok, V.S.; Perepelkin, S.O.; Ivashchenko, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper presents the main results of post-irradiation examination of more than 40 different fuel assemblies (FA) operated in the cores of VVER-1000 and VVER-440-type power reactors in a wide range of fuel burnup. The condition of fuel assembly components from the viewpoint of deformation, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties is described here. A serviceability of the FA design as a whole and interaction between individual FA components under vibration condition and mechanical load received primary emphasis. The reasons of FA damage fuel element failure in a wide range of fuel burnup are also analyzed. A possibility and ways of fuel burnup increase have been proved experimentally for the case of high-level serviceability maintenance of fuel elements to provide for advanced fuel cycles. (author)

  8. Results of irradiation of vegetable seeds before sowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daskalov, Kh; Maltseva, S [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Tsentralna Lab. po Obshta Genetika

    1980-01-01

    Effect of low dose /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-irradiation upon seeds of tomatoes, pepper and egg-plants has been investigated for 10 years. It is established that low doses of irradiation stimulate the seeds sprouting, development of plants as a result of the seeds irradiated and early ripeness of the plants.

  9. WWER fuel: Results of post irradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, D.V.; Smirnov, V.P.; Smirnov, A.V.; Polenok, V.S.; Perepelkin, S.O.; Ivashchenko, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Kozloduy NPP and advanced working assemblies at the Kola NPP demonstrate this. Now a high-priority task is to prolong the service life and increase a burnup of WWER fuel without decrease of high reliability. Design and engineering innovations in the course of fuel development require a fundamental analysis from the viewpoint of efficiency. Innovations are checked at the final stage based on the results of PIE of FAs after semi-commercial operation in the commercial reactor. PIE make it possible to get a detailed and unprejudiced evaluation of a new generation fuel for consistency with the above stipulated requirements. The present paper describes the results of FA PIE with regard to its main parameters and properties, which affect the serviceability of products and their structural components. The paper has the following contents: Introduction; Post-irradiation examination results; FA geometries and rigidity; State of fuel elements; Fuel- cladding interaction; Cladding corrosion; Fission gas release; Zr-spacer grid state; Fuel failure; Corrective actions; Conclusion. In conclusion the authors underline that the WWER-440 FAs provided with shroud demonstrate a high geometrical stability in the course of their operation up to 6 fuel cycles. The problem of FA bending in the WWER-1000 reactor core has been solved at the expense of FA-A and FA-2 development. These designs are provided with rigid skeleton that demonstrates permissible deformation if they are operated up to 6 fuel cycles. As for other parameters affecting the FE serviceability (geometries, cladding corrosion, mechanical properties, fission gas release, etc), the service life is not exhausted up to a fuel burnup of 70 MWd/kgU. The state of ZSGs is satisfactory on the whole, but there are some cases of higher corrosion demonstrating the necessity of further design and engineering work. E635 products (guide tubes, central tubes and FE claddings) demonstrate geometrical stability and strength properties as opposed to

  10. Tensile and fracture toughness test results of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R.; Moons, F.; Puzzolante, J.L. [Centre d`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1998-01-01

    Tensile and fracture toughness test results of four Beryllium grades are reported here. The flow and fracture properties are investigated by using small size tensile and round compact tension specimens. Irradiation was performed at the BR2 material testing reactor which allows various temperature and irradiation conditions. The fast neutron fluence (>1 MeV) ranges between 0.65 and 2.45 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. In the meantime, un-irradiated specimens were aged at the irradiation temperatures to separate if any the effect of temperature from irradiation damage. Test results are analyzed and discussed, in particular in terms of the effects of material grade, test temperature, thermal ageing and neutron irradiation. (author)

  11. Carcinoma of the pancreas: results of irradiation for unresectable lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, R.; Wilson, J.F.; Cox, J.D.; Kline, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    From 1973 to 1977, 20 patients who had histologically proven unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with no distant metastases were irradiated at the Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals. The patients received megavoltage external irradiation to minimum tumor doses ranging between 3000 rad in 4 weeks and 5700 rad in 7 weeks (median 4600 rad in 6 weeks); their actuarial survival was 54% at 12 months and 21% at 24 months. Fourteen patients who received 4500 rad or more in 6 to 7 weeks had a median survival of 13 months. Six patients received less than 4500 rad in 3 to 6 weeks, and their median survival was 7 months. At this writing, three patients are alive and apparently disease free more than 2 years after treatment. Complications were seen in two patients. One died from GI bleeding 2 months after completion of radiation therapy, and the other patient developed pancreatic insufficiency. These results and recent reports in the literature show that aggressive irradiation can result in long-term disease free survival in a small proportion of patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Further exploitation of this approach alone or combined with chemotherapy is warranted

  12. Postirradiation examination results for the Irradiation Effects Test 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploger, S.A.; Kerwin, D.K.; Croucher, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    This report presents the postirradiation examination results of Test IE-2 in the Irradiation Effects Test Series conducted under the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program. The objectives of this test were to evaluate the influence of previous cladding irradiation and fuel-cladding diametral gap on fuel rod behavior during a power ramp and during film boiling operation. Test IE-2, conducted in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, employed two 0.97-m-long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated zircaloy-4 cladding and two similar rods fabricated from unirradiated cladding. The four rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, followed by a power ramp to an average peak rod power of 68 kW/m and steady state operation for one hour at an individual rod coolant mass flux of 4880 kg/s . m 2 . After a flow reduction to 2550 kg/s . m 2 , film boiling occurred on three rods. An additional flow reduction to 2245 kg/s . m 2 produced film boiling on the remaining fuel rod. Maximum time in film boiling was 90 s. None of the four fuel rods failed during the test. Damage caused by film boiling, as characterized by oxidation, oxide spalling, and collapse at fuel pellet interfaces, was found on all four rods. Film boiling regions on these rods showed evidence of fuel melting, fuel centerline void formation, and internal cladding oxidation resulting from fuel-cladding reaction. Effects of fuel-cladding diametral gap and cladding irradiation are summarized. Measured temperatures and metallographically estimated temperatures are compared at several axial fuel rod locations

  13. Chemical changes in food packaging resulting from ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Recent approvals of food irradiation processes by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have led to a search for packaging approved for use with ionizing radiation. Though 13 packaging materials were approved several years ago as food contactants for gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy at refrigeration temperatures and 4 packaging materials were approved for up to 60 kGy at cryogenic temperatures, no currently used packaging is approved for irradiated foods. Extensive research was conducted by the U.S. Army and others on the suitability of both flexible packaging and metal cans for packaging irradiated foods. The results of the studies of packaging for irradiated foods will be described and discussed in context of currently used packaging materials for non-irradiated meats and poultry

  14. PIXE analysis showed that the preirradiation enhanced recovery of bone marrow elements after challenging irradiation in C57BL/6N Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Yonezawa, M.; Nishiyama, F.

    2000-01-01

    Priming X-irradiation with 0.3-0.5 Gy induces radio-resistance in C57BL/6 strain of mice 2 weeks afterward. Elements in the bone marrow, sampled 11 days after challenging exposure to 5.0 Gy, were determined by PIXE. The challenging irradiation decreased Mg, P, S, K, Ca and Zn as well as dried bone marrow weight. The pre-irradiation enhanced recovery of these levels, indicating stimulated recovery of the metabolism int he tissue. Fe in both control (without pre-irradiation) and experimental groups increased to about twice the original value, showing elevated hemoglobin synthesis after challenging exposure. In previous studies we have reported that recovery of peripheral blood cell counts after sub-lethal irradiation was enhanced by the pre-irradiation. Further, study on accumulation of p53 and Bax proteins, which lead to apoptotic cell death, revealed that the pre-irradiation significantly suppressed accumulation of these proteins in the spleen after challenging irradiation with 3 Gy. These results and our present study suggest that the pre-irradiation decreased the spleen cell death, and favored re-growth of the spleen cells, resulting in stimulated recovery of metabolism for hematopoiesis in the bone marrow as well as in the spleen after challenging high dose irradiation. Stimulated recovery of Mg, P, S, K, Ca and Zn levels might indicate the importance of these elements in hematopoiesis. (author)

  15. Postirradiation examination results for the Irradiation Effects Scoping Test 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehner, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The postirradiation examination results are reported for two rods from the second scoping test (IE-ST-2) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Irradiation Effects Program. The rods were irradiated in the in-pile test loop of the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Rod IE-005 was fabricated from fresh fuel and cladding previously irradiated in the Saxton Reactor. Rod IE-006, fabricated from fresh fuel and unirradiated cladding, was equipped with six developmental cladding surface thermocouples. The rods were preconditioned, power ramped, and then subjected to film boiling operation. The performance of the rods and the developmental thermocouples are evaluated from the post irradiation examination results. The effects of prior irradiation damage in cladding are discussed in relation to fuel rod behavior during a power ramp and subsequent film boiling operation

  16. Irradiation effects test series test IE-1 test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Allison, C.M.; Farrar, L.C.; Mehner, A.S.

    1977-03-01

    The report describes the results of the first programmatic test in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Irradiation Effects Test Series. This test (IE-1) used four 0.97m long PWR-type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated Saxton fuel. The objectives of this test were to evaluate the effect of fuel pellet density on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and to evaluate the influence of the irradiated state of the fuel and cladding on rod behavior during film boiling operation. Data are presented on the behavior of irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, a power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of as-fabricated gap size, as-fabricated fuel density, rod power, and power ramp rate on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T2 computer model predictions, and comments on the consequences of sustained film boiling operation on irradiated fuel rod behavior are provided

  17. First results of laser welding of neutron irradiated stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osch, E.V. van; Hulst, D.S. d'; Laan, J.G. van der.

    1994-10-01

    First results of experimental investigations on the laser reweldability of neutron irradiated material are reported. These experiments include the manufacture of 'heterogeneous' joints, which means joining of irradiated stainless steel of type AISI 316L-SPH to 'fresh' unirradiated material. The newly developed laser welding facility in the ECN Hot Cell Laboratory and experimental procedures are described. Visual inspections of welded joints are reported as well as results of electron microscopy and preliminary metallographic examinations. (orig.)

  18. KEY RESULTS FROM IRRADIATION AND POST-IRRADIATION EXAMINATION OF AGR-1 UCO TRISO FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hunn, John D.; Petti, David A.; Morris, Robert N.

    2016-11-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation experiment was performed as the first test of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel in the US Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The experiment consisted of 72 right cylinder fuel compacts containing approximately 3×105 coated fuel particles with uranium oxide/uranium carbide (UCO) fuel kernels. The fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor for a total of 620 effective full power days. Fuel burnup ranged from 11.3 to 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom and time average, volume average irradiation temperatures of the individual compacts ranged from 955 to 1136°C. This paper focuses on key results from the irradiation and post-irradiation examination, which revealed a robust fuel with excellent performance characteristics under the conditions tested and have significantly improved the understanding of UCO coated particle fuel irradiation behavior within the US program. The fuel exhibited a very low incidence of TRISO coating failure during irradiation and post-irradiation safety testing at temperatures up to 1800°C. Advanced PIE methods have allowed particles with SiC coating failure to be isolated and meticulously examined, which has elucidated the specific causes of SiC failure in these specimens. The level of fission product release from the fuel during irradiation and post-irradiation safety testing has been studied in detail. Results indicated very low release of krypton and cesium through intact SiC and modest release of europium and strontium, while also confirming the potential for significant silver release through the coatings depending on irradiation conditions. Focused study of fission products within the coating layers of irradiated particles down to nanometer length scales has provided new insights into fission product transport through the coating layers and the role various fission products may have on coating integrity. The broader implications of these results and the application of

  19. Radiochemistry Results from the IER-163 COMET Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, Kevin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bredeweg, Todd Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schake, Ann R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Rene Gerardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Attrep, Moses [C-NR: NUCLEAR & RADIOCHEMISTRY; Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-08-07

    The COMET assembly at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was used to irradiate twelve foils in September 2011. The intention of this irradiation was to measure 'peak yield' fission product activities, activation products, and so-called 'endpoint R values' for different foil materials in a non-thermal neutron spectrum. After irradiation, several of the foils were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for radiochemical analysis. The results from the non-destructive and radiochemical analyses of six of these foils are presented.

  20. Preliminary irradiation test results from the Yankee Atomic Electric Company reactor vessel test irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biemiller, E.C.; Fyfitch, Stephen; Campbell, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Yankee Atomic Electric Company test irradiation program was implemented to characterize the irradiation response of representative Yankee Rowe reactor vessel beltline plate materials and to remove uncertainties in the analysis of existing irradiation data on the Yankee Rowe reactor vessel steel. Plate materials each containing 0.24 w/o copper, but different nickel contents at 0.63 w/o and 0.19 w/o, were heat treated to simulate the Yankee vessel heat treatment (austenitized at 982 o C (1800 o F)) and to simulate Regulatory Guide 1.99 database materials (austenitized at 871 o C (1600 o F)). These heat treatments produced different microstructures so the effect of microstructure on irradiation damage sensitivity could be tested. Because the nickel content of the test plates varied and the copper level was constant, the effect of nickel on irradiation embrittlement was also tested. Correlation monitor material, HSST-02, was included in the program to benchmark the Ford Nuclear Reactor (University of Michigan Test Reactor) which had never been used before for this type of irradiation program. Materials taken from plate surface locations (versus 1/4 T) were included to test whether or not the improved toughness properties of the plate surface layer, resulting from the rapid quench, are maintained after irradiation. If the improved properties are maintained, pressurized thermal shock calculations could utilize this margin. Finally, for one experiment, irradiations were conducted at two irradiation temperatures (260 o C and 288 o C) to determine the effect of irradiation temperature on embrittlement. (Author)

  1. SP-100 Fuel Pin Performance: Results from Irradiation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makenas, Bruce J.; Paxton, Dean M.; Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Marietta, Martin; Hoth, Carl W.

    1994-07-01

    A total of 86 experimental fuel pins with various fuel, liner, and cladding candidate materials have been irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor as part of the SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program. Postirradiation examination results from these fuel pins are key in establishing performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the reactor fuel system. This paper provides a brief description of the in-reactor fuel pin tests and presents the most recent irradiation data on the performance of wrought rhenium (Re) liner material and high density UN fuel at goal burnup of 6 atom percent (at. %). It also provides an overview of the significant variety of other fuel/liner/cladding combinations which were irradiated as part of this program and which may be of interest to more advanced efforts.

  2. Fracture toughness of irradiated candidate materials for ITER first wall/blanket structures: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.; Pawel, J.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1993-01-01

    Candidate materials for first wall/blanket structures in ITER have been irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at temperatures of either 60 or 250 degrees C. Preliminary results have been obtained for several of these materials irradiated at 60 degrees C. The results show that irradiation at this temperature reduces the fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steels, but the toughness remains quite high. The unloading compliance technique developed for the subsize disk compact specimens works quite well, particularly for materials with lower toughness. Specimens of materials with very high toughness deform excessively, and this results in experimental difficulties

  3. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-3. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, L.C.; Allison, C.M.; Croucher, D.W.; Ploger, S.A.

    1977-10-01

    The objectives of the test reported were to: (a) determine the behavior of irradiated fuel rods subjected to a rapid power increase during which the possibility of a pellet-cladding mechanical interaction failure is enhanced and (b) determine the behavior of these fuel rods during film boiling following this rapid power increase. Test IE-3 used four 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated fuel. The fuel rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, followed by a power ramp to 69 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4920 kg/s-m 2 . After a flow reduction to 2120 kg/s-m 2 , film boiling occurred on the fuel rods. One rod failed approximately 45 seconds after the reactor was shut down as a result of cladding embrittlement due to extensive cladding oxidation. Data are presented on the behavior of these irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, the power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of a power ramp and power ramp rates on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations and data from a previous Irradiation Effects test in which four irradiated fuel rods of a similar design were tested. Test IE-3 results indicate that the irradiated state of the fuel rods did not significantly affect fuel rod behavior during normal, abnormal (power ramp of 20 kW/m per minute), and accident (film boiling) conditions

  4. Results of treatment in irradiated testicular seminoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellokump-Lehtinen, P.

    1990-01-01

    Excellent treatment results have been acieved historically with postoperative radiotherapy in testicular seminoma. In this retrospective study the treatment results of 211 patients with Stage I/II testicular seminoma treated in Finland during the years 1970-1983 were evaluated. 176 (84%) patients received postoperative radiotherapy alone. In addition to radiotherapy, 26 (12%) patients received chemotherapy during the primary treatment. There were 129 Stage I (61%), 66 Stage IIA-B (31%) and 16 Stage IIC (8%) tumors. The 5-year survival rate was 95% in Stage I, 87% in Stage IIA-B and 73% in Stage IIC. In Stage I, seven relapses (relapse rate 6%) occured after irradiation; three of them were cured with second-line therapies. None of the relapses occurred within the radiotherapy field. In Stage IIA-B, 31 patients had only parailiacic + aortic irradiation, 25 patients received both parailiacic + aortic and mediastinal irradiation. With both radiotherapy techniques there was no significant difference in the number of relapses (seven and three) and in the remission rate (94% and 96%). Radiotherapy alone was used on four Stage IIC patients and one of them died during the primary treatment. Two of them relapsed, but could be cured with chemotherapy. These results correspond to those reported in the literature and tye suggest that prophylactic mediastinal irradiation is unneccessary in Stage IIA-B patients. Stage IIC patients should receive chemotherapy initially. (author). 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Results of Am isotopic ratio analysis in irradiated MOX fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Shin-ichi; Osaka, Masahiko; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Konno, Koichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kajitani, Mikio

    1997-04-01

    For analysis of a small quantity of americium, it is necessary to separate from curium which has similar chemical property. As a chemical separation method for americium and curium, the oxidation of americium with pentavalent bismuth and subsequent co-precipitation of trivalent curium with BIP O{sub 4} were applied to analyze americium in irradiated MOX fuels which contained about 30wt% plutonium and 0.9wt% {sup 241}Am before irradiation and were irradiated up to 26.2GWd/t in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The purpose of this study is to measure isotopic ratio of americium and to evaluate the change of isotopic ratio with irradiation. Following results are obtained in this study. (1) The isotopic ratio of americium ({sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am) can be analyzed in the MOX fuels by isolating americium. The isotopic ratio of {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am increases up to 0.62at% and 0.82at% at maximum burnup, respectively, (2) The results of isotopic analysis indicates that the contents of {sup 241}Am decreases, whereas {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243}Am increase linearly with increasing burnup. (author)

  6. Results of preliminary experiments on tritium decontamination by UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Shu, Wataru; O'hira, Shigeru; Hayashi, Takumi; Nishi, Masataka

    2000-03-01

    In the point of view of protection of workers from the radiation exposure and the limitation of the contamination with radioactive materials, it is important to decontaminate mobile tritium from plasma facing components of a nuclear fusion reactor at the beginning of their maintenance work. It is considered that the heating is the most effective method for decontamination. However, it is important to develop new decontamination method of adsorbed hydro-carbon based substances from the materials that cannot be heated or the inner pipe of double pipes. This report presents results of preliminary experiments performed for the development of the effective tritium decontamination technique pursuing under US/Japan collaborative program on technology for fusion-fuel processing (Annex IV). In the experiments, the effects of Ultra Violet (UV) irradiation on tritium removal from some kinds of materials, such as poly vinyl chloride -(CH 2 CHCl) n - film, polyethylene film and graphite samples coated by C 2 H 2 plasma were examined. As the result of UV irradiation, it was confined that hydrogen and carbon based compounds could be released from the specimen during UV irradiation. It is concluded that UV irradiation is one of the hopeful candidates for effective tritium decontamination. (author)

  7. Post-irradiation brain-necrosis resulting in apoplexia and death after 33 years of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, A [Foevarosi Laszlo Korhaz, Budapest (Hungary). Korbonctani es Korszoevettani Oszt.

    1980-04-01

    A case of post-irradiation brain-necrosis resulting in apoplexia of the cerebellum after 33 years of irradiation (19984 r.) of a presumptive cerebellar tumour is reported. The pathohistologic study revealed symptoms of the ''late'' damage and the vascular changes appeared to be the most prominent. The thickening of the vessel walls, hyperplasia of collagen fibres and deposition of calcium in the media, were the most characteristic lesions revealed. In some of the small vessels isolated calcification of the media was observed. It seems most probable that in the development of apoplexia vascular alterations could play an important role. In the available literature no report has been found on a similarly long interval elapsing between the irradiation and death.

  8. Post-irradiation brain-necrosis resulting in apoplexia and death after 33 years of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, A.

    1980-01-01

    A case of post-irradiation brain-necrosis resulting in apoplexia of the cerebellum after 33 years of irradiation (19984 r.) of a presumptive cerebellar tumour is reported. The pathohistologic study revealed symptoms of the ''late'' damage and the vascular changes appeared to be the most prominent. The thickening of the vessel walls, hyperplasia of collagen fibres and deposition of calcium in the media, were the most characteristic lesions revealed. In some of the small vessels isolated calcification of the media was observed. It seems most probable that in the development of apoplexia vascular alterations could play an important role. In the available literature no report has been found on a similarly long interval elapsing between the irradiation and death. (author)

  9. Preliminary test results for post irradiation examination on the HTTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Shohei; Umeda, Masayuki; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Sozawa, Shizuo; Shimizu, Michio; Ishigaki, Yoshinobu; Obata, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    The future post-irradiation program for the first-loading fuel of the HTTR is scheduled using the HTTR fuel handling facilities and the Hot Laboratory in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) to confirm its irradiation resistance and to obtain data on its irradiation characteristics in the core. This report describes the preliminary test results and the future plan for a post-irradiation examination for the HTTR fuel. In the preliminary test, fuel compacts made with the same SiC-coated fuel particle as the first loading fuel were used. In the preliminary test, dimension, weight, fuel failure fraction, and burnup were measured, and X-ray radiograph, SEM, and EPMA observations were carried out. Finally, it was confirmed that the first-loading fuel of the HTTR showed good quality under an irradiation condition. The future plan for the post-irradiation tests was described to confirm its irradiation performance and to obtain data on its irradiation characteristics in the HTTR core. (author)

  10. Endonuclease α from Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows increased activity on ultraviolet irradiated native DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.W.; Haynes, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Endonuclease α isolated from the nucleus of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a DNA endonuclease which has been shown to act preferentially on denatured T7 DNA. The purified enzyme is more active with UV-irradiated native T7 DNA than with unirradiated substrate. The relation between damage, measured by pyrimidine dimer concentration, and excess endonuclease activity is most readily explained by local denaturation caused by the presence of pyrimidine dimers. When three radiation sensitive mutants of yeast were tested for the level of endonuclease α present, none were found lacking the enzyme. However, nuclei of strain rad 1-1, a mutant that may be defective in heteroduplex repair as well as excision repair, were found to contain reduced levels of the endonuclease. (orig./AJ) [de

  11. Clinical effects in children irradiated prenatally: 11 year survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, E.I.; Kondrashova, V.G.; Galichanskaya, T.Ya.; Davidenko, O.A.; Vdovenko, V.Y.; Stakhurskaya, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    The 11 years-long survey results indicated the amount of children increase with disconcordant development signs, thyroid structure and function disorders both with that of somatic status. Majority of blood and immune system quality and quantity parameters deviations been present during the ''acute iodine period'' among children exposed to acute irradiation gradually reached the control level. The hemopoetic and immunocompetent system function substantial deviations are continued being registered among children born in zone of radionuclide contamination. (author)

  12. Identification of irradiated foodstuffs: results of a European test intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.; Belliardo, J.-J.; Agnel, J.-P.; Vincent, P.

    1993-01-01

    The results of an intercomparison, organized by the Community Bureau of Reference (Commission of the European Communities), on the use of Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy for the identification of irradiated food are presented. A qualitative intercomparison was carried out using beef and trout bones, sardine scales, pistachio nut shells, dried grapes and papaya. Protocols are proposed for meat bones, fish bones (with some restrictions) and fruits such as dried grapes and papaya. The protocol for pistachio nuts and fruits such as strawberries is more complicated and further research is needed prior the organization of future intercomparisons. A quantitative intercomparison on poultry bones was also organized. Laboratories were able to distinguish between chicken bones irradiated at 1 to 3 kGy or 7 to 10 kGy. (author)

  13. Irradiation devices for fusion reactor materials results obtained from irradiated lithium aluminate at the OSIRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, F.; Thevenot, G.; Rasneur, B.; Botter, F.

    1986-06-01

    Studies about controlled fusion reactor of the Tokamak type require the examination of the radiation effects on the behaviour of various potential materials. Thus, in the first part of this paper, are presented the devices adapted to these materials studies and used in the OSIRIS reactor. In a second part, is described an experiment of irradiation ceramics used as candidates for breeding material and are given the first results

  14. Irradiation effects test series, test IE-5. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croucher, D.W.; Yackle, T.R.; Allison, C.M.; Ploger, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Test IE-5, conducted in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, employed three 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods, fabricated from previously irradiated zircaloy-4 cladding and one similar rod fabricated from unirradiated cladding. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the influence of simulated fission products, cladding irradiation damage, and fuel rod internal pressure on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and on fuel rod behavior during film boiling operation. The four rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, a power ramp to an average fuel rod peak power of 65 kW/m, and steady state operation for one hour at a coolant mass flux of 4880 kg/s-m 2 for each rod. After a flow reduction to 1800 kg/s-m 2 , film boiling occurred on one rod. Additional flow reductions to 970 kg/s-m 2 produced film boiling on the three remaining fuel rods. Maximum time in film boiling was 80s. The rod having the highest initial internal pressure (8.3 MPa) failed 10s after the onset of film boiling. A second rod failed about 90s after reactor shutdown. The report contains a description of the experiment, the test conduct, test results, and results from the preliminary postirradiation examination. Calculations using a transient fuel rod behavior code are compared with the test results

  15. Results of neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina; Ponkratov, Yuriy; Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuriy; Skakov, Mazhyn; Zaurbekova, Zhanna; Lyublinski, Igor; Vertkov, Alexey; Mazzitelli, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1M research reactor are described. • At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10 9 exp(−144/RT). • The T 2 molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise. - Abstract: This paper describes the results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1 M research reactor. The neutron flux at the reactor core center at 2 MW was 5 10 −13 cm −2 s −1 . The efficiency coefficients of helium and tritium release from lithium saturated with deuterium were calculated. The tritium interaction with lithium atoms (formation and dissociation of lithium tritide) has an effect on tritium release. An increment of sample’s temperature results in tritium release acceleration due to rising of the dissociation rate of lithium tritide. At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10 9 exp(-144/RT). The T 2 molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise.

  16. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-2. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, C.M.; Croucher, D.W.; Ploger, S.A.; Mehner, A.S.

    1977-08-01

    The report describes the results of a test using four 0.97-m long PWR-type fuel rods with differences in diametral gap and cladding irradiation. The objective of this test was to provide information about the effects of these differences on fuel rod behavior during quasi-equilibrium and film boiling operation. The fuel rods were subjected to a series of preconditioning power cycles of less than 30 kW/m. Rod powers were then increased to 68 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4900 kg/s-m 2 . After one hour at 68 kW/m, a power-cooling-mismatch sequence was initiated by a flow reduction at constant power. At a flow of 2550 kg/s-m 2 , the onset of film boiling occurred on one rod, Rod IE-011. An additional flow reduction to 2245 kg/s-m 2 caused the onset of film boiling on the remaining three rods. Data are presented on the behavior of fuel rods during quasiequilibrium and during film boiling operation. The effects of initial gap size, cladding irradiation, rod power cycling, a rapid power increase, and sustained film boiling are discussed. These discussions are based on measured test data, preliminary postirradiation examination results, and comparisons of results with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations

  17. Postirradiation examination results for the Irradiation Effects Test IE-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, T.F.; Ploger, S.A.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1978-03-01

    The results are presented of the postirradiation examination of four pressurized water reactor type fuel rods which were tested in-pile under a fast power ramp and film boiling operation during Irradiation Effects (IE) Test 5. The major objectives of this test were to evaluate the effects of simulated fission products on fuel rod behavior during a fast power ramp, to determine the effects of high initial internal pressure on a fuel rod during film boiling, and to assess fuel rod property changes that occur during film boiling in a fuel rod with previously irradiated cladding. The overall condition of the rods and changes that occurred in fuel and cladding as a result of the power ramp and film boiling operation, as determined from the postirradiation examination, are reported and analyzed. Effects of the simulated fission products on fuel rod behavior during a power ramp are discussed. The effect of high internal pressure on rod behavior during film boiling is evaluated. Cladding temperatures are estimated at various axial and circumferential locations. Cladding embrittlement by oxidation is also assessed

  18. Irradiation effects test Series Scoping Test 1: test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Allison, C.M.; Farrar, L.C.

    1977-09-01

    The report describes the results of the first scoping test in the Irradiation Effects Test Series conducted by the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program, which is part of the Water Reactor Research Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. The research is sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This test used an unirradiated, three-foot-long, PWR-type fuel rod. The objective of this test was to thoroughly evaluate the remote fabrication procedures to be used for irradiated rods in future tests, handling plans, and reactor operations. Additionally, selected fuel behavior data were obtained. The fuel rod was subjected to a series of preconditioning power cycles followed by a power increase which brought the fuel rod power to about 20.4 kW/ft peak linear heat rating at a coolant mass flux of 1.83 x 10 6 lb/hr-ft 2 . Film boiling occurred for a period of 4.8 minutes following flow reductions to 9.6 x 10 5 and 7.5 x 10 5 lb/hr-ft 2 . The test fuel rod failed following reactor shutdown as a result of heavy internal and external cladding oxidation and embrittlement which occurred during the film boiling operation

  19. Murine scid cells complement ataxia-telangiectasia cells and show a normal port-irradiation response of DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, K.; Yoshida, M.; Okumura, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The murine severe combined immunodeficient mutation (scid) is characterized by a lack of both B and T cells, due to a deficit in lymphoid variable-(diversity)-joining (V(D)J) rearrangement. Scid cells are highly sensitive to both radiation-induced killing and chromosomal aberrations. Significantly reduced D 0 and n values were demonstrated in scid cells and were similar to ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) cells (a unique human disease conferring whole body radiosensitivity). However, the kinetics of DNA synthesis after irradiation were different between the two cell types. In contrast with the radioresistant DNA synthesis of AT cells, DNA synthesis of scid cells was markedly inhibited after irradiation. The existence of different mutations was also supported by evidence of complementation in somatic cell hybrids between scid cells and AT cells. Results indicate that the radiobiological character of scid is similar to AT but is presumably caused by different mechanisms. (author)

  20. First irradiation test results of the ALICE SAMPA ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Winje, Fredrik Lindseth; Velure, Arild

    2018-01-01

    With the continuous scaling of the CMOS technology, the CMOS circuits are considered to be more tolerant to Single event Latchup (SEL) effects due to the reduction in the supply voltages. This paper reports the results from SEL testing performed on the first two prototypes for the new readout ASIC (SAMPA). During RUN 3/RUN 4 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the SAMPA chip will be used for the upgrade of read-out front end electronics of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and Muon Chambers (MCH). The first prototype MPW1 and the second prototype V2 of the SAMPA chip were delivered in 2015 and 2016, respectively. The results are summarized from two different proton beam irradiation campaigns, conducted for SAMPA MPW1 and V2 prototypes at The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, and the Center of Advanced Radiation Technology (KVI) in Groningen, respectively.

  1. Treatment results by uneven fractionated irradiation, low-dose rate telecobalt therapy as a boost, and intraoperative irradiation for malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shogo; Takai, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kenji; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Kakuto, Yoshihisa; Hoshi, Akihiko; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko; Kayama, Takamasa; Yoshimoto, Takashi (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-08-01

    The prognosis of malignant glioma is extremely poor. We applied conventionally fractionated irradiation combined with 1-(4-aminio-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea (ACNU), uneven fractionated irradiation with ACNU, low dose rate telecobalt therapy as a boost, and intraoperative irradiation against 110 malignant gliomas to investigate the efficacy of these methods as alternative treatments for malignant glioma. Although local tumor control by uneven fractionated irradiation was better than that by the other methods, no significant improvement was obtained in survival rates. As a result of multiple regression analysis, age and histology were major factors for survival rates, and the difference of treatment methods was not important. Both low-dose rate telecobalt therapy as a boost and intraoperative irradiation showed little advantage because of the high risk of brain necrosis associated with them. (author).

  2. Results of neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina, E-mail: tazhibayeva@ntsc.kz [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Ponkratov, Yuriy; Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuriy; Skakov, Mazhyn; Zaurbekova, Zhanna [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Lyublinski, Igor [JSC «Red Star», Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU «MEPhI», Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, Alexey [JSC «Red Star», Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, Giuseppe [ENEA, RC Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1M research reactor are described. • At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10{sup 9} exp(−144/RT). • The T{sub 2} molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise. - Abstract: This paper describes the results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1 M research reactor. The neutron flux at the reactor core center at 2 MW was 5 10{sup −13} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The efficiency coefficients of helium and tritium release from lithium saturated with deuterium were calculated. The tritium interaction with lithium atoms (formation and dissociation of lithium tritide) has an effect on tritium release. An increment of sample’s temperature results in tritium release acceleration due to rising of the dissociation rate of lithium tritide. At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10{sup 9} exp(-144/RT). The T{sub 2} molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise.

  3. Results on Neutron and Gamma Irradiation of Electrolytic Tilmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C. F.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Fernando, A.; Fuentes, J.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrate, J.; Valdivieso, P.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.

    2004-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies done to a sample of high precision electrolytic tiltmeters with gamma-rays, up to a maximum dose of 150 kGy, an neutrons, up to a maximum fluence 1.5x10''14 cm''2. The effect of the irradiation on their performance is discussed. (Author) 19 refs

  4. Results on Neutron and Gamma Irradiation of Electrolytic Tilmeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C. F.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Fernando, A.; Fuentes, J.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrate, J.; Valdivieso, P.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.

    2004-07-01

    We report on irradiation studies done to a sample of high precision electrolytic tiltmeters with gamma-rays, up to a maximum dose of 150 kGy, an neutrons, up to a maximum fluence 1.5x10''14 cm''2. The effect of the irradiation on their performance is discussed. (Author) 19 refs.

  5. Histopathological studies show protective efficacy of Hippophae leaf extract against damage to jejunum in whole body 60Co-a-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Manish; Prasad, Jagdish; Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ionizing radiation affect living tissue by causing majority of in vivo damage by free radical production. Earlier we reported that our preparation from Hippophae leaf offered survival benefit to >90% mice population which was whole body irradiated ( 60 Co-a-rays, 10 Gy). Objective: This study was planned to examine the protective effects of our drug (from Hippophae leaf) on ( 60 Co-a-ray induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in jejunum. Methods: Around 2 months old adult male Strain 'A' mice were irradiated (10 Gy). Drug was administered intraperitoneally (-30 mm.). Histological parameters were studied after staining the sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Malondialdehyde formation (index of lipid peroxidation), alkaline phosphatase activity, and total thiol content were determined by biochemical techniques. The data was obtained at different time interval upto 30 days. Results: Biochemical studies showed that in comparison to the untreated controls, in the irradiated (10 Gy) mice, there was significant increase in the alkaline phosphatase activity and level of malondialdehyde whereas decrease in total thiol content within 2 days. Histological studies showed that whole body irradiation (10 Gy), damaged the jejunam crypt cells and decreased the villi height within 2 days. Intra-peritoneal administration of drug, 30 mm prior to irradiation, protected the crypt cells and villi height, countered the radiation induced increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and lipid peroxidation and values were comparable to the level of control in 30 days. Conclusions: These biochemical and histopathological studies suggested that our drug can offer effective radioprotection against the oxidative damage to jejunum in vivo. (author)

  6. Results of Microstructural Examinations of Irradiated LEU U-Mo Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Jue, J.F.; Robinson, A.B. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2528, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Finlay, M.R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    Introduction: The RERTR program is responsible for converting research reactors that use high-enriched uranium fuels to ones that use low-enriched uranium fuels [1]. As part of the development of LEU fuels, a variety of irradiation experiments are being conducted using the Advanced Test Reactor. Based on the results of initial fuel plate testing, adjustments have been made to the characteristics of fuel plates to improve the stability of the fuel microstructure. One improvement has been to add Si to the matrix of a dispersion fuel. This material is also being added at the fuel/cladding interface of a monolithic fuel. This paper will discuss the irradiation performance of these fuels, in terms of the stability of their microstructures during irradiation. Results and discussion: The post-irradiation examinations of fuel plates are performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. These examinations consist of visual examinations of fuel plates, gamma scanning, thickness measurements, oxide thickness measurements, and optical metallographic examinations of the fuel plate microstructures. Microstructural analysis is also performed using scanning electron microscopy. Overall, U-7Mo and U-10Mo alloy fuels have displayed the best irradiation performance, particularly, when a Si-containing Al alloy is used as the dispersion fuel matrix. The benefit of using this type of matrix is that the commonly observed fuel/cladding interaction that occurs during irradiation is reduced and the interaction layer that forms exhibit stable behavior during irradiation. Monolithic-type fuels, which consist of a U-Mo foil encased in Al alloy cladding, are also being developed. These types of fuels are also showing promise and will continue to be developed. One challenge with this type of fuel is in trying to maximize the bond strength at the foil/cladding interface. Fuel/cladding interactions can affect the quality of the boding at this interface. Si is being added to improve the characteristics

  7. Re-irradiation for abdominal tumor. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narisada, Hiroyuki; Imada, Hajime; Tomoda, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of loco-regional radiotherapy for recurrent abdominal tumor treated with re-irradiation. Re-irradiated areas of 16 patients were eight of pelvic space, five of retroperitonium and three of liver or porta hepatica. Eligibility criteria of re-irradiation were success of initial irradiation, no other effective treatment except re-irradiation, constancy of bowel gas at hunger status and respiratory movement, visceral dosage reduction at re-irradiation. Total dose of initial, second course of radiation were 51.3±10.8 Gy, 50.6±14.2 Gy, respectively. Interval of initial and second course of radiation were 16.6±10.2 months. Local control after second course of radiation was four cases of complete response, five of partial response and seven of stable disease. Median survival periods were 55 months after initial treatment and 28 months after second course of radiation. In two cases of pelvic reirradiation, skin to pelvic space fistula was occurred. Re-irradiation for abdominal tumor may become useful salvage treatment. (author)

  8. Results of irradiation therapy for advanced uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Haruo; Asakawa, Hiroshi; Otawa, Hirokazu; Nemoto, Kenji; Saito, Hiroyuki

    1983-01-01

    152 patients with advanced uterine cervical cancer (76 in stage III, 47 in stage IV and 29 in recurrence) were treated at Miyagi Seijinbyo Center in fifteen years (1967-1981). Our standard treatment was a combined therapy of 6 MVX ray whole pelvis irradiation and intracavitary radium irradiation (or simple total hysterectomy) The actuarial 5-year-survival rate was 46.0% in stage III, 9.4% in stage IV and 10.3% in recurrence. In stage III, the actuarial 5-year-survival rate in nine cases with external irradiation alone was (22.2%), in 44 cases with intracavitary irradiation and external irradiation 48.7%; in 14 cases with operation and external irradiation 57.1%. No five year survival was found in nine interrupted-irradation cases. Moderate complications in the rectum and/or the urinary bladder were found in eight of 67 (12%) irradiation-completed patients in stage III. Five 5-year-survival cases (two in stage IV and three in recurrence) were reported. (author)

  9. Results of irradiation or chemoirradiation following resection of gastric adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, G.T.; Schild, S.E.; Stafford, S.L.; Gunderson, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results of postoperative irradiation ± chemotherapy for carcinoma of the stomach and gastroesophageal junction. Materials and Methods: The records of 65 patients who underwent resection for stomach or GE junction cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Surgical resection included total or partial gastrectomy. Twenty-six patients had complete resection with no residual disease but with high risk factors for relapse. Twenty-nine had microscopic residual disease and 10 had gross residual disease. Doses of radiation ranged from 39.6 Gy to 59.4 Gy with a median dose of 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions. Fifty-five of the 65 (85%) patients also received 5-FU based chemotherapy. Follow-up in survivors ranged from 3.3 to 155 months (median 23 months). Results: The median duration of survival was 18 months for patients with no residual disease, 16 months for those with microscopic residual disease, and 9 months for those with gross residual disease (p = 0.02). The amount of residual did not significantly impact upper abdominal or distant control (table 1). Patients with Linitis Plastica did significantly worse in terms of survival, upper abdominal control, and distant control than those without Linitis Plastica (table 2). Nine (14%) patients required hospitalization during the course of treatment. There were 7 patients who had grade 4 or 5 toxicity. The use of 3 or more irradiation fields was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of grade 4 or 5 toxicity when compared to the patients treated with 2 fields (p = 0.02). In this series we could find no prognostic significance associated with grade, depth of invasion, lymph node status (positive versus negative), number of involved lymph nodes (0 v. 1-3 v. > 3), dose of radiation (≥ 50 Gy v. < 50 Gy), chemotherapy (yes v. no) or number of chemotherapy cycles (0 v. 1 or 2 v. more). Conclusions: There was a significant association between survival and extent of residual disease after resection as

  10. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Richard W.; Seymour, Colin B.; Moccia, Richard D.; Mothersill, Carmel E.

    2016-01-01

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48 h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. - Highlights: • We evaluated the transgenerational effect of early life irradiation in rainbow trout. • Trout irradiated as eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders were crossed. • A transgenerational effect was evident in two generations after irradiation. • F1 and F2 generation fish induced a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish. • The precise effects were tissue specific and dependent on

  11. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Richard W., E-mail: rich.wilson.smith@gmail.com [Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Seymour, Colin B. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Moccia, Richard D. [Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Mothersill, Carmel E. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48 h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. - Highlights: • We evaluated the transgenerational effect of early life irradiation in rainbow trout. • Trout irradiated as eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders were crossed. • A transgenerational effect was evident in two generations after irradiation. • F1 and F2 generation fish induced a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish. • The precise effects were tissue specific and dependent on

  12. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W; Seymour, Colin B; Moccia, Richard D; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2016-02-01

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Systematic preservation of teeth and prophylaxis of dental decay on irradiated patients. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiot, J C [Centre de Lutte contre le Cancer Georges-Francois-Leclerc, 21 - Dijon (France); Schraub, S [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 25 - Besancon (France)

    1975-11-01

    200 patients were irradiated on the oral cavity and on salivary glands with doses of 3,000 Rads and up. Teeth were preserved. A prophylactic treatment of dental decay was made using 5 minutes daily a fluoride gel into a carrier. The results showed an incidence of 5% for dental decay and 1% for osteo-radionecroses. Details are given about the selection of patients, the dental work-up and dental care before, during and after radiation therapy.

  14. Statistical analyses of fracture toughness results for two irradiated high-copper welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; McCabe, D.E.; Haggag, F.M.; Bowman, K.O.; Downing, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program Fifth Irradiation Series were to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the transition temperature shift and the shape of the K Ic curve described in Sect. 6 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31% were commercially fabricated in 215-mm-thick plates. Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact, tensile, drop-weight, and compact specimens up to 203.2 mm thick [1T, 2T, 4T, 6T, and 8T C(T)] were tested to provide a large data base for unirradiated material. Similar specimens with compacts up to 4T were irradiated at about 288 degrees C to a mean fluence of about 1.5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>1 MeV) in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. Both linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods were used to analyze all cleavage fracture results and local cleavage instabilities (pop-ins). Evaluation of the results showed that the cleavage fracture toughness values determined at initial pop-ins fall within the same scatter band as the values from failed specimens; thus, they were included in the data base for analysis (all data are designated K Jc )

  15. Results of total lung irradiation and chemotherapy in comparison with partial lung irradiation in metastatic undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboglou, N.; Fuerst, G.; Pape, H.; Bannach, B.; Schmitt, G.; Molls, M.

    1988-07-01

    The poor prognosis of patients with unresectable pulmonary metastases of soft tissue sarcoma is well known. In order to evaluate the beneficial effect of radiotherapy, we have treated 44 patients with pulmonary metastases of grade 3 soft tissue sarcoma from 1980 to 1986. In 36 patients the treatment volume was restricted to the single metastases up to a dose of 50 to 60 (9 to 10 Gy/week). The survival rate at one year was 18% and at two years 6%. Eight patients were treated with a combined regimen, consisting of cisplatin and ifosfamide with simultaneous whole lung irradiation. Irradiation was performed with 8 or 16 MV photons at a hyperfractionation of 2x0,8 Gy/day (8 Gy/week). After a dose of 12 Gy, the single metastases were boosted up to 50 to 60 Gy, with a second course of chemotherapy. In six of eight patients complete remissions were achieved, one patient showed a partial remission. The survival rate at 27 months was 50%. The patients with partial remission died from pulmonary progression at 23 months. One patient died after twelve months from a loco-regional recurrence in the tonsillar fossa without evidence of pulmonary disease. Side effects included alopecia and moderate bone marrow suppression approximately twelve days after each chemotherapy cycle. Pulmonary fibrosis was observed only at the high dose volume without impairment of respiratory function. From these observations the conclusion is drawn that whole lung irradiation simultaneously with cisplatin and ifosfamide chemotherapy provides good palliative results without relevant morbidity in patients with high grade unresectable pulmonary metastases of soft tissue sarcomas.

  16. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  17. Experimental irradiation of UMo fuel: Pie results and modeling of fuel behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.; Plancq, D.; Huet, F.; Guigon, B.; Lemoine, P.; Sacristan, P.; Hofman, G.; Snelgrove, J.; Rest, J.; Hayes, S.; Meyer, M.; Vacelet, H.; Leborgne, E.; Dassel, G.

    2002-01-01

    Seven full-sized U Mo plates containing ca. 8 g/cm 3 of uranium in the fuel meat have been irradiated since the beginning of the French U Mo development program. The first three of them with 20% 235 U enrichment were irradiated at maximum surfacic power under 150 W/cm 2 in the OSIRIS reactor up to 50% burn-up and are under examination. Their global behaviour is satisfactory: no failure and a low swelling. The other four plates were irradiated in the HFR Petten at maximum surfacic power between 150 and 250 W/cm 2 with two enrichments 20 and 35%. The experiment was stopped after two cycles due to a fuel failure. The post- irradiation examinations were completed in 2001 in Petten. Examinations showed a correct behaviour of 20% enriched plates and an abnormal behaviour of the two other plates (35%-enriched) with a clad failure on the plate 4. The fuel failure appears to result from a combination of factors that led to high corrosion cladding and high fuel meat temperatures. (author)

  18. Results of crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstead, R.K.

    1990-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288 degree C to an average fluence of 1.9 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (>1 MeV). Evaluation of the results shows that the neutron-irradiation-induced crack-arrest toughness temperature shift is about the same as the Charpy V-notch impact temperature shift at the 41-J energy level. The shape of the lower-bound curves (for the range of test temperatures covered) did not seem to have been altered by irradiation compared to those of the ASME K Ia curve. 9 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Electron arc irradiation of the postmastectomy chest wall: clinical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, David K; Prows, Janalyn; Leavitt, Dennis; Egger, Marlene J; Morgan, John G; Stewart, J Robert

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objective: Since 1980 electron arc irradiation of the postmastectomy chest wall has been the preferred technique for patients with advanced breast cancer at the our institution. Here we report the results of this technique in 150 consecutive patients from 1980 to 1994. Materials and Methods: Thoracic computerized tomography was used to determine internal mammary lymph node depth and chest wall thickness, and for computerized dosimetry calculations in all patients. Total doses of 45-50 Gy in 5 to 5 (1(2)) weeks were delivered to the chest wall and internal mammary lymph nodes via electron arc and, in most cases, supraclavicular and axillary nodes were treated with a matching photon field. Patients were assessed for acute and late radiation changes, local and distant control of disease, and survival. The 10 most recently treated patients were censored for disease progression, survival, and late effects calculations, thus giving a mean follow up of 49 months and a median of 33 months. All patients had advanced disease: T stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 represented 21%, 39%, 21% and 19% of the study population, with a mean number of positive axillary lymph nodes of 6.5 (0-29). Analysis was performed according to adjuvant status (no residual disease, n = 90), residual disease (positive margin, n = 15, and primary radiation, n = 2), or recurrent disease (n = 33). Results: Acute radiation reactions were generally mild and self limiting. 27% of patients developed moist desquamation, and 32% had brisk erythema. Actuarial 5 year local control, freedom from distant failure and overall survival was 91%, 64%, and 67% in the adjuvant group; 84%, 50%, and 53% in the residual disease group; and 63%, 34%, and 30% in the recurrent disease group, respectively. In univariate cox regressions, the number of positive lymph nodes was predictive for local failure in the adjuvant group (p<0.037). Chronic complications were minimal with 10% of patients having arm edema, 15% hyperpigmentation

  20. Paranasal sinus tumors: Results of irradiation alone vs. irradiation and surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumway, R.C.; Chung, C.T.; Sagerman, R.H.; King, G.A.; Dalal, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Forty patients were treated for carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses from 1965 to 1983. Thirteen patients were treated with an integrated program of surgery plus irradiation; and 27 received irradiation alone. Five-year actuarial survival for patients with maxillary antral tumors was 45% (5 of 11) in the combined treatment group and 21% (3 of 14) in the radiation-only group. Local control for the combined treatment group was 73% (8 of 11), compared to 20% (3 of 15) for the radiation-only group (P > .01). Twenty of 24 patients dying of disease had local recurrence. The technical aspects of treatment and a review of the literature are presented

  1. Preliminary Results on Irradiance Measurements from Lyra and Swap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Kumara

    2012-01-01

    the period from 01 April 2010 to 15 Mar 2011. We found that there is a good correlation between these parameters. This indicates that the spatial resolution of SWAP complements the high temporal resolution of LYRA. Hence SWAP can be considered as an additional radiometric channel. Also the K emission index is the integrated intensity (or flux over a 1 Å band centered on the K line and is proportional to the total emission from the chromosphere; this comparison clearly explains that the LYRA irradiance variations are due to the various magnetic features, which are contributing significantly. In addition to this we have made an attempt to segregate coronal features from full-disk SWAP images. This will help to understand and determine the actual contribution of the individual coronal feature to LYRA irradiance variations.

  2. Testing Delays Resulting in Increased Identification Accuracy in Line-Ups and Show-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekle, Dawn J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated time delays (immediate, two-three days, one week) between viewing a staged theft and attempting an eyewitness identification. Compared lineups to one-person showups in a laboratory analogue involving 412 subjects. Results show that across all time delays, participants maintained a higher identification accuracy with the showup…

  3. Results of retrobulbar irradiation in case of benign endocrinous ophtalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, R.; Hassenstein, E.; Dausch, D.

    1981-01-01

    83 patients with a benign endocrinous opthalmopathy were submitted to radio-iodine and thyreostatic therapy and to high voltage therapy of the retrobulbar region. The opthalmologic controls showed that 30% of the treated patients had improved data and 70% had unchanged data. These results were independent from the individual radiation qualities used and the field sizes. (orig.) [de

  4. Results of irradiating brain tumours (1959-1969)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zu Eulenburg, G

    1973-01-01

    The results of the radiation treatment of brain tumours were evaluated for 78 patients. The calculated average survival times, as well as the shape of survival curves show, as compared to numerous other authors, that there is no great deviation for any tumour group. The interpretation of the ratio of an amnesis to survival time shows that with fast growing brain tumours as with glioblastoma, the success of radiotherapy is very small. Radiotherapy was well successful in almost all cases of patients with a longer than average anamnesis.

  5. Influence of Various Irradiance Models and Their Combination on Simulation Results of Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hofmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the output of various state-of-the-art irradiance models for photovoltaic systems. The models include two sun position algorithms, three types of input data time series, nine diffuse fraction models and five transposition models (for tilted surfaces, resulting in 270 different model chains for the photovoltaic (PV system simulation. These model chains are applied to 30 locations worldwide and three different module tracking types, totaling in 24,300 simulations. We show that the simulated PV yearly energy output varies between −5% and +8% for fixed mounted PV modules and between −26% and +14% for modules with two-axis tracking. Model quality varies strongly between locations; sun position algorithms have negligible influence on the simulation results; diffuse fraction models add a lot of variability; and transposition models feature the strongest influence on the simulation results. To highlight the importance of irradiance with high temporal resolution, we present an analysis of the influence of input temporal resolution and simulation models on the inverter clipping losses at varying PV system sizing factors for Lindenberg, Germany. Irradiance in one-minute resolution is essential for accurately calculating inverter clipping losses.

  6. Irradiation of Argentine MOX fuels: Post-irradiation results and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, A.C.; Perez, E.; Adelfang, P.

    1997-01-01

    The irradiation of the first Argentine prototypes of PHWR MOX fuels began in 1986. These experiments were made in the HFR-Petten reactor, Holland. The rods were prepared and controlled in the CNEA's facility. The postirradiation examinations were performed in the Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe, Germany and in the JRC, Petten. The first rod has been used for destructive pre-irradiation analysis. The second one as a pathfinder to adjust systems in the HFR. Two additional rods including iodine doped pellets were intended to simulate 15000 MWd/T(M) burnup. The remaining two rods were irradiated until 15000 MWd/T(M) (BU15 experiment). One of them underwent a final ramp with the aim of verifying fabrication processes and studying the behaviour under power transients. BACO code was used to define the power histories and to analyze the experiments. This paper presents the postirradiation examinations for the BU15 experiments and a comparison with the BACO outputs for the rod that presented a failure during the ramp test of the BU15 experiment. (author). 17 refs, 30 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception - a longterm study (results 1986)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, T.; Rupprecht, E.; Voigtmann, L.; Kuchheuser, W.

    1988-11-01

    Five or ten years after a first examination, 55 children were submitted to a check-up investigation of their physical and intellectual development. The group of twenty irradiated fathers received an average dose to the gonads of 0.55 Gy (0.01 to 6.4 Gy), the group of twenty irradiated mothers 0.72 Gy (0.01 to 8.0 Gy). In all parents the most frequent finding was Hodgkin's disease, which was diagnosed as a neoplams in 23 cases. The proof of paternity was made with a 86% accuracy for ten out of twenty fathers by determination of HLA types. A conception was demonstrated beyond all doubt after a dose to the testicles of 1.2 Gy in the irradiated fathers and after a dose to the ovaries of 3.0 Gy in the irradiated mothers. The offspring of the F/sub 1/ generation showed no modification in the sex ratio. A rate of 5.5% of severe malformations was found (trisomy E, bradyacousia of the inner ear, cleft hands and feet). 24% of the children had malformations which needed a treatment (hernias, torticollis, hip dysplasia). 18 out of 55 children (33%) presented abnormalities in the widest sense of the word. Three children (5.5%) were premature infants, and there is a general tendency towards shortened pregnancy (-3.6 days). Hernias (7/55) are a frequent finding. In children of both sexes, carporadiography shows a delayed development which is not compensated in the check-up examinations at five or ten years, but does not cause an underdevelopment in body height as compared to great normal collectives. The results suggest a slightly increased malformation rate among children whose parents were treated by radiotherapy. Above all the connective and supporting tissue seems involved. Some proposals are made how to give a radiogenetic advice to tumor patients who want to have children.

  8. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception - a longterm study (results 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.; Rupprecht, E.; Voigtmann, L.; Kuchheuser, W.; Medizinische Akademie, Dresden; Medizinische Akademie, Magdeburg

    1988-01-01

    Five or ten years after a first examination, 55 children were submitted to a check-up investigation of their physical and intellectual development. The group of twenty irradiated fathers received an average dose to the gonads of 0.55 Gy (0.01 to 6.4 Gy), the group of twenty irradiated mothers 0.72 Gy (0.01 to 8.0 Gy). In all parents the most frequent finding was Hodgkin's disease, which was diagnosed as a neoplams in 23 cases. The proof of paternity was made with a 86% accuracy for ten out of twenty fathers by determination of HLA types. A conception was demonstrated beyond all doubt after a dose to the testicles of 1.2 Gy in the irradiated fathers and after a dose to the ovaries of 3.0 Gy in the irradiated mothers. The offspring of the F 1 generation showed no modification in the sex ratio. A rate of 5.5% of severe malformations was found (trisomy E, bradyacousia of the inner ear, cleft hands and feet). 24% of the children had malformations which needed a treatment (hernias, torticollis, hip dysplasia). 18 out of 55 children (33%) presented abnormalities in the widest sense of the word. Three children (5.5%) were premature infants, and there is a general tendency towards shortened pregnancy (-3.6 days). Hernias (7/55) are a frequent finding. In children of both sexes, carporadiography shows a delayed development which is not compensated in the check-up examinations at five or ten years, but does not cause an underdevelopment in body height as compared to great normal collectives. The results suggest a slightly increased malformation rate among children whose parents were treated by radiotherapy. Above all the connective and supporting tissue seems involved. Some proposals are made how to give a radiogenetic advice to tumor patients who want to have children. (orig.) [de

  9. First results on irradiation of ceramic parallel plate chambers with gammas and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefiev, A.; Bencze, Gy.L.; Bizzeti, A.; Choumilov, E.; Civinini, C.; Dajko, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferrando, A.; Fouz, M.C.; Iglesias, A.; Ivochkin, V.; Josa, M.I.; Malinin, A.; Meschini, M.; Molnar, J.; Pojidaev, V.; Salicio, J.M.; Tanko, L.; Vesztergombi, G.

    1996-01-01

    Ceramic parallel plate chambers were irradiated with gamma rays and neutrons. Results on radiation resistance are presented after 60 Mrad gamma and 0.5.10 16 neutrons per cm 2 irradiation of the detector surface. Results of activation analysis of chambers made of two different ceramic materials are also presented. (orig.)

  10. Results of combined therapy of irradiation and bleomycin suppository for advanced uterine cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Haruo; Asakawa, Hiroshi; Otawa, Hirokazu; Nemoto, Kenji; Saito, Hiroyuki (Miyagi Prefectural Adult Disease Center, Natori (Japan))

    1984-09-01

    Efficacy, survival rates and adverse effects of the combined therapy of irradiation with intravaginal bleomycin suppositories were analyzed and discussed in 49 patients with uterine cervical cancer. The results were as follows: 1. Histological examination of biopsy specimens from the uterine cervix taken just after the completion of this treatment showed favorable control over the primary lesions. However, the efficacy of the bleomycin suppositories was too mild to form a basis for treatment without intracavitary irradiation. Because of the low concentration of bleomycin in serum after suppository administration, it is thought that bleomycin would have little effect on distant metastases. 2. Survival rates in stage III patients were 83% at 12 months, 77% at 24 months and 70% at 36 months. These were superior to those for irradiation alone. 3. The major adverse effect of bleomycin suppositories was fever, reduction of the bleomycin dose in each suppository but controlled this to some extent Lung fibrosis or severe damage to the liver, kidney and bone marrow were not found.

  11. Results of combined therapy of irradiation and bleomycin suppository for advanced uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Haruo; Asakawa, Hiroshi; Otawa, Hirokazu; Nemoto, Kenji; Saito, Hiroyuki

    1984-01-01

    Efficacy, survival rats and adverse effects of the combined therapy of irradiation with intravaginal bleomycin suppositories were analyzed and discussed in 49 patients with uterine cervical cancer. The results were as follows: 1. Histological examination of biopsy specimens from the uterine cervix taken just after the completion of this treatment showed favorable control over the primary lesions. However, the efficacy of the bleomycin suppositories was too mild to form a basis for treatment without intracavitary irradiation. Because of the low concentration of bleomycin in serum after suppository administration, it is thought that bleomycin would have little effect on distant metastases. 2. Survival rates in stage III patients were 83% at 12 months, 77% at 24 months and 70% at 36 months. These were superior to those for irradiation alone. 3. The major adverse effect of bleomycin suppositories was fever, reduction of the bleomycin dose in each suppository but controlled this to some extent Lung fibrosis or severe damage to the liver, kidney and bone marrow were not found. (author)

  12. Comparison of silver release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-2 irradiation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, Blaise P.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Harp, Jason M.; Hunn, John D.

    2016-11-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict silver release from tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles and compacts during the second irradiation experiment (AGR-2) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-2 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 559 days of irradiation to calculate the release of fission product silver from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-2 compacts and individual fuel particles containing either mixed uranium carbide/oxide (UCO) or 100% uranium dioxide (UO2) kernels. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements were performed to provide data on release of silver from these compacts and individual fuel particles. The available experimental fractional releases of silver were compared to their corresponding PARFUME predictions. Preliminary comparisons show that PARFUME under-predicts the PIE results in UCO compacts and is in reasonable agreement with experimental data for UO2 compacts. The accuracy of PARFUME predictions is impacted by the code limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature across the compacts. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie within the same order of magnitude.

  13. Irradiation Results And Analysis For IFA-651.1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Ho; Koo, Y. H.; Oh, J. Y.; Kim, H. S.; Sohn, D. S.

    2009-08-01

    The MOX fuel has been fabricated by attrition milling in cooperation with PSI. Two MOX fuels are being loaded in IFA-651 with the reference MOX fuel provided by BNFL. The MOX fuels have been irradiated in Halden reactor from June of 2000 until now and the in-pile test will be continued up to ∼ 50 MWd/kgHM for ∼ 5 calendar years. One of KAERI's MOX fuel is instrumented with ET while each of the other two rods has TF at the top end. All rods have PF at the bottom end. In addition, one KAERI's MOX fuel is instrumented with EF at the top of the fuel stack. MOX fuels have been successfully irradiated during eight cycles (2000. 6 ∼ 2005. 10), of which results have been reported already. The irradiation tests until the fourth cycle (IFA-651.1) can be summarized as follows: The densification of the MOX fuel rods shows 1∼2%, which means the densification has not been influenced by different fabrication method. On the other hand, the densification estimated by EF measurement indicates very negligible, which is much lower than values from PF. There is a fission gas release of 1 ∼ 3% during the third cycle. The fission gas release behavior at the MOX fuels is comparable to that of UO 2 fuel. The swelling estimated from PF measurement is ∼ 0.850%/10MWd/kgHM. At the end of four cycle irradiation, the IMF-2 rod was taken out for PIE. The second irradiation test of IFA-651.2 up to the eighth cycle from February 2004 to October 2005 reached the burnup of more than 40MWd/kgHM. The fuel centerline temperature was up to 1200 .deg. C. The higher linear heating rate of 250 ∼ 300 W/cm was observed due to the removing of IMF-2 rod. The fission gas release was 16% and 27% for MOX-ATT-ET and MOX-ATT-TF, respectively. The COSMOS code analyzed the in-pile data of IFA-651.1 and 2. The temperature and rod internal pressure was well simulated with the effect of thermal recovery accompanying with the significant fission gas release. Based on the irradiation test up to now, the

  14. The German carbide program: Performance, experimental findings, and evaluation of irradiation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, H.; Freund, D.; Geithoff, D.

    1982-09-01

    In this report a synopsis of the German carbide program is presented. The program comprises the irradiation of about 100 carbide pins equipped with pelletted fuel. Most of these fuel pins were He-bonded, the sodium bonding concept taken as a back-up solution. The main design parameters such as smear and pellet density, gap size, pin diameter and wall thickness as well as the irradiation conditions were varied mostly within wide ranges. Based on a compilation of relevant pin parameters, irradiation conditions, and the results of various irradiation experiments conclusions on the optimum ranges of the main design parameters are drawn. Furthermore, some important aspects of fuel pin behaviour are discussed based on quantitative results from post irradiation examinations. (orig.) [de

  15. Results of treatment of Icenko-Cushing disease with proton beam irradiation of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marova, E.I.; Starkova, N.T.; Kirpatovskaya, L.E.; Kolesnikova, G.S.; Bukhman, A.I.; Rozhinskaya, L.Ya.; Bel'chenko, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    Proton beam therapy was given to 98 patients with Icenko-Cushing disease aged 15 to 40. Mild cases were treated by proton beam irradiation only while severe cases were managed using proton beam therapy combined with unilateral adrenalectomy or ortho-para-DDD. Catamnesis duration varied from 3 to 5 years. In most cases the exposure dose was 80-90 Gy (50-110 Gy). The procedure was well tolerated by all the patients. A dynamic multipolar converting method with 15-20 entrance poles in the left temporal area was employed (with the beam energy of 200 MeV). Stabilization of the course of disease and some clinical improvement were observed in most of the patients 3-4 months after proton beam therapy. In 6-36 months after irradiation 90% of the patients showed normal biochemical indices and the absence of any clinical signs of the disease. Thus the results of proton beam therapy of 98 patients with Icenko-Cushing disease after a follow-up of 3-5 years showed a high efficacy of this type of treatment. The method can be used alone or in combination with unilateral adrenalectomy as well as with oral administration of ortho-para-DDD

  16. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of rabbit corneal endothelium to show effects of UV-visible irradiation in the presence of chlorpromazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, P.J.; Hollenberg, M.J.; Menon, I.A.; Temkin, R.J.; Persad, S.D.; Basu, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of rabbit cornea endothelial cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in freeze-cleaved corneas using a Hitachi S-570 scanning electron microscope in the high resolution mode (HRSEM). In order to study phototoxic effects in vitro, rabbit corneas (experimental) were cultured as organ culture in the presence of 5 micrograms/ml chlorpromazine (CPZ) and irradiated. For comparison, control 1 corneas were not irradiated but incubated in the dark without CPZ in the medium; control 2 corneas were also kept in the dark but in the presence of CPZ; control 3 corneas were irradiated with no CPZ in the medium. Cellular damage was not seen in the three types of control corneas, but in the experimental corneas the endothelial cells showed extensive disruption of the cell membrane and some deterioration of the intracellular components. Our study confirmed that HRSEM is a satisfactory new technique for visualizing damage of the intracellular organelles of corneal endothelium

  17. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of rabbit corneal endothelium to show effects of UV-visible irradiation in the presence of chlorpromazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, P.J.; Hollenberg, M.J.; Menon, I.A.; Temkin, R.J.; Persad, S.D.; Basu, P.K. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of rabbit cornea endothelial cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in freeze-cleaved corneas using a Hitachi S-570 scanning electron microscope in the high resolution mode (HRSEM). In order to study phototoxic effects in vitro, rabbit corneas (experimental) were cultured as organ culture in the presence of 5 micrograms/ml chlorpromazine (CPZ) and irradiated. For comparison, control 1 corneas were not irradiated but incubated in the dark without CPZ in the medium; control 2 corneas were also kept in the dark but in the presence of CPZ; control 3 corneas were irradiated with no CPZ in the medium. Cellular damage was not seen in the three types of control corneas, but in the experimental corneas the endothelial cells showed extensive disruption of the cell membrane and some deterioration of the intracellular components. Our study confirmed that HRSEM is a satisfactory new technique for visualizing damage of the intracellular organelles of corneal endothelium.

  18. Results of crack-arrest tests on irradiated a 508 class 3 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Milella, P.P.; Pini, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    Ten crack-arrest toughness values for irradiated specimens of A 508 class 3 forging steel have been obtained. The tests were performed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, K la of Ferritic Steels, E 1221-88. None of these values are strictly valid in all five ASTM E 1221-88 validity criteria. However, they are useful when compared to unirradiated crack-arrest specimen toughness values since they show the small (averaging approximately 10 degrees C) shifts in the mean and lower-bound crack-arrest toughness curves. This confirms that a low copper content in ASTM A 508 class 3 forging material can be expected to result in small shifts of the transition toughness curve. The shifts due to neutron irradiation of the lower bound and mean toughness curves are approximately the same as the Charpy V-notch (CVN) 41-J temperature shift. The nine crack-arrest specimens were irradiated at temperatures varying from 243 to 280 degrees C, and to a fluence varying from 1.7 to 2.7 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (> 1 MeV). The test results were normalized to reference values that correspond to those of CVN specimens irradiated at 284 degrees C to a fluence of 3.2 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (> 1 MeV) in the same capsule as the crack-arrest specimens. This adjustment resulted in a shift to lower temperatures of all the data, and in particular moved two data points that appeared to lie close to or lower than the American Society of Mechanical Engineers K la curve to positions that seemed more reasonable with respect to the remaining data. A special fixture was designed, fabricated, and successfully used in the testing. For reasons explained in the text, special blocks to receive the Oak Ridge National Laboratory clip gage were designed, and greater-than-standard crack-mouth opening displacements measured were accounted for. 24 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  19. MOX fuel irradiation behaviour: Results from X-ray microbeam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.T.; Goll, W.; Matsumura, T.

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of plutonium, xenon and caesium were investigated in two sections of irradiated MOX fuel produced by the OCOM process. In one fuel (OCOM30), the MOX agglomerates contained 18 wt% fissile plutonium, and had a low volume fraction of 0.17; in the other (OCOM15) the agglomerates contained 9 wt% fissile plutonium, and had a high volume fraction of 0.34. Both fuels had been irradiated under normal power reactor conditions to a burn-up of approximately 44 GWd/t. The main aim of the work was to establish whether the above differences in composition affected the percentage fission gas released by the fuels. Since U/Pu interdiffusion did not occurred during the irradiation, both fuels remained inhomogeneous on the microscopic scale. However, the concentration of plutonium in the MOX agglomerates decreases by about 50% as a result of fission, whereas the plutonium content of the UO 2 matrix increased by about a factor of four to approximately 2 wt% due to neutron capture by 238 U. The agglomerates in the OCOM15 fuel generally exhibited a finer structure due to the lower burn-up. More than 80% of the fission gas had been released from the oxide lattice of the MOX agglomerates in both fuels. However, a very high fraction of this gas precipitated and remained in the pore structure of the agglomerates. Consequently, puncturing revealed that for both fuels the percentage of gas released to the rod free volume increased from less than 0.5% at 10 GWd/t to a maximum of 3.5% at 45 GWd/t. The conclusion is that the percentage of gas released by MOX fuel is largely unaffected of the level of inhomogeneity of the fuel. In both fuels caesium showed near complete retention in both the MOX agglomerates and the UO 2 matrix. (author). 8 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  20. CENDOS joint neutron irradiation exercise -results from Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.R.; Weeks, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    A brief description is given of the use of CR-39 in an intercomparison exercise on personnel neutron dosemeters based on proton sensitive track detectors. Details of the etching, assessment and results are presented and discussed in terms of measured dosemeter sensitivities. A description is also given of the reading system used which consists of a videcon tube, television monitor and image analysis system. (UK)

  1. Results of film dosemeter control irradiations of German dose measurements services, 1969-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gummi, V.; Taubert, R.

    1976-01-01

    The dose measurement services of the FRG have been controlling themselves since 1961 by evaluating film dosimeters irradiated in the PTB under standard conditions. This control method is now embodied in a law by the second decree about the standardization of measuring instruments dt. 6th August 1975. During the time 1969-74 the PTB carried out more than 800 annual control irradiations of film dosimeters. In 30% of the cases the evaluation by the measuring services showed an errory higher than +50%/-30%. The dose measuring services partially diverge considerably concerning the distribution of evaluation errors. Particular difficulties seem to exist in the soft x-ray radiation with effective energies less than 30 keV, in the energy range about 100 keV, and in the evaluation of dosemeter irradiated with two different qualities of radiation (double irradiation). (orig.) [de

  2. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Max; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D; Fazzio, Robert T; Pruthi, Sandhya; Whaley, Dana H; Chen, Shigao; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) for classification of breast masses. CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF) beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results. Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s) in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s). Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC). CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  3. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Denis

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE for classification of breast masses.CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results.Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s. Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC, the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC.CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  4. AREVA: Operating performance shows distinct improvement; Results heavily impacted by the cost of remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 results illustrate the progress AREVA made in 2015 and open up favorable prospects for 2016 and the following years in view of its fundamentals. The group's competitiveness plan had a very positive impact on its costs and cash, despite the heavy net loss situation which continues and in a market environment that remained difficult in 2015. Half of this loss of 2 billion Euro is due to additional provisions for OL3 and half to provisions for restructuring and impairment related to market conditions. Concerning the group's liquidity, 2016 is funded and the capital increase which will be launched in the coming months will enable AREVA to gradually regain the group's positive profile. A new phase awaits the Group in 2016 with clarity and confidence in the implementation of the restructuring announced in 2015 and in particular the autonomy of AREVA NP and the creation of New AREVA

  5. Postirradiation examination results for the irradiation effects scoping test 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehner, A.S.; Quapp, W.J.; Goetzmann, O.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1976-09-01

    A zircaloy-clad UO 2 fuel rod was operated above its critical heat flux within the in-pile test loop of the Power Burst Facility and later examined in the hot cells. The results of the postirradiation examinations are presented in this report. A Zr-UO 2 reaction at the fuel-cladding interface embrittled nearly as much of the cladding wall thickness as the Zr-water reaction on the exterior. Data on both the internal and external reactions, and cladding and fuel microstructures, are presented. Cladding embrittlement and rod failure are compared with several rod fragmentation criteria, and conclusions concerning fuel rod failure propagation in a power reactor system are made

  6. Postirradiation examination results for the irradiation effects scoping test 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehner, A.S.; Quapp, W.J.; Goetzmann, O.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1976-09-01

    A zircaloy-clad UO 2 fuel rod was operated above its critical heat flux within the in-pile test loop of the Power Burst Facility and later examined in the hot cells. The results of the postirradiation examinations are presented. A Zr-UO 2 reaction at the fuel-cladding interface embrittled nearly as much of the cladding wall thickness as the Zr-water reaction on the exterior. Data on both the internal and external reactions and the cladding and fuel microstructures are presented. Cladding embrittlement and rod failure are compared with several rod fragmentation criteria, and conclusions concerning fuel rod failure propagation in a power reactor system are made

  7. Postirradiation examination results for the irradiation effects scoping test 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehner, A.S.; Quapp, W.J.; Goetzmann, O.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1976-09-01

    A zircaloy-clad UO/sub 2/ fuel rod was operated above its critical heat flux within the in-pile test loop of the Power Burst Facility and later examined in the hot cells. The results of the postirradiation examinations are presented in this report. A Zr-UO/sub 2/ reaction at the fuel-cladding interface embrittled nearly as much of the cladding wall thickness as the Zr-water reaction on the exterior. Data on both the internal and external reactions, and cladding and fuel microstructures, are presented. Cladding embrittlement and rod failure are compared with several rod fragmentation criteria, and conclusions concerning fuel rod failure propagation in a power reactor system are made.

  8. Ion irradiation of the Murchison meteorite: Visible to mid-infrared spectroscopic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, C.; Brunetto, R.; Barucci, M. A.; Dartois, E.; Duprat, J.; Engrand, C.; Godard, M.; Ledu, D.; Quirico, E.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: The goal of this study is to simulate space weathering processes on primitive bodies. We use ion implantation as a simulation of solar wind irradiation, which has been suggested by several authors to be the major component of space weathering on main belt asteroids. The laboratory analogs we irradiate and analyze are carbonaceous chondrites; we started the study with the Allende CV meteorite and in this companion paper we present results on the Murchison CM meteorite. Methods: We performed irradiations on pressed pellets of Murchison with 40 keV He+ and Ar+ ions using fluences up to 3 × 1016 ions/cm2. Reflectance spectra were acquired ex situ before and after irradiation in the visible to mid-infrared range (0.4-16 μm). A Raman analysis was also performed to investigate the modifications of the aromatic carbonaceous component. Results: Our results indicate that spectral variations after irradiation within the visible range are smaller than spectral variations due to sample grain size or viewing geometry of the Murchison meteorite. The aqueous alteration band profile near 3 μm changes after irradiation, as adsorbed water is removed, and phyllosilicates are affected. Raman spectroscopy highlights the insoluble organic matter (IOM) modification under irradiation. We observe a shift of the silicates band at 9.9 μm, probably due to a preferential loss of Mg (compared to Fe, the lighter Mg is more easily sputtered backward) and/or amorphization of Mg-rich materials. We compare our results to previous experiments on organic-rich materials (like asphaltite or carbonaceous chondrites), and on ordinary chondrites and olivine grains. We find that the reddening/darkening trend observed on silicate-rich surfaces is not valid for all carbonaceous chondrites, and that the spectral modifications after irradiation are a function of the initial albedo.

  9. Practical implications for RPV irradiation surveillance under long term operation based on latest research results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, H.; Keim, E.; Barthelmes, J.; Schnabel, H.

    2015-01-01

    The international programs CARISMA, CARINA and LONGLIFE belong to the research programs which have been performed during the last 10 years to study the irradiation behavior of RPV steels under long term operation of more than 60 years. Some characteristic but different irradiated RPV steels used in Pressurized Water Reactors have been extensively investigated in each of those three programs. Whereas the CARISMA and CARINA programs were mainly focused on material testing to study the irradiation-induced change of material properties in terms of fracture toughness, the main objective of LONGLIFE was to investigate the change of microstructure with various analysis techniques and to understand the mechanisms behind. In this way it was possible to get a comprehensive material characterization in terms of macro-physical properties and micro-structural features for a number of RPV steels which have been studied at different irradiation levels up to 8*10 19 cm -2 (E > 1 MeV). The essential macro-physical and micro-structural results are summarized, in particular regarding the impact of copper and nickel, and the neutron flux on the irradiation behavior and with respect to possible late irradiation effects under long term operation. Moreover, the change of material properties is linked with embrittlement mechanisms such as formation of element specific precipitations, segregations, and matrix defects. Well-known trend curves are also applied to the measured T 41 and T 0 data in order to assess their appropriateness for long term operation. Based on the comprehensive available data base, practical implications for RPV irradiation surveillance programs under long term operation are highlighted with respect to issues like material specific application of reference temperature concepts, data scattering, prediction of high fluence behavior and how to cope with possible late irradiation effects. Finally, best practices for RPV irradiation surveillance programs are suggested from

  10. Prophylaxis of irradiation-induced Diarrhea with smectite. Results of a placebo-controlled investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hombrink, J.; Froehlich, D.; Glatzel, M.; Krauss, A.; Thiel, H.J.; Meier, J.; Hamann, D.; Muecke, R.; Glaser, F.H.; Koest, S.

    2000-01-01

    Between April 1994 and May 1995, a total of 176 patients obtaining radiotherapy of the pelvis or the abdomen were evaluated in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled investigation regarding the prophylactic effect of smectite (=Colina trademark ) against radiotherapy-induced diarrhea. During the whole period of radiotherapy 85 patients obtained 2x6 g smectite daily and 91 patients received 2x6 g placebo. The primary end point of the analysis was the time to the first appearance of diarrhea (≥3 pappy stools). Results: All 176 patients were evaluated according to an intent-to-treat analysis. There was no significant difference between the prophylactic effects of smectite and placebo. For an explorative post-hoc analysis the total study group was split up into 2 subgroups, one with an irradiated small bowel volume ≤837.5 ml, the other with a small bowel volume >837.5 ml (median); the analysis indicated that the first subgroup showed a benefit for the smectite-treated patients in contrast to the placebo treatment (32 vs. 18 calendar days to the first appearance of diarrhea). This benefit was statistically not significant. Conclusion: Prophylactic application of smectite during irradiation of the pelvis and the abdomen can delay the development of radiotherapy-induced diarrhea, a statistical significance could not be verified neither in the total study group nor in the post-hoc subgroup analysis. (orig.) [de

  11. Full-sized plates irradiation with high UMo fuel loading. Final results of IRIS 1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, F.; Marelle, V.; Noirot, J.; Sacristan, P.; Lemoine, P.

    2003-01-01

    As a part of the French UMo Group qualification program, IRIS 1 experiment contained full-sized plates with high uranium loading in the meat of 8 g.cm -3 . The fuel particles consisted of 7 and 9 wt% Mo-uranium alloys ground powders. The plate were irradiated at OSIRIS reactor in IRIS device up to 67.5% peak burnup within the range of 136 W.cm - '2 for the heat flux and 72 deg. C for the cladding temperature. After each reactor cycle the plates thickness were measured. The results show no swelling behaviour differences versus burnup between UMo7 and UMo9 plates. The maximum plate swelling for peak burnup location remains lower than 6%. The wide set of PIE has shown that, within the studied irradiation conditions, the interaction product have a global formulation of '(U-Mo)Al -7 ' and that there is no aluminium dissolution in UMo particles. IRIS1 experiment, as the first step of the UMo fuel qualification for research reactor, has established the good behaviour of UMo7 and UMo9 high uranium loading full-sized plate within the tested conditions. (author)

  12. Long-term results of irradiation for paraganglioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krych, Aaron J.; Foote, Robert L.; Brown, Paul D.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Link, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The management of paragangliomas is controversial. Observation, surgery, external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) may, alone or in combination, be appropriate, depending on the size and extent of the tumor, previous treatment, and patient age, general health, and neurologic condition. Few data exist regarding long-term tumor control and late effects after EBRT or SRS. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of all patients treated with EBRT or SRS for paraganglioma at our institution between 1967 and 1994. The endpoints of the study were tumor control and late complications. Results: The 33 patients in this study had a median follow-up of 13 years (range, 4 months to 36 years). The 10-year tumor control rate was 92% (95% confidence interval, 75-98%). At the last follow-up visit, no patient had developed a radiation-induced malignancy. Conclusion: External-beam RT and SRS are safe and effective for enlarging and/or symptomatic paragangliomas. The risk of developing a delayed radiation-induced malignancy after EBRT or SRS is low. This risk must be weighed against the significant immediate and permanent risk of cranial nerve deficits if the tumor is untreated or is surgically resected. This risk must also be weighed against the immediate but low risk of surgical mortality

  13. Phosphorus-32 intracavitary irradiation of cystic craniopharyngiomas: current technique and long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, Bruce E.; Lunsford, L. Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas; Levine, Geoffrey; Flickinger, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The management of patients with craniopharyngiomas is often multifaceted and multidisciplinary. The purpose of this study was to examine the results of phosphorus-32 intracavitary irradiation in the treatment of patients with predominately cystic craniopharyngiomas. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with cystic craniopharyngiomas underwent phosphorus-32 intracavitary irradiation at our center between 1981 and 1993. The median patient age was 26 years (range, 3-70 years). Thirteen patients had intracavitary irradiation as the primary surgery for their cystic tumors, whereas 17 patients had adjuvant intracavitary irradiation after microsurgical resection, fractionated radiotherapy, or both. Patients in the adjuvant treatment group were more likely to have preoperative anterior pituitary insufficiency (p = 0.008 Fischer exact test) and diabetes insipidus (p = 0.003 Fischer exact test). The median follow-up was 37 months (mean, 46 months, range, 7-116 months). Results: Phosphorus-32 intracavitary irradiation resulted in cyst regression in 28 of 32 treated cysts (88%). Ten patients (33%) have had tumor progression requiring further surgical intervention. Three patients (10%) died: two of tumor progression, and one of unrelated causes. Visual acuity and fields improved or remained stable in 63% of the patients. Fifteen patients had residual anterior pituitary function before intracavitary irradiation and 10 (67%) retained their preoperative endocrine status. New-onset diabetes insipidus occurred in 3 of 17 patients (18%) who had normal posterior pituitary function preoperatively. Fourteen of 20 adult patients (70%) continued to perform at their preoperative functional level; 3 of 5 pediatric patients who were age appropriate at the time of treatment continued to develop normally. No difference was noted between primary and adjuvant treatment patients with respect to cyst control, visual deterioration, or endocrine preservation after phosphorus-32

  14. Transgenerational genomic instability in children of irradiated parents as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghajanyan, Anna; Suskov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    The study of families irradiated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant revealed significantly increased aberrant genomes frequencies (AGFs) not only in irradiated parents (n = 106, p 137 Cs) of peripheral blood samples from the children and their parents at doses of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 Gy. The spectrum and frequency of chromosome aberrations were studied in the 1st and 2nd cell generations. The average AGF was significantly increased at all doses (except 0.1 Gy) in children of irradiated parents, as compared to children born from non-irradiated parents. Amplification of cells with single-break chromosome aberrations in mitosis 2, as compared to mitosis 1, suggests the replication mechanism of realization of potential damage in DNA and the occurrence of genomic instability in succeeding cell generations.

  15. Results of first catamnestical examinations of children of parents irradiated preconceptionally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, T; Eberhardt, H J; Rupprecht, E; Voigtmann, L; Jochem, I [Medizinische Akademie, Dresden (German Democratic Republic). Kinderklinik; Medizinische Akademie, Dresden (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1976-12-01

    Results of first preliminary examinations of 21 children whose parents were preconceptionally irradiated for tumor treatment are presented. Most striking variations have been found in connective tissue and skeleton. Carporadiograms proved to be a valuable means for examining minus variants in cases of normal clinical evidence. In the case of a child of an irradiated father malformations of the bones of hands and feet have been observed. There were two premature still-births out of three pregnancies in the case of a patient exposed to a high gonad dose. No obvious deviations could be observed in sense organs and the central nervous system. The sex ratio of children of irradiated women was significantly shifted in favour of girls. It is proposed to establish for the GDR a central file of data on descendants from persons irradiated preconceptionally. The present study may be considered as a model. Finally, the information to be given to radiotherapy patients in the generative age is dealt with.

  16. Determination of the mechanical characteristics of irradiated metals from the results of microhardness tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, A.

    1999-01-01

    To predict the possibilities of using structural materials in nuclear and thermonuclear reactors, it is important to have data on changes of the mechanical characteristics and irradiation obtained from full-scale or simulation tests. Materials are irradiated in nuclear reactors with fast neutrons, the sources of high-energy neutrons with an energy of 14 MeV and the accelerators of charged particles. The restricted volumes for irradiation of these specimens in the systems and also the need to test large numbers of specimens under the same conditions make it necessary to reduce the size of irradiated specimens. To solve this problem, work is being carried out to develop various methods of testing miniature specimens, including tension extrusion of disc-shaped micro-specimens, microhardness, and the Charpy Method. In examination of the irradiation hardening of the materials, the main advantage of the microhardness method is that it makes it possible to examine small specimens. In single microhardness tests, only a small area of the irradiated specimens is examined. This makes it possible to increase the radiation dose and carry out subsequent tests of microhardness on the same specimens. The aim of this work was to determine the possibilities of using the microhardness measurement method for evaluating the mechanical characteristics of metallic materials. The comparison of the data, obtained in microhardness tests and in tensile loading specimens of 0Kh18N10Tsteel, irradiated with neutrons, shows the efficiency of the microhardness method as a tool for investigating the irradiation hardening of reactor materials

  17. Growth and artemisinin content of artemisia Annua L. As a result of gamma irradiation on shoot culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri Muji Ermayanti; Erwin Al Hafiizh; Andri Fadillah Martin; Arthur A Lelono; Wiguna Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin is the main compound produced by Artemisia annua is used as antimalarial drug. Many research have been conducted in order to increase artemisinin content in A. annua so that it can be produced economically. In several plants, mutation can be induced by Gamma irradiation to increase their secondary metabolite production. The aim of this research was to investigate the growth and artemisinin content of A. annua after Gamma irradiation. Irradiation was conducted using in vitro shoot tips with 5-50 Gy. Survival rate, growth of shoot culture, ploidy level confirmation, acclimatization, growth of plants in the field and artemisinin content were recorded. The results showed that LD_5_0 of A. annua was 37 Gy, therefore, shoots only grew in the control environment in the laboratory, their growth in the field was inhibited. Irradiation with 50 Gy, shoots only grew for 8 weeks, and died afterwards. Irradiation dose affected on growth of plants in the field as well as their artemisinin content. (author)

  18. Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict fission product release from tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements provided data on release of fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of fission products in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of these fission products was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of about two, corresponding to an over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of about 100. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by an average of about an order of magnitude, which could additionally be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 30%. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-estimated by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release from intact particles varied considerably from compact to compact, making it difficult to assess the effective over-estimation of the diffusivities. Furthermore, the release of strontium from particles with failed SiC is difficult to observe experimentally due to the release from intact particles, preventing any conclusions to be made on the accuracy or validity of the

  19. Results of neutron measurements in the spectral position of the Juelich FKS steel irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.

    1986-10-01

    This is a report on the planning and results of neutron monitoring in the capsules of the Juelich steel irradiation for the research project on component safety (FKS). The table of results and their discussion is provided specifically for the spectral positions (for characterising the neutron spectrum) in each of the types of irradiation capsules used. The results are given for the reaction rates of the neutron measurement reactions used (activation or fission reactions), for the neutron flux densities and fluxes derived from them related to the actual or at least plausible neutron spectra and finally for the radiation damage (or exposure) of the irradiated material calculated from them, expressed as the atomic displacement figure (dpa) and its percentage in sections of the neutron spectrum. (orig.) [de

  20. Test results of an ITER relevant FPGA when irradiated with neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Antonio J. N.; Santos, Bruno; Fernandes, Ana; Goncalves, Bruno [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, (Portugal); Leong, Carlos; Teixeira, Joao P. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores - Investigacao e Desenvolvimento, 1000-029 Lisboa, (Portugal); Ramos, Ana Rita; Santos, Joana P.; Marques, Jose G. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 2695-066 Bobadela, (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    The data acquisition and control instrumentation cubicles room of the ITER tokamak will be irradiated with neutrons during the fusion reactor operation. A Virtex-6 FPGA from Xilinx (XC6VLX365T-1FFG1156C) is used on the ATCA-IO-PROCESSOR board, included in the ITER Catalog of I and C products - Fast Controllers. The Virtex-6 is a re-programmable logic device where the configuration is stored in Static RAM (SRAM), functional data stored in dedicated Block RAM (BRAM) and functional state logic in Flip-Flops. Single Event Upsets (SEU) due to the ionizing radiation of neutrons causes soft errors, unintended changes (bit-flips) to the values stored in state elements of the FPGA. The SEU monitoring and soft errors repairing, when possible, were explored in this work. An FPGA built-in Soft Error Mitigation (SEM) controller detects and corrects soft errors in the FPGA configuration memory. Novel SEU sensors with Error Correction Code (ECC) detect and repair the BRAM memories. Proper management of SEU can increase reliability and availability of control instrumentation hardware for nuclear applications. The results of the tests performed using the SEM controller and the BRAM SEU sensors are presented for a Virtex-6 FPGA (XC6VLX240T-1FFG1156C) when irradiated with neutrons from the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI), a 1 MW nuclear fission reactor operated by IST in the neighborhood of Lisbon. Results show that the proposed SEU mitigation technique is able to repair the majority of the detected SEU errors in the configuration and BRAM memories. (authors)

  1. Hypopituitarism as a delayed result of irradiation of the facial skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boers, G.H.J.; Jong, M. de

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a man aged 63 with complaints and deficiencies caused by hypopituitarism. Examination of the endocrine functions showed that the deficiency was generally of hypothalamic origin. The most plausible cause of this hypothalamic dysfunction proved to be damage due to an overdose of skin irradiation of both cheeks and the nose, in the treatment of a cutaneous form of lupus erythematosus. (Auth.)

  2. Hypopituitarism as a delayed result of irradiation of the facial skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boers, G H.J.; de Jong, M [Department of Medicine, St. Franciscus Hospital, Rotterdam, Netherlands

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a man aged 63 with complaints and deficiencies caused by hypopituitarism. Examination of the endocrine functions showed that the deficiency was generally of hypothalamic origin. The most plausible cause of this hypothalamic dysfunction proved to be damage due to an overdose of skin irradiation of both cheeks and the nose, in the treatment of a cutaneous form of lupus erythematosus.

  3. Multimodal approaches including three-dimensional conformal re-irradiation for recurrent or persistent esophageal cancer. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Shinsaku; Ohguri, Takayuki; Imada, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the toxicity and efficacy of multimodal approaches, including three-dimensional conformal re-irradiation, for patients with recurrent or persistent esophageal cancer after radiotherapy. Thirty-one patients with esophageal cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal re-irradiation were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 31 patients, 27 patients received concurrent chemotherapy, and 14 patients underwent regional hyperthermia during the re-irradiation. We divided the patients into two groups on the basis of their clinical condition: the curative group (n=11) or the palliative group (n=20). Severe toxicities were detected in one patient with Grade 3 esophageal perforation in the curative group, and 5 patients had a Grade 3 or higher toxicity of the esophagus in the palliative group. Advanced T stage at the time of re-irradiation was found to be significantly correlated with Grade 3 or higher toxicity in the esophagus. For the curative group, 10 (91%) of 11 patients had an objective response. For the palliative group, symptom relief was recognized in 8 (57%) of 14 patients with obvious swallowing difficulty. In conclusion, in the curative group with early-stage recurrent or persistent esophageal cancer, the multimodal approaches, including three-dimensional conformal re-irradiation, may be feasible, showing acceptable toxicity and a potential value of promising results, although further evaluations especially for the toxicities of the organs at risk are required. In the palliative group, the benefit of our therapy may be restrictive because severe esophageal toxicities were not uncommon in the patients with advanced T stage at the time of re-irradiation. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Strength and Irradiated Movement Pattern Resulting from Trunk Motions of the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bahia Gontijo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF is a physiotherapeutic concept based on muscle and joint proprioceptive stimulation. Among its principles, the irradiation is the reaction of the distinct regional muscle contractions to the position of the application of the motions. Objective. To investigate the presence of irradiated dorsiflexion and plantar flexion and the existing strength generated by them during application of PNF trunk motions. Methods. The study was conducted with 30 sedentary and female volunteers, the PNF motions of trunk flexion, and extension with the foot (right and left positioned in a developed equipment coupled to the load cell, which measured the strength irradiated in Newton. Results. Most of the volunteers irradiated dorsal flexion in the performance of the flexion and plantar flexion during the extension motion, both presenting an average force of 8.942 N and 10.193 N, respectively. Conclusion. The distal irradiation in lower limbs became evident, reinforcing the therapeutic actions to the PNF indirect muscular activation.

  5. Results of Zea mays seeds β- irradiation in 0 - 5 Gy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicea, Dan; Racuciu, Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    In this study young plants, obtained from the control and beta irradiated seeds, were studied in laboratory experiments. Zea mays seeds with uniform genophond were irradiated with 90 Sr source in the 0 - 5 Gy range. Increased germination percentage was observed under the influence of different radiation doses. We found that small doses of β- radiation have a stimulating effect on the growth of the plantlets, the maximum simulation (among the doses we used) being induced by 0.615 Gy and is statistically significant. We investigated the chlorophyll a to b ratio and the average length variations with the irradiation dose and present the results. Key words: b- radiation, Zea mays, germination rate, plants growth, photoassimilatory pigments,

  6. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-3. Test results report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, L. C.; Allison, C. M.; Croucher, D. W.; Ploger, S. A.

    1977-10-01

    The objectives of the test reported were to: (a) determine the behavior of irradiated fuel rods subjected to a rapid power increase during which the possibility of a pellet-cladding mechanical interaction failure is enhanced and (b) determine the behavior of these fuel rods during film boiling following this rapid power increase. Test IE-3 used four 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated fuel. The fuel rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, followed by a power ramp to 69 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4920 kg/s-m/sup 2/. After a flow reduction to 2120 kg/s-m/sup 2/, film boiling occurred on the fuel rods. One rod failed approximately 45 seconds after the reactor was shut down as a result of cladding embrittlement due to extensive cladding oxidation. Data are presented on the behavior of these irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, the power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of a power ramp and power ramp rates on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations and data from a previous Irradiation Effects test in which four irradiated fuel rods of a similar design were tested. Test IE-3 results indicate that the irradiated state of the fuel rods did not significantly affect fuel rod behavior during normal, abnormal (power ramp of 20 kW/m per minute), and accident (film boiling) conditions.

  7. Initial results of irradiation for prostatic cancer following three-dimensional treatment planning. Irradiation technique and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegel, T.; Schmidt, R.; Baumann, M.; Schwarz, R.; Steiner, P.; Arps, H.; Goeckel-Beining, B.

    1994-01-01

    During the period from June 91 until May 93 thirty-three patients suffering from histologically confirmed carcinoms of the prostate were assigned to four treatment groups and subjected to irradiation of the prostate and, if required, efferent lymphatic system of the minor pelvis that was performed according to a three-dimensional prospective treatment plan. The doses used for localized radiotherapy of the tumour tissue were in the range between 62 and 70 Gy, the efferent lymph system of the minor pelvis was irradiated with doses of up to 50 Gy. The local or boost treatments were carried out using four (box technique) or five irregular fields, while radiotherapy of the minor pelvis was solely based on the box technique using four fields of irregular shape. The immediate and long-term toxicity was evaluated in a prospective approach according to the RTOG score for the rectum, urinary bladder and skin. Twenty-five of the thirty-three patients (76%) developed immediate toxic symptoms. Immediate reactions classifiable with degree II of the rating scale were, however, only observed in four patients (15%) for the rectum (2), bladder (1) and skin (1). Immediate toxic reactions compatible with RTOG grades III or IV were not recorded. In all patients, the untoward effects were completely reversed within a maximum period of 6 weeks following termination of treatment. Two patients from the study cohort (6%), which has so far been followed up for an average period of 16 months, showed long-term grade I effects in the rectum and a further long-term effect observed in the urinary bladder of another patient was classified with degree II. Two patients died intercurrently and two patients developed metastases remote from the primary tumour. Local tumour control can currently be reported for 96%. (orig.) [de

  8. Testbeam and laboratory test results of irradiated 3D CMS pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubna, Mayur [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Purdue University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Alagoz, Enver, E-mail: enver.alagoz@cern.ch [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Cervantes, Mayra; Krzywda, Alex; Arndt, Kirk [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Obertino, Margherita; Solano, Ada [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienzadella Informazione, Universitá di Trento, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Menace, Dario; Moroni, Luigi [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Uplegger, Lorenzo; Rivera, Ryan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Osipenkov, Ilya [Texas A and M University, Department of Physics, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Andresen, Jeff [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Boscardin, Maurizio [Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Marie Brom, Jean [Strasbourg IPHC, Institut Pluriedisciplinaire Hubert Curien, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Brosius, Richard [State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY), Department of Physics, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States); Chramowicz, John [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); and others

    2013-12-21

    The CMS silicon pixel detector is the tracking device closest to the LHC p–p collisions, which precisely reconstructs the charged particle trajectories. The planar technology used in the current innermost layer of the pixel detector will reach the design limit for radiation hardness at the end of Phase I upgrade and will need to be replaced before the Phase II upgrade in 2020. Due to its unprecedented performance in harsh radiation environments, 3D silicon technology is under consideration as a possible replacement of planar technology for the High Luminosity-LHC or HL-LHC. 3D silicon detectors are fabricated by the Deep Reactive-Ion-Etching (DRIE) technique which allows p- and n-type electrodes to be processed through the silicon substrate as opposed to being implanted through the silicon surface. The 3D CMS pixel devices presented in this paper were processed at FBK. They were bump bonded to the current CMS pixel readout chip, tested in the laboratory, and testbeams carried out at FNAL with the proton beam of 120 GeV/c. In this paper we present the laboratory and beam test results for the irradiated 3D CMS pixel devices. -- Highlights: •Pre-irradiation and post-irradiation electrical properties of 3D sensors and 3D diodes from various FBK production batches were measured and analyzed. •I–T measurements of gamma irradiated diodes were analyzed to understand leakage current generation mechanism in 3D diodes. •Laboratory measurements: signal to noise ratio and charge collection efficiency of 3D sensors before and after irradiation. •Testbeam measurements: pre- and post-irradiation pixel cell efficiency and position resolution of 3D sensors.

  9. Elimination of the risk resulting from pathogenic microorganisms in dried and smoked fish by gamma irradiation. Part of a coordinated programme on the wholesomeness of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, O.N.

    1979-02-01

    Results of examination made on commercial samples of dried and smoked hasa-hasa (Rastrelliger brachysomus), dried and smoked tunsoy (Sardinella fimbriata) and steamed sinaing na tulingan (Auxia thazand) showed high microbial counts. Laboratory-prepared samples of these products inoculated with 10 7 cells of either S. choleraesuis, S. paratyphi A, S. typhimurium, E. coli or S. aureus per g of sample and irradiated at doses varying from 0 to 500 krad showed S. aureus to be the most radio-resistant. S. typhimurium showed higher radiation resistance than other types of Salmonella in these fishery products. The 5 D 10 value of S. typhimurium was as high as 460 krad in steamed fish and as low as 100 krad in a smoked fish product. The 5 D 10 value of S. aureus in all products was approximately 500 krad. Thus, a dose at this level may be recommended as a radicidation dose for these types of products. No changes in organoleptic properties were detected in either dried, smoked or steamed fish irradiated with doses up to 500 krad

  10. High dose rate interstitial brachytherapy with external beam irradiation for localized prostate cancer. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiratsuka, Junichi; Jo, Yoshimasa; Yoden, Eisaku; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Imajo, Yoshinari [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Nagase, Naomi; Narihiro, Naomasa; Kubota, Juichi

    2000-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the biochemical and pathological results of combined external beam radiotherapy and high dose rate Ir-192 brachytherapy (HDR-Ir192) for clinically localized prostate cancer. Between October 1997 and August 1999, 39 evaluable patients with adenocarcinoma of prostate diagnosed by biopsy were treated with interstitial and external beam irradiation. Patients ranged in age from 58-82 years, with a mean of 69.7 years. T1c, T2 and T3 tumors, according to the UICC classification system (1997), were found in 7, 21 and 11 cases respectively. The mean initial pre-treatment PSA was 35.9 ng/ml (median 13.2), with 77% of the patients having had a pre-treatment PSA greater than 10 ng/ml. Of all patients, 17 had received pre-treatment hormonal therapy. Hormonal pretreatment was stopped at the beginning of radiotherapy in all cases. External beam four-field box irradiation was given to the small pelvis to a dose of 45 Gy/25 fractions. Three HDR-Ir192 treatments were given over a 30-h period, with 5.5 Gy per fraction at the circumference of the prostate gland over the course of this study. Biochemical failure was defined as a PSA level >1.5 ng/ml and rising on three consecutive values. If serial post-treatment PSA levels showed a continuous downward trend, failure was not scored. The patient with clinical evidence of progression was classified as a clinical failure. The median follow-up at the time of evaluation was 19.6 months. A post-treatment PSA level {<=}1.0 ng/ml was seen in 26 (67%) patients, and values from >1.0 to {<=}2.0 ng/ml were seen in 10 (26%) patients. Biochemical failure was not seen in 38 patients except for one patient who developed a distant bone metastasis with negative prostatic biopsy 15 months after treatment. Biochemical control rate was 100% (38/38) except for the patient with bone metastasis classified as clinical failure. Negative biopsies 18 months after treatment were found in 93% (14/15) of patients. Only one patient

  11. Results of first catamnestical examinations of children of parents irradiated preconceptionally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.; Eberhardt, H.J.; Rupprecht, E.; Voigtmann, L.; Jochem, I.; Medizinische Akademie, Dresden

    1976-01-01

    Results of first preliminary examinations of 21 children whose parents were preconceptionally irradiated for tumor treatment are presented. Most striking variations have been found in connective tissue and skeleton. Carporadiograms proved to be a valuable means for examining minus variants in cases of normal clinical evidence. In the case of a child of an irradiated father malformations of the bones of hands and feet have been observed. There were two premature still-births out of three pregnancies in the case of a patient exposed to a high gonad dose. No obvious deviations could be observed in sense organs and the central nervous system. The sex ratio of children of irradiated women was significantly shifted in favour of girls. It is proposed to establish for the GDR a central file of data on descendants from persons irradiated preconceptionally. The present study may be considered as a model. Finally, the information to be given to radiotherapy patients in the generative age is dealt with. (author)

  12. Exacerbation of lupus erythematodes visceralis as a result of UV irradiation - a hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diezel, W; Meffert, H; Guenther, W; Huse, K; Soennichsen, N [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite)

    1979-09-01

    In the culture medium of human fibroblasts a proteolytic activity is evident after UV irradiation (290 - 320 nm). The effect of this proteolytic activity on human serum results in an electrophoretic mobility towards the anode of the C3 component of complement, which thus proves to be activated. In discussing recent and former results, a hypothesis on the exacerbation of lupus erythematodes visceralis is presented: UV irradiation causes peroxydation of lipids resulting in the release of proteolytic enzymes from lysosomal membranes and activation of the complemental system. Thus the reactivity of the immune system is increased and the disease becomes exacerbated. Further the following hypothetic aspects are discussed: porphyrins cause enhanced peroxydation of lipids, increased synthesis rate of porphyrins by drugs, decrease of lipid peroxydation by antioxidants, e.g. vitamin E, in relation to possible therapeutic effects.

  13. Exacerbation of lupus erythematodes visceralis as a result of UV irradiation - a hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diezel, W.; Meffert, H.; Guenther, W.; Huse, K.; Soennichsen, N.

    1979-01-01

    In the culture medium of human fibroblasts a proteolytic activity is evident after UV irradiation (290 - 320 nm). The effect of this proteolytic activity on human serum results in an electrophoretic mobility towards the anode of the C3 component of complement, which thus proves to be activated. In discussing recent and former results, a hypothesis on the exacerbation of lupus erythematodes visceralis is presented: UV irradiation causes peroxydation of lipids resulting in the release of proteolytic enzymes from lysosomal membranes and activation of the complemental system. Thus the reactivity of the immune system is increased and the disease becomes exacerbated. Further the following hypothetic aspects are discussed: porphyrins cause enhanced peroxydation of lipids, increased synthesis rate of porphyrins by drugs, decrease of lipid peroxydation by antioxidants, e.g. vitamin E, in relation to possible therapeutic effects

  14. Special neutron measurement results from the spectral positions of the Juelich FKS steel irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; Kuepper, H.; Pott, G.; Borchardt, G.; Segelhorst, G.; Thoene, L.; Weise, L.

    1986-10-01

    For the German project 'Forschungsvorhaben Komponentensicherheit' (FKS, i.e., Structural Integrity of Components) steel specimen irradiations have been carried out in the Juelich Merlin-type reactor (FRJ-1). The neutron monitoring to these irradiations is described in a German report (Juel-2087). In this context, some special considerations and results are given here, i.e., an experimental investigation of the fast neutron spectrum variation over a thick steel plate (in a special dosimetry test experiment); a comparison of the outcome of this investigation with the results from other FKS participants; and finally, the evaluation of the neutron exposure expressed in displacements per atom (dpa) in the centre of that steel plate. (orig.)

  15. Beam test results of the irradiated Silicon Drift Detector for ALICE

    OpenAIRE

    Kushpil, S.; Crescio, E.; Giubellino, P.; Idzik, M.; Kolozhvari, A.; Kushpil, V.; Martinez, M. I.; Mazza, G.; Mazzoni, A.; Meddi, F.; Nouais, D.; Petracek, V.; Piemonte, C.; Rashevsky, A.; Riccati, L.

    2005-01-01

    The Silicon Drift Detectors will equip two of the six cylindrical layers of high precision position sensitive detectors in the ITS of the ALICE experiment at LHC. In this paper we report the beam test results of a SDD irradiated with 1 GeV electrons. The aim of this test was to verify the radiation tolerance of the device under an electron fluence equivalent to twice particle fluence expected during 10 years of ALICE operation.

  16. In vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation: five‐year results and technique comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warry, Alison J.; Eaton, David J.; Collis, Christopher H.; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish if the new CT‐based total body irradiation (TBI) planning techniques used at University College London Hospital (UCLH) and Royal Free Hospital (RFH) are comparable to the previous technique at the Middlesex Hospital (MXH) by analyzing predicted and measured diode results. TBI aims to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, typically using extended SSD fields with beam modulation to limit doses to organs at risk. In vivo dosimetry is used to verify the accuracy of delivered doses. In 2005, when the Middlesex Hospital was decommissioned and merged with UCLH, both UCLH and the RFH introduced updated CT‐planned TBI techniques, based on the old MXH technique. More CT slices and in vivo measurement points were used by both; UCLH introduced a beam modulation technique using MLC segments, while RFH updated to a combination of lead compensators and bolus. Semiconductor diodes were used to measure entrance and exit doses in several anatomical locations along the entire body. Diode results from both centers for over five years of treatments were analyzed and compared to the previous MXH technique for accuracy and precision of delivered doses. The most stable location was the field center with standard deviations of 4.1% (MXH), 3.7% (UCLH), and 1.7% (RFH). The least stable position was the ankles. Mean variation with fraction number was within 1.5% for all three techniques. In vivo dosimetry can be used to verify complex modulated CT‐planned TBI, and demonstrate improvements and limitations in techniques. The results show that the new UCLH technique is no worse than the previous MXH one and comparable to the current RFH technique. PACS numbers: 87.55.Qr, 87.56.N‐ PMID:25207423

  17. Practical models to estimate horizontal irradiance in clear sky conditions: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, German A.; Hernandez, Alejandro L.; Saravia, Luis R. [Department of Physics, School of Exact Sciences, National University of Salta, Bolivia Avenue 5150, 4400 Salta Capital (Argentina); INENCO (Institute of Non Conventional Energy Research), Bolivia Avenue 5150, 4400 Salta Capital (Argentina)

    2010-11-15

    The Argentinean Northwest (ANW) is a high altitude region located alongside Los Andes Mountains. The ANW is also one of the most insolated regions in the world due to its altitude and particular climate. However, the characterization of the solar resource in the region is incomplete as there are no stations to measure solar radiation continuously and methodically. With irradiance data recently having been measured at three sites in the Salta Province, a study was carried out that resulted in a practical model to quickly and efficiently estimate the horizontal irradiance in high altitude sites in clear sky conditions. This model uses the altitude above sea level (A) as a variable and generates a representative clearness index as a result (k{sub t-R}) that is calculated for each site studied. This index k{sub t-R} is then used with the relative optical air mass and the extraterrestrial irradiance to estimate the instantaneous clearness index (k{sub t}). Subsequently, the index k{sub t-R} is corrected by introducing the atmospheric pressure in the definition of relative optical air mass proposed by Kasten. The results are satisfactory as errors in the irradiance estimations with respect to measured values do not exceed 5% for pressure corrected air masses AM{sub c} < 2. This model will be used in a feasibility study to locate sites for the installation of solar thermal power plants in the ANW. A prototype of a CLFR solar power plant is being built in the INENCO Campus, at the National University of Salta. (author)

  18. Initial results of CyberKnife treatment for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himei, Kengo; Katsui, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CyberKnife for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer. Thirty-one patients with recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer were treated with a CyberKnife from July 1999 to March 2002 at Okayama Kyokuto Hospital were retrospectively studied. The accumulated dose was 28-80 Gy (median 60 Gy). The interval between CyberKnife treatment and previous radiotherapy was 0.4-429.5 months (median 16.3 months). Primary lesions were nasopharynx: 7, maxillary sinus: 6, tongue: 5, ethmoid sinus: 3, and others: 1. The pathology was squamous cell carcinoma: 25, adenoid cystic carcinoma: 4, and others: 2. Symptoms were pain: 8, and nasal bleeding: 2. The prescribed dose was 15.0-40.3 Gy (median 32.3 Gy) as for the marginal dose. The response rate (complete response (CR)+partial response (PR)) and local control rate (CR+PR+no change (NC)) was 74% and 94% respectively. Pain disappeared for 4 cases, relief was obtained for 4 cases and no change for 2 cases and nasal bleeding disappeared for 2 cases for an improvement of symptoms. An adverse effects were observed as mucositis in 5 cases and neck swelling in one case. Prognosis of recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer was estimated as poor. Our early experience shows that CyberKnife is expected to be feasible treatment for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer, and for the reduction adverse effects and maintenance of useful quality of life (QOL) for patients. (author)

  19. The clinical results of stereotactic irradiation for stage IA non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Kanji; Kodama, Hisayuki; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Kaneyasu, Yuko; Wadasaki, Koichi; Ito, Katsuhide; Kimura, Tomoki; Akagi, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    Discussed are the results in the title in authors' hospital. Subjects are 15 patients with the stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (10 males and 5 females; median age, 77 y; 11 cases of adenocarcinoma and 4 of squamous cell carcinoma), whose progress could be followed for 6 months or longer after the stereotactic irradiation during the period of July 1999 to 2006. The 8-9-gated irradiation therapy on the primary cancer alone was conducted with Varian Clinac 2300 (6MV-Xray) with the 3D planning equipment of PHILIPS Pinnacle. For some patients, the spirometer was used to monitor the voluntary breath-hold and body was fixed by vacuum fixer. Doses were 56 (4 Gy x 14) Gy in 3 cases, 60 (7.5 Gy x 8) Gy in 2, 50 (10 Gy x 5) Gy in 1 and 48 (12 Gy x 4) Gy in 9. Kaplan-Meier method was used for calculating the local control and survival rates. The former was 93% and the latter, 86% (1 year), 78% (2 y) and 39% (3 y). Three-year survival rate was 100% in 5 cases without other cancer and 18% in 10 with the cancers. Recurrence was seen in 3 cases and remote metastases, 7. Pneumonitis less than Grade 2 was in 11 cases. The stereotactic irradiation was thus found safe and effective in the stage IA non-small cell lung cancer. (T.I.)

  20. Cranial irradiation in children with lymphoblastic acute leukemia: results and damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchetti, E.; Brandoli, V.

    1979-01-01

    From 1973 to 1976, 81 children with lymphoblastic acute leukemia were treated with cranial prophylactic irradiation at the Istituto di Radioterapia ''L. Galvani'' del'Universita di Bologna. We divided the patients into 6 groups according to different characteristics. At the beginning of 1978 the survival rate was 82%; 60 patients (74%) were in complete continuous remission. We studied the encephalic post irradiation syndrome that is present in children over 2 years of age only when doses are higher than 2500 rad and in children under 2 years of age when doses exceed 2000 rad. This complication occurs frequently in the experience of other authors; however, it is absent under certain doses with which it is possible to obtain the same good results. We feel that among the different techniques and methods, the best radiological treatment is daily bilateral cranial irradiation for patients early in remission; we recommend doses of 2400 rad for children above 2 years of age and 1950 rad for those under 2 years

  1. Elimination of the risk resulting from pathogenic microorganisms in dried and smoked fish by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, O.N.

    1981-01-01

    The usefulness of irradiation in improving the microbiological quality and storage life of agricultural and fishery products was tried in a special study which had the following objectives: to determine the incidence of pathogenic organisms in dried, smoked and steamed fish; to determine the physico-chemical properties of these fish products; to determine the radiation dose necessary to eliminate the said pathogens at various levels of infections under practical conditions prevailing in the Philippines; to determine the organoleptic properties of the irradiated products. Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be the most radiation resistant among the test organisms used. For the purpose of the study the fish products were subjected to a radiation dose of 500 Kr. No significant difference of organoleptic properties at 0.05% level of significance existed between the irradiated and unirradiated counterparts. It was concluded that the use of low dose irradiation could be advantageously applied in combination with salting, drying and smoking and steaming not only to prolong the storage life of the fishery product but to eliminate the risk resulting from Salmonella, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus pathogens - it appears that radiation could be most promising in smoked and steamed fish products where the low salt and high moisture contents provide less protection relative to dried fish against the growth of these microorganisms. Further the process would destroy much of the spoilage agents like the bacteria, insects, parasites, molds and yeasts which are known to be the main causes of losses in dried and smoked fishery products being experienced in developing countries like the Philippines

  2. Charpy impact test results of four low activation ferritic alloys irradiated at 370{degrees}C to 15 DPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four low activation ferritic alloys have been impact tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 15 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens indicates that degradation in the impact behavior occurs in each of these four alloys. The 9Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X and the similar alloy F82H with 7.8Cr-2W appear most promising for further consideration as candidate structural materials in fusion energy system applications. These two alloys exhibit a small DBTT shift to higher temperatures but show increased absorbed energy on the upper shelf.

  3. Integration of post-irradiation examination results of failed WWER fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.; Markov, D.; Smirnov, V.; Polenok, V.; Perepelkin, S.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work is to investigate the causes of WWER fuel rod failures and to reveal the dependence of the failed fuel rod behaviour and state on the damage characteristics and duration of their operation in the core. The post-irradiation examination of 12 leaky fuel assemblies (5 for WWER-440 and 7 for WWER-1000) has been done at SSC RF RIAR. The results show that the main mechanism responsible for the majority of cases of the WWER fuel rod perforation is debris-damage of the claddings. Debris fretting of the claddings spread randomly over the fuel assembly cross-section and they are registered in the area of the bundle supporting grid or under the lower spacer grids along the fuel assembly height. In the WWER fuel rods, the areas of secondary hydrogenating of cladding are spaced from the primary defects by ∼2500-3000 mm, as a rule, and are often adjacent closely to the upper welded joints. There is no pronounced dependence of the distance between the primary and secondary cladding defects neither on the linear power, at which the fuel rods were operated, nor on the period of their operation in the leaky state. The time period of the significant secondary damage formation is about 250 ± 50 calendar days for the WWER fuel rods with slight through primary defects (∼0.1 - 0.5 mm 2 ) operated in the linear power range 170-215 W/cm. Cladding degradation, taking place due to the secondary hydrogenating, does not occur in case of large through debris-defects during operation up to 600 calendar days

  4. Experimental results showing the internal three-component velocity field and outlet temperature contours for a model gas turbine combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyers, BC

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. All rights reserved ISABE-2011-1129 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS SHOWING THE INTERNAL THREE-COMPONENT VELOCITY FIELD AND OUTLET TEMPERATURE CONTOURS FOR A MODEL GAS TURBINE COMBUSTOR BC Meyers*, GC... identifier c Position identifier F Fuel i Index L (Combustor) Liner OP Orifice plate Introduction There are often inconsistencies when comparing experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for gas turbine combustors [1...

  5. First results of the post-irradiation examination of the Ceramic Breeder materials from the Pebble Bed Assemblies Irradiation for the HCPB Blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegeman, J.; Magielsen, A.J.; Peeters, M.; Stijkel, M.P.; Fokkens, J.H.; Laan, J.G. van der

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of developing the European Helium Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) blanket an irradiation test of pebble-bed assemblies is performed in the HFR Petten. The experiment is focused on the thermo-mechanical behavior of the HCPB type breeder pebble-bed at DEMO representative levels of temperature and defined thermal-mechanical loads. To achieve representative conditions a section of the HCPB is simulated by EUROFER-97 cylinders with a horizontal bed of ceramic breeder pebbles sandwiched between two beryllium beds. Floating Eurofer-97 steel plates separate the pebble-beds. The structural integrity of the ceramic breeder materials is an issue for the design of the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed concept. Therefore the objective of the post irradiation examination is to study deformation of pebbles and the pebble beds and to investigate the microstructure of the ceramic pebbles from the Pebble Bed Assemblies. This paper concentrates on the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the four ceramic pebble beds that have been irradiated in the Pebble Bed Assembly experiment for the HCPB blanket concept. Two assemblies with Li 4 SiO 4 pebble-beds are operated at different maximum temperatures of approximately 600 o C and 800 o C. Post irradiation computational analysis has shown that both have different creep deformation. Two other assemblies have been loaded with a ceramic breeder bed of two types of Li 2 TiO 3 beds having different sintering temperatures and consequently different creep behavior. The irradiation maximum temperature of the Li 2 TiO 3 was 800 o C. To support the first PIE result, the post irradiation thermal analysis will be discussed because thermal gradients have influence on the pebble-bed thermo-mechanical behavior and as a result it may have impact on the structural integrity of the ceramic breeder materials. (author)

  6. Preliminary analysis of surface displacement results in the creepdown irradiation experiment HOBBIE-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, D.O.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the results of the eddy-current surface displacement measurements of Zircaloy cladding obtained during the HOBBIE-1 irradiation experiment in the HFR at ECN-Petten, the Netherlands. Raw creepdown data from the test were corrected through the use of reference coils incorporated in the eddy-current coil block in the experiment capsule. The corrected displacement results are compared with out-of-reactor results obtained under nominally identical conditions of pressure and temperature. Experiment HOBBIE-1 was run at 371 0 C and 13.1 MPa specimen external pressure for a total time of approximately 950 h. No gross cladding ovalization was obtained. This result differed from the relatively simple ovality found in the out-of-reactor test. Contact with the internal mandrel occurred between 400 and 500 h, compared with 375 h for a comparable out-of-reactor test. Average diameter decreases for both tests were similar. These results are discussed in detail

  7. Testbeam results of irradiated ams H18 HV-CMOS pixel sensor prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, M.; Braccini, S.; Casse, G.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Di Bello, F. A.; Ferrere, D.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Kiehn, M.; Lanni, F.; Liu, H.; Meng, L.; Merlassino, C.; Miucci, A.; Muenstermann, D.; Nessi, M.; Okawa, H.; Perić, I.; Rimoldi, M.; Ristić, B.; Barrero Pinto, M. Vicente; Vossebeld, J.; Weber, M.; Weston, T.; Wu, W.; Xu, L.; Zaffaroni, E.

    2018-02-01

    HV-CMOS pixel sensors are a promising option for the tracker upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, as well as for other future tracking applications in which large areas are to be instrumented with radiation-tolerant silicon pixel sensors. We present results of testbeam characterisations of the 4th generation of Capacitively Coupled Pixel Detectors (CCPDv4) produced with the ams H18 HV-CMOS process that have been irradiated with different particles (reactor neutrons and 18 MeV protons) to fluences between 1× 1014 and 5× 1015 1-MeV- neq. The sensors were glued to ATLAS FE-I4 pixel readout chips and measured at the CERN SPS H8 beamline using the FE-I4 beam telescope. Results for all fluences are very encouraging with all hit efficiencies being better than 97% for bias voltages of 85 V. The sample irradiated to a fluence of 1× 1015 neq—a relevant value for a large volume of the upgraded tracker—exhibited 99.7% average hit efficiency. The results give strong evidence for the radiation tolerance of HV-CMOS sensors and their suitability as sensors for the experimental HL-LHC upgrades and future large-area silicon-based tracking detectors in high-radiation environments.

  8. Irradiation effects test series, test IE-5. Test results report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croucher, D. W.; Yackle, T. R.; Allison, C. M.; Ploger, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    Test IE-5, conducted in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, employed three 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods, fabricated from previously irradiated zircaloy-4 cladding and one similar rod fabricated from unirradiated cladding. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the influence of simulated fission products, cladding irradiation damage, and fuel rod internal pressure on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and on fuel rod behavior during film boiling operation. The four rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, a power ramp to an average fuel rod peak power of 65 kW/m, and steady state operation for one hour at a coolant mass flux of 4880 kg/s-m/sup 2/ for each rod. After a flow reduction to 1800 kg/s-m/sup 2/, film boiling occurred on one rod. Additional flow reductions to 970 kg/s-m/sup 2/ produced film boiling on the three remaining fuel rods. Maximum time in film boiling was 80s. The rod having the highest initial internal pressure (8.3 MPa) failed 10s after the onset of film boiling. A second rod failed about 90s after reactor shutdown. The report contains a description of the experiment, the test conduct, test results, and results from the preliminary postirradiation examination. Calculations using a transient fuel rod behavior code are compared with the test results.

  9. Metastatic carcinoma in the cervical lymph nodes from an unknown primary site: results of bilateral neck plus mucosal irradiation vs. ipsilateral neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Sarada P.; Marks, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the outcome for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of cervical lymph nodes metastatic from an unknown primary site who were irradiated to both sides of the neck and potential mucosal sites with opposed photon beams, and for those irradiated to the ipsilateral side of the neck alone with an electron beam. Methods and Materials: Fifty-two patients with squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes from an unknown primary site were irradiated by two different methods. Thirty-six were irradiated with a bilateral technique (BT), i.e., to both sides of the neck, including the naso-oro-hypopharyngeal mucosa, and 16 were irradiated with an electron beam (EB) to the ipsilateral side of the neck alone. Twenty patients of the BT group and 11 of the EB group had cervical lymph node dissections, and the remaining 21 patients had lymph node biopsies, prior to radiotherapy. Results: Tumor control in the ipsilateral side of the neck did not differ for either radiation technique, but was significantly higher after lymph node dissection than after biopsy (90 vs. 48%; p = 0.0004). Control of subclinical metastases in the contralateral cervical lymph nodes was higher for patients irradiated with BT than for patients irradiated with EB (86 vs. 56%; p 0.03). The occult primary was later discovered in 8% of the patients in the BT group and 44% of the EB group (p = 0.0005). The disease-free survival rate at 5 years for patients who had lymph node dissection prior to irradiation was 61%, and was 37% for those who had biopsy (p = 0.05). Only 20% of patients who subsequently developed an occult primary were salvaged and survived for 5 years after salvage treatment. Conclusion: Bilateral neck and mucosal irradiation is superior to ipsilateral neck irradiation in preventing contralateral cervical lymph node metastases and the subsequent appearance of an occult primary cancer. Both techniques combined with cervical lymph node dissection were equally effective

  10. AGR-1 Fuel Compact 6-3-2 Post-Irradiation Examination Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul demkowicz; jason Harp; Scott Ploger

    2012-12-01

    Destructive post-irradiation examination was performed on fuel Compact 6-3-2, which was irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment to a final compact average burnup of 11.3% FIMA and a time-average, volume-average temperature of 1070°C. The analysis of this compact was focused on characterizing the extent of fission product release from the particles and examining particles to determine the condition of the kernels and coating layers. The work included deconsolidation of the compact and leach-burn-leach analysis, visual inspection and gamma counting of individual particles, measurement of fuel burnup by several methods, metallurgical preparation of selected particles, and examination of particle cross-sections with optical microscopy. A single particle with a defective SiC layer was identified during deconsolidation-leach-burn-leach analysis, which is in agreement with previous measurements showing elevated cesium in the Capsule 6 graphite fuel holder associated with this fuel compact. The fraction of the compact europium inventory released from the particles and retained in the matrix was relatively high (approximately 6E-3), indicating release from intact particle coatings. The Ag-110m inventory in individual particles exhibited a very broad distribution, with some particles retaining =80% of the predicted inventory and others retaining less than 25%. The average degree of Ag-110m retention in 60 gamma counted particles was approximately 50%. This elevated silver release is in agreement with analysis of silver on the Capsule 6 components, which indicated an average release of 38% of the Capsule 6 inventory from the fuel compacts. In spite of the relatively high degree of silver release from the particles, virtually none of the Ag-110m released was found in the compact matrix, and presumably migrated out of the compact and was deposited on the irradiation capsule components. Release of all other fission products from the particles appears to be less than a single

  11. First performance results of two novel spectroradiometers developed for fast scanning of solar spectra UV irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feister, Uwe; Kaifel, Anton K.; Grewe, Rolf-Dieter; Kaptur, Jasmine; Reutter, Oliver; Wohlfart, Michael; Gericke, Klaus

    2003-11-01

    Two recently developed different types of fast spectroradiometers measuring solar UV irradiance have been compared in a field campaign: i) the UV spectroradiometer on filter model basis (UV-SPRAFIMO) and ii) the modified version of the spectroradiometer SPECTRO 320D by Instrument Systems. The all-weather UV-SPRAFIMO instrument combines a UV filter radiometer with 5 narrow-band (FBHM ~ 2.0 to 2.5 nm) filters centered within +/- 0.01 nm at 303.5, 309.0, 314.5, 327.0 and 387.0 nm, and an advanced neural network-based model. It allows up to 5 measurements per second to be taken that are averaged within time intervals between 5 and 30 s. The neural networks model that is embedded in the PC-based processing software converts the 5 measured irradiances into a full spectrum from 280 to 450 nm at small wavelength steps (>= 0.05 nm). These spectra can be convoluted with user-defined slit function and integrated to broad-band and action-spectra-weighted irradiance values. Users can access the data stored in the internal data logger by a serial RS232 interface or by a modem and display them on a PC-based Graphical User Interface. The spectroradiometer SPECTRO320D consists of a grating double monochromator with a cooled (-20°C) PMT receiver. The modified instrument version run by DWD uses a Schreder type cosine diffuser that directs the solar global irradiance via quartz fiber optics onto the spectroradiometer's entrance slit. The spectroradiometer used at the campaign was installed in a thermostatted (22 +/- 0.02)°C aluminum box. The modified instrument version performs a spectral scan over the whole UV region in two subsequent parts, with a lower speed in the UV-B than in the UV-A to account for the exponential changes of solar irradiance with increasing wavelengths in the UV-B and for the almost linear change in the UV-A region. In the configuration applied in the comparison, i.e. wavelength steps of 0.2 nm within the scan range from 290 nm to 450 nm, the resulting scan

  12. Results of Uranium Dioxide-Tungsten Irradiation Test and Post-Test Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J. F.; Debogdan, C. E.; Diianni, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    A uranium dioxide (UO2) fueled capsule was fabricated and irradiated in the NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility. The capsule consisted of two bulk UO2 specimens clad with chemically vapor deposited tungsten (CVD W) 0.762 and 0.1016 cm (0.030-and 0.040-in.) thick, respectively. The second specimen with 0.1016-cm (0.040-in.) thick cladding was irradiated at temperature for 2607 hours, corresponding to an average burnup of 1.516 x 10 to the 20th power fissions/cu cm. Postirradiation examination showed distortion in the bottom end cap, failure of the weld joint, and fracture of the central vent tube. Diametral growth was 1.3 percent. No evidence of gross interaction between CVD tungsten or arc-cast tungsten cladding and the UO2 fuel was observed. Some of the fission gases passed from the fuel cavity to the gas surrounding the fuel specimen via the vent tube and possibly the end-cap weld failure. Whether the UO2 loss rates through the vent tube were within acceptable limits could not be determined in view of the end-cap weld failure.

  13. Further Charpy impact test results of low activation ferritic alloys, irradiated at 430{degrees}C to 67 dpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four ferritic alloys, GA3X, F82H, GA4X and HT9, have been impact tested following irradiation at 430{degrees}C to 67 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of the previously tested lower dose irradiation condition indicates that the GA3X and F82H alloys, two primary candidate low activation alloys, exhibit virtually identical behavior following irradiation at 430{degrees}C to {approximately}67 dpa and at 370{degrees}C to {approximately}15 dpa. Very little shift is observed in either DBTT or USE relative to the unirradiated condition. The shifts in DBTT and USE observed in both GA4X and HT9 were smaller after irradiation at 430{degrees}C to {approximately}67 dpa than after irradiation at 370{degrees}C to {approximately}15 dpa.

  14. Further Charpy impact test results of low activation ferritic alloys, irradiated at 430 degrees C to 67 dpa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four ferritic alloys, GA3X, F82H, GA4X and HT9, have been impact tested following irradiation at 430 degrees C to 67 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of the previously tested lower dose irradiation condition indicates that the GA3X and F82H alloys, two primary candidate low activation alloys, exhibit virtually identical behavior following irradiation at 430 degrees C to ∼67 dpa and at 370 degrees C to ∼15 dpa. Very little shift is observed in either DBTT or USE relative to the unirradiated condition. The shifts in DBTT and USE observed in both GA4X and HT9 were smaller after irradiation at 430 degrees C to ∼67 dpa than after irradiation at 370 degrees C to ∼15 dpa

  15. Results of the irradiation of mixed UO2 - PuO2 oxide fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikailoff, H.; Mustelier, J.P.; Bloch, J.; Ezran, L.; Hayet, L.

    1966-01-01

    In order to study the behaviour of fuel elements used for the first charge of the reactor Rapsodie, a first batch of eleven needles was irradiated in the reactor EL3 and then examined. These needles (having a shape very similar lo that of the actual needles to be used) were made up of a stack of sintered mixed-oxide pellets: UO 2 containing about 10 per cent of PuO 2 . The density was 85 to 97 per cent of the theoretical, value. The diametral gap between the oxide and the stainless steel can was between 0,06 and 0,27 mm. The specific powers varied from 1230 to 2700 W/cm 3 and the can temperature was between 450 and 630 C. The maximum burn-up attained was 22000 MW days/tonne. Examination of the needles (metrology, radiography and γ-spectrography) revealed certain macroscopic changes, and the evolution of the fuel was shown by micrographic studies. These observations were used, together with flux measurements results, to calculate the temperature distribution inside the fuel. The volume of the fission gas produced was measured in some of the samples; the results are interpreted taking into account the temperature distribution in the oxide and the burn-up attained. Finally a study was made both of the behaviour of a fuel element whose central part was molten during irradiation, and of the effect of sodium which had penetrated into some of the samples following can rupture. (author) [fr

  16. Characteristic of Irradiation Result Film of Poly-Propylene-Co-Ethylene/Poly-ε-Caprolactone and Poly-Propylene Grafted Maleic Anhydrate Blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikham

    2004-01-01

    The effect of gamma rays irradiation to film of melt-blending polypropylene-co-ethylene (CPP) and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) with polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) blend as compatibilizer has been studied. The objective of the research is to prepare the biodegradable polyblend. The composition blend of CPP/PCL with 0, 10, 15, 20 wt % PP-g-MAH i.e. 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 were irradiated by using gamma rays 60 Co with activity 420 kCi at doses; 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kGy, at dose rate 8.2 kGy/hrs and temperature 90 o C. The elongation at break, tensile strength, gel fraction, enzymatic degradation and heat resistance were evaluated. The results showed that the compatibility of PP-g-MAH to reach good enough polyblend is 20 % weight. Elongation at break film of CPP/PCL 50/50 blend which irradiated at dose 200 kGy decreased, whereas the tensile strength increased. Gel fraction and heat resistance of the film irradiated increased. Enzyme of lipase AK can degraded either without irradiated or irradiated film. Thus quality of the polyblend can be called as biodegradable plastic material. (author)

  17. Estimation of genetic variability and heritability of wheat agronomic traits resulted from some gamma rays irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijaya Murti Indriatama; Trikoesoemaningtyas; Syarifah Iis Aisyah; Soeranto Human

    2016-01-01

    Gamma irradiation techniques have significant effect on frequency and spectrum of macro-mutation but the study of its effect on micro-mutation that related to genetic variability on mutated population is very limited. The aim of this research was to study the effect of gamma irradiation techniques on genetic variability and heritability of wheat agronomic characters at M2 generation. This research was conducted from July to November 2014, at Cibadak experimental station, Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development, Ministry of Agriculture. Three introduced wheat breeding lines (F-44, Kiran-95 & WL-711) were treated by 3 gamma irradiation techniques (acute, fractionated and intermittent). M1 generation of combination treatments were planted and harvested its spike individually per plants. As M2 generation, seeds of 75 M1 spike were planted at the field with one row one spike method and evaluated on the agronomic characters and its genetic components. The used of gamma irradiation techniques decreased mean but increased range values of agronomic traits in M2 populations. Fractionated irradiation induced higher mean and wider range on spike length and number of spike let per spike than other irradiation techniques. Fractionated and intermittent irradiation resulted greater variability of grain weight per plant than acute irradiation. The number of tillers, spike weight, grain weight per spike and grain weight per plant on M2 population resulted from induction of three gamma irradiation techniques have high estimated heritability and broad sense of genetic variability coefficient values. The three gamma irradiation techniques increased genetic variability of agronomic traits on M2 populations, except plant height. (author)

  18. First qualitative analysis of fuel irradiation results carried out in the MR reactor on WWER-1000 fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantoin, P [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Dubrovin, K; Platonov, P [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Onufriev, V [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel` skij Inst. Neorganicheskikh Materialov, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Four experiments carried out in the MR reactor are evaluated. They are aimed to assess the influence of burnup and the size of the pellet central hole on the fuel temperature and thus on the fuel swelling and fission gas release. The experiments have been performed at different linear rate and burnup of the fuel rods which are above the actual licensed values in WWER power stations. In this paper the results on WWER fuel rod behaviour are examined. The main fabrication and irradiation characteristics for each experiment are given. The main results from destructive and non-destructive examinations are summarized. They include: burnup determination by gamma spectroscopy, caesium shifting along fuel column and accumulation at the end of the fuel stack, fission gas release. fuel rod diameter and length change and macro-graphs showing the central hole size and the morphology after irradiation. From observation of fuel structure, Cs spectrometry and fission gas release, a large degradation of fuel thermal conductivity can be identified at high burnup. If the fuel burnup is the right parameter to be considered, burnup limits identified are: 0 70-75 MWd/kg for rods with large central hole; (2) 58-64 MWd/kg for rods with small central hole. As a general conclusion it is stressed the importance of the study due to irradiation beyond the usual linear rates at high burnup. Up to now the fuel life limiting factor was cladding corrosion when using Zircaloy-4. As the cladding corrosion situation improves, the next life limiting factor to be met could be the fuel itself. The decreasing fuel thermal conductivity is probably of prime importance and should be further studied and modelled. 5 tabs., 5 figs., 3 refs.

  19. Post Irradiation Examination Results of the NT-02 Graphite Fins NUMI Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab; Asner, D. M. [PNL, Richland; Casella, Casella,A.M [PNL, Richland; Edwards, D. J. [PNL, Richland; Schemer-Kohrn, A. L. [PNL, Richland; Senor, D. J. [PNL, Richland

    2017-02-10

    The NT-02 neutrino target in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab is a 95 cm long target made up of segmented graphite fins. It is the longest running NuMI target, which operated with a 120 GeV proton beam with maximum power of 340 kW, and saw an integrated total proton on target of 6.1 1020. Over the last half of its life, gradual degradation of neutrino yield was observed until the target was replaced. The probable causes for the target performance degradation are attributed to radiation damage, possibly including cracking caused by reduction in thermal shock resistance, as well as potential localized oxidation in the heated region of the target. Understanding the long-termstructural response of target materials exposed to proton irradiation is critical as future proton accelerator sources are becoming increasingly more powerful. As a result, an autopsy of the target was carried out to facilitate post-irradiation examination of selected graphite fins. Advanced microstructural imaging and surface elemental analysis techniques were used to characterize the condition of the fins in an effort to identify degradation mechanisms, and the relevant findings are presented in this paper.

  20. Preliminary results relating to gamma irradiations of the pollen in the pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benaga, R.; Vicedo, L.; Isidron, M.; Arias, E.; Campanioni, L.; Fernandez, J.; Castillo, E.; Romero, M.

    1993-01-01

    As a way to know the radiosensitivity of the pollen of pineapple, in order to get to know haploid plants, the anthers of red Espanola of the type Pinarena and smooth Cayena from the Serrana (Ciego de Avila) were exposed to 60C o gamma radiations in the irradiator at CENSA, with fractional doses ranging from zero to 5KGy. The percentage of germination and length pollinic tube is analysed in vitro; a decrease in the above mentioned parameters is observed, with the main doses in the two cultures although red Espanola showed a slight recovery at doses of 3 and 4KGy as well as the major values of germination of the pollen

  1. Dosimetric methods and results of measurement for total body electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Ningyuan; Yu Geng; Yu Zihao

    1987-01-01

    A modified 'STANFORD TSEI TECHNIQUE' e.g. dual angled gantry, 6 turntable angles and 12 fields was developed on PHILIPS SL 75-20 linear accelerator to treat mycosis fungoides. A plastic scatter screen, 5 mm in thickness was used to reduce the primary electron energy to 4 MeV in order to control treatment depth (d 80 approx.= 1.2 cm) and skin dose up to 89%. The X-ray contamination was at an acceptable level of 2%. This measurement which involved multiple dosimetric methods, showed that the distance between the scattor screen and the patient, within 10-30 cm, had no influence on PDD and the dose distribution on the body surface was reasonably homogeneous, but strongly dependent on the anatomic positions. For those sites which were located in the electron beam shadows, boosting irradiation might be necessary. The preliminary clinical trials indicated that this technique is valid and feasible

  2. Some results on development, irradiation and post-irradiation examinations of fuels for fast reactor-actinide burner (MOX and inert matrix fuel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavsky, V.; Zabudko, L.; Moseev, L.; Rogozkin, B.; Kurina, I.

    1996-01-01

    Studies performed have shown principal feasibility of the BN-600 and BN-800 cores to achieve high efficiency of Pu burning when MOX fuel with Pu content up to 45% is used. Valuable experience on irradiation behaviour of oxide fuel with high Pu content (100%) was gained as a result of operation of two BR-10 core loadings where the maximum burnup 14 at.% was reached. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) allowed to reveal some specific features of the fuel with high plutonium content. Principal irradiation and PIE results are presented in the paper. Use of new fuel without U-238 provides the maximum burning capability as in this case the conversion ratio is reduced to zero. Technological investigations of inert matrix fuels have been continued now. Zirconium carbide, zirconium nitride, magnesium oxide and other matrix materials are under consideration. Inert matrices selection criteria are discussed in the paper. Results of technological study, of irradiation in the BOR-60 reactor and PIE results of some inert matrix fuels are summarized in this report. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. Total body irradiation in conditioning patients for bone marrow transplantation. Irradiation technique and preliminary results at the West German Tumour Centre, Universitaetsklinikum Essen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, G.; Schaefer, U.W.; Nowrousian, M.R.; Oehl, S.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary results of bone marrow transplantation of 8 patients are presented with particular reference to the irradiation technique. 5 patients died 0.5 to 8 months after transplantation. 3 patients are alive and in good condition 2 to 15 months after transplantation

  4. Changes in liver glycogen reserve in Wistar rats as a result of polysaccharide treatment and single sublethal gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metodiev, S.; Lambov, V.; Pavlova, N.

    1993-01-01

    The phase changes in the quantity of liver glycogen after single sublethal irradiation are investigated. The lowest concentration levels are registered at days 1, 3, 8 and 13 post irradiation. The effect of polysaccharide radioresistance modulation on the liver glycogen concentration is evaluated. The subcutaneous polysaccharide application of the immuno-active product PL prevents the sharp decrease of the liver glycogen concentration level, as a result of radiation provoked damages. The polysaccharide protection is most effective 5 - 21 days after irradiation. The conclusions are based on enzymic and hystomorphological studies. (author)

  5. SU-F-T-213: Commissioning Results of the Prototype Active Scanning Irradiation System of Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C; Seduk, J; Yang, T [Korea Institute of Radiological And Medical Sciences, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A prototype actives scanning beam delivery system was designed, manufactured and installed as a part of the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Project. The prototype system includes the most components for steering, modulating, detecting incident beam to patient. The system was installed in MC-50 cyclotron beam line and tested to extract the normal operation conditions. Methods: The commissioning process was completed by using 45 MeV of proton beam. To measure the beam position accuracy along the scanning magnet power supply current, 25 different spots were scanning and measured. The scanning results on GaF film were compared with the irradiation plan. Also, the beam size variation and the intensity reduction using range shifter were measured and analyzed. The results will be used for creating a conversion factors for asymmetric behavior of scanning magnets and a dose compensation factor for longitudinal direction. Results: The results show asymmetry operations on both scanning × and y magnet. In case of scanning magnet × operation, the current to position conversion factors were measured 1.69 mm/A for positive direction and 1.74 mm/A for negative direction. The scanning magnet y operation shows 1.38mm/A and 1.48 mm/A for both directions. The size of incoming beam which was 18 mm as sigma becomes larger up to 55 mm as sigma while using 10 mm of the range shifter plate. As the beam size becomes large, the maximum intensity of the was decreased. In case of using 10 mm of range shifter, the maximum intensity was only 52% compared with no range shifter insertion. Conclusion: For the appropriate operation of the prototype active scanning system, the commissioning process were performed to measure the beam characteristics variation. The obtained results would be applied on the irradiation planning software for more precise dose delivery using the active scanning system.

  6. Results from Project on Enhancement of Aging Management and Maintenance in Nuclear Power Plants - Irradiation Embrittlement of RPV Steels -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hiroaki; Onizawa, Kunio; Katsuyama, Jinya; Murakami, Kenta; Iwai, Takeo; Iwata, Tadao; Katano, Yoshio; Sekimura, Naoto; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Toyama, Takeshi; Tamura, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    As one of the NISA Project on Enhancement of Aging Management and Maintenance in Nuclear Power Plants, we have performed research on the irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels, especially focusing on irradiation embrittlement on heat affected zone (HAZ) and on applications of ion beams to deduce fundamental insights irradiation-induced embrittlement. The results obtained from the project are summarized as follows. In order to obtain the technical basis to judge the necessity of surveillance specimens from HAZ, the neutron irradiation program was performed at JRR-3, JAEA. The samples were carefully designed based on the insights from finite element analysis, metallography, 3D atom probe and positron annihilation methods, and were fabricated so as to simulate both heat treatment history and microstructure for typical HAZ from as-fabricated RPV steels which also have variation of impurity levels. The fracture toughness of the unirradiated HAZ specimens was equivalent to or better than that of base metals. Irradiation embrittlement and hardening were roughly identical to those of base metals, while some of the fine-grained HAZ microstructure was susceptible to it. The probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis was applied to the structural integrity assessment taking into account the heterogeneous microstructure as well as susceptibility for irradiation embrittlement of each HAZ microstructure under the variation of welding parameter and PTS condition. It was shown that crack propagation at the fine-grained HAZ, but the discontinuous distribution of the microstructure retards the further propagation. For the precise correlation of irradiation embrittlement of RPV steels for the long term operations, accumulations of high-dose data are required. Ion beam irradiation is one of the solutions for the regime and for mechanism-based descriptions. Another interest of ours was to describe irradiation hardening and embrittlement in terms of

  7. CMOS sensors in 90 nm fabricated on high resistivity wafers: Design concept and irradiation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivetti, A.; Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Caselle, M.; Chalmet, P.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Giubilato, P.; Ikemoto, Y.; Kloukinas, K.; Mansuy, C.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rousset, J.; Silvestrin, L.; Wyss, J.

    2013-01-01

    The LePix project aims at improving the radiation hardness and the readout speed of monolithic CMOS sensors through the use of standard CMOS technologies fabricated on high resistivity substrates. In this context, high resistivity means beyond 400Ωcm, which is at least one order of magnitude greater than the typical value (1–10Ωcm) adopted for integrated circuit production. The possibility of employing these lightly doped substrates was offered by one foundry for an otherwise standard 90 nm CMOS process. In the paper, the case for such a development is first discussed. The sensor design is then described, along with the key challenges encountered in fabricating the detecting element in a very deep submicron process. Finally, irradiation results obtained on test matrices are reported

  8. Irradiation creep by climb-enables glide of dislocations resulting from preferred absorption of point defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, L K [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1979-04-01

    A mechanism of irradiation creep arising from the climb-enabled glide of dislocations due to stress-induced preferred absorption of radiation-produced point defects is proposed. This creep component is here termed preferred absorption glide, PAG. PAG-creep operates in addition to the previously studied components of creep from climb by stress-induced preferred absorption, (SI) PA-creep, and the climb-enabled glide due to excess absorption of interstitials on dislocations during swelling, I-creep. A formulation of the various climb and climb-enabled glide processes which includes earlier results is presented. PAG-creep is comparable in magnitude to PA-creep in the parameter range of applications. While the PSA-creep rate and the I-creep rate are linear in stress, the PAG-creep rate is quadratic in stress and thus dominates at high stresses.

  9. Local field at an irradiated adatom on jellium: exact microscopic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feibelman, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The first microscopic correction to the image theory of the local field at an irradiated adatom has been calculated in the limit that the adatom is far from a jellium surface. The result of the calculation is the frequency-dependent position of the effective image plane in terms of the properties of semi-infinite jellium. The image plane position is found to be a complex number, reflecting the fact that the response of the surface electrons is lossy. Numerical calculations for r/sub s/=2 jellium suggest that the imaginary component of the image plane position is large enough to prevent large image enhancement of the local field at an adatom, casting doubt on the idea that such enhancement is responsible for the recently observed surface-enhanced Raman effect

  10. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with external beam radiotherapy. First results of the German phase 2 trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Oliver J.; Strnad, Vratislav; Stillkrieg, Wilhelm; Fietkau, Rainer [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Uter, Wolfgang [University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Dept. of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Erlangen (Germany); Beckmann, Matthias W. [University Hospital Erlangen, Dept. of Gynecology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of external beam three-dimensional (3D) conformal accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for selected patients with early breast cancer. Between 2011 and 2016, 72 patients were recruited for this prospective phase 2 trial. Patients were eligible for APBI if they had histologically confirmed breast cancer or pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a tumor diameter ≤3 cm, clear resection margins ≥2 mm, no axillary lymph node involvement, no distant metastases, tumor bed clips, and were aged ≥50 years. Patients were excluded if mammography showed a multicentric invasive growth pattern, or if they had residual diffuse microcalcifications postoperatively, an extensive intraductal component, or vessel invasion. Patients received 3D conformal external beam APBI with a total dose of 38 Gy in 10 fractions in 1-2 weeks. The trial had been registered at the German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS-ID: DRKS00004417. Median follow-up was 25.5 months (range 1-61 months). Local control was maintained in 71 of 72 patients. The 3-year local recurrence rate was 2.1% (95% confidence interval, CI: 0-6.1%). Early toxicity (grade 1 radiodermatitis) was seen in 34.7% (25/72). Late side effects ≥ grade 3 did not occur. Cosmetic results were rated as excellent/good in 96.7% (59/61). APBI with external beam radiotherapy techniques is feasible with low toxicity and, according to the results of the present and other studies, on the way to becoming a standard treatment option for a selected subgroup of patients. (orig.) [German] Untersuchung der Vertraeglichkeit und Sicherheit der externen, 3-D-konformalen akzelerierten Teilbrustbestrahlung (APBI) fuer ausgewaehlte Patientinnen mit einem fruehen Mammakarzinom. Von 2011 bis 2016 wurden 72 Patientinnen in diese prospektive Phase-2-Studie eingebracht. Einschlusskriterien waren ein histologisch gesichertes Mammakarzinom oder DCIS, ein Tumordurchmesser ≤ 3 cm, tumorfreie Resektionsraender ≥ 2

  11. Results on neutron and gamma-ray irradiation of electrolytic tiltmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C.F.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Ferrando, A.; Fuentes, J.; Josa, M.I.; Luque, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Valdivieso, P.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.

    2004-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies done to a sample of high-precision electrolytic tiltmeters with gamma-rays, up to a maximum dose of 150 kGy, and neutrons, up to a maximum fluence of 1.5x10 14 cm -2 . The effect of the irradiation on their performance is discussed

  12. Results of wholesomeness test on basic plan of research and development of food irradiation (7 items)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Tsuyoshi

    1989-01-01

    Twenty years have elapsed since the general research on food irradiation was begun in Japan as the new technology for food preservation, and the research on the wholesomeness of irradiated foods has been carried out in wide range together with the research on irradiation effect, irradiation techniques and economical efficiency. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods includes chronic toxicity including carcinogenic property in the continuous intake for long period, the effect to reproduction function over many generations and the possibility of giving hereditary injury to cells, the nutritional adequacy required for the sustenance of life and the increase of health, and microbiological safety. In Japan, the research on food irradiation was designated as an atomic energy specific general research, and as the objects of research, potato and onion for the prevention of germination, rice and wheat for the protection from noxious insects, fish paste products, wienerwurst and mandarin orange for sterilization were selected. For the irradiation, Co-60 gamma ray was used except the case of mandarin orange using electron beam. The research on all 7 items was finished, and the irradiation of potato was permitted. (K.I.)

  13. Hepatotoxicity after liver irradiation in children and adolescents. Results from the RiSK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesler, Pascal; Christiansen, Hans [Medical School Hannover, Department of Radiotherapy and Special Oncology, Hannover (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [University of Leipzig, Department of Radiotherapy, Leipzig (Germany); Martini, Carmen [University Hospital of Freiburg, Department of Radiotherapy, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Matuschek, Christiane [Heinrich-Heine University of Duesseldorf, Department of Radiotherapy, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Meyer, Frank [Hospital Augsburg, Department of Radiotherapy, Augsburg (Germany); Ruebe, Christian [University Hospital of Homburg/Saar, Department of Radiotherapy, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Langer, Thorsten [University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Oncology, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Koch, Raphael [University of Muenster, Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, Muenster (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor; Willich, Normann [University Hospital of Muenster, Department of Radiotherapy, Muenster (Germany); Steinmann, Diana [Medical School Hannover, Department of Radiotherapy and Special Oncology, Hannover (Germany); University Hospital of Muenster, Department of Radiotherapy, Muenster (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate acute and late radiotherapy-associated hepatotoxicity in consideration of dose-volume effects and liver function in childhood and adolescence. Since 2001, irradiated children and adolescents in Germany have been prospectively documented in the ''Register of Treatment-Associated Late Effects After Radiotherapy of Malignant Diseases in Childhood and Adolescence (RiSK)'' using standardized forms. Toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. Until April 2012, 1,392 children and adolescents from 62 radiotherapy centers were recruited. In all, 216 patients underwent irradiation of the liver (median age 9 years, range 1-18 years, 70 patients with total-body irradiation, TBI). For 75 % of patients without TBI, information on acute toxicity of the liver was available: 24 patients had acute toxicity of grade 1-4 (grade 1, 2, and 4, in 20, 3, and 1 patient, respectively), including five patients receiving simultaneous hepatotoxic chemotherapy. Information on late toxicity was documented in 465 forms from 216 patients, with a median follow-up of 2 years. A maximum grade of toxicity of ≥ 0 occurred in 18 patients over time (with grade 1, 2, and 3 toxicity occurring in 15, 2, and 1 patient, respectively), including three patients (17 %) with TBI. One of them received simultaneous hepatotoxic chemotherapy. In multivariable analysis, volume-dose correlations showed no statistically noticeable effect on acute or chronic toxicity. Only low hepatotoxicity developed in children after irradiation of various abdominal and thoracic tumors. Due to the low radiation doses to the liver (median liver dose = 5 Gy) and the low toxicities that were consecutively observed, dose-volume curves for liver toxicity could not be established. These findings reflect the cautious attitude of radiation oncologists in terms of attributable liver doses in the treatment of the investigated tumor entities. It

  14. Analysis of morbidity of children irradiated intrauterine as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sychik, S.I.; Stozharov, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was analysis of the influence of intrauterine irradiation of radioactive iodine on the structure and dynamics of prenatal irradiated children morbidity. It was examined children's group ( 10 years old aged ) irradiated in intrauterine status and having been lived constantly on polluted by radionuclide area of the Stolyn District of the Brest Region with contamination density of caesium 137 up to 15 Ci/km 2 . Control group were children aged 9 years old born after the accident and lived constantly in the same points that prenatal irradiated. The observation of morbidity since 1987 to 1995 years has shown that among prenatal irradiated children were more high parameters of general and primary morbidity in the structure of morbidity. It was established that thyroid gland participated in the forming of pathology of other organs and systems

  15. Detection of irradiated spice in blend of irradiated and un-irradiated spices using thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Yamazaki, Masao; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyahara, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Five blended spice sample were prepared by mixing irradiated and un-irradiated black pepper and paprika at different ratios. Blended black pepper containing 2%(w/w) of 5.4 kGy-irradiated black pepper showed no maximum at glow1. Irradiated black pepper samples, mixed to 5 or 10%(w/w), were identified as 'irradiated' or 'partially irradiated' or 'un-irradiated'. All samples with un-irradiated pepper up to 20%(w/w) were identified as irradiated'. In the case 5.0 kGy-irradiated paprika were mixed with un-irradiated paprika up to 5%(w/w), all samples were identified as irradiated'. The glow1 curves of samples, including irradiated paprika at 0.2%(w/w) or higher, exhibited a maximum between 150 and 250degC. The results suggest the existence of different critical mixing ratio for the detection of irradiation among each spices. Temperature range for integration of the TL glow intensity were compared between 70-400degC and approximate 150-250degC, and revealed that the latter temperature range was determined based on the measurement of TLD100. Although TL glow ratio in 150-250degC was lower than that of 70-400degC range, identification of irradiation was not affected. Treatment of un-irradiated black pepper and paprika with ultraviolet rays had no effect on the detection of irradiation. (author)

  16. Estimation of global daily irradiation in complex topography zones using digital elevation models and meteosat images: Comparison of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Durban, M.; Zarzalejo, L.F.; Bosch, J.L.; Rosiek, S.; Polo, J.; Batlles, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of the solar irradiation in a certain place is fundamental for the suitable location of solar systems, both thermal and photovoltaic. On the local scale, the topography is the most important modulating factor of the solar irradiation on the surface. In this work the global daily irradiation is estimated concerning various sky conditions, in zones of complex topography. In order to estimate the global daily irradiation we use a methodology based on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM), on one hand making use of pyranometer measurements and on the other hand utilizing satellite images. We underline that DTM application employing pyranometer measurements produces better results than estimation using satellite images, though accuracy of the same order is obtained in both cases for Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias Error (MBE).

  17. Estimation of global daily irradiation in complex topography zones using digital elevation models and meteosat images: Comparison of the results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Durban, M. [Dpto. de Lenguajes y Computacion, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Zarzalejo, L.F.; Polo, J. [Dpto. de Energia, CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bosch, J.L.; Rosiek, S.; Batlles, F.J. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    The knowledge of the solar irradiation in a certain place is fundamental for the suitable location of solar systems, both thermal and photovoltaic. On the local scale, the topography is the most important modulating factor of the solar irradiation on the surface. In this work the global daily irradiation is estimated concerning various sky conditions, in zones of complex topography. In order to estimate the global daily irradiation we use a methodology based on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM), on one hand making use of pyranometer measurements and on the other hand utilizing satellite images. We underline that DTM application employing pyranometer measurements produces better results than estimation using satellite images, though accuracy of the same order is obtained in both cases for Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias Error (MBE). (author)

  18. Statistical data and results obtained on irradiated transistors 2N.2221 Sesco and 2N.2907 SGS; Donnees de fiabilite et resultats statistiques obtenus sur des transistors 2n.2221 Sesco et 2n.2907 SGS irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blin, A; Le Ber, J

    1966-07-01

    This document provides results obtained on many samples of transistors irradiated in the laboratories of the Institut of Nuclear Physic of Lyon. The physical aspects of the irradiation,the statistical aspects of the study and the reliability under irradiation have been studied, but the accent is done on the statistical analysis. (A.L.B.)

  19. Long term results of total lymphoid irradiation in the treatment of cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolden, Suzanne L.; Tate, David J.; Hunt, Sharon A.; Strober, Samuel; Hoppe, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the short and long term effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the treatment of allograft rejection in cardiac transplant patients. Materials and Methods: From 1986 to 1995, 48 courses of TLI were delivered to 47 patients who had received cardiac transplants at Stanford University. In 38 cases, TLI was administered for chronic, intractable allograft rejection despite conventional anti-rejection therapy, including corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclosporine, OKT3, DHPG, RATG, and methotrexate. Ten patients received TLI prophylactically, beginning radiation between 5 and 16 days after heart transplantation. The prescribed radiation dose was 800 cGy given in 80 cGy fractions twice weekly to all major lymph node regions using mantle and inverted Y fields. Patients continued to receive all medications except azathioprine which was held during TLI to prevent severe marrow suppression. All patients were closely monitored for episodes of rejection, infection, prednisone requirements, blood counts, and complications of treatment. Post-irradiation follow up ranged from 6 months to 9.1 years with a mean of 3.1 years. Results: The actual mean dose of radiation was 730 cGy delivered over a mean of 39 calendar days. Fifty six percent of patients required treatment delay or abbreviation because of thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, infection, or unrelated problems. In patients treated for intractable rejection, the frequency of rejection dropped from 0.46 episodes/patient/month before radiation to 0.14 episodes/patient/month during TLI (p 3 during TLI (p = 0.01) and remained low at 167.6 cells/mm 3 2-4 months after treatment (p = 0.05). CD8+ lymphocytes also decreased during treatment from 233.2 to 65.8 cells/mm 3 (p = 0.003) but rose significantly above normal to 381.3 cells/mm 3 2-4 months after TLI (p 0.05). Thus, the ratio of helper/suppresser T-cells was chronically decreased. Infection rates were not significantly different before, during or after

  20. AGR-1 Compact 5-3-1 Post-Irradiation Examination Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkowicz, Paul [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Phil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ploger, Scott A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program was established to perform the requisite research and development on tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel to support deployment of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The work continues as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) TRISO Fuel program. The overarching program goal is to provide a baseline fuel qualification data set to support licensing and operation of an HTGR. To achieve these goals, the program includes the elements of fuel fabrication, irradiation, post-irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing, fuel performance, and fission product transport (INL 2015). A series of fuel irradiation experiments is being planned and conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These experiments will provide data on fuel performance under irradiation, support fuel process development, qualify the fuel for normal operating conditions, provide irradiated fuel for safety testing, and support the development of fuel performance and fission product transport models. The first of these irradiation tests, designated AGR-1, began in the ATR in December 2006 and ended in November 2009. This experiment was conducted primarily to act as a shakedown test of the multicapsule test train design and provide early data on fuel performance for use in fuel fabrication process development. It also provided samples for post-irradiation safety testing, where fission product retention of the fuel at high temperatures will be experimentally measured. The capsule design and details of the AGR-1 experiment have been presented previously.

  1. Ten-Year Survival Results of a Randomized Trial of Irradiation of Internal Mammary Nodes After Mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennequin, Christophe; Bossard, Nadine; Servagi-Vernat, Stéphanie; Maingon, Philippe; Dubois, Jean-Bernard; Datchary, Jean; Carrie, Christian; Roullet, Bernard; Suchaud, Jean-Philippe; Teissier, Eric; Lucardi, Audrey; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Belot, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of irradiation of internal mammary nodes (IMN) on 10-year overall survival in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Methods and Patients: This multicenter phase 3 study enrolled patients with positive axillary nodes (pN+) or central/medial tumors with or without pN+. Other inclusion criteria were age <75 and a Karnofsky index ≥70. All patients received postoperative irradiation of the chest wall and supraclavicular nodes and were randomly assigned to receive IMN irradiation or not. Randomization was stratified by tumor location (medial/central or lateral), axillary lymph node status, and adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy vs no chemotherapy). The prescribed dose of irradiation to the target volumes was 50 Gy or equivalent. The first 5 intercostal spaces were included in the IMN target volume, and two-thirds of the dose (31.5 Gy) was given by electrons. The primary outcome was overall survival at 10 years. Disease-free survival and toxicity were secondary outcomes. Results: T total of 1334 patients were analyzed after a median follow-up of 11.3 years among the survivors. No benefit of IMN irradiation on the overall survival could be demonstrated: the 10-year overall survival was 59.3% in the IMN-nonirradiated group versus 62.6% in the IMN-irradiated group (P=.8). According to stratification factors, we defined 6 subgroups (medial/central or lateral tumor, pN0 [only for medial/central] or pN+, and chemotherapy or not). In all these subgroups, IMN irradiation did not significantly improve overall survival. Conclusions: In patients treated with 2-dimensional techniques, we failed to demonstrate a survival benefit for IMN irradiation. This study cannot rule out a moderate benefit, especially with more modern, conformal techniques applied to a higher risk population

  2. Therapeutic results and prognostic factors after irradiation of loco-regional prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debrigode, C.; Dubois, J.; Hay, H.M.; Astre, C.; Savu, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    The present study concerns 140 patients with loco-regional prostatic cancer, treated with external beam irradiation at the CRLC Val-d'Aurelle in Montpellier, France, between 1982 and 1988, with a minimum of 54 months follow-up. The local control after radiotherapy is 78.6%, all stages and histological grades combined. The median overall survival is 114 months and the median disease-free survival 59 months. The most frequent modality of treatment failure is metastatic disease, isolated (32.8%) or combined to local relapse (10%). The rate of urinary intolerance symptoms during treatment was 87.1 and 80.6% for the digestive ones. The late urinary complications and sequellae rate was 21.4% for the cystitis-type and 12.9% for post-radiotherapy urethral structures; the latter has imposed in 2/3 of cases one or more trans-urethral resections that never showed pathological signs of recurrence. Digestive complications and sequellae occurred in 31.3% of the patients; in the latter group there were two internal digestive fistulae which needed surgical treatment and three postradiotherapeutic stenosis of the anal canal. The prognostic factors revealed by statistical analysis are clinical stage, pathological grade for overall and disease-free survival, age for overall survival and trans-urethral resection for disease-free survival, the latter being equally a risk factor for cystitis-type complications and urethral structures. (authors). 26 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Long-term results of irradiation for patients with progressive GRAVES' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, Sheri D.; Lum, Bert L.; McDougall, I. Ross; Katkuri, Shobha; Levin, Peter S.; MacManus, Michael; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the long-term outcome of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with progressively symptomatic thyroid eye disease and to evaluate the potential long-term sequelae. Methods and Materials: Four hundred fifty-three patients provided written informed consent and received retrobulbar RT for Graves' ophthalmopathy at Stanford University Medical Center; 197 with ≥1 year of follow-up were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 197 patients, 189 received RT to the bilateral retrobulbar regions, and 4 received unilateral RT. The technical information was unavailable for 4 patients. Patients were assessed by chart review, telephone interview, questionnaire, and multidisciplinary physician examination. Eye impairment was scored using the SPECS system. The end point review included the before and after treatment SPECS score, surgical intervention, and patient satisfaction. Potential complications, including cataract development, retinopathy, and tumor formation, were investigated. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess the prognostic variables. Results: Improvement or resolution was 89% for soft-tissue findings; 70% for proptosis; 85% for extraocular muscle dysfunction; 96% for corneal abnormalities; and 67% for sight loss. The response to RT may take >6 months to stabilize. Factors predictive of response varied in the individual SPECS categories but included the initial SPECS score, pretreatment thyroid status, female gender, a 20-Gy RT dose, and a history of hypertension. Nonpredictive factors included a history of tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, steroids, and prior cataracts. Only 16% required surgical intervention to preserve their vision or restore binocular vision. Twenty-two patients (12%) developed cataracts after irradiation (median 11 years). No patient developed a tumor within the RT field during the follow-up period (range 1-29 years). Ninety-eight percent of patients were pleased with their results, and 2% believed their symptoms progressed

  4. Analysis of tensile and fracture toughness results on irradiated molybdenum alloys, TZM and Mo-5%Re. Analysis of results performed in the frame of the NET task PDS 1.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scibetta, M.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.

    1999-10-01

    Due to their good resistance at high temperature, good thermal conductivity and swelling resistance, molybdenum alloys are considered amongst the candidates for divertor structural materials. However, little is known about their tensile and fracture toughness behaviour, in particular after irradiation. This report aims to investigate the tensile and fracture toughness properties of two molybdenum alloys, namely TZM and Mo-5%Re. Tensile and compact tension specimens were irradiated in the BR2 reactor at 40 and 450 degrees Celsius up to a fast neutron fluence of 3.5 1020 n/cm 2 (0.2 dpa). Fracture toughness tests were performed on both precracked and notched specimens. Results show a drastic decrease of the ductility due to irradiation, but only a slight decrease of the fracture toughness in the lower shelf domain

  5. Analysis of tensile and fracture toughness results on irradiated molybdenum alloys, TZM and Mo-5%Re. Analysis of results performed in the frame of the NET task PDS 1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scibetta, M.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L

    1999-10-01

    Due to their good resistance at high temperature, good thermal conductivity and swelling resistance, molybdenum alloys are considered amongst the candidates for divertor structural materials. However, little is known about their tensile and fracture toughness behaviour, in particular after irradiation. This report aims to investigate the tensile and fracture toughness properties of two molybdenum alloys, namely TZM and Mo-5%Re. Tensile and compact tension specimens were irradiated in the BR2 reactor at 40 and 450 degrees Celsius up to a fast neutron fluence of 3.5 1020 n/cm{sup 2} (0.2 dpa). Fracture toughness tests were performed on both precracked and notched specimens. Results show a drastic decrease of the ductility due to irradiation, but only a slight decrease of the fracture toughness in the lower shelf domain.

  6. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal......; to what degree its reach has to do with a universal appeal inherent in the genre and/or the innovative character of individual formats, and to what degree its global success is due to local broadcasters’ ability to successfully adapt the formats to local audience tastes. A consensus has developed...

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  8. Pre-operative irradiation with rectal carcinoma - clinical practices and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendl, H.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this work is to portray the effect of a high-dosed short-timed pre-irradiation on intra- and post-operative therapy of rectal carcinoma and the appearance of recidivistic tumors, respectively distant metastasis. This intermediate balance should help make the decision easier as to whether to continue to use this combined treatment form. The subjects consisted of 65 rectal carcinoma patients - pre-irradiated and operated - and 95 only operated patients. The irradiation was completed using a 8 MeV linear accelerator with ultra hard x-radiation. Dosing - (more than 80%) as short-timed irradiation with 16 Gy (4 x 4 Gy in 2 days) - 25 Gy (10 x 2,5 Gy in 12 days); average field size 150 mm x 150 mm. There were no significant differences with regard to intra- and post-operative complications, late complications or distant metastasis, but there was with tumor recidivision reduced with pre-irradiated. Regarding the survival rate, there was a slight tendency in favor of the pre-irradiated. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Recent results on the neutron irradiation of ITER candidate copper alloys irradiated in DR-3 at 250{degrees}C to 0.3 dpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Singh, B.N.; Toft, P.; Eldrup, M.

    1997-04-01

    Tensile specimens of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys were given various heat treatments corresponding to solution anneal, prime-ageing and bonding thermal treatment with additional specimens re-aged and given a reactor bakeout treatment at 350{degrees}C for 100 h. CuAl-25 was also heat treated to simulate the effects of a bonding thermal cycle on the material. A number of heat treated specimens were neutron irradiated at 250{degrees}C to a dose level of {approximately}0.3 dpa in the DR-3 reactor as Riso. The main effect of the bonding thermal cycle heat treatment was a slight decrease in strength of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys. The strength of CuAl-25, on the other hand, remained almost unaltered. The post irradiation tests at 250{degrees}C showed a severe loss of ductility in the case of the CuNiBe alloy. The irradiated CuAl-25 and CuCrZr specimens exhibited a reasonable amount of uniform elongation, with CuCrZr possessing a lower strength.

  10. Long-term results of total lymphoid irradiation in the treatment of cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolden, Suzanne L.; Tate, David J.; Hunt, Sharon A.; Strober, Samuel; Hoppe, Richard T.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the short and long-term effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the treatment of cardiac transplant rejection. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 1995, 48 courses of TLI were delivered to 47 cardiac transplant patients. In 37 patients, TLI was administered for intractable allograft rejection despite conventional therapy while 10 patients received TLI prophylactically. The prescribed radiation dose was 8 Gy in 0.8 Gy fractions twice weekly to mantle and inverted-Y plus spleen fields. Postirradiation follow-up ranged from 6 months to 9.1 years, with a mean of 3.1 years. Results: The actual mean dose was 7.3 Gy delivered over a mean of 39 days. Fifty-six percent of patients required treatment delay or abbreviation because of thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, infection, or unrelated problems. In patients treated for intractable rejection, rejection rates dropped from 0.46 to 0.14 and to 0.06 episodes/patient/month before, during, and after TLI (p < 0.0001). Rejection rates continued to drop throughout follow-up. Prednisone requirements decreased from 0.41 mg/kg before treatment to 0.21 mg/kg afterward (p < 0.0001). The ratio of helper to cytotoxic-suppressor T-cells decreased during TLI from 1.33 to 0.89, and remained low at 0.44, 2-4 months after treatment. Infection rates were not increased and two patients developed malignancy. Rejection rates were high during prophylactic treatment and this protocol was abandoned. Three-year actuarial survival after irradiation was 60% for patients with intractable rejection and 70% for the prophylactic cohort. Conclusion: TLI is an effective treatment for control of intractable cardiac rejection. Episodes of rejection and steroid dosage requirements are decreased for up to 9.1 years. A possible mechanism of action is long term alteration in T-lymphocyte subsets. Patients experience transient bone marrow suppression but no increase in infection or bleeding. Long-term complications of TLI are not

  11. Preliminary results of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility deuteron injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobin, R.; Adroit, G.; Bogard, D.; Bourdelle, G.; Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.; Gauthier, Y.; Girardot, P.; Guiho, P.; Harrault, F.; Jannin, J. L.; Loiseau, D.; Mattei, P.; Roger, A.; Sauce, Y.; Senee, F.; Vacher, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energie Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191-Gif/Yvette (France)

    2012-02-15

    In the framework of the IFMIF-EVEDA project (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility-Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities), CEA/IRFU is in charge of the design, construction, and characterization of the 140 mA continuous deuteron injector, including the source and the low energy beam line. The electron cyclotron resonance ion source which operates at 2.45 GHz is associated with a 4-electrode extraction system in order to minimize beam divergence at the source exit. Krypton gas injection is foreseen in the 2-solenoid low energy beam line. Such Kr injection will allow reaching a high level of space charge compensation in order to improve the beam matching at the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) entrance. The injector construction is now completed on the Saclay site and the first plasma and beam production has been produced in May 2011. This installation will be tested with proton and deuteron beams either in pulsed or continuous mode at Saclay before shipping to Japan. In this paper, after a brief description of the installation, the preliminary results obtained with hydrogen gas injection into the plasma chamber will be reported.

  12. 3D-FBK Pixel sensors: recent beam tests results with irradiated devices

    CERN Document Server

    Micelli, A; Sandaker, H; Stugu, B; Barbero, M; Hugging, F; Karagounis, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kruger, H; Tsung, J W; Wermes, N; Capua, M; Fazio, S; Mastroberardino, A; Susinno, G; Gallrapp, C; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; La Rosa, A; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Slavicek, T; Pospisil, S; Jakobs, K; Kohler, M; Parzefall, U; Darbo, G; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Butter, C; Bates, R; Oshea, V; Parker, S; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Grinstein, S; Korokolov, I; Pradilla, C; Einsweiler, K; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Borri, M; Da Via, C; Freestone, J; Kolya, S; Lai, C H; Nellist, C; Pater, J; Thompson, R; Watts, S J; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, S; Bolle, E; Gjersdal, H; Sjobaek, K N; Stapnes, S; Rohne, O; Su, D; Young, C; Hansson, P; Grenier, P; Hasi, J; Kenney, C; Kocian, M; Jackson, P; Silverstein, D; Davetak, H; DeWilde, B; Tsybychev, D; Dalla Betta, G F; Gabos, P; Povoli, M; Cobal, M; Giordani, M P; Selmi, L; Cristofoli, A; Esseni, D; Palestri, P; Fleta, C; Lozano, M; Pellegrini, G; Boscardin, M; Bagolini, A; Piemonte, C; Ronchin, S; Zorzi, N; Hansen, T E; Hansen, T; Kok, A; Lietaer, N; Kalliopuska, J; Oja, A

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel detector is the innermost part of the ATLAS experiment tracking device at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and plays a key role in the reconstruction of the primary and secondary vertices of short-lived particles. To cope with the high level of radiation produced during the collider operation, it is planned to add to the present three layers of silicon pixel sensors which constitute the Pixel Detector, an additional layer (Insertable B-Layer, or IBL) of sensors. 3D silicon sensors are one of the technologies which are under study for the IBL. 3D silicon technology is an innovative combination of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) and Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) where electrodes are fabricated inside the silicon bulk instead of being implanted on the wafer surfaces. 3D sensors, with electrodes fully or partially penetrating the silicon substrate, are currently fabricated at different processing facilities in Europe and USA. This paper reports on the 2010 June beam test results for irradi...

  13. AGR-1 Compact 1-3-1 Post-Irradiation Examination Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkowicz, Paul Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program was established to perform the requisite research and development on tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel to support deployment of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The work continues as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) TRISO Fuel program. The overarching program goal is to provide a baseline fuel qualification data set to support licensing and operation of an HTGR. To achieve these goals, the program includes the elements of fuel fabrication, irradiation, post-irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing, fuel performance modeling, and fission product transport (INL 2015). A series of fuel irradiation experiments is being planned and conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These experiments will provide data on fuel performance under irradiation, support fuel process development, qualify the fuel for normal operating conditions, provide irradiated fuel for safety testing, and support the development of fuel performance and fission product transport models. The first of these irradiation tests, designated AGR-1, began in the ATR in December 2006 and ended in November 2009. This experiment was conducted primarily to act as a shakedown test of the multicapsule test train design and provide early data on fuel performance for use in fuel fabrication process development. It also provided samples for post-irradiation safety testing, where fission product retention of the fuel at high temperatures will be experimentally measured. The capsule design and details of the AGR-1 experiment have been presented previously (Grover, Petti, and Maki 2010, Maki 2009).

  14. Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozd, V.; Danilova, L.; Lushchyk, M.; Leonova, T.; Platonova, T. [International Fund Arnica, Minsk (Belarus); Grigorovich, A.; Sivuda, V. [Brest Regional Endocrinological Dispensary, Brest (Belarus); Branovan, I. [Chernobyl Project, New-York (United States); Biko, I.; Reiners, C. [Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wurzburg, Wursburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

  15. Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozd, V.; Danilova, L.; Lushchyk, M.; Leonova, T.; Platonova, T.; Grigorovich, A.; Sivuda, V.; Branovan, I.; Biko, I.; Reiners, C.

    2012-01-01

    For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

  16. Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch; Eamsiri, Jarurut; Pongpat, Suchada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

  17. Behavior of pre-irradiated fuel under a simulated RIA condition. Results of NSRR Test JM-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sasajima, Hideo; Mori, Yukihide; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Kamata, Hiroshi; Homma, Kozo; Sakai, Haruyuki.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents results from the power burst experiment with pre-irradiated fuel rod, Test JM-5, conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). The data concerning test method, pre-irradiation, pre-pulse fuel examination, pulse irradiation, transient records and post-pulse fuel examination are described, and interpretations and discussions of the results are presented. Preceding to the pulse irradiation in the NSRR, test fuel rod was irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) up to a fuel burnup of 25.7 MWd/kgU with average linear heat rate of 33.4 kW/m. The fuel rod was subjected to the pulse irradiation resulting in a desposited energy of 223 ± 7 cal/g·fuel (0.93 ± 0.03 kJ/g·fuel) and a peak fuel enthalpy of 167 ± 5 cal/g·fuel (0.70 ± 0.02 kJ/g·fuel) under stagnant water cooling condition at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Test fuel rod behavior was assessed from pre- and post-pulse fuel examinations and transient records during the pulse. The Test JM-5 resulted in cladding failure. More than twenty small cracks were found in the post-test cladding, and most of the defects located in pre-existing locally hydrided region. The result indicates an occurrence of fuel failure by PCMI (pellet/cladding mechanical interaction) in combination with decreased integrity of hydrided cladding. (author)

  18. From the Phenix irradiation end to the analytical results: PROFIL R target destructive characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlay, G.; Dancausse, J. Ph.

    2009-01-01

    In the French long-lived radionuclide (LLRN) transmutation program, several irradiation experiments were initiated in the Phenix fast neutron reactor to obtain a better understanding of the transmutation processes. The PROFIL experiments are performed in order to collect accurate information on the total capture integral cross sections of the principal heavy isotopes and some important fission products in the spectral range of fast reactors. One of the final goals is to diminish the uncertainties on the capture cross-section of the fission products involved in reactivity losses in fast reactors. This program includes two parts: PROFIL-R irradiated in a standard fast reactor spectrum and PROFIL-M irradiated in a moderated spectrum. The PROFIL-R and PROFIL-M irradiations were completed in August 2005 and May 2008, respectively. For both irradiations more than a hundred containers with isotopes of pure actinides and other elements in different chemical forms must be characterized. This raises a technical and analytical challenge: how to recover by selective dissolution less than 5 mg of isotope powder from a container with dimensions of only a few millimeters using hot cell facilities, and how to determine analytically both trace and ultra-trace elemental and isotopic compositions with sufficient accuracy to be useful for code calculations. (authors)

  19. Irradiation of Argentine (U,Pu)O2 MOX fuels. Post-irradiation results and experimental analysis with the BACO code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, A.C.; Perez, E.; Adelfang, P.

    1996-01-01

    The irradiation of the first Argentine prototypes of pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) (U,Pu)O 2 MOX fuels began in 1986. These experiments were carried out in the High Flux Reactor (HFR)-Petten, Holland. The rods were prepared and controlled in the C NEA's α Facility. The postirradiation examinations were performed in the Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe, Germany and in the Joint Research Center (JRC), Petten. The first rod has been used for destructive pre-irradiation analysis. The second one as a pathfinder to adjust systems in the HFR. Two additional rods including iodine doped pellets were intended to simulate 15000 MWd/T(M) burnup. The remaining two rods were irradiated until 15000 MWd/T(M). One of them underwent a final ramp with the aim of verifying fabrication processes and studying the behaviour under power transients. BACO (BArra COmbustible) code was used to define the power histories and to analyse the experiments. This paper presents a description of the different experiments and a comparison between the results of the postirradiation examinations and the BACO outputs. (orig.)

  20. Irradiation of Argentine (U,Pu)O 2 MOX fuels. Post-irradiation results and experimental analysis with the BACO code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Armando Carlos; Pérez, Edmundo; Adelfang, Pablo

    1996-04-01

    The irradiation of the first Argentine prototypes of pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) (U,Pu)O 2 MOX fuels began in 1986. These experiments were carried out in the High Flux Reactor (HFR)-Petten, Holland. The rods were prepared and controlled in the CNEA's α Facility. The postirradiation examinations were performed in the Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe, Germany and in the Joint Research Center (JRC), Petten. The first rod has been used for destructive pre-irradiation analysis. The second one as a pathfinder to adjust systems in the HFR. Two additional rods including iodine doped pellets were intended to simulate 15 000 MWd/T(M) burnup. The remaining two rods were irradiated until 15 000 MWd/T(M). One of them underwent a final ramp with the aim of verifying fabrication processes and studying the behaviour under power transients. BACO (BArra COmbustible) code was used to define the power histories and to analyse the experiments. This paper presents a description of the different experiments and a comparison between the results of the postirradiation examinations and the BACO outputs.

  1. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, John A.; Olson, Dennis G.

    1998-01-01

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  2. Results of a prospective study evaluating the effects of mantle irradiation on pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.M.; Mendenhall, N.P.; Cicale, M.J.; Block, E.R.; Carter, R.L.; Million, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty patients with Stages I-III Hodgkin's disease receiving mantle irradiation were prospectively evaluated prior to therapy with spirometry, lung volumes, and tests of diffusing capacity (DLCO). Follow-up examinations were performed at 3, 6, and 12 months and then yearly. Sixteen patients had Hodgkin's disease involving the mediastinum at presentation, 10 were smokers, and 16 received either preirradiation or postirradiation chemotherapy. Mantle doses ranged between 2300 cGy and 4000 cGy (mode of 3750 cGy) given at 150 cGy to 170 cGy tumor dose per day with split-course technique. Twenty patients have been tested greater than or equal to 4 years after treatment with a median time from treatment to last pulmonary function test of 8 years. Changes over time in spirometry included an early, mild decrease in both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), which returned to baseline by 2 years and then gradually decreased to a 10-15% deficit as compared with predicted values at 6-10 years. Additionally, there was a very slight decrease in FEV1/FVC beginning at 1 year and gradually increasing to an 8% deficit at 6-10 years. Changes over time in lung volumes included a mild nadir of total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) at 6 months to a year, which returned to baseline at 2-4 years and then gradually dropped to a 5-10% deficit at 6-10 years. Mean DLCO for the study group was 20% below predicted values prior to treatment and dropped to a low of 30% below predicted at 6 months following treatment, then gradually returned to baseline by 4 years and showed continued improvement to an overall deficit of approximately 10% at 6-10 years

  3. Bilateral femoral neck fractures resulting from pregnancy-associated osteoporosis showed bone marrow edema on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kyoko; Kita, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Taku; Morisaki, Shinsuke; Yomo, Hiroko; Murakami, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    Femoral neck fractures resulting from pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare condition. Herein, we report an undoubted case of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis in a 38-year-old primiparous patient with pre-existing anorexia nervosa who suffered bilateral femoral neck fractures in the third trimester and early post-partum period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed femoral neck fractures as well as diffuse marrow edema involving both femoral heads, which are considered under ordinary circumstances as characteristic imaging findings of transient osteoporosis of the hip. Based on our experience, we propose that pregnancy-associated osteoporosis might be present in femoral neck fractures attributed to transient osteoporosis of the hip in pregnancy. Conversely, bone status should be carefully and accurately estimated in cases of potential transient osteoporosis of the hip in pregnancy to reduce future fracture risk. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Ipsilateral irradiation for well lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx: results on tumor control and xerostomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Alicia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In head and neck cancer, bilateral neck irradiation is the standard approach for many tumor locations and stages. Increasing knowledge on the pattern of nodal invasion leads to more precise targeting and normal tissue sparing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morbidity and tumor control for patients with well lateralized squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx treated with ipsilateral radiotherapy. Methods Twenty consecutive patients with lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx were treated with a prospective management approach using ipsilateral irradiation between 2000 and 2007. This included 8 radical oropharyngeal and 12 postoperative oral cavity carcinomas, with Stage T1-T2, N0-N2b disease. The actuarial freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence was determined. Late xerostomia was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire and the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 3. Results At a median follow-up of 58 months, five-year overall survival and loco-regional control rates were 82.5% and 100%, respectively. No local or contralateral nodal recurrences were observed. Mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland was 4.72 Gy and to the contralateral submandibular gland was 15.30 Gy. Mean score for dry mouth was 28.1 on the 0-100 QLQ-H&N35 scale. According to CTCAE v3 scale, 87.5% of patients had grade 0-1 and 12.5% grade 2 subjective xerostomia. The unstimulated salivary flow was > 0.2 ml/min in 81.2% of patients and 0.1-0.2 ml/min in 19%. None of the patients showed grade 3 xerostomia. Conclusion In selected patients with early and moderate stages, well lateralized oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas, ipsilateral irradiation treatment of the primary site and ipsilateral neck spares salivary gland function without compromising loco-regional control.

  5. Ipsilateral irradiation for well lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx: results on tumor control and xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Laura; Martín, Margarita; López, Mario; Marín, Alicia; Gómez, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background In head and neck cancer, bilateral neck irradiation is the standard approach for many tumor locations and stages. Increasing knowledge on the pattern of nodal invasion leads to more precise targeting and normal tissue sparing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morbidity and tumor control for patients with well lateralized squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx treated with ipsilateral radiotherapy. Methods Twenty consecutive patients with lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx were treated with a prospective management approach using ipsilateral irradiation between 2000 and 2007. This included 8 radical oropharyngeal and 12 postoperative oral cavity carcinomas, with Stage T1-T2, N0-N2b disease. The actuarial freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence was determined. Late xerostomia was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire and the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3. Results At a median follow-up of 58 months, five-year overall survival and loco-regional control rates were 82.5% and 100%, respectively. No local or contralateral nodal recurrences were observed. Mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland was 4.72 Gy and to the contralateral submandibular gland was 15.30 Gy. Mean score for dry mouth was 28.1 on the 0-100 QLQ-H&N35 scale. According to CTCAE v3 scale, 87.5% of patients had grade 0-1 and 12.5% grade 2 subjective xerostomia. The unstimulated salivary flow was > 0.2 ml/min in 81.2% of patients and 0.1-0.2 ml/min in 19%. None of the patients showed grade 3 xerostomia. Conclusion In selected patients with early and moderate stages, well lateralized oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas, ipsilateral irradiation treatment of the primary site and ipsilateral neck spares salivary gland function without compromising loco-regional control. PMID:19723329

  6. Mars Methane at Gale Crater Shows Strong Seasonal Cycle: Updated Results from TLS-SAM on Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Atreya, S. K.; Flesch, G.; Malespin, C.; McKay, C.; Martinez, G.; Moores, J.; Smith, C. L.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Zorzano, M. P.; Wong, M. H.; Trainer, M. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Glavin, D. P.; Steele, A.; Archer, D., Jr.; Sutter, B.; Coll, P. J.; Freissinet, C.; Meslin, P. Y.; Pavlov, A.; Keymeulen, D.; Christensen, L. E.; Gough, R. V.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Pla-García, J.; Rafkin, S. C.; Vicente-Retortillo, Á.; Kahanpää, H.; Viudez-Moreiras, D.; Smith, M. D.; Harri, A. M.; Genzer, M.; Hassler, D.; Lemmon, M. T.; Crisp, J. A.; Zurek, R. W.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric methane have been made over a 5-year period at Gale Crater on Mars using the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) instrument in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on the Curiosity rover. We report two important observations: (i) a background level of mean value of 0.41 ±0.11 (2sem) that is about 5 times lower than some model predictions based on generation from UV degradation of micro-meteorites or interplanetary dust delivered to the martian surface; (ii) "spikes" of elevated levels of 7 ppbv attributed to episodic releases from small local sources, probably to the north of Gale crater1. Reports of plumes, patches or episodic releases of methane in the Martian atmosphere have to date eluded explanation in part because of their lack of repeatability in time or location. Our in situ measurements of the background methane levels exhibit a strong, repeatable seasonal variability. The amplitude of the observed seasonal cycle is 3 times greater than both that expected from the annual sublimation and freezing of polar carbon dioxide and that expected from methane production from ultraviolet (UV) degradation of exogenously-delivered surface material. The observed large seasonal variation in the background, and sporadic observations of higher pulses of 7 ppbv appear consistent with localized small sources of methane release from Martian surface reservoirs that may be occurring throughout the planet. We will present our updated data set, correlations of Mars methane with various other measurements from SAM, REMS, RAD and ChemCam instruments on Curiosity, as well as empirical models of UV surface insolation, and provide preliminary interpretation of results. 1 "Mars Methane Detection and Variability at Gale Crater", C. R. Webster et al., Science, 347, 415-417 (2015) and references therein. The research described here was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the

  7. Comprehensive monitoring system - essential tool to show the results of the energy audit and voluntary agreement programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Without visible results political support to an energy efficiency programme will dissolve in a few years. Therefore high-quality monitoring and reporting systems are essential to maintain a long-term commitment. Both in Finnish Energy Audit Programme (EAP), began in 1992, and in Voluntary Agreement Scheme (VA), began in 1997, bottom-up monitoring systems have been in place almost since the beginning. These policy measures and their monitoring systems are integrated. For the EAP monitoring system data is collected in three phases: subsidies granted; the energy auditing volumes in different sectors submitted EA reports; proposed measures and saving potentials. VA annual reporting; status of implementation of the proposed measures in EA reports and implementing rate for saving potentials. In VA scheme the companies and communities report annually on their energy consumption and on energy efficiency measures they have implemented or have decided to implement. Information on energy savings in energy units and energy costs as well as the required investment is reported in connection to the presented measures. The collected data is based on engineering calculations by the energy auditors. Since the companies have no incentives to submit exaggerated savings, the reported savings are equal to those figures the companies have used as criteria when deciding on the implementation of the measures. By 2005 these two policy measures have generated about 7 TWh annual savings, representing over 2 % of Finland's total energy end-use. In relation to the magnitude of savings brought in daylight, the investment on monitoring has really paid back.

  8. Stagnant loop syndrome resulting from small-bowel irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swan, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Stagnant or blind-loop syndrome includes vitamin B12 malabsorption, steatorrhea, and bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. A case is presented to demonstrate this syndrome occurring after small-bowel irradiation injury with exaggeration postenterocolic by-pass. Alteration of normal small-bowel flora is basic to development of the stagnant-loop syndrome. Certain strains of bacteria as Bacteriodes and E. coli are capable of producing a malabsorption state. Definitive therapy for this syndrome developing after severe irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass includes antibiotics. Rapid symptomatic relief from diarrhea and improved malabsorption studies usually follow appropriate antibiotic therapy. Recolonization of the loop(s) with the offending bacterial species may produce exacerbation of symptoms. Since antibiotics are effective, recognition of this syndrome is important. Foul diarrheal stools should not be considered a necessary consequence of irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass

  9. Therapeutic results in ovarian cancer after replacement of conventional radiotherapy by Co-60 irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, H.; Szalay, St.; Weghaupt, K.; Heckenthaler, W.; Vienna Univ.

    1981-01-01

    The use of Co-60 screen and pendular irradiation instead of conventional radiotherapy has brought about an improvement in the 5-year survival rate in patients with more advanced stages of ovarian cancer. Although the general side effects of Co-60 irradiation are considered to be more unpleasant than those of X-ray and radium therapy, severe, reversible or irreversible damage to the urogenital tract and intestinal organs was diminished by accurate planning of Co-60 therapy, so that these complications occurred less frequently than with conventional radiotherapy. (author)

  10. Results of presowing helium-neon-laser irradiation of sunflower seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetanova, K.

    1989-01-01

    In the period of 1983-1985 under non-irrigation, on calcareous chernozem a trial was carried out with the Start hybrid through single-, double-and triple irradiation of the seeds being stored for 1.8 and 16 days prior to sowing. It is found that the presowing helium-neon-laser irradiation of the sunflower seeds of the Start hybrid exerts a negative effect on the seed yield. Laser use does not stimulate the following: emerged seeds and percentage of the plants being in blossom in the beginning of the phase and after 7 days, seed moisture in harvesting and oil content in them

  11. Some elaborating methods of gamma scanning results on irradiated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternini, E.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma scanning, as a post-irradiation examination, is a technique which provides a large number of informations on irradiated nuclear fuels. Power profile, fission products distribution, average and local burn-up of single elements structural and nuclear behaviour of fuel materials are examples of the obtained informations. In the present work experimental methods and theoretical calculations used at the CNEN hot cell laboratory for the mentioned purposes are described. Errors arising from the application of the gamma scanning technique are also discussed

  12. Postirradiation examination results for the Irradiation Effects Test Series IE-ST-2, Rod IE-002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, B.A.

    1977-12-01

    A postirradiation examination was conducted on a zircaloy-clad, UO 2 -fueled, pressurized water reactor (PWR) type rod which had been tested in the Power Burst Facility as part of the Irradiation Effects Test Series of the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program. The fuel rod, previously irradiated to a burnup of 15,800 MWd/t was subjected to a power ramp from 28 to 55 kW/m peak power at an average ramp rate of 4 kW/m/min. Posttest fuel restructuring and relocation, fission product redistribution, and fuel rod cladding deformation were evaluated and analyzed

  13. Irradiation and examination results of the AC-3 mixed-carbide test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.E.; Hoth, C.W.; Stratton, R.W.; Botta, F.

    1992-01-01

    The AC-3 test was a cooperative Swiss/US irradiation test of mixed-carbide, (U,Pr)C, fuel pins in the Fast Flux Test Facility. The test included 25 Swiss-fabricated sphere-pac-type fuel pins and 66 U.S. fabricated pellet-type fuel pins. The test was designed to operate at prototypical fast reactor conditions to provide a direct comparison of the irradiation performance of the two fuel types. The test design and fuel fabrication processes used for the AC-3 test are presented

  14. Neutron irradiation results for the LHCb silicon tracker data readout system components

    CERN Document Server

    Vollhardt, A

    2003-01-01

    This note reports irradiation data for different components of the LHCb Silicon Tracker data readout system, which will be exposed to neutron fluences due to their location in the readout link service box on the tracking station frame. The components were part of a neutron irradiation campaign in April 2003 at the Prospero reactor at CEA Valduc (France) and were exposed to fluences 5 to 100 times higher than the expected fluences at the experiment. For all tested components, minor or no influence on device performance was measured. We therefore consider the tested components to be compatible with the expected neutron fluences at the foreseen locations in the LHCb experiment.

  15. Dosimetric results from a feasibility study of a novel radiosurgical source for irradiation of intracranial metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Robert M.; Beatty, John; Gall, Kenneth; Valenzuela, Raul F.; Biggs, Peter; Okunieff, Paul; Pardo, Francisco S.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: A feasibility study addressing the role of a new miniature x-ray device, the Photon Radiosurgery System (PRS), for interstitial radiosurgical treatment of intracranial metastatic neoplasms, was conducted at our institution. To gain insight into the role of PRS vis-a-vis other currently available radiosurgical treatment modalities, dosimetric comparisons of Linac Radiosurgery and proton beam therapy were performed in the treatment of a small approximately spherical metastasis. Methods and Materials: The photon radiosurgery system is a miniature, battery operated, high-voltage x-ray generator that produces low-energy x-rays with an effective energy of 10-20 keV emanating from the tip of a probe stereotactically inserted into small tumors (< 3 cm in diameter) in humans. Patients, 18 years or older, with supratentorial mass lesions less than 3 cm in diameter were eligible if they were likely to survive their systemic cancer and be capable of self-care for more than 4 months. Patients were ineligible if presenting with infratentorial lesions, contraindications for biopsy, or receipt of chemotherapy or radiotherapy within 4 weeks were ineligible. Results: Fourteen patients with metastatic supratentorial lesions were treated from December 1992 to December 1993 for metastatic tumors to the brain. Single doses of 10-20 Gy were delivered to spherical targets of 10 to 35 mm in diameter. Treatment, including biopsy, pathologic review and radiation treatment, generally took less than 3 h. One patient, later found to have an ischemic stroke, developed a small hemorrhage from the biopsy that preceded interstitial irradiation. There were no other complications. Median survival was 10 months. Three locally recurrent lesions failed at 3.5, 4, and 10 months after treatment. All patients had stable or improved Karnofsky status for 2 weeks to 21 months after treatment. The PRS dosimetry appears at least as good as that obtained using 6 MV Linac or 160 MeV protons. Analyses of

  16. Spared pre-irradiated area in pustular lesions induced by icotinib showing decreased expressions of CD1a+ langerhans cells and FGFR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiong; Wang Yi Na; Wang Bo

    2013-01-01

    Icotinib hydrochloride, a novel inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Up to date, cutaneous response to icotinib is largely unknown. Here we report an uncommon lesional phenomenon in a 56-year-old Chinese male with non-small-cell lung cancer, who received icotinib as a second-line treatment. Characteristic papulopustular rash on the chest and back was observed 4 days later. Interestingly, the rash completely spares a pre-irradiated area. The immunohistochemical study in the lesional skin area and spared skin area revealed a significant decrease in CD1a + Langerhans cells, Ki-67 as well as FGFR2 in the spared area than in the lesional area. Thus, the present case indicated that loss of the basal layer of proliferative cells and antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cell), as well as the down-regulation of FGFR2 signaling in the pre-irradiated skin area, may join forces in inhibiting icotinib-associated cutaneous reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both lesional area and lesion-spared area in a Chinese male receiving treatment with a new epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (icotinib). The immunohistochemical reactions described here also provide new insight into the pathogenesis of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related skin toxicities, and the role that other tyrosine kinase receptors (including FGFR) played in non-small-cell lung cancer. (author)

  17. Spared pre-irradiated area in pustular lesions induced by icotinib showing decreased expressions of CD1a+ langerhans cells and FGFR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiong; Wang, Yi Na; Wang, Bo

    2013-02-01

    Icotinib hydrochloride, a novel inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Up to date, cutaneous response to icotinib is largely unknown. Here we report an uncommon lesional phenomenon in a 56-year-old Chinese male with non-small-cell lung cancer, who received icotinib as a second-line treatment. Characteristic papulopustular rash on the chest and back was observed 4 days later. Interestingly, the rash completely spares a pre-irradiated area. The immunohistochemical study in the lesional skin area and spared skin area revealed a significant decrease in CD1a(+) Langerhans cells, Ki-67 as well as FGFR2 in the spared area than in the lesional area. Thus, the present case indicated that loss of the basal layer of proliferative cells and antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cell), as well as the down-regulation of FGFR2 signaling in the pre-irradiated skin area, may join forces in inhibiting icotinib-associated cutaneous reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both lesional area and lesion-spared area in a Chinese male receiving treatment with a new epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (icotinib). The immunohistochemical reactions described here also provide new insight into the pathogenesis of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related skin toxicities, and the role that other tyrosine kinase receptors (including FGFR) played in non-small-cell lung cancer.

  18. Results of examinations of safety experimental rods of trap-like type irradiated in the BN-600 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasikov, V.P.; Voznesenskij, R.M.; Rudenko, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The results of post-irradiation examination are reported for three trap-like scram rods having been in operation in BN-600 reactor for 311, 331 and 348 EFPD (effective full power days). Compacted boron carbide enriched with 80 at.% 10 B is used as an absorber, zirconium hydride serves as a moderator; cladding are fabricated from steel 06Kh16N15M3B. The results obtained show that two zones are formed in the absorber material which are different in fracture mode and positioned at different distances from the moderator. Radiation damages of steel cladding are noted to be arranged nonuniformly through the height of the rod. The cladding-absorber interaction manifests itself in various ways, this is associated with various absorber burnups. The area of cladding-zirconium hydride interaction constitutes ∼ 30-80 μm. The swelling of the moderator is 4-5% and does not result in a loss of a cladding-moderator clearance [ru

  19. Irradiated sewage sludge for application to cropland. Results of a co-ordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    Modern urban societies produce large volumes of sewage, which are transported through a network of underground sewers to wastewater treatment plants, where one or more stages of physical, biological and chemical treatment are imposed. Considerable tonnages of aerobically, and sometimes anaerobically, digested sludge are produced, and treated or untreated effluent is discharged to lagoons, waterways or the ocean. The disposal of sewage sludge is a major issue for municipal authorities. There are increasing legislative restrictions in many countries on disposal methods (e.g. incineration, landfill, composting) including surface application to agricultural land. Sludge can either be viewed as a dangerous waste requiring expensive disposal procedures, or it can be seen as a resource for possible use in agriculture as a soil conditioning agent and a source of plant nutrients. Untreated sewage sludge presents a public-health hazard as it contains human pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and other harmful organisms. Although it has been demonstrated that an appropriate dose of gamma-irradiation can eliminate human parasites and bacterial pathogens from sewage sludge, there is still public concern about the presence of viruses, as well as heavy metals and toxic organic compounds from industrial sources that could enter the food chain if sludge is applied to croplands. More information is also needed on the value of sludge as a source of plant nutrients, expressed in terms of fertilizer equivalence. In this regard, isotopic labelling techniques have a unique role to play in estimating the contribution of sewage sludge to crop nutrition. As a result of recommendations formulated at a Consultants Meeting organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and the IAEA Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, 5-9 December 1994 (IAEA-TECDOC-971, Sewage Sludge and Wastewater for Use in Agriculture) the Joint Division implemented a Co

  20. Experimental study of the long-term effects of cephalic irradiation on local cerebral circulation. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, R.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to follow the effects of fractionated cehalic irradiation (average dosee 100 rads) on local cerebral blood circulation. Observations were made on unanaesthetized rabbits in terms of two circulatory responses, one of which is associated with rapid eye movement sleep and the other produced by inhalation of a mixture of air and 5% carbon dioxide. Both responses take the form of a characteristic increase in cerebral flow. The method of measuring variations in local cerebral flow relies on changes in the thermal conduction of cerebral tissue associated with the changes in circulation. Placement of the measuring probes entails fixation of electrodes for deriving the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalographic activity. The prreliminary results refer to two animalswhich were subjected to three andd four cephalic irradiations off 1000 rads, spaced at least a month apart, at a dose rate of 70 rad min -1 . The increase and the rate of increase of cerebral flow during rapid eye movement sleep and COBinhalation proved significantly greater than the reference values from the third month on (after the second irradiation) in the case of one animal and from the sixth month on (after the third irradiation) in the case of the other. The response during rapid eye movement sleep was equal to 140% of the reference amplitude during the two observation periods in the first case, and to 110 and 150% respectively after the third and fourth irradiations in the second case. The CO 2 response was 140% of the reference value during the two observation periods in the first case, and 135% after the third and fourth irradiations in the second case. The functional significance of these changes in cerebral output is analysed in terms of the regulation of cerebral circulation. (author)

  1. Feasibility and preliminary results of intensive chemotherapy and extensive irradiation in selected patients with limited small-cell lung carcinoma--results of three consecutive phase II programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourani, J.M.; Jaillon-Abraham, C.; Coscas, Y.; Dabouis, G.; Andrieu, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of three consecutive programs combining initial intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with limited small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). The objective was to test the feasibility and the effect of high-dose chemotherapy and three thoracic irradiation programs on survival and patterns of relapse. Forty-two patients with limited SCLC were enrolled. All patients received high-dose chemotherapy (vindesine, etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin and cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide). In the SC 84 program, chest and brain radiotherapy was delivered during each course of chemotherapy, with a complementary irradiation after chemotherapy. In the SC 86 and SC 92 programs, patients received chemotherapy followed by thoracic irradiation and prophylactic brain and spinal axis radiotherapy. At the end of treatment, 40 patients (95%) were in complete response. During chemotherapy, high levels of toxicity were noted. All patients had grade IV hematological toxicities. The extra-hematological toxicities were digestive (grade III: 21%; grade IV: 7%) and hepatic (grades III and IV: 14%). During irradiation, patients presented digestive, pulmonary and hematological toxicities. Five patients developed late toxicities and a second malignancy was observed in 4 patients. The 2- and 5-year survival rates for all patients were 51% and 27%, respectively. Despite the marked toxicity of the initial intensive chemotherapy, the treatments are tolerable and effective in the control of extra-thoracic micrometastases, whereas they are less effective for thoracic primary tumor

  2. Decreased Lung Perfusion After Breast/Chest Wall Irradiation: Quantitative Results From a Prospective Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, Adam L., E-mail: adamliss68@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Marsh, Robin B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kapadia, Nirav S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); McShan, Daniel L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Rogers, Virginia E. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Balter, James M.; Moran, Jean M.; Brock, Kristy K.; Schipper, Matt J.; Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Flaherty, Kevin R. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Frey, Kirk A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: To quantify lung perfusion changes after breast/chest wall radiation therapy (RT) using pre- and post-RT single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) attenuation-corrected perfusion scans; and correlate decreased perfusion with adjuvant RT dose for breast cancer in a prospective clinical trial. Methods and Materials: As part of an institutional review board–approved trial studying the impact of RT technique on lung function in node-positive breast cancer, patients received breast/chest wall and regional nodal irradiation including superior internal mammary node RT to 50 to 52.2 Gy with a boost to the tumor bed/mastectomy scar. All patients underwent quantitative SPECT/CT lung perfusion scanning before RT and 1 year after RT. The SPECT/CT scans were co-registered, and the ratio of decreased perfusion after RT relative to the pre-RT perfusion scan was calculated to allow for direct comparison of SPECT/CT perfusion changes with delivered RT dose. The average ratio of decreased perfusion was calculated in 10-Gy dose increments from 0 to 60 Gy. Results: Fifty patients had complete lung SPECT/CT perfusion data available. No patient developed symptoms consistent with pulmonary toxicity. Nearly all patients demonstrated decreased perfusion in the left lung according to voxel-based analyses. The average ratio of lung perfusion deficits increased for each 10-Gy increment in radiation dose to the lung, with the largest changes in regions of lung that received 50 to 60 Gy (ratio 0.72 [95% confidence interval 0.64-0.79], P<.001) compared with the 0- to 10-Gy region. For each increase in 10 Gy to the left lung, the lung perfusion ratio decreased by 0.06 (P<.001). Conclusions: In the assessment of 50 patients with node-positive breast cancer treated with RT in a prospective clinical trial, decreased lung perfusion by SPECT/CT was demonstrated. Our study allowed for quantification of lung perfusion defects in a prospective cohort of

  3. Fat Necrosis After Partial-Breast Irradiation With Brachytherapy or Electron Irradiation Versus Standard Whole-Breast Radiotherapy-4-Year Results of a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevey, Katalin; Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor; Szabo, Eva; Orosz, Zsolt; Sulyok, Zoltan; Janvary, Levente; Froehlich, Georgina; Kasler, Miklos; Polgar, Csaba

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the incidence and clinical relevance of fat necrosis after accelerated partial-breast irradiation (PBI) using interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in comparison with partial-breast electron irradiation (ELE) and whole-breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomized to receive 50 Gy WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy HDR-BT (n = 88) or 50 Gy ELE (n = 40). The incidence of fat necrosis, its impact on cosmetic outcome, accompanying radiologic features, and clinical symptoms were evaluated. Results: The 4-year actuarial rate of fat necrosis was 31.1% for all patients, and 31.9%, 36.5%, and 17.7% after WBI, HDR-BT and ELE, respectively (p WBI/HDR-BT = 0.26; p WBI/ELE = 0.11; p ELE/HDR-BT = 0.025). The respective rate of asymptomatic fat necrosis was 20.2%, 25.3%, and 10% of patients. The incidence of symptomatic fat necrosis was not significantly different after WBI (8.5%), HDR-BT (11.4%), and ELE (7.5%). Symptomatic fat necrosis was significantly associated with a worse cosmetic outcome, whereas asymptomatic fat necrosis was not. Fat necrosis was detectable with mammography and/or ultrasound in each case. Additional imaging examinations were required in 21% of cases and aspiration cytology in 42%. Conclusions: Asymptomatic fat necrosis is a common adverse event of breast-conserving therapy, having no significant clinical relevance in the majority of the cases. The incidence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic fat necrosis is similar after conventional WBI and accelerated partial-breast HDR-BT

  4. Results on photon and neutron irradiation of semitransparent amorphous-silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Carabe, J; Ferrando, A; Fuentes, J; Gandia, J J; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Molinero, A; Oller, J C; Arce, P; Calvo, E; Figueroa, C F; García, N; Matorras, F; Rodrigo, T; Vila, I; Virto, A L; Fenyvesi, A; Molnár, J; Sohler, D

    2000-01-01

    Semitransparent amorphous-silicon sensors are basic elements for laser 2D position reconstruction in the CMS multipoint alignment link system. Some of the sensors have to work in a very hard radiation environment. Two different sensor types have been irradiated with /sup 60/Co photons (up to 100 kGy) and fast neutrons (up to 10/sup 15 / cm/sup -2/), and the subsequent change in their performance has been measured. (13 refs).

  5. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  6. NRC data base for power reactor surveillance programs and for irradiation experiments results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation damage of pressure vessel materials in nuclear reactors depends on many different factors, primarily fluence, fluence spectrum, fluence rate, irradiation temperature, and chemistry. These factors and, possibly, others such as heat treatment and type of flux used in weldments must be considered to reliably predict the pressure vessel embrittlement and to assure the safe operation of the reactor. Based on embrittlement predictions, decisions must be made concerning operating parameters, low-leakage fuel management, possible life extension, and the need for annealing of the pressure vessel. Large numbers of data obtained from surveillance capsules and test reactor experiments are needed, comprising many different materials and different irradiation conditions, to develop generally applicable damage prediction models that can be used for industry standards and regulatory guides. The US Nuclear Regulatory Agency has, therefore, sponsored a project to construct an Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) for a comprehensive collection of data concerning changes in material properties of pressure vessel steels due to neutron irradiation. A first version containing data from surveillance capsules of commercial power reactors, the Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB) Version 1, has been completed and is available to authorized users from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document provides a discussion of the features of the current database. 1 fig

  7. Deployment and early results from the CanSIM (Canadian Solar Spectral Irradiance Meter) network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsiankou, Viktar; Hinzer, Karin; Schriemer, Henry; McVey-White, Patrick; Beal, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Three of seven stations have been deployed as part of the Canadian Solar Spectral Irradiance (CanSIM) network situated in Ottawa, Varennes and Egbert to measure long term spectral variation of the direct normal (DNI) and global horizontal irradiances (GHI) across the country. Every station is equipped with a solar tracker, SolarSIM-D2+, SolarSIM-G+, and SR20 pyranometer, reporting the spectral DNI, GHI, diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) and aerosol optical depth in the 280-4000 nm range, broadband DNI, GHI, and DHI, atmospheric total column ozone and water vapour amounts. The spectral GHI as measured by the SolarSIM-G+ was within 5% as compared to EKO MS-700 spectroradiometer in 350-1050 nm range on 17 March 2017. The difference in the GHI as reported by SolarSIM-G+ and SR20 pyranometer from all stations was within 2% on 14 April 2017. Furthermore, on this day, the daily GHI sum for the Ottawa, Varennes, and Egbert stations was 7.01, 6.95, and 7.11 kWh/m2, respectively, while the daily DNI sum was 10.65, 10.86, 10.04 kWh/m2, respectively.

  8. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE AGC-4 IRRADIATION IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR AND DESIGN OF AGC-5 (HTR16-18469)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, Michael; Petti, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Program will irradiate up to six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments are being irradiated over an approximate eight year period to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Very High Temperature Gas Reactor (VHTR), as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments each consist of a single capsule that contain six stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens are not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks have differing compressive loads applied to the top half of diametrically opposite pairs of specimen stacks. A seventh specimen stack in the center of the capsule does not have a compressive load. The specimens are being irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There are also samples taken of the sweep gas effluent to measure any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens that may occur during initial start-up of the experiment. The first experiment, AGC-1, started its irradiation in September 2009, and the irradiation was completed in January 2011. The second experiment, AGC-2, started its irradiation in April 2011 and completed its irradiation in May 2012. The third experiment, AGC-3, started its irradiation in late November 2012 and completed in the April of 2014. AGC-4 is currently being irradiated in the ATR. This paper will briefly discuss the preliminary irradiation results

  9. Long-term results of the maxillary sinus carcinoma with irradiation and intraarterial infusion of 5-FU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Masanori; Netsu, Kiminori (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Kawarada, Kazuo; Yachiyama, Hitoshi

    1990-08-01

    Therapeutic results of 33 primary cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma treated with irradiation and intraarterial infusion of 5-FU between 1972 and 1984 were analyzed. The 5-year crude survival rate for the group with stage T2 carcinoma (n=10) was 50.0%, and for those with T3 (n=15) and T4 (n=8) it was 46.7% and 25.0%, respectively. The overall 5-year crude survival rate was 42.4%. Eight patients who did not undergo maxillectomy survived for 5 years after irradiation and intraarterial infusion. Recurrence of the tumor after the irradiation and intraarterial infusion occurred in 63.6%, and was frequently observed at the ethmoidal region and the orbita. In the areas in which the tumor extended to regions such as the ethmoid sinus and orbita, which are nourished by arteries other than the maxillary artery, conventional intraarterial infusion was ineffective for complete tumor eradication. Therefore, in most of the patients with advanced maxillary sinus carcinoma, partial or total maxillectomy following combined therapy of intraarterial infusion and irradiation is necessary to improve a prognosis. (author).

  10. Long-term results of the maxillary sinus carcinoma with irradiation and intraarterial infusion of 5-FU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Masanori; Netsu, Kiminori; Kawarada, Kazuo; Yachiyama, Hitoshi.

    1990-01-01

    Therapeutic results of 33 primary cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma treated with irradiation and intraarterial infusion of 5-FU between 1972 and 1984 were analyzed. The 5-year crude survival rate for the group with stage T2 carcinoma (n=10) was 50.0%, and for those with T3 (n=15) and T4 (n=8) it was 46.7% and 25.0%, respectively. The overall 5-year crude survival rate was 42.4%. Eight patients who did not undergo maxillectomy survived for 5 years after irradiation and intraarterial infusion. Recurrence of the tumor after the irradiation and intraarterial infusion occurred in 63.6%, and was frequently observed at the ethmoidal region and the orbita. In the areas in which the tumor extended to regions such as the ethmoid sinus and orbita, which are nourished by arteries other than the maxillary artery, conventional intraarterial infusion was ineffective for complete tumor eradication. Therefore, in most of the patients with advanced maxillary sinus carcinoma, partial or total maxillectomy following combined therapy of intraarterial infusion and irradiation is necessary to improve a prognosis. (author)

  11. Quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea (vigna unguiculata, L. walp) cultivars in Ghana and their resultant flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darfour, B.

    2010-01-01

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. During storage, cowpeas may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. These losses can be minimized by irradiating the stored cowpea against microorganisms and insects attacks primarily Callosobruchus maculatus. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea cultivars and their resultant flours. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy. The unirradiated cultivars were used as controls. A portion of the samples were hammer milled, passed through sieve of 250μm and stored at 4 o C for analysis. Physicochemical, functional, pasting and sensory properties were determined using standards and/or appropriate methods. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were also determined. Radiosensitivity and storage studies on Callosobruchus maculatus were also done for one month. In general, significant effect (p 0.05) affected by the irradiation. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the radiation. Generally, significant increase (p o C. There was no significant (p > 0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p > 0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. Irradiating at even a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the insects on average within eight days. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils. The percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. It was established that at the lower doses studied although the radiation effect did not follow any

  12. Breast-conserving therapy with partial or whole breast irradiation: Ten-year results of the Budapest randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polgár, Csaba; Fodor, János; Major, Tibor; Sulyok, Zoltán; Kásler, Miklós

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To report the long-term results of a single-institution randomized study comparing the results of breast-conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Patients and methods: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected women with pT1 pN0-1mi M0, grade 1–2, non-lobular breast cancer without the presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins were randomized after BCS to receive 50 Gy WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 × 5.2 Gy high-dose-rate (HDR) multi-catheter brachytherapy (BT; n = 88) or 50 Gy electron beam (EB) irradiation (n = 40). Primary endpoint was local recurrence (LR) as a first event. Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cosmetic results. Results: After a median follow up of 10.2 years, the ten-year actuarial rate of LR was 5.9% and 5.1% in PBI and WBI arms, respectively (p = 0.77). There was no significant difference in the ten-year probability of OS (80% vs 82%), CSS (94% vs 92%), and DFS (85% vs 84%), either. The rate of excellent-good cosmetic result was 81% in the PBI, and 63% in the control group (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation delivered by interstitial HDR BT or EB for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces similar ten-year results to those achieved with conventional WBI. Significantly better cosmetic outcome can be achieved with HDR BT implants compared with the outcome after WBI

  13. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  14. Modeling of displacement damage in silicon carbide detectors resulting from neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsandi, Behrooz

    There is considerable interest in developing a power monitor system for Generation IV reactors (for instance GT-MHR). A new type of semiconductor radiation detector is under development based on silicon carbide (SiC) technology for these reactors. SiC has been selected as the semiconductor material due to its superior thermal-electrical-neutronic properties. Compared to Si, SiC is a radiation hard material; however, like Si, the properties of SiC are changed by irradiation by a large fluence of energetic neutrons, as a consequence of displacement damage, and that irradiation decreases the life-time of detectors. Predictions of displacement damage and the concomitant radiation effects are important for deciding where the SiC detectors should be placed. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop computer simulation methods to estimate the number of various defects created in SiC detectors, because of neutron irradiation, and predict at what positions of a reactor, SiC detectors could monitor the neutron flux with high reliability. The simulation modeling includes several well-known---and commercial---codes (MCNP5, TRIM, MARLOWE and VASP), and two kinetic Monte Carlo codes written by the author (MCASIC and DCRSIC). My dissertation will highlight the displacement damage that may happen in SiC detectors located in available positions in the OSURR, GT-MHR and IRIS. As extra modeling output data, the count rates of SiC for the specified locations are calculated. A conclusion of this thesis is SiC detectors that are placed in the thermal neutron region of a graphite moderator-reflector reactor have a chance to survive at least one reactor refueling cycle, while their count rates are acceptably high.

  15. Breast-conserving therapy with partial or whole breast irradiation: ten-year results of the Budapest randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, Csaba; Fodor, János; Major, Tibor; Sulyok, Zoltán; Kásler, Miklós

    2013-08-01

    To report the long-term results of a single-institution randomized study comparing the results of breast-conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected women with pT1 pN0-1mi M0, grade 1-2, non-lobular breast cancer without the presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins were randomized after BCS to receive 50 Gy WBI (n=130) or PBI (n=128). The latter consisted of either 7 × 5.2 Gy high-dose-rate (HDR) multi-catheter brachytherapy (BT; n=88) or 50 Gy electron beam (EB) irradiation (n=40). Primary endpoint was local recurrence (LR) as a first event. Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cosmetic results. After a median follow up of 10.2 years, the ten-year actuarial rate of LR was 5.9% and 5.1% in PBI and WBI arms, respectively (p=0.77). There was no significant difference in the ten-year probability of OS (80% vs 82%), CSS (94% vs 92%), and DFS (85% vs 84%), either. The rate of excellent-good cosmetic result was 81% in the PBI, and 63% in the control group (p<0.01). Partial breast irradiation delivered by interstitial HDR BT or EB for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces similar ten-year results to those achieved with conventional WBI. Significantly better cosmetic outcome can be achieved with HDR BT implants compared with the outcome after WBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hemibody irradiation in stage III multiple myeloma: results of 20 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troussard, X.; Reman, O.; Macro, M.; Leporrier, M.; Roussel, A.

    1988-01-01

    The advanced forms of multiple myeloma of bone, stage III, or those with a large tumoral mass, characterized by a considerable number of myelomacells, pose difficult problems in treatment. Little progress has been made since the introduction of the alkylating agents, and combined chemotherapy does not seem to be any more effective in terms of survival. It is these severe forms that culminate in painful symptoms which are often difficult to eliminate. The radiosensitivity of myeloma led us to treat 20 patients affected by severe forms of the disease by total body irradiation in two stages, and we analyze here the effects of treatment and the tolerance for this technique

  17. Acute Toxicity Grade 3 and 4 After Irradiation in Children and Adolescents: Results From the IPPARCA Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pixberg, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Koch, Raphael [Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor, E-mail: Hans.Eich@ukmuenster.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Martinsson, Ulla [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Kristensen, Ingrid [Department of Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Matuschek, Christiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Pohl, Fabian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Elsayad, Khaled [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Willich, Normann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Lindh, Jack [Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Steinmann, Diana [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: In the context of oncologic therapy for children, radiation therapy is frequently indicated. This study identified the frequency of and reasons for the development of high-grade acute toxicity and possible sequelae. Materials and Methods: Irradiated children have been prospectively documented since 2001 in the Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiation in Childhood and Adolescence (RiSK) database in Germany and since 2008 in the registry for radiation therapy toxicity (RADTOX) in Sweden. Data were collected using standardized, published forms. Toxicity classification was based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: As of June 2013, 1500 children have been recruited into the RiSK database and 485 into the RADTOX registry leading to an analysis population of 1359 patients (age range 0-18). A total of 18.9% (n=257) of all investigated patients developed high-grade acute toxicity (grades 3/4). High-grade toxicity of the bone marrow was documented for 63.8% (n=201) of those patients, oral mucositis for 7.6% (n=24), and dermatitis for 7.6% (n=24). Patients with high-grade acute toxicity received concomitant chemotherapy more frequently (56%) than patients with no or lower acute toxicity (31.5%). In multivariate analyses, concomitant chemotherapy, diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma, and total radiation dose showed a statistically noticeable effect (P≤.05) on acute toxicity, whereas age, concomitant chemotherapy, Hodgkin lymphoma, Ewing sarcoma, total radiation dose, and acute toxicity influenced the time until maximal late toxicity. Conclusions: Generally, high-grade acute toxicity after irradiation in children and adolescence occurs in a moderate proportion of patients (18.9%). As anticipated, the probability of acute toxicity appeared to depend on the prescribed dose as well as concomitant chemotherapy. The occurrence of chronic toxicity correlates with the prior acute

  18. Single dose IOERT versus whole breast irradiation. Cosmetic results in breast-conserving therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struikmans, Henk [Medical Centre Haaglanden, Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiotherapy, Leiden (Netherlands); Snijders, Malou; Mast, Mirjam E.; Fisscher, Ursula; Petoukhova, Anna; Koper, Peter [Medical Centre Haaglanden, Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Franssen, Jan-Huib; Speijer, Gabrielle [HAGA Medical Centre, Department of Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Immink, Marcelle J. [Reinier de Graaf Medical Centre, Department of Radiotherapy, Delft (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiotherapy, Leiden (Netherlands); Marinelli, Andreas [Medical Centre Haaglanden, Department of Surgery, The Hague (Netherlands); Merkus, Jos [HAGA Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    Scarce data are available about the cosmetic result of single dose intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) in breast-conserving radiotherapy. We included 71 breast cancer patients. Breast-conserving surgery and sentinel node procedure had started almost 3 years earlier. Subsequently, 26 patients were treated with IOERT and 45 patients received postoperative whole breast irradiation (WBI). For both groups we determined seven dimensionless asymmetry features. We compared the subjectively and the objectively derived cosmetic scores with each other. For four asymmetry features we noted significantly smaller differences for patients treated with IOERT when compared to those treated with WBI: relative breast contour difference, relative breast area difference and relative breast overlap difference. After correcting for excision volume a significant difference was noticed also for relative lower breast contour. For the IOERT group the cosmetic scores ''excellent or good'' as determined by each patient and one physician were 88 and 96 %, respectively. When the overall cosmetic scores for patients treated with IOERT and WBI were compared to those of the objectively derived scores, there was a fair level of agreement. For patients treated with IOERT we noted less asymmetry and high rates of ''good or excellent'' subjectively derived cosmetic scores. The level of agreement between the subjectively and the objectively derived cosmetic scores was limited. Due to the small sample size and the design of the study no definitive conclusions can be drawn. (orig.) [German] Es sind nur wenige Daten zum kosmetischen Ergebnis nach alleiniger intraoperativer Radiotherapie mittels Elektronen (IOERT) in der brusterhaltenden Behandlung verfuegbar. In einer komparativen Kohortenanalyse wurden 71 Brustkrebspatientinnen eingeschlossen. Ihre brusterhaltende Operation mit Sentinel-Lymphknotenverfahren begann 3 Jahre vorher. Im Anschluss erhielten 26

  19. Investigation of reactivity changes due to flooding the irradiation sites of the MNSR reactor using the MCNP code and comparison with experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shirani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Isfahan Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR has been simulated using the MCNP code, and reactivity worth of flooding the inner irradiation sites of this reactor in an accident has been calculated. Also, by inserting polyethylene capsules containing water inside the inner irradiation sites, reactivity changes of this reactor in same such accident have been measured, the results of which are in good agreements with the calculated results. In this work, the reactivity worth due to flooding one inner irradiation site is 0.53mk , and reactivity worth due to flooding of the whole 5 inner irradiation sites is 2.61 mk.

  20. Genetic consequences of irradiation of one or both parents (results of experiments on Wistar rats). Exitus Lethalis in Wistar rats progeny after irradiation of one or both parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, I.Yu.; Nefedova, I.Yu.; Palyga, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Using offsprings of Wistar rats the quantitative regulations in their death in ontogenesis following irradiation of one or both parents at 0.25-4 Gy doses, the sex cells of which were at stages of mature oocytes and spermatozoa. are investigated. It is determined that the progeny death depends on the value of radiation dose to gametes of parents and takes place mainly in embryogenesis. Progeny of both exposed parents may have an increase in death as compared to that for one parent exposed. Phenomenon of progeny death increase resulted from the fertilization of both parents exposed to radiation is observed at the low doses and is absent at high radiation doses [ru

  1. Long-term results of para-aortic irradiation for patients with stage I seminoma of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, Tamim M.; Souhami, Luis; Sultanem, Khalil; Duclos, Marie; Shenouda, George; Freeman, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant postoperative para-aortic lymph nodal irradiation is an acceptable alternative to para-aortic and ipsilateral pelvic irradiation postorchiectomy for patients with Stage I seminoma of the testis. In this article, we report the long-term results of our prospective evaluation of para-aortic irradiation only for such patients. Methods and materials: Between March 1991 and September 2000, 71 patients with Stage I seminoma were treated with adjuvant irradiation to the para-aortic region only after radical inguinal orchiectomy. Radiotherapy was delivered using parallel-opposed fields extending from T11 to L5. A total dose of 25 Gy in 15 fractions was prescribed to midpoint. Follow-up was performed every 3 months for the first year, every 4 months for the second and third years, every 6 months for the fourth and fifth years, and annually thereafter. Chest X-ray, tumor markers, and computed tomography scan of the pelvis were performed routinely as part of the follow-up investigation. Results: At a median follow-up of 75 months, 68 of 71 patients are alive and free of relapse. Only 1 patient (1.4%) experienced failure in the ipsilateral inguinal nodal region. Two patients (2.8%) died of unrelated causes. The actuarial 10-year relapse free survival is 98.5% and the actuarial 10-year overall survival is 92%. No late toxicity has been encountered. Conclusion: Patients with Stage I seminoma of the testis may be safely treated with para-aortic radiotherapy only. Risk of pelvic failure is very low and treatment toxicity minimal

  2. Unilateral irradiation of pigs in a mixed neutrons+gamma field. Early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, Guy; Maas, Jean.

    1982-08-01

    Pigs (16-20kg) were irradiated with 60 Co gamma or in a mixed field (neutron + gamma from the pulsed reactor SILENE). Pigs were unilaterally exposed by the left side. Each experimental group was composed of twelve animals and one control. Within the dose range explored (reference dose is mid-line tissue dose): 4-9.8 Gy of gamma rays only; 4.6 - 5.7 Gy of neutrons and gamma rays, pigs presented the haematopioetic form of the acute radiation sickness. At 5 Gy mixed field was more harmful than gamma rays only. Therefore the numerical value of neutron RBE (lethality 50 p cent within 30 days) is more than one. Experiments will be carried out in order to determine RBE values more accurately. Bone marrow dose will also be determined [fr

  3. The results of the irradiations of microstrip detectors for the ATLAS tracker (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervan, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of ATLAS will operate in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will reach luminosities of 10 34 cm 2 s -1 . Silicon single-sided microstrip detectors will be used for particle tracking. Due to the proximity to the beam, the silicon detectors need to withstand damage from ionising radiation (10 Mrad total dose) and from non-ionising radiation such as neutrons (2x10 14 1 MeV equivalent neutrons/cm 2 total fluence). The final characteristics of the silicon SCT detectors which are needed to operate under LHC conditions and the conclusions reached after various years of test irradiation studies will be reported. The integration and performance of these detectors in complete SCT modules is also discussed

  4. Strengthening of limestone by the impregnation - gamma irradiation method. Results of tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, R.; Tassigny, C. de

    1975-04-01

    The method developed by the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (France) strengthens the stones by impregnation with a styrene resin/liquid polystyrene mixture followed by polymerization under gamma irradiation. This method is applicable to stones which can be taken into the laboratory for treatment. The increase in strength of 6 different species of French limestone has been quantitatively recorded. The following parameters were studied: possibility of water migration inside the stones, improvements of the mechanical properties of the impregnated stone, standing up to freeze-thaw conditions and artificial ageing of the stones which causes only minor changes in the appearance of the stone and a negligible decrease in weight [fr

  5. Commercial food irradiation in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemhorst, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Dutch research showed great interest in the potential of food irradiation at an early stage. The positive research results and the potential applications for industry encouraged the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries to construct a Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation. In 1967 the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation in Wageningen came into operation. The objectives of the plant were: research into applications of irradiation technology in the food industry and agricultural industry; testing irradiated products and test marketing; information transfer to the public. (author)

  6. Splenic irradiation in the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. Results of daily and intermittent fractionation with and without concomitant hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H. Jr.; McKeough, P.G.; Desforges, J.; Madoc-Jones, H.

    1986-01-01

    Seventeen patients with either chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) received 24 courses of splenic irradiation at this institution from 1973 to 1982. Eleven of the 17 patients had received prior chemotherapy. Patients were treated with 60 Co gamma rays or 6 MV photons. The fraction size ranged from 15 to 100 rad and the total dose per treatment course from 15 to 650 rad, with the exception of one patient who received 1650 rad. Fourteen of 19 courses (71%) given for splenic pain yielded significant subjective relief while 17 of 26 courses given for splenomegaly obtained at least 50% regression of splenic size. Blood counts were carefully monitored before each treatment to limit hematologic toxicity. From this experience, the authors conclude that splenic irradiation effectively palliates splenic pain and reverses splenomegaly in the majority of patients with CML and MMM. Intermittent fractionation (twice or thrice weekly) is more convenient for the patient, appears to be as effective as daily treatment, and may be associated with less hematologic toxicity. Preliminary results of concurrent treatment with splenic irradiation and oral hydroxyurea show promise and warrant further study

  7. Accelerated hyperfractionated hepatic irradiation in the management of patients with liver metastases: Results of the RTOG dose escalating protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, A.H.; Clyde, C.; Wasserman, T.H.; Turner, S.S.; Rotman, M.

    1993-01-01

    This study was prepared to address two objectives: (a) to determine whether progressively higher total doses of hepatic irradiation can prolong survival in a selected population of patients with liver metastases and (b) to refine existing concepts of liver tolerance for fractionated external radiation. One hundred seventy-three analyzable patients with computed tomography measurable liver metastases from primary cancers of the gastrointestinal tract were entered on a dose escalating protocol of twice daily hepatic irradiation employing fractions of 1.5 Gy separated by 4 hr or longer. Sequential groups of patients received 27 Gy, 30 Gy, and 33 Gy to the entire liver and were monitored for acute and late toxicities, survival, and cause of death. Dose escalation was implemented following survival of 10 patients at each dose level for a period of 6 months or longer without clinical or biochemical evidence of radiation hepatitis. The use of progressively larger total doses of radiation did not prolong median survival or decrease the frequency with which liver metastases were the cause of death. None of 122 patients entered at the 27 Gy and 30 Gy dose levels revealed clinical or biochemical evidence of radiation induced liver injury. Five of 51 patients entered at the 33 Gy level revealed clinical or biochemical evidence of late liver injury with an actuarial risk of severe (Grade 3) radiation hepatitis of 10.0% at 6 months, resulting in closure of the study to patient entry. The study design could not credibly establish a safe dose for hepatic irradiation, however, it did succeed in determining that 33 Gy in fractions of 1.5 Gy is unsafe, carrying a substantial risk of delayed radiation injury. The absence of apparent late liver injury at the 27 Gy and 30 Gy dose levels suggests that a prior clinical trial of adjuvant hepatic irradiation in patients with resected colon cancer may have employed an insufficient radiation dose (21 Gy) to fully test the question

  8. AGR-1 Compact 4-1-1 Post-Irradiation Examination Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkowicz, Paul Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ploger, Scott A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); van Rooyen, Isabella J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Destructive post-irradiation examination was performed on AGR-1 fuel Compact 4-1-1, which was irradiated to a final compact-average burnup of 19.4% FIMA (fissions per initial metal atom) and a time-average, volume-average temperature of 1072°C. The analysis of this compact focused on characterizing the extent of fission product release from the particles and examining particles to determine the condition of the kernels and coating layers. The work included deconsolidation of the compact and leach-burn-leach analysis, visual inspection and gamma counting of individual particles, metallurgical preparation of selected particles, and examination of particle cross-sections with optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and elemental analysis. Deconsolidation-leach-burn-leach (DLBL) analysis revealed no particles with failed TRISO or failed SiC layers (as indicated by very low uranium inventory in all of the leach solutions). The total fractions of the predicted compact inventories of fission products Ce-144, Cs-134, Cs-137, and Sr-90 that were present in the compact outside of the SiC layers were <2×10-6, based on DLBL data. The Ag-110m fraction in the compact outside the SiC layers was 3.3×10-2, indicating appreciable release of silver through the intact coatings and subsequent retention in the OPyC layers or matrix. The Eu-154 fraction was 2.4×10-4, which is equivalent to the inventory in one average particle, and indicates a small but measurable level of release from the intact coatings. Gamma counting of 61 individual particles indicated no particles with anomalously low fission product retention. The average ratio of measured inventory to calculated inventory was close to a value of 1.0 for several fission product isotopes (Ce-144, Cs-134, and Cs-137), indicating good retention and reasonably good agreement with the predicted inventories. Measured-to-calculated (M/C) activity ratios for fission products Eu-154, Eu-155, Ru-106, Sb

  9. Preliminary Results on Setup Precision of Prone-Lateral Patient Positioning for Whole Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldeman, Liv; Speleers, Bruno; Bakker, Marlies; Jacobs, Filip; Coghe, Marc; De Gersem, Werner; Impens, Aline; Nechelput, Sarah; De Wagter, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and reproducible technique for prone positioning and to compare dose-volume indices in prone and supine positions. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients underwent computed tomography imaging for radiotherapy planning in prone and supine position. Experience was gained in the first eight patients, which lead to modifications of the Horizon prone breast board (Civco Medical Solutions, Orange City, Iowa, USA) and the patient setup technique. A unilateral breast holder (U-BH) was developed (Van de Velde, Schellebelle, Belgium) to retract the contralateral breast away from the treated breast. The technique was then applied to an additional 10 patients. The setup precision was evaluated using daily cone-beam CT. Results: Modifications to the breast board were made to secure a prone-lateral rather then a pure prone position. We evolved from a classical setup using laser marks on the patients' body to a direct breast setup using marks on the breast only. The setup precision of the direct positioning procedure with the modified breast board and the U-BH is comparable to supine setup data in the literature. Dose-volume indices for heart and lung show significantly better results for prone than for supine position, and dose homogeneity within the treated breast did not differ according to the treatment position. Conclusions: The setup precision of our prone-lateral positioning technique is comparable to supine data in literature. Our data show the advantage of prone radiotherapy to spare the lung and heart. Further research is necessary to reduce the duration of prone setup.

  10. The effects of environmental factors and experimental method on the results of low dose rate microprocessor irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviron, A; Gerard, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IPSN, Centre d' Etudes de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Gauthier, G; Henry, J Y; Le Meur, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IPSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1992-02-01

    As part of the safety studies of nuclear facilities, a series of experiments have been in progress over a number of years to determine the principal parameters for which allowance needs to be made in the testing of microprocessors in low dose rate nuclear irradiation environments. This paper contains a brief description of the results already published, followed by a review of the latest results obtained, specifically as concerns the effects of temperature, the origin of the batch, the angle of incidence of the radiation and the test routine used. (author)

  11. Main results of post-irradiation examinations of new-generation fuel assemblies VVER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvir, E.; Markov, D.; Polenok, V.; Zhitelev, V.; Kobylyansky, G.

    2009-01-01

    To increase the competitiveness of Russian nuclear fuel at the foreign market and to improve its technical and economic performance in order to provide a necessary level of safety, it is necessary to solve certain important tasks: Increase of fuel burn-up; Extension of operational lifetime of fuel assemblies and operational reliability of nuclear fuel; Introduction of cost-beneficial and flexible fuel cycles. Alternative fuel assemblies TVSA VVER-1000 and TVS-2 are used as a basis to optimize the nuclear fuel and develop advanced fuel cycles for nuclear power plants with VVER-1000 reactor types. Four fuel assemblies TVSA operated during 1 and up to 6 reactor cycles, reference fuel assembly TVS-2 operated during three reactor cycles and achieved an average fuel burnup of 48MW·day/kgU as well as failed fuel assembly TVS-2 operated during one cycle were examined at RIAR in recent years. The main objectives of these examinations were to obtain experimental data in support of operational integrity of products or to find out reasons of their failure. The performed post-irradiation examinations confirmed the operational integrity of alternative fuel assemblies TVSA including their geometrical stability up to the average fuel burnup of 55 MW·day/kgU over the fuel assembly (FA) (up to the maximal fuel burnup of ∼73 MW·day/kgU in fuel rods) and of TVS-2 up to the average fuel burnup of 48 MW·day/kgU over the fuel assembly. The changes introduced in the design of VVER-1000 fuel assembly during the development of alternative fuel assembly TVSA and TVS-2 did not make any negative effect on fuel rods. It was proved that causes of fuel rod failure were not related to design features of fuel assemblies. The design features and operating conditions of fuel assemblies under examinations are briefly described. Post-irradiation examinations proved the geometrical stability of fuel assemblies TVSA and TVS-2 under operation up to the fuel burnup of ∼50 MW day/kgU, as for the

  12. The results of postoperative irradiation for locally advanced carcinoma of the larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, A.; Fijuth, J.; Michalski, W.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a retrospective analysis of advanced laryngeal cancer patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy in order to assess the clinical outcome and identify prognostic factors which may alter their prognosis. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 165 patients with advanced laryngeal carcinoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy between 1984 and 1996. Initially all patients underwent total laryngectomy combined, in 91 cases, with unilateral or bilateral neck dissection. Postoperative irradiation was initiated within 15 to 162 days after surgery (mean - 53 days). The total dose varied between 50-70 Gy with the fraction size of 2.0 Gy. The analysis of overall survival and local control was performed using the actuarial method according to Kaplan and Meier. Sex, age, performance status, T, N stages, primary tumor site, hemoglobin level, histological grade, involvement of lymph nodes, extracapsular lymph node extension, surgical margin status, presence of extension of the primary beyond larynx and/or thyroid cartilage invasion and/or subglottic extension and time from operation to start of radiotherapy were studied in multivariate analysis for the prognostic significance for both overall survival and local control. The actuarial survival for the entire group of postoperatively irradiated patients was 0.70, 0.56 and 0.43 at two, five and ten years respectively. The actuarial local control for the entire group of patients was 0.86, 0.78 and 0.75 at one, two and three years respectively and remained stable thereafter. For the overall survival - sex, positive lymph nodes and time interval between surgery and radiotherapy were found to be the significant prognostic factors. For the local control the extracapsular lymph node extension was found to be the only significant prognostic factor. Combined surgery and postoperative radiotherapy is an effective treatment modality in the management of locally advanced laryngeal cancer

  13. Chromatographic study of nucleosides and nucleotides of central nervous system. Identification and first results on changes after total gamma irradiation of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, C.; Marquer, C.; Pasquier, C.

    Changes of brain energetic state and of different levels after irradiation are studied. The results will be compared with the variations of brain electric activity due to irradiation. Using an ion exchange chromatographic method for separation and quantitative analysis of nucleotides, evaluation of adenylic nucleotides in brain rat have been chosen [fr

  14. Endovascular gamma-irradiation for prevention of restenosis after angioplasty of femoropopliteal de-novo-stenoses. Long-term results of a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, K.; Zaehringer, M.; Schulte, O.; Lackner, K.; Bendel, M.; Bongartz, R.; Nolte, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the performance and efficacy of endovascular irradiation after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of de-novo femoropopliteal stenoses in a pilot study. Methods: 6 patients received non-centered endovascular irradiation (12 Gray at surface of the vessel wall) immediately after angioplasty of de-novo femoropopliteal stenosis, 1 patient was given centered endovascular irradiation using 192-iridium (12 Gray at surface of the vessel wall) Centered irradiation was considered for two other patients. Duplex sonographies and interviews were performed the day before and after PTA and after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months up to 4 years. Intraarterial angiography was performed in symptomatic patients. Results: Non-centered endovascular irradiation was possible in all patiens without problems or complications. Centered irradiation was not possible in two patients with the cross-over approach. One thromboembolic complication occurred during centered irradiation. Both restenosis and new stenosis at the edge of irradiated distance occurred in 1/7 patiens. No other side effects were observed during follow-up. Conclusions: In our pilot study endovascular irradiation after angioplasty of de-novo femoropopliteal stenosis was possible with low rates of complications and restenosis and taking vessel anatomy into account. (orig.) [de

  15. Attenuation measurements show that the presence of a TachoSil surgical patch will not compromise target irradiation in intra-operative electron radiation therapy or high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Sandra; Costa, Filipa; Pereira, Alexandre; Lencart, Joana; Dias, Anabela; Cunha, Luís; Sousa, Olga; Silva, José Pedro; Santos, Lúcio

    2015-01-09

    Surgery of locally advanced and/or recurrent rectal cancer can be complemented with intra-operative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) to deliver a single dose of radiation directly to the unresectable margins, while sparing nearby sensitive organs/structures. Haemorrhages may occur and can affect the dose distribution, leading to an incorrect target irradiation. The TachoSil (TS) surgical patch, when activated, creates a fibrin clot at the surgical site to achieve haemostasis. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of TS on the dose distribution, and ascertain whether it could be used in combination with IOERT. This characterization was extended to include high dose rate (HDR) intraoperative brachytherapy, which is sometimes used at other institutions instead of IOERT. CT images of the TS patch were acquired for initial characterization. Dosimetric measurements were performed in a water tank phantom, using a conventional LINAC with a hard-docking system of cylindrical applicators. Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curves were obtained, and measurements made at the depth of dose maximum for the three clinically used electron energies (6, 9 and 12MeV), first without any attenuator and then with the activated patch of TS completely covering the tip of the IOERT applicator. For HDR brachytherapy, a measurement setup was improvised using a solid water phantom and a Farmer ionization chamber. Our measurements show that the attenuation of a TachoSil patch is negligible, both for high energy electron beams (6 to 12MeV), and for a HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy source. Our results cannot be extrapolated to lower beam energies such as 50 kVp X-rays, which are sometimes used for breast IORT. The TachoSil surgical patch can be used in IORT procedures using 6MeV electron energies or higher, or HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy.

  16. Attenuation measurements show that the presence of a TachoSil surgical patch will not compromise target irradiation in intra-operative electron radiation therapy or high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, Sandra; Costa, Filipa; Pereira, Alexandre; Lencart, Joana; Dias, Anabela; Cunha, Luís; Sousa, Olga; Silva, José Pedro; Santos, Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    Surgery of locally advanced and/or recurrent rectal cancer can be complemented with intra-operative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) to deliver a single dose of radiation directly to the unresectable margins, while sparing nearby sensitive organs/structures. Haemorrhages may occur and can affect the dose distribution, leading to an incorrect target irradiation. The TachoSil (TS) surgical patch, when activated, creates a fibrin clot at the surgical site to achieve haemostasis. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of TS on the dose distribution, and ascertain whether it could be used in combination with IOERT. This characterization was extended to include high dose rate (HDR) intraoperative brachytherapy, which is sometimes used at other institutions instead of IOERT. CT images of the TS patch were acquired for initial characterization. Dosimetric measurements were performed in a water tank phantom, using a conventional LINAC with a hard-docking system of cylindrical applicators. Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curves were obtained, and measurements made at the depth of dose maximum for the three clinically used electron energies (6, 9 and 12MeV), first without any attenuator and then with the activated patch of TS completely covering the tip of the IOERT applicator. For HDR brachytherapy, a measurement setup was improvised using a solid water phantom and a Farmer ionization chamber. Our measurements show that the attenuation of a TachoSil patch is negligible, both for high energy electron beams (6 to 12MeV), and for a HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy source. Our results cannot be extrapolated to lower beam energies such as 50 kVp X-rays, which are sometimes used for breast IORT. The TachoSil surgical patch can be used in IORT procedures using 6MeV electron energies or higher, or HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy

  17. Accelerated partial breast irradiation in the elderly: 5-year results of high-dose rate multi-catheter brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genebes, Caroline; Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel; Chand, Marie-Eve; Gal, Jocelyn; Gautier, Mathieu; Raoust, Ines; Ihrai, Tarik; Courdi, Adel; Ferrero, Jean-Marc; Peyrottes, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate clinical outcome after accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in the elderly after high-dose-rate interstitial multi-catheter brachytherapy (HIBT). Between 2005 and 2013, 70 patients underwent APBI using HIBT. Catheter implant was performed intra or post-operatively (referred patients) after lumpectomy and axillary sentinel lymph node dissection. Once the pathological results confirmed the indication of APBI, planification CT-scan was performed to deliver 34 Gy/10f/5d or 32 Gy/8f/4d. Dose-volume adaptation was manually achieved (graphical optimization). Dosimetric results and clinical outcome were retrospectively analyzed. Physician cosmetic evaluation was reported. With a median follow-up of 60.9 months [4.6 – 90.1], median age was 80.7 years [62 – 93.1]. Regarding APBI ASTRO criteria, 61.4%, 18.6% and 20% were classified as suitable, cautionary and non-suitable respectively. Axillary sentinel lymph node dissection was performed in 94.3%; 8 pts (11.5%) presented an axillary involvement. A median dose of 34 Gy [32 – 35] in 8 to 10 fractions was delivered. Median CTV was 75.2 cc [16.9 – 210], median D90 EQD2 was 43.3 Gy [35 – 72.6] and median DHI was 0.54 [0.19 – 0.74]. One patient experienced ipsilateral recurrence (5-year local free recurrence rate: 97.6%. Five-year specific and overall survival rates were 97.9% and 93.2% respectively. Thirty-four patients (48%) presented 47 late complications classified grade 1 (80.8%) and grade 2 (19.2%) with no grade ≥ 3. Cosmetic results were considered excellent/good for 67 pts (95.7%). APBI using HIBT and respecting strict rules of implantation and planification, represents a smart alternative between no post-operative irradiation and whole breast irradiation delivered over 6 consecutive weeks

  18. Inherited Sterility of Fl Male Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) and changes in the DNA Pattern as a Result of Using Gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, S.A.; Mikhaiel, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full grown pupae of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella were irradiated with 75 and 175 Gy or gamma irradiation .The sterility percent was increased by increasing of' gamma irradiation dose. Also, the sterility percent increased in F 1 males than in parents. Gamma irradiation caused a decrease in size or the ova doles and number of oocytes. The effects of gamma rays on the DNA patterns of adult male parents and Fl males showed alterations among the controls, the treated parents and Ft individuals. Exposure to radiation caused very frequently the appearance of some extra bands and the deficiency of others in the RAPD-PCR amplification patterns of the irradiated insects. However, the similarity in DNA patterns between some normal and treated samples was interpreted by assuming, that the radiation induced damage was in regions of' the genome other than at the loci under study

  19. Hyperfractionated total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation. Results in seventy leukemia patients with allogeneic transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, B.; Chu, F.C.H.; Dinsmore, R.

    1983-01-01

    From May, 1979 to March, 1981, 76 leukemia patients were prepared for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with a new hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) regimen (1320 cGy in 11 fractions, 3x/day), followed by cyclophosphamide, 60 mg/kg, for two days. Partial lung shielding was done on each treatment, with supplemental electron beam treatments of the chest wall to compensate, and of the testes, a sanctuary site. This regimen was initiated to potentially reduce fatal interstitial pneumonitis as well as decrease leukemic relapse. Overall actuarial survival at 1 year for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) patients is 63%, while relapse-free survival at 1 year is 53%. On the other hand, for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patients, there is no significant difference between relapse or remission patients with regard to overall survival or relapse-free survival, when relapse is defined as > 5% blasts in the marrow at the time of cytoreduction. Overall actuarial survival at 1 year for ALL is 61% and relapse-free survival is 45% at 1 year. Fatal interstitial pneumonitis has dropped to 18% compared with 50% in our previous single-dose TBI regimen (1000 cGy), in which the same doses of cyclophosphamide were given prior to TBI. In conclusion, not only has fatal interstitial pneumonitis been reduced by hyperfractionation and partial lung blocking, but there may be a survival advantage in ALL patients in relapse, who have a survival equal to that of remission patients. This may indicate a greater cell kill with the higher dose (1320 cGy) attained with this regimen, in these patients with a higher leukemic cell burden

  20. Ipsilateral irradiation for well lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx: results on tumor control and xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerezo, Laura; Martín, Margarita; López, Mario; Marín, Alicia; Gómez, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    In head and neck cancer, bilateral neck irradiation is the standard approach for many tumor locations and stages. Increasing knowledge on the pattern of nodal invasion leads to more precise targeting and normal tissue sparing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morbidity and tumor control for patients with well lateralized squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx treated with ipsilateral radiotherapy. Twenty consecutive patients with lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx were treated with a prospective management approach using ipsilateral irradiation between 2000 and 2007. This included 8 radical oropharyngeal and 12 postoperative oral cavity carcinomas, with Stage T1-T2, N0-N2b disease. The actuarial freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence was determined. Late xerostomia was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire and the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3. At a median follow-up of 58 months, five-year overall survival and loco-regional control rates were 82.5% and 100%, respectively. No local or contralateral nodal recurrences were observed. Mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland was 4.72 Gy and to the contralateral submandibular gland was 15.30 Gy. Mean score for dry mouth was 28.1 on the 0-100 QLQ-H&N35 scale. According to CTCAE v3 scale, 87.5% of patients had grade 0-1 and 12.5% grade 2 subjective xerostomia. The unstimulated salivary flow was > 0.2 ml/min in 81.2% of patients and 0.1-0.2 ml/min in 19%. None of the patients showed grade 3 xerostomia. In selected patients with early and moderate stages, well lateralized oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas, ipsilateral irradiation treatment of the primary site and ipsilateral neck spares salivary gland function without compromising loco-regional control

  1. Hodgkin's disease in children: Treatment with MOPP and low-dose, extended field irradiation without laparotomy. Late results and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, D.; Doyle, J.; Berry, M.; Blanchette, V.; Chan, H.; Doherty, M.; Freedman, M.; Greenberg, M.; Panzarella, T.; Saunders, F.

    1990-01-01

    The 10 year results of a trial of bimodal treatment of Hodgkin's disease in children with 6 cycles of MOPP and low-dose extended field irradiation, without staging laparotomy, were for 57 children in all stages as follows: survival 85%, relapse-free survival 80%, and survival-free of second relapse 86%. There were three fatal toxic events, two due to viral infection and one to a second malignant tumor (NHL). Three other patients developed a second malignant tumour, and one developed a thyroid adenoma. No patient developed acute leukemia. These results are compared with the results of treatment of surgically staged children by extended field irradiation alone, with bimodal treatment reserved for relapse or advanced disease at diagnosis. Initial bimodal treatment improved the overall 10 year survival free from a second relapse rate by 20% (86% vs. 66%). No major difference in treatment toxicity between these two groups has emerged during the first 10 years of follow-up. We conclude that, except for favourable CS-1 presentations, children with Hodgkin's disease confined to the lymphatic system should be given bimodal treatment, but that the least morbid effective combination remains to be determined

  2. Long-term results of total body irradiation in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnitz, Simone; Zich, Alexander; Budach, Volker; Jahn, Ulrich; Neumann, Oliver; Martus, Peter; Arnold, Renate

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chart review of adult patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with total body irradiation (TBI) was to evaluate early and late toxicity and long-term outcome. A total of 110 adult patients (34 ± 12 years) with ALL underwent TBI (6 fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 12 Gy) as a part of the treatment regimen before transplantation. Treatment-related toxicity, mortality, and hematologic outcome are reported. Mean follow-up was 70 months. The 2- and 5-year leukemia-free survival rates were 78 and 72 %, respectively. In all, 29 % (32/110) patients suffered from medullary recurrence after a median time of 7 months. Gender was the only statistically significant prognostic factor in terms of overall survival in favor of female patients. Treatment-related mortality and overall survival after 2 and 5 years were 16 and 22 %, and 60 and 52.7 %, respectively. The most frequent late reaction wascGVHD of the skin (n = 33, 30 %). In addition, 15.5 % (17/110 patients) suffered pulmonary symptoms, and 6 patients developed lung fibrosis. Eyes were frequently affected by the radiation (31/110 = 28 %); 12 of 110 patients (11 %) presented with symptoms from osteoporosis, 5 of 110 patients (4.5 %) developed hypothyreosis and 2 patients diabetes mellitus. Of the male patients, 11 % reported erectile dysfunction or loss of libido, while 2 of 36 women reported menopausal syndrome at the mean time of 28 months after treatment with requirement for substitution. No women became pregnant after treatment. No acute or late cardiac toxicities were documented in our patients. No secondary malignancies were documented. Although hematologic outcome was in the upper range of that reported in the literature, treatment-related mortality (TRM) and medullary recurrences remain a challenge. Sophisticated radiation techniques allow for decreasing toxicity to certain organs and/or dose escalation to the bone marrow in highly selected patients in order to improve therapeutic

  3. Long-term results of total body irradiation in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnitz, Simone; Zich, Alexander; Budach, Volker; Jahn, Ulrich; Neumann, Oliver [Charite University Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Martus, Peter [University Tuebingen, Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biostatistics, Tuebingen (Germany); Arnold, Renate [Charite University Medicine, Campus CVK, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this chart review of adult patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with total body irradiation (TBI) was to evaluate early and late toxicity and long-term outcome. A total of 110 adult patients (34 ± 12 years) with ALL underwent TBI (6 fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 12 Gy) as a part of the treatment regimen before transplantation. Treatment-related toxicity, mortality, and hematologic outcome are reported. Mean follow-up was 70 months. The 2- and 5-year leukemia-free survival rates were 78 and 72 %, respectively. In all, 29 % (32/110) patients suffered from medullary recurrence after a median time of 7 months. Gender was the only statistically significant prognostic factor in terms of overall survival in favor of female patients. Treatment-related mortality and overall survival after 2 and 5 years were 16 and 22 %, and 60 and 52.7 %, respectively. The most frequent late reaction wascGVHD of the skin (n = 33, 30 %). In addition, 15.5 % (17/110 patients) suffered pulmonary symptoms, and 6 patients developed lung fibrosis. Eyes were frequently affected by the radiation (31/110 = 28 %); 12 of 110 patients (11 %) presented with symptoms from osteoporosis, 5 of 110 patients (4.5 %) developed hypothyreosis and 2 patients diabetes mellitus. Of the male patients, 11 % reported erectile dysfunction or loss of libido, while 2 of 36 women reported menopausal syndrome at the mean time of 28 months after treatment with requirement for substitution. No women became pregnant after treatment. No acute or late cardiac toxicities were documented in our patients. No secondary malignancies were documented. Although hematologic outcome was in the upper range of that reported in the literature, treatment-related mortality (TRM) and medullary recurrences remain a challenge. Sophisticated radiation techniques allow for decreasing toxicity to certain organs and/or dose escalation to the bone marrow in highly selected patients in order to improve therapeutic

  4. Endolymphatic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, M.M.; Ianhez, L.E.; Sabbaga, E.

    1982-01-01

    The authors analysed the clinical evolution and the result of renal transplantation some years after irradiation in 24 patients (group I) who received endolymphatic 131 I as a pre-transplantation immunesuppresive measure. The control group (group II) consisted of 24 non-irradiated patients comparable to group I in age, sex, primary disease, type of donor and immunesuppressive therapy. Significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding such factors a incidence and reversibility of rejection crises in the first 60 post-transplantation days, loss of kidney due to rejection, and dosage of azathioprine. The authors conclude that this method, besides being harmless, has prolonged immunesuppressive action, its administration being advised for receptores of cadaver kidneys, mainly those who show positive cross-match against HLA antigens for painel. (Author) [pt

  5. The evaluation of a modified technique of Total Body Irradiation in respect of treatment results and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronska-Gardas, A.; Dabrowski, R.; Pedziwiatr, K.

    2006-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is a well established part of the conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Numerous different techniques are used and every center elaborates own solutions. The aim of our study to present the method of TBI developed in our department, and to discuss the results of treatment with respect of early and late toxicity. Between 11.2000 and 08.2004, 23 patients were with fractionated TBI at the Department of Radiotherapy of the M. Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology in Warsaw (MSCMCC). Conditioning chemotherapy and BMT were performed in different hematological departments. All patients were irradiated with a total midline dose of 12 Gy in 6 fractions over 3 consecutive days. Doses to the lung did not exceed 11 Gy. The TBI method used in our department was evaluated over a few years. The following modifications have been introduced to the previously applied technique: change of photon energy 6 MV to 15 MV; increase of lung dose from 9 Gy to 11 Gy; the use of an individual bolus as a lung compensator in lateral fields; more frequent boost irradiation of the mediastinum and legs with small fields; calculations of Monitor Units based on dosimetric data. Boost irradiation of chest wall with electrons been abandoned. Median follow up was 12 months. Up till now, 17/23 patients are alive, of these 16 with no relapse. Immediate toxicity was low. Early complications were observed during the first 6 months after BMT in 11 patients. In the case of 4 patients these complications were fatal. Late complications were observed in 10 patients, including chronic GVHD and hormone disturbance. Only one patient had developed the first symptoms of cataract. In one case Lhermitte's syndrome was observed. One patient died due to liver insufficiency. The results of treatment and the complications rates in patients treated with TBI at our department are consistent with those published in literature. We conclude that

  6. Fresh-keeping of mushroom by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Xu Hongqing; Wang Hong; Cai Jian

    2003-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co γ irradiation on the preservation of Agaricus bisporus were studied. The results showed that after irradiation the mushroom had lower rates of membrane split, opening of pilei, browning, decomposition and lose of fresh weight. The fresh keeping period of mushroom irradiated with 1.2 kGy and stored at 4 degree C was prolonged to 30 days

  7. National food irradiation programme of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, M.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of studies on feasibility and wholesomeness of irradiated food is presented. Irradiation projects were realized of potatoes, onions, wheat, Vienna sausages, fish-paste products, and mandarine oranges. Mutagenecity tests with Salmonella or E. coli, chromosome aberration tests, dominant lethal tests, fibroblasts and micronucleus tests, and toxicity tests performed in amimals fed with irradiated food showed no positive results

  8. Desinfestation of soybeans by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Prieto, E.; Mesa, J.; Fraga, R.; Fung, V.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irradiation with the doses 0.5 and 1.0 kGy on desinfestation of soy beans and on important chemical compounds of this product was studied in this paper. The results showed the effectiveness of applied doses in the control of insect pests of soy beans during its storage and total proteins, fat and moisture and also the identity and quality characteristics of oil extrated from irradiated product which were not change by irradiation [es

  9. Irradiation to ensure the safety and quality of prepared meals. Results of the coordinated research project (2002-2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    The consumption of prepared meals has increased enormously during the last decade, not only in developed countries but also in developing countries where many types of ethnic foods are now also prepared as convenience foods. Consumer studies carried out on the consumption of these types of foods have shown that perceived time pressures contribute positively to the purchase of both prepared meals and takeaway meals. Other reasons are also mentioned in the literature, among them are the increasing proportion of working women outside of the home, not enjoying cooking for oneself and the need of family members to eat at different times. Traditionally, prepared meals are retort processed, or, more recently, stored frozen, whereas an increasing demand exists for chilled commodities, partly due to their fresh appearance. However, the chilled prepared meals are non-sterile and potential survival of some pathogenic microorganisms and/or post-processing contamination before packaging creates microbiological risks and a considerable limitation of shelf life. This is particularly important for countries where the microbiological safety of many ethnic prepared meals is questionable and their shelf life limited due to the conditions under which they are produced, stored and distributed. Food irradiation used on its own, or in combination with other technologies, could significantly enhance the microbial safety of such products as well as extend their shelf life. Although extensive research has been carried out on the microbiological, chemical, nutritional and sensorial effects of irradiating individual uncooked food items, little work has been reported on the irradiation of complex food systems such as prepared meals. In 2002, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated in a Coordinated Research Project on Irradiation to Ensure the Safety and Quality of Prepared Meals. This project included the studies of participants from different

  10. Effect of irradiation on sweet corn preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie

    2002-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray was used to irradiate newly-harvested sweet corn and the results showed that the effects of irradiation on soluble solids, sucrose, starch and total sugar were not significant. The viscosity of starch decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose. The preservation duration of irradiated sweet corn was 7 days longer than that of CK, and the sweet, smell, taste of sweet corn had no abnormal change

  11. Doses of irradiation to the Ukrainian population as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtarjov, I.A.; Kovgan, L.N.

    1991-01-01

    In the middle of 1990 the whole problem of the assessment of exposure doses to the population living near the Chernobyl plant can be divided into several separate problems: - storage, handling, organization and primary analysis of direct measurement results of external and internal doses to the people; - usage of the available information for the models of retrospective reconstruction of the past exposure doses and for prediction of possible future doses; - verification and validation of mentioned models by means of constant comparison of calculation results received on their basis to the results of current instrumental monitoring. Three problems mentioned above are solving in the laboratory of mathematical models and radiation prediction in dosimetry and radiation hygiene department of AUSCRM USSR AMS. The given report presents the description of the first results of this work. (author)

  12. Irradiation of chilled lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    Chilled, vacuum-packed New Zealand lamb loins have been irradiated at doses between 1-8 kGy. The report outlines the methods used and provides dosimetry details. An appendix summarises the results of a taste trial conducted on the irradiated meat by the Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand. This showed that, even at 1 kGy, detectable flavours were induced by the radiation treatment

  13. Answers to the questions about food irradiation. Concerning results of animal experiments in the specified integrated research. Data carrying a problem in human health were obtained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Experts of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/ World Health Organization (WHO) committee obtained their conclusion in 1980 that food irradiated with <10 kGy of radiation is safe for human health, which is now globally approved. However, in Japan, there have been still opposite opinions based on the doubt in the title on the safety of irradiated food. In this paper, the author answers those questions as he was a member to arrange the Research in the title for food irradiation. Described are data presentation and explanation about results of toxicity studies of diets added with irradiated materials of: weight reductions in rat ovary by irradiated potato (ip) in chronic studies, and in mouse testicle and ovary of F3 generation from the ancestor mice kept on diet with irradiated onion (io); bone malformation in mice by io; and reduction of body weight gain in female rats by ip and increase of mortality of male rats by ip. These are analyzed on the aspects of radiation dose-response, sustained tendency of results throughout the living period or generation, and apparent abnormality by other factors; and normal variation due to individual difference is pointed out to contribute to these findings. The safety test of irradiated food has been conducted valid not only in animal experiments but also other tests like genotoxicity and analysis of radiation-degraded products. (R.T.)

  14. Estimation of irradiation temperature within the irradiation program Rheinsberg

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, I; Prokert, F; Scholz, A

    2003-01-01

    The temperature monitoring within the irradiation programme Rheinsberg II was performed by diamond powder monitors. The method bases on the effect of temperature on the irradiation-induced increase of the diamond lattice constant. The method is described by a Russian code. In order to determine the irradiation temperature, the lattice constant is measured by means of a X-ray diffractometer after irradiation and subsequent isochronic annealing. The kink of the linearized temperature-lattice constant curves provides a value for the irradiation temperature. It has to be corrected according to the local neutron flux. The results of the lattice constant measurements show strong scatter. Furthermore there is a systematic error. The results of temperature monitoring by diamond powder are not satisfying. The most probable value lays within 255 C and 265 C and is near the value estimated from the thermal condition of the irradiation experiments.

  15. Fission-product behaviour in irradiated TRISO-coated particles: Results of the HFR-EU1bis experiment and their interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachin, M.; Dubourg, R.; Groot, S. de; Kissane, M.P.; Bakker, K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The microstructure and FPs in UO 2 TRISO particles (10% FIMA, 1573 K) were studied. → Very large porosities (>10 μm) were observed in the high temperature particles. → Significant Xe and Cs releases from the kernel were observed. → Mo and Ru are mainly present in the metallic precipitates in the kernel. - Abstract: It is important to understand fission-product (FP) and kernel micro-structure evolution in TRISO-coated fuel particles. FP behaviour, while central to severe-accident evaluation, impacts: evolution of the kernel oxygen potential governing in turn carbon oxidation (amoeba effect and pressurization); particle pressurization through fission-gas release from the kernel; and coating mechanical resistance via reaction with some FPs (Pd, Cs, Sr). The HFR-Eu1bis experiment irradiated five HTR fuel pebbles containing TRISO-coated UO 2 particles and went beyond current HTR specifications (e.g., central temperature of 1523 K). This study presents ceramographic and EPMA examinations of irradiated urania kernels and coatings. Significant evolutions of the kernel (grain structure, porosity, metallic-inclusion size, intergranular bubbles) as a function of temperature are shown. Results concerning FP migration are presented, e.g., significant xenon, caesium and palladium release from the kernel, molybdenum and ruthenium mainly present in metallic precipitates. The observed FP and micro-structural evolutions are interpreted and explanations proposed. The effect of high flux rate and high temperature on fission-gas behaviour, grain-size evolution and kernel swelling is discussed. Furthermore, Cs, Mo and Zr behaviour is interpreted in connection with oxygen-potential. This paper shows that combining state-of-the-art post-irradiation examination and state-of-the-art modelling fundamentally improves understanding of HTR fuel behaviour.

  16. Foodstuff irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Report written on behalf of the Danish Food Institute summarizes national and international rules and developments within food irradiation technology, chemical changes in irradiated foodstuffs, microbiological and health-related aspects of irradiation and finally technological prospects of this conservation form. Food irradiatin has not been hitherto applied in Denmark. Radiation sources and secondary radiation doses in processed food are characterized. Chemical changes due to irradiation are compared to those due to p.ex. food heating. Toxicological and microbiological tests and their results give no unequivocal answer to the problem whether a foodstuff has been irradiated. The most likely application fields in Denmark are for low radiation dosis inhibition of germination, riping delay and insecticide. Medium dosis (1-10 kGy) can reduce bacteria number while high dosis (10-50 kGy) will enable total elimination of microorganisms and viruses. Food irradiation can be acceptable as technological possibility with reservation, that further studies follow. (EG)

  17. Preoperative irradiation for prevention of heterotopic ossification following prosthetic total hip replacement. Results of a prospective study in 462 hips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelbl, O.; Seufert, J.; Pohl, F.; Flentje, M. [Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany). Klinik and Poliklinik for Radiotherapy; Tauscher, A.; Springorum, H.W. [Caritas Hospital, Bad Mergentheim (Germany). Orthopedic Clinic; Lehmann, H. [Caritas Hospital, Bad Mergentheim (Germany). Inst. of Radiology

    2003-11-01

    Background: The effectiveness of pre- or postoperative radiotherapy for prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) following total hip replacement (THR) has already been demonstrated in the past. Thereby, in most studies using preoperative radiotherapy patients were irradiated < 6 h before surgery. The purpose of this prospective study was to analyze the effectiveness of preoperative irradiation on the evening before surgery and to identify risk factors for HO in a homogeneous collective of patients. Patients and Methods: From July 1997 to July 2001, 416 patients (462 hips; 235 males, 227 females) received preoperative radiotherapy of the hip on the evening before surgery with a 7-Gy single fraction. The patients' median age was 67.1 years. The most frequent indication for radiotherapy was hypertrophic osteoarthritis (383 hips, 82.9%). Treatment results were assessed by comparison of pre- and postoperative hip X-rays (immediately and 6 months after surgery). The analysis of radiographs was performed according to the Brooker score. Results: The overall incidence of HO was 18.1% (n = 84), Brooker score 1 12.3% (n = 57), score 2 3.9% (n = 18), score 3 1.5% (n = 7), and score 4 0.4% (n = 2). Sex, body height, hypertrophic osteoarthritis of higher degree, size of the femoral component of the prosthesis, previous ipsi- or contralateral HO, and short course of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac) therapy significantly influenced the HO rate in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, an interdependence of prosthesis size, sex and patient's height was found. From these three variables, only prosthesis size was statistically significant in multivariate analysis. The cumulative dose of diclofenac ({<=} 300 mg or > 300 mg) within the first 7 postoperative days and previous ipsi- or contralateral HO influenced the incidence of HO in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Preoperative radiotherapy on the evening before surgery is an effective treatment

  18. Results of four one-day electron-accelerator irradiations of enriched Mo-100 targets for the production of Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemerisov, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jonah, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, V. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tkac, P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Virgo, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, G. F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A series of four one-day irradiations was conducted with 100Mo-enriched disk targets. After irradiation, the enriched disks were removed from the target and dissolved. The resulting solution was processed using a NorthStar RadioGenix™ 99mTc generator either at Argonne National Laboratory or at the NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes facility. Runs on the RadioGenix system produced inconsistent analytical results for 99mTc in the Tc/Mo solution. These inconsistencies were attributed to the impurities in the solution or improper column packing. During the irradiations, the performance of the optic transitional radiation (OTR) and infrared cameras was tested in high radiation field. The OTR cameras survived all irradiations, while the IR cameras failed every time. The addition of X-ray and neutron shielding improved camera survivability and decreased the number of upsets.

  19. Effects of prenatal brain irradiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovsky, K.N.; Repin, V.S.; Bomko, M.A.; Pott-Born, R.

    2004-01-01

    A cohort of 154 children born between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987 to mothers who had been evacuated from Pripyat to Kiev, and 143 classmates from Kiev were examined. Individual dose reconstruction of the children exposed in utero was carried out considering internal and external exposure. Prenatal equivalent brain doses were 19.2 ± 11.3 mSv and 0.8 ± 0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4 ± 631.8.1 mSv and 44.5 ± 43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. There were 20 children from Pripyat town (13.2%) who had been exposed in utero to thyroid doses >1 Sv. The prenatally exposed children show significantly more diseases of the nervous system and mental disorders. Among mothers of the exposed group of children with the neuropsychiatric disorders there are much more depression and somatization, as well as mental disorders

  20. Dental problems and irradiation of the O.R.L. sphere: a new attitude. Preliminary results on 488 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paget, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    High-energy radiotherapy has greatly improved the percentage of cures in cancers of the ORL sphere, but it is debatable whether the same progress has been made in the prevention of its sequels and complications. Post-radiotherapeutic dental decay, the result of asialia, is almost inevitable when the saliva glands are irradiated at doses above 3000 rads. These post-radiotherapeutic caries with their train of local infections, pains, and in some very serious but fortunately rare cases evolution towards osteonecrosis of the lower jaw, more often affected than the upper, can cancel out all the benefits derived from a cervico-facial radiotherapy from which a local sterilisation has been obtained. Post-radiotherapeutic tooth decay and its evolution towards osteoradionecrosis are described. A combined effort has been made by a team of ORL specialists, radiotherapists and dentists in an attempt to work out a dental policy aimed at reducing these complications to a minimum [fr

  1. Conventional external irradiation alone as adjuvant treatment in resectable pancreatic cancer; Results of a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosset, J.F.; Pavy, J.J.; Gillet, M.; Mantuon, G.; Pelissier, E.; Schraub, S. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 25 - Besancon (France))

    1992-07-01

    Between 1/85 and 1/90, 14 consecutive patients were entered into a prospective study of conventional adjuvant post-operative external beam radiotherapy after complete resection for a pancreatic adeno-carcinoma. The surgical procedure was a Whipple resection in 9 patients, a distal pancrea-tectomy in 1 patient. There were 3 T[sub 1b], 8 T[sub 2] and 3 T[sub 3] tumors (UICC 1987); nodal involvement was present in 5 cases. The radiotherapy was delivered using a 4-field box technique with a 23 x MV photon beam. All patients received a total dose of 54 Gy to the tumor bed. The mean treated volume was 900 cm[sup 3]. Acute toxicities consisted mainly of weight loss (mean: 2 kg). Two patients had a grade 2 diarrhea and 2 patients a grade 2 gastritis. Late effects were minimal and only observed in 2 patients. The overall loco-regional recurrence (LR) rate was 50%. The median disease-free survival was 12 months, and the median survival was 23 months. This post-operative conventional radiotherapy treatment gives results that are comparable to the results of GITSG-adjuvant study using a combination of split-course radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). (author). 46 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab.

  2. Main examination results of WWER-1000 fuel after its irradiation in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibiliashvili, Yu.; Dubrovin, K.; Vasilchenko, I.; Yenin, A.; Kushmanov, A.; Smirnov, A.; Smirnov, V.

    1994-01-01

    WWER-1000 fuel examination has been undertaken to specify the properties of fuel assembly members by defining the parameters of their materials and their interconnection in power reactor operation conditions. Nine fuel assemblies are examined. The examination program includes: visual inspection, measurement of overall dimensions, eddy-current test, gamma-scanning, X-ray and neutron radiography, analysis of gas pressure and composition inside fuel rods, ceramography/metallography, mass spectrometry, microanalysis and electron microscopy of fuel and fuel claddings. The examination results suggest that WWER-1000 fuel spent at steady-state operation conditions up to 50 Mwd/kg U of burnup is in satisfactory condition. The examination of all types of fuel cladding failures indicates that the reason lies in the interaction of cladding with coolant solid impurities. The nodular cladding corrosion of fuel assembly discharged from the South-Ukrainian NPP is caused by the graphite compounds deposited on the fuel rod. Those deposits are a result of the circulating pump damage and had accidental, non-typical character. Some of the rods were found to have a small cladding 'fretting' of the spacer grid cell material. The values of the majority of parameters determining the fuel efficiency allow to assume that there is a potential for further extension of fuel burnup and operation length. 1 tab., 11 figs

  3. Main examination results of WWER-1000 fuel after its irradiation in power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibiliashvili, Yu [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel` skij Inst. Neorganicheskikh Materialov, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dubrovin, K [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Vasilchenko, I [Opytno-Konstruktorskoe Byuro Gidropress, Podol` sk (Russian Federation); Yenin, A; Kushmanov, A [AO Novosibirskij Zavod Khimcontsentratov, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Smirnov, A; Smirnov, V [Nauchno-Issledovatel` skij Inst. Atomnykh Reaktorov, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    WWER-1000 fuel examination has been undertaken to specify the properties of fuel assembly members by defining the parameters of their materials and their interconnection in power reactor operation conditions. Nine fuel assemblies are examined. The examination program includes: visual inspection, measurement of overall dimensions, eddy-current test, gamma-scanning, X-ray and neutron radiography, analysis of gas pressure and composition inside fuel rods, ceramography/metallography, mass spectrometry, microanalysis and electron microscopy of fuel and fuel claddings. The examination results suggest that WWER-1000 fuel spent at steady-state operation conditions up to 50 Mwd/kg U of burnup is in satisfactory condition. The examination of all types of fuel cladding failures indicates that the reason lies in the interaction of cladding with coolant solid impurities. The nodular cladding corrosion of fuel assembly discharged from the South-Ukrainian NPP is caused by the graphite compounds deposited on the fuel rod. Those deposits are a result of the circulating pump damage and had accidental, non-typical character. Some of the rods were found to have a small cladding `fretting` of the spacer grid cell material. The values of the majority of parameters determining the fuel efficiency allow to assume that there is a potential for further extension of fuel burnup and operation length. 1 tab., 11 figs.

  4. A study on UV irradiated HDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Haibo; Liu Zimin; Wu Shishan; Shen Jian

    2006-01-01

    The structure and properties of HDPE irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) in ozone atmosphere were studied by FT-IR, XPS, gel, and water contact angle test. The oxygen-containing groups such as C=O, C-O and C(=O)O were introduced onto high density polyethylene (HDPE) chains through ultraviolet irradiation in ozone atmosphere, their content increased with the UV irradiation time. Under the same UV irradiation conditions, amount of the oxygen-containing groups introduced in ozone atmosphere was more than that in air atmosphere, indicating that the speed of oxygen-containing groups introduced through UV irradiation in ozone atmosphere was faster than that in air. Therefore, HDPE could be quickly functionalized through UV irradiation in ozone atmosphere. There was no gel formed in the HDPE irradiated in ozone atmosphere. After UV irradiation, the water contact angle of HDPE decreased, and its hydrophilicity was improved, suggesting that the compatibility between the irradiated HDPE and polar polymer or inorganic fillers may be better. Compared with HDPE, the temperature of initial weight loss for irradiated HDPE decreased. The structure and properties of irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend were also investigated. The results showed that the compatibility and interfacial action of the irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend were improved compared to that of HDPE/CaCO 3 blend. The mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend increased with increasing irradiation time. (authors)

  5. Study of inhibition on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Yiming

    2006-03-01

    It was studied that the effect factors of irradiation dose, preservation temperature, oxygen content and antioxidant on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. A mechanism was explained on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. The results showed that irradiation might aggravate lipid oxidation of pork and that decreased preservation temperature and oxygen content of the packaging, added antioxidant also could effectively inhibit lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. (authors)

  6. Long-Term Results of a Highly Performing Conformal Electron Therapy Technique for Chest Wall Irradiation After Mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grellier Adedjouma, Noemie, E-mail: grellier.noemie@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Chevrier, Marion [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Fourquet, Alain; Costa, Emilie; Xu, Haoping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Berger, Frederique [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Campana, Francois [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Laki, Fatima [Department of Surgical Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Beuzeboc, Philippe [Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Lefeuvre, Delphine [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Fournier-Bidoz, Nathalie; Kirova, Youlia M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France)

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate locoregional control and survival after mastectomy, as well as toxicity, in patients irradiated by a previously described postmastectomy highly conformal electron beam radiation therapy technique (PMERT). Methods and Materials: We included all women irradiated by postmastectomy electron beam radiation therapy for nonmetastatic breast cancer between 2007 and 2011 in our department. Acute and late toxicities were retrospectively assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 criteria. Results: Among the 796 women included, 10.1% were triple-negative, 18.8% HER2-positive, and 24.6% received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT). Multifocal lesions were observed in 51.3% of women, and 64.6% had at least 1 involved lymph node (LN). Internal mammary chain, supraclavicular, infraclavicular, and axillary LNs were treated in 85.6%, 88.3%, 77.9%, and 14.9% of cases, respectively. With a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 6-102 months), 5-year locoregional recurrence–free survival and overall survival were 90% (95% confidence interval 88.1%-92.4%) and 90.9% (95% confidence interval 88.9%-93%), respectively. Early skin toxicity was scored as grade 1 in 58.5% of patients, grade 2 in 35.9%, and grade 3 in 4.5%. Concomitant CT was associated with increased grade 3 toxicity (P<.001). At long-term follow-up, 29.8% of patients presented temporary or permanent hyperpigmentation or telangiectasia or fibrosis (grade 1: 23.6%; grade 2: 5.2%; grade 3: 1%), with higher rates among smokers (P=.06); 274 patients (34.4%) underwent breast reconstruction. Only 24 patients (3%) had early esophagitis of grade 1. Only 3 patients developed ischemic heart disease: all had been treated by anthracycline-based CT with or without trastuzumab, all had been irradiated to the left chest wall and LN, and all presented numerous cardiovascular risk factors (2-4 factors). Conclusions: This study demonstrated the good efficacy of this technique in terms of

  7. Preliminary clinical results from the EORTC 11961 trial at the petten irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, W.; Hideghety, K.; Vries, M.J. de

    2000-01-01

    Based on the pre-clinical work of the European Collaboration on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy a study protocol was prepared in 1995 to initiate Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in patients at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten. Bio-distribution and pharmacokinetics data of the boron drug Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH (BSH) as well as the radiobiological effects of BNCT with BSH in healthy brain tissue of dogs were considered in designing the strategy for this clinical Phase I trial. The primary goal of the radiation dose escalation study is the investigation of possible adverse events due to BNCT; i.e. to establish the dose limiting toxicity and the maximal tolerated radiation dose. The treatment is delivered in 4 fractions at a defined average boron concentration in blood. After an observation period of at least 6 months, the dose is increased by 10% for the next cohort. The preliminary results of the first cohort are presented here. The evaluated dose level can be considered to be safe. (author)

  8. State of the VVER-1000 spent U-Gd fuel rods based on the results of post-irradiation examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevlyakov, G.; Zvir, E.; Strozhuk, A.; Polenok, V.; Sidorenko, O.; Volkova, I.; Nikitin, O.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to post-irradiation examinations (PIE) of U-Gd fuel rods with different geometry of the fuel pellets irradiated as part of the VVER-1000 fuel assembly. As evidenced by their PIE data, they did not exhaust their service life based on the main parameters (geometrical dimensions, corrosion state, and release of fission product gases). (author)

  9. First result of deuterium retention in neutron-irradiated tungsten exposed to high flux plasma in TPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Masashi; Hatano, Y.; Calderoni, P.; Oda, T.; Oya, Y.; Sokolov, M.; Zhang, K.; Cao, G.; Kolasinski, R.; Sharpe, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    With the Japan-US joint research project Tritium, Irradiations, and Thermofluids for America and Nippon (TITAN), an initial set of tungsten samples (99.99% purity, A.L.M.T. Co.) were irradiated by high flux neutrons at 323 K to 0.025 dpa in High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Subsequently, one of the neutron-irradiated tungsten samples was exposed to a high-flux deuterium plasma (ion flux: 5 x 10 21 m -2 s -1 , ion fluence: 4 x 10 25 m -2 ) in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The deuterium retention in the neutron-irradiated tungsten was 40% higher in comparison to the unirradiated tungsten. The observed broad desorption spectrum from neutron-irradiated tungsten and associated TMAP modeling of the deuterium release suggest that trapping occurs in the bulk material at more than three different energy sites.

  10. First result of deuterium retention in neutron-irradiated tungsten exposed to high flux plasma in TPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masashi; Hatano, Y.; Calderoni, P.; Oda, T.; Oya, Y.; Sokolov, M.; Zhang, K.; Cao, G.; Kolasinski, R.; Sharpe, J. P.

    2011-08-01

    With the Japan-US joint research project Tritium, Irradiations, and Thermofluids for America and Nippon (TITAN), an initial set of tungsten samples (99.99% purity, A.L.M.T. Co.) were irradiated by high flux neutrons at 323 K to 0.025 dpa in High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Subsequently, one of the neutron-irradiated tungsten samples was exposed to a high-flux deuterium plasma (ion flux: 5 × 1021 m-2 s-1, ion fluence: 4 × 1025 m-2) in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The deuterium retention in the neutron-irradiated tungsten was 40% higher in comparison to the unirradiated tungsten. The observed broad desorption spectrum from neutron-irradiated tungsten and associated TMAP modeling of the deuterium release suggest that trapping occurs in the bulk material at more than three different energy sites.

  11. [Blood amylase: a biological marker in irradiation accidents? Preliminary results obtained at the Gustave-Roussy Institut (GRI) and a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin, C; Cosset, J M; Cailleux, P E; Girinsky, T; Ganem, G; Hubert, D; Comoy, E; Dutreix, J

    1989-01-01

    The retrospective evaluation of the dose after an irradiation accident is of paramount importance; it allows an adequate selection of patients and the most appropriate treatment can then be proposed. Classical physical dosimetry often lacks precision for dose assessment in such accidents. Cytogenetics, usually more reliable, is not 100% accurate and cannot be used in some particular instances. At the Institut Gustave-Roussy, we studied amylasemia in 15 patients who received a total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow grafting, at various dose levels (10, 2 and 1.35 Gy). Hyperamylasemia was found to be constant and dose-dependent. Ten additional patients given a localized irradiation of 2 Gy in the Waldeyer ring had a similar rise in amylasemia as did TBI patients who had received the same dose. In contrast, 13 patients given a pancreatic irradiation (as part of a localized abdominal irradiation) did not show any increase in amylasemia. This study seems to confirm reported data, which suggested that post-TBI hyperamylasemia is almost only related to salivary gland irradiation. Amylasemia could possibly be used as a "biological dosimeter"; however, the dose-effect relationship should be more precisely defined, as well as individual variations. Moreover, the definition of a "threshold-dose" below which hyperamylasemia can never be detected, would be of interest for radioprotection.

  12. Advanced prostate cancer: the results of a randomized comparative trial of high dose irradiation boosting with conformal protons compared with conventional dose irradiation using photons alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, William U; Verhey, Lynn J; Munzenrider, John E; Suit, Herman D; Urie, Marcia M; McManus, Patricia L; Young, Robert H; Shipley, Jenot W; Zietman, Anthony L; Biggs, Peter J; Heney, Niall M; Goitein, Michael

    1995-04-30

    Purpose: Following a thorough Phase I/II study, we evaluated by a Phase III trial high versus conventional dose external beam irradiation as mono-therapy for patients with Stage T3-T4 prostate cancer. Patient outcome following standard dose radiotherapy or following a 12.5% increase in total dose to 75.6 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) using a conformal perineal proton boost was compared for local tumor control, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Methods and Materials: Stage T3-T4, Nx, N0-2, M0 patients received 50.4 Gy by four-field photons and were randomized to receive either an additional 25.2 CGE by conformal protons (arm 1--the high dose arm, 103 patients, total dose 75.6 CGE) or an additional 16.8 Gy by photons (arm 2--the conventional dose arm, 99 patients, total dose 67.2 Gy). Actuarial overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), total recurrence-free survival (TRFS), (clinically free, prostate specific antigen (PSA) less than 4ng/ml and a negative prostate rebiopsy, done in 38 patients without evidence of disease) and local control (digital rectal exam and rebiopsy negative) were evaluated. Results: The protocol completion rate was 90% for arm 1 and 97% for arm 2. With a median follow-up of 61 months (range 3 to 139 months) 135 patients are alive and 67 have died, 20 from causes other than prostate cancer. We found no significant differences in OS, DSS, TRFS or local control between the two arms. Among those completing randomized treatment (93 in arm 1 and 96 in arm 2), the local control at 5 and 8 years for arm 1 is 92% and 77%, respectively and is 80% and 60%, respectively for arm 2 (p = .089) and there are no significant differences in OS, DSS, and TRFS. The local control for the 57 patients with poorly differentiated (Gleason 4 or 5 of 5) tumors at 5 and 8 years for arm 1 is 94% and 84% and is 64% and 19% on arm 2 (p 0.0014). In patients whose digital rectal exam had normalized following treatment and underwent prostate rebiopsy

  13. Advanced prostate cancer: the results of a randomized comparative trial of high dose irradiation boosting with conformal protons compared with conventional dose irradiation using photons alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, William U.; Verhey, Lynn J.; Munzenrider, John E.; Suit, Herman D.; Urie, Marcia M.; McManus, Patricia L.; Young, Robert H.; Shipley, Jenot W.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Biggs, Peter J.; Heney, Niall M.; Goitein, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Following a thorough Phase I/II study, we evaluated by a Phase III trial high versus conventional dose external beam irradiation as mono-therapy for patients with Stage T3-T4 prostate cancer. Patient outcome following standard dose radiotherapy or following a 12.5% increase in total dose to 75.6 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) using a conformal perineal proton boost was compared for local tumor control, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Methods and Materials: Stage T3-T4, Nx, N0-2, M0 patients received 50.4 Gy by four-field photons and were randomized to receive either an additional 25.2 CGE by conformal protons (arm 1--the high dose arm, 103 patients, total dose 75.6 CGE) or an additional 16.8 Gy by photons (arm 2--the conventional dose arm, 99 patients, total dose 67.2 Gy). Actuarial overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), total recurrence-free survival (TRFS), (clinically free, prostate specific antigen (PSA) less than 4ng/ml and a negative prostate rebiopsy, done in 38 patients without evidence of disease) and local control (digital rectal exam and rebiopsy negative) were evaluated. Results: The protocol completion rate was 90% for arm 1 and 97% for arm 2. With a median follow-up of 61 months (range 3 to 139 months) 135 patients are alive and 67 have died, 20 from causes other than prostate cancer. We found no significant differences in OS, DSS, TRFS or local control between the two arms. Among those completing randomized treatment (93 in arm 1 and 96 in arm 2), the local control at 5 and 8 years for arm 1 is 92% and 77%, respectively and is 80% and 60%, respectively for arm 2 (p = .089) and there are no significant differences in OS, DSS, and TRFS. The local control for the 57 patients with poorly differentiated (Gleason 4 or 5 of 5) tumors at 5 and 8 years for arm 1 is 94% and 84% and is 64% and 19% on arm 2 (p 0.0014). In patients whose digital rectal exam had normalized following treatment and underwent prostate rebiopsy

  14. Processing of Irradiated Graphite to Meet Acceptance Criteria for Waste Disposal. Results of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    Graphite is widely used in the nuclear industry and in research facilities and this has led to increasing amounts of irradiated graphite residing in temporary storage facilities pending disposal. This publication arises from a coordinated research project (CRP) on the processing of irradiated graphite to meet acceptance criteria for waste disposal. It presents the findings of the CRP, the general conclusions and recommendations. The topics covered include, graphite management issues, characterization of irradiated graphite, processing and treatment, immobilization and disposal. Included on the attached CD-ROM are formal reports from the participants

  15. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Frias, L.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  16. Biological alterations resulting from chronic lung irradiation. III. Effect of partial 60Co thoracic irradiation upon pulmonary collagen metabolism and fractionation in syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, J.A.; Harris, D.V.; Hahn, F.F.; Belasich, J.J.; Jones, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in pulmonary collagen metabolism were studied in Syrian hamsters given multiple thoracic doses of 60 Co radiation to achieve cumulative exposures of 6000, 4000, and 2000 R. At 13 to 14 wk after initial exposure, 6000- and 4000-R exposures had increased incorporation of injected [ 14 C]proline into pulmonary collagenous protein which suggested an increased collagen synthesis. By 21 to 22 wk after exposure, increased pulmonary soluble collagen was noted. Increased pulmonary scarring was indicated by a variable increase in native collagen at 13 to 36 wk. A collection of alveolar macrophages at 7 to 8 wk followed by inflammation at 13 to 14 wk and a beginning of pulmonary fibrosis at 13 to 19 wk were noted. At 21 to 22 wk after exposure a somewhat more marked pulmonary fibrosis and some epithelialization were observed. Hemosiderin deposits were also observed at 35 to 36 wk after exposure, but pathologic processes were lessened by this time. The early activation of collagen synthesis presumably caused the radiation-induced fibrosis. Later, when collagen tended to accumulate, the synthetic rate was normal. The activation of collagen synthesis caused by external thoracic irradiation resembles that caused by thoracic irradiation from the internal emitter, 144 Ce. Moreover, it demonstrates the usefulness of monitoring collagen biosynthesis by [ 14 C]proline incorporation into the lung. (U.S.)

  17. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, B; Maruccia, G; Petrizzi, L; Bignon, G; Blandin, C; Chauffriat, S; Lebrun, A; Recroix, H; Trapp, J P; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties...

  18. In-situ tritium recovery from Li2O irradiated in fast neutron flux: BEATRIX-II initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurasawa, T.; Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Verrall, R.A.

    1990-10-01

    The BEATRIX-II experiment in FFTF is an in-situ tritium recovery experiment to evaluate the tritium release characteristics of Li 2 O and its stability under fast neutron irradiation to extended burnups. This experiment includes two specimens: a thin annular specimen capable of temperature transients and a larger temperature gradient specimen. During the first 85 days of the operating cycle of the reactor, the tritium recovery rate of a temperature transient capsule was examined as a function of temperature, gas flow rate, gas composition and burnup. Temperature changes in the range from 525 to 625 degree C resulted in decreasing tritium inventory with increasing temperature. Lower gas flow rates resulted in slightly lower tritium release rates while gas composition changes affected the tritium release rate significantly, more than either flow rate or temperature changes. Three different sweep gases were used: He with 0.1% H 2 , He with 0.01% H 2 , and pure He. Decreasing the amount of hydrogen in the sweep gas decreased the steady-state release rate by as much as a factor of two. A temperature gradient capsule is more prototypic of the conditions expected in a fusion blanket and was designed to provide data that can be used in evaluating the operational parameters of a solid breeder in a blanket environment. The operation of this canister during the first 85 EFPD cycle suggests that Li 2 O is a viable solid breeder material. 9 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Preoperative Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Preliminary Results of a Prospective, Phase 2 Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Elizabeth; Kesmodel, Susan B.; Bellavance, Emily; Drogula, Cynthia; Tkaczuk, Katherine; Cohen, Randi J.; Citron, Wendla; Morgan, Michelle; Staats, Paul; Feigenberg, Steven; Regine, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of utilizing 3-dimensional conformal accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) in the preoperative setting followed by standard breast-conserving therapy. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective trial testing the feasibility of preoperative APBI followed by lumpectomy for patients with early-stage invasive ductal breast cancer. Eligible patients had T1-T2 ( 21 days after radiation therapy. Adjuvant therapy was given as per standard of care. Results: Twenty-seven patients completed treatment. With a median follow-up of 3.6 years (range, 0.5-5 years), there have been no local or regional failures. A complete pathologic response according to hematoxylin and eosin stains was seen in 4 patients (15%). There were 4 grade 3 seromas. Patient-reported cosmetic outcome was rated as good to excellent in 79% of patients after treatment. Conclusions: Preoperative 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy−APBI is feasible and well tolerated in select patients with early-stage breast cancer, with no reported local recurrences and good to excellent cosmetic results. The pathologic response rates associated with this nonablative APBI dose regimen are particularly encouraging and support further exploration of this paradigm.

  20. Oscillator measurements of the reactivity changes resulting from the irradiation of low enrichment particulate fuel in the Dragon reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbidge, B.L.H.; Franklin, B.M.; Small, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    This Report describes a series of experiments carried out as a joint UKAEA/CEA/DRAGON project to determine the reactivity changes of low-enrichment particulate fuel samples following their irradiation in the DRAGON reactor to various levels up to approximately 60,000 MWD/Te. The samples are described, together with the method of measurement of reactivity in the Winfrith reactor HECTOR, which was an extension of the well-known Oscillator Technique to yield simultaneously overall reactivity changes and changes in macroscopic absorption cross-sections. Measurements were carried out at room temperature in two reactor spectra; a thermal spectrum and one typical of an HTR type reactor. The resultant reactivity changes are presented together with the relevant sample burn-ups as determined by #betta#-scanning methods and, in some cases, by rigorous chemical analysis. The results of supporting measurements are also reported, carried out to characterise the neutron spectra in which the oscillator measurements were made and to determine the neutron flux distributions in the HECTOR reactor. (author)

  1. Preoperative Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Preliminary Results of a Prospective, Phase 2 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Elizabeth, E-mail: Enichols1@umm.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kesmodel, Susan B.; Bellavance, Emily; Drogula, Cynthia [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tkaczuk, Katherine [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Cohen, Randi J.; Citron, Wendla; Morgan, Michelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Staats, Paul [Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Feigenberg, Steven; Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of utilizing 3-dimensional conformal accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) in the preoperative setting followed by standard breast-conserving therapy. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective trial testing the feasibility of preoperative APBI followed by lumpectomy for patients with early-stage invasive ductal breast cancer. Eligible patients had T1-T2 (<3 cm), N0 tumors. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85-Gy fractions delivered twice daily. Surgery was performed >21 days after radiation therapy. Adjuvant therapy was given as per standard of care. Results: Twenty-seven patients completed treatment. With a median follow-up of 3.6 years (range, 0.5-5 years), there have been no local or regional failures. A complete pathologic response according to hematoxylin and eosin stains was seen in 4 patients (15%). There were 4 grade 3 seromas. Patient-reported cosmetic outcome was rated as good to excellent in 79% of patients after treatment. Conclusions: Preoperative 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy−APBI is feasible and well tolerated in select patients with early-stage breast cancer, with no reported local recurrences and good to excellent cosmetic results. The pathologic response rates associated with this nonablative APBI dose regimen are particularly encouraging and support further exploration of this paradigm.

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  3. Ten-year results of the treatment of early-stage breast carcinoma in elderly women using breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solin, Lawrence J.; Schultz, Delray J.; Fowble, Barbara L.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The optimal management of breast cancer in elderly women is not well established. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the outcome of breast cancer in elderly women treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: An analysis was performed of 558 women age ≥ 50 years treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation for Stages I-II invasive carcinoma of the breast. Of the 558 total women, there were 173 elderly women age ≥ 65 years and a comparison group of 385 women age 50-64 years. Treatment for all women included complete gross excision of the primary tumor, pathologic axillary lymph node staging, and definitive breast irradiation. Adjuvant systemic chemotherapy was used in 18% (102 out of 558) of the overall group. Adjuvant tamoxifen was used in 17% (94 out of 558) of the overall group. The median follow-up after treatment was 6.2 years (mean = 6.4 years; range 0.1-15.4 years). Results: Elderly patients age ≥ 65 years and patients age 50-64 years were both found to have tumors with adverse prognostic features, including clinical T2 lesions (43 vs. 34%, respectively; p = 0.055), estrogen receptor negativity (9 vs. 16%, respectively; p = 0.13), and progesterone receptor negativity (17 vs. 21%, respectively; p = 0.50). Pathologic axillary lymph node staging showed that 24% of the elderly women were node positive, including 8% with four or more positive nodes, which was not different from women age 50-64 years (p = 0.23). There was no difference between the two age groups for the rate of deaths from breast cancer at 10 years (13 vs. 13%, respectively; p = 0.71). However, there was a significant difference between the two age groups for the rate of deaths from intercurrent disease at 10 years (11 vs. 2%, respectively; p = 0.0006). There were no differences between the two age groups for the 10-year rates of overall survival (77 vs. 85%, respectively; p = 0

  4. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    model to study the possibility of recovering from HGPS bone disease upon silencing of the HGPS mutation, and the potential benefits from treatment with resveratrol. We show that complete silencing of the transgenic expression of progerin normalized bone morphology and mineralization already after 7...... weeks. The improvements included lower frequencies of rib fractures and callus formation, an increased number of osteocytes in remodeled bone, and normalized dentinogenesis. The beneficial effects from resveratrol treatment were less significant and to a large extent similar to mice treated with sucrose...... alone. However, the reversal of the dental phenotype of overgrown and laterally displaced lower incisors in HGPS mice could be attributed to resveratrol. Our results indicate that the HGPS bone defects were reversible upon suppressed transgenic expression and suggest that treatments targeting aberrant...

  5. Retinal vascular pathology risk development in the irradiated at different ages as a result if Chornobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedyirko, P.A.; Babenko, T.F.; Doryichevs'ka, R.Yu.; Gar'kava, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    The object of the study was the state of the retinal vessels in 2,531 persons (1,948 evacuated from the city of Pripyat under the age of 20 and 583 exposed to radiation in utero as a result of the Chornobyl NPP disaster. The results of standardized ophthalmic examination conducted from 1993 to 2000 within the framework of Clinical and epidemiological registry are used for the analysis. The evacuees were subdivided into different age groups of the exposed to radiation. The cohort of control group formed corresponding age groups of the unirradiated control. Statistical analysis of the survey results was carried out using the free trial version of ''Open Epi 2.2.1'' software package. The results obtained revealed a significant prevalence of retinal vessels pathology in all groups. The difference in angiopathy prevalence in exposed in utero persons was significant compared to age control. The prevalence of retinal vascular pathology was also significantly higher in all groups of evacuees. Angiopathy prevalence was higher in the group exposed in utero and at the age of 8-12 years, and in the group of people who were exposed at the age of 4-7 years, the risk of angiopathy was lower. It is proved that the occurrence of distant radiation effects mainly depends on the age at which a person has undergone irradiation. It should be noted that all the other conditions were approximately the same. If working conditions of the persons who were exposed in utero or were aged 8 to 20 years when the Chornobyl disaster happened are connected with occupational radiation exposure it is necessary to take additional preventive measures

  6. RETINAL VASCULAR PATHOLOGY RISK DEVELOPMENT IN THE IRRADIATED AT DIFFERENT AGES AS A RESULT OF CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirko, P A; Babenko, T F; Dorichevska, R Yu; Garkava, N A

    2015-12-01

    To assess the relationship between the age at which a person undergoes radiation exposure and risk of developing eye lesions (case study of the retinal angiopathy prevalence). The object of the study was the state of the retinal vessels in 2,531 persons (1,948 evacuated from the city of Pripyat under the age of 20 and 583 exposed to radiation in utero as a result of the Chernobyl NPP disaster. The results of standardized ophthalmic examination conducted from 1993 to 2000 within the framework of Clinical and epidemiological registry are used for the analysis. The evacuees were subdivided into different age groups of the exposed to radiation. The cohort of control group formed corresponding age groups of the unirradiated control. Statistical analysis of the survey results was carried out using the free trial version of «Open Epi 2.2.1» software package. The results obtained revealed a significant prevalence of retinal vessels pathology in all groups. The difference in angiopathy prevalence in exposed in utero persons was significant compared to age-control. The prevalence of retinal vascular pathology was also significantly higher in all groups of evacuees. Angiopathy prevalence was higher in the group exposed in utero and at the age of 8-12 years, and in the group of people who were exposed at the age of 4-7 years, the risk of angiopathy was lower. It is proved that the occurrence of distant radiation effects mainly depends on the age at which a person has undergone irradiation. It should be noted that all the other conditions were approximately the same. If working conditions of the persons who were exposed in utero or were aged 8 to 20 years when the Chernobyl disaster happened are connected with occupational radiation exposure it is necessary to take additional preventive measures. P. А. Fedirko, T. F. Babenko, R. Yu. Dorichevska, N. А. Garkava.

  7. Is There a Role for Pelvic Irradiation in Localized Prostate Adenocarcinoma? Update of the Long-Term Survival Results of the GETUG-01 Randomized Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommier, Pascal, E-mail: Pascal.pommier@lyon.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); Chabaud, Sylvie [Department of Clinical Research and Innovation, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); Lagrange, Jean-Leon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire H. Mondor, Créteil (France); Richaud, Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Bergognié, Bordeaux (France); Le Prise, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Eugène Marquis, Rennes (France); Wagner, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Andrée Dutreix, Dunkerque (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Beckendorf, Veronique [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Suchaud, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de Roanne, Roanne (France); Bernier, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Perol, David [Department of Clinical Research and Innovation, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); Carrie, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To report the long-term results of the French Genitourinary Study Group (GETUG)-01 study in terms of event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) and assess the potential interaction between hormonotherapy and pelvic nodes irradiation. Patients and Methods: Between December 1998 and June 2004, 446 patients with T1b-T3, N0pNx, M0 prostate carcinoma were randomly assigned to either pelvic nodes and prostate or prostate-only radiation therapy. Patients were stratified into 2 groups: “low risk” (T1-T2 and Gleason score 6 and prostate-specific antigen <3× the upper normal limit of the laboratory) (92 patients) versus “high risk” (T3 or Gleason score >6 or prostate-specific antigen >3× the upper normal limit of the laboratory). Short-term 6-month neoadjuvant and concomitant hormonal therapy was allowed only for high-risk patients. Radiation therapy was delivered with a 3-dimensional conformal technique, using a 4-field technique for the pelvic volume (46 Gy). The total dose recommended to the prostate moved from 66 Gy to 70 Gy during the course of the study. Criteria for EFS included biologic prostate-specific antigen recurrences and/or a local or metastatic progression. Results: With a median follow-up of 11.4 years, the 10-year OS and EFS were similar in the 2 treatment arms. A higher but nonsignificant EFS was observed in the low-risk subgroup in favor of pelvic nodes radiation therapy (77.2% vs 62.5%; P=.18). A post hoc subgroup analysis showed a significant benefit of pelvic irradiation when the risk of lymph node involvement was <15% (Roach formula). This benefit seemed to be limited to patients who did not receive hormonal therapy. Conclusion: Pelvic nodes irradiation did not statistically improve EFS or OS in the whole population but may be beneficial in selected low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with exclusive radiation therapy.

  8. Characterization and Beam Tests Results of Non-Uniformly Irradiated 3D Pixel Sensors for HEP Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, I.; Grinstein, S.; Micelli, A.; Tsiskaridze, S.

    2013-06-01

    3D Pixel detectors, with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate, offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the charge collection distance can be reduced independently of the bulk thickness. In the framework of the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) program, work has been carried out to study the suitability of 3D pixel devices for forward proton tracking. The AFP tracker unit will consist of an array of five pixel sensors placed at 2-3 mm from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) proton beam. The proximity to the beam is essential for the AFP physics program as it directly increases the sensitivity of the experiment. Thus, there are two critical requirements for the AFP pixel detector. First, the dead region of the sensor has to be minimized. Second, the device has to be able to cope with a very inhomogeneous radiation distribution. Recent results of the characterization and beam test studies of in-homogeneously irradiated 3D pixel sensors produced at CNM-Barcelona will be presented. (authors)

  9. Temperature annealing of tracks induced by ion irradiation of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Yao, H.J.; Sun, Y.M.; Duan, J.L.; Hou, M.D.; Mo, D.; Wang, Z.G.; Jin, Y.F.; Abe, H.; Li, Z.C.; Sekimura, N.

    2006-01-01

    Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples were irradiated by Xe ions of initial kinetic energy of 3 MeV/u. The irradiations were performed at temperatures of 500 and 800 K. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images show that the tracks occasionally have elongated structures under high-temperature irradiation. The track creation yield at 800 K is by three orders of magnitude smaller compared to that obtained during room-temperature irradiation. STM and Raman spectra show that amorphization occurs in graphite samples irradiated at 500 K to higher fluences, but not at 800 K. The obtained experimental results clearly reveal that the irradiation under high temperature causes track annealing

  10. Irradiation probe and laboratory for irradiated material evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutny, S.; Kupca, L.; Beno, P.; Stubna, M.; Mrva, V.; Chmelo, P.

    1975-09-01

    The survey and assessment are given of the tasks carried out in the years 1971 to 1975 within the development of methods for structural materials irradiation and of a probe for the irradiation thereof in the A-1 reactor. The programme and implementation of laboratory tests of the irradiation probe are described. In the actual reactor irradiation, the pulse tube length between the pressure governor and the irradiation probe is approximately 20 m, the diameter is 2.2 mm. Temperature reaches 800 degC while the pressure control system operates at 20 degC. The laboratory tests (carried out at 20 degC) showed that the response time of the pressure control system to a stepwise pressure change in the irradiation probe from 0 to 22 at. is 0.5 s. Pressure changes were also studied in the irradiation probe and in the entire system resulting from temperature changes in the irradiation probe. Temperature distribution in the body of the irradiation probe heating furnace was determined. (B.S.)

  11. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  12. First result of deuterium retention in neutron-irradiated tungsten exposed to high flux plasma in TPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Masashi, E-mail: Masashi.Shimada@inl.gov [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Hatano, Y. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Calderoni, P. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Oda, T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Oya, Y. [Radioscience Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Sokolov, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhang, K. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Cao, G. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kolasinski, R. [Hydrogen and Metallurgical Science Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Sharpe, J.P. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    With the Japan-US joint research project Tritium, Irradiations, and Thermofluids for America and Nippon (TITAN), an initial set of tungsten samples (99.99% purity, A.L.M.T. Co.) were irradiated by high flux neutrons at 323 K to 0.025 dpa in High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Subsequently, one of the neutron-irradiated tungsten samples was exposed to a high-flux deuterium plasma (ion flux: 5 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, ion fluence: 4 x 10{sup 25} m{sup -2}) in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The deuterium retention in the neutron-irradiated tungsten was 40% higher in comparison to the unirradiated tungsten. The observed broad desorption spectrum from neutron-irradiated tungsten and associated TMAP modeling of the deuterium release suggest that trapping occurs in the bulk material at more than three different energy sites.

  13. An in-situ field ion microscope study of irradiated tungsten and tungsten alloys. II. The recovery behavior in Stages I and II: experimental results. Report No. 2347

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.L.; Seidman, D.N.

    1974-12-01

    The low temperature FIM isochronal annealing spectrum of four different purity levels of tungsten (resistivity ratios R of 5 . 10 4 , 1.5 . 10 4 , 50 and 15), irradiated in-situ with 30 keV W + ions to a dose of 5 . 10 12 ion cm -2 at 18 K, consisted of distinct recovery peaks at approximately 38, 50, 65 and 80 K with a small amount of recovery observed up to 120 K. The spectra were essentially identical between 18 and 120 K, but a fifth group of W specimens with approximately equal to 5 began to exhibit some deviations from the standard spectrum. This result indicates that the distribution of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) produced by the ion irradiations in the W FIM tips was such that the SIA-SIA reaction dominated the recovery behavior. The isochronal peak width at half-maximum for the 38 K long-range SIA migration peak and the Stage II peaks in pure W were shown to be approximately equal to the value predicted by a diffusion model. The isochronal recovery spectra for W--0.5 at. per cent and 3 at. per cent Re alloys were radically different from the isochronal recovery spectra of pure W. For both W--Re alloys, the amount of recovery for the long-range migration peak was suppressed, and, for the 3 at. per cent Re alloy, it was almost eliminated. High-purity W (R = 5 . 10 4 ), doped with 50-100 appm carbon, showed a 20 per cent reduction in the amount of recovery observed for the long-range migration peak at 38 K. (U.S.)

  14. Mediastinal radiotherapy after multidrug chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with SCLC - treatment results after long-term follow-up and literature overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, M.K.A.; Bloch, E.; Overbeck, T.; Wolff, H.A.; Hille, A.; Hess, C.F.; Christiansen, H.; Koerber, W.; Vorwerk, H.; Muller, M.; Pradier, O.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. - Curative therapy for patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is based on multidrug chemotherapy combinations and radiotherapy. After a long time follow-up, the aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of sequential chemo-radiotherapy and the effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). Methods. - From 1995-2005, 96 patients with SCLC (64 limited-disease [LD], 32 extensive-disease [ED]; median age 61 years [range 39-79]) were treated at our department with varying chemotherapy regimens and sequential mediastinal radiotherapy (50 Gy + 10 Gy boost in case of residual disease after chemotherapy). Afterwards, 15 patients with LD, good general condition and at least partial response after local treatment received PCI (30 Gy). Results. - After a median follow-up of 78.6 months, 20 patients remained alive (20.8%, median survival time 18.2 months). The 2-/5-year overall survival rates were 33.8% and 12.6%, the 2-/5-year loco-regional control rates were 30.3% and 24.5%, respectively. Distant metastases occurred in 43 patients (24 cerebral). Cerebral metastasis occurred in 6.7% and 27.2% of the patients with PCI and without PCI respectively. Only tumor stage showed a statistically significant impact on overall survival and loco-regional control in multivariate analysis. Radiotherapy was well tolerated. Grade 3/4 toxicity occurred in seven patients. Prognosis of patients with SCLC remains poor. Administration of PCI in selected patients bears a decrease in the incidence of cerebral metastases. Alternative chemotherapy schemes as well as irradiation schemes and techniques should be the substance of future randomized trials. (authors)

  15. Results of high intensity afterloading irradiation with 192 iridium in the therapy of genital tumors in women under different dose rates, fractionations and total doses in comparison with conventional radium contact irradiation. Ergebnisse der High-Intensity-Afterloadingbestrahlung mit 192 Iridium in der Therapie von Genitaltumoren der Frau unter verschiedenen Dosisleistungen, Fraktionierungen und Gesamtdosen im Vergleich mit konventioneller Radiumkontaktbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giers, G

    1986-05-07

    In comparison to conventional radium therapy are to be evaluated the results of the high intensity afterloading technique with the help of the parameters survial rate and complication rate. Thereby were included in the examination 4 documentations of results (collum, cervix stump, corpus and vaginal carcinoma) with altogether 742 patients with 2806 single irradiations and an evaluation of the therapy after several modifications of the therapy schemes. The 5-year survival rate was in the case of collum carcinoma: 68.4%, cervix stump: 50%, corpus carcinoma: 76%, and vaginal carcinoma: 66.6%. The corresponding 3-year survival rates were: 74.2%, 80%, 84% and 70% with primary irradiation. Only with cervix stump carcinoma were the values for post-operative irradiation. The description of the irradiation results showed, that with the changing of the fractionation mode and the dose level in collum and corpus carcinoma the irreversible complications as an expression of the success of a new therapy were reduced. The for now best suited therapy schema (fractionation and dosing) are described. (TRV).

  16. Dose Distribution of Gamma Irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Woo; Shin, Sang Hun; Son, Ki Hong; Lee, Chang Yeol; Kim, Kum Bae; Jung, Hai Jo; Ji, Young Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Gamma irradiator using Cs-137 have been widely utilized to the irradiation of cell, blood, and animal, and the dose measurement and education. The Gamma cell 3000 Elan (Nordion International, Kanata, Ontario, Canada) irradiator was installed in 2003 with Cs-137 and dose rate of 3.2 Gy/min. And the BioBeam 8000 (Gamma-Service Medical GmbH, Leipzig, Germany) irradiator was installed in 2008 with Cs-137 and dose rate of 3.5 Gy/min. Our purpose was to evaluate the practical dosimetric problems associated with inhomogeneous dose distribution within the irradiated volume in open air state using glass dosimeter and Gafchromic EBT film dosimeter for routine Gamma irradiator dosimetry applications at the KIRAMS and the measurements were compared with each other. In addition, an user guideline for useful utilization of the device based on practical dosimetry will be prepared. The measurement results of uniformity of delivered dose within the device showed variation more than 14% between middle point and the lowest position at central axis. Therefore, to maintain dose variation within 10%, the criteria of useful dose distribution, for research radiation effects, the irradiated specimen located at central axis of the container should be placed within 30 mm from top and bottom surface, respectively. In addition, for measurements using the film, the variations of dose distribution were more then 50% for the case of less than 10 second irradiation, mostly within 20% for the case of more than 20 second irradiation, respectively. Therefore, the irradiation experiments using the BioBeam 8000 irradiator are recommended to be used for specimen required at least more than 20 second irradiation time.

  17. Prospects of an alternative treatment against Trypanosoma cruzi based on abietic acid derivatives show promising results in Balb/c mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, F; Guardia, J J; Marin, C; Messouri, I; Rosales, M J; Urbanová, K; Chayboun, I; Chahboun, R; Alvarez-Manzaneda, E J; Sánchez-Moreno, M

    2015-01-07

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoa parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is an example of extended parasitaemia with unmet medical needs. Current treatments based on old-featured benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox are expensive and do not fulfil the criteria of effectiveness, and a lack of toxicity devoid to modern drugs. In this work, a group of abietic acid derivatives that are chemically stable and well characterised were introduced as candidates for the treatment of Chagas disease. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed in order to test the effectiveness of these compounds. Finally, those which showed the best activity underwent additional studies in order to elucidate the possible mechanism of action. In vitro results indicated that some compounds have low toxicity (i.e. >150 μM, against Vero cell) combined with high efficacy (i.e. <20 μM) against some forms of T. cruzi. Further in vivo studies on mice models confirmed the expectations of improvements in infected mice. In vivo tests on the acute phase gave parasitaemia inhibition values higher those of Bz, and a remarkable decrease in the reactivation of parasitaemia was found in the chronic phase after immunosuppression of the mice treated with one of the compounds. The morphological alterations found in treated parasites with our derivatives confirmed extensive damage; energetic metabolism disturbances were also registered by (1)H NMR. The demonstrated in vivo activity and low toxicity, together with the use of affordable starting products and the lack of synthetic complexity, put these abietic acid derivatives in a remarkable position toward the development of an anti-Chagasic agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapamycin and chloroquine: the in vitro and in vivo effects of autophagy-modifying drugs show promising results in valosin containing protein multisystem proteinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angèle Nalbandian

    Full Text Available Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP gene cause hereditary Inclusion body myopathy (hIBM associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB, frontotemporal dementia (FTD, more recently termed multisystem proteinopathy (MSP. Affected individuals exhibit scapular winging and die from progressive muscle weakness, and cardiac and respiratory failure, typically in their 40s to 50s. Histologically, patients show the presence of rimmed vacuoles and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43-positive large ubiquitinated inclusion bodies in the muscles. We have generated a VCPR155H/+ mouse model which recapitulates the disease phenotype and impaired autophagy typically observed in patients with VCP disease. Autophagy-modifying agents, such as rapamycin and chloroquine, at pharmacological doses have previously shown to alter the autophagic flux. Herein, we report results of administration of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway, and chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor which reverses autophagy by accumulating in lysosomes, responsible for blocking autophagy in 20-month old VCPR155H/+ mice. Rapamycin-treated mice demonstrated significant improvement in muscle performance, quadriceps histological analysis, and rescue of ubiquitin, and TDP-43 pathology and defective autophagy as indicated by decreased protein expression levels of LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, optineurin and inhibiting the mTORC1 substrates. Conversely, chloroquine-treated VCPR155H/+ mice revealed progressive muscle weakness, cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43, ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies and increased LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, and optineurin expression levels. Our in vitro patient myoblasts studies treated with rapamycin demonstrated an overall improvement in the autophagy markers. Targeting the mTOR pathway ameliorates an increasing list of disorders, and these findings suggest that VCP disease and related neurodegenerative multisystem

  19. A Cs-137 afterloading device. Preliminary results of cell kinetic effects of low dose-rate irradiation in an experimental tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutgers, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    A Cs-137 afterloading technique is described which can be used in experimental tumours. Preliminary results, obtained with the human cervical carcinoma ME-180 xenografted to nude athymic mice, demonstrated that 20 Gy of low dose-rate irradiation induced an important redistribution of cells over cell cycle. The proportion of cells in G2-phase increased from 14.4% to 44.2% at 140 hours after irradiation. This method allows an accurate calculation of the dose-rate distribution in the tumour. Investigations of the cell kinetic effects of low dose-rate irradiation, at different dose-rates and different total doses, are therefore facilitated by the technique. (orig.) [de

  20. Significance of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Nobuko; Ogami, Koji; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Koga, Kenji; Waki, Norio; Higashi, Hidefumi; Hayashi, Asami; Shibata, Koichiro; Watanabe, Katsuji

    1986-01-01

    From 1978 through 1983, 27 patients were treated with surgery followed by irradiation (irradiated group) and 29 with surery alone (non-irradiated group). In the irradiated group, 10 had stage II and 17 stage III; in the non-irradiated group, 25 had stage II and 4 stage III. The most common histology was medullary tubular carcinoma (MTC). There was no significant difference in survivals at 3 years and 5 years between the groups. Similarly, no significant difference was seen among stage II patients. Patients with MTC tended to have worse survivals in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group, with no statistically significant difference. Among stage II patients, no major differences in local recurrence were seen between the groups; the incidence of distant metastases tended to be high in the irradiated group. The incidence of both local recurrence and distant metastases for stage III patients showed a tendency to be higher in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group. The results indicated no apparent benifit of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. A randomized clinical trial is needed for the evaluation of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Total-body irradiation - role and indications. Results from the German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Bamberg, M.; Belka, C.; Ottinger, H.; Mueller, C.H.; Allgaier, S.; Faul, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: total-body irradiation (TBI) is a key part of the conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The exact role of TBI as part of the conditioning regimen is largely unclear. In order to determine the relevance of TBI, the status of TBI utilization was analyzed on the basis of a nationwide registry. Material and methods: 14,371 patients (1998-2002) documented in the German Stem Cell Transplantation Registry (DRST) were analyzed regarding TBI utilization prior to autologous or allogeneic transplantation, underlying disorder, type of donor, stem cell source, and size of the treatment center. Results: for autologous HSCT ∝10% of the patients (873/8,167) received TBI, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, ∝80%, 171/214) and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (l-NHL, ∝35%, 330/929) being the most important disorders. In the allogeneic setting 50% of the patients (2,399/4,904) received TBI, with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, 85%, 794/930), acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 45%, 662/1,487) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 49%, 561/1,156) being the key indications. The type of donor, stem cell source and center size did not strongly influence the use of TBI. Conclusion: TBI has only a limited role for the conditioning prior to autologous HCST. For allogeneic HSCT TBI is widely accepted with no major changes over the observation time. The use of TBI is generally accepted for ALL, whereas approximately half of the patients with CML or AML received TBI. Although a considerably large database was analyzed, no clear determinants for the use of TBI could be distinguished. (orig.)

  2. Total-body irradiation - role and indications. Results from the German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Bamberg, M.; Belka, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Ottinger, H. [German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST) Secretary, Univ. of Essen (Germany); Mueller, C.H.; Allgaier, S. [DRST Datacenter, DRK Bloodbank Center Ulm (Germany); Faul, C. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Background and purpose: total-body irradiation (TBI) is a key part of the conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The exact role of TBI as part of the conditioning regimen is largely unclear. In order to determine the relevance of TBI, the status of TBI utilization was analyzed on the basis of a nationwide registry. Material and methods: 14,371 patients (1998-2002) documented in the German Stem Cell Transplantation Registry (DRST) were analyzed regarding TBI utilization prior to autologous or allogeneic transplantation, underlying disorder, type of donor, stem cell source, and size of the treatment center. Results: for autologous HSCT {proportional_to}10% of the patients (873/8,167) received TBI, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, {proportional_to}80%, 171/214) and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (l-NHL, {proportional_to}35%, 330/929) being the most important disorders. In the allogeneic setting 50% of the patients (2,399/4,904) received TBI, with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, 85%, 794/930), acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 45%, 662/1,487) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 49%, 561/1,156) being the key indications. The type of donor, stem cell source and center size did not strongly influence the use of TBI. Conclusion: TBI has only a limited role for the conditioning prior to autologous HCST. For allogeneic HSCT TBI is widely accepted with no major changes over the observation time. The use of TBI is generally accepted for ALL, whereas approximately half of the patients with CML or AML received TBI. Although a considerably large database was analyzed, no clear determinants for the use of TBI could be distinguished. (orig.)

  3. Microstructural Characterization of a Mg Matrix U-Mo Dispersion Fuel Plate Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor to High Fission Density: SEM Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Miller, Brandon D.; Gan, Jian; Robinson, Adam B.; Medvedev, Pavel G.; Madden, James W.; Moore, Glenn A.

    2016-06-01

    Low-enriched (U-235 RERTR-8 experiment at high temperature, high fission rate, and high power, up to high fission density. This paper describes the results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of an irradiated fuel plate using polished samples and those produced with a focused ion beam. A follow-up paper will discuss the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Using SEM, it was observed that even at very aggressive irradiation conditions, negligible chemical interaction occurred between the irradiated U-7Mo fuel particles and Mg matrix; no interconnection of fission gas bubbles from fuel particle to fuel particle was observed; the interconnected fission gas bubbles that were observed in the irradiated U-7Mo particles resulted in some transport of solid fission products to the U-7Mo/Mg interface; the presence of microstructural pathways in some U-9.1 Mo particles that could allow for transport of fission gases did not result in the apparent presence of large porosity at the U-7Mo/Mg interface; and, the Mg-Al interaction layers that were present at the Mg matrix/Al 6061 cladding interface exhibited good radiation stability, i.e. no large pores.

  4. Detection of irradiated constituents in processed food with complex lipid matrices. Results of a research project of Baden-Wuerttemberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Berg, H.

    1999-01-01

    The detection of irradiated constituents in processed food with a complex lipid matrix can be adversely affected by two conditions. The small amounts of radiation-induced hydrocarbons are diluted by the fat matrix of the food, or there are substances accompanying the lipids in the matrix and thus make the analysis more difficult. In those cases, sample preparation alone by means of Florisil SPE (solid-phase extraction) is not enough and requires additional, subsequent SPE argentation chromatography of the Florisil eluate, as this latter analytical method permits reliable detection down to very small amounts of irradiated, fat-containing constituents even in a complex lipid matrix. SPE-Florisil/argentation chromatography detects and selects radiation-induced hydrocarbons in a complex lipid matrix, so that detection of irradiation at even very low doses down to 0.025 kGy is possible. The method described is highly sensitive, inexpensive, and easy to apply. It efficiently substitutes such complex preparation or measuring methods as SFE-GC/MS or LC-GC/MS. This highly sensitive testing method for detection of food irradiation can be carried out in almost any analytical laboratory. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Furan formation from fatty acids as a result of storage, gamma irradiation, UV-C and heat treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furan is a possible human carcinogen that has been found in many thermally processed foods. The effects of thermal processing, gamma and UV-C irradiation on formation of furan from different fatty acids was studied. In addition, formation of furan from fatty acid emulsions during storage at 25C and...

  6. Therapeutic cranial nerve irradiation: results from a multi-center dose response study of radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondziolka, D; Flickinger, J; Lunsford, L D; Young, R; Vermeulen, S; Duma, C; Jacques, D B; Rand, R; Regis, J; Peragut, J C; Epstein, M H; Lindquist, C

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objective: We performed a multi-institution study to evaluate the technique, dose-selection parameters, and results of gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of trigeminal neuralgia. We hypothesized that MRI-stereotactic targeting of the trigeminal nerve and irradiation with a single 4 mm isocenter, 2-4 mm anterior to the brainstem, could be a safe and effective treatment for this disorder. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients at five centers had radiosurgery using a single 4 mm isocenter targeted at the root entry zone. All patients had typical trigeminal neuralgia. The mean patient age was 70 years, (range, 40-87). Thirty-two patients had undergone prior surgery, and the mean number of procedures performed was 2.8 (range, 1-7). Eighteen patients (36%) had not had prior surgery before radiosurgery. Maximum radiosurgery doses included 60 Gy (n=8), 65 Gy (n=3), 70 Gy (n=27), 75 Gy (n=2), 80 Gy (n=6) and 90 Gy (n=4). All patients were discharged within 24 hours and were studied in regard to the degree of pain relief, latency interval to pain relief, sensory loss, and the need for further therapy. Mean follow-up after radiosurgery was 9.2 months (range, 2-26 months). Results: At last follow-up, 25 patients (50%) had excellent control (pain-free), 17 (34%) had good control (50-90% relief), and 8 (16%) had failed (see Figure). The median time to pain relief was one month. We identified an actuarial response rate of 53% for complete pain relief at seven months, and 93% for pain reduction (50-100% relief). At 18 months, these results declined to 48% and 77% respectively. A significantly greater proportion of patients receiving a radiosurgery maximum dose of {>=} 70 Gy achieved complete pain relief (63% vs. 18%) and >50% pain reduction (96% vs. 80%) than those with doses <70 Gy. Patients without prior surgery had significantly better outcomes in univariate testing. Three patients (6%) developed increased facial paresthesiae after radiosurgery

  7. Therapeutic cranial nerve irradiation: results from a multi-center dose response study of radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondziolka, D.; Flickinger, J.; Lunsford, L.D.; Young, R.; Vermeulen, S.; Duma, C.; Jacques, D.B.; Rand, R.; Regis, J.; Peragut, J.C.; Epstein, M.H.; Lindquist, C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: We performed a multi-institution study to evaluate the technique, dose-selection parameters, and results of gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of trigeminal neuralgia. We hypothesized that MRI-stereotactic targeting of the trigeminal nerve and irradiation with a single 4 mm isocenter, 2-4 mm anterior to the brainstem, could be a safe and effective treatment for this disorder. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients at five centers had radiosurgery using a single 4 mm isocenter targeted at the root entry zone. All patients had typical trigeminal neuralgia. The mean patient age was 70 years, (range, 40-87). Thirty-two patients had undergone prior surgery, and the mean number of procedures performed was 2.8 (range, 1-7). Eighteen patients (36%) had not had prior surgery before radiosurgery. Maximum radiosurgery doses included 60 Gy (n=8), 65 Gy (n=3), 70 Gy (n=27), 75 Gy (n=2), 80 Gy (n=6) and 90 Gy (n=4). All patients were discharged within 24 hours and were studied in regard to the degree of pain relief, latency interval to pain relief, sensory loss, and the need for further therapy. Mean follow-up after radiosurgery was 9.2 months (range, 2-26 months). Results: At last follow-up, 25 patients (50%) had excellent control (pain-free), 17 (34%) had good control (50-90% relief), and 8 (16%) had failed (see Figure). The median time to pain relief was one month. We identified an actuarial response rate of 53% for complete pain relief at seven months, and 93% for pain reduction (50-100% relief). At 18 months, these results declined to 48% and 77% respectively. A significantly greater proportion of patients receiving a radiosurgery maximum dose of ≥ 70 Gy achieved complete pain relief (63% vs. 18%) and >50% pain reduction (96% vs. 80%) than those with doses <70 Gy. Patients without prior surgery had significantly better outcomes in univariate testing. Three patients (6%) developed increased facial paresthesiae after radiosurgery

  8. Some conclusions of studies on irradiation of whole fish aboard fishing vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinacher, E.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.

    1978-01-01

    Studies were conducted on irradiation of whole redfish and haddock (at 100 krad) and subsequent storage of the irradiated fish for up to approx. 30 days in ice. The fish were organoleptically evaluated at intervals during storage. The results show no significant difference in organoleptic quality between irradiated and non-irradiated samples during storage for [de

  9. Detection of irradiated prawns by photostimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Susu; Saito, Kimie; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how photostimulated luminescence (PSL) can be applied to verify whether prawns have been irradiated by analyzing their intestinal tracts. Prawns from five different locations which were irradiated at doses of 1 kGy of γ-radiations were analyzed using the Japanese model PSL system. The results showed that the integrated photon counts of all the irradiated samples exceeded the upper threshold value (T 2 =4000 counts/90 s), whereas those of the non-irradiated samples were blew than the lower threshold value (T 1 =1000 counts/90 s). Moreover, using the other parameters which were decrease of intensity after optically stimulation and increase of intensity by optically stimulation, a clear difference was observed between non-irradiated and 1 kGy irradiated samples. Therefore, the Japanese model PSL system can be used as a screening method for detecting irradiated prawns by analyzing their intestinal tracts. (author)

  10. Study of irradiation effect on curcuma polyphenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejeb, Imen

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin (Curcuma Longa rhizome) component, particularly the polyphenolic fraction. Powdered rhizome was irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 15 KGy (dose rate of 6 KGy / H). Polyphenolics were extracted and total polyphenols conent (TPC) was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The irradiation effect was also evaluated by the HPLC technique. The chromatographic analysis showed that the irradiated and non-irradiated curcumin spectrum gave similar data. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the phenolic extracts were also assessed. the anti oxidative potential of the sample was evaluated using two radical scavenging methods with DPPH and ABTS. The antimicrobial analysis showed that the phenolic extracts of curcumin inhibited the growth of the studied microorganisms. Our results showed that irradiated samples were not affected in terms of polyphenols content and characteristics. (Author)

  11. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  12. The effect of irradiation on preservation of termitomyces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Jiye; Zhu Haiping; Zhou Zhenchun; Wu Qiwang

    2005-01-01

    The termitomyces were irradiated by 60 Co γ-ray at different doses and stored at 18 degree C. The results showed that the irradiation treatment inhibited peroxidation of membrane lipid, reduced the membrane leakage, extended shelflife of fresh termitomyces. The suitable irradiation dose is 0.5 kGy. (authors)

  13. Piling up technology of goods irradiated by single plate source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Hezhou; Chen Yuxia; Cao Hongyun; Lin Yong; Zhou guoquan

    1999-01-01

    In the irradiation process of piling up goods in static state, four irradiation working sites and single plate source was adopted. The results showed that piling up in this way remarkably raised the irradiation quality of goods. The utilization rate of radioactive ray reached 22.27%

  14. Pre-irradiation and surgical intervention in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and the oropharynx: Results of a study conducted from 1973 to 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoebber, D.; Sack, H.; Stuetzer, H.; Rose, K.G.

    1987-01-01

    In collaboration with the Radiotherapeutic Hospital, 87 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and the oropharynx were treated by combined pre-irradiation and surgical intervention at the University ORL Hospital of Cologne. The study was supposed to improve the five-year survival of patients suffering from advanced carcinomas of the head and neck area. The male and female patient's ratio was 4,5 to 1. Half of the patients had squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx, 21 patients had tumors of the floor of the mouth, and another 21 had tumors of the anterior two thirds of the tongue. The tumor and lymph node status was classified according to the UICC regulations (1979). In the pre-irradiation, 40 to 50 Gy were applied to the primary tumor and the regional lymph nodes. Surgery was executed generally four weeks after pre-irradiation. The tumor remission following to pre-irradiation was very good. 27% of the patients showed little or moderate post-operative disturbances in wound healing. An osteoradionecrosis was found in 4,6%. Almost 25% of the patients developed local recurrences. The cumulated five-year survival of all patients is 32%. In dependence on TNM stages, the three-year survival rates are as follows: stage I and II 80%, stage III 44%, and stage IV 40%. (orig.) [de

  15. Development of lesions resulting from acute localised irradiation in the pig: trials for medical and surgical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, F.; Lefaix, J.L.; Remy, J.; Bolnot, D.; Guilbaud, J.

    1986-01-01

    Medical and surgical treatments were tested on pigs on which the thigh has been irradiated locally with single doses of 30, 40, 64 or 84 Gy (2 cm depth-dose) from an Ir 192 source. The association of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds (flurbiprofen, niflumic acid) and platelet anti-aggregants (bencyclane, pyridinol carbamate) (i) decreased the local thermal reaction evaluated by microwave thermography, (ii) slowed down the chronological evolution of the lesions by several days, in a way comparable to a decrease in the dose, and (iii) limited to a certain extent the development of the lesion, especially the fibrotic extension when scarring was seen, i.e. after 30-40 Gy. Early surgery of irradiated tissues with doses higher than 25-30 Gy appeared to be well tolerated with regard to both immediate healing and the evolution of late fibrosis. (author)

  16. The use of hypofractionated intensity-modulated irradiation in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme: preliminary results of a prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanem, Khalil; Patrocinio, Horacio; Lambert, Christine; Corns, Robert; Leblanc, Richard; Parker, William; Shenouda, George; Souhami, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Despite major advances in treatment modalities, the prognosis of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains poor. Exploring hypofractionated regimens to replace the standard 6-week radiotherapy schedule is an attractive strategy as an attempt to prevent accelerated tumor cell repopulation. There is equally interest in dose escalation to the gross tumor volume where the majority of failures occur. We report our preliminary results using hypofractionated intensity-modulated accelerated radiotherapy regimen in the treatment of patients with GBM. Between July 1998 and December 2001, 25 patients with histologically proven diagnosis of GBM, Karnofsky performance status > or =60, and a postoperative tumor volume step-and-shoot technique), 60 Gy in 20 daily fractions of 3 Gy each were given to the GTV, whereas the planning target volume received a minimum of 40 Gy in 20 fractions of 2 Gy each at its periphery. Treatments were delivered over a 4-week period using 5 daily fractions per week. Dose was prescribed at the isocenter (ICRU point). Three beam angles were used in all of the cases. Treatments were well tolerated. Acute toxicity was limited to increased brain edema during radiotherapy in 2 patients who were on tapering doses of corticosteroids. This was corrected by increasing the steroid dose. At a median follow-up of 8.8 months, no late toxicity was observed. One patient experienced visual loss at 9 months after completion of treatment. MRI suggested nonspecific changes to the optic chiasm. On review of the treatment plan, the total dose to the optic chiasm was confirmed to be equal to or less than 40 Gy in 20 fractions. When Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis was used, 10 patients were class III-IV, and 15 patients were class V-VI. To date, 21 patients have had clinical and/or radiologic evidence of disease progression, and 16 patients have died. The median survival was 9.5 months (range: 2.8-22.9 months), the 1-year survival

  17. Results of work in the hot cells of Laboratory Testing Materials Irradiated Areva of Carina project for the expansion of the database of mechanical characteristics of fractures in materials of RPV German irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelmes, J.; Schabel, H.; Hein, H.; Kein, E.; Eiselt, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of the already completed research projects CARINA and its predecessor CARISMA a data base was created for pre-irradiated original RPV steels of German PWRs which allowed to examine the consequences if the Master Curve (T 0 ) approach instead of the RT N OT concept is applied to the RPV safety assessment. Furthermore in CARINA different irradiation conditions with respect to the accumulated neutron fluences and specific impact parameters were investigated. Besides a brief introduction of the CARINA project and an overview of the main results an overview on the requirements of the hot laboratory work in terms of specimen manufacturing and material testing is given and examples for realization are shown. (Author)

  18. The analysis and attribution of the time-dependent neutron background resultant from sample irradiation in a SLOWPOKE-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, M.T.; Corcoran, E.C.; Kelly, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    The Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC) has commissioned a Delayed Neutron Counting (DNC) system for the analysis of special nuclear materials. A significant, time-dependent neutron background with an initial maximum count rate, more than 50 times that of the time-independent background, was characterised during the validation of this system. This time-dependent background was found to be dependent on the presence of the polyethylene (PE) vials used to transport the fissile samples, yet was not an activation product of vial impurities. The magnitude of the time-dependent background was found to be irradiation site specific and independent of the mass of PE. The capability of RMCC's DNC system to analyze the neutron count rates in time intervals 235 U contamination was present on each irradiated vial. However, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy measurements of material leached from the outer vial surfaces after their irradiations found only trace amounts of uranium, 0.118 ± 0.048 ng of 235 U derived from natural uranium. These quantities are insufficient to account for the time-independent background, and in fact could not be discriminated from the noise associated with time-independent background. It is suggested that delayed neutron emitters are deposited in the vial surface following fission recoil, leaving the main body of uranium within the irradiation site. This hypothesis is supported by the physical cleaning of the site with materials soaked in distilled water and HNO 3 , which lowered the background from a nominal 235 U mass equivalent of 120 to 50 ng per vial. (author)

  19. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, B. E-mail: esposito@frascati.enea.it; Bertalot, L.; Maruccia, G.; Petrizzi, L.; Bignan, G.; Blandin, C.; Chauffriat, S.; Lebrun, A.; Recroix, H.; Trapp, J.P.; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-11-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties. The analysis has been carried out using the LSL-M2 code, which optimizes the neutron spectrum by means of a least-squares technique taking into account the variance and covariance files. In the second part of the activity, the possibility of extending to IFMIF the use of existing on-line in-core neutron/gamma monitors (to be located at several positions inside the IFMIF test cell for beam control, safety and diagnostic purposes) has been studied. A feasibility analysis of the modifications required to adapt sub-miniature fission chambers (recently developed by CEA-Cadarache) to the high flux test module of the test cell has been carried out. The verification of this application pertinence and a gross definition of the in-core detector characteristics are described. The option of using self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) is also discussed.

  20. Analysis of deltamethrin's degradation products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ling; Huang Min; Chen Chun; Lei Qing; Du Xiaoying; Xie Yan; Wang Yan; Gao Peng; He Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Deltamethrin were dissolved in ethanol and water; acetone and water; dimethylsulfoxide and water, irradiating these liquors by 60 Co-γ under the dose of 5∼50 kGy. The irradiation system were analyzed by GC/MS, result shows: there were some differences under different irradiation doses; the main degradation products are: α-cyano-3-phenoxy benzyl alcohol, 3-Phenoxybenzaldehyde, 3-Phenoxybenzacetonitrile and bromomethane. (authors)

  1. Irradiation as Quarantine Treatment of Rambutan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pransopon, Prapon; Kongratarpon, Titima; Vongchili, Satit; Segsarnviriya, Suchada; Limohpasmanee, Wanith; Eamsiri, Jarurat; Sajjabut, Surasak

    2006-01-01

    Eggs and larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera correcta were investigated for their tolerant dose of irradiation. Artificially in feasted rambutans were irradiated at target doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 Gy. The results showed that the lowest dose that could inhibit adult emergence was 102.89 Gy for B. dorsalis and 97.61 Gy for B. correcta (P=0.999968, Probit 9). Larvae of B. dorsalis were irradiated at the dose

  2. Experimental Results for Direct Electron Irradiation of a Uranyl Sulfate Solution: Bubble Formation and Thermal Hydraulics Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sun, Zaijing [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wardle, Kent E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stepinski, Dominique [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-30

    In support of the development of accelerator-driven production of fission product Mo-99 as proposed by SHINE Medical Technologies, a 35 MeV electron linac was used to irradiate depleted-uranium (DU) uranyl sulfate dissolved in pH 1 sulfuric acid at average power densities of 6 kW, 12 kW, and 15 kW. During these irradiations, gas bubbles were generated in the solution due to the radiolytic decomposition of water molecules in the solution. Multiple video cameras were used to record the behavior of bubble generation and transport in the solution. Seven six-channel thermocouples were used to record temperature gradients in the solution from self-heating. Measurements of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in a helium sweep gas were recorded by a gas chromatograph to estimate production rates during irradiation. These data are being used to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the experiment that includes multiphase flow and a custom bubble injection model for the solution region.

  3. Experimental Results for Direct Electron Irradiation of a Uranyl Sulfate Solution: Bubble Formation and Thermal Hydraulics Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemerisov, Sergey; Gromov, R.; Makarashvili, Vakhtang; Heltemes, Thad; Sun, Zaijing; Wardle, Kent E.; Bailey, James; Stepinski, Dominique; Jerden, James; Vandegrift, George F.

    2015-01-01

    In support of the development of accelerator-driven production of fission product Mo-99 as proposed by SHINE Medical Technologies, a 35 MeV electron linac was used to irradiate depleted-uranium (DU) uranyl sulfate dissolved in pH 1 sulfuric acid at average power densities of 6 kW, 12 kW, and 15 kW. During these irradiations, gas bubbles were generated in the solution due to the radiolytic decomposition of water molecules in the solution. Multiple video cameras were used to record the behavior of bubble generation and transport in the solution. Seven six-channel thermocouples were used to record temperature gradients in the solution from self-heating. Measurements of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in a helium sweep gas were recorded by a gas chromatograph to estimate production rates during irradiation. These data are being used to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the experiment that includes multiphase flow and a custom bubble injection model for the solution region.

  4. Gamma irradiation of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputra, T S; Harsoyo,; Sudarman, H [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1982-07-01

    An experiment has been done to determine the effect of irradiation and reduction of moisture content on the keeping quality of commercial spices, i.e. nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), black and white pepper (Piper ningrum). The results showed that a dose of 5 kGy could reduce the microbial load of spices as much as 2-4 log cycles for the total plate count and 1-3 log cycles for the total mould and yeast counts. The microbial reduction due to the irradiation treatment was found to be lower in more humid products. Prolonged storage enhanced the microbial reduction.

  5. The skeletal trauma resulting from a fatal B.A.S.E jump: A case study showing the impact of landing feet-first under extreme vertical deceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, Samantha K; Blau, Soren; Hislop-Jambrich, Jacqueline

    2018-05-01

    The term 'B.A.S.E jump' refers to jumping from a building, antenna, span (i.e., bridge) or earth (i.e., cliff) structure, and parachuting to the ground. There are numerous hazards associated with B.A.S.E jumps which often result in injury and, occasionally, fatality. This case report details the skeletal trauma resulting from a fatal B.A.S.E jump in Australia. In this case, the jumper impacted the ground from a fall of 439m in a feet-first landing position, as a result of a partially deployed parachute, under extreme vertical deceleration. Skeletal trauma was analyzed using full-body post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and contextual information related to the circumstances of the jump as reported by the Coroner. Trauma to 61 skeletal elements indicates the primary impact was to the feet (i.e., feet-first landing), followed by an anterior impact to the body (i.e., fall forwards). Details of the individual fracture morphologies indicate the various forces and biomechanics involved in this fall event. This case presents the types of fractures that result from a B.A.S.E jump, and highlights the value of using PMCT and coronial data as tools to augment skeletal trauma interpretations. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Showing results? An analysis of the perceptions of internal and external stakeholders of the public performance communication by the Belgian and Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Galetzka, Mirjam; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Seydel, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Information Quarterly, 15: 153–156). In Belgium and the Netherlands, one Performance measurement and communicating about it with the broader public is not self-evident if one looks at public services organizations (Hernon, 1998 P. Hernon, The government performance and results act. Government

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  8. The determination of irradiation and so-called terrestrial ageing of rock meteorites based on the cosmogenic resulting radionuclides 53Mn and 26Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, P.

    1979-01-01

    The contents of cosmogenic occuring 53 Mn was determined by neutron activation in over 90 samples of 75 individual rock meteorites. The distinct depth effect of the 53 Mn production rate in rock meteorites could be measured by a depth profile at LL6 chondrite St. Severin (falling weight 271 kg). The experimental results confirm the present model concepts. By comparing with the spallogenic 22 Ne/ 21 Ne and 3 He/ 21 Ne ratios applicable as depth indicators, one could derive linear relationships suitable for correcting 53 Mn. They enable the determination of the average 53 Mn production rate from the saturation activities of long-term irradiated meteorites. Using this method it was possible to calculate the irradiation age of 40 rock meteorites. As 26 Al is formed with a similar effective cross-section to 53 Mn, the production rate ratio 53 Mn: 26 Al was also taken to derive the depth-independent irradiation ages. A method to determine the depth-independent terrestrial ageing of meteriorites has been developed based on the same isotope ratio, the effective field of application is between 0.10 to 2x10 6 a. Furthermore, an attempt was made to draw up the dependence of noble gas contents of 53 Mn resp. 53 Mn/ 26 Al irradiation age for the new determination of the 3 He, 21 Ne and 38 Ar production rates by means of a linear regression analysis. (orig./RB) [de

  9. Cells exposed to a huntingtin fragment containing an expanded polyglutamine tract show no sign of ion channel formation: results arguing against the ion channel hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørremølle, Anne; Grunnet, Morten; Hasholt, Lis

    2003-01-01

    Ion channels formed by expanded polyglutamine tracts have been proposed to play an important role in the pathological processes leading to neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease and other CAG repeat diseases. We tested the capacity of a huntingtin fragment containing an expanded polyglutamine...... in the currents recorded in any of the two expression systems, indicating no changes in ion channel activity. The results therefore argue against the proposed hypothesis of expanded polyglutamines forming ion channels....

  10. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Kristin; Barkmann, Claus; Klasen, Fionna; Bullinger, Monika; Glaeske, Gerd; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative ...

  11. Radurization of spices by irradiation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Gil, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Prieto, E.; Pino, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the research results that prove the technical feasibility according to the hygiene conditions existing in Cuba for irradiating different spices. The results show both the possibility and and the benefit of using a one irradiation application to these products. One global average doses of 5 KGy was enough for decontaminating black pepper, paprika, cumin, must meg and oregano without affecting either their chemical components or the quality of their taste. Sausages manufactured with irradiated spices did not irradiating spices is much higher that of fumigation, et has many important social and economic advantages

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation on antioxidants of medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetawattana, Suwimol [The irradiation research for agriculture program, Office of Atoms for Peace, BK (Thailand); Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo [Faculty of Pharmacy, Chulalongkorn University, BK (Thailand)

    2003-06-01

    The antioxidant effect of water extracts from irradiated medicinal plants on inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human plasma was examined. The results presented herein indicate that crude extracts from 29 kinds, 31 extracts, of medicinal plants, irradiated at 10 and 25 kilo gray. showed no significant change in inhibition of lipid peroxidation in plasma induced by gamma irradiation (p<0.05). It also found that extraction yields in some irradiated plants were increased.

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on antioxidants of medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetawattana, Suwimol; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

    2003-06-01

    The antioxidant effect of water extracts from irradiated medicinal plants on inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human plasma was examined. The results presented herein indicate that crude extracts from 29 kinds, 31 extracts, of medicinal plants, irradiated at 10 and 25 kilo gray. showed no significant change in inhibition of lipid peroxidation in plasma induced by gamma irradiation (p<0.05). It also found that extraction yields in some irradiated plants were increased

  14. Irradiation behaviour of solid and hollow U{sub 3}Si fuel elements: results to 15,000 MWd/tonne U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feraday, M A; Chalder, G H; Cotnam, K D

    1969-06-15

    U{sub 3}Si fuel elements clad in zirconium alloy sheaths have been irradiated to burnups close to 15,000 MWd/tonne U in pressurized water at 220{sup o}C, 98 bars. The results show that the external swelling can be controlled by incorporating free volume in the element. The dimensional stability of such elements is adequate to permit their use in power reactor fuel bundles. A diameter increase of 1.2% had occurred in an element initially containing 12.8% total free volume, after a burnup of 14,700 MWd/tonne U. There was no change in diameter between burnups of 5200 and 14,700 MWd/tonne U. Elements containing 3% total free volume had increased in diameter about 2.5% at 2000 MWd/tonne U compared to 0.2% at 9500 MWd/tonne U for elements containing 22% total free volume. The observed swelling in the U{sub 3}Si is discussed in terms of possible mechanisms. (author)

  15. General requirements applicable to the production, inspection, processing, packaging and storage of various types of waste resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in pressurized light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This rule is intended to define the general provisions applicable to the production, inspection, processing, packaging and storage of the different types of wastes resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in a PWR

  16. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 10: Results from Canada Wide Survey on Total Body Irradiation Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studinski, Ryan; Fraser, Danielle; Samant, Rajiv; MacPherson, Miller [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Total Body Irradiation (TBI) is delivered to a relatively small number of patients with a variety of techniques; it has been a challenge to develop consensus studies for best practice. This survey was created to assess the current state of TBI in Canada. Methods: The survey was created with questions focusing on the radiation prescription, delivery technique and resources involved. The survey was circulated electronically to the heads of every clinical medical physics department in Canada. Responses were gathered and collated, and centres that were known to deliver TBI were urged to respond. Results: Responses from 20 centres were received, including 12 from centres that perform TBI. Although a variety of TBI dose prescriptions were reported, 12 Gy in 6 fractions was used in 11 centres while 5 centres use unique prescriptions. For dose rate, a range of 9 to 51 cGy/min was reported. Most centres use an extended SSD technique, with the patient standing or lying down against a wall. The rest use either a “sweeping” technique or a more complicated multi-field technique. All centres but one indicated that they shield the lungs, and only a minority shield other organs. The survey also showed that considerable resources are used for TBI including extra staffing, extended planning and treatment times and the use of locally developed hardware or software. Conclusions: This survey highlights that both similarities and important discrepancies exist between TBI techniques across the country, and is an opportunity to prompt more collaboration between centres.

  17. Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation; Resultats a long terme et facteurs pronostiques des carcinomes epidermoides du canal anal traites par irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Peiffert, D.; Lafond, C.; Mege, A. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. de Radiotherapie et Curietherapie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Metayer, Y.; Marchesi, V.; Buchheit, I. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. de Radiophysique, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Uwer, L.; Conroy, T.; Kaminsky, M.C. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. d' Oncologie Medicale, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose To analyze the prognostic factors of loco regional control (L.R.C.), specific survival (S.S.) and sphincter conservation (S.C.) of patients treated by curative and conservative irradiation for an epidermoid cancer of anal canal in our institution. Patients and methods From 1976 to 2005, 286 patients (pts) were treated by exclusive radiotherapy (180 pts) or chemo-radiotherapy (106 pts) followed by a brachytherapy boost (233 pts) or external beam radiotherapy boost (24 pts). Forty-three pts were stage I, 154 stage II, 31 stage IIIA and 53 stage IIIB. Results The mean follow-up was 65 months (range: 1.3-250 months). The 5-years-overall survival and S.S. rates were 66.4% and 78.1% respectively. In multivariate analysis, tumor size (? 40 mm) [R.R. = 2.1], node involvement (R.R. = 2.4), and poor response (< 75%) to first course irradiation [R.R. = 1.9], local relapse (R.R. = 4.5) and distant metastases were factors of poor prognosis for S.S.. Five-years-L.R.C. were 71.5% (88% for stage I, 69% for stage II, 77%, for stage IIIA and 60% for stage IIIB). Prognosis factors of L.C.R. were tumor size (R.R. = 2.5), response to first course of irradiation (R.R. = 2.9). S.C. was 71% at 5 years. Prognosis factors of S.C. were tumor size (R.R. = 1.9) and response to first course of irradiation (R.R. = 2.4). Conclusion The results of this series are similar to those of the literature. As well as initial tumor extension, response to first course of irradiation was found as prognostic factor on L..R., S.S., S.C.. Our results are similar to other series and brachytherapy seems not to be deleterious. Its impact to local control remains to be evaluated. (authors)

  18. The early effects in the brain after irradiation with carbon ions using mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Saori; Ohba, Yoshihito; Uzawa, Akiko; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Koike, Sachiko; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Hirayama, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated both early and late effects in the brain after irradiation with carbon ions using mice. The irradiation dose was set at level known to produce vascular change followed by necrosis, which appeared the late period after irradiation with 30 Gy. The whole of brain was irradiated, excluding eyes and brain stem. The mice irradiated with single dose of 30 Gy showed deficit in short-term working memory assessed at 36 hr after irradiation, whereas mice receiving carbon irradiation showed no deficit in long-term reference memory. At 16 weeks after irradiation, the irradiated mice showed marked learning impairment compared with age-matched controls and the irradiated mice showed substantial impairment of working memory. Histopathological observation revealed no abnormal finding in the irradiated brain at 36 hr after irradiation, although irradiated mice showed marked neuronal degeneration at the hippocampus within CA1 to CA3 layers at 16 weeks after irradiation. In the irradiated group, neuronal cells in the hippocampal CA1-3 areas were reduced by 30-49%. These results suggest that although irradiation-induced hippocampal degeneration is associated with learning disability, cognitive deficits may also be detected on the early stage, not associated with hippocampal degeneration. (author)

  19. Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamikazy Kume

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

  20. Empty polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages in anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) show slow radiographic fusion that reduces clinical improvement: results from the prospective multicenter "PIERCE-PEEK" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Olaf; Schomaker, Martin; Cabraja, Mario; Danne, Marco; Kombos, Theodoros; Hanna, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a well-established surgical treatment for radiculopathy and myelopathy. Previous studies showed that empty PEEK cages have lower radiographic fusion rates, but the clinical relevance remains unclear. This paper's aim is to provide high-quality evidence on the outcomes of ACDF with empty PEEK cages and on the relevance of radiographic fusion for clinical outcomes. This large prospective multicenter clinical trial performed single-level ACDF with empty PEEK cages on patients with cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy. The main clinical outcomes were VAS (0-10) for pain and NDI (0-100) for functioning. Radiographic fusion was evaluated by two investigators for three different aspects. The median (range) improvement of the VAS pain score was: 3 (1-6) at 6 months, 3 (2-8) at 12 months, and 4 (2-8) at 18 months. The median (range) improvement of the NDI score was: 12 (2-34) at 6 months, 18 (4-46) at 12 months, and 22 (2-44) at 18 months. Complete radiographic fusion was reached by 126 patients (43%) at 6 months, 214 patients (73%) at 12 months, and 241 patients (83%) at 18 months. Radiographic fusion was a highly significant ( p  PEEK cages is slow and insufficient. Lack of complete radiographic fusion leads to less improvement of pain and disability. We recommend against using empty uncoated pure PEEK cages in ACDF. ISRCTN42774128. Retrospectively registered 14 April 2009.

  1. Re-irradiation of the chest wall for local breast cancer recurrence. Results of salvage brachytherapy with hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auoragh, A. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Hospital Fuerth, Department of Radiation Oncology, Fuerth (Germany); Strnad, V.; Ott, O.J.; Fietkau, R. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Beckmann, M.W. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Following mastectomy and adjuvant external beam radiation therapy in patients with breast cancer, the incidence of local or locoregional recurrence is approximately 9 % (2-20 %). Alongside the often limited possibilities of surgical treatment, radiation therapy combined with superficial hyperthermia is the most effective local therapy. In the present work, a retrospective analysis of salvage brachytherapy combined with superficial hyperthermia for chest wall recurrences is presented. Between 2004 and 2011, 18 patients with a total of 23 target volumes resulting from chest wall recurrences after previously mastectomy and external beam radiation therapy (median 56 Gy, range 50-68 Gy) were treated with superficial brachytherapy as salvage treatment: 8 patients (44 %) had macroscopic tumor, 3 (17 %) had microscopic tumor (R1), and 7 (39 %) had undergone R0 resection and were treated due to risk factors. A dose of 50 Gy was given (high-dose rate [HDR] and pulsed-dose rate [PDR] procedures). In all, 5 of 23 patients (22 %) received additional concurrent chemotherapy, and in 20 of 23 (87 %) target volumes additional superficial hyperthermia was carried out twice weekly. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival was 56 %, the disease-free survival was 28 %, and a 5-year overall survival was 22 %. Late side effects Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade 3 were reported in 17 % of the patients: 2 of 18 (11 %) had CTC grade 3 fibrosis, and 1 of 18 (6 %) had a chronic wound healing disorder. Re-irradiation as salvage brachytherapy with superficial hyperthermia for chest wall recurrences is a feasible and safe treatment with good local control results and acceptable late side effects. (orig.) [German] Nach einer Mastektomie und adjuvanter Strahlentherapie bei Patientinnen mit Mammakarzinom kommt es bei 9 % (2-20 %) zum lokalen bzw. lokoregionaeren Rezidiv. Neben den oft limitierten operativen Behandlungsmoeglichkeiten ist die Strahlentherapie mit Oberflaechenhyperthermie die

  2. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for head and neck cancers with bilateral irradiation of the neck: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapeyre, M.; Mege, A.; Mege, P.; Racadot, S.; Marchal, C.; Marchesi, V.; Aletti, P.; Noel, A.; Marchesi, V.; Aletti, P.; Noel, A.; Marchal, C.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. - To report preliminary results of a prospective study of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNC) with bilateral irradiation of the neck. Patients and methods. - At the Alexis Vautrin Cancer Center, 23 patients have been treated with IMRT for HNC since January 2002-August 2003. The first 10 patients with a minimum follow-up of 3 months were analyzed. All tumors were oropharyngeal. There were four females and six males, with a mean age of 50 years (range 39-66). Stages were I-II in eight and III-IV in two. CTV1 was microscopic disease and N0 neck (prescribed dose: 50 Gy) and CTV2 was macroscopic disease and the volume at risk (prescribed dose: 66-70 Gy). PTV were CTV + 5 mm. Patient's immobilization consisted of a five-point head neck shoulder thermoplastic mask. Set-up verifications were done by semi-automatically matching portal images and digitized reconstructed radiographs. IMRT used dynamic multi-leaf collimation. Five patients (group A) received 50 Gy IMRT (two post-operative and three with a brachytherapy boost with a mean dose: 27.5 Gy), and five patients (group B) received 66-70 Gy IMRT (four post-operative). Acute and late normal tissue effects were graded according to the RTOG-EORTC radiation morbidity scoring criteria. Results. - With a median follow-up of 7.4 months (range 3-18.5), no patient died or had loco-regional relapse. The displacements were <4 mm in 98% cases. CTV1 and 2 received 95% of the prescribed dose in 100% of the volume. On average the mean dose to the contralateral parotid was 25.5 Gy for group A vs. 31 Gy for group B (P = 0.09). Mean doses <26 Gy were obtained in three of five patients in group A vs. zero of five patients in group B (P = 0.04). Acute skin toxicities were grade 1 in five patients, grade 2 in four and grade 3 in one. Acute mucositis cases were grade 1 in three patients, grade 2 in five and localized grade 3 in two. At 3 months, 50% of the patients had a grade 0

  3. [First results of a German second opinion program show high patient satisfaction and large discrepancies between initial therapy recommendations and second opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyerstraß, Jan; Prediger, Barbara; Neugebauer, Edmund; Pieper, Dawid

    2018-02-23

    Although legally anchored, there are no empirical results from German second opinion programs. In this study, various aspects within a population of a second opinion program are examined. In this study patients were analyzed who sought a second opinion in the period from August 2011 to December 2016. Differences in patient characteristics, differentiated by agreement of first and second opinion, were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Patients' satisfaction and quality of life were examined one, three and six months after obtaining the second opinion. In total, 1,414 patients sought a second opinion. Most frequent medical indications were the knee (38.7 %), the back (26.8 %), the hip (11.7 %), and the shoulder (10.2 %). Except for the indication (p=0.035), no patient characteristic had influence on the conformation of the second opinion. Approximately two out of three initial recommendations were not confirmed by the specialists. 89 % of the patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the second opinion and the service offered. The second opinion offers patients the opportunity to seek an additional independent medical opinion and thus provide support for decision making. Further research is needed to examine the reasons for the high discrepancies between the first and second opinions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Some Results Of Gamma-60Co Irradiation Application To Breed New Soybean Varieties At Institute Of Agricultural Genetics, 2001 - 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Pham Bao Chung; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Ngo Khanh Phuong; Le Van Nam

    2008-01-01

    To overcome the disadvantage characters and continue create new genetical materials in new Soybean variety selection to get high yield, resistance to with disadvantage conditions, good quality. The Institute of Agricultural Genetics successfully combinated the good particularities of mutant varieties DT84/DT83 and received DT2001 variety, and from mutant DT90/DT84 received new variety DT96. These varieties quite resists with rare good drought-tolerant, high yield from 2000 to 3500 kg/ha, appropriate with all of 3 crops: spring, summer and winter and have wide adaptation. DT96, DT2001 varieties were adopted by MARD Scientific Council as New National Varieties. cooperated with Dalat Institute of Nuclear research treated the Gamma - 60 Co Irradiation on Soybean and Vegetable Soybean. Irradiated dry seed of 3 varieties DT96, DT2001, DT158 with dose levels of 150, 200, 250 Gy in order to shorten the rise time and strengthen the drought resistance. At M3 generation had selected 3 lines D.96/26, D.01/58, D.58/08, D.58/224, which have rise time from 3 to 5 day shorter and yield higher than control (D.96/150, D.01/245). Irradiated the 2 vegetable Soybean DT02 (to ameliorate its thick shell, improve sweetness and resist with collapse) and DT06 (to ameliorate its heat resistance) with dose levels of 100, 140, 180, 220 Gy were received the generations and now continue being researching the M3 generation in 2007 summer crop. (author)

  5. Change in the measuring biological response-resulted from irradiation by the hypermetria method 25 MeVeV electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtirbets, M.; Skarlat, F.; Pehushesku, E.; Martin, D.; Bachu, G.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiation of Wister rats preliminarily heated up to the temperature of 42 deg during 30 minutes is conducted for investigating the effect of radiation hyperthermia on animal tissues. Temperature was maintained during radiation by electrons of 25 MeV energy. Doses up to 7.5 Grey were introduced. It is shown that hyperthermia exercises slight and reversible changes of prostaglandine concentration in the brain and liver of rats. It is concluded, that observation over the level of prostaglandine in different organs is an effective means of evaluating biochemical changes [ru

  6. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    During the course of external radiation exposures of burros to establish a dose-response curve for acute mortality after total irradiation, some of the animals at the three lowest exposures to gamma photons survived. These groups of 10, 9, and 10 burros were exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively. There were 10 unirradiated controls. In 1953, 20 burros were exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/week increments without acute mortality and were added to the life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros were exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons, and 14 controls were added. The total number of irradiated burros in the study was increased to 88 by the addition of 6 animals irradiated with 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a Godiva-type reactor in 1959. In this experiment two acute deaths occurred which were not included in the analysis. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures, there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia, obviously related to radiation-induced bone-marrow damage. After that period, however, deaths were from common equine diseases; no death has resulted from a malignant neoplasm. Of the original 112 burros, 15 survive (10 irradiated and 5 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma- and gamma-irradiated burros showed significant differences. The mean survival times were: controls, 28 years; gamma irradiation only, 26 years; and neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 years. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Exploitation of the speckle field statistics as an aid to diagnosis of the acute irradiation cutaneous syndrome: comparison of biophysical and biological results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, O.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to demonstrate the possibility of using a non-invasive optical method for the in-vivo diagnosis and prognosis of the acute irradiation cutaneous syndrome. The author first describes the choice of an optical investigation method for application in dermatology. A conventional frequency analysis of the speckle field sampling is completed by a stochastic approach in order to extract parameters which characterize speckle patterns. An experimental protocol is then tested in order to better understand the parameter behaviour with respect to some physical properties of synthetic diffusing media. The author then reports the in-vivo application of this method to the acute irradiation cutaneous syndrome in the case of swine. Results obtained on several animals demonstrate the possibility of discrimination between irradiated areas of normal areas several weeks before the emergence of the first clinical signs. The author tries to understand the results obtained on a radiological burn comparing with histological results. A correlation appears between speckle parameters and histological analysis. Results are also compared with those obtained on other tested media

  8. Preservation of goose product by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Cao Hong; Bao Jianzhong; Zhai Jianqing; Wang Jinrong; Han Yan; Jiang Yunsheng; Dong Jie

    2005-01-01

    The influence of temperature, packaging material and irradiation on the shelf life of cooked goose was investigated in this paper. The results showed that irradiation (6 kGy for salted goose and 4 kGy for wind-goose) could extend the shelf life of vacuum Aluminium foil package goose for 2 months at room temperature. (authors)

  9. Irradiation to control Vibrio infection from consumption of raw seafood and fresh produce. Results of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Vibrio spp. comprises an important group of pathogenic bacteria in food that often causes human illness and even death when the contaminated food is consumed raw or improperly cooked. The most dangerous member of this group, the El Tor strain of V. cholerae, was responsible for the cholera pandemic which started in Peru in 1991 and spread to nearby countries, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases and thousands of deaths. Recognizing the role of irradiation to ensure the microbiological safety of food, the Pan American Health Organization of the World Health Organization and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture jointly sponsored a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Use of Irradiation as a Public Health Intervention Measure to Control Foodborne Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean, to assess the efficacy of this technology for food protection. The CRP was initiated in 1993 and concluded in 1998. The results of this CRP demonstrated that irradiation is effective for ensuring the microbiological safety of food naturally contaminated by Vibrio spp. This process offers unique benefits for decontamination of seafood, often contaminated with this group of aquatic bacteria at the source, and fresh vegetables that may be contaminated during production and handling, especially when these products are consumed raw or not thoroughly cooked. Because of the sensitivity of this group of bacteria to radiation, the dose required to ensure microbiological safety of food against them is not more than 1 kGy. The CRP also generated data on the effectiveness of irradiation to control infection by pork tapeworm (Taenia solium metacestode). However, the results of these studies were not conclusive enough for publication. This publication presents the research results reported at the final Research Co-ordination meeting on this CRP held in Havana, Cuba, 16-20 November 1998

  10. Irradiation to control Vibrio infection from consumption of raw seafood and fresh produce. Results of a co-ordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Vibrio spp. comprises an important group of pathogenic bacteria in food that often causes human illness and even death when the contaminated food is consumed raw or improperly cooked. The most dangerous member of this group, the El Tor strain of V. cholerae, was responsible for the cholera pandemic which started in Peru in 1991 and spread to nearby countries, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases and thousands of deaths. Recognizing the role of irradiation to ensure the microbiological safety of food, the Pan American Health Organization of the World Health Organization and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture jointly sponsored a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Use of Irradiation as a Public Health Intervention Measure to Control Foodborne Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean, to assess the efficacy of this technology for food protection. The CRP was initiated in 1993 and concluded in 1998. The results of this CRP demonstrated that irradiation is effective for ensuring the microbiological safety of food naturally contaminated by Vibrio spp. This process offers unique benefits for decontamination of seafood, often contaminated with this group of aquatic bacteria at the source, and fresh vegetables that may be contaminated during production and handling, especially when these products are consumed raw or not thoroughly cooked. Because of the sensitivity of this group of bacteria to radiation, the dose required to ensure microbiological safety of food against them is not more than 1 kGy. The CRP also generated data on the effectiveness of irradiation to control infection by pork tapeworm (Taenia solium metacestode). However, the results of these studies were not conclusive enough for publication. This publication presents the research results reported at the final Research Co-ordination meeting on this CRP held in Havana, Cuba, 16-20 November 1998.

  11. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  12. Combined proton and photon irradiation for craniopharyngioma: Long-term results of the early cohort of patients treated at Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory and Massachusetts General Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzek, Markus M.; Linggood, Rita M.; Adams, Judy; Munzenrider, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We report the results of the early cohort of patients treated for craniopharyngioma with combined proton-photon irradiation at the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory. Methods and Materials: Between 1981 and 1988, 15 patients with craniopharyngioma were treated in part or entirely with fractionated 160 MeV proton beam therapy. The group consisted of 5 children (median age, 15.9 years) and 10 adults (median age, 36.2 years). Median dose prescribed to the tumor was 56.9 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE; 1 proton Gray = 1.1 CGE). The median proton component was 26.9 CGE. Patients were treated after documented recurrence after initial surgery (n = 6) or after subtotal resection or biopsy (n = 9). None had had prior radiation therapy. Results: Median observation period of surviving patients (n = 11) was 13.1 years from radiotherapy. One patient was lost to follow-up with tumor control after 5.2 years. Actuarial 10-year survival rate was 72%. Four patients have died 5-9.1 years after treatment, two from local failure. Actuarial 5- and 10-year local control rates were 93% and 85%, respectively. The functional status of the living adult patients is unaltered from their preradiotherapy status; all of them continued leading normal or near normal working lives. None of the patients treated as a child had experienced recurrence of tumor. One child shows learning difficulties and slight retardation, comparable to his preradiotherapy status. The others have professional achievements within the normal range. Conclusion: Results in terms of survival and local control are comparable with other contemporary series. Although no formal neuropsychological testing was performed, the surrogate measures of lifestyle and professional accomplishments appear to be satisfactory

  13. Radiotherapy for testicular seminoma stage I: treatment results and long-term post-irradiation morbidity in 365 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossa, S.D.A.; Aass, N.; Kaalhus, O.

    1989-01-01

    After infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy the cancer-related 10 year survival was 99% in 365 patients with seminoma Stage I referred to the Norwegian Radium Hospital between 1970 and 1982. Thirteen patients relapsed, 11 of them within the first 3 years after treatment. Nine of the recurrent patients were cured by radiotherapy alone (4) or in combination with chemotherapy (5). There is no need to include the inguinal lymph nodes into the irradiation field or to give scrotal irradiation, not even to patients with tumor infiltration beyond the testicular tissue, or to those with prior scrotal or inguinal surgery. At least 1 year after radiotherapy moderate or more severe dyspepsia was observed in 16 patients. Nine patients developed a peptic ulcer. In general, there was no increased risk for development of a second non-germ cell cancer after radiotherapy. However, 4 patients developed a pulmonary cancer indicating a border-line significance of increased risk for this type of malignancy. (p:0.05). In conclusion, infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy remains the optimal routine treatment in seminoma patients with Stage I

  14. DETECTION OF SOME IRRADIATED NUTS BY ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE (ESR) TECHNIQUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHALLAF, M.F.; YASIN, N.M.N.; EL-NASHABY, F.M.; ALI, H.G.M.; EL-SHIEMY, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to establish the electron spin resonance (ESR) detection method for identifying irradiated nuts (almond and pistachio). Samples were irradiated with 2, 4 and 6 kGy and stored at room temperature (25± 2 0 C) for six months to study the possibility of detecting its previous irradiation treatments by ESR spectroscopy. Analysis was carried out just after irradiation treatment and during ambient storage period. The ESR signal intensities of irradiated samples were markedly increased correspondingly with irradiation dose as a result of free radicals generated by gamma irradiation so, all irradiated samples under investigation could be differentiated from non-irradiated ones immediately after irradiation treatment. The decay in radicals responsible of ESR signals showed the identification of irradiated almond (shell or edible part) and pistachio (edible part) was impossible after six months of ambient storage

  15. DETECTION OF SOME IRRADIATED NUTS BY ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE (ESR) TECHNIQUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHALLAF, M F; YASIN, N M.N. [Food Science Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); EL-NASHABY, F M; ALI, H G.M.; EL-SHIEMY, S M [Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    The present investigation was carried out to establish the electron spin resonance (ESR) detection method for identifying irradiated nuts (almond and pistachio). Samples were irradiated with 2, 4 and 6 kGy and stored at room temperature (25{+-} 2{sup 0}C) for six months to study the possibility of detecting its previous irradiation treatments by ESR spectroscopy. Analysis was carried out just after irradiation treatment and during ambient storage period. The ESR signal intensities of irradiated samples were markedly increased correspondingly with irradiation dose as a result of free radicals generated by gamma irradiation so, all irradiated samples under investigation could be differentiated from non-irradiated ones immediately after irradiation treatment. The decay in radicals responsible of ESR signals showed the identification of irradiated almond (shell or edible part) and pistachio (edible part) was impossible after six months of ambient storage.

  16. γ-ray irradiation of cooked dishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ruotai; Cheng Wei; Wen Shengli; Xiong Guangquan; Ye Lixiu; Chen Yuxia; Zhang Jinmu; He Jianjun; Lin Yong; Zhan Hanping

    2005-01-01

    Ready-to-eat cooked dishes, including stir-fried dishes, steamed dishes, roast meat, deep dried dishes, shrimps and seashells, and dishes of local flavor, etc were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays, and the decontamination effects were studied. The results showed that most of the cooked dishes are suitable for irradiation. The effective dose is 4 kGy to 8 kGy. Index of microbe of the irradiated dishes was conformed to the National Food-Health standards, and no significant sensory changes was observed with the irradiated dishes. The quality guarantee period (0-5 degree C) is 60 days. (authors)

  17. Insects control in soybean flour by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Fraga, R.; Andújar, G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irradiation with the doses 0.5 and 1.0 kGy on disinfestation of soy meal and on important chemical compounds of this product, and the organoleptic quality of hamburgers made with irradiated soy meal were studied in this paper. The results showed that the effectiveness of applied doses in the control of insect pests of soy meal during its storage and total proteins, fat, and moisture of product did not change by irradiation. The organoleptic quality of hamburgers with irradiated soy meal was the same as the quality of the product made with untreatment meal [es

  18. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung; Kim, Kyong Su

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks

  19. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks.

  20. Monolayer alignment on azobenzene surfaces during UV light irradiation: Analysis of optical polarized absorption measurement results and theoretical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, A.V.; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the charge separation during the trans-cis conformational change on the surface of azobenzene 6Az10PVA monolayer on the polar liquid-crystal monolayer film, such as 4-n-pentyl-4 ' -cyanobiphenyl(5CB), is investigated. The effective anchoring energy (in the Rapini-Papolar form) is phenomenologically described in the framework of the molecular model, which takes into account the interaction between the surface polarization and surface electric field, for number of conformational states of the boundary surface. It is shown, using the experimental data for the voltage across the 6Az10PVA+5CB film, provided by the surface-potential technique, that the charge separation during the conformational changing, caused by the UV irradiation, may lead to changing of the surface alignment of liquid-crystalline molecules. The influence of the photoisomerization process on the orientational order parameter S 2 (t) using the optical polarized absorption measurement is also investigated

  1. Long-term results of ultrasonically guided implantation of 125-I seeds combined with external irradiation in localized prostatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Holm, H H

    1991-01-01

    Transperineal 125-iodine seed implantation guided by transrectal ultrasonography and subsequent external beam irradiation was employed in the treatment of 32 patients with localized prostatic carcinoma (16 poorly differentiated). Follow-up is currently 35-98 months with a median of 65 months....... Distant metastases have developed in 18 patients, of whom 11 have died from prostatic cancer. Median change in prostatic volume was a reduction of 35%. Re-biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate was performed in 25 patients after 1-4 years, revealing still malignant histology in 10 (40......%), of whom 8 have developed distant metastases or died from prostatic cancer. Fourteen patients suffered from late complications of which surgical intervention was indicated in five cases. Nine patients are presently free of progression and prostate specific antigen is less than 0.5 ng/ml in 8 of these...

  2. Long-term results of ultrasonically guided implantation of 125-I seeds combined with external irradiation in localized prostatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Holm, H H

    1991-01-01

    %), of whom 8 have developed distant metastases or died from prostatic cancer. Fourteen patients suffered from late complications of which surgical intervention was indicated in five cases. Nine patients are presently free of progression and prostate specific antigen is less than 0.5 ng/ml in 8 of these......Transperineal 125-iodine seed implantation guided by transrectal ultrasonography and subsequent external beam irradiation was employed in the treatment of 32 patients with localized prostatic carcinoma (16 poorly differentiated). Follow-up is currently 35-98 months with a median of 65 months....... Distant metastases have developed in 18 patients, of whom 11 have died from prostatic cancer. Median change in prostatic volume was a reduction of 35%. Re-biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate was performed in 25 patients after 1-4 years, revealing still malignant histology in 10 (40...

  3. Long term results of ultrasonically guided implantation of 125-I seeds combined with external irradiation in localized prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Holm, H H [Depts. of Urology and Ultrasound, Herlev Hospital, Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1991-01-01

    Transperineal 125-iodine seed implantation guided by transrectal ultrasonography and subsequent external beam irradiation was employed in the treatment of 32 patients with localized prostatic carcinoma (16 poorly differentiated). Follow-up is currently 35-98 months with a median of 65 months. Distant metastases have developed in 18 patients, of whom 11 have died from prostatic cancer. Median change in prostatic volume was a reduction of 35%. Re-biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate was performed in 25 patients after 1-4 years, revealing still malignant histology in 10 (40%), of whom 8 have developed distant metastases or died from prostatic cancer. Fourteen patients suffered from late complications of which surgical intervention was indicated in five cases. Nine patients are presently free of progression and prostate specific antigen is bigger than 0.5 ng/ml in 8 of these. The future role of ultrasonically guided implantation in the management of prostatic cancer is discussed. (au).

  4. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge; Rendimiento agricola de barros cloacales irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E; Sanchez, M [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Ezeiza (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza

    1999-07-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  5. Preliminary Results of a Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Trial for Early-Stage Breast Cancer Using 5-Fraction Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Partial-Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Asal; Thomas, Kimberly; Spangler, Ann; Rao, Roshni; Leitch, Marilyn; Wooldridge, Rachel; Rivers, Aeisha; Seiler, Stephen; Albuquerque, Kevin; Stevenson, Stella; Goudreau, Sally; Garwood, Dan; Haley, Barbara; Euhus, David; Heinzerling, John; Ding, Chuxiong; Gao, Ang; Ahn, Chul; Timmerman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the tolerability of a dose-escalated 5-fraction stereotactic body radiation therapy for partial-breast irradiation (S-PBI) in treating early-stage breast cancer after partial mastectomy; the primary objective was to escalate dose utilizing a robotic stereotactic radiation system treating the lumpectomy cavity without exceeding the maximum tolerated dose. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive nonlobular epithelial histologies and stage 0, I, or II, with tumor size <3 cm. Patients and physicians completed baseline and subsequent cosmesis outcome questionnaires. Starting dose was 30 Gy in 5 fractions and was escalated by 2.5 Gy total for each cohort to 40 Gy. Results: In all, 75 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 62 years. Median follow-up for 5 cohorts was 49.9, 42.5, 25.7, 20.3, and 13.5 months, respectively. Only 3 grade 3 toxicities were experienced. There was 1 dose-limiting toxicity in the overall cohort. Ten patients experienced palpable fat necrosis (4 of which were symptomatic). Physicians scored cosmesis as excellent or good in 95.9%, 100%, 96.7%, and 100% at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after S-PBI, whereas patients scored the same periods as 86.5%, 97.1%, 95.1%, and 95.3%, respectively. The disagreement rates between MDs and patients during those periods were 9.4%, 2.9%, 1.6%, and 4.7%, respectively. There have been no recurrences or distant metastases. Conclusion: Dose was escalated to the target dose of 40 Gy in 5 fractions, with the occurrence of only 1 dose-limiting toxicity. Patients felt cosmetic results improved within the first year after surgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy. Our results show minimal toxicity with excellent cosmesis; however, further follow-up is warranted in future studies. This study is the first to show the safety, tolerability, feasibility, and cosmesis results of a 5-fraction dose-escalated S-PBI treatment for

  6. Preliminary Results of a Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Trial for Early-Stage Breast Cancer Using 5-Fraction Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Partial-Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Asal, E-mail: asal.rahimi@utsouthwestern.edu [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Thomas, Kimberly; Spangler, Ann [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Rao, Roshni; Leitch, Marilyn; Wooldridge, Rachel; Rivers, Aeisha [Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Seiler, Stephen [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Albuquerque, Kevin; Stevenson, Stella [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Goudreau, Sally [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Garwood, Dan [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Haley, Barbara [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Euhus, David [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Heinzerling, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Levine Cancer Institute, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Ding, Chuxiong [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Gao, Ang; Ahn, Chul [Department of Statistics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Timmerman, Robert [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the tolerability of a dose-escalated 5-fraction stereotactic body radiation therapy for partial-breast irradiation (S-PBI) in treating early-stage breast cancer after partial mastectomy; the primary objective was to escalate dose utilizing a robotic stereotactic radiation system treating the lumpectomy cavity without exceeding the maximum tolerated dose. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive nonlobular epithelial histologies and stage 0, I, or II, with tumor size <3 cm. Patients and physicians completed baseline and subsequent cosmesis outcome questionnaires. Starting dose was 30 Gy in 5 fractions and was escalated by 2.5 Gy total for each cohort to 40 Gy. Results: In all, 75 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 62 years. Median follow-up for 5 cohorts was 49.9, 42.5, 25.7, 20.3, and 13.5 months, respectively. Only 3 grade 3 toxicities were experienced. There was 1 dose-limiting toxicity in the overall cohort. Ten patients experienced palpable fat necrosis (4 of which were symptomatic). Physicians scored cosmesis as excellent or good in 95.9%, 100%, 96.7%, and 100% at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after S-PBI, whereas patients scored the same periods as 86.5%, 97.1%, 95.1%, and 95.3%, respectively. The disagreement rates between MDs and patients during those periods were 9.4%, 2.9%, 1.6%, and 4.7%, respectively. There have been no recurrences or distant metastases. Conclusion: Dose was escalated to the target dose of 40 Gy in 5 fractions, with the occurrence of only 1 dose-limiting toxicity. Patients felt cosmetic results improved within the first year after surgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy. Our results show minimal toxicity with excellent cosmesis; however, further follow-up is warranted in future studies. This study is the first to show the safety, tolerability, feasibility, and cosmesis results of a 5-fraction dose-escalated S-PBI treatment for

  7. Saturation behavior of irradiation hardening in F82H irradiated in the HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, T. [Blanket Engineering Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Shiba, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Stoller, R. [ORNL - Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Div., Oak Ridge, AK TN (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Post irradiation tensile tests on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H have been conducted over the past two decades using Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of JAEA, and Fast Flux Testing Facility (FFTF) of PNNL and High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of ORNL, USA, under Japan/US collaboration programs. According to these results, F82H does not demonstrate irradiation hardening above 673 K up to 60 dpa. The current study has been concentrated on hardening behavior at temperature around 573 K. A series of low temperature irradiation experiment has been conducted at the HFIR under the international collaborative research between JAEA/US-DOE. In this collaboration, the irradiation condition is precisely controlled by the well matured capsule designing and instrumentation. This paper summarizes recent results of the irradiation experiments focused on F82H and its modified steels compared with the irradiation properties database on F82H. Post irradiation tensile tests have been conducted on the F82H and its modified steels irradiated at 573 K and the dose level was up to 25 dpa. According to these results, irradiation hardening of F82H is saturated by 9 dpa and the as-irradiated 0.2 % proof stress is less than 1 GPa at ambient temperature. The deterioration of total elongation was also saturated by 9 dpa irradiation. The ductility of some modified steels which showed larger total elongation than that of F82H before irradiation become the same level as that of standard F82H steel after irradiation, even though its magnitude of irradiation hardening is smaller than that of F82H. This suggests that the more ductile steel demonstrates the more ductility loss at this temperature, regardless to the hardening level. The difference in ductility loss behavior between various tensile specimens will be discussed as the ductility could depend on the specimen dimension. (authors)

  8. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on open-field behavior in rats: application of randomized fostering technique and mapping results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, T.

    1986-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given X-irradiation (150 R) on Day 17 of gestation. After birth, all male pups were pooled once and then assigned randomly to irradiated mothers and control mothers. Offspring were administered an open-field test at about 7 weeks of age. The analysis was performed on the basis of two approaches: In the per subject approach, individual subject data (aggregation across Day 2 through Day 4) were treated as the basic unit of statistical analysis. In the per litter approach, double aggregation (aggregation across Day 2 through Day 4 for each subject and aggregation across subjects within each litter) was used. The per subject approach was slightly more sensitive as to the treatment effect, but it induced a reduction in the magnitude of eta squared. A principal component analysis was performed using eta squared together with those of several reference groups. Results were plotted on a map constructed from component scores. The characteristics of behavior in X-irradiated rats were very similar to those of the earlier stage of trials in terms of the location on the map. The postnatal maternal effect on open-field behavior was not serious and was adequately negligible in practice. A new fostering procedure was proposed and its advantages discussed

  9. External beam and HDR intracavitary irradiation: an effective tool in the primary treatment of cervical cancer - excellent 10 year results and low side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.; Zoidl, J.P.; Track, C.; Seewald, D.H.; Labeck, W.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this paper is to present our 15 years experience in the primary treatment of cervical cancer with a combination of external beam irradiation and high dose rate brachytherapy. Survival data will be presented and the safe use of intrauterine HDR applications will be demonstrated. Material and Methods: From August 1980 to December 1990, 303 patients with cancer of the uterine cervix underwent primary irradiation in a combination of external beam and HDR intracavitary treatment at the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Sisters of Mercy Hospital in Linz, Austria. All patients were classified according to the FIGO rules: Stage I 54 patients, stage II 171, stage III 75 and stage IV 3 patients. 8 patients were lost to follow up. The mean follow up time of survivors is 110 months. Results and Discussion: A complete remission could be achieved in 282 patients, which is 93%; persistent tumour was found in 21 patients at the first follow up check 3 to 5 months after completion of irradiation. The actuarial overall survival probability for all patients at 5 and 10 years is 62 % and 42 % respectively, the disease specific survival probability is 68 % and 64 %. The local control rate at 5 and 10 years is 73 % and 72 % respectively. According to stage, disease specific survival lies at 90 % for stage I, 69 % for stage II, and 48 % for stage III and IV at 5 years, and at 10 years 87 %, 66 % and 41 % respectively. The actuarial local control probability for stages I, II, and III/IV is 90 %, 74 %, and 60 % respectively at 5 yr, and 88 %, 74 %, and 56 % at 10 yr. (Kaplan-Meier calculations). From all 303 patients 34 suffered from 40 severe and moderate side effects (glossary of Chassagne and Sismondi). The rate for grade II complications is 10 % and for grade III 3 %. Conclusion: Intrauterine HDR brachycurietherapy in addition to external beam irradiation for primary treatment of invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix provides the same treatment

  10. External beam and HDR intracavitary irradiation: an effective tool in the primary treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix - excellent 10 year results and low side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Josef; Zoidl, Johann P.; Track, Christine; Seewald, Dietmar H.; Labeck, Werner

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this paper is to present our 15 years experience in the primary treatment of cervical cancer with a combination of external beam irradiation and high dose rate brachytherapy. Survival data will be presented and the safe use of intrauterine HDR applications will be demonstrated. Material and Methods: From August 1980 to December 1990, 303 patients with cancer of the uterine cervix underwent primary irradiation in a combination of external beam and HDR intracavitary treatment at the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Sisters of Mercy Hospital in Linz, Austria. All patients were classified according to the FIGO rules: Stage I 54 patients, stage II 171, stage III 75 and stage IV 3 patients. 8 patients were lost to follow up. The mean follow up time of survivors is 110 months. Results: A complete remission could be achieved in 282 patients (93%); persistent tumour was found in 21 patients at the first follow up check 3 to 5 months after completion of irradiation. The actuarial overall survival probability for all patients at 5 and 10 years is 62 % and 49 % respectively, the disease specific survival probability is 68 % and 64 %. The local control rate at 5 and 10 years is 73 % and 72 % respectively. According to stage, disease specific survival lies at 90 % for stage I, 69 % for stage II, and 49 % for stage III and IV at 5 years, and at 10 years 87 %, 66 % and 41 % respectively. The actuarial local control probability for stages I, II, and III/IV is 90 %, 74 %, and 60 % respectively at 5 years, and 88 %, 74 %, and 57 % at 10 years (Kaplan-Meier calculations). From all 303 patients 34 suffered from 40 severe and moderate side effects (glossary of Chassagne and Sismondi). The rate for grade II complications is 10 % and for grade III 3 %. Conclusion: Intrauterine HDR brachycurietherapy in addition to external beam irradiation for primary treatment of invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix provides the same treatment results as LDR

  11. Combined postoperative irradiation and chemotherapy for anaplastic ependymomas in childhood: results of the German prospective trials hit 88/89 and hit 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermann, Beate; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Kuehl, Joachim; Meisner, Christoph; Slavc, Irene; Pietsch, Thorsten; Bamberg, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome in children with anaplastic ependymomas after surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy; and to identify prognostic factors for survival. Methods and Materials: Fifty-five children (n = 27 girls, 28 boys; median age at diagnosis, 6.2 years) with newly diagnosed anaplastic ependymomas were treated in the multicenter, prospective trials HIT 88/89 and HIT 91. Macroscopic complete resection was achieved in 28 patients; 27 patients underwent incomplete resection. All patients received chemotherapy before (n = 40) or after irradiation (n = 15). The irradiation volume encompassed either the neuraxis followed by a boost to the primary tumor site (n = 40) or the tumor region only (n = 13). No radiotherapy was administered in two patients. Results: Median follow-up was 38 months. The overall survival rate at 3 years after surgery was 75.6%. Disease progression occurred in 25 children with local progression occurring in 20. The median time to disease progression was 45 months. The only significant prognostic factor was the extent of resection (estimated progression-free survival [EPFS] after 3 years was 83.3% after complete resection and 38.5% after incomplete resection) and the presence of metastases at the time of diagnosis (0% vs. 65.8% 3-year EPFS in localized tumors). Age, sex, tumor site, mode of chemotherapy, and irradiation volume did not influence survival. Conclusions: Treatment centers should be meticulous about surgery and diagnostic workup. Because the primary tumor region is the predominant site of failure it is important to intensify local treatment. Dose escalation by hyperfractionation or stereotactic radiotherapy might be a promising approach in macroscopically residual disease. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy requires further study

  12. Effect of electron beam irradiation on fisheries water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarala Selambakkannu; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Jamaliah Shariff; Suhairi Alimon

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies about water obtained from fish pond of fisheries research centre. Usual water quality parameters such as pH, COD, Turbidity and Ammonia content were analyzed before and after irradiation. Electron beam irradiation was used to irradiate the water with the dose 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 300 kGy. Only high dose was applied on this water as only a limited amount of samples was supplied. All the parameters indicated a slight increase after irradiation except for the ammonia content, which showed a gradual decrease as irradiation dose increases. Sample condition was changed before irradiation in order to obtain more effective results in the following batch. The water sample from fisheries was diluted with distilled water to the ratio of 1:1.This was followed with irradiation at 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 300 kGy. The results still showed an increase in all parameters after irradiation except for ammonia content. For the following irradiation batch, the pH of the sample was adjusted to pH 4 and pH 8 before irradiation. For this sample the irradiation dose selected was only 100 kGy. A higher value of ammonia was observed for the sample with pH 4 after irradiation. Other parameters were almost the same as the first two batches. (author)

  13. Investigations of X-ray irradiation of marine fish aboard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnop, G.; Reinacher, E.; Antonacopoulos, N.; Meyer, V.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on X-ray irradiation of ocean perch, cod and coley (at doses of 50-150 krad) are described. The results show that irradiation within this dose range has no significant effect on the shelf-life of fish stored in ice. Although irradiation positively influenced bacteriological and chemical characteristics (e.g. reduction of total aerobic count, and inhibition of decomposition of N-containing compounds), the organoleptically-limited shelf-life of irradiated specimens was similar to that of non-irradiated specimens. Organoleptic changes in irradiated and in non-irradiated samples differed; this is attributed to the abnormal spoilage flora (mainly radiation-resistant Moraxella spp.) in the irradiated samples. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.

    1994-01-01

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  15. Irradiation and flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineccius, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Flavor will not be a significant factor in determining the success of irradiated foods entering the U.S. market. The initial applications will use low levels of irradiation that may well result in products with flavor superior to that of products from alternative processing techniques (thermal treatment or chemical fumigation). The success of shelf-stable foods produced via irradiation may be much more dependent upon our ability to deal with the flavor aspects of high levels of irradiation

  16. Ten-year observations on health status of Children irradiated in utero as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanova, E I; Kondrashova, V G; Galychanskaya, T Y; Vdovenko, V U [Radiation Medicine scientific Center of Ukrainian Medical Sciences Academy, (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The health status dynamics of 1104 children exposed to radiation in utero was estimated after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The thyroid doses ranged from 0.00 to 3340.00 mg y, and total body doses from 1.00 to 376.00 mZv. The decrease in child adaptation capacity was observed with general somatic pathology and higher incidence of thyroid haemoglobin levels were rare in children irradiated in utero. The leucopenias with blood cells ultrastructure surficial architectonics alterations were more frequent. The metabolism of hemopoietic elements during early, post-accident years was peculiar with energy production activation through all paths of energy reception. During further years, all the intracellular enzymes activity decreased. energy depots exhaustion accompanied with ultrastructural changes, neutrophyles functional capacity and specific functions depression were revealed. The PC analysis of data obtained enabled to determine the presence of interconnection between some body systems disorders, radiation effects phenomenon and health status as a whole, and to reveal the further deterioration risk level. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    2007-01-01

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium

  18. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium.

  19. Could the eventual results of the NSABP* 39/RTOG** 0413 trial for partial breast irradiation (PBI) be improved by combining spherical applicators and whole breast irradiation? Radiobiology suggests it may.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, B J

    2010-01-01

    There may be unacceptable risks associated with the relatively large single doses of irradiation prescribed over five days instead of over six weeks for three of the four trial arms of the NSABP39/RTOG 0413 clinical trial seeking to enlist 4,300 patients. The first arm prescribes 60 Gray (Gy) in two Gy fractions over six weeks, which is the present standard. The dose implications of the other three arms with reference to this standard were examined using the ID2 formalism. Particularly poor (non-homogeneous) dose distributions characterise spherical applicators like "MammoSite" used as a sole device for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). The alternative treatment, APBI done by 3-D conformal radiation, may also have a drawback, namely a sudden sharp cut-off in dose which may cause cosmetic problems due to circumscribed fibrosis and edema. Some recently published results from this trial reveal an alarming level of complications. The possible causes of these complications and poor cosmetic outcomes and how to avoid them are examined. An obstacle to the more widespread use of the "MammoSite type of device is that the device is not allowed closer than 5-7 mm from the skin or ribs; a possible remedy for this restriction is offered. It is also intended to make the relevant radiobiological principles usable for surgical oncologists.

  20. Shallow irradiation of Citrus Unshiu by cathod ray, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Koji; Umeda, Keiji

    1978-01-01

    The effect of 150 Krad cathode ray irradiation on the shelf life and quality of ''Citrus Unshiu'' was investigated. Citrus Unshiu (Japanese mandarin orange ''Satsuma'') were kept at 5 0 C for 2 months without pretreatment and irradiated. Both irradiated and non-irradiated samples were stored in the special storage boxes in which temperature, humidity and sterile air circulation were controlled. After 44 days, the percentage of spoiled oranges in irradiated and non-irradiated samples stored at 8 0 C were 57.5% and 64% respectively, on the other hand when stored at 3 0 C the percentage were 26% and 51% respectively. Rate of spoilage was significantly lower in the irradiated samples than non-irradiated ones. Irradiated effect on the shelf life extension was more conspicuous when the storage temperature was kept at 3 0 C. By the sensory examination, any difference for taste and flavor between irradiated and non-irradiated samples was not detected. The taste and flavor of the oranges stored at 8 0 C changed worse after long time storage but when stored at 3 0 C, such tendency was not observed. Undesirable odor and flavor were not detected by the panel with the irradiated samples in this experiment. The results showed that shelf life of the ''Citrus Unshiu'' could be extended by the combination of irradiation with 150 Krad cathode ray and storage at 3 0 C. (auth.)

  1. Electron beam irradiation of poly(perfluoro ethers): Identification of gaseous products as a result of main chain scission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacansky, J.; Waltman, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Several poly(perfluoro ethers) are exposed to electron beams to study the mechanism for main chain scission. Electron beam exposures were performed with the viscous poly(perfluoro ethers) under argon gas, and also at 9 K under vacuum, to determine mechanistic details for the chemical degradation. Here the authors report that, after main chain scission of the bulk poly(perfluoro ethers), sample weight loss is observed concomitant with evolution of gaseous products. Since this suggests that some unzipping of the polymer chain occurs, the products were identified and, most importantly, the efficiency for their formation was determined in terms of G values, and compared to known G values for main chain scission. The results show that COF 2 is the major gaseous product produced from unbranched ethers while CF 4 and COF 2 are the major products from branched polymers. The gaseous products were also exposed to the high-energy electron beam and the G values for decomposition are given

  2. Defects investigation in neutron irradiated reactor steels by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2003-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) based on positron lifetime measurements using the Pulsed Low Energy Positron System (PLEPS) was applied to the investigation of defects of irradiated and thermally treated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. PLEPS results showed that the changes in microstructure of the RPV-steel properties caused by neutron irradiation and post-irradiation heat treatment can be well detected. From the lifetime measurements in the near-surface region (20-550 nm) the defect density in Russian types of RPV-steels was calculated using the diffusion trapping model. The post-irradiation heat treatment studies performed on non-irradiated specimens are also presented. (author)

  3. Application of gamma irradiation for inhibition of food allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.-W.; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, H.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the application of food irradiation technology as a method for reducing food allergy. Milk β-lactoglobulin, chicken egg albumin, and shrimp tropomyosin were used as model food allergens for experiments on allergenic and molecular properties by gamma irradiation. The amount of intact allergens in an irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the dose. These results showed that epitopes on the allergens were structurally altered by radiation treatment and that the irradiation technology can be applied to reduce allergenicity of allergic foods

  4. Application of gamma irradiation for inhibition of food allergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, H.-Y

    2002-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the application of food irradiation technology as a method for reducing food allergy. Milk {beta}-lactoglobulin, chicken egg albumin, and shrimp tropomyosin were used as model food allergens for experiments on allergenic and molecular properties by gamma irradiation. The amount of intact allergens in an irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the dose. These results showed that epitopes on the allergens were structurally altered by radiation treatment and that the irradiation technology can be applied to reduce allergenicity of allergic foods.

  5. Rosette growth of shoots in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) as a result of in vitro propagation of plants and gamma irradiation used for mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerzy, M.; Zalewska, M.; Lema, J.

    1999-01-01

    Rosette growth of chrysanthemum shoots in 'Mrs. R.C. Puling' was observed after in vitro propagation with explants obtained from vernalised and non-vernalised stock plants. The phenomenon was also observed as a result of the exposure of leaf explants to gamma radiation used for in vitro regeneration of plants in mutation induction. The higher the irradiation dose, the more considerable the rosette growth. Following the 4th pinching of shoot tips, only elongating growth of plants was observed

  6. Non typical results of the first and second irradiation set of the surveillance programme of a boiling water reactor in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, G; Krompholz, K [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    In the surveillance programme for the pressure vessel of the Muhleberg NPP in Switzerland, tensile and impact tests on the base material (ASTM A 508 Cl 2) and two weldments (main and automatic) as well as the heat affected zone, were performed with two sets of irradiation (neutron fluence of 5.5.10{sup 17} and 1.1.10{sup 18}) leading to different shifts of the transition temperature (except for the automatic welded joints which keep the same large shift). Results and causes of the discrepancy are discussed. (authors). 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Eleven-year follow-up results in the delay of breast irradiation after conservative breast surgery in node-negative breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujovic, Olga; Yu, Edward; Cherian, Anil; Dar, A. Rashid; Stitt, Larry; Perera, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This retrospective review was conducted to determine if delay in the start of radiotherapy after conservative breast surgery had any detrimental effect on local recurrence or disease-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 568 patients with T1 and T2, N0 breast cancer were treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation, without adjuvant systemic therapy, between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 1992 at the London Regional Cancer Centre. The time intervals from definitive breast surgery to breast irradiation used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), greater than 8 to 12 weeks (235 patients), greater than 12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and greater than 16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local-recurrence and disease-free survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 11.2 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of age and pathologic features. No statistically significant difference was seen between the 4 groups in local recurrence or disease-free survival with surgery radiotherapy interval (p = 0.521 and p = 0.222, respectively). The overall local-recurrence rate at 5 and 10 years was 4.6% and 11.3%, respectively. The overall disease-free survival at 5 and 10 years was 79.6% and 67.0%, respectively. Conclusion: This retrospective study suggests that delay in the start of breast irradiation of up to 16 weeks from definitive surgery does not increase the risk of recurrence in node-negative breast cancer patients. The certainty of these results is limited by the retrospective nature of this analysis

  8. Hypofractionated intensity modulated irradiation for localized prostate cancer, results from a phase I/II feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junius, Sara; Haustermans, Karin; Bussels, Barbara; Oyen, Raymond; Vanstraelen, Bianca; Depuydt, Tom; Verstraete, Jan; Joniau, Steven; Van Poppel, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    To assess acute (primary endpoint) and late toxicity, quality of life (QOL), biochemical or clinical failure (secondary endpoints) of a hypofractionated IMRT schedule for prostate cancer (PC). 38 men with localized PC received 66 Gy (2.64 Gy) to prostate,2 Gy to seminal vesicles (50 Gy total) using IMRT. Acute toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy (RT), at 1–3 months afterwards using RTOG acute scoring system. Late side effects were scored at 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 36 months after RT using RTOG/EORTC criteria. Quality of life was assessed by EORTC-C30 questionnaire and PR25 prostate module. Biochemical failure was defined using ASTRO consensus and nadir+2 definition, clinical failure as local, regional or distant relapse. None experienced grade III-IV toxicity. 10% had no acute genito-urinary (GU) toxicity, 63% grade I; 26% grade II. Maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) scores 0, I, II were 37%, 47% and 16%. Maximal acute toxicity was reached weeks 4–5 and resolved within 4 weeks after RT in 82%. Grade II rectal bleeding needing coagulation had a peak incidence of 18% at 16 months after RT but is 0% at 24–36 months. One developed a urethral stricture at 2 years (grade II late GU toxicity) successfully dilated until now. QOL urinary symptom scores reached a peak incidence 1 month after RT but normalized 6 months later. Bowel symptom scores before, at 1–6 months showed similar values but rose slowly 2–3 years after RT. Nadir of sexual symptom scores was reached 1–6 months after RT but improved 2–3 years later as well as physical, cognitive and role functional scales. Emotional, social functional scales were lowest before RT when diagnosis was given but improved later. Two years after RT global health status normalized. This hypofractionated IMRT schedule for PC using 25 fractions of 2.64 Gy did not result in severe acute side effects. Until now late urethral, rectal toxicities seemed acceptable as well as failure rates. Detailed analysis of

  9. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The unique radioresistance of burros has resulted in a large-animal life-span study that began in 1951. During the course of radiation exposures, some animals at three low exposures to gamma photons survived (10, 10, and 9 exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively). In 1953, 20 burros exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/wk increments were added to this life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons were added. Six burros exposed to 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a ''Godiva-type'' reactor were added in 1959 along with 22 controls. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures (320-545 R), there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia). Afterward, however, all deaths have been attributable to common equine diseases; none from malignancies. Today, 20 of the original 112 burros in these studies survive (13 irradiated and 7 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma and gamma-only irradiated burros show significant differences. Median survival time: controls, 28 yrs; gamma irradiation, 26 yrs; neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 yrs. A Weibull probability analysis predicts maximum life-span to be 42 yrs

  10. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Masamitsu; Meshitsuka, Gyosuke; Ishizu, Atsushi; Nakano, Junzo

    1981-01-01

    Pre-irradiation of wood in alkaline aqueous ethanol increases kraft pulp yield by up to 1.2%, as already reported. In order to clarify the mechanism of the pulp yield gain, the behaviors of lignin and carbohydrates during pre-irradiation and cooking were investigated. The results are summarized as follows: 1) γ-Irradiation of guaiacylethane in alkaline aqueous ethanol produced 5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-guaicylethane, which is formed by radical coupling between α-hydroxyethyl radical from ethanol and guaiacylethane radical having an unpaired electron at C-5. 5,5'-Dehydrodiguaiacylethane, which may be a predominant product produced by γ-irradiation in the absence of ethanol, was also detected. 2) The yield of vanillin obtained by nitrobenzene oxidation of MWL decreased with an increase of γ-ray dosage. The presence of ethanol during γ-irradiation lessened the extent of this decrease and also the degradation of cellobiose. 3) Gel filtration of the products obtained by γ-irradiation of MWL and cellobiose in the presence of 14 C-ethanol showed the possible combination between ethanol and MWL or cellobiose. 4) Molecular weight distributions of kraft lignin obtained from pre-irradiated beech chips were compared with those obtained from unirradiated chips. This result shows that γ-irradiation in the presence of ethanol decreases the ability of lignin to condense during kraft cooking. (author)

  11. Comparative study on disinfection potency of spore forming bacteria by electron-beam irradiation and gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Hironobu; Suzuki, Satoru; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Takama, Kozo; Hayashi, Toru; Yasumoto, Kyoden.

    1990-01-01

    Along with gamma-ray irradiation, electron-beam irradiation (EB) is a method to disinfect microorganisms which cause food decomposition and food-poisoning. The present study was undertaken to compare sterilization efficacy of EB and gamma-ray irradiation on bacterial spores and vegetative cells under various conditions. Spores of Bacillus pumilus, a marker strain for irradiation study, and Bacillus stearothermophilus known as a thermophilic bacteria were irradiated by electron-beam and gamma-ray separately at irradiation dose of 0 to 10 kGy on combination of wet/dry and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Sterilization effect of irradiation on spores was evaluated by colony counting on agar plates. Results showed that both EB and gamma-ray irradiation gave sufficient sterilization effect on spores, and the sterilization effect increased exponentially with irradiation dose. The sterilization effect of gamma-ray irradiation was higher than that of EB in all cases. Higher disinfection effect was observed under aerobic condition. The present study suggests that oxygen supply in EB is more important than gamma-ray irradiation. No results suggesting that chlorine ion at 0.1 ppm (as available chlorine concentration) enhanced the sterilization efficacy of either EB or gamma-ray irradiation was obtained under any conditions examined. (author)

  12. Comparative study on disinfection potency of spore forming bacteria by electron-beam irradiation and gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizawa, Hironobu; Suzuki, Satoru; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Takama, Kozo [Hokkaido Univ., Hakodate (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries; Hayashi, Toru; Yasumoto, Kyoden

    1990-10-01

    Along with gamma-ray irradiation, electron-beam irradiation (EB) is a method to disinfect microorganisms which cause food decomposition and food-poisoning. The present study was undertaken to compare sterilization efficacy of EB and gamma-ray irradiation on bacterial spores and vegetative cells under various conditions. Spores of Bacillus pumilus, a marker strain for irradiation study, and Bacillus stearothermophilus known as a thermophilic bacteria were irradiated by electron-beam and gamma-ray separately at irradiation dose of 0 to 10 kGy on combination of wet/dry and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Sterilization effect of irradiation on spores was evaluated by colony counting on agar plates. Results showed that both EB and gamma-ray irradiation gave sufficient sterilization effect on spores, and the sterilization effect increased exponentially with irradiation dose. The sterilization effect of gamma-ray irradiation was higher than that of EB in all cases. Higher disinfection effect was observed under aerobic condition. The present study suggests that oxygen supply in EB is more important than gamma-ray irradiation. No results suggesting that chlorine ion at 0.1 ppm (as available chlorine concentration) enhanced the sterilization efficacy of either EB or gamma-ray irradiation was obtained under any conditions examined. (author).

  13. Awareness on food irradiation among students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Chempaka Mohd Yusof; Foziah Ali; Salahbiah Abdul Majid; Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Zainab Harun

    2009-01-01

    This survey was conducted to determine the level of understanding on radiation and irradiated food products amongst students during an exhibition in conjunction with Nuclear Malaysia Innovation Day 2008, on 16-18 July 2008 at Dewan Tun Dr. Ismail, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Data were collected from 180 respondents comprising students from various schools visiting the exhibition. The results revealed that 55.56 % of the respondents knew of radiation and 81.11 % agreed that food could be irradiated. However, 53.33 % respondents misunderstood that there was presence of radioactivity in the food after irradiation. The results also showed that respondents knew that various foods can be irradiated and the type of radiation used in irradiation of food products. This survey indicates more aggressive work must be done to educate and introduce the public the application of nuclear technology in modern life, including in food preservation. (Author)

  14. In-vitro Degradation Behaviour of Irradiated Bacterial Cellulose Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwis, D.; Khusniya, T.; Hardiningsih, L.; Nurlidar, F.; Winarno, H.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose membrane synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum in coconut water medium has potential application for Guided bone Regeneration. However, this membrane may not meet some application requirements due to its low biodegradation properties. In this paper, incorporation of gamma irradiation into the membrane is a developed strategy to increase its biodegradability properties. The in-vitro degradation study in synthetic body fluid (SBF) of the irradiated membrane has been analyzed during periods of 6 months by means of weight loss, mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopy observation compared to that the un-irradiated one. The result showed that weight loss of irradiated membrane with 25 kGy and 50 kGy and immersed in SBF solution for 6 months reached 18% and 25% respectively. While un-irradiated membrane did not give significant weight loss. Tensile strength of membranes decreases with increasing of irradiation dose and further decreases in tensile strength is observed when irradiated membrane was followed by immersion in SBF solution. Microscope electron image of cellulose membranes shows that un-irradiated bacterial cellulose membrane consists of dense ultrafine fibril network structures, while irradiation result in cleavage of fibrils network of cellulose. The fibrils network become loosely after irradiated membrane immersed in SBF solution due to released of small molecular weight carbohydrates formed during by irradiation from the structure (author)

  15. Irradiated produce reaches Midwest market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszczola, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    In March 1992, the Chicago-area store gave its shoppers a choice between purchasing irradiated and nonirradiated fruits. The irradiated fruits were treated at Vindicator Inc., the first U.S. food irradiation facility (starting up on January 10, 1992). The plant, located in Mulberry, Fla., then shipped the fruits in trucks to the store where they were displayed under a hand-lettered sign describing the irradiated fruits and showing the irradiation logo

  16. Results of the irradiation of mixed UO{sub 2} - PuO{sub 2} oxide fuel elements; Resultats d'irradiation d'elements combustibles en oxyde mixte UO{sub 2} - PuO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikailoff, H.; Mustelier, J.P.; Bloch, J.; Ezran, L.; Hayet, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    In order to study the behaviour of fuel elements used for the first charge of the reactor Rapsodie, a first batch of eleven needles was irradiated in the reactor EL3 and then examined. These needles (having a shape very similar lo that of the actual needles to be used) were made up of a stack of sintered mixed-oxide pellets: UO{sub 2} containing about 10 per cent of PuO{sub 2}. The density was 85 to 97 per cent of the theoretical, value. The diametral gap between the oxide and the stainless steel can was between 0,06 and 0,27 mm. The specific powers varied from 1230 to 2700 W/cm{sup 3} and the can temperature was between 450 and 630 C. The maximum burn-up attained was 22000 MW days/tonne. Examination of the needles (metrology, radiography and {gamma}-spectrography) revealed certain macroscopic changes, and the evolution of the fuel was shown by micrographic studies. These observations were used, together with flux measurements results, to calculate the temperature distribution inside the fuel. The volume of the fission gas produced was measured in some of the samples; the results are interpreted taking into account the temperature distribution in the oxide and the burn-up attained. Finally a study was made both of the behaviour of a fuel element whose central part was molten during irradiation, and of the effect of sodium which had penetrated into some of the samples following can rupture. (author) [French] Afin d'etudier le comportement des elements combustibles destines a la premiere charge du reacteur Rapsodie, une premiere serie de onze aiguilles a ete irradiee dans le reacteur EL3 et examinee apres irradiation. Ces aiguilles (aux caracteristiques geometriques tres proches de celles des aiguilles definitives) etaient constituees d'un empilement de pastilles frittees en oxyde mixte UO{sub 2} a 10 pour cent environ de PuO{sub 2}, dont la densite etait comprise entre 85 et 97 pour cent de la densite theorique. Le jeu diametral entre l'oxyde et la

  17. Results of the irradiation of mixed UO{sub 2} - PuO{sub 2} oxide fuel elements; Resultats d'irradiation d'elements combustibles en oxyde mixte UO{sub 2} - PuO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikailoff, H; Mustelier, J P; Bloch, J; Ezran, L; Hayet, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    In order to study the behaviour of fuel elements used for the first charge of the reactor Rapsodie, a first batch of eleven needles was irradiated in the reactor EL3 and then examined. These needles (having a shape very similar lo that of the actual needles to be used) were made up of a stack of sintered mixed-oxide pellets: UO{sub 2} containing about 10 per cent of PuO{sub 2}. The density was 85 to 97 per cent of the theoretical, value. The diametral gap between the oxide and the stainless steel can was between 0,06 and 0,27 mm. The specific powers varied from 1230 to 2700 W/cm{sup 3} and the can temperature was between 450 and 630 C. The maximum burn-up attained was 22000 MW days/tonne. Examination of the needles (metrology, radiography and {gamma}-spectrography) revealed certain macroscopic changes, and the evolution of the fuel was shown by micrographic studies. These observations were used, together with flux measurements results, to calculate the temperature distribution inside the fuel. The volume of the fission gas produced was measured in some of the samples; the results are interpreted taking into account the temperature distribution in the oxide and the burn-up attained. Finally a study was made both of the behaviour of a fuel element whose central part was molten during irradiation, and of the effect of sodium which had penetrated into some of the samples following can rupture. (author) [French] Afin d'etudier le comportement des elements combustibles destines a la premiere charge du reacteur Rapsodie, une premiere serie de onze aiguilles a ete irradiee dans le reacteur EL3 et examinee apres irradiation. Ces aiguilles (aux caracteristiques geometriques tres proches de celles des aiguilles definitives) etaient constituees d'un empilement de pastilles frittees en oxyde mixte UO{sub 2} a 10 pour cent environ de PuO{sub 2}, dont la densite etait comprise entre 85 et 97 pour cent de la densite theorique. Le jeu diametral entre l'oxyde et la gaine en acier

  18. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Masamitsu; Meshitsuka, Gyosuke; Nakano, Junzo

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been made of kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood. Beech (Fagus crenata Blume) wood meal suspended in aqueous alkaline alcohol was irradiated up to 1.5 KGy (0.15 Mrad) with gamma rays from a Co-60 source in the presence or absence of oxygen. The irradiated wood meals were washed thoroughly with fresh water, air dried and cooked under the ordinary cooking conditions. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Pre-irradiation in aqueous alkali have negligible effect on kraft cooking. (2) In the case of ethanol addition (50 g/l), pre-irradiation in vacuo shows acceleration of delignification and stabilization of carbohydrates during kraft cooking. Cooked yield gain by pre-irradiation was about 1.2% in all over the range of delignification from 80 to 90%. Aqueous ethanol without alkali also shows positive but smaller effect than that with alkali. (3) Propanol, iso-propanol and butanol show positive but smaller effects than ethanol. However, methanol does not show any positive effect. (4) Irradiation in the presence of oxygen does not show any attractive effect on kraft cooking. (author)

  19. Gamma Irradiation for the Inhibition of Shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) Allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Jae-Hun; Lee Ju-Woon

    2000-01-01

    Food irradiation technology was conducted to reduce shrimp allergy. The experiment was designated in 3 portions as follows; A, the irradiation of raw shrimp; B the irradiation of shrimp and then cooking; and C, cooking the shrimp and then irradiation. Gamma irradiation was done with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 kGy. A shrimp sarcoplasmic protein solution (SSPS) and a myofibrillar protein solution (SMPS) were prepared from A portion. Cooked shrimp protein solutions were also prepared from B and C portions. The binding abilities of the shrimp allergic patients' IgE and mouse monoclonal Ab 4.9.5 (mAb 4.9.5), produced to the shrimp heat-stable protein, to each sample solution were determined by ELISA. Binding abilities of patients' IgE and mAb 4.9.5 to irradiated shrimp fractions were dose-dependently reduced. The cooking treatment after irradiation was more effective than the irradiation treatment after cooking in the reduction of the binding abilities of IgE and IgG. SDS-PAGE was performed to compare irradiated shrimp proteins with non-irradiated shrimp proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that no bands were changed by gamma irradiation. The results indicated that food irradiation with an adequate dose can be reduce allergenicity of shrimp

  20. Effects of irradiation on color and lipid oxidation of prosciutto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Qiulian; Qi Wenyuan; Yue Ling; Chen Zhijun; Bao Yingzi; Dai Xudong; Xu Yun

    2012-01-01

    This study dealt with the effect of irradiation on the color, irradiation odor and lipid oxidation of prosciutto crudo. The hams were irradiated by γ-ray and electronic beam (EB). Changes of color, irradiation odor, TBA value (TBARS), peroxide value (POV), carbonyl value and conjugated diene value were analyzed and compared with non-irradiated hams. Results showed that color index (a * ) of control, γ-ray irradiated and EB irradiated were 14.39, 9.45 and 11.71 respectively. The ratios of a * /b * were different with the type of rays. The ratio of a * /b * of EB irradiation was same with control, while that of γ-ray irradiation was decreased apparently. γ-ray irradiation had been shown to have apparently detrimental effect on the color and odor of hams, while EB irradiation had little detrimental effect. Irradiation increased POV and conjugated diene value, but the amounts of lipid oxidation products (TBARS, carbonyl value) were less than nonirradiated hams. (authors)

  1. Identification methods for irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shengtao; Kume, Tamikazu; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1992-02-01

    The effect of irradiation on wheat seeds was examined using various kinds of analytical methods for the identification of irradiated seeds. In germination test, the growth of sprouts was markedly inhibited at 500Gy, which was not affected by storage. The decrease in germination percentage was detected at 3300Gy. The results of enzymatic activity change in the germ measured by Vita-Scope germinator showed that the seeds irradiated at 10kGy could be identified. The content of amino acids in ungerminated and germinated seeds were analyzed. Irradiation at 10kGy caused the decrease of lysine content but the change was small which need very careful operation to detect it. The chemiluminescence intensity increased with radiation dose and decreased during storage. The wheat irradiated at 10kGy could be identified even after 3 months storage. In the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum analysis, the signal intensity with the g value f 2.0055 of skinned wheat seeds increased with radiation dose. Among these methods, germination test was the most sensitive and effective for identification of irradiated wheat. (author)

  2. Ultra-rapid high dose irradiation schedules for the palliation of brain metastases: final results of the first two studies by the radiation therapy oncology group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgelt, B.; Gelber, R.; Larson, M.; Hendrickson, F.; Griffin, T.; Rother, R.

    1981-01-01

    Between January, 1971, and February, 1976, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group entered 1902 evaluable patients into two sequential Phase III national cooperative trials to study the effectiveness of different time dose radiotherapy schemes on the palliation of patients with brain metastases. Each trial included an optional arm into which patients were randomized to receive 1000 rad/1 fraction (26 patients, First study) or 1200 rad/2 fractions (33 patients, Second study). Comparisons were made with 143 control patients randomized by the same participating institutions to receive a more protracted course of irradiation (2000, 3000 or 4000 rad/1-4wks). Response of patients receiving ultra-rapid treatment, as assessed by the percent who had improvement in neurologic function, was comparable to that of patients receiving the more protracted schedules. Promptness of neurologic function improvement, treatment morbidity and median survival were also comparable to those of patients receiving 2000 to 4000 rad. However, the duration of improvement, time to progression of neurologic status and rate of complete disappearance of neurologic symptoms were generally less for those patients who received 1000 or 1200 rad. These results suggest that ultra-rapid, high dose irradiation schedules may not be so effective as higher dose schedules in the palliation of patients with brain metastases

  3. Inhibition of antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells resulting from UV irradiation of murine skin is restored by in vitro photorepair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, A.A.; Roza, L.; Moodycliffe, A.M.; Shreedhar, V.

    1997-01-01

    Exposing skin to UVB (280-320 nm) radiation suppresses contact hypersensitivity by a mechanism that involves an alteration in the activity of cutaneous antigen-presenting cells (APC). UV-induced DNA damage appears to be an important molecular trigger for this effect. The specific target cells in the skin that sustain DNA damage relevant to the immunosuppressive effect have yet to be identified. We tested the hypothesis that UV-induced DNA damage in the cutaneous APC was responsible for their impaired ability to present antigen after in vivo UV irradiation. Cutaneous APC were collected from the draining lymph nodes of UVB-irradiated, hapten-sensitized mice and incubated in vitro with liposomes containing a photolyase, which, upon absorption of photoreactivating light, splits UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Photosome treatment followed by photoreactivating light reduced the number of dimer-containing APC, restored the in vivo antigen-presenting activity of the draining lymph node cells, and blocked the induction of suppressor T cells. Neither Photosomes nor photoreactivating light alone, nor photoreactivating light given before Photosomes, restored APC activity, and Photosomes treatment did not reverse the impairment of APC function when isopsoralen plus UVA (320-400 nm) radiation was used instead of UVB. These controls indicate that the restoration of APC function matched the requirements of Photosome-mediated DNA repair for dimers and post-treatment photoreactivating light. These results provide compelling evidence that it is UV-induced DNA damage in cutaneous APC that leads to reduced immune function

  4. Irradiation creep in ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeulen, W.; Bremaecker, A. de; Burbure, S. de; Huet, J.J.; Asbroeck, P. van

    Pressurized and non-pressurized capsules of several ferritic steels have been irradiated in Rapsodie between 400 and 500 0 C up to 3.7 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV). Results of the diameter measurements are presented and show that the total in-pile deformation is lower than for austenitic steels

  5. Modification of polycrystalline copper by proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia S, F.; Cabral P, A.; Saniger B, J.M.; Banuelos, J.G.; Barragan V, A.

    1997-01-01

    Polished copper samples were irradiated with proton beams of 300 and 700 keV at room temperature and at -150 Centigrade. In this work the obtained results are reported when such copper irradiated samples are analysed with Sem, Tem, AFM. The Sem micrographs showed evident changes in surface of these copper samples, therefore an EDAX microanalysis was done for its characterization. additionally, the Tem micrographs showed heaps formation until 200 nm. Its electron diffraction spectra indicated that these heaps consist of a copper compound. Finally with AFM were observed changes in coloration of the irradiated sample surface, as well as changes in texture and rugosity of them. These results show in general that irradiation process with protons which is known as an innocuo process produces changes in the copper properties. (Author)

  6. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, Celina I. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: horak@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Di Giorgio, Marina [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kairiyama, Eulogia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  7. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, Celina I.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Kairiyama, Eulogia

    2009-01-01

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  8. Identification of irradiated food additives by photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Joong Ho; KIm, Dong Ho; Hur, Jung Mu; Yang, Suh Yung; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2008-01-01

    Photostimulated luminescence (PSL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) analyses were conducted to detect whether 258 kinds of extracted and powdered forms food additives were irradiated or not. In a view of the PSL results, 9 kinds of the extracted and powdered samples (3.2%) showed over 5,000 photon counts (60 sec) -1 and these samples were judged to be irradiation-positive. Thirty nine kinds of the samples (15.6%) yielded 700-5,000 photon counts (60 sec) -1 and these samples were grouped into irradiation-potential, while the samples showed below 700 photon counts (60 sec) -1 sec were judged to be irradiation-negative. TL glow curves for minerals separated from 5 samples were detected at 150 degrees C with high intensity. However, TL analysis did not apply to other irradiation-positive and irradiation-potential samples because the minerals for TL detection were not separated from the samples. ESR measurements for irradiation-positive and irradiation-potential samples, judged by PSL detection, showed no specific signals to irradiation. The results indicated that PSL could be applied to identify irradiation treatment of extracted and powdered food additives, while TL was optional and ESR was not suitable for detection extracted and powdered food additives

  9. Effect of irradiation of sensory quality of cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Min; Zhu Jiating; Yang Ping; Wang Dening; Gu Guiqiang

    2012-01-01

    3 brands of cigarettes were irradiated and smoked to make sure the effect of irradiation on sensory qualities of cigarettes, luster, aroma, harmony, offensive taste, irritancy, after taste and total scores of irradiated cigarettes were studied. The results showed that, compared with each index of CK, some indexes changed after irradiation, sensory quality of cigarettes might be improved by suitable dose. The sensory qualities of cigarettes of different brands or different styles change differently, though they were irradiated by the same dose. There was no obvious relation between score of any index and irradiation dose, when cigarette of a same brand irradiated by different doses. Above all, the changes of sensory quality of cigarette may meet the requirements of different smokers on the palate. (authors)

  10. Effects of irradiation on color and lipid oxidation of prosciutto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Qiulian; Qi Wenyuan; Yue Ling; Chen Zhijun; Bao Yingzi; Dai Xudong; Xu Yun

    2011-01-01

    This study dealt with the effect of irradiation on the color, ordor and lipid oxidation of prosciutto crudo. The hams were irradiated by γ-ray and electronic beam (EB). Changes of color, ordor, TBA value (TBARS), peroxide value (POV), carbonyl value and conjugated diene value were analyzed and compared with nonirradiated hams. Results showed that color index (a * ) of control, γ-ray irradiated and EB irradiated were 14.39, 9.45 and 11.71 respectively. γ-ray irradiation had been shown to have apparently detrimental effect on the color and ordor of hams, while EB irradiation had little detrimental effect. Irradiation increased POV and conjugated diene value, but the amounts of lipid oxidation products (TBARS, carbonyl value) were less than nonirradiated hams. (authors)

  11. The Analysis Of Spent Fuel Utilization For A Gamma Irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MS, Pudjijanto; Setiyanto

    2002-01-01

    The gamma irradiator using RSG-GAS spent fuels was analyzed. The cylindrical geometry of the irradiator was designed by locating the spent fuels the cylindrical periphery. The analysis was focused to evaluate the feasibilities of the irradiator as a fruits and vegetables irradiator. The spent fuels activities were calculated using Origen2 code, while the dose rate at the irradiation positions was determined by linear attenuation model with transport coefficient. The evaluated results showed that the cylindrical geometry of irradiators with diameter around 1-1.5 m gave the effective dose rate for fruits and vegetables preservation. It can be concluded that one can use the RSG-GAS spent fuels effectively as a gamma irradiator for certain applications

  12. Rheological changes in irradiated chicken eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lúcia F. S.; Del Mastro, Nélida L.

    1998-06-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may cause foodborne illnesses. Humans may introduce pathogens into foods during production, processing, distribution and or preparation. Some of these microorganisms are able to survive conventional preservation treatments. Heat pasteurization, which is a well established and satisfactory means of decontamination/disinfection of liquid foods, cannot efficiently achieve a similar objective for solid foods. Extensive work carried out worldwide has shown that irradiation is efficient in eradicating foodborne pathogens like Salmonella spp. that can contaminate poultry products. In this work Co-60 gamma irradiation was applied to samples of industrial powder white, yolk and whole egg at doses between 0 and 25 kGy. Samples were rehydrated and the viscosity measured in a Brookfield viscosimeter, model DV III at 5, 15 and 25°C. The rheological behaviour among the various kinds of samples were markedly different. Irradiation with doses up to 5 kGy, known to reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels, showed almost no variation of viscosity of irradiated egg white samples. On the other hand, whole or yolk egg samples showed some changes in rheological properties depending on the dose level, showing the predominance of whether polimerization or degradation as a result of the irradiation. Additionally, irradiation of yolk egg powder reduced yolk color as a function of the irradiation exposure implemented. The importance of these results are discussed in terms of possible industrial applications.

  13. Rheological changes in irradiated chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Lucia F. S.; Del Mastro, Nelida L.

    1998-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may cause foodborne illnesses. Humans may introduce pathogens into foods during production, processing, distribution and or preparation. Some of these microorganisms are able to survive conventional preservation treatments. Heat pasteurization, which is a well established and satisfactory means of decontamination/disinfection of liquid foods, cannot efficiently achieve a similar objective for solid foods. Extensive work carried out worldwide has shown that irradiation is efficient in eradicating foodborne pathogens like Salmonella spp. that can contaminate poultry products. In this work Co-60 gamma irradiation was applied to samples of industrial powder white, yolk and whole egg at doses between 0 and 25 kGy. Samples were rehydrated and the viscosity measured in a Brookfield viscosimeter, model DV III at 5, 15 and 25 degree sign C. The rheological behaviour among the various kinds of samples were markedly different. Irradiation with doses up to 5 kGy, known to reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels, showed almost no variation of viscosity of irradiated egg white samples. On the other hand, whole or yolk egg samples showed some changes in rheological properties depending on the dose level, showing the predominance of whether polimerization or degradation as a result of the irradiation. Additionally, irradiation of yolk egg powder reduced yolk color as a function of the irradiation exposure implemented. The importance of these results are discussed in terms of possible industrial applications

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  15. Enhancement of antimicrobial activity of chitosan by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, S.; Kume, T.

    1997-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of irradiated chitosan was studied against Escherichia coli B/r. Irradiation of chitosan at 100 kGy under dry conditions was effective in increasing the activity, and inhibited the growth of E. coli completely. The molecular weight of chitosan significantly decreased with the increase in irradiation dose, whereas the relative surface charge of chitosan was decreased only 3% by 100 kGy irradiation. Antimicrobial activity assay of chitosan fractionated according to molecular weight showed that 1 x 10 5 -3 x 10 5 fraction was most effective in suppressing the growth of E coli. This fraction comprised only 8% of the 100 kGy irradiated chitosan. On the other hand, chitosan whose molecular weight was less than 1 x 10 5 had no activity. The results show that low dose irradiation, specifically 100 kGy, of chitosan gives enough degradation to increase its antimicrobial activity as a result of a change in molecular weight. (Author)

  16. Accumulation and recovery of defects in ion-irradiated nanocrystalline gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimi, Y. E-mail: chimi@popsvr.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Iwase, A.; Ishikawa, N.; Kobiyama, M.; Inami, T.; Okuda, S

    2001-09-01

    Effects of 60 MeV {sup 12}C ion irradiation on nanocrystalline gold (nano-Au) are studied. The experimental results show that the irradiation-produced defects in nano-Au are thermally unstable because of the existence of a large volume fraction of grain boundaries. This suggests a possibility of the use of nanocrystalline materials as irradiation-resistant materials.

  17. Phase I/II study of proton beam irradiation for the treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: treatment techniques and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemoto, Leslie T.; Slater, Jerry D.; Friedrichsen, Eric J.; Loredo, Lilia N.; Ing, Jeffrey; Archambeau, John O.; Teichman, Sandra; Moyers, Michael F.; Blacharski, Paul A.; Slater, James M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration is the prevalent etiology of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV). The only effective treatment is laser photocoagulation, which is associated with decreased visual acuity following treatment in most patients. This study assessed both the response of subfoveal CNV to proton beam irradiation and treatment-related morbidity. We evaluated preliminary results in patients treated with an initial dose of 8 Cobalt Gray Equivalents (CGE) using a relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with subfoveal CNV received proton irradiation to the central macula with a single fraction of 8 CGE; 19 were eligible for evaluation. Treatment-related morbidity was based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria; response was evaluated by Macular Photocoagulation Study (MPS) guidelines. Fluorescein angiography was performed; visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and reading speed were measured at study entry and at 3-month intervals after treatment. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 15 months. Results: No measurable treatment-related morbidity was seen during or after treatment. Of 19 patients evaluated at 6 months, fluorescein angiography demonstrated treatment response in 10 (53%); 14 (74%) patients had improved or stable visual acuity. With a mean follow-up of 11.6 months, 11 (58%) patients have demonstrated improved or stable visual acuity. Conclusion: A macular dose of 8 CGE yielded no measurable treatment morbidity in patients studied. Fluorescein nagiography demonstrated that regressed or stabilized lesions were associated with improved visual acuity as compared with MPS results. In the next phase, a dose of 14 CGE in a single fraction will be used to further define the optimal dose fractionation schedule

  18. Clinical Results of the injection of solcoseryl against disorders of skin and mucosa due to radioactive irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toshio; Yasuhiro, Tsuneaki; Urahashi, Shingo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Ryutaro

    1974-01-01

    Solcoceryl was injected intravenously in order to protect patients with various types of cancer from suffering the side effects of radiotherapy including dermatitis and mucositis, and in order to treat the side effects. As a result, the efficiency of Solcoseryl was 75% when the drug was given during radiotherapy, and it was 100% when the drug was given after the completion of radiotherapy. Solcoseryl was most effective when it was injected every day or every other day from the early stages of radiotherapy when the side effects were slight, in a total dosage of 20 syringes. These results demonstrated that injections of Solcoseryl are effective in decreasing and treating dermatitis and mucositis due to radiotherapy. (N. Kanao)

  19. Physicochemical and sensory properties of irradiated dry-cured ham

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Chul-Wook; Chung, Ki-Hwa; Jo, Kwang-Keun; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Hur, In-Chul; Jung, Eun-Young; Joo, Seon-Tea; Yang, Han-Sul

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of different irradiation doses on ready-to-eat (RTE) dry-cured shoulder hams, physicochemical and sensory attributes were analyzed during 8 weeks of refrigerated storage. The results show that irradiation reduced the redness value and increased the 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value as well as the irradiation aroma during storage. However, ham samples irradiated with 2.5 and 5.0 kGy did not show significant changes in lightness values compared to the control sample during 8 weeks of storage. TBARS values were lower in the sample irradiated with 2.5 kGy than in the other irradiated samples. The total plate counts of the 5.0 kGy-irradiated samples were not measured after 0 weeks. Sensory panels found that the 2.5- and 5.0 kGy-irradiated samples had better overall acceptability scores than the other irradiated samples. It was concluded that treatments with lower levels of irradiation (≤5.0 kGy) can enhance the microbial safety and sensory acceptance of dry-cured shoulder hams. - Highlights: ► Effect of different irradiation doses on quality properties of dry-cured hams. ► The 2.5 kGy irradiated sample did not show any changes in lipid oxidation. ► Irradiation at 5.0 kGy has the potential to greatly decrease the TPC. ► Low-dose irradiation can improve the microbial safety and maintain the sensory acceptance.

  20. The effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on seeds and branches of Euonymus fortunei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Yan; Inner Mongolia Agriculture Univ., Huhhot; Zhang Guosheng; Lu Renqiang; Pan Qinghua

    2006-01-01

    Seeds and plant branches of Euonymus fortunei were irradiated with 60 Co γ-ray. The results showed that after irradiation, seed germination rate, emergence rate and surviving rate were restrained, and it was negatively correlated with irradiation dose increasing significantly. The first euphylis period was delayed compared with control. Seedling height decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Semi-lethal dose of Euonymus fortunei seeds was 128.56 Gy. Branch irradiation could cause significantly number and length reduced, and it is correlated with irradiation dose increasing. The semi-lethal dose for Euonymus fortunei branches was 95.54 Gy. (authors)

  1. Food irradiation in Asia, the European Union, and the United States. A status update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the status of food irradiation in Asia, the European Union, and the United States in 2010. Our results show that quantities of irradiated foods in Asia, the EU, and the US in 2010 were estimated at 285200, 9300, and 103000 tons, respectively. Compared with 2005, the quantity of irradiated foods was 100000 tons higher in Asia and 10000 tons higher in the US but 6000 tons lower in the EU. Thus, commercial food irradiation has increased significantly in Asia during the 5-year period studied. Phytosanitary irradiation of fruits and agricultural products has recently increased with 6 countries having irradiated 18500 tons in 2010. (author)

  2. Acceptability of minimally processed and irradiated pineapple and watermelon among Brazilian consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Cecilia Geraldes; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; Behrens, Jorge Herman; Oliveira Souza, Katia Leani [Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 B.14, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins Vizeu, Dirceu; Hutzler, Beatriz Weltman [Embrarad Ltda. Av. Cruzada Bandeirante, 269, 06700-000 Cotia, SP (Brazil); Teresa Destro, Maria [Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 B.14, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Landgraf, Mariza [Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 B.14, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: landgraf@usp.br

    2008-06-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the acceptance of MP watermelon and pineapple exposed to 1.0 and 2.5 kGy compared to non-irradiated samples. No significant differences were observed in liking between irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and also between doses of 1.0 and 2.5 kGy. Significant differences in sourness (pineapple) or sweetness (watermelon) and between intention of purchase of irradiated and non-irradiated fruits were not observed as well. Results showed that MP watermelon and pineapple could be irradiated with doses up to 2.5 kGy without significant changes in acceptability.

  3. Acceptability of minimally processed and irradiated pineapple and watermelon among Brazilian consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Cecilia Geraldes; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; Behrens, Jorge Herman; Oliveira Souza, Katia Leani; Martins Vizeu, Dirceu; Hutzler, Beatriz Weltman; Teresa Destro, Maria; Landgraf, Mariza

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the acceptance of MP watermelon and pineapple exposed to 1.0 and 2.5 kGy compared to non-irradiated samples. No significant differences were observed in liking between irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and also between doses of 1.0 and 2.5 kGy. Significant differences in sourness (pineapple) or sweetness (watermelon) and between intention of purchase of irradiated and non-irradiated fruits were not observed as well. Results showed that MP watermelon and pineapple could be irradiated with doses up to 2.5 kGy without significant changes in acceptability

  4. Acceptability of minimally processed and irradiated pineapple and watermelon among Brazilian consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; Behrens, Jorge Herman; Oliveira Souza, Kátia Leani; Martins Vizeu, Dirceu; Hutzler, Beatriz Weltman; Teresa Destro, Maria; Landgraf, Mariza

    2008-06-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the acceptance of MP watermelon and pineapple exposed to 1.0 and 2.5 kGy compared to non-irradiated samples. No significant differences were observed in liking between irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and also between doses of 1.0 and 2.5 kGy. Significant differences in sourness (pineapple) or sweetness (watermelon) and between intention of purchase of irradiated and non-irradiated fruits were not observed as well. Results showed that MP watermelon and pineapple could be irradiated with doses up to 2.5 kGy without significant changes in acceptability.

  5. Analysis of cosmetic results and complications in patients with Stage I and II breast cancer treated by biopsy and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, D.; Martinez, A.; Cox, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Between May, 1973 and December, 1980, 78 Stage I and II breast carcinomas in 76 patients were treated by biopsy and radiotherapy with curative intent. With a maximum follow-up of 10 years, a minimum of 2 1/2 years and a median follow-up of 3 1/2 years, a loco-regional control rate of 97% was obtained. Cosmetic results and treatment complications were studied. Patient characteristics, tumor size, excisional biopsy technique, axillary staging procedure and radiotherapy techniques were analyzed and all found to be important factors affecting cosmesis and complications. The most common complications included transient breast edema observed in 51% of patients, breast fibrosis (usually mild) seen in 23% of the population, axillary hematoma or seroma formation in 15%, mild arm edema in 14% and basilic vein thrombosis in 10% of patients. The causes of these and other less frequent complications are discussed. The overall cosmetic result was excellent in 78%, satisfactory in 18% and unsatisfactory in 4% of patients. Recommendations for improving cosmetic results and minimizing complications are made

  6. Can We Predict Plan Quality for External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation: Results of a Multicenter Feasibility Study (Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study 06.02)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kron, Tomas, E-mail: Tomas.Kron@petermac.org [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Willis, David; Link, Emma [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lehman, Margot [Princess Alexandra Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Campbell, Gillian [Auckland City Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland (New Zealand); O' Brien, Peter [Newcastle Calvary Mater Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Chua, Boon [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy may be an option for selected patients with early breast cancer. A feasibility study of accelerated PBI delivered using external beam 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) was undertaken at 8 Australasian centers. The present study evaluated the impact of patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors on the quality of RT plans as determined by the dose–volume parameters of organs at risk. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. All RT plans were centrally reviewed using predefined dosimetric criteria before commencement and after completion of protocol therapy. The RT plans of 47 patients met the dose–volume constraints, and all 47 patients received PBI to a prescribed dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. The RT plan quality was determined by volumes of the ipsilateral whole breast, lung, and heart that received 50% and 95%; 30%; and 5% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors were investigated for association with the parameters of RT plan quality. Results: The ratio of the planning target volume to the ipsilateral whole-breast volume was significantly associated with the ipsilateral breast doses on multiple variable analyses. The distance of the postlumpectomy surgical cavity from the heart and lung were predictive for heart and lung doses, respectively. A distance between surgical cavity and heart of >4 cm typically resulted in <1% of the heart volume receiving 5 Gy or less. It was more difficult to meet the heart dose constraint for left-sided and medially located tumors. Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal RT was feasible within the study constraints. The ratio of planning target volume to ipsilateral whole-breast volume and the distance of surgical cavity from the heart were significant predictors of the quality of treatment plan for external beam PBI.

  7. Can We Predict Plan Quality for External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation: Results of a Multicenter Feasibility Study (Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study 06.02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kron, Tomas; Willis, David; Link, Emma; Lehman, Margot; Campbell, Gillian; O'Brien, Peter; Chua, Boon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy may be an option for selected patients with early breast cancer. A feasibility study of accelerated PBI delivered using external beam 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) was undertaken at 8 Australasian centers. The present study evaluated the impact of patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors on the quality of RT plans as determined by the dose–volume parameters of organs at risk. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. All RT plans were centrally reviewed using predefined dosimetric criteria before commencement and after completion of protocol therapy. The RT plans of 47 patients met the dose–volume constraints, and all 47 patients received PBI to a prescribed dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. The RT plan quality was determined by volumes of the ipsilateral whole breast, lung, and heart that received 50% and 95%; 30%; and 5% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors were investigated for association with the parameters of RT plan quality. Results: The ratio of the planning target volume to the ipsilateral whole-breast volume was significantly associated with the ipsilateral breast doses on multiple variable analyses. The distance of the postlumpectomy surgical cavity from the heart and lung were predictive for heart and lung doses, respectively. A distance between surgical cavity and heart of >4 cm typically resulted in <1% of the heart volume receiving 5 Gy or less. It was more difficult to meet the heart dose constraint for left-sided and medially located tumors. Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal RT was feasible within the study constraints. The ratio of planning target volume to ipsilateral whole-breast volume and the distance of surgical cavity from the heart were significant predictors of the quality of treatment plan for external beam PBI

  8. Electron spin resonance studies of some irradiated pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibella, M.; Crucq, A-S.; Tilquin, B.; Stocker, P.; Lesgards, G.; Raffi, J.

    2000-01-01

    Five antibiotics belonging to the cephalosporins and penicillins groups have been irradiated: anhydrous ampicilline acid, amoxicilline acid trihydrate, cefuroxime sodium salt, cloxacilline sodium salt monohydrate and ceftazidime pentahydrate. ESR studies have been carried out, showing the influence of irradiation and storage parameters on the nature and concentration of the free radicals trapped. These results may be used to detect an irradiation treatment on such pharmaceuticals. (author)

  9. Analysis of deltamethrin's degradation products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ling; Huang Min; Chen Chun; Lei Qing; Du Xiaoying; Xie Yan; Wang Yan; Gao Peng; He Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Deltamethrin were dissolved in ethanol and water; acetone and water; dimethylsulfoxide and water, irradiating these liquors by 60 Co-γ under the dose of 5∼50 kGy. The irradiation system were analyzed by GC/MS, result shows: there were some differences under different irradiation doses; the main degradation products are: α-cyano-3-phenoxy benzyl alcohol, 3-Phenoxybenzaldehyde, 3-Phenoxybenzacetonitrile and bromomethane. (authors)

  10. Effect of irradiation on sensory quality of fermented spicy chicken feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Meixu; Li Shurong; Pei Ying; Jiang Xiujie; Wang Zhidong; Deng Wenmin; Chen Xun; Huang Min; Chen Hao

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation could effectively control lactobacillus of fermented spicy chicken feet and extend its shelf life. Sensory evaluation standard of fermented spicy chicken feet was established to study the sensory change after irradiation according to related standards and research results. Color and shape (weight 30%), scent (weight 30%), texture and taste (weight 40%) were selected as sensory evaluation items. The sensory evaluation results after irradiation 3 days didn't show significance difference among control, 3, 5, 8 and 12 kGy irradiated samples, and the sensory evaluation score of 10 kGy irradiated sample was much higher then other sample groups. The results after irradiation 11d were almost as same as 3d results. It is indicated that the sensory quality of fermented spicy chicken feet would not destroyed by irradiation, and suitable dosage of irradiation may promote the sensory quality of fermented spicy chicken feet. (authors)

  11. Results of post-irradiation examination of WWER fuel assembly structural components made of E110 and E635 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.; Markov, D.; Smirnov, V.; Polenok, V.; Ivashchenko, A.; Strozhuk, A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the main examination results on the condition of fuel rods claddings, guide tubes and spacer grids of the WWER FA made of E110 and E635 alloys operated under standard operating conditions. The paper is based on the data obtained during the examination of 28 WWER-1000 FA and 12 WWER-400 FA. E110 alloy is shown to be suitable material for the WWER fuel rod claddings under the normal operating conditions. E635 alloy is attractive to manufacturing of the skeleton components. The currently used combination (E110 as a material of fuel rods claddings and E635 - as a material of the skeleton components) is the optimal solution for the WWER fuel assembly because the advantages of the both alloys are used. (authors)

  12. Selection of irradiator for potato preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsara, A R; Melaibari, A G; Abulfaraj, W H; Mamoon, A M; Kamal, S E [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University P.O.Box 9027, Jeddah-21413, (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    A formal decision methodology is a sound approach for assisting in decision making needed for the selection of irradiators for Potato preservation. A formal analysis is preferred over an informal intuitive analysis which has limitations. This will focus on substantial issues and provide the basis for a compromise between conflicting objectives. All critical issues in selection of irradiators for Potato preservation can be addressed within the decision analysis framework. Of special significance is the treatment of the uncertainly associated with consequences of a decision and the preferences of the experts. A decision theory is employed in providing a strategy for implementation of the irradiator selection for food preservation for Saudi Arabia. To select a suitable decision methodology for the present case, a detailed survey of available decision methods was conducted. These methods have been developed and applied with varying degrees of success to many diverse areas of interest. Based on detailed surveys, the Analytic Hierarchy process (AHP) was selected to evaluate the various irradiators for Potato irradiation. These are electron accelerators, X-ray irradiators, and gamma irradiators. The purpose was to determine the optimal. The set of factors impacting irradiator selection were developed and defined to provide comprehensive and realistic variables that judge the represented irradiator alternatives. The factors developed are economic considerations, technical considerations, safety aspects, and compatibility with local environment. The AHP computer program was developed to computerize the tedious complicated computations towards implementing the AHP systematic procedures to solve the present problem. The program was developed using FOXPRO. Based upon the available data, and employing the APH computer program, the results show superiority of {sup 60} Co gamma-ray irradiator over other irradiators for saudi arabia`s present circumstances. 2 figs.,7 tabs.

  13. HANARO fuel irradiation test (II): revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, D. S.; Kim, H.; Chae, H. T.; Lee, C. S.; Kim, B. G.; Lee, C. B

    2001-04-01

    In order to fulfill the requirement to prove HANARO fuel integrity when irradiated at a power greater than 112.8 kW/m, which was imposed during HANARO licensing, and to verify the irradiation performance of HANARO fuel, the in-pile irradiation test of HANARO fuel has been performed. Two types of test fuel, the un-instrumented Type A fuel for higher burnup irradiation in shorter period than the driver fuel and the instrumented Type B fuel for higher linear heat rate and precise measurement of irradiation conditions, have been designed and fabricated. The test fuel assemblies were irradiated in HANARO. The two Type A fuel assemblies were intended to be irradiated to medium and high burnup and have been discharged after 69.9 at% and 85.5 at% peak burnup, respectively. Type B fuel assembly was intended to be irradiated at high power with different instrumentations and achieved a maximum power higher than 120 kW/m without losing its integrity and without showing any irregular behavior. The Type A fuel assemblies were cooled for about 6 months and transported to the IMEF(Irradiated Material Examination Facility) for consequent evaluation. Detailed non-destructive and destructive PIE (Post-Irradiation Examination), such as the measurement of burnup distribution, fuel swelling, clad corrosion, dimensional changes, fuel rod bending strength, micro-structure, etc., has been performed. The measured results have been analysed/compared with the predicted performance values and the design criteria. It has been verified that HANARO fuel maintains proper in-pile performance and integrity even at the high power of 120 kw/m up to the high burnup of 85 at%. This report is the revision of KAERI/TR-1816/2001 on the irradiation test for HANARO fuel.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory evaluation of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2008-03-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical sensory characteristics of chicken meat has been evaluated. Chicken meat were irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated meat were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 Degree Centigrade). Immediately after irradiation, general composition, microbiological and sensory evaluation of chicken meat were done. Microbiological and chemical analysis of chicken meat were evaluated at weekly up to end of the storage period. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the microbial load, and increased the shelf-life of chicken meat. Total acidity, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation value in chicken meat were not affected by gamma irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and un-irradiated chicken meat. (author)

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory evaluation of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical sensory characteristics of chicken meat has been evaluated. Chicken meat were irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated meat were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 Degree Centigrade). Immediately after irradiation, general composition, microbiological and sensory evaluation of chicken meat were done. Microbiological and chemical analysis of chicken meat were evaluated at weekly up to end of the storage period. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the microbial load, and increased the shelf-life of chicken meat. Total acidity, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation value in chicken meat were not affected by gamma irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and un-irradiated chicken meat. (author)

  16. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  17. First clinical results from the EORTC phase I Trial ''postoperative treatment of glioblastoma with BNCT at the Petten irradiation facility''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, W.; Hideghety, K.; Rassow, J.; Devries, M.J.; Goetz, C.; Paquis, P.; Grochulla, F.; Wolbers, J.G.; Haselsberger, K.; Turowski, B.; Moss, R.L.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.; Touw, D.; Wiestler, O.D.; Frankhauser, H.; Gabel, D.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the pre-clinical work of the European Collaboration on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy a study protocol was prepared in 1995 to initiate Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in patients at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten. Bio-distribution and pharmacokinetics data of the boron drug Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH (BSH) as well as the radiobiological effects of BNCT with BSH in healthy brain tissue of dogs were considered in designing the strategy for this clinical Phase I trial. The primary goal of the radiation dose escalation study is the investigation of possible adverse events due to BNCT; i.e. to establish the dose limiting toxicity and the maximal tolerated dose. The treatment is delivered in 4 fractions at a defined average boron concentration in blood. Cohorts of 10 patients are treated per dose group. The starting dose was set at 80% of the dose at which neurological symptoms occurred in preclinical dog experiments following a single fraction. After an observation period of at least 6 months, the dose is increased by 10% for the next cohort if less then three severe side effects related to the treatment occurred. The results of the first cohort are presented here. The evaluated dose level can be considered safe. (author)

  18. First clinical results from the EORTC phase I Trial ''postoperative treatment of glioblastoma with BNCT at the Petten irradiation facility''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerwein, W; Hideghety, K; Rassow, J [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Essen (Germany); Devries, M J [NDDO Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goetz, C [Neurochirurgische Klinik, Klinikum Grosshadern Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Paquis, P [Dept. de Neurochirurgie, Hopital Pasteur, Nice (France); Grochulla, F [Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Zentralkrankenhaus Bremen (Germany); Wolbers, J G [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital ' ' Vrije Universiteit' ' , Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haselsberger, K [Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet, Graz (Austria); Turowski, B [Institut fuer Neuroradiologie, Johann-Wolfgang-von-Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Moss, R L [HFR Unit, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Petten (Netherlands); Stecher-Rasmussen, F [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, Petten (Netherlands); Touw, D [Pharmacy, University/Academic Hospital ' ' Vrije Universiteit' ' , Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wiestler, O D [Department of Neuropathology, German Brain Tumour Reference Centre, Universitaetsklinikum Bonn (Germany); Frankhauser, H [Service de Neurochirurgie CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gabel, D [Chemistry Department, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    Based on the pre-clinical work of the European Collaboration on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy a study protocol was prepared in 1995 to initiate Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in patients at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten. Bio-distribution and pharmacokinetics data of the boron drug Na{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 11}SH (BSH) as well as the radiobiological effects of BNCT with BSH in healthy brain tissue of dogs were considered in designing the strategy for this clinical Phase I trial. The primary goal of the radiation dose escalation study is the investigation of possible adverse events due to BNCT; i.e. to establish the dose limiting toxicity and the maximal tolerated dose. The treatment is delivered in 4 fractions at a defined average boron concentration in blood. Cohorts of 10 patients are treated per dose group. The starting dose was set at 80% of the dose at which neurological symptoms occurred in preclinical dog experiments following a single fraction. After an observation period of at least 6 months, the dose is increased by 10% for the next cohort if less then three severe side effects related to the treatment occurred. The results of the first cohort are presented here. The evaluated dose level can be considered safe. (author)

  19. Behavior of optical fibers under heavy irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, T.; Sagawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    Several kinds of optical diagnostics are planned in a fusion reactor. Complicated optical systems such as periscopes are thought to be primary candidates for optical measurements, especially for visible wavelengths. However, optical fibers have several advantages over such optical systems. Also, the optical fibers could be a far better transmission line for signals under a high electromagnetic field. However, they have been considered vulnerable to heavy irradiation. In this study, several kinds of optical fibers were irradiated in the JMTR fission reactor. The optical transmissivity in fibers was measured in situ during fast neutron and gamma irradiation, up to doses of 2 x 10 24 n m -2 and 5 x 10 9 Gy, respectively. The irradiation temperature ranged from 300 to 700 K. For pure ionizing irradiation environments, some methods for improving the radiation resistance of optical fibers were indicated. The results showed that effects of the irradiation associated with fast neutrons would be different from the effects of pure ionizing irradiation. Some fibers were found to withstand the heavy irradiation, especially in an infrared wavelength range. (orig.)

  20. Immune reactivity after high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, W.; Wottge, H.U.; von Kolzynski, M.; Mueller-Ruchholtz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Immune reactivity after total-body irradiation was investigated in rats using skin graft rejection as the indicator system. After sublethal irradiation with 10.5 Gy (approximately 50% lethality/6 weeks) the rejection of major histocompatibility complex allogeneic skin grafts was delayed significantly compared with nonirradiated control animals (28 versus 6.5 days). In contrast, skin grafts were rejected after 7.5 days in sublethally irradiated animals and 7 days in lethally irradiated animals if additional skin donor type alloantigens--namely, irradiated bone marrow cells--were given i.v. either simultaneously or with a delay of not more than 24 hr after the above conditioning regimen. These reactions were alloantigen-specific. They were observed in six different strain combinations with varying donors and recipients. Starting on day 2 after irradiation, i.v. injection of bone marrow gradually lost its effectivity and skin grafts were no longer rejected with uniform rapidity; skin donor marrow given on days 4 or 8 did not accelerate skin graft rejection at all. These data show that for approximately 1-2 days after high-dose total-body irradiation rats are still capable of starting a vigorous immune reaction against i.v.-injected alloantigens. The phenomenon of impaired rejection of skin grafted immediately after high-dose irradiation appears to result from the poor accessibility of skin graft alloantigens during the early postirradiation phase when vascularization of the grafted skin is insufficient

  1. Is pollen morphology of Salix polaris affected by enhanced UV-B irradiation? Results from a field experiment in high Arctic tundra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeloff, Dan; Blokker, Peter; Boelen, Peter; Rozema, Jelte

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the thickness of the pollen wall will increase in response to enhanced UV-B irradiation, by examining, the effect of enhanced UV-B irradiance on the pollen morphology of Sali-v polaris Wahlem. grown in a Field experiment on the Arctic tundra of Svalbard.

  2. Modelling a gamma irradiation process using the Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gabriela A.; Pereira, Marcio T., E-mail: gas@cdtn.br, E-mail: mtp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In gamma irradiation service it is of great importance the evaluation of absorbed dose in order to guarantee the service quality. When physical structure and human resources are not available for performing dosimetry in each product irradiated, the appliance of mathematic models may be a solution. Through this, the prediction of the delivered dose in a specific product, irradiated in a specific position and during a certain period of time becomes possible, if validated with dosimetry tests. At the gamma irradiation facility of CDTN, equipped with a Cobalt-60 source, the Monte Carlo method was applied to perform simulations of products irradiations and the results were compared with Fricke dosimeters irradiated under the same conditions of the simulations. The first obtained results showed applicability of this method, with a linear relation between simulation and experimental results. (author)

  3. Modelling a gamma irradiation process using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Gabriela A.; Pereira, Marcio T.

    2011-01-01

    In gamma irradiation service it is of great importance the evaluation of absorbed dose in order to guarantee the service quality. When physical structure and human resources are not available for performing dosimetry in each product irradiated, the appliance of mathematic models may be a solution. Through this, the prediction of the delivered dose in a specific product, irradiated in a specific position and during a certain period of time becomes possible, if validated with dosimetry tests. At the gamma irradiation facility of CDTN, equipped with a Cobalt-60 source, the Monte Carlo method was applied to perform simulations of products irradiations and the results were compared with Fricke dosimeters irradiated under the same conditions of the simulations. The first obtained results showed applicability of this method, with a linear relation between simulation and experimental results. (author)

  4. Effect of irradiation on biochemistry properties of shrimp allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Kefei; Gao Meixu; Li Chunhong; Li Shurong; Pan Jiarong

    2007-01-01

    Study on the effects of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation at the dose of 0,3,5,7,10 kGy on shrimp allergen biochemistry properties was conducted. The results indicated that the allergen protein molecule can be broken down to smaller molecules or coagulated to larger molecules by irradiation. The hydrophobicity and turbidity of irradiated allergen increased with the increase of absorbed dose. The results also show that allergen solution is more sensitive to irradiation than allergen in solid state or in the whole shrimp. (authors)

  5. Technology of sprouting inhibition by irradiation for ginger storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shuangqing; Wang Shoujing; Yu Zihou; Sun Shouyi; Zou Jiwan; Lei Peng

    2003-01-01

    The study results showed that the proper irradiation dose for ginger sprouting inhibition was 0.08-0.40 kGy and the maximum tolerable irradiation dose for ginger was 0.4 kGy. Treatment with proper irradiation combined with PE film package could keep ginger fresh after 120 days of storage and the fresh ratio was above 90%. In order to obtain good storage results, keeping lower absorbed dose ununiformity was necessary. Content of V C and Ca was not affected by the irradiation with 0.08-0.25 kGy

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the sugar and protein composition of Iraqi dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auda, H.; Khalaf, Z.; Mirjan, J.

    1978-01-01

    Completely ripened date fruits of several Iraqi varieties were irradiated with 30, 70, 100, 270 and 500krad of gamma irradiation and stored at a temperature of 25-35 0 C in wooden boxes or in plastic bags. At various intervals samples were taken and analysed by paper-chromatography, gas-chromatography and spectrophotometry for quantitative and qualitative changes in carbohydrates. The results showed no effect of gamma irradiation on reducing sugar and major carbohydrate components. The formation of malonaldehyde under gamma irradiation of dates and solid standard sugars was also studied up to 500krad. The results showed no formation of malonaldehyde in irradiated date samples as well as standard sugars. Gamma irradiation showed no effect on the protein content of dates. However, storage showed some reduction in the protein content of both unirradiated and irradiated samples. (author)

  7. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties

  8. Irradiation preservation processing study of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shihong; Zhu Zhaodi

    1992-01-01

    Radiation preservation processing of strawberry was studied. The results show that single seal processing or combining with irradiation processing under given doses is of no practical value, but only combining with chill processing can promote lengthening period of fresh keeping. Single irradiation processing under given doses provides not only good initial state, but also the beginning of bad development at top speed on microorganism. The composite processing of irradiation, chill and seal can supply extended shelf lifetime with optimum value of dual synergetic effect

  9. Irradiation of microbial controlling on package tofu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Meixu; Li Shurong; Wang Li; Wang Shuo; Wang Ning

    2009-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on microbiological controlling, nutrient and sensory qualities of packaged tofu (bean curd) stored at commercial condition. Results showed that D 10 values of Listeria innocua and Samonella enteritidis inoculated in packaged tofu were 0.225 and 0.240kGy, respectively. Irradiation dose lower than 2.0kGy had no significant effects on content of crude protein and amino acid (p>0.05). γ-irradiation could decrease microbial in packaged tofu and 2.0kGy should be applied to ensure the hygienic quality of the products. (authors)

  10. Gamma-irradiation activates biochemical systems: induction of nitrate reductase activity in plant callus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, K N; Sabharwal, P S

    1982-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation induced high levels of nitrate reductase activity (NADH:nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.1) in callus of Haworthia mirabilis Haworth. Subcultures of gamma-irradiated tissues showed autonomous growth on minimal medium. We were able to mimic the effects of gamma-irradiation by inducing nitrate reductase activity in unirradiated callus with exogenous auxin and kinetin. These results revealed that induction of nitrate reductase activity by gamma-irradiation is mediated through i...

  11. Study on prediction model of irradiation embrittlement for reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rongshan; Xu Chaoliang; Huang Ping; Liu Xiangbing; Ren Ai; Chen Jun; Li Chengliang

    2014-01-01

    The study on prediction model of irradiation embrittlement for reactor pres- sure vessel (RPV) steel is an important method for long term operation. According to the deep analysis of the previous prediction models developed worldwide, the drawbacks of these models were given and a new irradiation embrittlement prediction model PMIE-2012 was developed. A corresponding reliability assessment was carried out by irradiation surveillance data. The assessment results show that the PMIE-2012 have a high reliability and accuracy on irradiation embrittlement prediction. (authors)

  12. Effect of gamma ray irradiation on seed germination of Ardisia crenata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Donghua; Xu Hong; Huang Yanping; Song Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of Ardisia crenata were used as experimental material and treated with gamma ray under the irradiative doses ranging from 50 to 500 Gy. The results showed that the seed germination rates were not affected under the irradiative dose of 150 Gy and below. The germination potentiality turned to reduce while the irradiative dose was higher than 250 Gy. And in the range of 300 to 500 Gy the germination rates were decreased with the increase of the irradiative dose. (authors)

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal and rheological properties of grain amaranth starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong Xiangli [School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Kasapis, Stefan [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, City Campus, Melbourne, Vic 3001 (Australia); Bao Jinsong [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province and Chinese Ministry of Agriculture for Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Huajiachi Campus, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Corke, Harold [School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: hcorke@yahoo.com

    2009-11-15

    Physical properties of starch from two cultivars of gamma-irradiated grain amaranth with different amylose content were investigated. Pasting viscosities decreased continuously with the increase in dosages of irradiation. Furthermore, different irradiation dosages resulted in modification of the thermal properties and crystallinity of starch. Dynamic oscillation on shear was also employed, temperature and frequency sweeps showed that changes in storage modulus and loss modulus were significant, with Tibet Yellow producing more elastic gels as compared to Hy030 at different irradiation dosages.

  14. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  15. Does prophylactic treatment with proteolytic enzymes reduce acute toxicity of adjuvant pelvic irradiation? Results of a double-blind randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Thomas; Uhder, Kerstin; Kurek, Ralf; Roeddiger, Sandra; Schneider, Lida; Vogt, Hans-Georg; Heyd, Reinhard; Zamboglou, Nikolaos

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Does prophylactic treatment with proteolytic enzymes reduce acute toxicity of adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy? Material and methods: Fifty-six patients with an indication for adjuvant pelvic irradiation after curative surgery were double-blind randomized. All patients took 3x4 capsules study medication daily during radiotherapy. Twenty-eight patients in the enzyme group (EG) received capsules containing papain, trypsin and chymotrypsin, 28 in the placebo group (PG) received placebo capsules. All patients were irradiated with 5x1.8 Gy weekly to 50.4 Gy using four-field-box technique after CT-based planning. Primary objective was the grade of diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and epitheliolysis during radiotherapy. Secondary objectives were the number of supportive medications and treatment interruptions due to acute toxicity. Results: None/mild diarrhea: 43% EG, 64% PG. Moderate/severe diarrhea: 57% EG, 36% PG (P=0.11). Mean duration: 11 days in EG, 10 days in PG. None/mild nausea: 93% EG, 93% PG. Moderate/severe nausea: 7% EG, 7% PG. None/mild vomiting: 100% EG, 97% PG. None/mild fatigue: 82% EG, 93% PG. Moderate/severe fatigue: 18% EG, 7% PG (P=0.23). None/mild epitheliolysis: 75% EG, 93% PG. Moderate/severe epitheliolysis: 25% EG, 7% PG (P=0.16). Treatment interruption (mean days): 2.44 in EG, 1.46 in PG. Number of supportive medication: 29 in EG, 19 in PG. Conclusions: The prophylactic use of proteolytic enzymes does not reduce acute toxicities, treatment interruptions and number of supportive medication and therefore does not improve tolerance of adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy

  16. Re-crystallization of ITO films after carbon irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Muhammad, E-mail: usmanm@ncp.edu.pk [Experimental Physics Laboratories, National Centre for Physics, Shahdara Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Shahid, E-mail: shahidkhan@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Khan, Majid [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Abbas, Turab Ali [Experimental Physics Laboratories, National Centre for Physics, Shahdara Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Carbon irradiation on ITO destroys crystal structure until threshold ion fluence. • Carbon irradiation induced amorphization in ITO is recoverable at higher fluence. • Optical transmittance is reduced after carbon irradiation. • Electrical resistivity is increased after irradiation with carbon ions in ITO. • Bandgap is reduced with increasing fluence of carbon irradiation. - Abstract: 2.0 MeV carbon ion irradiation effects on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrate are investigated. The films are irradiated with carbon ions in the fluence range of 1 × 10{sup 13} to 1 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. The irradiation induced effects in ITO are compared before and after ion bombardment by systematic study of structural, optical and electrical properties of the films. The XRD results show polycrystalline nature of un-irradiated ITO films which turns to amorphous state after 1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence of carbon ions. Further increase in ion fluence to 1 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} re-crystallizes the structure and retains for even higher fluences. A gradual decrease in the electrical conductivity and transmittance of irradiated samples is observed with increasing ion fluence. The band gap of the films is observed to be decreased after carbon irradiation.

  17. Post-irradiation stability of polyvinyl chloride at sterilizing doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimian, F.; Katbab, A.A.; Nazokdast, H.

    1994-01-01

    Post-irradiation stability of plasticized PVC irradiated by 60 Co gamma ray at sterilizing doses has been studied. Effects of irradiation upon chemical structure, mechanical properties and rheological behaviour of samples contained different amounts of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate as plasticizer have been investigated. Formation of conjugated double bonds, carbonyl and hydroxyl groups have been followed by UV and FTIR spectrometers up to 6 months after irradiation. FTIR spectra of irradiated samples showed no significant changes in carbonyl and hydroxyl groups even 6 months after irradiation. However, changes in UV-visible spectra was observed for the irradiated samples up to 6 months post-irradiation. This has been attributed to the formation of polyenes which leads to the discoloration of this polymer. Despite a certain degree of discoloration, it appears that the mechanical properties of PVC are not affected by irradiation at sterilizing doses. No change in the melt viscosity of the irradiated PVC samples with post-irradiation was observed, which is inconsistent with the IR results. (author)

  18. Re-crystallization of ITO films after carbon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Khan, Shahid; Khan, Majid; Abbas, Turab Ali

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon irradiation on ITO destroys crystal structure until threshold ion fluence. • Carbon irradiation induced amorphization in ITO is recoverable at higher fluence. • Optical transmittance is reduced after carbon irradiation. • Electrical resistivity is increased after irradiation with carbon ions in ITO. • Bandgap is reduced with increasing fluence of carbon irradiation. - Abstract: 2.0 MeV carbon ion irradiation effects on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrate are investigated. The films are irradiated with carbon ions in the fluence range of 1 × 10"1"3 to 1 × 10"1"5 ions/cm"2. The irradiation induced effects in ITO are compared before and after ion bombardment by systematic study of structural, optical and electrical properties of the films. The XRD results show polycrystalline nature of un-irradiated ITO films which turns to amorphous state after 1 × 10"1"3 ions/cm"2 fluence of carbon ions. Further increase in ion fluence to 1 × 10"1"4 ions/cm"2 re-crystallizes the structure and retains for even higher fluences. A gradual decrease in the electrical conductivity and transmittance of irradiated samples is observed with increasing ion fluence. The band gap of the films is observed to be decreased after carbon irradiation.

  19. Food irradiation - now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Food irradiation technology in South Africa is about to take its rightful place next to existing food preservation methods in protecting food supplies. This is as a result of several factors, the most important of which is the decision by the Department of Health and Population Development to introduce compulsory labelling of food irradiation. The factors influencing food irradiation technology in South Africa are discussed

  20. Mechanical behaviour of neutron irradiated Nb monocrystalline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, M.P.; Lucki, G.

    1986-01-01

    Nb [941] - oriented single crystal was irradiated to a fluence of 1,1 x 10 19 n/cm 2 in the IEA-R1 reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. Tensile-Stress experiments showed an irradiation induced hardening, characterized by an increase in the yield stress of about 16%. This result was interpreted using the 'lattice hardening' model. The observed slip systems are attributed to the gliding of the anomalous slip planes. (Author) [pt

  1. Irradiation of Eggs and Larvae of Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock) Fruit Fly to Produce Irradiation Host for Its Parasitoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh Kuswadi; Murni lndarwatmi; Nasution, Indah Arastuti

    2004-01-01

    Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) fruit fly, a major pests of commercial fruits in Indonesia, is attacked by several species of parasitoids in the field, such as by Biosteres sp. that attacks on early instar larvae and Opius sp. on late instar larvae. In order to produce irradiated host in mass rearing of both species, several dosage of gamma were tested on both eggs and larvae. Egg masses of 0.5 ml were irradiated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy and then inoculated into artificial diet. Viability of the eggs, the larval period and the number of pupae produced were observed. About 200 third instar larvae irradiated with 0, 10, 30, 50,70 dan 90 Gy and the number and quality of the pupae developed were then observed. The results showed that the eggs irradiated with tested dosage did not reduce its viability however it reduced the survival of larvae emerged. Number of pupae produced from 0.5 ml irradiated eggs were reduced from 2740 pupae to 407, 167, 113, 53 and 44 pupae, besides the pupation delayed up to three days. Irradiation on third instars larvae did not reduce its pupation, since pupae were developed from > 85 % of irradiated larvae. However, irradiation did reduced the fly emergence from the pupae. Irradiated hosts for Biosteres sp and Opius sp can be produced by irradiating eggs however it should be evaluated since the survival rate of the larvae reduced. Irradiation of third instar larvae may produce irradiated host for Opius sp So, the use of irradiated eggs or irradiated larvae as host in the colonization of the parasitoids will insure no hosts emerged as adult. However it remain to be proved whether irradiated hosts are prefered and able to support the life of parasitoid. (author)

  2. Investigation on the effects of gamma irradiation on bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.S.; Braz, D.; Motta, L.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Brazil has more than 218,000 km of asphalt-paved highways. Bitumen is a generic term for natural or manufactured black or dark-colored solid, semisolid, or viscous cementitious materials that are composed mainly of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (90-95%). Several papers have shown that the irradiation process has changed the mechanical behavior in some polymers. This work aims to analyze the behavior of Brazilian irradiated Bitumen (CAP 50-70). In order to provide a preliminary evaluation, bitumen samples and cylindrical specimens of asphaltic mixture were tested. The bitumen samples were irradiated 0.1 to 300 kGy, and asphaltic mixture specimen was irradiated 5 to 300 kGy. The cylindrical asphaltic mixture specimen of 10.16 cm diameter used in this study was molded using an asphalt-aggregate mixture. The specimens were irradiated in LIN/UFRJ/Brazil using a Gamma cell Co 60 source of gamma irradiation with an applied dose rate of 29.7 Gy/min. After irradiated, the bitumen samples were subjected to penetration test and the asphaltic mixtures were subjected to indirect tensile strength test (diametral compression) for determination of the resilient modulus, according to ASTM method D 4123. The results of these experiments for each dose were compared with the control (nonirradiated). As expected, the penetration results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) decreases with increasing of irradiation dose for bitumen samples and the resilient modulus results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) increases with increasing of irradiation dose for asphaltic mixture. (author)

  3. Embrittlement of irradiated ferritic/martensitic steels in the absence of irradiation hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge Noational Laboratory, TN (United States); Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Sokolov, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Div., TN (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Neutron irradiation of 9-12% Cr ferritic/martensitic steels below 425-450 deg. C produces microstructural defects that cause an increase in yield stress and ultimate tensile strength. This irradiation hardening causes embrittlement, which is observed in Charpy impact and toughness tests as an increase in ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). Based on observations that show little change in strength in these steels irradiated above 425-450 deg. C, the general conclusion has been that no embrittlement occurs above this irradiation-hardening temperature regime. In a recent study of F82H steel irradiated at 300, 380, and 500 deg. C, irradiation hardening-an increase in yield stress-was observed in tensile specimens irradiated at the two lower temperatures, but no change was observed for the specimens irradiated at 500 deg. C. As expected, an increase in DBTT occurred for the Charpy specimens irradiated at 300 and 380 deg. C. However, there was an unexpected increase in the DBTT of the specimens irradiated at 500 deg. C. The observed embrittlement was attributed to the irradiation-accelerated precipitation of Laves phase. This conclusion was based on results from a detailed thermal aging study of F82H, in which tensile and Charpy specimens were aged at 500, 550, 600, and 650 deg. C to 30,000 h. These studies indicated that there was a decrease in yield stress at the two highest temperatures and essentially no change at the two lowest temperatures. Despite the strength decrease or no change, the DBTT increased for Charpy specimens irradiated at all four temperatures. Precipitates were extracted from thermally aged specimens, and the amount of precipitate was correlated with the increase in transition temperature. Laves phase was identified in the extracted precipitates by X-ray diffraction. Earlier studies on conventional elevated-temperature steels also showed embrittlement effects above the irradiation-hardening temperature

  4. Protective effect of gingerol on leucocyte and bone marrow DNA of 60Co γ-rays irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhenfei; Zhou Yu; Geng Yanyan; Zeng Xianyin

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the effect of gingerol on peripheral leucocyte and bone marrow DNA of 60 Co γ-rays irradiated mice was developed., Twenty-four healthy healthy female Kunming mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, gingerol, irradiation and gingerol + irradiation group. Gingerol group and gingerol + irradiation group were given gingerol intragastrically once a day for five days. Irradiation group and gingerol + irradiation group were suffered from 5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays irradiation at the rate of 1.2 Gy/min on the 6 th day. Blood samples, spleens, livers and thigh bones were collected to be measured after 48 h. The results showed that, compared with irradiation group, gingerol + irradiation group had significantly higher spleen index (p 60 Co γ-rays irradiated mice. (authors)

  5. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (1). Effect of alcohol additives on pre-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, M; Meshitsuka, G; Nakano, J [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1979-12-01

    Studies have been made of kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood. Beech (Fagus crenata Blume) wood meal suspended in aqueous alkaline alcohol was irradiated up to 1.5 KGy (0.15 Mrad) with gamma rays from a Co-60 source in the presence or absence of oxygen. The irradiated wood meals were washed thoroughly with fresh water, air dried and cooked under the ordinary cooking conditions. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Pre-irradiation in aqueous alkali have negligible effect on kraft cooking. (2) In the case of ethanol addition (50 g/l), pre-irradiation in vacuo shows acceleration of delignification and stabilization of carbohydrates during kraft cooking. Cooked yield gain by pre-irradiation was about 1.2 in all, over the range of delignification from 80 to 90%. Aqueous ethanol without alkali also shows positive but smaller effect than that with alkali. (3) Propanol, iso-propanol and butanol show positive but smaller effects than ethanol. However, methanol does not show any positive effect. (4) Irradiation in the presence of oxygen does not show any attractive effect on kraft cooking.

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on the development and reproduction of the greasy cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three substerilizing doses 50, 100 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation were tested against full – grown male and female pupae or against full-grown male or female pupae of Agrotis ipsilon. The results showed that fecundity of irradiated females crossed with irradiated males was decreased by increasing irradiation dose. The decrease in egg – hatchability % and increase in sterility % induced by gamma radiation were found to be positively correlated with the dose level. The parentage of larval and pupal mortality increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05 with the increase of used doses. In addition, larval and pupal durations were found to be significantly prolonged as a result of gamma- irradiation treatment. In general, the results obtained indicated that the biological action of gamma irradiation against A. ipsilon larvae was more remarkable when both crossed females and males were irradiated followed by irradiated females crossed with non-irradiated males.

  7. Emulation of neutron irradiation effects with protons: validation of principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Was, G.S.; Busby, J.T.; Allen, T.; Kenik, E.A.; Jensson, A.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gan, J.; Edwards, A.D.; Scott, P.M.; Andreson, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the irradiation, characterization and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) behavior of proton- and neutron-irradiated samples of 304SS and 316SS from the same heats. The objective of the study was to determine whether proton irradiation does indeed emulate the full range of effects of in-reactor neutron irradiation: radiation-induced segregation (RIS), irradiated microstructure, radiation hardening and IASCC susceptibility. The work focused on commercial heats of 304 stainless steel (heat B) and 316 stainless steel (heat P). Irradiation with protons was conducted at 360 deg. C to doses between 0.3 and 5.0 dpa to approximate those by neutron irradiation at 275 deg. C over the same dose range. Characterization consisted of grain boundary microchemistry, dislocation loop microstructure, hardness as well as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of both un-irradiated and irradiated samples in oxygenated and de-oxygenated water environments at 288 deg. C. Overall, microchemistry, microstructure, hardening and SCC behavior of proton- and neutron-irradiated samples were in excellent agreement. RIS analysis showed that in both heats and for both irradiating particles, the pre-existing grain boundary Cr enrichment transformed into a 'W' shaped profile at 1.0 dpa and then into a 'V' shaped profile between 3.0 and 5.0 dpa. Grain boundary segregation of Cr, Ni, Si, and Mo all followed the same trends and agreed well in magnitude. The microstructure of both proton- and neutron-irradiated samples was dominated by small, faulted dislocation loops. Loop size distributions were nearly identical in both heats over a range of doses. Saturated loop size following neutron irradiation was about 30% larger than that following prot