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Sample records for irradiation live weight

  1. Grain weight improvement in wheat through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasal, P.N.; Gadekar, D.A.; Gavhane, V.N.; Bhoite, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    T. aestivum wheat variety NIAW 34 was developed by Agricultural Research Station, Niphad, and was released by Central Varietal Release Committee, for cultivation under irrigated late sown conditions of Peninsular Zone. The grains of NIAW 34 are medium sized with 40g 1000 grain weight. However, in market the bold sized grains (above 40g 1000 grain weight) are preferred by the traders and consumers. To overcome this lacuna, grains of wheat variety NIAW 34 were irradiated to exploit the possibilities of improvement in test weight. The material was irradiated with 15 and 20 kr dose of gamma rays. In M2 generation, mutants for various morphological characters were observed. The plants showing vigorous growth habit and desirable morphological characters were selected. These selected plants were studied for grain characters after harvest. On the basis of improved test weight as compared to parental line, selections were effected. The material was advanced to M6 generation and found stable for character of interest. The material selected comprised of total 10 lines showing improved test weight having range of 42-46 g i.e. increase of 4-6 g over the parental line NIAW 34. The lines selected are being evaluated in yield evaluation trials during Rabi 2006-07. Amongst the doses used, frequency of desired mutants was higher in treatment, of 15 kr

  2. Irradiated aromatic polysulphones of increased flow resistance and molecular weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staniland, P.A.; Jarrett, W.G.

    1976-01-01

    Aromatic polymers of increased resistance to flow and molecular weight are obtained by irradiation using β-rays or γ-rays at temperatures up to 400 0 C of an aromatic polymer whose molecular chains comprise benzenoid groups and bivalent linking groups, and where irradiation is γ-rays by heating subsequent to irradiation at 200 to 400 0 C

  3. Continuous gamma irradiation influence on food intake, body weight, and weight of some rat organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, Z [Institute of Neurobiology SAV, Kosice (Czechoslovakia); Sedlakova, A; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1977-01-01

    Food intake, body weight and weight of some organs were studied in male Wistar rats within 25 days of continuous gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 15.48 x 10/sup -3/ C/kg (6O R) per day in an experimental gamma field. A decrease in food intake and body weight and a decrease in thymus and spleen weights were found during the first week in irradiated rats. The thymus and spleen involutions did not progress within the second week. From the beginning of the third week till the end of the experiment the irradiated animals increased their weight and the food intake was even higher during the last week of irradiation in comparison with controls. The spleen and thymus involutions stopped but the weight remained at the lower level. The relative weight of the adrenal glands in irradiated animals only increased at the end of the period.

  4. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  5. Molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of irradiated cellulose fibers by gel permeation chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Y.; Kageyama, E.; Shimada, M.; Nakamura, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation degradation of cellulose fibers was investigated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Scoured cotton of Mexican variety (cellulose I), Polynosic rayon (cellulose II), and their microcrystalline celluloses obtained by hydrolysis of the original fibers were irradiated by Co-60 γ-rays under vacuum or humid conditions. The irradiated samples were then nitrated under nondegradative conditions. The molecular weights and molecular weight distributions were measured by GPC using tetrahydrofuran as solvent. The relationship between molecular weight and elution count was obtained with cellulose trinitrate standards fractionated by preparative GPC. The degree of polymerization of the fibers decreased with increasing irradiation dose, but their microcrystalline celluloses were only slightly degraded by irradiation, especially in microcrystalline cellulose from cellulose I. Degradation of the fibers irradiated under humid conditions was less than that irradiated under vacuum. It was found that the G-values for main-chain scission for the irradiated cellulose I, cellulose II, microcrystalline cellulose I, and microcrystalline cellulose II were 2.8, 2.9, less than 1, and 2.9, respectively, but the G-value for main-chain scission for the irradiated cellulose II was increased to 11.2 at irradiation doses above 3 Mrad. Consequently, it is inferred that cellulose molecules in the amorphous regions are degraded more readily, and the well-aligned molecules in crystalline regions are not as easily degraded by irradiation

  6. The live cell irradiation and observation setup at SNAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hable, V. [Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, UniBw-Muenchen, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany)], E-mail: volker.hable@unibw.de; Greubel, C.; Bergmaier, A.; Reichart, P. [Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, UniBw-Muenchen, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Hauptner, A.; Kruecken, R. [Physik Department E12, TU-Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Strickfaden, H.; Dietzel, S.; Cremer, T. [Department Biologie II, LMU-Muenchen, 82152 Martinsried (Germany); Drexler, G.A.; Friedl, A.A. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, LMU-Muenchen, 80336 Muenchen (Germany); Dollinger, G. [Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, UniBw-Muenchen, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    We describe a new setup at the ion microprobe SNAKE (Superconducting Nanoscope for Applied nuclear (Kern-) physics Experiments) at the Munich 14 MV Tandem accelerator that facilitates both living cell irradiation with sub micrometer resolution and online optical imaging of the cells before and after irradiation by state of the art phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy. The cells are kept at standard cell growth conditions at 37 {sup o}C in cell culture medium. After irradiation it is possible to switch from single ion irradiation conditions to cell observation within 0.5 s. First experiments were performed targeting substructures of a cell nucleus that were tagged by TexasRed labeled nucleotides incorporated in the cellular DNA by 55 MeV single carbon ion irradiation. In addition we show first online sequences of short time kinetics of Mdc1 protein accumulation in the vicinity of double strand breaks after carbon ion irradiation.

  7. Predicting live weight using body measurements in Afar goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Predicting live weight using body measurements in Afar goats in north eastern. Ethiopia ... farmers get value for their stock rather than the middlemen. However ..... of West African long-legged and West African dwarf sheep in Northern Ghana.

  8. Effect of Parental Live Weight on the Reproductive Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High mortality was obtained from HM x HF and HM x LF crosses. This study concluded that light male and light female crosses gave chicks with better post hatching performance and lowest mortality rate than all other crosses. Keywords: Parental live weight, Egg weight, Hatchability, Fertility, Crosses, Japanese quail ...

  9. Live weight and body measurement of Hungarian Thoroughbred broodmares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Bene

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Live weights and 21 body measurements of 110 adult brood mares from Thoroughbred breed were evaluated in Hungary. Body measurements and some body measure indices were determined. One way ANOVA was used to compare the studs. Regression equations were developed to estimate the live weight from body measurements. Population genetic parameters of the examined traits were estimated. Only few differences among studs, concerning evaluated body measurements, were presented - firstly: body measurements, related to the kilter and nutritional status (hearth girth - were significant. Between the mentioned traits and the live weight medium positive correlation (r = 0.47 - 0.79; P<0.01 was found. For the estimation of live weight with regression model the necessary data are as follows: hearth girth, 2nd width of rump and diagonal length of body. The determination coefficient was 0.80 (P<0.01. Height at withers, of back and at rump (h2 = 0.66, 0.67 and 0.51 showed medium heritability values. The heritability of depth of chest and height of bieler-point were 0.32 and 0.48, respectively. Quite small differences were found between the stallions in most of the body measurements. The live weight and height measurements were exceptions, as here the differences between the sires were slightly higher. As a conclusion it can be stated that the Thoroughbred population in Hungary is quite homogenous in terms of the most important body measurements.

  10. Weight evolution and perceptions of adults living with HIV following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Obesity and undernutrition are common in South Africa and influence the health outcomes of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Aim. To describe the anthropometric changes and perceptions of body weight in adults initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods. A cohort of 230 ...

  11. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    based on automatic milking (AMS). The objective was to examine the relationship between feed intake and live weight changes in response to the three feeding strategies examined. All cows were allowed a combination of a mixed ration (MR) and individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in the AMS......) or late (MR2-L) change to a low energy ration. The early and late change was defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum of 15 and 35 kg respectively for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg respectively for DJ. Peak energy intake obtained by primiparous cows and cows of DJ was not significantly higher......Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...

  12. Photoinduced optical anisotropy in azobenzene methacrylate block copolymers: Influence of molecular weight and irradiation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimeno, Sofia; Forcen, Patricia; Oriol, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The photoinduced anisotropy in a series of azomethacrylate block copolymers with different Molecular weights and azo contents has been investigated under several irradiation conditions. Depending on molecular weight and composition, different microstructures (disordered, lamellar, spherical) appe...

  13. Medical irradiation technique saves lives of victims of Lima inferno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nearly 400 people died when fire swept through a crowded market place in the old centre of Lima, Peru, as the city readied for New Year's Eve, 2001. Yet the lives of more than 60 severely burned people were saved because Peru belongs to a programme, initiated and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), that permits developing countries to maintain their own tissue banks. 'Tissue grafts are routine treatment in developed countries, said Qian Jihui, Deputy Director General and head of the IAEA Department of Technical Cooperation. 'This programme is saving lives and improving significantly the quality of lives for patients in developing countries.' More than 1600 radiation sterilized tissue packs were provided by Peru's atomic energy institute to eight Lima hospitals and clinics, where nurses and doctors battled to help the fire victims, many of them poor market traders. Peru and six other countries in the IAEA Latin America programme offer patients irradiated sterile human skin and bone from 37 tissue banks for transplant use. IAEA support of tissue banking began in 1983, since when the agency has contributed US $5,313,335 to the programme, resulting in the establishment of 66 tissue banks in the Asia Pacific region, seven in Africa, while the number is growing. Tissue grafts increase the odds for burn patients' survival by reducing the risk of infection. They are also used to treat victims of leprosy. A bone transplant can save a limb. The IAEA has helped develop a system - used in 28 countries - that disinfects tissue grafts in the final package with ionising radiation without damaging them, dramatically lowering the risk of contamination. Now medical authorities in the United States are considering adoption of similar irradiation techniques, following a number of cases of contamination of medical tissue used for transplant. The issue will be among items to be discussed in Vienna, December 2-4, at IAEA headquarters, at a meeting of

  14. Aromatic polymers of increased resistance to flow and molecular weight obtained by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staniland, P.A.; Jarrett, G.

    1976-01-01

    Aromatic polymers of increased resistance to flow and increased molecular weight are obtained by irradiation using β rays or gamma rays at temperatures up to 400 0 C of an aromatic polymer whose molecular chains comprise benzenoid groups and bivalent linking groups, and where irradiation is gamma rays by heating subsequent to irradiation at 200 0 C to 400 0 C. The polymeric materials having increased molecular weight are useful for coating non-cooking surfaces of cookware

  15. Estimation of Live Weight of Calves from Body Measurements within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All phenotypic correlations between body measurements were positive and significant (P<0.001). The highest correlation coefficient was found between chest girth and body weight. The polynomial equation using chest girth as an independent variable predicted body weight more accurately within breed as compared to the ...

  16. Influence of sugars on the dry-weight increase of gamma irradiated Jerusalem artichoke tuber's tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeverbeke-Sacre, J.

    1976-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke tuber's explants after a γ irradiation of 6000 rads couldn't proliferate in a growth medium containing glucose and indolyl acetic acid; their dry weight is increased by an accumulation of sugars [fr

  17. variance components and genetic parameters for live weight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Against this background the present study estimated the (co)variance .... Starting values for the (co)variance components of two-trait models were ..... Estimates of genetic parameters for weaning weight of beef accounting for direct-maternal.

  18. Responses to selection for body weight in descendants of x-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Th effectiveness of selection for high and low body weight at six weeks of age was studied in descendants of x-irradiated (R) and nonirradiated (C) inbred rats. There were two replicates of each of the direction of selection--irradiation treatments. In C lines, there were no consistent responses to selection, probably due to a low level of genetic variability. In R rats, selection was effective only for decreased body weight. The results of this experiment do not suggest the use of irradiation combined with selection as a means of enhancing responses to selection in animals

  19. Molecular weight changes induced in an anionic polydimethylsiloxane by gamma irradiation in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, Angel J.; Andreucetti, Noemi A.; Ciolino, Andres E.; Vitale, Cristian; Sarmoria, Claudia; Valles, Enrique M.

    2010-01-01

    An anionic almost monodisperse linear polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was subjected to gamma irradiation under vacuum at room temperature. The molecular weight changes induced by the radiation process have been investigated using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with refraction index (RI) and multi angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detectors, to obtain the number and weight average molecular weights of the irradiated samples. The analysis of the data indicates that crosslinking reactions predominated over scission reactions. The results obtained by an SEC-RI have confirmed the presence of small, but measurable amounts of scission. A previously developed mathematical model of the irradiation process that accounts for simultaneous scission and crosslinking and allows for both H- and Y-crosslinks, fitted well the measured molecular weight data. This prediction is in accordance with the experimental data obtained by 29 Si-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and previously reported data for commercial linear PDMS ().

  20. Physicochemical characterization of irradiated high molecular weight chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapado, Manuel; Paredes, Mayte; Altanes, Sonia; Barrera, Gisela; Otero, Isabel; Peniche, Carlos; Gonzalez, Maykel

    2006-01-01

    Chitosan is obtained by mean of partial deacetylation of chitin. Due to the diverse biological properties of this polymer it has valuable medical applications. Some of these applications require sterile materials. For this purpose irradiation techniques seem to have advantages since they do not require any additives, which could contaminate the final sterile product with toxic residuals. The aims of the present study were to determinate the bio burden for assessing the sterilization dose and to identify the influence of the absorbed dose of gamma radiation on the molar mass and chemical structure of chitosan. Changes in polymer features were evaluated by comparing the results obtained from the characterization of treated and raw polymers. The obtained results have been shown chain cleavage caused by irradiation. It was revealed by a decrease in the intrinsic viscosities of the polymers. The invariance of the infrared spectra of polymer indicates that chain degradation occurs without significant change of the chemical structure. The results obtained have practical implication in the field of radiation sterilization of chitosan used for biotechnology, medicine and pharmacy

  1. Estimated live weight of growing Pêga breed donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Garcia Moreira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The equations available in the literature to estimate the body weight (BW of Pêga breed donkeys were evaluated using 25 animals aged 0-6 months and it was proposed an equation for BW prediction. For the measurement of the thoracic perimeter (TP and for weighing the animals using the weighing tape, the animals were positioned in a forced station on a steep slope. An electronic scale was used for the determination of the BW. Accuracy of linear and nonlinear equations described in the literature was tested for BW prediction based on the animals’ TP, followed by the comparison of these equations with the equation developed in the present study for BW prediction of Pêga breed donkeys. A difference was noted (P<0.001 between the weights obtained on the electronic scale and the weighing tape. Linear and nonlinear equations available in the literature did not present favorable results with the data of the present study. The equation developed for the estimation of donkeys’ BW allowed the development of a weighing tape exclusive for young animals. Further evaluations are required for other Pêga donkey populations to confirm the efficacy of the proposed equation.

  2. Effects of ancestral x irradiation followed by random mating on body weight of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450R per generation of ancestral spermatogonial x irradiation of inbred rats on body weight were examined. After six generations of random mating (avoiding inbreeding) following the termination of irradiation, descendants of irradiated males (R) were significantly lighter than their controls (C) at 3 and 6 weeks, but not at 10 weeks of age. However, differences in growth between R and C populations were small. Among-litter and within-litter variance estimates were generally larger in the R lines than in the C lines, suggesting that selection responses would be greater in R than in C lines. In conjunction with previous evidence--obtained during the irradiation phase of the experiment--this suggested that more rapid response to selection for 6-week body weight, in particular, might accrue in the R lines

  3. Eruption of first permanent incisors and live weight gain in grazing yearling Angora goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, B A; Butler, K L

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effects of the timing and duration of eruption of the first permanent incisors, live weight, sex and other factors on contemporaneous live weight gain in Angora goats. Goats were previously part of a pen study on the effects of energy intake of Angora does during pregnancy and lactation on kid development. The design was 3 levels of nutrition in mid-pregnancy by 2 levels of postnatal nutrition in 17 randomised blocks. Artificial insemination, ultrasound examination and feeding does in pens enabled accurate conduct of the study. After weaning, goats were grazed in sex groups. Live weight change between 14 and 20 months of age was related to deciduous first incisor loss and permanent first incisor development and other attributes assessed before the study. Live weight change was related to the elapsed time for first permanent incisors to commence eruption and to the length of time for first permanent incisors to erupt. This response was affected by sex. Over summer and autumn, entire males with short eruption intervals gained 2-3 kg more than entire males with long eruption intervals. Females that reached first permanent incisor eruption by mid-summer had a live weight gain of 3 kg more than those that reached the same development 3 months later. Live weight change in yearling Angora goats was associated with the process of first permanent incisor eruption. In females, live weight gain was greater when first permanent incisor eruption was earlier. In males, live weight gain was greater when first permanent incisor eruption was faster. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    early or late (strategy MR2-E and MR2-L). The early and late changes were defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum at 15 and 35 kg, respectively, for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg, respectively, for DJ. When MR energy concentration was changed, cows on the MR2 strategies were offered 3 kg per...

  5. Live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Önk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems. One hundred and twenty native ducks (60 males, 60 females were used in the study. The ducks were raised in deep litter floor and cage systems. Live weight and body values were measured every two weeks, until they were 56 days old. Three-parameter logistic regression and Gompertz model were used to determine growth model of male and female ducks. Interactions of time-raising system and time-sex were statistically significant in terms of live weight. At the end of eight weeks, live weights of ducks raised in deep litter floor were higher than ducks raised in cage system. In addition, live weights of male ducks were higher than female ducks. Consequently, deep litter floor is more appropriate for live weight in native ducks. Accuracy rate of Three-parameter Logistic and Gompertz models for estimation of growth in ducks was between 0.91-0.95 and similar results were obtained from both models. The Gompertz model is appropriate for the data structure of this study because it contains fewer iterations than the Three-Parameter Logistic model.

  6. Response of reptilian live to external gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Adult healthy specimens of Uromastix hardwickii were exposed to three doses (i.e. 2.25, 4.50 and 9.00 Gy) of gamma radiation from a 60 Co source (experimental group). Five animals were sacrificed at each post-irradiation intervals of 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days. The liver was fixed in Bouin's fluid and after processing in a routine way, it was examined histologically. Five sham-irradiated animals (control group) were also sacrificed to compare the results. Low dose (i.e. 2.25 Gy) did not produce any apparent radiolesions in the liver. Changes in the form of cytoplasmic degranulation, swollen hepatocytes, pycnosis, increases in bile pigmentation were noticed after 4.50 and 9.00 Gy gamma ray exposure. Hyperaemia, widening of sinusoids and cytoplasmic vacuolation were also noticed in 9.00 Gy group. The liver exhibited normal picture on day 14 after exposure to both the doses. The radiolesions were found dose dependent. (author)

  7. Long-lived isotopes production in Pb-Bi target irradiated by high energy protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korovin, Y.A.; Konobeyev, A.Y.; Pereslavtsev, P.E. [Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    Concentration of long-lived isotopes has been calculated for lead and lead-bismuth targets irradiated by protons with energy 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 GeV. The time of irradiation is equal from 1 month up to 2 years. The data libraries BROND, ADL and MENDL have been used to obtain the rate of nuclide transmutation. All calculations have been performed using the SNT code.

  8. Weighted optimization of irradiance for photodynamic therapy of port wine stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Linhuan; Zhou, Ya; Hu, Xiaoming

    2016-10-01

    Planning of irradiance distribution (PID) is one of the foremost factors for on-demand treatment of port wine stains (PWS) with photodynamic therapy (PDT). A weighted optimization method for PID was proposed according to the grading of PWS with a three dimensional digital illumination instrument. Firstly, the point clouds of lesions were filtered to remove the error or redundant points, the triangulation was carried out and the lesion was divided into small triangular patches. Secondly, the parameters such as area, normal vector and orthocenter for optimization of each triangular patch were calculated, and the weighted coefficients were determined by the erythema indexes and areas of patches. Then, the optimization initial point was calculated based on the normal vectors and orthocenters to optimize the light direction. In the end, the irradiation can be optimized according to cosine values of irradiance angles and weighted coefficients. Comparing the irradiance distribution before and after optimization, the proposed weighted optimization method can make the irradiance distribution match better with the characteristics of lesions, and has the potential to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  9. ''Sleeping reactor'' irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux (φ) of ∼ 4 x 10 14 n/cm 2 · s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of ∼ 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about ± 0.5 s) make irradiations of 9 Be(γ,n) 8 Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to ∼ 1 x 10 10 n/cm 2 · s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to ∼ 6 x 10 8 . Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant

  10. the influence of live weight on the voluntary intake of low quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trial. From then onwards their averagelive weight remain· ed more or less constant at about 50 kg. Although their averagedaily feed intakes fluctuated considerably the gener- al trend was constant. During the second period ofad lib. feeding the average live weight of the sheep remained constant at approximate- ly 36,4 kg.

  11. Control of molecular weight distribution in synthesis of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) using ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Masaki; Kondo, Takayuki; Matsui, Hideki; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2018-01-01

    Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) was synthesized using ultrasonic irradiation without any chemical initiator. The effect of the ultrasonic power intensity on the time course of the conversion to polymer, the number average molecular weight, and the polydispersity were investigated in order to synthesize a polymer with a low molecular weight distribution (i.e., low polydispersity). The conversion to polymer increased with time. A higher ultrasonic power intensity resulted in a faster reaction rate. The number average molecular weight increased during the early stage of the reaction and then gradually decreased with time. A higher ultrasonic intensity resulted in a faster degradation rate of the polymer. The polydispersity decreased with time. This was because the degradation rate of a polymer with a higher molecular weight was faster than that of a polymer with a lower molecular weight. A polydispersity below 1.3 was obtained under ultrasonic irradiation. By changing the ultrasonic power intensity during the reaction, the number average molecular weight can be controlled while maintaining low polydispersity. When the ultrasonic irradiation was halted, the reactions stopped and the number average molecular weight and polydispersity did not change. On the basis of the experimental results, a kinetic model for synthesis of PHEMA under ultrasonic irradiation was constructed considering both polymerization and polymer degradation. The kinetic model was in good agreement with the experimental results for the time courses of the conversion to polymer, the number average molecular weight, and the polydispersity for various ultrasonic power intensities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the friction and wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. R.; Hady, W. F.; Crugnola, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of sterilization gamma irradiation on the friction and wear properties of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sliding against stainless steel 316L in dry air at 23 C is investigated, the results to be used in the development of artificial joints which are to surgically replace diseased human joints. A pin-on-disk sliding friction apparatus is used, a constant sliding speed in the range 0.061-0.27 m/s is maintained, a normal load of 1 kgf is applied with dead weight, and the irradiation dose levels are: 0, 2.5, and 5.0 Mrad. Wear and friction data and conditions for each of the ten tests are summarized, and include: (1) wear volume as a function of the sliding distance for the irradiation levels, (2) incremental wear rate, and (3) coefficient of friction as a function of the sliding distance. It is shown that (1) the friction and wear properties of UHMWPE are not significantly changed by the irradiation doses of 2.5 and 5.0 Mrad, (2) the irradiation increases the amount of insoluble gel as well as the amount of low molecular weight material, and (3) after run-in the wear rate is either steady or gradually decreases as a function of the sliding distance.

  13. Effects of UV irradiation on a living skin equivalent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D; Gay, R J [Organogenesis Incorporated, Camton, MA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Living Skin Equivalent is an organotypic coculture composed of human dermal fibroblasts interspersed in a collagen-containing matrix and overlaid with human keratinocytes forming a stratified epidermis. The LSE has a dry, air-exposed epidermal surface suitable for the application of oils, creams and emulsions. The protective effects of an 8% homosylate standard and of five UV-A sunscreens, topically applied to the LSE, were determined and compared with their reported protection factors in human skin. Morphological changes and the release of proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-1-''alpha, tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] and prostaglandin E2) implicated in UV-induced erythema were also demonstrated in the LSE exposed to UV-A or UV-B. The data suggest that the LSE can be used for studying the effects of UV radiation on skin and may have utility for assessing the efficacy of certain sunscreens against UV-B and UV-A. (Author).

  14. Effects of UV irradiation on a living skin equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.; Gay, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Living Skin Equivalent is an organotypic coculture composed of human dermal fibroblasts interspersed in a collagen-containing matrix and overlaid with human keratinocytes forming a stratified epidermis. The LSE has a dry, air-exposed epidermal surface suitable for the application of oils, creams and emulsions. The protective effects of an 8% homosylate standard and of five UV-A sunscreens, topically applied to the LSE, were determined and compared with their reported protection factors in human skin. Morphological changes and the release of proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-1-''alpha, tumor necrosis factor-α and prostaglandin E2) implicated in UV-induced erythema were also demonstrated in the LSE exposed to UV-A or UV-B. The data suggest that the LSE can be used for studying the effects of UV radiation on skin and may have utility for assessing the efficacy of certain sunscreens against UV-B and UV-A. (Author)

  15. Immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight β-glucan depolymerized by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yoo, Young-Choon; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    β-glucans are structural cell wall polymers of many microorganisms and cereals which possess immunomodulatory properties and have been used in the food, cosmetic and medical industry. In our previous study, β-glucan was depolymerized by gamma irradiation and leads to improve the solubility and viscosity. This study was carried out to evaluate the functional properties, mainly immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight β-glucan fragmented by gamma irradiation. The results showed that RAW 264.7 macrophage cell stimulation activities of irradiated β-glucan were higher than that of non-irradiated β-glucan. In addition, the oral administration of gamma-irradiated β-glucan significantly increased the proliferation and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-2) release of spleen and Peyer's patch cells compared with non-irradiated β-glucan. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be used as an effective method for the production of depolymerized β-glucan improved functional property such as immunomodulatory activity.

  16. Immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight β-glucan depolymerized by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yoo, Young-Choon; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    β-glucans are structural cell wall polymers of many microorganisms and cereals which possess immunomodulatory properties and have been used in the food, cosmetic and medical industry. In our previous study, β-glucan was depolymerized by gamma irradiation and leads to improve the solubility and viscosity. This study was carried out to evaluate the functional properties, mainly immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight β-glucan fragmented by gamma irradiation. The results showed that RAW 264.7 macrophage cell stimulation activities of irradiated β-glucan were higher than that of non-irradiated β-glucan. In addition, the oral administration of gamma-irradiated β-glucan significantly increased the proliferation and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-2) release of spleen and Peyer's patch cells compared with non-irradiated β-glucan. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be used as an effective method for the production of depolymerized β-glucan improved functional property such as immunomodulatory activity.

  17. An integrated on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Ying; Fu, Qibin; Wang, Weikang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Feng; Yang, Gen, E-mail: gen.yang@pku.edu.cn; Wang, Yugang

    2015-09-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a threat to genome integrity by introducing DNA damages, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in cells. Understanding how cells react to DSB and maintain genome integrity is of major importance, since increasing evidences indicate the links of DSB with genome instability and cancer predispositions. However, tracking the dynamics of DNA damages and repair response to ionizing radiation in individual cell is difficult. Here we describe the development of an on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system based on isotopic sources at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The system was designed to irradiate cells and in situ observe the cellular responses to ionizing radiation in real time. On-line irradiation was achieved by mounting a metal framework that hold an isotopic γ source above the cell culture dish for γ irradiation; or by integrating an isotopic α source to an objective lens under the specialized cell culture dish for α irradiation. Live cell imaging was performed on a confocal microscope with an environmental chamber installed on the microscope stage. Culture conditions in the environment chamber such as CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} concentration as well as temperature are adjustable, which further extends the capacity of the system and allows more flexible experimental design. We demonstrate the use of this system by tracking the DSB foci formation and disappearance in individual cells after exposure to irradiation. On-line irradiation together with in situ live cell imaging in adjustable culture conditions, the system overall provides a powerful tool for investigation of cellular and subcellular response to ionizing radiation under different physiological conditions such as hyperthermia or hypoxia.

  18. An integrated on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Ying; Fu, Qibin; Wang, Weikang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Feng; Yang, Gen; Wang, Yugang

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a threat to genome integrity by introducing DNA damages, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in cells. Understanding how cells react to DSB and maintain genome integrity is of major importance, since increasing evidences indicate the links of DSB with genome instability and cancer predispositions. However, tracking the dynamics of DNA damages and repair response to ionizing radiation in individual cell is difficult. Here we describe the development of an on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system based on isotopic sources at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The system was designed to irradiate cells and in situ observe the cellular responses to ionizing radiation in real time. On-line irradiation was achieved by mounting a metal framework that hold an isotopic γ source above the cell culture dish for γ irradiation; or by integrating an isotopic α source to an objective lens under the specialized cell culture dish for α irradiation. Live cell imaging was performed on a confocal microscope with an environmental chamber installed on the microscope stage. Culture conditions in the environment chamber such as CO 2 , O 2 concentration as well as temperature are adjustable, which further extends the capacity of the system and allows more flexible experimental design. We demonstrate the use of this system by tracking the DSB foci formation and disappearance in individual cells after exposure to irradiation. On-line irradiation together with in situ live cell imaging in adjustable culture conditions, the system overall provides a powerful tool for investigation of cellular and subcellular response to ionizing radiation under different physiological conditions such as hyperthermia or hypoxia

  19. An integrated on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Fu, Qibin; Wang, Weikang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Feng; Yang, Gen; Wang, Yugang

    2015-09-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a threat to genome integrity by introducing DNA damages, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in cells. Understanding how cells react to DSB and maintain genome integrity is of major importance, since increasing evidences indicate the links of DSB with genome instability and cancer predispositions. However, tracking the dynamics of DNA damages and repair response to ionizing radiation in individual cell is difficult. Here we describe the development of an on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system based on isotopic sources at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The system was designed to irradiate cells and in situ observe the cellular responses to ionizing radiation in real time. On-line irradiation was achieved by mounting a metal framework that hold an isotopic γ source above the cell culture dish for γ irradiation; or by integrating an isotopic α source to an objective lens under the specialized cell culture dish for α irradiation. Live cell imaging was performed on a confocal microscope with an environmental chamber installed on the microscope stage. Culture conditions in the environment chamber such as CO2, O2 concentration as well as temperature are adjustable, which further extends the capacity of the system and allows more flexible experimental design. We demonstrate the use of this system by tracking the DSB foci formation and disappearance in individual cells after exposure to irradiation. On-line irradiation together with in situ live cell imaging in adjustable culture conditions, the system overall provides a powerful tool for investigation of cellular and subcellular response to ionizing radiation under different physiological conditions such as hyperthermia or hypoxia.

  20. Meat quality and cut yield of pigs slaughtered over 100kg live weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Bertol

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Meat quality and cut yield of pigs slaughtered between 100 and 150kg live weight were evaluated. Pigs (417 Agroceres PIC barrows and gilts were fed a daily allowance of 2.8kg per head from 80kg until 100.71±0.85, 118.58±0.99, 134.07±1.18 or 143.90±1.24kg live weight. Seventy-one pigs were used for the evaluation of primal and subprimal cuts. There was no interaction between sex and slaughter weight for any of the evaluated parameters. Ham, shoulder, and loin weights linearly increased (P<0.01; R2: 84.3-93.2% with increasing slaughter weight, which, however, had little effect on primal cuts meat yield. Increasing slaughter weight promoted a linear (P<0.05 and a quadratic (P<0.01 increase of red/green coordinate (a* value of the loin and ham, respectively. Shear force showed a quadratic response (P<0.05, with minimum value estimated at 122kg slaughter weight. It was concluded that, under the applied management, increasing slaughter weight increased the volume of meat, but had little effect on meat yield. The meat of pigs slaughtered at heavier weights showed more intense red color and the same intramuscular fat content as lighter pigs, while tenderness was slightly affected.

  1. Influences of gamma irradiation treatment on the molecular weight of chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu Thi Tho; Nguyen Viet Thong; Tran Minh Quynh; Vu Thi Hong Khanh

    2013-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on molecular properties of shrimp and squid chitosan (MTV, Vietnam) have been studied with three kind chitosan that having degree of deacetylation 75% and different molecular molecular weight of 69, 187 and 345 kDa, Chitosan samples were irradiated at the same dose rate of 4.3 kGy per hour with various radiation dose of 25, 50, 75, 100, 200 and 500 kGy. The viscosity average molecular weight and degree of deacetylation (DD) of chitosan before and after irradiation have been investigated via their intrinsic viscosity and Furrier transform infra-red (FT-IR). The data revealed the chitosan backbone chains has been degraded by gamma radiation, resulting in the smaller fragments with reduced molecular weight to 3000 Da, whereas their DD have not much changed. (author)

  2. Strategies, barriers, and motivation for weight loss among veterans living with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Viverito, Kristen M; Medoff, Deborah R; Hoffmann, Rebecca M; Goldberg, Richard W

    2014-12-01

    Weight loss programs for veterans living with schizophrenia have demonstrated mixed efficacy, highlighting unique obstacles faced by this population. Data from a large national sample provide an opportunity to characterize the unique factors related to weight loss for veterans with schizophrenia. The present study compared veterans living with schizophrenia (n = 5,388) to veterans with no mental health diagnoses (n = 81,422) on responses to the MOVE!23, a multidimensional assessment of factors related to weight management. Responses to the MOVE!23 between August, 2005 and May, 2013 by veterans with a body mass index in the overweight or obese range were used to describe clinical characteristics, current strategies, perceived barriers, stages of readiness, and importance of and confidence to change behaviors related to their weight management. Both groups reported similar stages of readiness and high ratings of importance and confidence regarding weight loss behaviors. Compared with veterans with no mental health diagnoses, over 5 times as many veterans living with schizophrenia reported smoking to control weight, and a greater number endorsed 18 of the 21 barriers to modifying eating and physical activity. RESULTS highlight the necessity of addressing healthy lifestyles from a holistic perspective for all veterans. Adding regular physical activity as part of daily treatment may address the accessibility, safety concerns, and lack of social support reported as physical activity barriers. Increased access to healthier food choices and addressing smoking in conjunction with weight loss are also warranted. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Responses in live weight change to net energy intake in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Bertilsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to estimate the effect of increased energy intake on daily live weight changes during the first 100 days of lactation of primiparous and multiparous cows. A data set with 78 observations (treatment means) was compiled from 6 production trials from Denmark, Norway...... or multiparous. Feed ration energy values were recalculated by use of NorFor to obtain consistent energy expression in all trials as opposed to the varying feed evaluation systems used in original analysis of trials. Regression analysis with linear and quadratic effects were performed on live weight...... change were made by linear mixed effects model with trial as random factor. For both primiparous and multiparous cows there was an increasing curvilinear response at a decreasing rate to increased net energy intake and the daily live weight change at day 30 was negative and at day 90 it was positive...

  4. Effect of molecular weight reduction by gamma irradiation on chitosan film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, Mario A., E-mail: marioifal@gmail.com [Pharmacy and Food Institute, University of Havana, St. 222 No. 2317, ZC 13600 Havana (Cuba); Pérez, Liliam [Pharmacy and Food Institute, University of Havana, St. 222 No. 2317, ZC 13600 Havana (Cuba); Paz, Nilia de la [Drugs Research and Development Center, Ave. 26 No. 1605, Havana (Cuba); González, Juan [Food Industry Research Institute, Carretera al Guatao km 3 1/2, Havana, CP 19200 (Cuba); Rapado, Manuel [Radiobiology Department, Center for Technological Applications and Nuclear Development, St. 30 No. 502, Playa, Havana (Cuba); Casariego, Alicia [Pharmacy and Food Institute, University of Havana, St. 222 No. 2317, ZC 13600 Havana (Cuba)

    2015-10-01

    The present work aimed the influence of molecular weight (MW) reduction by irradiation with {sup 60}Co and polymer concentration on some physical properties of chitosan films. Irradiation of chitosan with a MW of 275.221 kDa and 74.74% of deacetylation degree was performed using a {sup 60}Co source to provide doses of 5, 10, 20 and 50 kGy to obtain chitosans with molecular weights of 247.847, 221.563, 126.469 and 77.063 kDa, respectively. Films were prepared via the solution casting method. Film-forming solutions (FFS) of chitosan irradiated or not, were prepared at 1.5 and 2% (w/v) in a solution of lactic acid at 1% (v/v) and 0.1% (v/v) of Tween 80. The FFS were poured into glass plates of 400 cm{sup 2} and dried at 60 °C during 10 h without airflow. The decrease of MW and increase of chitosan concentration increased the tensil strength and water vapor permeability while decreased the elongation at break of the films. The chitosan MW did not significantly influence (p > 0.05) the water solubility of films within a same polymer concentration. There was a decrease in the films' brightness with the increase of concentration and a decrease of the MW of irradiated chitosan, while the b* values of films increased and there was an increasing tendency of their apparent opacity. - Highlights: • MW reduction by {sup 60}Co irradiation increased the tensil strength of chitosan films. • MW reduction increased the water vapor permeability of chitosan films. • MW did not affect the films' water solubility within a same chitosan concentration. • Films' brightness decreased with the chitosan molecular weight reduction.

  5. Effect of molecular weight reduction by gamma irradiation on chitosan film properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Mario A.; Pérez, Liliam; Paz, Nilia de la; González, Juan; Rapado, Manuel; Casariego, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed the influence of molecular weight (MW) reduction by irradiation with 60 Co and polymer concentration on some physical properties of chitosan films. Irradiation of chitosan with a MW of 275.221 kDa and 74.74% of deacetylation degree was performed using a 60 Co source to provide doses of 5, 10, 20 and 50 kGy to obtain chitosans with molecular weights of 247.847, 221.563, 126.469 and 77.063 kDa, respectively. Films were prepared via the solution casting method. Film-forming solutions (FFS) of chitosan irradiated or not, were prepared at 1.5 and 2% (w/v) in a solution of lactic acid at 1% (v/v) and 0.1% (v/v) of Tween 80. The FFS were poured into glass plates of 400 cm 2 and dried at 60 °C during 10 h without airflow. The decrease of MW and increase of chitosan concentration increased the tensil strength and water vapor permeability while decreased the elongation at break of the films. The chitosan MW did not significantly influence (p > 0.05) the water solubility of films within a same polymer concentration. There was a decrease in the films' brightness with the increase of concentration and a decrease of the MW of irradiated chitosan, while the b* values of films increased and there was an increasing tendency of their apparent opacity. - Highlights: • MW reduction by 60 Co irradiation increased the tensil strength of chitosan films. • MW reduction increased the water vapor permeability of chitosan films. • MW did not affect the films' water solubility within a same chitosan concentration. • Films' brightness decreased with the chitosan molecular weight reduction

  6. X-ray luminescence computed tomography imaging via multiple intensity weighted narrow beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan; Zhang, Limin; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Zhongxing

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce and study a novel x-ray beam irradiation pattern for X-ray Luminescence Computed Tomography (XLCT), termed multiple intensity-weighted narrow-beam irradiation. The proposed XLCT imaging method is studied through simulations of x-ray and diffuse lights propagation. The emitted optical photons from X-ray excitable nanophosphors were collected by optical fiber bundles from the right-side surface of the phantom. The implementation of image reconstruction is based on the simulated measurements from 6 or 12 angular projections in terms of 3 or 5 x-ray beams scanning mode. The proposed XLCT imaging method is compared against the constant intensity weighted narrow-beam XLCT. From the reconstructed XLCT images, we found that the Dice similarity and quantitative ratio of targets have a certain degree of improvement. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can offer simultaneously high image quality and fast image acquisition.

  7. Gamma-Weighted Discrete Ordinate Two-Stream Approximation for Computation of Domain Averaged Solar Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Smith, G. L.; Barker, H. W.

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for the gamma-weighted discrete ordinate two-stream approximation that computes profiles of domain-averaged shortwave irradiances for horizontally inhomogeneous cloudy atmospheres. The algorithm assumes that frequency distributions of cloud optical depth at unresolved scales can be represented by a gamma distribution though it neglects net horizontal transport of radiation. This algorithm is an alternative to the one used in earlier studies that adopted the adding method. At present, only overcast cloudy layers are permitted.

  8. Gender and live weight on carcass and meat characteristics of donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hernández-Briano

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One hundred eighty-nine Catalan crossbreed donkeys (Equus africanus asinus were used to evaluate the effect of gender (gelding, n=106; or female, n=83 and live weight at slaughter (LW (kg, n=37 on carcass characteristics, non-carcass components and meat and fat color. Geldings had greater (P151kg. Meanwhile, the LW did not affect the color (L*, a* and b* values of subcutaneous fat (P>0.05. These results suggested that both gender and live weight should be considered when producing meat from donkeys. It is advisable to use geldings weighing more than 126kg at slaughter to obtain the greatest weight and carcass yield.

  9. Realignment process of actin stress fibers in single living cells studied by focused femtosecond laser irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yasukuni, Ryohei; Spitz, Jean-Alexis; Meallet-Renault, Rachel; Negishi, Takayuki; Tada, Takuji; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Asahi, Tsuyoshi; Shukunami, Chisa; Hiraki, Yuji; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional dissection of a single actin stress fiber in a living cell was performed based on multi-photon absorption of a focused femtosecond laser pulse. The realignment process of an actin stress fiber was investigated after its direct cutting by a single-shot femtosecond laser pulse irradiation by high-speed transmission and fluorescence imaging methods. It was confirmed that mechanical force led by the femtosecond laser cutting propagates to entire cell through the cytockelton in a...

  10. Effect of Transient Treatment with Propylthiouracil on Some Reproduction Traits and Live Weight of Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sogut

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of transient treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU on some reproduction traits and live weight of quails. The trial lasted 8 weeks. To accomplish this goal, 700 1-day-old quail chicks were used, randomly divided into 8 groups. PTU was added to feed by 0.1% and 0.5% /wt. The first 4 groups had 0.5% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6, 6-8 and 2-8 wk., respectively. The 5 th, 6 th and 7 th groups had 0.1% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 wk., respectively, and the 8 th group was the control with no PTU. Quails were bled at 60 days of age. Then right and left testes were taken out and weighed. At the end of the trail, least square means of the live weight of the treatment groups were higher than the control (p<0.05. Similar results (p<0.05 were observed for testis weight, testis diameter and fertility rate. As a result, it can be said that the inclusion of PTU in quail rations positively affects the live weight and reproduction traits of quails.

  11. Lateral Trunk Surface as a new parameter to estimate live body weight by Visual Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Terramoccia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Live weight of 74 milking Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis L. have been estimated by Visual Image Analysis. The total surface of lateral profile, tested in previous researches with viable result, was substituted by the measurement of the Lateral Trunk Surface (LTrS. The measurements were recorded by a camera equipped by a laser distance recorder and data were elaborated by a specific software. This parameter, eliminating the surface of neck, head and legs, that are less easily measurable, simplified and accelerated the procedure. Correlation between LTrS and live weight was r = 0.90 (P < 0.01. A significant equation (P < 0.01 was obtained from the recorded data of a random sample of 38 buffaloes. When the validation of the equation was tested on the other 36 subjects, the estimated live weight had a mean of 691.74 kg ± 68.55. This was corresponding to a 1.08% overestimation of the real weight.

  12. Estimates of genetic parameters of body weight in descendants of x-irradiated rat spermatogonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450 R per generation of ancestral spermatogonial x irradiation of inbred rats on genetic parameters of body weight at 3, 6 and 10 weeks of age and of weight gains between these periods were studied. Covariances among relatives were estimated by mixed model and regression techniques in randomly selected lines with (R) and without (C) radiation history. Analyses of the data were based on five linear genetic models combining additive direct, additive indirect (maternal), dominance and environmental effects. Parameters in these models were estimated by generalized least-squares. A model including direct and indirect genetic effects fit more closely to the data in both R and C lines. Overdominance of induced mutations did not seem to be present. Ancestral irradiation increased maternal additive genetic variances of body weights and gains but not direct genetic variances. Theoretically, due to a negative direct-maternal genetic correlation, within full-sib family selection would be ineffective in increasing body weight at six weeks in both R and C lines. However, progress from mass selection would be expected to be faster in the R lines

  13. TEM investigation of irradiated U-7 weight percent Mo dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berghe, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the FUTURE experiment, fuel plates containing U-7 weight percent Mo atomized powder were irradiated in the BR2 reactor. At a burn-up of approximately 33 percent 235 U (6.5 percent FIMA or 1.41 10 21 fissions/cm 3 meat), the fuel plates showed an important deformation and the irradiation was stopped. The plates were submitted to detailed PIE at the Laboratory for High and Medium level Activity. The results of these examinations were reported in the scientific report of last year and published in open literature. Since then, the microstructural aspects of the FUTURE fuel were studied in more detail using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in an attempt to understand the nature of the interaction phase and the fission gas behavior in the atomized U(Mo) fuel. The FUTURE experiment is regarded as the definitive proof that the classical atomized U(Mo) dispersion fuel is not stable under irradiation, at least in the conditions required for normal operation of plate-type fuel. The main cause for the instability was identified to be the irradiation behavior of the U(Mo)-Al interaction phase which is formed between the U(Mo) particles and the pure aluminum matrix during irradiation. It is assumed to become amorphous under irradiation and as such cannot retain the fission gas in stable bubbles. As a consequence, gas filled voids are generated between the interaction layer and the matrix, resulting in fuel plate pillowing and failure. The objective of the TEM investigation was the confirmation of this assumption of the amorphisation of the interaction phase. A deeper understanding of the actual nature of this layer and the fission gas behaviour in these fuels in general can allow a more oriented search for a solution to the fuel failures

  14. Influence of radioprotectors on total body weight evolution and on oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.; Martine, G.; Bargy, E.; Andrieu, L.

    Comparison of total body weight evolution and oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals, protected by various well known radioprotective substances, isolated or in mixture, with evolution and consumption of non protected animals irradiated at the same dose and with these of check animals [fr

  15. The effects of UV irradiation and gas plasma treatment on living mammalian cells and bacteria: a comparative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosnin, E.A.; Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.; Erofeev, M.V.; Kieft, I.E.; Kunts, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Living mammalian cells and bacteria were exposed to irradiation from narrow-band UV lamps and treated with a nonthermal gas plasma (plasma needle). The model systems were: Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cells (fibroblasts) and Escherichia Coli bacteria. UV irradiation can lead to cell death

  16. DNA double strand breaks and Hsp70 expression in proton irradiated living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, Anja; Reinert, Tilo; Tanner, Judith; Butz, Tilman

    2007-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in living cells can be directly provoked by ionising radiation. DSBs can be visualized by immunostaining the phosphorylated histone γH2AX. Our concern was to test the feasibility of γH2AX staining for a direct visualization of single proton hits. If single protons produce detectable foci, DNA DSBs could be used as 'biological track detectors' for protons. Ionising radiation can also damage proteins indirectly by inducing free radicals. Heat shock proteins (Hsp) help to refold or even degrade the damaged proteins. The level of the most famous heat shock protein Hsp70 is increased by ionising radiation. We investigated the expression of γH2AX and Hsp70 after cross and line patterned irradiation with counted numbers of 2.25 MeV protons on primary human skin fibroblasts. The proton induced DSBs appear more delocalised than it was expected by the ion hit accuracy. Cooling the cells before the irradiation reduces the delocalisation of DNA DSBs, which is probably caused by the reduced diffusion of DNA damaging agents. Proton irradiation seems to provoke protein damages mainly in the cytoplasm indicated by cytoplasmic Hsp70 aggregates. On the contrary, in control heat shocked cells the Hsp70 was predominantly localized in the cell nucleus. However, the irradiated area could not be recognized, all cells on the Si 3 N 4 window showed a homogenous Hsp70 expression pattern

  17. DNA double strand breaks and Hsp70 expression in proton irradiated living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, Anja [Institute for Experimental Physics II, University of Leipzig (Germany) and Faculty of Biology, Pharmacy and Psychology, University of Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: afiedler@uni-leipzig.de; Reinert, Tilo [Institute for Experimental Physics II, University of Leipzig (Germany); Tanner, Judith [Clinic and Polyclinic for Radiation Oncology, University of Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Butz, Tilman [Institute for Experimental Physics II, University of Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in living cells can be directly provoked by ionising radiation. DSBs can be visualized by immunostaining the phosphorylated histone {gamma}H2AX. Our concern was to test the feasibility of {gamma}H2AX staining for a direct visualization of single proton hits. If single protons produce detectable foci, DNA DSBs could be used as 'biological track detectors' for protons. Ionising radiation can also damage proteins indirectly by inducing free radicals. Heat shock proteins (Hsp) help to refold or even degrade the damaged proteins. The level of the most famous heat shock protein Hsp70 is increased by ionising radiation. We investigated the expression of {gamma}H2AX and Hsp70 after cross and line patterned irradiation with counted numbers of 2.25 MeV protons on primary human skin fibroblasts. The proton induced DSBs appear more delocalised than it was expected by the ion hit accuracy. Cooling the cells before the irradiation reduces the delocalisation of DNA DSBs, which is probably caused by the reduced diffusion of DNA damaging agents. Proton irradiation seems to provoke protein damages mainly in the cytoplasm indicated by cytoplasmic Hsp70 aggregates. On the contrary, in control heat shocked cells the Hsp70 was predominantly localized in the cell nucleus. However, the irradiated area could not be recognized, all cells on the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} window showed a homogenous Hsp70 expression pattern.

  18. Decreased weight, DNA, RNA and protein content of the brain after neutron irradiation of the 18-day mouse embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antal, S.; Fonagy, A.; Hidvegi, E.J.; Fueloep, Z.; Vogel, H.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Pregnant mice were irradiated with 0.5 Gy fission neutrons on the eighteenth day of gestation. Average litter size at birth was unchanged but mortality increased 5-6 fold in the first 3 days. Irradiated mice were the same weight as control mice at birth but showed a progressively increasing weight deficiency up to at least 36 days compared to controls. Brain weight was 37, 45 and 25% less in 2-, 3- and 52-week old irradiated animals; the ratio of brain weight to body weight was 25, 27 and 13% less. The concentrations of DNA, RNA and protein (mg/g wet tissue) were the same in irradiated and control mice in brain and liver at all three ages. Total DNA, RNA and protein contents of whole brain after irradiation were 56-75% of control levels. No definite decrease was observed in liver. Histological study at 6 hours after irradiation showed nuclear pyknosis in the central nervous system from definite to very severe according to the part examined. It is concluded that damage to the central nervous system of the 18-day mouse foetus is mainly due to killing and/or inhibition of the differentiation of neuroblasts. (author)

  19. Effectiveness of ancestral irradiation on the direct and correlated responses to selection for body weight in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of ancestral irradiation of rat spermatogonia (a cumulative total of 4050 r of x-rays) were studied in a highly inbred line of rats to explore the feasibility of using irradiation to enhance the effectiveness of selection. Six generations after irradiation was terminated, a selection experiment for body weight at six weeks of age was started in both ancestrally irradiated and non-irradiated populations. There were two non-contemporaneous replicates in each of the populations. Within each of the ancestral treatment-replicate combinations one line was selected for high, one for low body weight at six weeks of age, and a third line was maintained by random selection. In each line, avoidance of mating of animals with grandparents in common was attempted. Data on the first ten progeny generations of selection were included in this study. Five types of covariances among relatives were used to estimate causal components of variance for five different genetic models within the ''non-irradiated'' and ''irradiated'' randomly selected models. The parameters in the genetic models were estimated by generalized least-squares. This analysis suggested that a genetic model including direct genetic and maternal genetic effects was adequate to describe the body weights at 3, 6 and 10 weeks of age and the weight gains between these ages. Ancestral irradiation seemed to have enhanced the maternal genetic variance and the covariance between the direct genetic and the maternal genetic effects. On the basis of the above analysis, it was deduced that mass selection should have been more effective in the descendants of irradiated males than in those of the non-irradiated males as a consequence of greater phenotypic variability in their progeny and an enhancement in the regression of the genetic value on the selection criterion

  20. Accuracy of the CT-estimated weight of the right hepatic lobe prior to living related liver donation (LRLD) for predicting the intraoperatively measured weight of the graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemke, A.-J.; Brinkmann, M.; Felix, R.; Pascher, A.; Steinmueller, T.; Settmacher, U.; Neuhaus, P.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the shortage of cadaver donors, living related liver donation (LRLD) has emerged as an alternative to cadaver donation. The expected graft weight is one of the main determinants for donor selection. This study investigates the accuracy of preoperatively performed CT-volumetry to predict the actual weight of the right liver lobe graft. Materials and methods: In a prospective study the weight of the right hepatic lobe was calculated by volumetric analysis based on CT in 33 patients (21 females, 12 males, mean age 42.1 years, median age 41 years) prior to living related liver donation. Graft weight was calculated as the product of CT-based graft volume and 1.00 g/ml (the approximated density of healthy liver parenchyma). The calculated weight was compared with the intraoperatively measured weight of the harvested right hepatic lobe. The difference was used to determine a correction factor for estimating the actual graft weight. Results: Based on the assumption of a parenchymal density of 1.00 g/ml, the preoperatively estimated graft weight (mean 980 g ± 168 g) deviated + 33% from the intraoperatively measured right hepatic lobe weight (mean 749 g ± 170 g). By reducing the preoperatively predicted weight of the right hepatic lobe with a correction factor of 0.75, the actual graft weight can be calculated [de

  1. Growth and relationship of live weight to body measurements in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of live weight from measurements of body dimensions is useful in many management activities with domestic animals. In present study live weight was measured from 2932 female and 1037 male semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. during different seasons in 1969-85. The age of reindeer varied between 1 day and 14 yrs. Back length (along back from second spinous process to base of tail and chest girth (just behind front legs were taken also from 1490 female and 510 male reindeer. The growth of reindeer from birth to adulthood was cumulative consisting of a rapid weight accretion during summers followed by a weight loss or stasis during winters. The mathematical analyses of the growth based on exponential solutions gave average values for growth of female and male reindeer. Body weight of females increased until the age of 4.5 yrs and that of males until the age of 5.5 yrs. During winter and spring body weight of hinds decreased 10 to 15 kg and that of stags 30 to 50 kg in different age groups. Significant linear regressions were found between live weight and back length (r = 0.809 and 0.892, live weight and chest girth (r = 0.860 and 0.872 and live weight and combined body measure (back length + chest girth (r = 0.877 and 0.941 and live weight and body volume (r = 0.905 and 0.954, respectively in female and male reindeer. Exponential regressions gave, however, the best estimations of live weight with combined body measure.

  2. The pattern of protein retention in pigs from 2 to 120 kg live weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, K; Thorbek, G

    1996-01-01

    of metabolizable energy and oxidation of nutrients and a total of 152 measurements in the live weight (LW) range from 2 to 120 kg complied with the criterions. 3. The selected material were used in a quadratic function of RP on metabolic weight (kg0.75) to describe the curve for maximum RP. 4. The function...... obtained was: RP, g/d = 11.55 x kg0.75 - 0.185 x kg1.50 with a maximum of 180 g/d at 98 kg LW. 5. The RP-values were compared with data from the literature with other races and the function seems well established to describe maximum protein retention in non-hormone treated or specific selected pigs....

  3. Physico-chemical characterization of polyethylene of ultra high molecular weight modified with gamma irradiation and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarde, M; Del Grosso, M; Fasce, D; Dommarco, R; Laino, S; Fasce, L.A

    2012-01-01

    The ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a biomaterial widely used in total joint replacement. In this work, the effect of two different irradiation techniques on UHMWPE is analyzed. One technique involves gamma irradiation (γ) followed by a thermal treatment, thus modifying the material bulk. The other implies swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI), which have an effect only on the near surface layers. The surface nanomechanical properties are evaluated from depth sensing indentation experiments, while changes in crystallinity and chemical structure are determined by DSC and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that even when both techniques are able to improve the UHMWPE wear behavior, the effect on other mechanical properties and molecular structure modification is different. The γ irradiated sample exhibits lower crystallinity, hardness and modulus than the pristine UHMWPE, while the SHI irradiated sample exhibits higher crystallinity and enhanced mechanical properties than the later

  4. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Coagualtion on the Molegular Weight Distribution of Soluble Organic Substances in Paper Mill Effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shijun, He; Jianlong, Wang [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jianxin, Wan; Mengmeng, Sun [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Longfei, Ye [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China)

    2012-07-01

    In order to look into the insights of the influence of gamma irradiation and coagulation on the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of soluble organic substances in real paper mill effluent, various parameters of wastewater samples before and after treated were investigated, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV{sub 254}) as well. In addition, the effects of irradiation on oxygen uptake and on acute toxicity were also presented. The results showed that irradiation alone cannot promote the biodegradability and oxygen uptake as originally expected. The whole acute toxicity of samples was reduced after gamma irradiation. On the other side, coagulation can not only effectively eliminate the sectors with high molecular weight (MW>3000 Dalton, in short HMW), but also improve the capacity of ionizing irradiation initiated the transformation of medium molecular weight (1000 Daltonweight (MW<1000 Dalton, in short LWM), which is readily degraded by the subsequently activated sludge process. (author)

  5. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Coagualtion on the Molegular Weight Distribution of Soluble Organic Substances in Paper Mill Effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shijun; Wang Jianlong; Wan Jianxin; Sun Mengmeng; Ye Longfei

    2012-01-01

    In order to look into the insights of the influence of gamma irradiation and coagulation on the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of soluble organic substances in real paper mill effluent, various parameters of wastewater samples before and after treated were investigated, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV 254 ) as well. In addition, the effects of irradiation on oxygen uptake and on acute toxicity were also presented. The results showed that irradiation alone cannot promote the biodegradability and oxygen uptake as originally expected. The whole acute toxicity of samples was reduced after gamma irradiation. On the other side, coagulation can not only effectively eliminate the sectors with high molecular weight (MW>3000 Dalton, in short HMW), but also improve the capacity of ionizing irradiation initiated the transformation of medium molecular weight (1000 Dalton< MW<3000 Dalton, in short MMW) into low molecular weight (MW<1000 Dalton, in short LWM), which is readily degraded by the subsequently activated sludge process. (author)

  6. Separation and purification of short lived fission products from irradiated uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.R.; Rao, K.L.N.; Mathai, C.; Varma, R.N.; Dhiwar, V.I.; Saxena, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Fission produced radioisotopes like 95 Zr, 140 Ba, 103 Ru, 89 Sr and 91 Y whose half lives are less than 1 year find a wide variety of applications in the fields of industry, medicine and research. Isotope Division, BARC has been supplying these isotopes in hudreds of mCi amounts during the past several years. A new method for the sequential separation of these isotopes from irradiated uranium has been developed based on synthetic inorganic exchangers like stannic phosphate, polyphospho antimonic acid, hydrous manganese dioxide, etc. This report describes the new flow sheet worked out and adopted for the regular processing of these isotopes at hundreds of milli curie amounts. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs. , 1 fig

  7. Optimization of irradiation decay and counting times in nuclear activation analysis using short-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.

    This work describes a method and outlines a procedure for optim- ization of an activation analysis with respect to the experimental times, irradiation time, t(subi), decay time and counting time. The method is based on the 'minimum relative standard deviation criterion', and specially designed for the use on short-lived nuclides. A computer program, COMB1, is written in the BASIC language in order to make the calculations easier and faster. It is intended to be understandable, and easily applicable on a computer of modest size. Time and cost are important factors, especially for routine analysis on a service basis. In such cases one can often allow a controlled reduction in the analysis quality (through a higher relative standard deviation). The procedure outlined can therefore help find acceptable conditions by calculation of the 'best practical' (or reasonable) experimental time values, and the minimum number of accumulation cycles necessary to fulfil the requirements given. (Auth.)

  8. Cerebral haemodynamics in female teenagers exposed to ionizing irradiation in low doses and living in 'clean' areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumova, G.I.; Naumov, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty seven girls living in various districts of the Mogilev Region and having received absorbed irradiation dose at thyroid gland owing to iodine 131 more than 1 Gy and 65 ones living in relatively free from radionuclide areas were examined. The results indicated changes in cerebral haemodynamics in the first group. Vegetative vessels dystonia syntrom had been revealed at 31 exposed to iodine 131 irradiation patients (83%) and at 16 patients (25%) from the control group. The changes tended to induce hypotonia of small cerebral peripheral blood vessels with indices asymmetry of left and right cerebral hemispheres

  9. Preoperative computed tomography volumetry and graft weight estimation in adult living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Rafael S.; Cruz Junior, Ruy J.; Andraus, Wellington; Ducatti, Liliana; Martino, Rodrigo B.; Nacif, Lucas S.; Rocha-Santos, Vinicius; Arantes, Rubens M.; D' Albuquerque, Luiz A.C., E-mail: rsnpinheiro@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Gastroenterologia. Div. de Transplante de Orgaos do Aparelho Digestivo; Lai, Quirino [Universidade de L' Aquila, San Salvatore Hospital (Italy); Ibuki, Felicia S.; Rocha, Manoel S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia

    2017-09-01

    Background: Computed tomography volumetry (CTV) is a useful tool for predicting graft weights (GW) for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Few studies have examined the correlation between CTV and GW in normal liver parenchyma. Aim: To analyze the correlation between CTV and GW in an adult LDLT population and provide a systematic review of the existing mathematical models to calculate partial liver graft weight. Methods: Between January 2009 and January 2013, 28 consecutive donors undergoing right hepatectomy for LDLT were retrospectively reviewed. All grafts were perfused with HTK solution. Estimated graft volume was estimated by CTV and these values were compared to the actual graft weight, which was measured after liver harvesting and perfusion. Results: Median actual GW was 782.5 g, averaged 791.43±136 g and ranged from 520-1185 g. Median estimated graft volume was 927.5 ml, averaged 944.86±200.74 ml and ranged from 600-1477 ml. Linear regression of estimated graft volume and actual GW was significantly linear (GW=0.82 estimated graft volume, r{sup 2} =0.98, slope=0.47, standard deviation of 0.024 and p<0.0001). Spearman Linear correlation was 0.65 with 95% CI of 0.45 – 0.99 (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The one-to-one rule did not applied in patients with normal liver parenchyma. A better estimation of graft weight could be reached by multiplying estimated graft volume by 0.82. (author)

  10. Preoperative computed tomography volumetry and graft weight estimation in adult living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Rafael S.; Cruz Junior, Ruy J.; Andraus, Wellington; Ducatti, Liliana; Martino, Rodrigo B.; Nacif, Lucas S.; Rocha-Santos, Vinicius; Arantes, Rubens M.; D'Albuquerque, Luiz A.C.; Ibuki, Felicia S.; Rocha, Manoel S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Computed tomography volumetry (CTV) is a useful tool for predicting graft weights (GW) for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Few studies have examined the correlation between CTV and GW in normal liver parenchyma. Aim: To analyze the correlation between CTV and GW in an adult LDLT population and provide a systematic review of the existing mathematical models to calculate partial liver graft weight. Methods: Between January 2009 and January 2013, 28 consecutive donors undergoing right hepatectomy for LDLT were retrospectively reviewed. All grafts were perfused with HTK solution. Estimated graft volume was estimated by CTV and these values were compared to the actual graft weight, which was measured after liver harvesting and perfusion. Results: Median actual GW was 782.5 g, averaged 791.43±136 g and ranged from 520-1185 g. Median estimated graft volume was 927.5 ml, averaged 944.86±200.74 ml and ranged from 600-1477 ml. Linear regression of estimated graft volume and actual GW was significantly linear (GW=0.82 estimated graft volume, r"2 =0.98, slope=0.47, standard deviation of 0.024 and p<0.0001). Spearman Linear correlation was 0.65 with 95% CI of 0.45 – 0.99 (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The one-to-one rule did not applied in patients with normal liver parenchyma. A better estimation of graft weight could be reached by multiplying estimated graft volume by 0.82. (author)

  11. PREOPERATIVE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY VOLUMETRY AND GRAFT WEIGHT ESTIMATION IN ADULT LIVING DONOR LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    PINHEIRO, Rafael S.; CRUZ-JR, Ruy J.; ANDRAUS, Wellington; DUCATTI, Liliana; MARTINO, Rodrigo B.; NACIF, Lucas S.; ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; ARANTES, Rubens M; LAI, Quirino; IBUKI, Felicia S.; ROCHA, Manoel S.; D´ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz A. C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Computed tomography volumetry (CTV) is a useful tool for predicting graft weights (GW) for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Few studies have examined the correlation between CTV and GW in normal liver parenchyma. Aim: To analyze the correlation between CTV and GW in an adult LDLT population and provide a systematic review of the existing mathematical models to calculate partial liver graft weight. Methods: Between January 2009 and January 2013, 28 consecutive donors undergoing right hepatectomy for LDLT were retrospectively reviewed. All grafts were perfused with HTK solution. Estimated graft volume was estimated by CTV and these values were compared to the actual graft weight, which was measured after liver harvesting and perfusion. Results: Median actual GW was 782.5 g, averaged 791.43±136 g and ranged from 520-1185 g. Median estimated graft volume was 927.5 ml, averaged 944.86±200.74 ml and ranged from 600-1477 ml. Linear regression of estimated graft volume and actual GW was significantly linear (GW=0.82 estimated graft volume, r2=0.98, slope=0.47, standard deviation of 0.024 and p<0.0001). Spearman Linear correlation was 0.65 with 95% CI of 0.45 - 0.99 (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The one-to-one rule did not applied in patients with normal liver parenchyma. A better estimation of graft weight could be reached by multiplying estimated graft volume by 0.82. PMID:28489167

  12. Mutual relationships among body condition score, live weight, and back tissue development in meat sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ptáček

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Body tissue development and proportion affect predisposition to optimum functioning of production attributes, health, and fertility of sheep. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine relationships among indicators of mature ewes’ nutritional status documented by the body condition score and live weight using ultrasonic evaluation of backfat thickness and depth of musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis. The monitoring was carried out in Suffolk sheep (n = 942 for a period of 2 years. A significant increase (P P P P in vivo. Results of the present study could serve in flock management as a tool for evaluation of the current nutritional status as well as a basic ground for further research focused on development of sheep fattiness and carcass traits evaluation.

  13. Ultraviolet spectral distribution and erythema-weighted irradiance from indoor tanning devices compared with solar radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Yolanda; Baeza, David; Gómez, Miguel; Lorente, Jerónimo

    2016-08-01

    Concern regarding the impact of indoor tanning devices on human health has led to different regulations and recommendations, which set limits on erythema-weighted irradiance. Here, we analyze spectral emissions from 52 tanning devices in Spanish facilities and compare them with surface solar irradiance for different solar zenith angles. Whereas most of the devices emitted less UV-B radiation than the midday summer sun, the unweighted UV-A irradiance was 2-6 times higher than solar radiation. Moreover, the spectral distributions of indoor devices were completely different from that of solar radiation, differing in one order of magnitude at some UV-A wavelengths, depending on the lamp characteristics. In 21% of the devices tested, the erythema-weighted irradiance exceeded 0.3Wm(-2): the limit fixed by the European standard and the Spanish regulation. Moreover, 29% of the devices fall within the UV type 4 classification, for which medical advice is required. The high variability in erythema-weighted irradiance results in a wide range of exposure times to reach 1 standard erythemal dose (SED: 100Jm(-2)), with 62% of devices requiring exposures of UV-A dose during this time period would be from 1.4 to 10.3 times more than the solar UV-A dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular weight distribution of electron and γ-ray irradiated PEEK measured by very high temperature GPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, H.

    1996-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone)(PEEK) films were irradiated with electron beam in air and in helium. Gel fractions of the PEEK samples were determined as the ratio of the weight of insoluble fraction/total weigh by extracting the samples with 1-chloronaphthalene (1-CN) at 260degC. While unirradiated PEEK samples were dissolved in 1-CN completely, PEEK samples highly (10 - 50 MGy) irradiated in air were almost insoluble in the solvent. The weight-average molecular weight M w of soluble fractions of the samples were measured by very high temperature gel permeation chromatography (VHTGPC): it was found that the M w decreases with increasing dose. On the other hand, PEEK samples irradiated in helium gave gel fractions at lower doses (0 - 5 MGy) than in air. The PEEK films were also irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays in the dose range, i.e. from 0 to 5 MGy. The γ-irradiated PEEK samples were completely dissolved in 1-CN at 260degC. Their M w measured by VHTGPC decreases with increasing dose. (author)

  15. Radiation Effect on Body Weight and Hematological Changes of Hybrid Mice by Conventional Fraction, Large Abdominal Field Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Heon; Shin, Sei One; Kim, Myung Se

    1985-01-01

    Radiation effect on mammals, especially on hematologic changes, has been studied since discovery of x-ray. Various experimental animals were tried for radiobiological studies. 72 hybrid mice with conventional fraction (5X/week), large abdominal field (2 x 3cm, from symphysis pubic to xyphoid process) were used. Body weight was declined gradually by increasing irradiation doses, nadir was about 29.7% in male ; 30.4% in female at 6000 rad irradiation group. Hemoglobin value was nearly normal throughout entire treatment. Significant dropping of WBC count was noted to 40-50% of pretreatment values by only 1000 rad irradiation. Change of differential count was interesting; lymphocyte proportion showed gradual reduction, instead of gradual increasing of segmented neutrophil. Those proportion were reversed after 6000 rad irradiation. Urinary protein tests showed + - +++, showing no correlation with dosage. Application. of our study in clinical combination therapy (radiation + chemotherapy) was discussed

  16. Direct irradiation of long-lived fission products in an ATW system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Henderson, D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sailor, W.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The feasibility of directly irradiating five long-lived fission products (LLFPs: {sup 79}Se, {sup 93}Zr, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 126}Sn, and {sup 135}Cs, each with a half-life greater than 10,000 years), by incorporating them into the target of an Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system is discussed. The important parameters used to judge the feasibility of a direct irradiation system were the target`s neutron spallation yield (given in neutrons produced per incident proton), and the removal rate of the LLFP, with the baseline incineration rate set at two light water reactors (LWRs) worth of the LLFP waste per year. A target was constructed which consisted of a LLFP cylindrical {open_quotes}plug{close_quotes} inserted into the top (where the proton beam strikes) of a 30 cm radius, 100 cm length lead target. {sup 126}Sn and {sup 79}Se were each found to have high enough removal rates to support two LWR`s production of the LLFP per year of ATW operation. For the baseline plug geometry (5 cm radius, 30 cm length) containing {sup 126}Sn, 3.5 LWRs could be supported per year (at 75% beam availability). Furthermore, the addition of a {sup 126}Sn plus had a slightly positive effect on the target`s neutron yield. The neutron production was 36.83 {plus_minus}.0039 neutrons per proton with a pure lead target having a yield of 36.29 {plus_minus}.0038. It was also found that a plug composed of a tin-selenide compound (SnSe) had high enough removal rates to burn two or more reactor years of both LLFPs simultaneously.

  17. Live Weight Changes and Their Relationship with the Ovarian Status of Maiden Fat-Tailed Barbarine Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imēne Ben Salem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study assessed the effect of the pattern of live weight change on the ovarian function of maiden Barbarine ewes at approximately 1 year of age. For this purpose, a total of 171 weaned ewe lambs (mean live weight  ± s.d. 34.7±3.07 kg and mean age ± SD 196±10 days at weaning were selected for the experiment. Adjustment of live weight variation  was used. Based on the slope of the curve, animals were grouped into three classes LWCI (n=46,  LWCII (n=91 and LWCIII (n=34 with live weight loss being highest in LWCI and lowest in LWCIII.  Following laparoscopy at 13 months of age, the proportion of ewe lambs found cycling in LWCIII  (85.3% was higher in comparison to animals in LWCI (43.4%; P<0.001 and tended to be superior to those in LWCII (61.5%; P<0.05. Following synchronisation with progestagen of the females found cycling, levels of plasma IGF-I concentrations between 6 and 42 hrs after removal of sponges were not significantly different between the three classes of live weight, and respectively averaged 94.2, 90.8 and 89.8 µg/l for LWCI, LWCII and LWCIII females. Levels of estradiol were also not significantly different between the three groups (0.73, 0.70 and 0.67 pg/ml for LWCI, LWCII and LWCIII ewe lambs, respectively. It was concluded that, in low input systems of semi-arid and arid Tunisia, mating ewe lambs at the approximate age of 1 year is likely to lead to depressed reproductive performance particularly when the summer live weight-loss is elevated.

  18. Diffusion-weighted MRI of kidneys in healthy volunteers and living kidney donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkowska, K.; Palczewski, P.; Duda-Zysk, A.; Szeszkowski, W.; Wojcik, D.; Kownacka-Piotrowska, D.; Gołebiowski, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To establish the normal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in healthy kidneys, comparing them with the literature, and assessing the correlation between ADC values, creatinine blood level, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Materials and methods: Twenty-four healthy volunteers and 26 living kidney donors were examined on a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit. Two diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences were included in the study protocol (protocol 1 with 16 b-values, protocol 2 with 10 b-values) before the examination blood and urine samples were collected. The GFR was calculated using Cockcroft & Gault and MDRD (Modification of Diet In Renal Disease) formulas and the ADC values were measured separately for the cortex and medulla of each kidney by two independent observers. All statistical analyses were performed using the STATISTICA (version 10.0) software package. Data were analysed using an unpaired t-test; p<0.05 indicated a statistically significant difference. Results: The average ADC value for protocol 1 for the cortex was 2.26×10 −3  mm 2 /s, for the medulla 2.21×10 −3  mm 2 /s. In protocol 2, the respective values were 2.13×10 −3  mm 2 /s and 2.06×10 −3  mm 2 /s. Neither statistically significant interobserver differences nor correlation between ADC values, GFR, and creatinine serum level were observed. Conclusion: The reference ADC values were established. The measurements show high interobserver consistency. The differences in ADC values reported in the literature suggest dependence on the equipment and methodology and point to the necessity of obtaining ADC norms for each MRI unit. -- Highlights: •Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging of kidneys. •Apparent diffusion coefficient in healthy individuals. •Monoexponential model of diffusion

  19. Thyroid function and body weight in girls with irregular menstrual cycle living in mild iodine deficiency region

    OpenAIRE

    L Sh Vagapova; O D Konstantinova; Ya I Koz; L M Shukshina; E O Skrynnik

    2011-01-01

    To establish the relation of body weight indexes and functional state of thyroid in female adolescents with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine-deficiency region, the investigation was conducted in 130 female adolescents with irregular menses. Obesity incidence and overweight in them was 18.5%, body weight deficiency was 43.8%.37.7% of the girls had normal body weight. Statistically significant differences were not defined according to TSH, fT4 and fT3 in patients with different bo...

  20. Study of crosslinking onset and hydrogen annealing of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene irradiated with high-energy protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John Ford

    1997-09-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) is used extensively in hip and knee endoprostheses. Radiation damage from the sterilization of these endoprostheses prior to surgical insertion results in polymer crosslinking and decreased oxidative stability. The motivation for this study was to determine if UHMW-PE could be crosslinked by low dose proton irradiation with minimal radiation damage and its subsequent deleterious effects. I found that low dose proton irradiation and post irradiation hydrogen annealing did crosslink UHMW-PE and limit post irradiation oxidation. Crosslinking onset was investigated for UHMW-PE irradiated with 2.6 and 30 MeV H+ ions at low doses from 5.7 × 1011-2.3 × 1014 ions/cm2. Crosslinking was determined from gel permeation chromatography (GPC) of 1,2,4 trichlorobenzene sol fractions and increased with dose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed irradiation resulted in increased free radicals confirmed from increased carbonyl groups. Radiation damage, especially at the highest doses observed, also showed up in carbon double bonds and increased methyl end groups. Hydrogen annealing after ion irradiation resulted in 40- 50% decrease in FTIR absorption associated with carbonyl. The hydrogen annealing prevented further oxidation after aging for 1024 hours at 80oC. Hydrogen annealing was successful in healing radiation damage through reacting with the free radicals generated during proton irradiation. Polyethylenes, polyesters, and polyamides are used in diverse applications by the medical profession in the treatment of orthopedic impairments and cardiovascular disease and for neural implants. These artificial implants are sterilized with gamma irradiation prior to surgery and the resulting radiation damage can lead to accelerated deterioration of the implant properties. The findings in this study will greatly impact the continued use of these materials through the elimination of many problems associated with radiation

  1. Thyroid function and body weight in girls with irregular menstrual cycle living in mild iodine deficiency region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sh Vagapova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To establish the relation of body weight indexes and functional state of thyroid in female adolescents with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine-deficiency region, the investigation was conducted in 130 female adolescents with irregular menses. Obesity incidence and overweight in them was 18.5%, body weight deficiency was 43.8%.37.7% of the girls had normal body weight. Statistically significant differences were not defined according to TSH, fT4 and fT3 in patients with different body weight indexes. So, the results of investigation can help to come to the conclusion about the absence of true correlation between body weight and functional thyroid state in female adolescents with irregular menses.

  2. Small volume transfusion of irradiated red blood cells using satellite bags in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Kazuhiro; Honda, Yoshinobu; Sakuma, Kimiko; Igarashi, Etsuo; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ujiie, Niro; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ohto, Hitoshi

    1993-01-01

    We have treated anemia of prematurity with concentrated red cells divided into 3 packs by using the Sterile Connection Device (SCD, USA). This study was performed to reveal the influence for very low birth weight infants of transfusion of red cells stored after irradiation. The following facts were observed in infants after transfusion: (1) no change in sodium and potassium level and leucocyte count, (2) increased amount of total bilirubin but no change in unbound bilirubin level, (3) decrease in platelet count less than 50,000/mm 3 . According to these results we conclude that the transfusion of concentrated red blood cells stored within 2 weeks after irradiation was safe even for very low birth weight infants. (author)

  3. Losing weight to save lives: A review of the role of automobile weight and size in traffic fatalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Marc; Wenzel, Tom

    2001-07-01

    Critics of higher fuel economy standards for vehicles have long argued that improving vehicle fuel economy will require reducing vehicle weight, and that would result in an increase in the number of fatalities from vehicle crashes. Several researchers have estimated that an across-the-board reduction of vehicle weight would reduce passenger safety (Evans 1991; Kahane 1997; U.S. GAO 1994). However, little research has been done on the relationship of vehicle size and fatality rates, independent of weight (see, however, Joksch, Massie, and Pichler 1998). In this report we review previous analyses of the relationship of vehicle weight and safety. We do this to study the opportunities to improve fuel economy in a more sophisticated way than across-the-board mass reduction. The aim is to explore improvements in traffic safety by making selected vehicle groups lighter, and retaining or enlarging selected vehicle dimensions. Unfortunately, the effects of size and mass have not been accurately separated in the crash fatality data, so some of our claims are only supported by general arguments from physics. In a follow-up report we will attempt to analyze crash fatality data to determine crash worthiness if the weight of certain vehicle groups would be decreased while maintaining or increasing vehicle size. The first section of this report provides an introduction to fatal vehicle crashes in the United States. We summarize several trends in automotive crash statistics over the last 20 years. Then we discuss approaches analysts have taken in studying factors that affect ''exposure'', the likelihood of being involved in a serious crash. In Section 2 we discuss standardized crash tests and the basic physics of crashes. We review previous research on the effect of vehicle mass in two-vehicle crashes in Section 3. We also present new research on reductions in risk achieved by recent light vehicles. Section 4 presents previous estimates of the effect of

  4. Microcomputer-based systems for automatic control of sample irradiation and chemical analysis of short-lived isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Two systems resulted from the need for the study of the nuclear decay of short-lived radionuclides. Automation was required for better repeatability, speed of chemical separation after irradiation and for protection from the high radiation fields of the samples. A MCS-8 computer was used as the nucleus of the automatic sample irradiation system because the control system required an extensive multiple-sequential circuit. This approach reduced the sequential problem to a computer program. The automatic chemistry control system is a mixture of a fixed and a computer-based programmable control system. The fixed control receives the irradiated liquid sample from the reactor, extracts the liquid and disposes of the used sample container. The programmable control executes the chemistry program that the user has entered through the teletype. (U.S.)

  5. Post-irradiation analysis of an ISOLDE lead-bismuth target: Stable and long-lived noble gas nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leya, I., E-mail: Ingo.Leya@space.unibe.ch [University of Bern, Space Science and Planetology, Bern (Switzerland); Grimberg, A. [University of Bern, Space Science and Planetology, Bern (Switzerland); Isotope Geochemistry, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); David, J.-C. [CEA/Saclay, Irfu/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Schumann, D.; Neuhausen, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Zanini, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 117, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Noah, E. [University of Geneva, Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, Geneve (Switzerland)

    2016-07-15

    We measured the isotopic concentrations of long-lived and stable He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe isotopes in a sample from a lead-bismuth eutectic target irradiated with 1.0 and 1.4 GeV protons. Our data indicate for most noble gases nearly complete release with retention fractions in the range of percent or less. Higher retention fractions result from the decay of long-lived radioactive progenitors from groups 1, 2, or 7 of the periodic table. From the data we can calculate a retention fraction for {sup 3}H of 2–3%. For alkaline metals we find retention fractions of about 10%, 30%, and 50% for Na, Rb, and Cs, respectively. For the alkaline earth metal Ba we found complete retention. Finally, the measured Kr and Xe concentrations indicate that there was some release of the halogens Br and I during and/or after the irradiation.

  6. Identification of novel direct protein-protein interactions by irradiating living cells with femtosecond UV laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Francesco; Monti, Daria Maria; Chino, Marco; Vinciguerra, Roberto; Altucci, Carlo; Lombardi, Angela; Piccoli, Renata; Birolo, Leila; Arciello, Angela

    2017-10-07

    The identification of protein-protein interaction networks in living cells is becoming increasingly fundamental to elucidate main biological processes and to understand disease molecular bases on a system-wide level. We recently described a method (LUCK, Laser UV Cross-linKing) to cross-link interacting protein surfaces in living cells by UV laser irradiation. By using this innovative methodology, that does not require any protein modification or cell engineering, here we demonstrate that, upon UV laser irradiation of HeLa cells, a direct interaction between GAPDH and alpha-enolase was "frozen" by a cross-linking event. We validated the occurrence of this direct interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and Immuno-FRET analyses. This represents a proof of principle of the LUCK capability to reveal direct protein interactions in their physiological environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Model for prognostication of population irradiation dose at the soil way of long-living radionuclides including in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Vinogradskaya, V.D.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of modern pictures of cesium and strontium ion absorption mechanisms a soil taking complex was build the kinetic model of radionuclide migration from soil to plants. Model parameter association with the agricultural chemistry properties of soil, represented by complex estimation of soil properties S e f. The example of model application for prognostication of population internal irradiation dose due to consumption of milk at the soil way of long-living radionuclides including in food chains

  8. PREOPERATIVE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY VOLUMETRY AND GRAFT WEIGHT ESTIMATION IN ADULT LIVING DONOR LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Rafael S; Cruz, Ruy J; Andraus, Wellington; Ducatti, Liliana; Martino, Rodrigo B; Nacif, Lucas S; Rocha-Santos, Vinicius; Arantes, Rubens M; Lai, Quirino; Ibuki, Felicia S; Rocha, Manoel S; D Albuquerque, Luiz A C

    2017-01-01

    Computed tomography volumetry (CTV) is a useful tool for predicting graft weights (GW) for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Few studies have examined the correlation between CTV and GW in normal liver parenchyma. To analyze the correlation between CTV and GW in an adult LDLT population and provide a systematic review of the existing mathematical models to calculate partial liver graft weight. Between January 2009 and January 2013, 28 consecutive donors undergoing right hepatectomy for LDLT were retrospectively reviewed. All grafts were perfused with HTK solution. Estimated graft volume was estimated by CTV and these values were compared to the actual graft weight, which was measured after liver harvesting and perfusion. Median actual GW was 782.5 g, averaged 791.43±136 g and ranged from 520-1185 g. Median estimated graft volume was 927.5 ml, averaged 944.86±200.74 ml and ranged from 600-1477 ml. Linear regression of estimated graft volume and actual GW was significantly linear (GW=0.82 estimated graft volume, r2=0.98, slope=0.47, standard deviation of 0.024 and ppeso do enxerto (PE) para o transplante hepático com doador vivo (TFDV). Poucos estudos examinaram a correlação entre o VTC e PE no parênquima hepático normal. Analisar a correlação entre VTC e PE em uma população adulta de doadores para o TFDV e realização de revisão sistemática dos modelos matemáticos existentes para calcular o peso de enxertos hepáticos parciais. Foram revisados retrospectivamente 28 doadores consecutivos submetidos à hepatectomia direita para o TFDV entre janeiro de 2009 a janeiro de 2013. Todos os doadores eram adultos saudáveis ​​com VTC pré-operatório. Os enxertos foram perfundidos com solução de preservação HTK. O volume estimado foi obtido por VTC e estes valores foram comparados com o peso real do enxerto, o qual foi aferido depois da hepatectomia e perfusão do enxerto. A mediana do PE real foi de 782,5 g, média de 791,43±136 g, variando

  9. Male pre- and post-pubertal castration effect on live weight, components of empty body weight, estimated nitrogen excretion and efficiency in Piemontese hypertrofic cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Biagini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of sexual neutering and age of castration on empty body weight (EBW components and estimated nitrogen excretion and efficiency, a trial was carried out on 3 groups of double-muscled Piemontese calves: early castrated (EC, 5th month of age, late castrated (LC, 12th month of age and intact males (IM, control group. Animals were fed at the same energy and protein level and slaughtered at 18th month of age. Live and slaughtering performances and EBW components were recorded, whereas N excretion was calculated by difference between diet and weight gain N content. In live and slaughtering performances, IM showed higher final, carcass and total meat weight than EC and LC (P<0.01. In EBW components, IM showed higher blood and head weight than EC and LC (P<0.01 and 0.05 respectively, and differences were found between EC and LC for head weights (P<0.01. IM showed higher body crude protein (BCP than EC and LC (P<0.01 and 0.05 respectively, but BCP/EBW ratio was higher only in IM than EC (P<0.05. Estimated N daily gain was higher in IM than EC and LC (P<0.01. Only LC showed higher excretion than IM (P<0.05, and N efficiency was higher in IM than EC and LC (P<0.05 and 0.01 respectively. In conclusion, for the Piemontese hypertrophied cattle castration significantly increases N excretion (+7% and reduces N efficiency (-15%, leading to a lower level of sustainability.

  10. Modifications by γ irradiation of polyethylene at very high molecular weight. Tribological behaviour for orthopedic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaix, N.

    2001-07-01

    A new mode of sterilization by vacuum gamma irradiation is studied. This new mode improves significantly the polyethylene behaviour during the study in friction-corrosion against a stainless steel-316L sphere. (N.C.)

  11. Living High-Training Low” improved weight loss and glucagon-like peptide-1 level in a 4-week weight loss program in adolescents with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Huang, Guoyuan; Tian, Qianqian; Liu, Wei; Sun, Xiangdong; Li, Na; Sun, Shunli; Zhou, Tang; Wu, Nana; Wei, Yuqin; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Ru

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: “Living High-Training Low” (LHTL) is effective for the improvement of athletic ability; however, little is known about the effect of LHTL on obese individuals. The present study determined whether LHTL would have favorable influence on body composition, rebalance the appetite hormones, and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: Adolescents with obesity [body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2] were randomly assigned to “Living Low-Training Low” (LLTL, n = 19) group that slept in a normobaric normoxia condition and the LHTL (n = 16) group slept in a normobaric hypoxia room (14.7% PO2 ∼2700 m). Both groups underwent the same aerobic exercise training program. Morphological, blood lipids, and appetite hormones were measured and assessed. Results: After the intervention, the body composition improved in both groups, whereas reductions in body weight (BW), BMI, and lean body mass increased significantly in the LHTL group (all, P weight loss safely and efficiently as compared to LLTL and increase the plasma GLP-1 levels that may be mediated by IL-6 to rebalance the appetite. Thus, an efficient method to treat obesity and prevent weight regain by appetite rebalance in hypoxia condition was established. PMID:29465583

  12. Interaction Effect Of Irradiation And Fertilization On Grain Yield, Kernel Weight And Severity Of Wheat To Septoria Tritici Blotch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M. A.; Jawhar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Field research was undertaken, for two growing seasons, to investigate the effects of soil fertilization with potassium (K 2 SO 4 , 36% K) and nitrogen (urea, 46% N), seed irradiation with gamma rays (0, 5, 10 and 15 Gy) and their combinations on the grain yield, 1000-kernel weight and severity of Mycosphaerella graminicola on wheat. Two Syrian wheat cultivars; Bohuth 6 (Triticum aestivum L.) and Bohuth 5 (T. turgidum var durum Desf.) were used in this study. Plants were inoculated with a mixture of 15 virulent isolates of the pathogen at the growth stage (GS) 33-34. Results indicated that the average response to fertilizer application and irradiation treatments was dependent on the susceptibility level of cultivars compared with the control. The level of infection of the combined NK and 15 Gy treatment was reduced by 9 and 46 % in 1998 and by 6 and 42 % in 1999 for Bohuth 5 and Bohuth 6, respectively. This was associated with increased grain yield by 68 and 59% in 1998 and 59 and 33% in 1999, respectively. Highest yield losses from M. graminicola occurred in the treatment of nil fertilization and irradiation. Grain weight was increased by various treatments applied, but such an increase was highest in the combined NK and 15 Gy treatment. This combined treatment appeared to be more effective on calcareous soils, which are typical of Mediterranean environments. (Authors)

  13. Body weight gain in free-living Pima Indians: effect of energy intake vs expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tataranni, P A; Harper, I T; Snitker, S

    2003-01-01

    Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited.......Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited....

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation on fresh and dry weights of plant parts in Physalis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghava, R.P.; Raghava, Nisha

    1989-01-01

    20 KR irradiations on Physalis peruviana L. and P. angulta L. seem to be the best dose for plant growth. 40 and 50 KR doses were inhibitory to both, and 50 KR was found to be almost lethal (LD 50 ). (author). 14 refs

  15. Effect of single dose, fractionated, and hyperfractionated trunk irradiation on weight gain, respiration frequency, and survival in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Giri, P.G.S.; Giri, U.P.; Cox, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    It is concluded that, in this rat trunk irradiation model, fractionation of a single dose into two equal doses separated by 4-6 h produced a sparing effect of approx. 5Gy as measured by delay in weight gain; approx. 4Gy as measured by increased respiration frequency; and approx. 6Gy as measured by survival. Fractionation into daily doses or hyperfractionation into twice-daily doses permitted an approximate doubling of the dose required for the same suppression of weight gain. For the respiration rates and survival endpoints, fractionation or hyperfractionation produced an even greater sparing effect since there was no increase in the respiration frequency at twice the doses that would produce changes if delivered within a few hours; and since essentially no lethality was observed at twice the doses that would kill 70%-100% of animals if delivered in one day. (UK)

  16. Effects of Zinc Compound on Body Weight and Recovery of Bone Marrow in Mice Treated with Total Body Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yii Huang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if zinc compound would have effects on body weight loss and bone marrow suppression induced by total body irradiation (TBI. ICR mice were divided randomly into two groups and treated with test or control compounds. The test compound contained zinc (amino acid chelated with bovine prostate extract, and the control was reverse osmosis pure water (RO water. One week after receiving the treatment, mice were unirradiated, or irradiated with 6 or 3 Gy by 6MV photon beams to the total body. Body weight changes were examined at regular intervals. Three and 5 weeks after the radiation, animals were sacrificed to examine the histologic changes in the bone marrow. Lower body weight in the period of 1-5 weeks after radiation and poor survival rate were found after the 6 Gy TBI, as compared with the 3 Gy groups. The median survival time after 6 Gy and 3 Gy TBI for mice given the test compound were 26 and 76 days, respectively, and the corresponding figures were 14 and 70 days, respectively, for mice given the control compound (p < 0.00001. With zinc supplement, the mean body weight in mice which received the same dose of radiation was 7-8 g heavier than in the water-supplement groups during the second and third weeks (p < 0.05. Hence, there was no statistically significant difference in survival rate between zinc and water supplement in mice given the same dose of irradiation. Histopathologically there was less recovery of bone marrow cells in the 6Gy groups compared with the 3Gy groups. In the 3 Gy water-supplement group, the nucleated cells and megakaryocytes were recovered in the fifth week when recovery was still not seen in the 6Gy group. With zinc supplement, these cells were recovered in the third week. In this study, we found that zinc is beneficial to body weight in mice treated with TBI. Histologic examination of bone marrow showed better recovery of bone marrow cells in groups of mice fed with zinc. This study

  17. Characterization of low molecular weight fragments from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan used as plant growth promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Aurigue, Fernando B.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Montefalcon, Djowel Recto V.; Lopez, Girlie Eunice P.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation degraded κ-carrageenan (1% solution at absorbed doses of 20 kGy and 30 kGy) were tested for its plant growth promoter (PGP) effect on pechay plants under hydroponics condition. Results revealed that higher PGP effects were found in κ-carrageenan irradiated at an absorbed dose of 30 kGy. Mw of irradiated κ-carrageenan as measured by GPC were determined to be 7362 Da and 6762 Da for 20 kGy and 30 kGy, respectively. Fractionation of the irradiated κ-carrageenan (30 kGy) was done to separate different Mw fractions using Mw cut-off filters of 1 kDa, 3 kDa, and 5 kDa. The PGP effect of the different retentates showed that biological activity in plants followed the order of 5 kDa>3 kDa>1 kDa using hydroponics condition but the reverse was observed in the order of 1 kDa>3 kDa>5 kDa when absorbed in plants by foliar spraying. GPC chromatogram indicated at least three (3) low molecular weight (LMW) fragments from radiation modified κ-carrageenan solution with an Mw<2000 Da. A fragment has also been identified with an Mw of as low as 160 Da which was produced under acidic (un-neutralized) condition. This may be attributed to the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF).

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on molecular weight of fluorinated aromatic polyethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera, L.I.; Bucio, E.; Contreras-Garcia, A.; Cedillo, G.; Booth, C.J.; Cassidy, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    A series of fluoropolymer films was synthesized by reacting 1,3-bis(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-pentafluorophenylmethoxy-2-propyl)benzene (12F-FBE) with a series of bisphenol monomers via a polycondensation reaction. The biphenols used included a diphenol-substituted spirodilactam, biphenol, bisphenol A, bisphenol AF, bisphenol F and bisphenol O. Polymers films from these new fluoropolyaryl ethers were irradiated by a Gamma Beam 657-PT at a dose rate of 9 kGy/h; the absorbed dose was varied between 30 and 150 kGy. The effect on the chemical structure upon radiation was studied by DSC, TGA, FTIR-ATR, NMR, and GPC, both before and after irradiation. The data obtained allowed the determination of the degradation radiochemical yield (G s ), between 0.24 and 7.43 crosslinking radiochemical yield (G x ), from 0.03 to 1.47 and the ratio of G s /G x was between 2.89 and 8.28. There was no apparent physical change, from 30 to 150 kGy; the films continue to be flexible and transparent after irradiation. (author)

  19. The effect of gamma irradiation and shelf aging in air on the oxidation of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ma'adeed, M.A.; Al-Qaradawi, I.Y.; Madi, N.; Al-Thani, N.J.

    2006-01-01

    This study has investigated the effect of shelf aging, for up to one year in air, on the properties of gamma-irradiated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). A variety of techniques were used to characterize the properties of treated samples. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) was used to characterize the morphology. The extent of cross-linking in a polymer network was detected by swelling measurements. The durometer hardness test was used to measure the relative hardness of this material, and changes in density were also measured. Results from all these measurements were combined to explain the changes in the microstructure of the aged, irradiated UHMWPE. This study shows that crystallinity is increased with radiation dose and with aging due to chain scission, which leads to a reduction in the molecular weight of the material. This allows the chains to rearrange to form crystalline regions. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy confirms these conclusions. Fractional free volumes have been deduced from lifetime parameters, which correlate with the data obtained by the other techniques

  20. Comparable effects of 1800- and 2400-rad (18- and 24-Gy) cranial irradiation on height and weight in children treated for acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starceski, P.J.; Lee, P.A.; Blatt, J.; Finegold, D.; Brown, D.

    1987-01-01

    To examine the effects of low-dose cranial irradiation on growth and to determine if one can predict patients in whom growth will be most affected, we studied 47 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had been treated with 2400 rad (24 Gy), 1800 rad (18 Gy), or no whole-brain irradiation. Serial measurements of height, weight, and weight for height were obtained by retrospective chart review. The effects of 1800 rad (18 Gy) and 2400 rad (24 Gy) treatment were indistinguishable. Height percentiles among irradiated patients decreased by a mean of 12% six months after diagnosis, and growth generally did not catch up. Moreover, although 33 irradiated patients maintained heights within the normal range, In 11 patients (33%) a dramatic falloff occurred such that by three years following diagnosis their height for age was more than 30 percentiles below the original value. These patients were all identifiable at six months since their height percentiles had already decreased by more than 15%. Although weight percentiles did not change following irradiation, the weight-for-height ratio increased and patients were relatively stockier three years after therapy than they had been at diagnosis. In patients who had received chemotherapy alone, the weight-for-height ratio also increased, but this appeared to be due to a disproportionate increase in weight. Longer follow-up and evaluation of larger cohorts of patients treated with 1800 rad (18 Gy) will be needed to confirm these results

  1. Long-lived radicals produced by γ-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein solution: their observation and inhomogeneous decay dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Morikawa, Akiyuki; Kumagai, Jun; Ikehata, Masateru; Koana, Takao; Kikuchi, Shoshi

    2002-01-01

    Long-lived radicals produced by γ-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein (albumin) solution were studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Long-lived radicals produced by vital activity exist in biological systems, such as plants, animals, and cells, in the range of 0.1-20 nmol g -1 . Since vital organs keep the radicals at a constant concentration, the radicals are probably related to life conservation. Long-lived radicals are also produced by γ-irradiation of cells or protein solution. The radicals decay after death of living things or after γ-irradiation. We found that the decay dynamics in all biological systems can be expressed by the same kinetic equation of an inhomogeneous reaction

  2. Gas exchange, dry weights, and chlorophyll contents of Populus tremuloides seedlings grown from gamma-irradiated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonson, B.J.; Zavitkovski, J.

    1977-01-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration rates of Populus tremuloides seedlings grown from seeds acutely irradiated with gamma rays (at levels of 0, 0.47, 0.94, 1.8, 3.7, 7.5, and 15 kr) were measured using a closed system and infrared (IR) gas analyzer. Dry weights of seedling roots and shoots and chlorophyll contents were also determined. In general, gamma irradiation of seed had little effect on subsequent gas-exchange processes in the plant. Net photosynthesis and dark respiration rates of the seedling at any radiation level were not significantly different from those of the control group. Pooled net photosynthesis of all irradiated seedlings was nonsignificantly lower than that of the control seedlings. The data suggested a slight stimulation in dry-matter production of shoots by low levels of gamma radiation. At the highest levels of radiation, shoot dry weight was significantly reduced. Root production displayed a pattern similar to that of shoots. No trends different from controls were evident in the shoot/root ratios. Total chlorophyll concentrations of the seedling increased over the controls by radiation treatment. Age and radiation effects were evident in the chlorophyll a/b ratios. The chlorophyll a/b ratios decreased with age in both the control and treatment groups. Although in seedlings 39 through 46 days old chlorophyll a/b ratios were higher in the control, chlorophyll a/b ratios were significantly higher in the treatment seedlings at 68 days. Changes in chlorophyll a were primarily responsible for this change

  3. Effects of feed form and dietary coarse ground corn on broiler live performance, body weight uniformity, relative gizzard weight, excreta nitrogen, and particle size preference behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Brake, J

    2015-07-01

    In this 14-d cage study, the effects of feed form (mash and crumble) and 6 coarse ground corn ( CC: ) inclusions [0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% CC that replaced fine corn ( FC: )] on broiler live performance, BW uniformity, gizzard weight, excreta nitrogen, and particle size preference were investigated. The geometric mean diameter by mass ( DGW: ) of mash diets increased from 422 μm to 431, 471, 509, 542, and 640 μm, respectively, as the percentage of CC increased. Feed intake and BW were decreased by CC and mash at 7 d. Interactions between feed form and CC were observed for feed conversion ratio ( FCR: ) at 7 d of age (P nitrogen was increased (P < 0.01) by crumble diets. These data demonstrated that pelleting and crumbling reduced the impact of CC, produced a more consistent feed intake, and reduced selective feeding, and that CC stimulated gizzard weight in a linear manner in mash diets. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Use of an improved radiation amplification factor to estimate the effect of total ozone changes on action spectrum weighted irradiances and an instrument response function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple scattering radiative transfer results are used to calculate action spectrum weighted irradiances and fractional irradiance changes in terms of a power law in ozone Ω, U(Ω/200)-RAF, where the new radiation amplification factor (RAF) is just a function of solar zenith angle. Including Rayleigh scattering caused small differences in the estimated 30 year changes in action spectrum-weighted irradiances compared to estimates that neglect multiple scattering. The radiative transfer results are applied to several action spectra and to an instrument response function corresponding to the Solar Light 501 meter. The effect of changing ozone on two plant damage action spectra are shown for plants with high sensitivity to UVB (280-315 nm) and those with lower sensitivity, showing that the probability for plant damage for the latter has increased since 1979, especially at middle to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, there has been an increase in rates of erythemal skin damage and pre-vitamin D3 production corresponding to measured ozone decreases. An example conversion function is derived to obtain erythemal irradiances and the UV index from measurements with the Solar Light 501 instrument response function. An analytic expressions is given to convert changes in erythemal irradiances to changes in CIE vitamin-D action spectrum weighted irradiances.

  5. A search for long-lived radionuclides produced by fast-neutron irradiations of copper, silver, europium, terbium, and hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.

    1990-01-01

    Identical sample packets, each containing samples of elemental copper, silver, europium, terbium, and hafnium, as well as titanium, iron and nickel as dosimeters, have been irradiated in three distinct accelerator neutron fields (at Argonne National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory in the U.S.A., and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Japan) as part of an interlaboratory research collaboration to search for the production of long-lived radionuclides for fusion waste disposal applications. This paper is a progress report on this project. To date, we have detected the following activities, and have obtained preliminary experimental cross section values for several of these: Ag-106m,108m,110m; Eu-150m,152g,154; Tb-158,160; and Hf-175,178m2,179m2,181. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  6. Population-based evaluation of the 'LiveLighter' healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B; Niven, P; Dixon, H; Swanson, M; Szybiak, M; Shilton, T; Pratt, I S; Slevin, T; Hill, D; Wakefield, M

    2016-04-01

    The Western Australian (WA) 'LiveLighter' (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ('why' change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier ('how' to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25-49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N= 2012) and following the two media waves (N= 2005 and N= 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The 'why' message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than 'how' messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Interactive effects of genotype x environment on the live weight of GIFT Nile tilapias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sheila N DE; Ribeiro, Ricardo P; Oliveira, Carlos A L DE; Alexandre, Luiz; Oliveira, Aline M S; Lopera-Barrero, Nelson M; Santander, Victor F A; Santana, Renan A C

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the existence of a genotype x environment interaction for the average daily weight in GIFT Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in different regions in the state of Paraná (Brazil) was analyzed. The heritability results were high in the uni-characteristic analysis: 0.71, 0.72 and 0.67 for the cities of Palotina (PL), Floriano (FL) and Diamond North (DN), respectively. Genetic correlations estimated in bivariate analyzes were weak with values between 0.12 for PL-FL, 0.06 for PL and 0.23 for DN-FL-DN. The Spearman correlation values were low, which indicated a change in ranking in the selection of animals in different environments in the study. There was heterogeneity in the phenotypic variance among the three regions and heterogeneity in the residual variance between PL and DN. The direct genetic gain was greater for the region with a DN value gain of 198.24 g/generation, followed by FL (98.73 g/generation) and finally PL (98.73 g/generation). The indirect genetic gains were lower than 0.37 and greater than 0.02 g/generation. The evidence of the genotype x environment interaction was verified, which indicated the phenotypic heterogeneity of the variances among the three regions, weak genetic correlation and modified rankings in the different environments.

  8. Body live weight and milk production parameters in the Majorera and Palmera goat breeds from the Canary Islands: influence of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lérias, Joana R; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-Delanuez, Antonio; Araújo, Susana S; Castro, Noemí; Argüello, Anastasio; Capote, Juan; Almeida, André M

    2013-11-01

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL), caused by poor quality pastures during the dry season, is the major limitation to animal production in the tropics. One of the ways to counter this problem is to breed animals that show tolerance to SWL. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of feed restriction in milk production and live weight (LW) evolution in two goat breeds, with different levels of adaptation to nutritional stress: the Majorera (considered to be tolerant) and the Palmera (considered to be susceptible). A total of ten animals per breed were used. Animals were divided in four groups (two for each breed): a restricted group (restricted diet) and a control group. LW and milk yield parameters were recorded through a trial that lasted 23 days in total. Overall, there were no significant differences between both restricted groups, regarding neither LW nor milk yield reductions (LW reduction 13 % and milk yield reduction of 87 % for both restricted groups). In what concerns control groups, there were no significant differences between breeds, thought there were different increments at the end of the trial for both breeds regarding LW (6 and 4 %, for Majorera and Palmera, respectively) and milk yield (28 and 8 %, respectively for Majorera and Palmera). The lack of statistically significant differences between Palmera and Majorera LW and milk yields in restricted groups may be due to the fact that the controlled trial does not replicate harsh field conditions, in which Majorera would excel, and the stress induced by those differences.

  9. Weight Gain in Survivors Living in Temporary Housing in the Tsunami-Stricken Area during the Recovery Phase following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shuko; Yonekura, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Yokoyama, Yukari; Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ogawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Seichiro; Yamamoto, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Survivors who lost their homes in the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami were forced to live in difficult conditions in temporary housing several months after the disaster. Body weights of survivors living in temporary housing for a long period might increase due to changes in their life style and psychosocial state during the medium-term and long-term recovery phases. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences between body weight changes of people living in temporary housing and those not living in temporary housing in a tsunami-stricken area during the medium-term and long-term recovery phases. Health check-ups were performed about 7 months after the disaster (in 2011) and about 18 months after the disaster (in 2012) for people living in a tsunami-stricken area (n = 6,601, mean age = 62.3 y). We compared the changes in body weight in people living in temporary housing (TH group, n = 2,002) and those not living in temporary housing (NTH group, n = 4,599) using a multiple linear regression model. While there was no significant difference between body weights in the TH and NTH groups in the 2011 survey, there was a significant difference between the mean changes in body weight in both sexes. We found that the changes in body weight were significantly greater in the TH group than in the NTH group in both sexes. The partial regression coefficients of mean change in body weight were +0.52 kg (P-value tsunami- stricken area had a significant increase in body weight.

  10. Activation cross sections of longer-lived radionuclides produced in germanium by alpha particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takács, S., E-mail: stakacs@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Atomki, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Takács, M.P.; Ditrói, F. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Atomki, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Haba, H.; Komori, Y. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    The cross sections of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural germanium were investigated by using the standard stacked foil target technique, the activation method and high resolution gamma spectrometry. Targets with thickness of about 1 μm were prepared from natural Ge by vacuum evaporation onto 25 μm thick polyimide (Kapton) backing foils. Stacks were composed of Kapton-Ge-Ge-Kapton sandwich target foils and additional titanium monitor foils with nominal thickness of 11 μm to monitor the beam parameters using the {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 51}Cr reaction. The irradiations were done with E{sub α} = 20.7 and E{sub α} = 51.25 MeV, I{sub α} = 50 nA alpha particle beams for about 1 h. Direct or cumulative activation cross sections were determined for production of the {sup 72,73,75}Se, {sup 71,72,74,76,78}As, and {sup 69}Ge radionuclides. The obtained experimental cross sections were compared to the results of theoretical calculations taken from the TENDL data library based on the TALYS computer code. A comparison was made with available experimental data measured earlier. Thick target yields were deduced from the experimental cross sections and compared with the data published before.

  11. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Mogens; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced......, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected...... of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two...

  12. [Correlations between the vitality of newborn piglets, teat order, mortality, and live weight development up to weaning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, S; Lutter, C; Puppe, B; Wähner, M

    1995-06-01

    Investigations with 693 piglets have shown, that suckling piglets with preference of cranial teat pairs were significantly superior to their littermates in all parameters of early postnatal vitality: they stood up and took in first colostrum earlier and showed a lower postnatal drop in rectal temperature in comparison with their siblings. Piglets in cranial teat position had the highest daily gain (205 g, p vitality of piglets post natum on live weight development and mortality up to 28th day of age were shown. The faster piglets took in colostrum after birth and the lower postnatal drop in rectal temperature was, the higher was the obtained daily gain during suckling period. Piglets which died within the first 7 or 28 days of age had needed a significantly longer time till first postnatal colostrum intake and a more pronounced drop in rectal temperature in comparison with their littermates.

  13. Risk factors for the increasing trend in low birth weight among live births born by vaginal delivery, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Marco A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for low birth weight (LBW among live births by vaginal delivery and to determine if the disappearance of the association between LBW and socioeconomic factors was due to confounding by cesarean section. METHODS: Data were obtained from two population-based cohorts of singleton live births in Ribeirão Preto, Southeastern Brazil. The first one comprised 4,698 newborns from June 1978 to May 1979 and the second included 1,399 infants born from May to August 1994. The risks for LBW were tested in a logistic model, including the interaction of the year of survey and all independent variables under analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of LBW among vaginal deliveries increased from 7.8% in 1978--79 to 10% in 1994. The risk was higher for: female or preterm infants; newborns of non-cohabiting mothers; newborns whose mothers had fewer prenatal visits or few years of education; first-born infants; and those who had smoking mothers. The interaction of the year of survey with gestational age indicated that the risk of LBW among preterm infants fell from 17.75 to 8.71 in 15 years. The mean birth weight decreased more significantly among newborns from qualified families, who also had the highest increase in preterm birth and non-cohabitation. CONCLUSIONS: LBW among vaginal deliveries increased mainly due to a rise in the proportion of preterm births and non-cohabiting mothers. The association between cesarean section and LBW tended to cover up socioeconomic differences in the likelihood of LBW. When vaginal deliveries were analyzed independently, these socioeconomic differences come up again.

  14. Growth parameters in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labraxL.: effects of live weight and water temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Ballestrazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The voluntary feed intake (VFI and growth rate of sea bass were studied for 147 days, based on different starting live  weights, under natural photoperiods and varied water temperatures. Sea bass (n = 720 were divided into five weight  classes (60-70, 90-110, 130-150, 160-180 and 230-250 g and distributed among 20 tanks. Seven different water tem-  peratures were compared: 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 °C. A commercial extruded diet (N x 6.25, 43.7% DM; crude  fat, 25.7% DM was used. The trial was performed in a closed-circuit plant, with a daily water turnover rate of 10%. Each  tank was fitted with an apparatus for collecting the uneaten food. Automatic feeders distributed equal amounts of food  for ten meals per day. The daily food allowance was adjusted, based on fish biomass, to permit ad libitum feeding and  to leave approximately 20% uneaten. Fish were exposed to natural photoperiod (March-July. Non-linear regression  equations were used to calculate the best-fitting curves for the data. 

  15. Influence on living body by radiant rays produced in low power reactor. Irradiation of rabbit inside of low power reactor (UTR-KINKI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Isao; Nakamura, Katsuichi; Usuyama, Hideo; Usui, Akinori; Hosomi, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yoshinao; Nakai, Takahide; Egashira, Masamichi

    1984-12-01

    There is possibility of a risk that a living body is irradiated by those for slightly indifference to radiant rays, radiation source or devices of low level dose or dose rate. Accordingly, a low power reactor (UTR-KINKI) was utilized for a observation of influence by radiation of low level dose or dose rate, the rabbits were irradiated in it at output 1 w. The large influence was not expected for the low level dose rate of 1.313 Rad/hr even if they were irradiated for the several hours, but in a part of blood components a slight change was recognized. The change of M pattern in white blood corpuscle number was indicated likewise as irradiation of 500R X-ray, reported from Jacobson and others, by irradiation to about 13 Rads. In addition, lymphocyte number was increased considerably in an early stage. This fact will be useful for a recovery of an injury as mentioned by Lucky. The rabbits of alloxan diabetes mellitus and hepatitis were irradiated in the same way as above, but they scarcely showed the alterations. However, numerous rabbits can't be used in this experiment for the equipment and others. (author).

  16. Study and characterization of the electrical properties of the NiCr(80-20)% in weight alloy, with and without irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, M.P.; Lucki, G.

    1979-01-01

    The parameters involved in the order-disorder transition of NiCr(80-20)% in weight alloy were studied by the resistivity method, before and after neutronic irradiation in the IEAR-1 reactor core. In addition to characterizing the electrical properties, obtained in order to fulfill technological application, fundamental studies were made by linear and isothermal annealing during irradiation, studying the variation of rho (resistivity) whit t'(irradiation time) in the isothermal annealing and the variation of rho with T (temperature in 0 C) in the linear annealing. Values obtained were: T sub(c) = (536 +- 4) 0 C T sub(c) = critical temperature of the order-disorder transition and E sub(a) = (1,36 +- 0,14) ev (E sub(a) = activation energy for the vacancies annihilation process). (Author) [pt

  17. Evaluation of the cross-sections of threshold reactions leading to the production of long-lived radionuclides during irradiation of steels by thermonuclear spectrum neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Blokhin, A I; Manokhin, V N; Mikhajlyukova, M V; Nasyrova, S M; Skripova, M V

    2001-01-01

    The present paper analyses and evaluates the cross-sections of threshold reactions leading to the production of long-lived radionuclides during the irradiation, by thermonuclear spectrum neutrons, of steels containing V, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni. On the basis of empirical systematics. a new evaluation of the (n,2n), (n,p), (n,np), (n,alpha) and (n,n alpha) excitation functions is made for all isotopes of V, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni and for intermediate isotopes produced in the chain from irradiated isotopes up to production of the long-lived radionuclides sup 3 sup 9 Ar, sup 4 sup 2 Ar, sup 4 sup 1 Ca, sup 5 sup 3 Mn, sup 6 sup 0 Fe, sup 6 sup 0 Co, sup 5 sup 9 Ni and sup 6 sup 3 Ni. A comparison is made with the experimental and other evaluated data.

  18. Evaluation of the cross-sections of threshold reactions leading to the production of long-lived radionuclides during irradiation of steels by thermonuclear spectrum neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.I.; Buleeva, N.N.; Manokhin, V.N.; Mikhajlyukova, M.V.; Nasyrova, S.M.; Skripova, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper analyses and evaluates the cross-sections of threshold reactions leading to the production of long-lived radionuclides during the irradiation, by thermonuclear spectrum neutrons, of steels containing V, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni. On the basis of empirical systematics. a new evaluation of the (n,2n), (n,p), (n,np), (n,α) and (n,nα) excitation functions is made for all isotopes of V, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni and for intermediate isotopes produced in the chain from irradiated isotopes up to production of the long-lived radionuclides 39 Ar, 42 Ar, 41 Ca, 53 Mn, 60 Fe, 60 Co, 59 Ni and 63 Ni. A comparison is made with the experimental and other evaluated data. (author)

  19. The ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid on the oxidative status, live weight and recovery rate in road transport stressed goats in a hot humid tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwunuji, Tanko Polycarp; Mayowa, Opeyemi Onilude; Yusoff, Sabri Mohd; Bejo, Siti-Khairani; Salisi, Shahrom; Mohd, Effendy Abd Wahid

    2014-05-01

    The ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid (AA) on live weight following transportation is vital in animal husbandry. This study investigated the influence of AA on live weight, rectal temperature (rt), and oxidative status of transport stressed goats in a hot humid tropical environment. Twenty-four goats were divided into four groups, A, B, C and D of six animals each. Group A were administered AA 100 mg/kg intramuscularly 30 min prior to 3.5 h transportation. Group B was administered AA following transportation. Group C were transported but not administered AA as positive controls while group D were not transported but were administered normal saline as negative controls. Live weight, rt and blood samples were collected before, immediately post-transport (pt), 24 h, 3 days, 7 days and 10 days pt. Plasma was used for malondialdehyde (MDA) analysis while hemolysates were used for superoxide dismutase (SOD) analysis. There was minimal live weight loss in group A compared to groups B and C. Group A recorded reduced MDA activities and increased SOD activities compared to groups B and C which recorded significantly high MDA activities. This study revealed that AA administration ameliorated the stress responses induced by transportation in animals in hot humid tropical environments. The administration of AA to goats prior to transportation could ameliorate stress and enhance productivity. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Cooperative and uniform fish? : social interactions and variability in live body weight in the GIFT strain (Nile tilapia, Oreochromic niloticus) in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaw, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Khaw, HL. (2014). Cooperative and uniform fish? Social interactions and variability in live body weight in the GIFT strain (Nile tilapia, Oreochromic niloticus) in Malaysia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands.

    Social interactions

  1. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. II: live weight, health measures and perching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2015-01-01

    regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Hen live weight, mortality and foot health were not affected by the stocking densities used in the present study. Other variables (plumage condition, presence of breast redness and blisters, pecked tail feathers, and perch use) were indirectly affected...

  2. Genetic covariance functioners for live weight, condition score, and dry-matter intake measured at different lactations stages of Holstein-Friesian heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters for live weight, body condition score and dry-matter intake of dairy heifers were estimated using covariance function methodology. Data were from 469 heifers of the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Centre and included observations during the first 25 weeks in lactation. Genetic

  3. Predicting live birth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in infants born from in vitro fertilisation: a prospective study of 144,018 treatment cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which baseline couple characteristics affect the probability of live birth and adverse perinatal outcomes after assisted conception is unknown.We utilised the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority database to examine the predictors of live birth in all in vitro fertilisation (IVF cycles undertaken in the UK between 2003 and 2007 (n = 144,018. We examined the potential clinical utility of a validated model that pre-dated the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI as compared to a novel model. For those treatment cycles that resulted in a live singleton birth (n = 24,226, we determined the associates of potential risk factors with preterm birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia. The overall rate of at least one live birth was 23.4 per 100 cycles (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.2-23.7. In multivariable models the odds of at least one live birth decreased with increasing maternal age, increasing duration of infertility, a greater number of previously unsuccessful IVF treatments, use of own oocytes, necessity for a second or third treatment cycle, or if it was not unexplained infertility. The association of own versus donor oocyte with reduced odds of live birth strengthened with increasing age of the mother. A previous IVF live birth increased the odds of future success (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.46-1.71 more than that of a previous spontaneous live birth (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.24; p-value for difference in estimate <0.001. Use of ICSI increased the odds of live birth, and male causes of infertility were associated with reduced odds of live birth only in couples who had not received ICSI. Prediction of live birth was feasible with moderate discrimination and excellent calibration; calibration was markedly improved in the novel compared to the established model. Preterm birth and low birth weight were increased if oocyte donation was required and ICSI was not used. Risk of macrosomia increased with advancing

  4. The Influence of Irradiation and Accelerated Aging on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of the Graphene Oxide/Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide/ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (GO/UHMWPE nanocomposite is a potential and promising candidate for artificial joint applications. However, after irradiation and accelerated aging, the mechanical and tribological behaviors of the nanocomposites are still unclear and require further investigation. GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites were successfully fabricated using ultrasonication dispersion, ball-milling, and hot-pressing process. Then, the nanocomposites were irradiated by gamma ray at doses of 100 kGy. Finally, GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites underwent accelerated aging at 80°C for 21 days in air. The mechanical and tribological properties of GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites have been evaluated after irradiation and accelerated aging. The results indicated that the incorporation of GO could enhance the mechanical, wear, and antiscratch properties of UHMWPE. After irradiation, these properties could be further enhanced, compared to unirradiated ones. After accelerated aging, however, these properties have been significantly reduced when compared to unirradiated ones. Moreover, GO and irradiation can synergistically enhance these properties.

  5. Post-weaning and whole-of-life performance of pigs is determined by live weight at weaning and the complexity of the diet fed after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie L. Collins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production performance and financial outcomes associated with weaner diet complexity for pigs of different weight classes at weaning were examined in this experiment. A total of 720 weaner pigs (360 entire males and 360 females were selected at weaning (27 ± 3 d and allocated to pens of 10 based on individual weaning weight (light weaning weight: pigs below 6.5 kg; medium weaning weight: 6.5 to 8 kg; heavy weaning weight: above 8.5 kg. Pens were then allocated in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the respective factors being weaning weight (heavy, medium and light; H, M and L, respectively, weaner diet complexity (high complexity/cost, HC; low complexity/cost, LC, and gender (male and female. Common diets were fed to both treatment groups during the final 4 weeks of the weaner period (a period of 39 days. In the first 6 d after weaning, pigs offered the HC diets gained weight faster and used feed more efficiently than those offered the LC diets (P = 0.031. Pigs fed a HC diet after weaning tended to be heavier at the sale live weight of 123 d of age compared with pigs fed the LC diet (P = 0.056. There were no other main effects of the feeding program on growth performance through to slaughter. Weaning weight had a profound influence on lifetime growth performance and weight at 123 d of age, with H pigs at weaning increasing their weight advantage over the M and L pigs (101.3, 97.1, 89.6 kg respectively, P < 0.001. Cost-benefit analyses suggested there was a minimal benefit in terms of cost per unit live weight gain over lifetime when pigs were offered a HC feeding program to L, with a lower feed cost/kg gain. The results from this investigation confirm the impact of weaning weight on lifetime growth performance, and suggest that a HC feeding program should be focused on L weaner pigs (i.e., weaning weight less than 6.5 kg at 27 d of age in order to maximise financial returns.

  6. Evaluation of scission and crosslinking yields in γ-irradiated poly(acrylic acid) and poly(methacrylic acid) from weight- and Ζ-average molecular weights determined by sedimentation equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.T.; O'Donnell, J.H.; Winzor, C.L.; Winzor, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Weight- and Ζ-average molecular weights, M-bar W (D) and M-bar Ζ (D), of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMMA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) have been determined by sedimentation equilibrium in the ultracentrifuge after various doses D of γ-radiation in vacuum. Relationships between [M i (0)/M i (D)-1]/D and D (i=w or Ζ), derived recently by O'Donnell and coworkers, have been used to determine radiation chemical yields for scission and crosslinking of G(S)=6.0, G(X)=0 for PMAA and G(S)=0, G(X)=0.44 for PAA. Allowance was necessary for the effects of COOH decomposition on the average values of the molecular weight and partial specific volume for irradiated PAA. (author)

  7. Freshly induced short-lived gamma-ray activity as a measure of fission rates in lightly re-irradiated spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroehnert, H., E-mail: hanna.kroehnert@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), OPRA-E07, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Perret, G., E-mail: gregory.perret@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), OPRA-E07, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Murphy, M.F., E-mail: mike.murphy@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), OPRA-E07, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Chawla, R., E-mail: rakesh.chawla@epfl.c [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), OPRA-E07, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-12-01

    A new measurement technique has been developed to determine fission rates in burnt fuel, following re-irradiation in a zero-power research reactor. The development has been made in the frame of the LIFE-PROTEUS program at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which aims at characterizing the interfaces between fresh and highly burnt fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. To discriminate against the high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the burnt fuel, the proposed measurement technique uses high-energy gamma-rays, above 2000 keV, emitted by short-lived fission products freshly produced in the fuel. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique, a fresh UO{sub 2} sample and a 36 GWd/t burnt UO{sub 2} sample were irradiated in the PROTEUS reactor and their gamma-ray activities were recorded directly after irradiation. For both fresh and the burnt fuel samples, relative fission rates were derived for different core positions, based on the short-lived {sup 142}La (2542 keV), {sup 89}Rb (2570 keV), {sup 138}Cs (2640 keV) and {sup 95}Y (3576 keV) gamma-ray lines. Uncertainties on the inter-position fission rate ratios were mainly due to the uncertainties on the net-area of the gamma-ray peaks and were about 1-3% for the fresh sample, and 3-6% for the burnt one. Thus, for the first time, it has been shown that the short-lived gamma-ray activity, induced in burnt fuel by irradiation in a zero-power reactor, can be used as a quantitative measure of the fission rate. For both fresh and burnt fuel, the measured results agreed, within the uncertainties, with Monte Carlo (MCNPX) predictions.

  8. Effect of molecular weight on radiation chemical degradation yield of chain scission of γ-irradiated chitosan in solid state and in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahtat, Djamel; Mahlous, Mohamed; Benamer, Samah; Nacer Khodja, Assia; Larbi Youcef, Souad

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan A 1 , A 2 and A 3 with molecular weight of 471, 207 and 100 kDa respectively, produced from squid pen chitin was degraded by gamma rays in the solid state and in aqueous solution with various doses in air at ambient temperature. Effect of molecular weight on radiation chemical degradation yield of chain scission and degradation rate constants of γ-irradiated chitosan in solid state and in aqueous solution was investigated. The radiation chemical degradation yield G (s) and degradation rate values were calculated. The molecular weight changes were monitored by capillary viscometry method and the chemical structure changes were followed by UV analysis. The results showed that, the degradation of chitosan was faster in solution, than in solid state. The values of G (s) in solid state and in aqueous solution were respectively 1.1×10 −8 mol/J and 0.074×10 −7 mol/J for A 1 , 4.42×10 −8 mol/J and 0.28×10 −7 mol/J for A 2 and 6.08×10 −8 mol/J and 0.38×10 −7 mol/J for A 3 . Degradation rate constants values ranged from 0.41×10 −5 to 2.1×10 −5 kGy −1 in solid state, whereas in solution they ranged from 13×10 −5 to 68×10 −5 kGy −1 . The chitosan A 3 was more sensitive to radiolysis than A 1 and A 2 . The chain scission yield, G (s) and degradation rate constants seems to be greatly influenced by the initial molecular weight of the chitosan. Structural changes in irradiated chitosan are revealed by the apparition of absorption peaks at 261 and 295 nm, which could be attributed to the formation of carbonyl groups. In both conditions the peak intensity was higher in chitosan A 3 than in A 1 and A 2 , the oxidative products decreased with increasing molecular weight of chitosan. - Highlights: ► We investigated the effects of MW on G (s) value of γ-irradiated chitosan in solid and aqueous state. ► Chitosan with low molecular weight was more sensitive to radiolysis than high molecular weight. ► G (s) value and degradation rate

  9. Effect of curing methods, packaging and gamma irradiation on the weight loss and dry matter percent of garlic during curing and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; El-Oksh, I.I.; Farag, S.E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Egyptian garlic plants, showed higher percent of weight loss at 17 or 27 days from curing compared to those of Chinese plants. The curing period of 17 days seemed satisfactory for the Egyptian cultivar, whereas, 27 days seemed to be enough for the Chinese garlic. No significant differences were observed between common and shaded curing methods in weight loss per cent. The Chinese garlic contained higher dry matter percentage than those of the Egyptian cultivar. Shaded cured plants of the two cultivars contained higher dry matter percent than those subjected to the common curing methods. Irradiation of garlic bulbs, shaded curing method and sack packaging decreased, in general the weight loss during storage in comparison with other treatments

  10. Body live weight and milk production parameters in the Majorera and Palmera goat breeds from the Canary Islands: influence of weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lérias, Joana R; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL), caused by poor quality pastures during the dry season, is the major limitation to animal production in the tropics. One of the ways to counter this problem is to breed animals that show tolerance to SWL. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of feed ...

  11. Establishment of evaluation system for oxidation/anti-oxidation in living organisms using radiation irradiation and its practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umegaki, Keizo

    2000-01-01

    Basic study on the degree of oxidation damages after X-ray irradiation and changes in the anti-oxidative defense action was made using the rat. In addition, amplification of trace DNA damages by X-ray irradiation was investigated with human lymphocytes. Wistar rats were exposed to X-ray at 3 Gy under no anesthetization and killed after various time after the irradiation. The content of vitamin C, an anti-oxidant vitamin C in the bone marrow was markedly reduced by X-ray irradiation and the content after 24 hours from the irradiation was about 2% of that of the unexposed group. The content of vitamin E in the bone marrow was ca. 43% of that of the unexposed group. However, the contents of these anti-oxidant vitamins gradually recovered from 3-4 days after the irradiation. On the other hand, the content of 4-hydroxynonenal among the aldehydes that were tested as the indicator for oxidation damage of lipid was significantly increased one day after the irradiation and the contents of hexanal and TBARS reached the maximum level 3 days after. However, daily administration of about 100-fold larger amount of vitamin E (α-tocopherol at 460 mg/kg) for 3 days before the irradiation resulted in an increase in its content in the bone marrow, but significant decreases in the vitamin E and C levels in the bone marrow 24 hours after X-ray irradiation and aldehyde contents were increased, suggesting that pre-irradiation administration of vitamin E has no effects on the damages of bone marrow cells. As an indicator of DNA damages, the rate of appearance for lymphocytes having micronuclei was determined. The number of such lymphocytes was not significantly changed by exercise, but the number after irradiation at 1.5 Gy was dose dependently increased. These results suggested that trace DNA oxidation damages produced by severe exercise were markedly amplified by X-ray irradiation in not-trained subjects. (M.N.)

  12. Reaction of long-lived radicals and vitamin C in γ-irradiated mammalian cells and their model system at 295 K. Tunneling reaction in biological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takuro; Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Kosugi, Yoshio; Kumada, Takayuki; Koyama, Sinji; Kodama, Seiji; Watanabe, Masami.

    1996-01-01

    When golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells or concentrated albumin solution (0.1 kg dm -3 ) that is a model system of cells is irradiated with γ-rays at 295 K, organic radicals produced can be observed by ESR. The organic radicals survive at both 295 K and 310 K for such a long time as 20 hr. The long-lived radicals in GHE cells and the albumin solution react with vitamin C by the rate constants of 0.007 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 and 0.014 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 , respectively. The long-lived radicals in human cells cause gene mutation, which is suppressed by addition of vitamin C. The isotope effect on the rate constant (k) for the reaction of the long-lived radicals and vitamin C has been studied in the albumin solution by use of protonated vitamin C and deuterated vitamin C. The isotope effect (k H /k D ) was more than 20-50 and was interpreted in terms of tunneling reaction. When GHE cells or the aqueous albumin solution (0.1 kg dm -3 ) is irradiated with γ-rays at 295 K, organic radicals produced survive for more than 24 hr at room temperature. Very recently we have found that vitamin C reacts with the long-lived organic radicals in the γ-irradiated albumin solution at high concentration of 0.1 kg dm -3 by the rate constant of 0.014 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . Since most of reactions in biological systems including the reaction of vitamin C are a transfer of a hydrogen atom or a proton that has a large wave character, it is generally expected that the tunneling reaction may play an important role in biological systems at room temperature. The studies of isotope effects on reactions will give an information on the contribution of tunneling reaction. (J.P.N.)

  13. Measurements of free radical in vitamin E-doped ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene: Dependence on materials processing and irradiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridley, M.D. [Department of Physics, Biomaterials Research Laboratory, University of Memphis, 216 Manning Hall, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Jahan, M.S. [Department of Physics, Biomaterials Research Laboratory, University of Memphis, 216 Manning Hall, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States)], E-mail: mjahan@memphis.edu

    2007-12-15

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), doped with vitamin E ({alpha}-tocopherol ({alpha}-T)), was irradiated with gamma rays in nitrogen (N{sub 2}) or air, and the resulting free radicals were detected in air using an electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. Two groups of samples were investigated. In one group, samples were prepared from blends of {alpha}-T (20 wt%) and UHMWPE powder (PPE-{alpha}-T) and, in the other, from compression molded blocks (CMPE-{alpha}-T). The CMPE-{alpha}-T blocks contained 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0%, 10.0%, 15.0%, 20.0% and 25.0% {alpha}-T by weight. When irradiation was performed in air, the ESR spectrum of powder samples showed the presence of only vitamin E radical (tocopheroxyl, {alpha}-T-O{sup {center_dot}}), and there was no detectable signal due to PE radicals (alkyl/allyl). Most likely, all PE radicals were quenched by vitamin E during irradiation in air. However, when irradiation was performed in N{sub 2}, composite ESR spectra showed the presence of both PE and {alpha}-T-O{sup {center_dot}} radicals. Compared to the control (PPE, 0% {alpha}-T) PE radicals in PPE-20% {alpha}-T were found to be significantly reduced or quenched by {alpha}-T. The presence of {alpha}-T in powder samples, however, did not affect the long-term (71 days in this study) oxidation behavior of the PE radicals. Compression molded samples, with and without {alpha}-T, produced identical ESR spectra irrespective of their irradiation environment N{sub 2} or air. However, radical concentration, measured immediately after irradiation, was found to be an order of magnitude less in CMPE-{alpha}-T than in the control (CMPE-0% {alpha}-T). They also evidenced identical structural changes in the respective ESR spectra during subsequent oxidation for 24 days in open air. These observations suggest that {alpha}-T can effectively quench a significant fraction of PE radicals during irradiation, but has no measurable effect on subsequent reactions. No

  14. Dry Season Effect on Live Weight and some Body Dimensions of Working Donkeys in the Sudano-sahel Region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebangi, AL.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Live weight (LW, heart girth (HG, trunk length (TL, body length (BL and height-at-withers (HW of 135 working donkeys, aged between two and 15 years, were monitored during the dry season of 1996 and 1997. This was to determine period(s of the dry season when feed supplementation and/or health care should be reinforced in preparation of high work demands during the rainy season. Variations in LW, HG, TL, BL, HW, HG:HW and TL:HW from start of the dry season to the start of the rainy season were highly significant (P< 0.001. Correlations between live weight and the other measures were positive and highly significant (P< 0.0001. Males showed weight gains between start of the cold-dry-season (CDS and start of the hot-dryseason (HDS. Weight gains in castrates were between start of the CDS and end of the HDS (April. Female donkeys maintained weight gains through out the dry season. Consequently, supplementation of castrates and males at the beginning (January and end (April of the HDS as to reinforce and maintain significant weight gains for maximize draught energy potential for rainy season work demands, is necessary. Where the female donkey express weight gain but poor bodied there will be need for supplementation in order to booster and enhance endurance. Also, estimates of HG, TL, BL, HW, HG:HW and TL:HW may be useful indicators for the selection of working donkeys as to optimize draft capacity and endurance for rainy season work demands.

  15. Measurements of Free Radical in Vitamin E-Doped Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene: Dependence on Materials Processing and Irradiation Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridley, M. D.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to combat oxidation of the load-bearing, polyethylene (PE) components of total hip- and knee-joint replacement devices, antioxidant such as vitamin E (α-Tocopherol (α-T)) has been introduced into polymer matrix. In this study we investigated effect of α-T on free radicals in medical grade ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), GUR 1020 resin. Since oxidation resistance depends on radical reaction, we used electron spin resonance (ESR) technique for direct detection of free radicals before and after irradiation. High concentration (20% by vol.) of α-T was used so its ESR signal (due to α-T-O degree radical) could be distinguished among the overwhelming signals due to PE radicals. Two groups of samples were investigated. In one group, samples were prepared from blends of α-T and UHMWPE powder (α-T-P), and in the second group, from compression molded blocks (α-T-B). In each group, samples were γ-irradiated in sealed packages filled with N 2 , or in open air, and free radicals were measured in open air environment as a function of time. Also included in this study were α-T, and powder resin and compression molded blocks without any α-T. Following irradiation in air, α-T-P and α-T produced identical ESR spectra showing characteristic feature of α-T-O degree radical. Absence of PE radicals in the ESR signals suggests quenching/repairing of PE radicals by α-T in presence of oxygen. However, when irradiation was performed in N 2 , ESR signals of α-T-P exhibited superimposed resonance lines due to PE and α-T-O degree radicals. Furthermore, presence of a-T or α-T-O degree radicals did not prevent subsequent oxidation of PE radicals in producing stable, oxygen-induced radicals (OIR). Post-irradiation oxidation index measured by FTIR, however, did not show any difference between these samples. Compression molded samples, with or without α-T, produced ESR spectra showing features characteristics of PE radicals only, and there was no

  16. Studies of short-lived radicals in the. gamma. -irradiated aqueous solution of uridine-5'-monophosphate by the spin-trapping method and the liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kominami, S [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Rokushika, S; Hatano, H

    1976-12-01

    An aerated aqueous solution of uridine-5'-monophosphate was ..gamma..-irradiated with 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane as a spin-trapping reagent. Liquid chromatography was applied to separate the stable nitroxide radicals in the irradiated solution. The radicals were detected by U.V. and e.s.r. spectrometry. The e.s.r. detection showed four peaks in the chromatogram. The orcinol method for detection of the residual sugar moieties was applied before and after reduction of the base to determine the existence of the 5,6-double bond for the molecules in each fraction. From the combined results of the e.s.r. and orcinol methods, the short-lived radicals which were trapped by 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane were identified as radicals of N-1 and C-6 positions of the base moiety and t-butyl radicals which was the radiolytic product of the trapping reagent.

  17. A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Anderson, Annie S; Brady, Adrian; Bunn, Christopher; Donnan, Peter T; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Grieve, Eleanor; Leishman, Jim; Miller, Euan; Mutrie, Nanette; Rauchhaus, Petra; White, Alan; Treweek, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans. Methods We did a two-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of 747 male football fans aged 35–65 years with a body-mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m2 or higher from 13 Scottish professional football clubs. Participants were randomly assigned with SAS (version 9·2, block size 2–9) in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by club, to a weight loss programme delivered by community coaching staff in 12 sessions held every week. The intervention group started a weight loss programme within 3 weeks, and the comparison group were put on a 12 month waiting list. All participants received a weight management booklet. Primary outcome was mean difference in weight loss between groups at 12 months, expressed as absolute weight and a percentage of their baseline weight. Primary outcome assessment was masked. Analyses were based on intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN32677491. Findings 374 men were allocated to the intervention group and 374 to the comparison group. 333 (89%) of the intervention group and 355 (95%) of the comparison group completed 12 month assessments. At 12 months the mean difference in weight loss between groups, adjusted for baseline weight and club, was 4·94 kg (95% CI 3·95–5·94) and percentage weight loss, similarly adjusted, was 4·36% (3·64–5·08), both in favour of the intervention (p<0·0001). Eight serious adverse events were reported, five in the intervention group (lost consciousness due to drugs for pre-existing angina, gallbladder removal, hospital admission with suspected heart attack, ruptured gut, and ruptured Achilles tendon) and three in the comparison group (transient ischaemic attack, and two deaths). Of these, two adverse events were reported as related to

  18. A one-year resistance training program following weight loss has no significant impact on body composition and energy expenditure in postmenopausal women living with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Luzia Jaeger; Messier, Virginie; Lavoie, Marie-Ève; Brochu, Martin; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Doucet, Éric

    2018-05-15

    Resistance training (RT) has been shown to decrease fat mass (FM), and increase fat-free mass (FFM), which can be a useful for weight loss maintenance. To examine the effects of a 1-year RT intervention on weight loss maintenance following a 6-month dietary weight loss intervention. Following a 6-month dietary weight loss intervention (-6% ± 5.8; 5.05 kg ± 4.45), 70 postmenopausal women living with overweight or obesity were randomized to a control group (n = 34) or a RT group (n = 36) (3×/week first 6 months, 2×/week last 6 months, 70-80% of 1-repetition maximum). Body composition (DXA), abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (CT scan), resting energy expenditure (EE) (indirect calorimetry), physical activity EE and total daily EE were measured (doubly-labelled water). A total of 54 participants completed the study (control group n = 29; RT group n = 25) and compliance to the RT program was on average 64%. Significant regains were noted for body weight 0.98 (3.71) kg vs. 1.33 (3.94) kg and FM regain 1.32 (2.69) kg vs. 0.81 (3.26) kg in control and RT groups after the 1-year weight maintenance phase. No group differences were noted. Resting EE and total daily EE did not change after the weight maintenance phase, and no differences were observed between groups. Both groups had significantly greater than predicted decrease in resting EE after the 6-month dietary intervention and at the end of the 1-year weight-loss maintenance phase. Our results suggest that a 1-year RT intervention following a 6-month dietary weight loss intervention does not improve weight loss maintenance, body composition or EE in post-menopausal women living with overweight or obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of inclusion Aspergillus niger fermented shrimp waste meal in broiler diets on live performance and digestive organ weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan H. Djunaidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels of shrimp waste meal fermented with Aspergillus niger (LUF in diets on growth performance and digestive organ weight of broilers. A total of 75 d-old chicks were randomly allocated to 5 (five treatments in 3 replication pens of 5 birds each. Treatments consisted of LUF inclusion of 0 (control, and 5, 7.5, 10 and 12,5% (P0, P1, P2, P3 and P4 in the diets. Birds were raised under standard condition and provided with feed and water ad-libitum. Feed and birds were weighed weekly up to 35 days to determine body weight, feed intake and feed conversion. At the end of experimental period, the birds were slaughatered and dressed up to determine carcass percentage and digestive organ weight. There was a significant negative linear response in body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion with increase of LUF more than 7.5% in the diets until 35 days of age, but % carcass was almost the same for all treatment. There was no significant response in digestive organ weight with increasing levels of LUF. The present result indicated that LUF could be considered as a potential feed ingredient as protein source of broiler but its inclusion should be limited until 7.5% of the diet to maintain growth performance and digestive organ weight.

  20. A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Anderson, Annie S; Brady, Adrian; Bunn, Christopher; Donnan, Peter T; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Grieve, Eleanor; Leishman, Jim; Miller, Euan; Mutrie, Nanette; Rauchhaus, Petra; White, Alan; Treweek, Shaun

    2014-04-05

    The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans. We did a two-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of 747 male football fans aged 35-65 years with a body-mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m(2) or higher from 13 Scottish professional football clubs. Participants were randomly assigned with SAS (version 9·2, block size 2-9) in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by club, to a weight loss programme delivered by community coaching staff in 12 sessions held every week. The intervention group started a weight loss programme within 3 weeks, and the comparison group were put on a 12 month waiting list. All participants received a weight management booklet. Primary outcome was mean difference in weight loss between groups at 12 months, expressed as absolute weight and a percentage of their baseline weight. Primary outcome assessment was masked. Analyses were based on intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN32677491. 374 men were allocated to the intervention group and 374 to the comparison group. 333 (89%) of the intervention group and 355 (95%) of the comparison group completed 12 month assessments. At 12 months the mean difference in weight loss between groups, adjusted for baseline weight and club, was 4·94 kg (95% CI 3·95-5·94) and percentage weight loss, similarly adjusted, was 4·36% (3·64-5·08), both in favour of the intervention (pScottish Government and The UK Football Pools funded delivery of the programme through a grant to the Scottish Premier League Trust. The National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research Programme funded the assessment (09/3010/06). Copyright © 2014 Hunt et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. "Living High-Training Low" improved weight loss and glucagon-like peptide-1 level in a 4-week weight loss program in adolescents with obesity: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Huang, Guoyuan; Tian, Qianqian; Liu, Wei; Sun, Xiangdong; Li, Na; Sun, Shunli; Zhou, Tang; Wu, Nana; Wei, Yuqin; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Ru

    2018-02-01

    "Living High-Training Low" (LHTL) is effective for the improvement of athletic ability; however, little is known about the effect of LHTL on obese individuals. The present study determined whether LHTL would have favorable influence on body composition, rebalance the appetite hormones, and explore the underlying mechanism. Adolescents with obesity [body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m] were randomly assigned to "Living Low-Training Low" (LLTL, n = 19) group that slept in a normobaric normoxia condition and the LHTL (n = 16) group slept in a normobaric hypoxia room (14.7% PO2 ∼2700 m). Both groups underwent the same aerobic exercise training program. Morphological, blood lipids, and appetite hormones were measured and assessed. After the intervention, the body composition improved in both groups, whereas reductions in body weight (BW), BMI, and lean body mass increased significantly in the LHTL group (all, P weight loss safely and efficiently as compared to LLTL and increase the plasma GLP-1 levels that may be mediated by IL-6 to rebalance the appetite. Thus, an efficient method to treat obesity and prevent weight regain by appetite rebalance in hypoxia condition was established.

  2. Design and fabrication of a dead weight equipment to perform creep measurements on highly irradiated beryllium specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scibetta, M.; Pellettieri, A.; Wouters, P.; Leenaerts, A.; Verpoucke, G.

    2005-01-01

    Beryllium is an important material to be used in the blanket of fusion reactors. It acts as a neutron multiplier that allows tritium production. In order to use this material effectively, some data on creep and swelling behaviour are needed. This paper describes preliminary microstructural investigations and the qualification of a creep set-up that will be used to measure creep of highly irradiated beryllium from the BR2 research reactor matrix. (Author)

  3. A novel facility for 3D micro-irradiation of living cells in a controlled environment by MeV ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäckel, V; Meissl, W; Ikeda, T; Clever, M; Meissl, E; Kobayashi, T; Kojima, T M; Imamoto, N; Ogiwara, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel facility for micro-irradiation of living targets with ions from a 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. We show results using 1 MeV protons and 2 MeV He(2+). In contrast to common micro-irradiation facilities, which use electromagnetic or electrostatic focusing and specially designed vacuum windows, we employ a tapered glass capillary with a thin end window, made from polystyrene with a thickness of 1-2 μm, for ion focusing and extraction. The capillary is connected to a beamline tilted vertically by 45°, which allows for easy immersion of the extracted ions into liquid environment within a standard cell culture dish. An inverted microscope is used for simultaneously observing the samples as well as the capillary tip, while a stage-top incubator provides an appropriate environment for the samples. Furthermore, our setup allows to target volumes in cells within a μm(3) resolution, while monitoring the target in real time during and after irradiation.

  4. Effects of 8 Weeks of Balance or Weight Training for the Independently Living Elderly on the Outcomes of Induced Slips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate whether the balance or weight training could alter gait characteristics of elderly contributing to a reduction in the likelihood of slip-induced falls. A total of 18 elderly were evaluated for the study. The results indicated decreases in heel contact velocities and the friction demand characteristics after 8…

  5. [Relationship between air pollution exposure during pregnancy and birth weight of term singleton live-birth newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L Q; Zhang, Q; Zhao, D D; Wang, L L; Chen, Y; Mi, B B; Dang, S N; Yan, H

    2017-10-10

    Objective: This study explored the association between air pollution exposure and birth weight by using the multilevel linear model, after controlling related meteorological factors and individual differences of both mothers and babies. Methods: Women of childbearing age who were pregnant in Xi'an from 2010 to 2013, were selected as objects of this study. Multistage random sampling method was used to select 4 631 subjects followed by a self-designed questionnaire survey. Data related to quality of air and meteorology were gathered from routine monitoring system. Gestational age and date of birth, together with the average levels of air pollution were calculated for each trimester on each mother, and then the impact of air pollution on birth weight was assessed. A multilevel linear model was employed to investigate the association between the levels of exposure to air pollution by birth weight. Confounding factors were under control. We established three models in this study: Model 1 which involving the variable of air pollution exposure. Model 2 was adjusted for variables in Model 1 plus some other individual differences of both mother and baby. Model 3 was adjusted for variables in Model 2 plus meteorological factors. Results: There were significant differences seen in birth weight within the subgroups of gender, gestational age, mother's reproductive age, maternal education, residential areas and family incomes ( P 0.05). Data from Model 3 indicated that a decrease of 13.3 g(10.9 g in Model 2) and 6.6 g (5.9 g in Model 2) in birth weight that were associated with an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the average level of NO(2) and PM(10) during the second trimester; A decrease of 13.7 g (9.8 g in Model 2) in birth weight was associated with an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the average level of NO(2) during the third trimester. Conclusion: After controlling for meteorological factors, the levels of exposure to NO(2) and PM(10) during the second trimester and NO(2) during the

  6. Consumption of minimally processed food is inversely associated with excess weight in adolescents living in an underdeveloped city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira de; Costa, Clara Andrezza Crisóstomo Bezerra; Santos, João Victor Laurindo Dos; Santos, Aldenir Feitosa Dos; Florêncio, Telma Maria de Menezes Toledo; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of ultra-processed foods may be associated with the development of chronic diseases, both in adults and in children/adolescents. This consumption is growing worldwide, especially in low and middle-income countries. Nevertheless, its magnitude in small, poor cities from the countryside is not well characterized, especially in adolescents. This study aimed to assess the consumption of minimally processed, processed and ultra-processed foods by adolescents from a poor Brazilian city and to determine if it was associated with excess weight, high waist circumference and high blood pressure. Cross-sectional study, conducted at a public federal school that offers technical education together with high school, located in the city of Murici. Adolescents of both sexes and aged between 14-19 years old were included. Anthropometric characteristics (weight, height, waist circumference), blood pressure, and dietary intake data were assessed. Associations were calculated using Poisson regression models, adjusted by sex and age. At total, 249 adolescents were included, being 55.8% girls, with a mean age of 16 years-old. The consumption of minimally processed foods was inversely associated with excess weight (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio: 0.61, 95% Confidence Interval: [0.39-0.96], P = 0.03). Although the consumption of ultra-processed foods was not associated with excess weight, high blood pressure and high waist circumference, 46.2% of the sample reported eating these products more than weekly. Consumption of minimally processed food is inversely associated with excess weight in adolescents. Investments in nutritional education aiming the prevention of chronic diseases associated with the consumption of these foods are necessary.

  7. Preparation of Low Allergenic Protein Concentrated Natural Rubber Latex Using Suitable Low Molecular Weight Cellulose Derivatives Induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siri-Upathum, Chyagrit; Boonyawat, Jariya

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Low molecular weight carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC), hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC), hydroxyl propyl cellulose (HPC) and methyl cellulose (MC) prepared by radiation-induced degradation were added into diluted natural concentrated latex prior to centrifuge for a purpose of reducing allergenic rubber protein in the latex. Optimum molecular weight (Mv) of CMC and HEC for such a purpose was found to be 17-18 kDa which decreased allergenic rubber protein (14-94 kDa) to an undetectable amount as determined by SDS PAGE method

  8. Reaction of long-lived radicals and vitamin C in γ-irradiated mammalian cells and their model system at 295 K. Tunneling reaction in biological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takuro; Kumada, Takayuki; Kodama, Seiji; Watanabe, Masami

    1997-01-01

    When golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells or concentrated albumin solution (0.1 kg dm -3 ), that is a model system of cells, is irradiated with γ-rays at 295 K, organic radicals produced can be observed by ESR. The organic radicals survive at both 295 and 310 K for as long as 20 h. The long-lived radicals in GHE cells and the albumin solution react with vitamin C by the rate constants of 0.007 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 and 0.014 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 , respectively. The long-lived radicals in human cells cause gene mutation, which is suppressed by the addition of vitamin C. The isotope effect on the rate constant (κ) for the reaction of the long-lived radicals and vitamin C has been studied in the albumin solution by use of protonated vitamin C and deuterated vitamin C. The isotope effect (κ H /κ D ) was more than 20 ∼ 50 and was interpreted in terms of tunnelling reaction. (author)

  9. Relative biological effectiveness (R.B.E.) of Cf-252 vs. acute Co-60 and low dose rate Cs-137 irradiation by spleen weight loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Magura, C.; Beach, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    R.B.E. of Cf-252 on lymphoid tissue was assessed by radiation study of spleen weight loss following acute Co-60, and low dose rate (L.D.R.) Cs-137 and Cf-252 irradiations. Acute Co-60 and L.D.R. Cs-137 dose-response followed two component exponential curves with a 1.3-fold greater effect of L.D.R. Cs-137 vs. acute Co-60 on the first slope and 1.9-fold greater effect for the 2nd slope. L.D.R. Cf-252 response was 1.3 x greater than acute Co-60 but was 1.0 vs. L.D.R. Cs-137 for the first slope indicating a similar effect of Cf-252 mixed neutron/gamma radiation to L.D.R. gamma radiation in producing spleen shrinkage. There was no effect of different sequences and schedules of mixing acute Co-60 with Cf-252 irradiation observed by endogenous CFU-S survival. The R.B.E. of 1.0 - 1.9 indicates that lymphohemopoietic in vivo, presumably well oxygenated, does not respond acutely or as sensitively as hypoxic tumor where R.B.E. is 5 - 7. (author)

  10. Long-lived coherences: Improved dispersion in the frequency domain using continuous-wave and reduced-power windowed sustaining irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadet, A.; Fernandes, L.; Kateb, F.; Balzan, R.; Vasos, P. R.

    2014-08-01

    Long-lived coherences (LLC's) are detectable magnetisation modes with favourable relaxation times that translate as sharp resonances upon Fourier transform. The frequency domain of LLC's was previously limited to the range of J-couplings within pairs of homonuclear spins. LLC evolution at high magnetic fields needs to be sustained by radio-frequency irradiation. We show that LLC-based spectral dispersion can be extended beyond the J-couplings domain using adapted carrier offsets and introduce a new reduced-power sustaining method to preserve LLC's within the required range of offsets. Spectral resolution is enhanced as the natively narrow lines of LLC's are further dispersed, making them potential probes for the study of biomolecules featuring strong resonance overlap and for media where NMR spectroscopy is commonly hindered by line broadening.

  11. Long-lived coherences: Improved dispersion in the frequency domain using continuous-wave and reduced-power windowed sustaining irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadet, A.; Fernandes, L.; Kateb, F.; Balzan, R.; Vasos, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Long-lived coherences (LLC’s) are detectable magnetisation modes with favourable relaxation times that translate as sharp resonances upon Fourier transform. The frequency domain of LLC's was previously limited to the range of J-couplings within pairs of homonuclear spins. LLC evolution at high magnetic fields needs to be sustained by radio-frequency irradiation. We show that LLC-based spectral dispersion can be extended beyond the J-couplings domain using adapted carrier offsets and introduce a new reduced-power sustaining method to preserve LLC's within the required range of offsets. Spectral resolution is enhanced as the natively narrow lines of LLC's are further dispersed, making them potential probes for the study of biomolecules featuring strong resonance overlap and for media where NMR spectroscopy is commonly hindered by line broadening

  12. Long-lived coherences: Improved dispersion in the frequency domain using continuous-wave and reduced-power windowed sustaining irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadet, A.; Fernandes, L.; Kateb, F., E-mail: fatiha.kateb@parisdescartes.fr, E-mail: balzan.riccardo@parisdescartes.fr; Balzan, R., E-mail: fatiha.kateb@parisdescartes.fr, E-mail: balzan.riccardo@parisdescartes.fr; Vasos, P. R. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie Toxicologiques et Pharmacologiques UMR-8601, Université Paris Descartes - CNRS, PRES Paris Sorbonne Cité, 75006 Paris (France)

    2014-08-07

    Long-lived coherences (LLC’s) are detectable magnetisation modes with favourable relaxation times that translate as sharp resonances upon Fourier transform. The frequency domain of LLC's was previously limited to the range of J-couplings within pairs of homonuclear spins. LLC evolution at high magnetic fields needs to be sustained by radio-frequency irradiation. We show that LLC-based spectral dispersion can be extended beyond the J-couplings domain using adapted carrier offsets and introduce a new reduced-power sustaining method to preserve LLC's within the required range of offsets. Spectral resolution is enhanced as the natively narrow lines of LLC's are further dispersed, making them potential probes for the study of biomolecules featuring strong resonance overlap and for media where NMR spectroscopy is commonly hindered by line broadening.

  13. Effects of dietary coarsely ground corn and 3 bedding floor types on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gizzard and proventriculus weight, and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Lin, Y M; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Brake, J

    2017-07-01

    The effects of zero or 50% dietary coarsely ground corn (CC) in pelleted and screened grower and finisher diets on broilers reared on 3 bedding floor types (plastic net [NET], new pine wood shavings litter [NEW], or old pine wood shavings litter [OLD]) on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gizzard and proventriculus weight, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) were studied in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Fine corn was produced with a hammermill (271 μm) and CC with a roller mill (1145 μm). Utilization of CC reduced milling cost by 9.47 cents per MT with similar nutrient content of screened pellets. The 50% CC treatment exhibited improved (P ≤ 0.05) feed intake at 42 d (2.5%) and 49 d (3.0%), and BW (5.4%) and FCR from 28 d (1.4%). Birds on NEW litter exhibited improved (P litter birds exhibited increased (P ≤ 0.05) gizzard weight at 28 d and 49 d and decreased proventriculus weight as compared to NET at 49 days. The 50% CC treatment exhibited decreased (P ≤ 0.05) litter moisture at 35 and 42 d, litter N at 35 and 49 d, and litter pH at 49 days. OLD litter birds exhibited greater (P litter N at 14, 35, and 49 d, as well as litter moisture, pH, and ammonia concentration at 49 days. The 50% CC group also exhibited improved AID of nitrogen (P Broilers fed pelleted and screened diets containing 50% CC exhibited improved live performance and reduced litter moisture while use of NEW litter resulted in a somewhat similar effect, which indicated that consumption of NEW litter also facilitated gastric development and function. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. FORMATION OF THE SHORT-LIVED RADIONUCLIDE 36Cl IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK DURING LATE-STAGE IRRADIATION OF A VOLATILE-RICH RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin Qingzhu; Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ishii, Hope A.; Ciesla, Fred J.

    2011-01-01

    Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the 36 Cl- 36 S-isotope abundance in wadalite ( 36 Cl (τ 1/2 ∼ 3 x 10 5 yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from 26 Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial 36 Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a 36 Cl/ 35 Cl ratio of (1.81 ± 0.13) x 10 -5 , is the highest 36 Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of 36 Cl in wadalite and the absence of 26 Al ( 26 Al/ 27 Al ≤ 3.9 x 10 -6 ) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of 36 Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of 36 Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of 26 Al and other SLRs ( 10 Be, 53 Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that 36 Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, 36 Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.

  15. 'Sleeping reactor' irradiations. The use of a shut-down reactor for the determination of elements with short-lived activation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerde, E.A.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN; Glasgow, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis utilizing the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) immediately following SCRAM is a workable solution to obtaining data for ultra-short lived species, principally Al, Ti, Mg, and V. Neutrons are produced in the HFIR core within the beryllium reflector due to gamma-ray bombardment from the spent fuel elements. This neutron flux is not constant, varying by over two orders of magnitude during the first 24 hours. The problems associated with irradiation in a changing neutron flux are removed through the use of a specially tailored activation equation. This activation equation is applicable to any irradiation at HFIR in the firs 24 hours after SCRAM since the fuel elements are identical from cycle to cycle, and the gamma-emitting nuclides responsible for the neutrons reach saturation during the fuel cycle. Reference material tests demonstrate that this method is successful, and detection limit estimates reveal that it should be applicable to materials of widely ranging mass and composition. (author)

  16. A primary care based healthy-eating and active living education session for weight reduction in the pre-diabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Daniala L; Johnson, Steven T; Mundt, Clark; Bray, Dianne; Taylor, Lorian; Eurich, Dean T; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of primary prevention strategies in type 2 diabetes, however, questions remain around the feasibility of high resource, intensive interventions within a healthcare setting. We report the results of a dietitian-led pre-diabetes education session targeting healthy eating and active living as strategies for weight reduction. Participants were asked to complete a baseline questionnaire prior to completing the pre-diabetes education session and were sent follow-up questionnaires at 3 and 6 months. Differences between participants at baseline, 3 and 6 months were determined using χ(2), t-tests and ANOVA. Of the 211 participants asked to fill out baseline questionnaires, 45 participants completed questionnaires at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Although we observed general trends towards improvements in diet, physical activity and weight related behaviours among the 45 completers, no significant changes were observed among participants between questionnaire periods. A "one-off", theory-guided group education session may be insufficient to support lifestyle modifications in the context of weight management in a pre-diabetic population. Further evaluation of the efficacy and feasibility of the PCN as a setting for lifestyle intervention is required. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Living well after breast cancer randomized controlled trial protocol: evaluating a telephone-delivered weight loss intervention versus usual care in women following treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Marina M; Terranova, Caroline O; Erickson, Jane M; Job, Jennifer R; Brookes, Denise S K; McCarthy, Nicole; Hickman, Ingrid J; Lawler, Sheleigh P; Fjeldsoe, Brianna S; Healy, Genevieve N; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Janda, Monika; Veerman, J Lennert; Ware, Robert S; Prins, Johannes B; Vos, Theo; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Eakin, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-28

    Obesity, physical inactivity and poor diet quality have been associated with increased risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality as well as treatment-related side-effects in breast cancer survivors. Weight loss intervention trials in breast cancer survivors have shown that weight loss is safe and achievable; however, few studies have examined the benefits of such interventions on a broad range of outcomes and few have examined factors important to translation (e.g. feasible delivery method for scaling up, assessment of sustained changes, cost-effectiveness). The Living Well after Breast Cancer randomized controlled trial aims to evaluate a 12-month telephone-delivered weight loss intervention (versus usual care) on weight change and a range of secondary outcomes including cost-effectiveness. Women (18-75 years; body mass index 25-45 kg/m 2 ) diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer in the previous 2 years are recruited from public and private hospitals and through the state-based cancer registry (target n = 156). Following baseline assessment, participants are randomized 1:1 to either a 12-month telephone-delivered weight loss intervention (targeting diet and physical activity) or usual care. Data are collected at baseline, 6-months (mid-intervention), 12-months (end-of-intervention) and 18-months (maintenance). The primary outcome is change in weight at 12-months. Secondary outcomes are changes in body composition, bone mineral density, cardio-metabolic and cancer-related biomarkers, metabolic health and chronic disease risk, physical function, patient-reported outcomes (quality of life, fatigue, menopausal symptoms, body image, fear of cancer recurrence) and behaviors (dietary intake, physical activity, sitting time). Data collected at 18-months will be used to assess whether outcomes achieved at end-of-intervention are sustained six months after intervention completion. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed, as will mediators and moderators of

  18. Population-based evaluation of the ‘LiveLighter’ healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) ‘LiveLighter’ (LL) mass media campaign ran during June–August and September–October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual (‘why’ change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier (‘how’ to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25–49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N = 2012) and following the two media waves (N = 2005 and N = 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The ‘why’ message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than ‘how’ messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039

  19. The mental representation of living and nonliving things: differential weighting and interactivity of sensorial and non-sensorial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Paulo; Morais, José; Brito-Mendes, Carlos; Kolinsky, Régine

    2005-02-01

    Warrington and colleagues (Warrington & McCarthy, 1983, 1987; Warrington & Shallice, 1984) claimed that sensorial and functional-associative (FA) features are differentially important in determining the meaning of living things (LT) and nonliving things (NLT). The first aim of the present study was to evaluate this hypothesis through two different access tasks: feature generation (Experiment 1) and cued recall (Experiment 2). The results of both experiments provided consistent empirical support for Warrington and colleagues' assumption. The second aim of the present study was to test a new differential interactivity hypothesis that combines Warrington and colleagueS' assumption with the notion of a higher number of intercorrelations and hence of a stronger connectivity between sensorial and non-sensorial features for LTs than for NLTs. This hypothesis was motivated by previoUs reports of an uncrossed interaction between domain (LTs vs NLTs) and attribute type (sensorial vs FA) in, for example, a feature verification task (Laws, Humber, Ramsey, & McCarthy, 1995): while FA attributes are verified faster than sensorial attributes for NLTs, no difference is observed for LTs. We replicated and generalised this finding using several feature verification tasks on both written words and pictures (Experiment 3), including in conditions aimed at minimising the intervention of priming biases and strategic or mnemonic processes (Experiment 4). The whole set of results suggests that both privileged relations between features and categories, and the differential importance of intercorrelations between features as a function of category, modulate access to semantic features.

  20. The Effect of PH and Molecular Weight of Chitosan on Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by γ-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phu, Dang Van; Duy, Nguyen Ngoc; Quoc, Le Anh; Hien, Nguyen Quoc [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202a, 11 Street, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2011-07-01

    Radiation-induced synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using chitosan (CTS) as a stabilizer and free radical scavenger is feasible and satisfiable for green method. The conversion dose (Ag{sup +} into Ag{sup 0}) was determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy and Ag-NPs size was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of pH and molecular weight (Mw) of CTS on diameter and size distribution of Ag-NPs was investigated. The obtained results showed that CTS with higher M{sub w} has better stability for colloidal Ag-NPs. The average diameter of Ag-NPs was of 5-16 nm with narrow size distribution. The colloidal Ag-NPs prepared from Ag{sup +}/CTS solution with pH adjustment (pH~6) have smaller size (7 nm) compared to that (15 nm) from Ag{sup +}/CTS solution without pH (~3) adjustment. (author)

  1. Pilot study: Mindful Eating and Living (MEAL): weight, eating behavior, and psychological outcomes associated with a mindfulness-based intervention for people with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Jeanne; Smith, Bruce W; Shelley, Brian M; Sloan, Anita Lee; Leahigh, Lisa; Begay, Debbie

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot a brief (6-week) group curriculum for providing mindfulness training to obese individuals, called Mindful Eating and Living (MEAL). Participants were recruited through a local Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) in spring 2006. Data was collected at three time points: baseline, completion of intervention (6 weeks), and 3-month follow-up (12 weeks). Six weekly two-hour group classes (with two monthly follow-up classes). Content included training in mindfulness meditation, mindful eating, and group discussion, with emphasis on awareness of body sensations, emotions, and triggers to overeat. Key variables assessed included changes in weight, body-mass index (BMI), eating behavior, and psychological distress. In addition, physiological markers of cardiovascular risk were evaluated including C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Ten obese patients enrolled with a mean BMI of 36.9 kg/m² [SD±6.2]. The mean weight was 101 kg/m² and the mean age was 44 years (SD=8.7; range=31-62). Compared to baseline data, participants showed statistically significant increases in measures of mindfulness and cognitive restraint around eating, and statistically significant decreases in weight, eating disinhibition, binge eating, depression, perceived stress, physical symptoms, negative affect, and C-reactive protein. This study provides preliminary evidence that a eating focused mindfulness-based intervention can result in significant changes in weight, eating behavior, and psychological distress in obese individuals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. II: live weight, health measures and perching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems, where conveyor belts below the tiers remove the manure at regular intervals, are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on live weight, health measures and perching are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough, and perch access at the lowest stocking density (D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Hen live weight, mortality and foot health were not affected by the stocking densities used in the present study. Other variables (plumage condition, presence of breast redness and blisters, pecked tail feathers, and perch use) were indirectly affected by the increase in stocking density through the simultaneous reduction in access to other resources, mainly perches and troughs. The welfare of the hens was mostly affected by these associated constraints, despite all of them being within the allowed minimum requirements for organic production in the EU. Although the welfare consequences reported here were assessed to be moderate to minor, it is important to take into account concurrent constraints on access to other resources when higher stocking densities are used in organic production.

  3. Risk factors for maternal anaemia and low birth weight in pregnant women living in rural India: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahankari, A S; Myles, P R; Dixit, J V; Tata, L J; Fogarty, A W

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for maternal anaemia and low birth weight (LBW) in pregnant women living in Maharashtra state, India. This is a prospective study. Women between 3 and 5 months of pregnancy were recruited from 34 villages based in Maharashtra state. Baseline data collection, anthropometric measurements and blood investigations were performed. Participants were followed-up to record birth weight. In total, 303 women were eligible, and 287 (95%) provided data. 77% were anaemic, defined as haemoglobin less than 11.0 g/dl at the time of recruitment, with a mean corpuscular volume of 80.5 fl/cell (standard deviation: 7.22, range: 53.4-93.8). The increased risk of anaemia was seen in women with consanguineous marriages (odds ratio [OR]: 2.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-5.01, P = 0.01) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Postdelivery data from full-term singleton live births demonstrated a 7% prevalence of LBW. Consanguineous marriage was a major risk factor for LBW (OR: 4.10, 95% CI: 1.25-13.41, P = 0.02). The presence of maternal anaemia during 3-5 months of pregnancy was associated with lower risk of LBW (unadjusted OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.13-0.92, P = 0.03). About 30% of our study participants were in a consanguineous marriage, which was identified as a potentially avoidable risk factor for both anaemia and LBW. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of different magnetic resonance cholangiography techniques in living liver donors including Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Kinner

    Full Text Available Preoperative evaluation of potential living liver donors (PLLDs includes the assessment of the biliary anatomy to avoid postoperative complications. Aim of this study was to compare T2-weighted (T2w and Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted (T1w magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC techniques in the evaluation of PLLDs.30 PLLDs underwent MRC on a 1.5 T Magnetom Avanto (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany using (A 2D T2w HASTE (Half Fourier Acquisition Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo fat saturated (fs in axial plane, (B 2D T2w HASTE fs thick slices in coronal plane, (C free breathing 3D T2w TSE (turbo spin echo RESTORE (high-resolution navigator corrected plus (D maximum intensity projections (MIPs, (E T2w SPACE (sampling perfection with application optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolutions plus (F MIPs and (G T2w TSE BLADE as well as Gd-EOB-DTPA T1w images without (G and with (H inversion recovery. Contrast enhanced CT cholangiography served as reference imaging modality. Two independent reviewers evaluated the biliary tract anatomy on a 5-point scale subjectively and objectively. Data sets were compared using a Mann-Whitney-U-test. Kappa values were also calculated.Source images and maximum intensity projections of 3D T2w TSE sequences (RESTORE and SPACE proved to be best for subjective and objective evaluation directly followed by 2D HASTE sequences. Interobserver variabilities were good to excellent (k = 0.622-0.804.3D T2w sequences are essential for preoperative biliary tract evaluation in potential living liver donors. Furthermore, our results underline the value of different MRCP sequence types for the evaluation of the biliary anatomy in PLLDs including Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced T1w MRC.

  5. Evaluation of dose from external irradiation for individuals living in areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Ishii, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    In order to effectively and appropriately manage external radiation doses in the affected areas of Fukushima, it is important to identify when, where and how much exposure occurred. It is also necessary to quantitatively measure external exposure and air dose rates for different activity patterns in individuals living and working in Japanese-style buildings. The authors used a new personal dosemeter (D-shuttle) along with a global positioning system and geographical information system to relate personal dose rate with activity patterns and air dose rate. Hourly individual doses obtained by D-shuttle can provide an effective communication tool for those who want to identify when and how much exposure occurs. Personal monitoring of 26 volunteers showed that personal doses obtained from D-shuttle were ∼30 % of cumulative air dose estimated by data from the airborne monitoring survey. This analysis showed that, for most study volunteers, the exposure from staying at home represented about half of the total cumulative dose. This suggests that even though the peak exposure doses may be observed outside of working hours, to develop appropriate countermeasures for external dose reduction, it is thus important to identify the contributions of individuals' time-activities. This study provides a valuable basis for developing a realistic and pragmatic method to estimate external doses of individuals in Fukushima. (authors)

  6. TEMPO addition into pre-irradiated fluoropolymers and living-radical graft polymerization of styrene for preparation of polymer electrolyte membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Shin-ichi, E-mail: sawada.shinnichi@jaea.go.j [Conducting Polymer Materials Research Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Maekawa, Yasunari, E-mail: maekawa.yasunari@jaea.go.j [Conducting Polymer Materials Research Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    We prepared proton exchange membranes (PEMs) by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy (TEMPO)-mediated living-radical graft polymerization (LRGP) of styrene into fluoropolymer films and subsequent sulfonation. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films were first irradiated and then treated with TEMPO solutions in various solvents. TEMPO addition was confirmed by the test of styrene grafting into TEMPO-treated films at 60 deg. C, at which the LRGP never proceeds. This test enabled us to differentiate the LRGP from the conventional graft polymerization. In order to gain a deep insight about TEMPO-addition reaction, the TEMPO-penetration behavior into the base polymer films was examined by a permeation experiment and computer simulation. Xylene and dioxane were appropriate solvents for the complete introduction of TEMPO into PVDF and ETFE films, respectively. Then, the LRGP of styrene was performed based on the fully TEMPO-capped films at 125 deg. C with various solvents. By using an alcoholic solvent, the degree of grafting was enhanced and it reached a maximum of 38%. This grafted film was sulfonated to prepare a PEM showing an ion exchange capacity of 2.2 meq/g and proton conductivity of 1.6x10{sup -1} S/cm.

  7. Direct Determination of Molecular Weight Distribution of Calf-Thymus DNAs and Study of Their Fragmentation under Ultrasonic and Low-Energy IR Irradiations. A Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Mohammad A; Bertorelle, Franck; Doussineau, Tristan; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2018-06-09

    Calf-thymus (CT-DNA) is widely used as binding agent. The commercial samples are known to be "highly polymerized DNA" samples. CT-DNA is known to be fragile in particular upon ultrasonic wave irradiation. Degradation products might have dramatic consequence on its bio-sensing activity, and an accurate determination of the molecular weight distribution and stability of commercial samples is highly demanded. We investigated the sensitivity of charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS), a single-molecule MS method, both with single-pass and ion trap CDMS ("Benner" trap) modes to the determination of the composition and stability (under multiphoton IR irradiation) of calf-thymus DNAs. We also investigated the changes of molecular weight distributions in the course of sonication by irradiating ultrasonic wave to CT-DNA. We report for the first time, the direct molecular weight (MW) distribution of DNA sodium salt from calf-thymus revealing two populations at high (~10 MDa) and low (~3 MDa) molecular weights. We evidence a transition between the high-MW to the low-MW distribution, confirming that the low-MW distribution results from degradation of CT-DNA. Finally, we report also IRMPD experiments carried out on trapped single-stranded linear DNAs from calf-thymus allowing to extract their activation energy for unimolecular dissociation. We show that single-pass CDMS is a direct, efficient and accurate MS-based approach to determine the composition of calf-thymus DNAs. Furthermore, ion trap CDMS allows us to evaluate the stability (both under multiphoton IR irradiation and in the course of sonication by irradiating ultrasonic wave) of calf-thymus DNAs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Graft-to-recipient weight ratio lower to 0.7% is safe without portal pressure modulation in right-lobe living donor liver transplantation with favorable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Duk; Kim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Young-Kyu; Lee, Soon-Ae; Park, Sang-Jae

    2014-02-01

    The low graft-to-recipient weight ratio (GRWR) in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is one of the major risk factors affecting graft survival. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the lower limit of the GRWR can be safely reduced without portal pressure modulation in right-lobe LDLT. From 2005 to 2011, 317 consecutive patients from a single institute underwent LDLT with right-lobe grafts without portal pressure modulation. Of these, 23 had a GRWR of less than 0.7% (group A), 27 had a GRWR of ≥0.7%, recipient, donor, operation factors, laboratory findings and complications were reviewed retrospectively. The baseline demographics showed low model for end-stage liver disease score (mean 16.3+/-8.9) and high percentage of hepatocellular carcinoma (231 patients, 72.9%). Three groups by GRWR demonstrated similar characteristics except recipient body mass index and donor gender. For small-for-size syndrome, there were 3 (13.0%) in group A, 1 (3.7%) in group B, and 2 patients (0.7%) in group C (Pneed to modulate portal pressure in adult-to-adult LDLT using the right-lobe in favorable conditions including low model for end-stage liver disease score.

  9. 'Coz football is what we all have': masculinities, practice, performance and effervescence in a gender-sensitised weight-loss and healthy living programme for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Christopher; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Maclean, Alice; Hunt, Kate

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we use a social practice approach to explore men's experience of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a group-based weight management programme for men that harnesses men's symbolic attachment to professional football clubs to engage them in lifestyle change. FFIT is delivered by community coaches in clubs' stadia and is gender-sensitised in relation to context, content and style of delivery. Using a 'toolkit' of concepts from the work of Bourdieu, Goffman and Durkheim we analysed data from 13 focus group discussions with participants, and fieldwork notes from programme observations to investigate the appeal and success of FFIT, and how it worked to support change. Our analysis builds on our work on the importance of shared symbolic commitment to the football club and being with 'men like me' to understand how the interaction context facilitated 'effervescent' experiences. These experiences encouraged men to make changes to their diet and physical activity, talk about them, practice performing them and implement them in their lives. Thus a social practice approach illuminated the social processes through which lifestyle change was achieved, and we argue that it can deepen and enrich both intervention design and evaluation. © 2016 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  10. Systemic response of Korean dark-striped field mice, Apodenmus agrarius coreae after high-dose- rate γ-irradiation: Organ weights, hemato-chemistry, apoptosis of splenocytes and sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kwang Hee; Choi, Hoon; Joo, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hee Sun [Radiation Health Research Institute, KHNP, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Keum, Dong Kwon [Nuclear Environment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Since the territory of the radio-contaminated area is in homeogenous in radiation level and spectrum, investigation of the genetical mutation process in the natural animal populations inhabiting the radioontaminated areas will be provide a realistic picture of genetic effects for radiation exposure. However, little is known about the basic data such as systemic responses after ionizing radiation exposures in wild small rodents. Taking into account different radio-sensitivity of dark-striped field mice (A. a. coreae, THOMAS), the objective of the study is focus on investigate the level of systemic responses, included organ weights, hemato-chemistry and apoptosis in splenocytes and sperm of caudal epididymis after high-dose-rate irradiation especially as a potential biological dosimeter in radio-ecology. Figure 1 summarizes the results of the apoptotic events in spleen (data not shown at here) and in sperm of caudal epididymis at 24hrs after a single high-dose-rate γ-irradiation. The results of apoptosis in spleen and sperm caused by exposure to different doses of γ-irradiation are displayed. The data show that the field striped mice after irradiated with more than high dose of 0.5 Gy induces an significantly increased apoptosis. Results also shown that for exposure to 0.5 Gy, the apoptosis of both organs ware decreased compared to those of other γ-irradiated mice.

  11. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NV< IrV). There was no significant difference (p<5%) for biochemical tests, complete blood count, and animals weight between the three groups tested. The group immunized with irradiated venom showed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  12. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S. E-mail: rseabra@cevap.org.br

    2005-07-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NVweight between the three groups tested. The group immunized with irradiated venom showed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  13. Analysis of low-molecular weight radiolysis products in extracts of gamma-irradiated polymers by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalla, Rainer; Begley, Timothy H.; Morehouse, Kim M.

    2002-01-01

    Estimating exposure to radiolysis products of polymers is an important part of the regulatory evaluation of packaging materials for use in food irradiation. However, as Koni Grob recently put it, the comprehensive analysis of migrants is a challenge. This paper discusses some of the analytical difficulties and presents results obtained with extracts of irradiated polystyrene and polyamide-6. The results indicate that headspace or thermal desorption techniques may, in some instances, lead to an overestimation of radiolysis product concentrations. It is concluded that validated analytical methods and a better understanding of the underlying radiation chemistry would greatly facilitate the safety assessment of irradiated packaging materials

  14. Modifications by {gamma} irradiation of polyethylene at very high molecular weight. Tribological behaviour for orthopedic applications; Modifications par irradiation {gamma} du polyethylene a tres haut poids moleculaire. Comportement tribologique pour des applications orthopediques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaix, N

    2001-07-01

    A new mode of sterilization by vacuum gamma irradiation is studied. This new mode improves significantly the polyethylene behaviour during the study in friction-corrosion against a stainless steel-316L sphere. (N.C.)

  15. Irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Foodstuffs are irradiated to make them keep better. The ionizing radiation is not so strong as to cause radioactivity in the foodstuffs. At least so far, irradiation has not gained acceptance among consumers, although it has been shown to be a completely safe method of preservation. Irradiation causes only slight chemical changes in food. What irradiation does, however, is to damage living organisms, such as bacteria, DNA and proteins, thereby making the food keep longer. Irradiation can be detected from the food afterwards; thus it can be controlled effectively. (orig.)

  16. Pre-term birth and low birth weight following preimplantation genetic diagnosis: analysis of 88 010 singleton live births following PGD and IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Sesh Kamal; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Selliah, Hepsy Y; Kamath, Mohan S

    2017-02-01

    Is PGD associated with the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes such as pre-term birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW)? There was no increase in the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes of PTB, and LBW following PGD compared with autologous IVF. Pregnancies resulting from ART are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy complications compared with spontaneously conceived pregnancies. The possible reason of adverse obstetric outcomes following ART has been attributed to the underlying infertility itself and embryo specific epigenetic modifications due to the IVF techniques. It is of interest whether interventions such as embryo biopsy as performed in PGD affect perinatal outcomes. Anonymous data were obtained from the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA), the statutory regulator of ART in the UK. The HFEA has collected data prospectively on all ART performed in the UK since 1991. Data from 1996 to 2011 involving a total of 88 010 singleton live births were analysed including 87 571 following autologous stimulated IVF ± ICSI and 439 following PGD cycles. Data on all women undergoing either a stimulated fresh IVF ± ICSI treatment cycle or a PGD cycle during the period from 1996 to 2011 were analysed to compare perinatal outcomes of PTB and LBW among singleton live births. Logistic regression analysis was performed adjusting for female age category, year of treatment, previous IVF cycles, infertility diagnosis, number of oocytes retrieved, whether IVF or ICSI was used and day of embryo transfer. There was no increase in the risk of PTB and LBW following PGD versus autologous stimulated IVF ± ICSI treatment, unadjusted odds of PTB (odds ratio (OR) 0.68, 95% CI: 0.46-0.99) and LBW (OR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.37-0.85). After adjusting for the potential confounders, there was again no increase in the risk of the adverse perinatal outcomes following PGD: PTB (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45-0.98) and LBW (aOR 0.58, 95% CI: 0.38-0.88). Although the

  17. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  18. Body weight has no impact on self-esteem of minority children living in inner city, low-income neighborhoods: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between body weight and self-esteem among underserved minority children is not well documented. We measured the self-esteem profile using the Self-Perception Profile for Children among 910 minority children at 17 Houston community centers. Weight status had no effect on any of the s...

  19. Determinants of change in body weight and body fat distribution over 5.5 years in a sample of free-living black South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Sarah; Dickie, Kasha; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Goedecke, Julia H

    To identify socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of weight gain in a sample of premenopasual black South African (SA) women. Changes in body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerised tomography), socio-economic status (SES) and behavioural/lifestyle factors were measured in 64 black SA women at baseline (27 ± 8 years) and after 5.5 years. A lower body mass index (BMI) and nulliparity, together with access to sanitation, were significant determinants of weight gain and change in body fat distribution over 5.5 years. In addition, younger women increased their body weight more than their older counterparts, but this association was not independent of other determinants. Further research is required to examine the effect of changing SES, as well as the full impact of childbearing on weight gain over time in younger women with lower BMIs. This information will suggest areas for possible intervention to prevent long-term weight gain in these women.

  20. Delayed effects of low level acute irradiation and chronic environmental radioactive contamination on DNA lymphocytes of people living in Dolon, a settlement located in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenal, C.; Legue, F.; Nourgalieva, K. [UMR CNRS 6553 ' Ecobio' , Equipe Radiations Environnement Adaptation. Universite de RENNES 1, Campus de Beaulieu, Bat 14, RENNES Cedex F 35042 (France)

    2006-10-01

    During 42 years several hundred nuclear tests were performed by the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS, Kazakhstan), of which more than 100 were done in the atmosphere. We report here the late genetic damage of external exposure to radiation and environmental radioactive contamination in people living in Dolon, a small settlement situated in the vicinity of the STS. The comet assay was applied on DNA lymphocytes of 20 exposed women and 32 non-exposed women living at 500 km from the STS. We observed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups for mean tail moment (MTM) and DNA% in the tail. The mean values of all comet assay parameters (MTM, DNA% in the tail and score) were higher in the group of women born before 1949 as compared to those born after 1950, which could reflect an effect of external irradiation in 1949 due to the most contaminating explosion. These results suggest that people exposed 50 years ago to relatively small doses of external irradiation and/or still living in an environment contaminated by small amounts of long life radionuclides, still present DNA damage which is in agreement with other cytogenetical studies performed at the same site, on the same population. (author)

  1. Delayed effects of low level acute irradiation and chronic environmental radioactive contamination on DNA lymphocytes of people living in Dolon, a settlement located in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (Kazakhstan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenal, C.; Legue, F.; Nourgalieva, K.

    2006-01-01

    During 42 years several hundred nuclear tests were performed by the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS, Kazakhstan), of which more than 100 were done in the atmosphere. We report here the late genetic damage of external exposure to radiation and environmental radioactive contamination in people living in Dolon, a small settlement situated in the vicinity of the STS. The comet assay was applied on DNA lymphocytes of 20 exposed women and 32 non-exposed women living at 500 km from the STS. We observed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups for mean tail moment (MTM) and DNA% in the tail. The mean values of all comet assay parameters (MTM, DNA% in the tail and score) were higher in the group of women born before 1949 as compared to those born after 1950, which could reflect an effect of external irradiation in 1949 due to the most contaminating explosion. These results suggest that people exposed 50 years ago to relatively small doses of external irradiation and/or still living in an environment contaminated by small amounts of long life radionuclides, still present DNA damage which is in agreement with other cytogenetical studies performed at the same site, on the same population

  2. LED and Semiconductor Photo-effects on Living Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyasu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takemitsu; Fujiyasu, Kentarou; Ujihara, Shirou; Watanabe, Naoharu; Sunayama, Shunji; Ikoma, Shuuji

    We have studied LED irradiation effects on plants and animals in the visible to UV region of light from GaN LEDs. The results are as follows. Blue light considers to be effective for pearl cultivation or for attraction of small fishes living in near the surface of sea such as Pompano or Sardine, white light radiation is effective for cultivation of botanical plankton for shells. Other experiments of UV light irradiation attracting effect on baby sea turtle and the germination UV effect of mushroom, green light weight enhance effect on baby pigs, light vernalization effect of vegitable and Ge far infrared therapic effect on human body are also given.

  3. Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Irradiated Sorghum Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.D.; Farag, M.F. S. El-D.; Afify, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Substitution of yellow corn with raw sorghum grains in chick diets resulted in decreases in live body weight, accumulative feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization as compared with reference diet. Relative to raw sorghum diet, inclusion of sorghum grains irradiated at 60 and 100 kGy and/or supplemented with PEG in chick diets resulted in increases in accumulative feed consumption an efficiency feed utilization. The study suggested that irradiation treatment up to 100 kGy up grade broiler chicks performance and the combinations between radiation and PEG treatments sustain the effect of each other

  4. Implementation of the Finnish Triga reactor and short lived isotopes for diagnostic and irradiation services. Otaniemen Triga-reaktorin ja sillae tuotettujen radioisotooppien saeteilytekniset sovellutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiismaeki, P.

    1992-01-01

    The spectrum of radiation diagnostic methods and irradiation services, already implemented or under development at the Finnish Triga laboratory is discussed. Most attention is devoted to the boron neutron capture therapy project, which has lead to a very encouraging assessment of this modality at the Triga. (orig.).

  5. Weight and body mass index in relation to irradiated volume and to overall survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, Sandra; Söderström, Karin; Kjellén, Elisabeth; Nilsson, Per; Zackrisson, Björn; Laurell, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss is a common problem in patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (SCCHN) treated with radiotherapy (RT). The aims of the present study were to determine if treated volume (TV), as a measure of the radiation dose burden, can predict weight loss in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and to analyze weight loss and body mass index (BMI) in the same patient group in relation to 5-year overall survival. The ARTSCAN trial is a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial in patients with SCCHN. Nutritional data from the ARTSCAN trial were analyzed retrospectively using univariate and multivariate statistical methods based on information on percentage weight loss from the start of RT up to five months after the termination of RT (study cohort 1, n = 232) and information on patients’ BMI at the start of RT (study cohort 2, n = 203). TV was defined as the volume of the patient receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose. TV 64.6Gy encompasses macroscopic tumor and TV 43.7Gy elective lymph nodes of the neck. TV 64.6Gy and TV 43.7Gy were both significantly correlated with higher weight loss up to five months after the termination of RT in study cohort 1 (p < 0.001 for both). BMI at the start of RT was shown to be a prognostic factor for 5-year overall survival in study cohort 2 but weight loss was not. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 3.78 (1.46–9.75) and 2.57 (1.43–4.62) in patients with underweight and normal weight, respectively. TV can predict weight loss during RT in patients with oropharyngeal cancer regardless of clinical stage. A high BMI (>25 kg/m 2 ) at the start of RT is positively associated with survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer

  6. Controlled radical polymerization of acrylates by {gamma}-irradiation in the presence of 1,1-diphenylethene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zongtao [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang Zhicheng [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail: zczhang@ustc.edu.cn

    2005-12-15

    Poly (butyl acrylate) and poly (methyl acrylate) were successfully prepared in the presence of 1,1-diphenylethene (DPE) by {gamma}-irradiation-induced polymerization in both bulk and solution. The influences of polymerization time, amounts of DPE in system on conversion, molecular weight (MW) and its distribution (M{sub w}/M{sub n}) were studied. The results indicate that the polymerization initiated by {gamma}-irradiation in the presence of DPE shows the character of living radical reaction.

  7. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswender Kevin D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  8. Body weight has no impact on self-esteem of minority children living in inner city, low-income neighborhoods: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, William W; Mikhail, Carmen; Ortiz, Christina L; Lathan, Debra; Moore, Louis A; Konzelmann, Karen L; Smith, E O’Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between body weight and self-esteem among underserved minority children is not well documented. Methods We measured the self-esteem profile using the Self-Perception Profile for Children among 910 minority children at 17 Houston community centers. Results Weight status had no effect on any of the self-esteem scores among the minority children (P ≥ 0.21). Black children had higher scholastic competence than Hispanic children (P = 0.05). Social acceptance was not aff...

  9. Nutritional Behaviours Of Adolescents Living In Rural Areas. Part 1. Characteristics Of Health Behaviours Regarding Regular Consumption Of Meals And Level Of Acceptance Of Own Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Cipora

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions. Despite the fact that more than a half of the respondents living in rural areas observe the principles of rational nutrition, this percentage is too low to state that their eating behaviours are correct. Rural children and adolescents require an early permanent health education in the area of nutrition and physical activity.

  10. The influence of ionizing irradiation on functional state of chromatin neurons in mice living at the territory of the Chernobylsk NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafin, A.G.; Yarygin, V.N.; Vakhtel', N.M.; Bibaeva, L.V.

    1996-01-01

    Daily variations in activity of endo-RNA-polymerases were studied in neurocyte nuclei of the L v -cerebrospinal node, α-motoneurons of spinal cord, neurons of sensomotor and visual areas of the mice crust, subjected to radiation impact in the Chernobyl NPP zone. Changes in circadian time organization of nerve cells genetic apparatus functioning in various nerve system sections were observed in the irradiated mice. Shift of acrophases of nucleoplasmatic and nucleolus tracing was observed during daily cycle after 40-day exposure under conditions of increased radioactive background. Degree of synchronization of ribosome and structural genes transcription in the studied cell populations decreased. Mesors and amplitudes of circadian rhythms of chromatin matrix activity was reduced. The chromatin histon state in irradiated animals also changed. 8 refs.; 2 tabs

  11. Production measurements affected by x irradiation of chicken semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zartman, D.L.; Urquhart, N.S.; Francis, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    Single Comb White Leghorn (S.C.W.L.) and Dark Cornish semen was x-irradiated with 1000 R and introduced into S.C.W.L. hens to produce S.C.W.L. and crossbred chicks. The irradiation reduced the fertilizing capacity of the semen about 25% and the hatchability of the embryos about 38%. Semen of the two breeds was affected differently since there was much less alteration of embryonic development among purebred, S.C.W.L. chicks than among Cornish-sired crossbreds. As is typical, crossbred chicks gained weight faster than purebred S.C.W.L. irrespective of radiation damage. After irradiation, live weight was 4% less at 16 weeks of age for the crossbreds but no substantial effect on growth was evident for the S.C.W.L., although they were significantly heavier at hatching in the irradiated population. The rate of egg production in the first 30 days declined 15% under pressure from the irradiation damage. The distribution, as well as the frequency, of embryonic mortalities changed after parental semen irradiation. The majority of embryonic deaths occurred during the first 6 days of incubation with a coincidental decrease in the proportion of deaths occurring late during incubation. Posthatching mortalities were not affected for S.C.W.L. but were doubled for Cornish up to 16 weeks old

  12. Weight Loss Success Among Overweight and Obese Women of Mexican-Origin Living in Mexico and the United States: A Comparison of Two National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2017-02-01

    We assessed variations in and correlates of weight-loss success (WLS) among overweight/obese women in Mexico (WIMX) and Mexican-American women (MA). We used cross-national data from 2006 ENSANUT (Mexico) and NHANES (2001-2008) to compare 5061 WIMX with 550 MA's without known metabolic conditions. WLS was defined as losing ≥5 % of body weight over 1 year. MA's were more likely to attain WLS (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.01-1.70). WLS among WIMX was higher in those with at least high school, a provider screen of overweight and a lower BMI. Among MA's, an incomplete high school versus primary education reduced the odds of WLS. Among women who lost ≥10 lbs, weight-loss strategies such as eating less were higher among MA's. MA women were more likely than WIMX to attain WLS. Understanding these disparities can help design customized public health interventions that curb the obesity epidemic in these women in both countries.

  13. Effect on Body Weight, Quality of Life and Appetite Following Individualized, Nutritional Counselling to Home-Living Elderly after Rehabilitation - An Open Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, J; Hulander, E; Rothenberg, E; Iversen, P

    2017-01-01

    We examined if individually-adapted nutritional counselling could prevent > 5% weight loss among elderly patients 3 months after discharge from a rehabilitation institution. In addition we assessed quality of life (QoL) and appetite. An open, randomized trial. Godthaab Health and Rehabilitation Institution in Bærum, Norway. Patients identified as being undernourished or at risk of disease-related malnutrition using the Nutritional Risk Screening tool NRS-2002. Shortly before discharge, patients in the intervention group received an individually-tailored nutrition plan. During the subsequent 3 months these patients were contacted 3 times via telephone calls and they received one visit at their homes, for nutrition counselling. Focus on this counselling was on optimizing meal environment, improving appetite, increasing food intake, advice on food preparation, and motivation and support. In addition to weight, QoL and appetite were assessed using the EQ-5D questionnaire and a modified version of the Disease-Related Appetite Questionnaire, respectively. Among 115 considered eligible for the study, 100 were enrolled (72 women and 28 men), with a mean age of 75 years and a mean body mass index of 20 kg/m2. Two in the intervention group (n = 52) and 5 in the control group (n = 48) lost > 5% of their body weight, giving an odds ratio of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.064 - 1.86; p = 0.22). We did not detect any significant differences in the QoL- or appetite scores between the two study groups after three months. An individually-adapted nutritional counselling did not improve body mass among elderly patients 3 months after discharge from a rehabilitation institution. Neither quality of life nor appetite measures were improved. Possibly, nutritional counselling should be accompanied with nutritional supplementation to be effective in this vulnerable group of elderly. The trial is registered in Clinical Trials (ID: NCT01632072).

  14. The impact of a community-led program promoting weight loss and healthy living in Aboriginal communities: the New South Wales Knockout Health Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Erin; Shepherd, Brooke; Milat, Andrew; Maher, Louise; Hennessey, Kiel; Havrlant, Rachael; Maxwell, Michelle; Hodge, Wendy; Christian, Fiona; Richards, Justin; Mitchell, Jo

    2017-12-13

    Aboriginal people in Australia experience significant health burden from chronic disease. There has been limited research to identify effective healthy lifestyle programs to address risk factors for chronic disease among Aboriginal people. The Knockout Health Challenge is a community-led healthy lifestyle program for Aboriginal communities across New South Wales, Australia. An evaluation of the 2013 Knockout Health Challenge was undertaken. Participants' self-reported physical activity and diet were measured at four time points - at the start and end of the Challenge (via paper form), and 5 and 9 months after the Challenge (via telephone survey). Participants' weight was measured objectively at the start and end of the Challenge, and self-reported (via telephone survey) 5 and 9 months after the Challenge. Changes in body composition, physical activity and diet between time points were analysed using linear mixed models. As part of the telephone survey participants were also asked to identify other impacts of the Challenge; these were analysed descriptively (quantitative items) and thematically (qualitative items). A total of 586 people registered in 22 teams to participate in the Challenge. The mean weight at the start was 98.54kg (SD 22.4), and 94% of participants were overweight or obese. Among participants who provided data at all four time points (n=122), the mean weight loss from the start to the end of the Challenge was 2.3kg (95%CI -3.0 to -1.9, pChallenge was 2.3kg (95%CI -3.3 to -1.3, pChallenge, and 0.8kg/m 2 (95%CI -1.2 to -0.4, pChallenge, participants reported they were more physically active and had increased fruit and vegetable consumption compared with the start of the Challenge, and identified a range of other positive impacts. The Challenge was effective in reducing weight and promoting healthy lifestyles among Aboriginal people across New South Wales, and has potential to contribute to closing the health gap between Aboriginal and non

  15. Body weight has no impact on self-esteem of minority children living in inner city, low-income neighborhoods: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William W; Mikhail, Carmen; Ortiz, Christina L; Lathan, Debra; Moore, Louis A; Konzelmann, Karen L; Smith, E O'Brian

    2014-01-24

    The relationship between body weight and self-esteem among underserved minority children is not well documented. We measured the self-esteem profile using the Self-Perception Profile for Children among 910 minority children at 17 Houston community centers. Weight status had no effect on any of the self-esteem scores among the minority children (P ≥ 0.21). Black children had higher scholastic competence than Hispanic children (P = 0.05). Social acceptance was not affected by age, gender, and race/ethnicity (P ≥ 0.13). Significant age x gender (P = 0.006) and race x gender (P = 0.005) interactions were detected on athletic competence. The younger boys had higher athletic competence than the younger and older girls (P ≤ 0.01). The older boys had higher athletic competence than the older girls (P = 0.008) but their scores were not different from those of the younger girls (P = 0.07). Within each race/ethnicity group, boys had higher athletic competence than girls (P ≤ 0.03). Black boys had higher athletic competence than Hispanic girls (P = 0.007) but their scores were not different from those of the Hispanic boys (P = 0.08). Age and gender had no effect on physical appearance but black children had higher scores than Hispanic children (P = 0.05). Behavioral conduct was not affected by age, gender, or race/ethnicity (P ≥ 0.11). There was an age x gender interaction on global self-worth (P = 0.02) with boys having similar scores regardless of ages (P = 0.40) or ethnicity (P = 0.98). However, boys from both age groups had higher global self-worth than the older girls (P ≤ 0.04) but their scores were not different from those of the younger girls (P ≥ 0.07). For the first time, we documented that being normal weight did not necessarily guarantee positive self-esteem among minority children. Their self-esteem scores were similar to those found among children who were diagnosed with obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities and lower than those reported among

  16. A quantitative method to track protein translocation between intracellular compartments in real-time in live cells using weighted local variance image analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Calmettes

    Full Text Available The genetic expression of cloned fluorescent proteins coupled to time-lapse fluorescence microscopy has opened the door to the direct visualization of a wide range of molecular interactions in living cells. In particular, the dynamic translocation of proteins can now be explored in real time at the single-cell level. Here we propose a reliable, easy-to-implement, quantitative image processing method to assess protein translocation in living cells based on the computation of spatial variance maps of time-lapse images. The method is first illustrated and validated on simulated images of a fluorescently-labeled protein translocating from mitochondria to cytoplasm, and then applied to experimental data obtained with fluorescently-labeled hexokinase 2 in different cell types imaged by regular or confocal microscopy. The method was found to be robust with respect to cell morphology changes and mitochondrial dynamics (fusion, fission, movement during the time-lapse imaging. Its ease of implementation should facilitate its application to a broad spectrum of time-lapse imaging studies.

  17. High-risk of preterm birth and low birth weight after oocyte donation IVF: analysis of 133,785 live births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Mohan Shashikant; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Mascarenhas, Mariano; Sunkara, Sesh Kamal

    2017-09-01

    A higher risk of pregnancy complications occurs after assisted reproductive techniques compared with spontaneously conceived pregnancies. This is attributed to the underlying infertility and assisted reproduction technique procedures involved during treatment. It is a matter of interest whether use of donor oocytes affects perinatal outcomes compared with pregnancies after autologous IVF. Anonymized data were obtained from the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority. The analysis included 5929 oocyte donation and 127,856 autologous IVF live births. Data from all women who underwent donor oocyte recipient or autologous IVF cycles, both followed with fresh embryo transfer, were analysed to compare perinatal outcomes of preterm birth (PTB) and low birthweight (LBW) after singleton and multiple live births. The risk of adverse perinatal outcomes after oocyte donation was increased: adjusted OR (aOR) 1.56, 99.5% CI 1.34 to 1.80 for PTB and aOR 1.43, 99.5% CI 1.24 to 1.66 for LBW were significantly higher after oocyte donation compared with autologous IVF singletons. The adjusted odds PTB (aOR 1.21, 99.5% CI 1.02 to 1.43) was significantly higher after oocyte donation compared with autologous IVF multiple births. Analysis of this large dataset suggests significantly higher risk of PTB and LBW after ooctye donation compared with autologous IVF pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Half-lives of isomeric levels of 107mAg, 109mAg and 103mRh photoactivated by 60Co γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Kobayashi, Takashige; Kojima, Yasuaki; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2000-01-01

    Photoactivation by γ-rays from 60 Co of 10 kCi has been performed for isomers of 107m Ag, 109m Ag and 103m Rh and half-lives of these isomers were determined. Gamma-rays emitted from 107m Ag and 109m Ag were measured with a low-background Ge detector and internal conversion electrons from 103m Rh were measured with a 2π gas flow counter. The half-lives obtained are: 107m Ag: 44.5±0.8 s, 109m Ag: 38.0±1.2 s and 103m Rh: 54.8±3.8 min. The results are in agreement with previous values obtained by different excitation methods

  19. The association of low birth weight with serum C reactive protein in 3‐year‐old children living in Cuba: A population‐based prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundora‐Hernández, Hermes; Batista‐Gutierrez, Lourdes; Suárez‐Medina, Ramón; de la C. Mora‐Faife, Esperanza; García‐García, Gladys; del Valle‐Infante, Ileana; Gómez‐Marrero, Liem; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective Low birthweight is associated with a decreased risk of childhood leukemia and an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality in adult life. Possible biological mediators include systemic innate immunity and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that birthweight was inversely associated with serum high sensitivity C reactive protein assay (hsCRP), a measure of both innate immunity and systemic inflammation. Methods Data on birthweight and current anthropometric measures along with a range of exposures were collected at 1 and 3 years of age in a population‐based cohort study of young children living in Havana, Cuba. A total of 986 children aged 3‐years‐old provided blood samples that were analyzed for serum hsCRP levels. Results Nearly 49% of children had detectable hsCRP levels in their serum. Lower birthweight was linearly associated with the natural log of hsCRP levels (beta coefficient −0.70 mg L−1 per kg increase in birthweight, 95% CI: −1.34 to −0.06). This was attenuated but still present after adjustment for the child's sex and municipality (−0.65 mg L−1 per kg birthweight; 95% CI: −1.38 to +0.08). There were no associations between growth from birth or anthropometric measures at 3 years and systemic inflammation. Conclusions Birthweight was inversely associated with serum hsCRP levels in children aged 3 years living in Cuba. These observations provide a potential mechanism that is present at the age of 3 years to explain the association between low birthweight and both decreased childhood leukemia and increased cardiovascular disease in adults. PMID:27859847

  20. Development of radiation-resisting high molecular-weight materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsutomu

    1976-01-01

    The excellent radiation-resisting polyvinyl chloride developed at the opportunity of the research on the relationships between the protection of living body and the polymer-technological protection from radiation is reviewed. The report is divided into four main parts, namely 1) the change in the molecular arrangement of market-available, high molecular-weight materials by gamma-ray irradiation, 2) the protection of high molecular-weight materials from radiation, 3) the relationships between the biological radiation-protective substances and the change to radiation-resisting property of synthesized high molecular-weight substances, and 4) the development of the radiation-resisting high molecular-weight materials as metal-collecting agents. Attention is paid to the polyvinyl chloride having N-methyl-dithio-carbamate radical (PMD), synthesized by the author et. al., that has excellent radiation-resisting property. PMD has some possibility to form thiol- and amino-radicals necessary to protect living things from radiation. It is believed that the protection effects of N-methyl-dithio-carbamate radical are caused by the relatively stable S radical produced by the energy transfer. PMD film is suitable for the irradiation of foods, because it hardly changes the permeability of oxygen and carbon dioxide. PMD produces mercaptide or chelate. A new metal-collecting agent (PSDC) having reactivity with the metallic ions with radiation-resisting property was developed, which is derived from polyvinyl chloride and sodium N-methyl-N-carboxy-methyl-dithio-carbamate. (Iwakiri, K.)

  1. Reproductive performance response to the male effect in goats is improved when doe live weight/body condition score is increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Calvo, L; Gatica, M C; Guzmán, J L; Zarazaga, L A

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the nutritional and metabolic cue-induced modulation of the reproductive performance response of female goats to the male effect. During natural anoestrus, 48 Blanca Andaluza does were isolated from bucks for 45 days and distributed into two groups: (1) low body weight (BW)/low body condition score (BCS) animals (LL-gain group, N=18), which were fed 1.9 times their maintenance requirements; and (2) high BW/high BCS animals (HH-loss group, N=30), which were fed 0.4 times their maintenance requirements. Following isolation, oestrous activity was recorded daily by visual observation of the marks left by harness-equipped males. Weekly blood samples were taken for the determination of progesterone, glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and leptin concentrations. Fecundity, fertility, prolificacy and productivity were also determined. Significantly greater ovarian and oestrous responses, and productivity, were observed in the LL-gain group compared to the HH-loss group (Preproductive performances of does subjected to the male effect in spring are poorer in those with a decreasing BW and BCS and better in those with increasing scores. This might be explained by the differences between groups in terms of their plasma insulin concentrations. The NEFA concentration was clearly modified by introduction to the males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Research on activation analysis using short-lived isotopes and a multi-purpose isotopic neutron irradiator. Part of a coordinated programme on on-line X-ray and neutron techniques for industrial process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozek, F.

    1981-02-01

    A method of cyclic activation analysis (CA) has been studied and applied. A theoretical comparison between cyclic and conventional neutron activation analysis of gold has been made. The optimum number of cycles in cyclic activation have been investigated and an equation for the rapid calculation of the number of cycles is proposed. The isotopic neutron irradiation system including the 5Ci Pu-Be neutron source was designed and constructed. The system is flexible and transportable and is capable of carrying out prompt and conventional delay gamma-ray analysis and cyclic activation of bulk materials. The advantages as well as the disadvantages of neutron activation analysis with the use of short-lived nuclides were considered, and can be summarized as follows: Advantages: saturation factor approaches unity, speed of analysis, low cost of analysis, increased selectivity, reduced matrix activities. Disadvantages: proximity of neutron source, chemical separation hardly possible or impossible, total number of counts low. Low counting rates can be substantially increased by applying the technique of ''cyclic activation'', which is another reason by the use of short-lived isotopes in neutron activation analysis is steadily becoming more attractive

  3. Ganho de peso na recria e desempenho reprodutivo de novilhas acasaladas com sobreano Live weight gain in the rearing and reproductive performance of yearling beef heifers mated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Regis Montanholi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da intensidade do ganho de peso no período de recria, dos 13 aos 18 meses de idade, sobre a taxa de prenhez de novilhas de corte acasaladas com o sobreano durante o outono. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de 30 novilhas com peso médio de 208 kg, submetidas a ganho médio de 0,595 kg dia-1 (G600, 41 novilhas com peso médio de 197 kg submetidas a ganho médio de 0,656 kg dia-1 (G700 e 58 novilhas com peso médio de 181 kg submetidas a ganho médio de 0,723 kg dia-1 (G800. Foram avaliados os efeitos dos tratamentos sobre peso, escore de trato reprodutivo e taxa de prenhez. As taxas de prenhez foram 30,0% 47,8% e 50,0% para os grupos G600, G700 e G800, respectivamente, não existindo diferença significativa entre os grupos. Os grupos G700 e G800, submetidos à maior taxa de ganho de peso, apresentaram maiores valores de escore de trato reprodutivo em relação ao G600 no início da estação de monta. Novilhas com escores mais elevados apresentaram tendência a maior taxa de prenhez. A taxa de prenhez esteve associada à intensidade de ganho de peso na recria independentemente das variações de peso no acasalamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of growth rate during rearing period, from 13 to 18 months, on pregnancy rate of beef heifers mated at yearling during autumn. Treatments consisted of 30 heifers weighing on average 208 kg submitted to average growth rate of 0.595 kg day-1 (G600, 41 heifers averaging 197 kg with average growth rate of 0.656 kg day-1 (G700 and 58 heifers with 181 kg with average growth rate of 0.723 kg day-1 (G800. Treatment effects were determined on body weight, reproductive tract score and pregnancy rate. Pregnancy rate was 30.0% 47.8% and 50.0%, respectively, for G600, G700 and G800, without significant differences among groups. Treatments G700 and G800, with large growth rates, showed higher values of reproductive tract score than G600 at

  4. Changes in hypothalamus in continuously irradiated sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendarcik, J.; Stanikova, A.; Rajtova, V.; Molnarova, M.

    1983-01-01

    Neurosecretion, PAS-positive mucopolysaccharides and the Nissl substance were studied in the neurons of the rostral, medial and caudal hypothalamus of continuously irradiated ewes. The study was performed on 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed of a live weight of 34 kg. The animals were in the period of physiological anoestrus and their age was two to three years. The first group of six ewes was the control. The second group included 15 sheep irradiated with a total dose of 6.7 Gy (700 R) for seven days. Co 60 was used as the source of irradiation. The animals of this group were killed seven days following treatment. The ewes in the third group were left for the study of mortality. The brains were perfused with 2% buffered paraformaldehyde immediately after the bleeding of the sheep; then the brains were removed from the skulls and fixed in buffered picroformol. Paraffin slices were stained with haematoxylin-eosine, aldehyde-fuchsine and alcian blue for neurosecretion, by the PAS reaction for mucopolysaccharides and with cresyl violet for the Nissl substance. It was found that irradiation of the whole body inhibited the activity of neurosecretory cells in the rostral and medial hypothalamus, thus reducing neurosecretion. These regions also showed a reduced activity of the PAS reaction used for the demonstration of mucopolysaccharides. The observed changes also included damage of the endothelium of blood vessels with the occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates and with haemorrhages. In this way, the trophism of neurosecretory cells was affected, which is ascribed to the decrease in the amount of neurosecretory material. In the caudal hypothalamus, neurosecretion and PAS-positivity were slightly stimulated by irradiation. The Nissl substance disappeared as a result of irradiation. (author)

  5. Radioprotective effects of soya and garlic oils in irradiated male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Forty male albino rats were divided equally into four groups, the first group acted as control group, the second group was subjected to 5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation, the third group was injected intraperitoneally daily with soya oil (15 mg/kg b.w. for 14 days) before gamma irradiation and the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally daily with garlic oil (150/kg b.w. for 14 days) before gamma irradiation. Mortality percentage and body weight were recorded. Blood samples were collected one week post-gamma irradiation from all animals for biochemical analysis. Serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Total proteins and albumin were measured using photometric methods. Globulin value was calculated by subtraction of albumin from total protein values. The results showed that gamma irradiation with dose level of 5 Gy induced retardation of live body weight and increased the mortality. The data also showed significant increases in TBARS, total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol levels, whereas the levels of total proteins, albumin and globulin were significantly decreased. The soya oil or garlic oil injected pre-irradiation exerted noticeable amelioration in induced radiation changes on body weight, mortality, TBARS, lipid profiles and protein fractions

  6. Effects of AET, MEA, or 5-HT treatment before X-irradiation of pregnant C57B mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, L.

    1985-01-01

    C57B mice were either whole body X-irradiated with a dose of 200 R or, 15 minutes before X-radiation injected with AET, MEA, or 5-HT, in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight, on the first day of gestation. Uterine contents were examined on the nineteenth day of pregnancy. The number of corpora lutea was assumed as 100% and the percentage values of live and dead foetuses, resorptions, and non-implanted embryos were calculated. The percentage ratio of females with live foetuses in the uterus, in relation to the total number of those with a vaginal plug was also determined. X-irradiation of pregnant mice influenced the embryonic survival. As compared with controls, in only X-irradiated mice a lower percentage value of live foetuses and higher percentage values of non-implanted embryos and resorptions were found. One dead foetus was only observed in X-irradiated females. Percentage value of X-irradiated females with live foetuses was lower than that of control ones. High mortality of embryos occurred more often before than after the implantation of blastocysts. The percentage value of non-implanted embryos was higher than that of resorptions. AET, MEA, and 5-HT when injected to mice before their X-irradiation acted as radioprotectors. The strongest radioprotective effect was obtained following AET administration, intermediate after 5-HT treatment and the weakest one when MEA was injected. (orig.) [de

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  8. Características das carcaças e componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros terminados em pastagem ou confinamento = Carcass characteristics and live weight components in lambs finished on pasture or feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Machado Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar as características da carcaça e os não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros em quatro sistemas: cordeiros desmamados aos 60 dias mantidos em pastagem; cordeiros + ovelhas em pastagem; cordeiros + ovelhas em pastagem + concentrado em creep feeding (1% PV; cordeiros desmamados aos 60 dias e confinados. Os cordeiros foram abatidos quando a média de peso vivo do tratamento alcançou entre 32-34 kg. Após o abate, foram coletados e pesados os não-componentes da carcaça. Obtiveram-se pesos, rendimentos emedidas objetivas das carcaças e por cálculos a compacidade de perna e carcaça. A metodologia para determinar o momento de abate promoveu grande variação (7 a 14 kg no peso vivo final entre os animais do mesmo tratamento. Houve correlação significativa (p This experiment had the objective to evaluate the carcass characteristics and the non-carcass components of lambs on four systems: lambs weaned at 60 days of age kept on pasture; lambs + ewes kept on pasture; lambs + ewe + concentrate in creep feeding; lambs weaned at 60 days and kept on feedlot. Lambs were slaughteredwhen mean live weight from the tratament reached 32-34 kg. After slaughter, the noncarcass components were collected and weighed. The weight, yield and carcass measures were obtained, while leg and carcass compacity was calculated. The elected methodology fordetermining slaughter time resulted in large variation (7 to 14 kg in the slaughter weight of lambs from the same treatments. There was a significant (p < 0.05 positive correlation between hot (r = 0.83 and cold (r = 0.85 carcass weights, and slaughtered weight. Lambsweaned and finished on pasture showed lower (p < 0.05 hot carcass dressing (42.3%, cold carcass dressing (40.2%, carcass biological dressing (51.8% and thorax width (22.99 cm and higher (p < 0.05 gastrointestinal content (5.6 kg. The presence of dams had aninfluence in systems were there was no weaning, in regard to carcass

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  10. The Irradiation Effect Against To The Infectivity Of Metacercaria Of Fasciola Gigantica On Goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifin, M.; Boky, J.T.; Tarmizi

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of irradiation against to the infectivity of F.gigantica by using observation the exchange of goat bodies condition. Four groups of experiment animals were inoculated by irradiated meta cercaria of F. gigantica at a doses of 0, 45, 55 and 65Gy, and the other one is the negative control. Each experiment animal received 350 lives meta cercaria. The infectivity of irradiated meta cercaria in goat has been followed in the development of body weight, blood value described as the number of red blood cells (RBC), level of haemoglobin (Hb), percentages of packed cell volume (PCV), eosinofil and the last is pathology anatomic inspection. The results obtained showed that 45 Gy is the optimal dose of irradiation for decreasing infectivity of metacercariae of F.gigantica which have the ability to stimulate the good immune response in the goat

  11. Efeitos do peso vivo sobre a comercialização de bezerros de corte em leilões Effects of the live weight on the commercialization of beef calves in auction barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Christofari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se os efeitos da média de peso vivo de 1.880 lotes de bezerros comercializados em 13 leilões, no Rio Grande do Sul, sobre o valor de venda final por unidade de peso, e caracterizou-se a frequência dos lotes conforme a classe de peso durante as estações de outono e primavera, no período de 2004 a 2006. Os dados foram corrigidos pelo índice geral de preços - disponibilidade interna e analisados por meio de histogramas de frequência e análises de regressão e correlação. O peso vivo influenciou o preço dos bezerros, e a magnitude do efeito foi maior nos anos de grande demanda. Observou-se correlação negativa entre preço e peso dos bezerros na primavera, reflexo da oferta de animais mais pesados, devido aos efeitos de estação do ano ou à maior idade dos bezerros, comparados aos ofertados no outono. Não se observou maior liquidez dos bezerros comercializados no outono em relação aos da primavera. A conjuntura da cadeia da carne bovina e os preços de outras categorias têm grande relação com os preços pagos. A aquisição de animais de menor ou maior peso na ocasião da transação comercial pode auxiliar na redução dos custos que a reposição representa na produção.The effects of the live weight of 1,880 lots of calves marketed in 13 auctions in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, on the value of final sale per unit of weight were evaluated, as well as the frequency of the lots according to the weight class during the autumn and spring seasons, in the period from 2004 to 2006, was characterized. The data were analyzed by frequency histograms, regression, and correlation analyses. The live weight is one of the characteristics that influenced the price of the calves; however, the magnitude of the effect was higher in years of great demand. A negative correlation was observed between price and weight of the calves in spring, which were results of the offer of heavier animals, due to the season effects or the

  12. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  13. New Option in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) Allows for the Conversion of Prevalence of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births to Prevalence of Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Clermont, Adrienne; Walker, Neff

    2017-11-01

    Background: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is a software model that estimates the health impact of scaling up interventions on maternal and child health. One of the outputs of the model is an estimation of births by fetal size [appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) or small-for-gestational-age (SGA)] and by length of gestation (term or preterm), both of which influence birth weight. LiST uses prevalence estimates of births in these categories rather than of birth weight categories, because the causes and health consequences differ between SGA and preterm birth. The World Health Assembly nutrition plan, however, has set the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) as a key indicator, with a specific goal of a 30% reduction in LBW prevalence by 2025. Objective: The objective of the study is to develop an algorithm that will allow LiST users to estimate changes in prevalence of LBW on the basis of changes in coverage of interventions and the resulting impact on prevalence estimates of SGA and preterm births. Methods: The study used 13 prospective cohort data sets from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; 4 from sub-Saharan Africa, 5 from Asia, and 4 from Latin America), with reliable measures of gestational age and birth weight. By calculating the proportion of LBW births among SGA and preterm births in each data set and meta-analyzing those estimates, we calculated region-specific pooled rates of LBW among SGA and preterm births. Results: In Africa, 0.4% of term-AGA, 36.7% of term-SGA, 49.3% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. In Asia, 1.0% of term-SGA, 47.0% of term-SGA, 36.7% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. In Latin America, 0.4% of term-AGA, 34.4% of term-SGA, 32.3% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. Conclusions: The simple conversion factor proposed here allows for the estimation of LBW within LiST for most LMICs. This will allow LiST users to approximate the impact of their health programs on

  14. The experience of weight management in normal weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann; Hernandez, David A; Wellington, Christine M; Kidd, Art

    2016-11-01

    No prior research has been done with normal weight persons specific to their experience of weight management. The purpose of this research was to discover the experience of weight management in normal weight individuals. Glaserian grounded theory was used. Qualitative data (focus group) and quantitative data (food diary, study questionnaire, and anthropometric measures) were collected. Weight management was an ongoing process of trying to focus on living (family, work, and social), while maintaining their normal weight targets through five consciously and unconsciously used strategies. Despite maintaining normal weights, the nutritional composition of foods eaten was grossly inadequate. These five strategies can be used to develop new weight management strategies that could be integrated into existing weight management programs, or could be developed into novel weight management interventions. Surprisingly, normal weight individuals require dietary assessment and nutrition education to prevent future negative health consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fresh-keeping of mushroom by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Xu Hongqing; Wang Hong; Cai Jian

    2003-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co γ irradiation on the preservation of Agaricus bisporus were studied. The results showed that after irradiation the mushroom had lower rates of membrane split, opening of pilei, browning, decomposition and lose of fresh weight. The fresh keeping period of mushroom irradiated with 1.2 kGy and stored at 4 degree C was prolonged to 30 days

  16. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  18. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  1. Food irradiation: chemistry and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, B.R.; Singh, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of the most extensively and thoroughly studied methods of food preservation. Despite voluminous data on safety and wholesomeness of irradiated foods, food irradiation is still a “process in waiting.” Although some countries are allowing the use of irradiation technology on certain foods, its full potential is not recognized. Only 37 countries worldwide permit the use of this technology. If used to its full potential, food irradiation can save millions of human lives being lost annually due to food‐borne diseases or starvation and can add billions of dollars to the world economy. This paper briefly reviews the history and chemistry of food irradiation along with its main applications, impediments to its adoption, and its role in improving food availability and health situation, particularly in developing countries of the world

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  4. Irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrington, Hugh

    1988-06-01

    This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

  5. Food irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1995-01-01

    The basic research on food irradiation in Japan was begun around 1955 by universities and national laboratories. In 1967, food irradiation was designated to the specific general research on atomic energy, and the national project on large scale was continued until 1983. As the result, the treatment of germination prevention for potatoes was approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1972. The Co-60 gamma ray irradiation facility of Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative is famous as the facility that succeeded in the practical use of food irradiation for the first time in the world. But the practical use of food irradiation stagnates and the research activities were reduced in Japan due to the circumstances thereafter. The effect of radiation to foods and living things is explained. The features of the radiation treatment of foods are small temperature rise, large transmissivity, no residue, the small loss of nutrition and large quantity, continuous treatment. The safety of irradiated foods is explained. The subjects for hereafter are discussed. (K.I.)

  6. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  7. Foodstuff irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Report written on behalf of the Danish Food Institute summarizes national and international rules and developments within food irradiation technology, chemical changes in irradiated foodstuffs, microbiological and health-related aspects of irradiation and finally technological prospects of this conservation form. Food irradiatin has not been hitherto applied in Denmark. Radiation sources and secondary radiation doses in processed food are characterized. Chemical changes due to irradiation are compared to those due to p.ex. food heating. Toxicological and microbiological tests and their results give no unequivocal answer to the problem whether a foodstuff has been irradiated. The most likely application fields in Denmark are for low radiation dosis inhibition of germination, riping delay and insecticide. Medium dosis (1-10 kGy) can reduce bacteria number while high dosis (10-50 kGy) will enable total elimination of microorganisms and viruses. Food irradiation can be acceptable as technological possibility with reservation, that further studies follow. (EG)

  8. Hemibody irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schen, B.C.; Mella, O.; Dahl, O.

    1992-01-01

    In a large number of cancer patients, extensive skeletal metastases or myelomatosis induce vast suffering, such as intolerable pain and local complications of neoplastic bone destruction. Analgetic drugs frequently do not yield sufficient palliation. Irradiation of local fields often has to be repeated, because of tumour growth outside previously irradiated volumes. Wide field irradiation of the lower or upper half of the body causes significant relief of pain in most patients. Adequate pretreatment handling of patients, method of irradiation, and follow-up are of importance to reduce side effects, and are described as they are carried out at the Department of Oncology, Haukeland Hospital, Norway. 16 refs., 2 figs

  9. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...

  10. Irradiation of nitrile preforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salame, M.; Steingiser, S.

    1982-01-01

    The process of forming containers from preforms of thermoplastic material comprising at least 20 weight percent of polymerized nitrile group containing monomer is claimed. The preforms are exposed to low dosage electron beam radiation and then, while at molding temperature, distended into containers in a mold. The radiaton causes polymerization of nitrile group containing monomers and the distending causes HCN generated during irradiation to be reduced in the thermoplastic material

  11. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ... Primarily, older persons or their families pay the cost of assisted living. Some health and long-term care insurance policies ...

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  14. Irradiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira

    1977-01-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures. (Kanao, N.)

  15. Irradiation proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, A [Osaka Kita Tsishin Hospital (Japan)

    1977-06-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures.

  16. A study on UV irradiated HDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Haibo; Liu Zimin; Wu Shishan; Shen Jian

    2006-01-01

    The structure and properties of HDPE irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) in ozone atmosphere were studied by FT-IR, XPS, gel, and water contact angle test. The oxygen-containing groups such as C=O, C-O and C(=O)O were introduced onto high density polyethylene (HDPE) chains through ultraviolet irradiation in ozone atmosphere, their content increased with the UV irradiation time. Under the same UV irradiation conditions, amount of the oxygen-containing groups introduced in ozone atmosphere was more than that in air atmosphere, indicating that the speed of oxygen-containing groups introduced through UV irradiation in ozone atmosphere was faster than that in air. Therefore, HDPE could be quickly functionalized through UV irradiation in ozone atmosphere. There was no gel formed in the HDPE irradiated in ozone atmosphere. After UV irradiation, the water contact angle of HDPE decreased, and its hydrophilicity was improved, suggesting that the compatibility between the irradiated HDPE and polar polymer or inorganic fillers may be better. Compared with HDPE, the temperature of initial weight loss for irradiated HDPE decreased. The structure and properties of irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend were also investigated. The results showed that the compatibility and interfacial action of the irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend were improved compared to that of HDPE/CaCO 3 blend. The mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend increased with increasing irradiation time. (authors)

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  18. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  19. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  20. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  1. Estimação pelo método Bayesiano de parâmetros genéticos de peso vivo e características de carcaça em avestruzes Estimation by the Bayesian method of genetic parameters of live weight and carcass traits of ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar parâmetros genéticos de características de desempenho e carcaça de avestruzes criados comercialmente, foi utilizado o método Bayesiano, por meio do algoritmo amostrador de Gibbs, disponível no programa MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling for Animal Models. Foram estimadas as herdabilidades e correlações genéticas para: peso vivo ao nascer (PN; peso vivo corrigido aos 190 dias (P190 e aos 360 dias (P360 de idade; peso vivo pré-abate (PVO; perda de peso durante o transporte e jejum (PTA; peso de carcaça (PCA; e rendimento de carcaça (RCA. As herdabilidades respectivas foram 0,11; 0,12; 0,33; 0,05; 0,04; 0,20; 0,05. Para as correlações, foram encontrados os valores de -0,11 entre rendimento de carcaça e peso ao nascer; 0,84 e 0,68 para peso de carcaça com peso aos 190 dias e peso de carcaça com peso aos 360 dias; 0,61 e 0,33 para rendimento de carcaça com peso aos 190 dias e rendimento de carcaça com peso aos 360 dias. Não é viável selecionar para peso ao nascer ou para rendimento de carcaça como é para peso aos 360 dias de idade e peso de carcaça. A seleção para peso aos 360 dias de idade pode melhorar o peso da carcaça, ao passo que a seleção para peso aos 190 dias pode aumentar o rendimento de carcaça.With the objective of estimating genetic parameters of performance and carcass characteristics of commercially reared ostriches in Ourinhos, SP, it was used the Bayesian method, by using Gibbs sampling algorithm, available in the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Models. It was estimated the heritabilities and genetic correlations for: birth live weight (BW, corrected live weight at 190 days (W190 and at 360 days (W360 of age; pre-slaughter live weight (PSW, weight loss during transport and fasting (WLT, carcass weight (CW and carcass dressing (CD. The respective heritabilities were 0.11, 0.12, 0.33, 0.05, 0.04, 0.20, 0.05. For the correlations, it was found values of

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecher, O.

    1979-01-01

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  4. Histological studies in developing brain after 0.5 Gy neutron irradiation in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antal, S.; Fueloep, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Pregnant mice were irradiated with 0.5 Gy neutrons on day 13, 15 or 18 of gestation. There was no significant difference in number of living young born per litter between in neutron irradiated mice and controls. Mortality of irradiated offspings increased in the first 3 days after birth. The brain weight of 21-day old animals after neutron irradiation averaged only 55, 56 and 69% of controls, resp. At six hours after irradiation morphological analysis showed nuclear pyknosis in the central nervous system. On day 13 the telencephalon was severely affected. The 30% cells were pyknotic in the wall of the cerebral hemisphere and 20% of cells in corpus striatum. In the metencephalon marked pyknosis was established in the tectal lamina of mesencephalon (16%) and in the cerebellar anlage (21%). The olfactory plate (24%), the ventricular zone of cerebral hemisphere (30%) and colliculus ganglionaris were damaged mostly (40%) after radiation on day 15 of gestation. The tectum of the mesencephali and in metencephalon the external granular layer of cerebellum and area of the rhombic lip were affected by irradiation (17-20%). The telencephalon found pyknotic but to a less extent in group irradiated on day 18 than it was on day 15. In the olfactory bulb 10% of pyknotic cells were seen and 16% of primary cortex of cerebral hemisphere more over 30% of nucleus caudatus/putamen were affected. In metencephalon 19% of external granular layer of cerebellum and 13% of trigonum cerebelli were pyknotic. In general, lesions of irradiation were rather mild in diencephalon and myelencephalon at all examined ages. Histological examinations support that defined parts of brain are damaged after neutron irradiation in utero and it may lead to the described physiological 18-20 and biochemical consequences 20,23 . (orig.)

  5. Answers to the questions about food irradiation. Concerning results of animal experiments in the specified integrated research. Data carrying a problem in human health were obtained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Experts of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/ World Health Organization (WHO) committee obtained their conclusion in 1980 that food irradiated with <10 kGy of radiation is safe for human health, which is now globally approved. However, in Japan, there have been still opposite opinions based on the doubt in the title on the safety of irradiated food. In this paper, the author answers those questions as he was a member to arrange the Research in the title for food irradiation. Described are data presentation and explanation about results of toxicity studies of diets added with irradiated materials of: weight reductions in rat ovary by irradiated potato (ip) in chronic studies, and in mouse testicle and ovary of F3 generation from the ancestor mice kept on diet with irradiated onion (io); bone malformation in mice by io; and reduction of body weight gain in female rats by ip and increase of mortality of male rats by ip. These are analyzed on the aspects of radiation dose-response, sustained tendency of results throughout the living period or generation, and apparent abnormality by other factors; and normal variation due to individual difference is pointed out to contribute to these findings. The safety test of irradiated food has been conducted valid not only in animal experiments but also other tests like genotoxicity and analysis of radiation-degraded products. (R.T.)

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  8. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  9. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  10. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  13. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, K.N. [Post-harvest Technology Institute, 4, Ngo Quyen-Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Lam, N.D. [Ha Noi Radiation Center, VAEC, 5T-160, Nghiado, Tuliem, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Preliminary test of mango (Mangifera indica) preservation by irradiated chitosan coating has been investigated. The coating by using irradiated chitosan in 1.5% solution has extended the shelf life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango coated by irradiated chitosan has been keeping good color, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the mango without coating was spoiled completely and the coating of fruit with unirradiated chitosan inhibited the ripening. (author)

  14. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, K.N.; Lam, N.D.; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary test of mango (Mangifera indica) preservation by irradiated chitosan coating has been investigated. The coating by using irradiated chitosan in 1.5% solution has extended the shelf life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango coated by irradiated chitosan has been keeping good color, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the mango without coating was spoiled completely and the coating of fruit with unirradiated chitosan inhibited the ripening. (author)

  15. Live Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Live Well Mental Health Substance Use Smoking Healthy Diet Physical Activity Family Planning Living with HIV: Travel ... to his or her health and well-being. Smoking - Tobacco use is the ... year. Healthy Diet - No matter your HIV status, healthy eating is ...

  16. Healthy living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... living URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002393.htm Healthy living To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Good health habits can allow you to avoid illness and improve your quality of life. The following steps will help you ...

  17. Irradiation effects on perfluorinated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappan, U.; Geissler, U.; Haeussler, L.; Pompe, G.; Scheler, U.; Lunkwitz, K.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. High-energy radiation affects the properties of polymers by chain scission and crosslinking reactions. Both types of reaction occur simultaneously in irradiated polymers. However, one process will usually predominate, depending on the chemical structure of the polymer and the irradiation conditions such as temperature and atmosphere. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) undergoes predominantly chain scission, if the irradiation is performed at room temperature. This shortcoming is exploited by converting PTFE into low molecular weight micropowders. The use of PTFE micropowders functionalized with COOH groups as additive in polyamides to improve the sliding properties of the materials has been studied. During the compounding process in a twin screw extruder the COOH groups of the irradiated PTFE react with the polyamides. For these studies, it became necessary to investigate the content of end groups in irradiated PTFE by FTIR and 19 F solid-state NMR. These date were used to calculate number-average molecular weights. The ratios of COOH groups to CF 3 groups are discussed in terms of the mechanism of PTFE degradation. If PTFE is irradiated at temperatures above its crystalline melting point in an oxygen-free atmosphere, branching and crosslinking occur. The dependence of radiation effects on perfluorinated copolymers (FEP, PFA) on temperature has been studied. Melt flow index measurements have shown that branching and crosslinking predominate over chain scission with increasing irradiation temperature both in FEP and in PFA. Quantitative analysis of 19 F solid-state NMR data has shown that the content of branching groups (>CF-) exceeds the content of end groups in the case of PFA irradiated above its crystalline melting point. The formation of COF and COOH groups in the irradiated PFA is interpreted as a result of partial degradation of perfluorovinyl ether comonomer units

  18. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  19. Changes in lens following 60Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsival, P.; Obenberger, J.; Sladkova, J.

    1985-01-01

    Chinchilla rabbit lenses were irradiated using a 60 Co gamma source, and the changes in the transport activities, native weight, water content and dry weight were observed. The heads of rabbits were irradiated with doses of 10 and 20 Gy and functional changes occurring in the lenses were studied till the twenty-fourth week after the irradiation. The weight of the rabbit lens irradiated with a dose of 20 Gy significantly increased after the twelfth week and was maximal 16 weeks after irradiation when also cataracts were observed. The increased weight of lenses was caused by accumulation of water. The decrease in the dry weight of lenses preceded the period of visible cataracts. A decreased uptake of rubidium occurring during in vitro cultivation of lenses was the most sensitive marker for the changes caused by 20 Gy irradiation. It was significantly decreased as early as 8 weeks after irradiation, preceding the increased hydration of lenses by 4 weeks and the presence of visible cataracts by as much as 8 weeks

  20. Tocopherol in irradiation of experimental neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaagerud, A.; Peterson, H.-I.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of tocopherol, administered intramuscularly in different single doses, on the effect of local irradiation of a transplanted rat sarcoma was investigated. Tocopherol in doses of 5, 25 or 50 mg/100 g body weight enhanced significantly the tumour growth retardation induced by irradiation. Tocopherol in a dose of 100 mg/100 g body weight as a placebo preparation had no similar effect. The influence of tocopherol administered intramuscularly or orally in identical doses was similar. (Auth.)

  1. Some wholesomeness studies on irradiated Iraqi dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Rawi, A.M.; Hamoudi, H.I.

    1981-01-01

    Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Khestawi) were irradiated at different dose levels (0 to 1500 krad) to extend their shelf-lives. Samples irradiated at 150 krad showed no change in the behaviour studies of tested Swiss albino mice. Fungi were found to have a constant rate of growth on the syrup irradiated dates. Chemical products such as malondialdehyde, deoxy sugars, acids and reducing sugars were quantified. In conclusion, 150 krad is a convenient dose to extend the shelf-lives of the tested dates and is therefore recommended. (author)

  2. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu.

    1989-01-01

    In an irradiation device for irradiating radiation rays such as electron beams to pharmaceuticals, etc., since the distribution of scanned electron rays was not monitored, the electron beam intensity could be determined only indirectly and irradiation reliability was not satisfactory. In view of the above, a plurality of monitor wires emitting secondary electrons are disposed in the scanning direction near a beam take-out window of a scanning duct, signals from the monitor wires are inputted into a display device such as a cathode ray tube, as well as signals from the monitor wires at the central portion are inputted into counting rate meters to measure the radiation dose as well. Since secondary electrons are emitted when electron beams pass through the monitor wires and the intensity thereof is in proportion with the intensity of incident electron beams, the distribution of the radiation dose can be monitored by measuring the intensity of the emitted secondary electrons. Further, uneven irradiation, etc. can also be monitored to make the radiation of irradiation rays reliable. (N.H.)

  3. Phytosanitary irradiation - Development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Loaharanu, Paisan

    2016-12-01

    Phytosanitary irradiation, the use of ionizing radiation to disinfest traded agricultural commodities of regulated pests, is a growing use of food irradiation that has great continued potential for increase in commercial application. In 2015 approximately 25,000 t of fresh fruits and vegetables were irradiated globally for phytosanitary purposes. Phytosanitary irradiation has resulted in a paradigm shift in phytosanitation in that the final burden of proof of efficacy of the treatment has shifted from no live pests upon inspection at a port of entry (as for all previous phytosanitary treatments) to total dependence on certification that the treatment for target pests is based on adequate science and is commercially conducted and protected from post-treatment infestation. In this regard phytosanitary irradiation is managed more like a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) approach more consistent with food safety than phytosanitation. Thus, phytosanitary irradiation offers a more complete and rigorous methodology for safeguarding than other phytosanitary measures. The role of different organizations in achieving commercial application of phytosanitary irradiation is discussed as well as future issues and applications, including new generic doses.

  4. Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to gain an understanding of the requirements for a PSA to be considered a Living PSA. The presentation is divided into the following topics: Definition; Planning/Documentation; Task Performance; Maintenance; Management. 4 figs

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  6. Vinca irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymery, R.

    1976-10-01

    The development programme of the VINCA radiosterilisation centre involves plans for an irradiator capable of working in several ways. Discontinuous operation. The irradiator is loaded for a certain period then runs automatically until the moment of unloading. This method is suitable as long as the treatment capacity is relatively small. Continuous operation with permanent batch loading and unloading carried out either manually or automatically (by means of equipment to be installed later). Otherwise the design of the apparatus is highly conventional. The source is a vertical panel submersible in a pool. The conveyor is of the 'bucket' type, with 4 tiers to each bucket. The batches pass successively through all possible irradiation positions. Transfert into and out of the cell take place through a maze, which also provides access to the cell when the sources are in storage at the bottom of the pool [fr

  7. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  8. Irradiation processing of potatoes, onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.; Starr, A.; Wahid, M.; Ahmad, A.; Khan, I.

    1992-07-01

    In this report, studies have been conducted on irradiation preservation of potatoes, onions and garlic involving different varieties, harvesting season and storage life. As a result of these investigations, optimum conditions were established for each crop. The effect of irradiation and storage on sprouting, rottage and weight loss of potatoes is presented. The sprouting initiated in the unirradiated samples after 2 months reaching 51, 80 and 100% on 4, 5 and 6 months storage respectively. Weight losses were observed in the irradiated and unirradiated samples. (A.B.)

  9. Neutron irradiation therapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Conventional neutron irradiation therapy machines, based on the use of cyclotrons for producing neutron beams, use a superconducting magnet for the cyclotron's magnetic field. This necessitates complex liquid He equipment and presents problems in general hospital use. If conventional magnets are used, the weight of the magnet poles considerably complicates the design of the rotating gantry. Such a therapy machine, gantry and target facilities are described in detail. The use of protons and deuterons to produce the neutron beams is compared and contrasted. (U.K.)

  10. Enhancement of antimicrobial activity of chitosan by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, S.; Kume, T.

    1997-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of irradiated chitosan was studied against Escherichia coli B/r. Irradiation of chitosan at 100 kGy under dry conditions was effective in increasing the activity, and inhibited the growth of E. coli completely. The molecular weight of chitosan significantly decreased with the increase in irradiation dose, whereas the relative surface charge of chitosan was decreased only 3% by 100 kGy irradiation. Antimicrobial activity assay of chitosan fractionated according to molecular weight showed that 1 x 10 5 -3 x 10 5 fraction was most effective in suppressing the growth of E coli. This fraction comprised only 8% of the 100 kGy irradiated chitosan. On the other hand, chitosan whose molecular weight was less than 1 x 10 5 had no activity. The results show that low dose irradiation, specifically 100 kGy, of chitosan gives enough degradation to increase its antimicrobial activity as a result of a change in molecular weight. (Author)

  11. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...

  12. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  13. The effect of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B. R.

    1974-01-01

    Cellular response and cell population kinetics were studied during lymphopoiesis in the thymus of the mouse under continuous gamma irradiation using autoradiographic techniques and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine. On the basis of tissue weights, it is concluded that the response of both the thymus and spleen to continuous low dose-rate irradiation is multiphasic. That is, alternating periods of steady state growth, followed by collapse, which in turn is followed by another period of homeostasis. Since there are two populations of lymphocytes - short lived and long-lived, it may be that different phases of steady state growth are mediated by different lymphocytes. The spleen is affected to a greater extent with shorter periods of steady-state growth than exhibited by the thymus.

  14. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  15. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  16. Extending the storage life of garlic by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Croci, C.A.; Quaranta, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.03kGy) on garlic bulbs from local cultivars was studied. The treatment proved to be effective in reducing weight loss and spoilage percentage of the bulbs. After 10 months of storage the weight loss was found to be reduced by 37% in irradiated garlic. Irradiation reduced sprouting of the fresh bulbs but did not affect the rotting process. (author)

  17. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  18. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Rosanna M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  19. In-vitro Degradation Behaviour of Irradiated Bacterial Cellulose Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwis, D.; Khusniya, T.; Hardiningsih, L.; Nurlidar, F.; Winarno, H.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose membrane synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum in coconut water medium has potential application for Guided bone Regeneration. However, this membrane may not meet some application requirements due to its low biodegradation properties. In this paper, incorporation of gamma irradiation into the membrane is a developed strategy to increase its biodegradability properties. The in-vitro degradation study in synthetic body fluid (SBF) of the irradiated membrane has been analyzed during periods of 6 months by means of weight loss, mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopy observation compared to that the un-irradiated one. The result showed that weight loss of irradiated membrane with 25 kGy and 50 kGy and immersed in SBF solution for 6 months reached 18% and 25% respectively. While un-irradiated membrane did not give significant weight loss. Tensile strength of membranes decreases with increasing of irradiation dose and further decreases in tensile strength is observed when irradiated membrane was followed by immersion in SBF solution. Microscope electron image of cellulose membranes shows that un-irradiated bacterial cellulose membrane consists of dense ultrafine fibril network structures, while irradiation result in cleavage of fibrils network of cellulose. The fibrils network become loosely after irradiated membrane immersed in SBF solution due to released of small molecular weight carbohydrates formed during by irradiation from the structure (author)

  20. Industrial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Production lines for rubber gloves would not appear to have much in common with particle physics laboratories, but they both use accelerators. Electron beam irradiation is often used in industry to improve the quality of manufactured goods or to reduce production cost. Products range from computer disks, shrink packaging, tyres, cables, and plastics to hot water pipes. Some products, such as medical goods, cosmetics and certain foodstuffs, are sterilized in this way. In electron beam irradiation, electrons penetrate materials creating showers of low energy electrons. After many collisions these electrons have the correct energy to create chemically active sites. They may either break molecular bonds or activate a site which promotes a new chemical linkage. This industrial irradiation can be exploited in three ways: breaking down a biological molecule usually renders it useless and kills the organism; breaking an organic molecule can change its toxicity or function; and crosslinking a polymer can strengthen it. In addition to traditional gamma irradiation using isotopes, industrial irradiation uses three accelerator configurations, each type defining an energy range, and consequently the electron penetration depth. For energies up to 750 kV, the accelerator consists of a DC potential applied to a simple wire anode and the electrons extracted through a slot in a coaxially mounted cylindrical cathode. In the 1-5 MeV range, the Cockcroft-Walton or Dynamitron( R ) accelerators are normally used. To achieve the high potentials in these DC accelerators, insulating SF6 gas and large dimension vessels separate the anode and cathode; proprietary techniques distinguish the various commercial models available. Above 5 MeV, the size of DC accelerators render them impractical, and more compact radiofrequency-driven linear accelerators are used. Irradiation electron beams are actually 'sprayed' over the product using a magnetic deflection system. Lower energy beams of

  1. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. The Administration on Aging, a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), offers these suggestions to help you ...

  2. Easier living?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholt, Stine

    2005-01-01

    I ph.d.-projektet: "Easier Living? Streamline design og den æstetiserede livsverden" analyseres 1930'ernes Streamline-bevægelse, som tilhører den amerikanske modernisme inden for industrielt produktdesign. Bevægelsens glatte, strømlinede produkter bliver med deres enorme udbredelse det historiske...

  3. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerens, H [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Saint-Lebe, L

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment.

  4. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransohoff, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Carriers, after being loaded with product to be irradiated, are transported by an input-output conveyor system into an irradiation chamber where they are received in a horizontal arrangement on racks which may support different sizes and numbers of carriers. The racks are moved by a chamber conveyor system in an endless rectangular path about a radiation source. Packers shift the carriers on the racks to maintain nearest proximity to the radiation source. The carriers are shifted in position on each rack during successive rack cycles to produce even radiation exposure. The carriers may be loaded singly onto successive racks during a first cycle of movement thereof about the source, with loading of additional carriers, and/or unloading of carriers, onto each rack occurring on subsequent rack cycles of movement

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  7. Endolymphatic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, M.M.; Ianhez, L.E.; Sabbaga, E.

    1982-01-01

    The authors analysed the clinical evolution and the result of renal transplantation some years after irradiation in 24 patients (group I) who received endolymphatic 131 I as a pre-transplantation immunesuppresive measure. The control group (group II) consisted of 24 non-irradiated patients comparable to group I in age, sex, primary disease, type of donor and immunesuppressive therapy. Significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding such factors a incidence and reversibility of rejection crises in the first 60 post-transplantation days, loss of kidney due to rejection, and dosage of azathioprine. The authors conclude that this method, besides being harmless, has prolonged immunesuppressive action, its administration being advised for receptores of cadaver kidneys, mainly those who show positive cross-match against HLA antigens for painel. (Author) [pt

  8. Comparison of a low-fat diet to a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss, body composition, and risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in free-living, overweight men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckling, Kelly A; O'Sullivan, Caitriona; Saari, Dayna

    2004-06-01

    Overweight and obese men and women (24-61 yr of age) were recruited into a randomized trial to compare the effects of a low-fat (LF) vs. a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet on weight loss. Thirty-one subjects completed all 10 wk of the diet intervention (retention, 78%). Subjects on the LF diet consumed an average of 17.8% of energy from fat, compared with their habitual intake of 36.4%, and had a resulting energy restriction of 2540 kJ/d. Subjects on the LC diet consumed an average of 15.4% carbohydrate, compared with habitual intakes of about 50% carbohydrate, and had a resulting energy restriction of 3195 kJ/d. Both groups of subjects had significant weight loss over the 10 wk of diet intervention and nearly identical improvements in body weight and fat mass. LF subjects lost an average of 6.8 kg and had a decrease in body mass index of 2.2 kg/m2, compared with a loss of 7.0 kg and decrease in body mass index of 2.1 kg/m2 in the LC subjects. The LF group better preserved lean body mass when compared with the LC group; however, only the LC group had a significant decrease in circulating insulin concentrations. Group results indicated that the diets were equally effective in reducing systolic blood pressure by about 10 mm Hg and diastolic pressure by 5 mm Hg and decreasing plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 bioactivity. Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were increased in the LC only, at the 2- and 4-wk time points. These data suggest that energy restriction achieved by a very LC diet is equally effective as a LF diet strategy for weight loss and decreasing body fat in overweight and obese adults.

  9. Design of YCF-1 mobile γ irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hehu; Wang Chuanzhen

    1993-01-01

    YCF-1 mobile irradiator has been designed by Beijing Institute of Nuclear Engineering of China and has been put into use in Jilin province. It can play an important role in extending irradiation technology in food irradiation, disinfestation, sterilization and quarantine. This paper describes the features and design considerations of a mobile irradiator. The irradiator uses a Cesium-137 source, the design loading capacity of the source is 9.25 PBq (250 kCi). The half-life of Cs-137 is 30.2 years and the source does not need replacing. The dose rate on the surface is 0.0025 mSv/h in accordance with national standards. The shielding of the irradiation room is a steel shell filled with lead. The thickness of lead is 18 cm. The irradiator is installed on a special flat truck. The weight of the irradiator is more than 80 tons. The main components and parts of the irradiator are: source, source racks and hoist, irradiation chamber, storage source chamber, the product's transport system, dose monitoring system, ventilation system and safety interlock system. (author)

  10. Austrian Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Günter; Plasser, Fritz; Maltschnig, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Writing biographies for a long time had been a male hegemonic project. Ever since Plutarch and Sueton composed their vitae of the greats of classical antiquity, to the medieval obsession with the hagiographies of holy men (and a few women) and saints, Vasari's lives of great Renaissance artists, down to the French encyclopedists, Dr. Johnson and Lytton Strachey, as well as Ranke and Droysen the genre of biographical writing has become increasingly more refined. In the twentieth century male p...

  11. Concentration of Proteins and Protein Fractions in Blood Plasma of Chickens Hatched from Eggs Irradiated with Low Level Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Simpraga, M.; Matisic, D.; Miljanic, S.

    2011-01-01

    In literature there are many results which have shown that low dose radiation can stimulate many physiological processes of living organism. In our earlier paper it was shown that low dose of gamma radiation has a stimulative effect upon metabolic process in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. This was proved by increase of body weight gain and body weight, as well as by increase of two enzymes activities in blood plasma (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) which play an important role in protein metabolism. Therefore, an attempt was made to determine the effect of eggs irradiation by low dose gamma rays upon concentration of total proteins and protein fractions in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breed chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups of chickens. Blood samples were taken from the right jugular vein on the 1 s t and 3 r d day, or from the wing vein on days 5 and 7 after hatching. The total proteins concentration in the blood plasma was determined by the biuret method using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. The protein fractions (albumin, α 1 -globulin, α 2 -globulin, β- and γ-globulins) were estimated electrophoretically on Cellogel strips. The total proteins concentration was significantly decreased in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3 (P t h day (P 2 -globulin was decreased on days 1 (P t h day of life. Obtained results indicate that low dose of gamma radiation has mostly inhibitory effect upon concentration of total proteins and protein fractions in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs before incubation. (author)

  12. Lifetime of Macroradicals in UHMWPE Irradiated with Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of high energy radiation with UHMWPE leads to the scission of C-C and C-H bonds both in the amorphous and in the criystalline phase, giving H radicals, macroradicals and trans vinylene double bonds. If oxygen is present, alkyl macroradicals react immediately with it and the oxidation chain process begins. In this case the main products are hydroperoxides. In our laboratory ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (medical grade GUR 1050) has been irradiated with electron beam in vacuum and in presence of oxygen at room temperature. Electron beam irradiation has been considered in order to neglect irradiation time, that is shorter (maximum 2 minutes) than gamma irradiation time and negligible compared to the following observation time. UHMWPE irradiated has been examined with two different techniques, FTIR and EPR spectroscopy. Micro FTIR Spectroscopy has been carried out on UHMWPE to evaluate hydroperoxide concentration in samples irradiated in presence of oxygen. Hydroperoxides and their distribution inside samples can be observed very well with FTIR microscopy after a derivatization process (with NO). The obtained hydroperoxide profile decreases when distance from the outer surface increases till it achieves a plateau. The first decrease can be attributed to macroradicals reaction with oxygen, that can diffuse only in the amorphous phase. Value obtained in the centre of block is correlated only with oxygen dissolved in UHMWPE before irradiation. If radicals live for some hours, oxygen can diffuse into UHMWPE during the macroradicals lifetime and the hydroperoxides profile is a curve similar to that obtained. Comparing the oxygen diffusion curve, calculated in the function of Fick's law, with the hydroperoxide profile, we have obtained a good agreement when oxygen diffusion is calculated over two hours. This means that the macroradicals must survive at least for two hours in the amorphous phase. EPR Spectroscopy was undertaken to explore the nature of

  13. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward

    2018-03-07

    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  14. Application of living radical polymerization to the synthesis of resist polymers for radiation lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Ichikawa, Tsuneki

    2005-01-01

    Poly(styrene) and poly(methyl acrylate) with benzyl ester of carboxylic acid at the center of the polymer skeletons were synthesized by living radical polymerization for developing a new type of radiation resist with high resistivity to plasma etching and high sensitivity and spatial resolution to ionizing radiations. The initiators were benzyl esters with two functional groups for living radical polymerization on the benzyl and the carboxylic sides. Introduction of benzyl ester to the polymer skeletons changed the polymers from cross-link type to scission type upon γ-irradiation. Irradiation of the polymers resulted in the binary change of the molecular weight, due to dissociative capture of secondary electrons by the benzyl ester, as M n R 1 COOCH(C 6 H 5 )R 2 M n +e - ->M n R 1 COO - + · CH(C 6 H 5 )R 2 M n . The generated polymer fragments were not decomposed by further irradiation, which suggests that the synthesized polymers have high resistivity to plasma etching

  15. Application of living radical polymerization to the synthesis of resist polymers for radiation lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takashi [Nitto Denko Co. LTD., Shimohozumi 1-1-2, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-8680 (Japan); Ichikawa, Tsuneki [Division of Materials Chemistry, Graduate school of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: ichikawa@eng.hokudai.ac.jp

    2005-07-01

    Poly(styrene) and poly(methyl acrylate) with benzyl ester of carboxylic acid at the center of the polymer skeletons were synthesized by living radical polymerization for developing a new type of radiation resist with high resistivity to plasma etching and high sensitivity and spatial resolution to ionizing radiations. The initiators were benzyl esters with two functional groups for living radical polymerization on the benzyl and the carboxylic sides. Introduction of benzyl ester to the polymer skeletons changed the polymers from cross-link type to scission type upon {gamma}-irradiation. Irradiation of the polymers resulted in the binary change of the molecular weight, due to dissociative capture of secondary electrons by the benzyl ester, as M{sub n}R{sub 1}COOCH(C{sub 6}H{sub 5})R{sub 2}M{sub n}+e{sup -}->M{sub n}R{sub 1}COO{sup -}+{sup {center_dot}}CH(C{sub 6}H{sub 5})R{sub 2}M{sub n}. The generated polymer fragments were not decomposed by further irradiation, which suggests that the synthesized polymers have high resistivity to plasma etching.

  16. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2015-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... to grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part...

  17. Lively package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-01-01

    Progress on the Lloydminster Heavy Oil Interpretive Centre, sponsored by the Lloydminster Oilfield Technical Society and expected to open in late 1998, was discussed. Some $150,000 of the $750,000 budget is already in the bank, and another $150,000 is in the pipeline. The Centre will be added to an existing and well-established visitor's site. It is reported to contain a lively and imaginatively-designed exhibit package, and promises to become a combination of educational tool and tourist attraction for the town of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, in the heart of heavy oil country

  18. The effect of γ-rays irradiation on poly (L-lactic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chaorong; Chen Hao; Wang Jingxia; Wu Ling; Chen Zhuping; Deng Huachuan

    2008-01-01

    Poly (L-lactic acid) was irradiated by γ-rays. The effects of absorbed dose on viscosity average molecular weight, crystallization and thermal weight loss in irradiated condition under vacuum, nitrogen, air and oxygen were investigated, which were characterized by using ubbelohde viscometer, differential scamming calorimeter (DSC), polarized microscope and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). Viscosity average molecular weight of PLLA decreases with increment of absorbed dose and viscosity average molecular weight of PLLA irradiated in vacuum is highest among the different irradiated condition at same absorbed dose. Both degree and rates of crystallization increase with increment of absorbed dose and TGA curves of PLLA irradiated under vacuum or nitrogen are shifted towards higher temperature compare with un-irradiated sample at the absorbed dose from 6-40kGy. The weight loss of PLLA irradiated under oxygen is lower than that under vacuum at absorbed dose of 6kGy. (authors)

  19. Wholesomeness and safety of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation with gamma-rays, X-rays or fast electrons can be used to change foodstuffs in beneficial ways or to destroy harmful organisms. Gamma rays do not induce radioactivity in foods, but X-rays and fast electrons can induce short lived radioactivity if sufficiently energetic. This imposes limitations on the energies which can be used, and a short wait between irradiation and consumption may be advisable. Irradiation produces chemical changes in foodstuffs, and some foods are unsuitable for irradiation. With appropriate foods, trials with animals and human volunteers generally show that the product is safe. Some loss in nutritional quality can take place, which could be significant for some individuals, but are unlikely to be important for those on a balanced diet. Irradiation does not eliminate all risk from microbial contamination. Foods to be irradiated should be good quality, and need to be kept under proper conditions after irradiation. Irradiated foods should be appropriately labelled. Tests for radiation would help to enforce necessary controls. If the process is properly carried out on appropriate foods, and all due precautions are taken, irradiated foods are wholesome and safe. 52 references

  20. Effect of low-dose gamma-radiation upon hatchability and weight of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Simpraga, M.; Miljanic, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Although any dose of ionizing radiation has generally been recognized to be detrimental to living being, low dose ionizing radiation seems to invoke primary stimulative effects. Stimulatory effects of low dose ionizing radiation include many aspects such as growth, fecundity and longevity stimulation, accelerated development, enhance biological responses for immune systems, enzymatic repair, physiological functions, and the removal of cellular damage, including prevention and removal of cancers and other diseases. Low dose ionizing radiation might also cause changes in the concentration of some biochemical parameters in blood plasma of chickens such as changes in the concentration of total proteins, glucose and cholesterol. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of low doses of gamma irradiation before incubation and on the seventh day of incubation on hatchability of eggs and body weight of chickens. This study includes three independent experiments. In the first experiment, six-hundred eggs produced by a commercial flock of Avian-line 34, were irradiated by a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. In the second experiments also involving six-hundred-line 34 eggs were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation on the seventh day of incubation. In the third experiment three-hundred eggs produced by a commercial flock of Ross 308 were irradiated by dose 0.30 Gy gamma irradiation before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. Hatchability was calculated in terms of all eggs divided with fertile eggs which hatched. The individual weights of the chickens were determined on the first and on the forty second day. Growth data were analyzed statistically by t-test. Irradiation of chicken eggs and embryos at rates o f 0.15 Gy increases

  1. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage for orbital reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linberg, J.V.; Anderson, R.L.; Edwards, J.J.; Panje, W.R.; Bardach, J.

    1980-01-01

    Human costal cartilage is an excellent implant material for orbital and periorbital reconstruction because of its light weight, strength, homogeneous consistency and the ease with which it can be carved. Its use has been limited by the necessity of a separate surgical procedure to obtain the material. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage has been shown to have almost all the autogenous cartilage and is convenient to use. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage transplants do not elicit rejection reactions, resist infection and rarely undergo absorption

  2. Differential-thermal analysis of irradiated lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichek, F; Eyubova, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In this theme our purpose is to explain thermo-differential analysis of lignite's irradiated. During experiment Caraman Ermenek (washed), Caraman Ermenek (crude), Nevshehir (crude), Slopi (crude), Trakya Harman (washed) lignite coals were used. Five of five kinds of coal samples with 3mm and 1 gr of each sample were obtained. Then they were filled into the Tubes after having dried total 25 samples with 1 gr at 1000C temperature for one hour. Air in the tubes was pumped out and closed. Coal samples in vacuum medium were irradiated by gamma rays of Co-60 at 5.5 kGy, 19.2 kGy, 65.7 kGy, 169.6 kGy, 411.2 kGy, doses to the normal conditions. At the end coal irradiated samples were compared with original coal samples. At the result of experiment it was revealed that in comparison with original coal samples coal samples irradiated from exothermic and endothermic curves at very reaction pick and temperature intervals of these pick were large. Besides loss of weight was observed to begin at low temperatures in samples irradiated and especially momentary weight loss at some heats in the rang of known temperatures was observed in the coal Slopi contain in bitumen. Because of heat the weight loss in the non irradiated samples forms parabolic curve and because of heat the weight loss in the samples irradiated forms stepped curves. It was shown that the coal irradiated can be easily departed by heat because of the chemical structure in comparison the original one.

  3. Irradiation sterilization of semi-crystalline polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Dunn, T.; Stannett, V.

    1978-01-01

    A semi-crystalline polymer such as polypropylene, is sterilized by high energy irradiation, with the polymer containing a non-crystalline mobilizing additive which increases the free volume of the polymer, to prevent embrittlement of the polymer during and subsequent to the irradiation. The additive has a density of from 0.6 to 1.9 g/cm 3 and a molecular weight from 100 to 10,000 g/mole

  4. Common Weight Loss Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  5. Irradiated foods and allergy. From a perspective of irradiation chemistry of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    A change of protein in irradiated food has been known. There are a few reports on change of allergy of irradiated foods. Two kinds of allergy such as the immediate allergy (I type) and delayed allergy (IV type) are taken ill by foods. I type is related to irradiated foods. Allergen enters body through digestive tract. Anti body (IgE) is protein with from 10,000 to 100,000 molecular weight. Allergic disease is originated mainly by egg, milk, wheat, buckwheat, peanut and shrimp. When food is irradiated, the proteins are decomposed and produced higher and lower molecular compounds at the same time. Change of the viscosity and the sedimentation coefficient and deactivation of enzymes of β-lactoglobulin, cow albumin, egg albumin and casein were investigated. There is no report of increasing allergy by irradiation. However, some paper indicated that immunogenicity of protein was decreased by irradiation. (S.Y.)

  6. Effects of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg weight was positively and strongly correlated with egg hatchability (r2 = 0.727) and chick hatch-weight (r2 = 0.953). Heavier-sized eggs hatched chicks had higher mortality rates. Growth rate and live weight of the chickens were optimized at different egg weights of 56 (r2 = 0.657) and 60 (r2 = 0.870) g, respectively, ...

  7. Sprout inhibition of onions by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, A.K.; Hossain, M.A.; Choudhury, M.S.U.; Matin, M.A.; Amin, M.R.; Hossain, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Onions of a set grown local variety were gamma irradiated in the dose range of 2-8 Krad. The irradiated onions were then stored in 10 lb. bags and in single layer at an average ambient temperature of 83 0 F and 79% relative humidity. Radiation doses of 4 Krad and above were completely inhibitory to sprouting of onions. Weight loss and rot incidence were markedly reduced in irradiated samples up to 10 months in both jute bag and single layer storage. An analysis of the cost benefit revealed that commercial irradiation of onions is economically feasible in Bangladesh if post-irradiation of storage extends for a period of over 6 months. (author)

  8. Dosimetry of the portable blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Hungate, F.P.; Reece, W.D.; Tanner, J.E.

    1985-08-01

    A portable blood irradiator was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to evaluate the effects of chronic irradiation of the blood in suppressing graft rejection. The irradiator, designed to be worn on the arm or leg and be surgically connected in an arterio-venous shunt, uses beta radiation from activated thulium imbedded in a vitreous carbon matrix to reduce the number of lymphocytes circulating in the blood. The dose and energy spectra relative to the distance from and position around a prototype irradiator were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters, ion chambers and photon spectroscopy. With computer simulations using those measurements, the shielding was redesigned to minimize the radiation dose to the patient and to the attending personnel and to minimize the weight of the irradiator. The new shielding design was incorporated into a new prototype, and the dose and spectral measurements were repeated, which confirmed the design improvements. 10 refs., 11 figs

  9. Efeitos da temperatura ambiente sobre o desempenho de suínos dos 30 aos 60 kg Effects of environmental temprerature on performance of pigs from 30 to 60 kg live weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Manno

    2006-04-01

    composition and physiological parameters of pigs from 30 to 60 kg of weight. Thirty six barrow (Landrace x Large White with initial weight of 29.94 ± 0.49 kg, were assigned to a completely randomized experimental design with three treatments six replicates and two animals per experimental unity. The experimental period lasted 35 days. The treatments consisted of T1 Animals on heat stress (32ºC fed ad libitum; T2 Animals on thermal comfort (23ºC fed ad libitum; T3 Animals on thermal comfort (23ºC pair feeding with treatment 1. Environmental temperature reduced the feed intake however improved the feed:gain ratio and lysine efficiency utilization for gain of the animals on treatment 1 compared of those on the others treatments. Fat deposition was lesser for swine maintained in treatments 1 and 3 than for those on treatment 2. However only animals on thermal comfort with pair feeding showed a decreasing protein deposition. The animals on heat stress showed lower fasting and carcass weights than those animals on thermal comfort with ad libitum feeding. The animals on heat stress showed fasting and carcass weights higher than those with pair feeding. The treatments did not affect carcass yield and relative weights of the evaluated organs, exception for stomach, that was smaller in T3. The physiological parameters (surface temperature and respiratory rate were negatively affected by high temperature (T1. Rectal temperature was not influenced by the treatments. It was concluded that in the growing phase high temperature decreased pig performance and maintained a protein deposition in carcass, and this effect is not limitant to decrease feed intake.

  10. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes and Kidney Disease 12 Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease. People living with diabetes ... onset of the disease. MOVE! This national weight management program is designed to help veterans lose weight, ...

  11. Biology of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents his arguments for food scientists and biologists that the hazards of food irradiation outweigh the benefits. The subject is discussed in the following sections: introduction (units, mutagenesis, seed viability), history of food irradiation, effects of irradiation on organoleptic qualities of staple foods, radiolytic products and selective destruction of nutrients, production of microbial toxins in stored irradiated foods and loss of quality in wheat, deleterious consequences of eating irradiated foods, misrepresentation of the facts about food irradiation. (author)

  12. Renal effects of renal x irradiation and induced autoallergic glomerulonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, D.S.; Casarett, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine what influence a single large x-ray exposure of kidney has on the development and course of an experimental autoallergic glomerulonephritis (EAG) in rats. EAG was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by immunization with Bordetella pertussis vaccine and homogenate of homologous kidney tissue and Freund's complete adjuvant. Progressive arteriolonephrosclerosis (ANS) was observed in right (irradiated) kidneys following unilateral renal irradiation (1500 rad). Rats were either immunized, sham-immunized, irradiated, sham-irradiated, or both immunized and irradiated. Light and immunofluorescent microscopic observation, urine protein content, and kidney weights were evaluated. In immunized-irradiated animals the effects of irradiation and immunization were largely additive. Immunization did not considerably influence the development and course of ANS and irradiation did not considerably influence the development and course of EAG

  13. Radiation chemistry of polymer degradation processes: molecular weight distribution effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, N.S.

    1976-01-01

    The molecular weight distributions of poly(methyl methacrylate) irradiated at 15 and 25 MeV with electron beams were investigated. The experimental values for the effect of chain scissions on the dispersivity agreed well with theoretical predictions

  14. Feeding management practices and feed characteristics associated with Salmonella prevalence in live and slaughtered market-weight finisher swine: a systematic review and summation of evidence from 1950 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A M; Denagamage, T; Sargeant, J M; Rajić, A; McKean, J

    2008-11-17

    This review summarizes evidence for associations between Salmonella prevalence in market-weight swine and changes in feeding management practices or feed characteristics. A systematic review of the topic was conducted with the goal of minimizing the impact of bias on the review conclusions. Potential interventions included feed withdrawal from swine prior to slaughter, feed acidification, heat treatment of feed, pelletized feed versus mash, course versus fine grind, and wet versus dry feeds. In the reviewed literature, Salmonella prevalence was measured either by culture or by the presence of antibodies to Salmonella. The evidentiary value of studies was assessed, and studies that failed to meet predetermined standards were excluded. 7694 potentially relevant references were identified by an extensive literature search; however, 2623 references that were not published in English were excluded, because funds for translation were not available. Of the remaining references, only 277 were considered relevant to the review topic by two independent reviewers, and assessed for methodological quality. During quality assessment, 233 references were excluded because they failed to report design features that limit the introduction of bias or were conducted in a non-target population such as gnotobiotic, neonatal, nursery, or recently weaned pigs and sows. Forty-four publications passed the quality assessment conducted by 2 independent reviewers, but only 15 of the 44 publications reported studies that tested hypotheses associated with feeding management practices and feed characteristics and Salmonella prevalence in market-weight swine. The most common study design was cross-sectional (7/15). The included studies failed to provide strong evidence of an association between any of the potential interventions and Salmonella prevalence, due to the potential for confounding, and the failure to document temporal association between the intervention and Salmonella prevalence. The

  15. An analysis of irradiation creep in nuclear graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neighbour, G.B.; Hacker, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear graphite under load shows remarkably high creep ductility with neutron irradiation, well in excess of any strain experienced in un-irradiated graphite (and additional to any dimensional changes that would occur without stress). As this behaviour compensates, to some extent, some other irradiation effects such as thermal shutdown stresses, it is an important property. This paper briefly reviews the approach to irradiation creep in the UK, described by the UK Creep Law. It then offers an alternative analysis of irradiation creep applicable to most situations, including HTR systems, using AGR moderator graphite as an example, to high values of neutron fluence, applied stress and radiolytic weight loss. (authors)

  16. Application of gamma irradiation for the enhanced physiological properties of polysaccharides from seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Soo Chun, Byeong; Hyun Ahn, Dong; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Kim, Duk-Jin; Kim, Gwang Hoon; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Polysaccharides from seaweeds, fucoidan and laminarin, were irradiated with gamma rays, and their structural changes and anti-oxidative activities were investigated. The gamma irradiation decreased the average molecular weights of polysaccharides, and UV spectra of irradiated polysaccharides showed increases in the numbers of carboxyl and carbonyl groups and double bonds. DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of the gamma irradiated polysaccharides were significantly higher than those non-irradiated.

  17. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  18. Container for gaseous samples for irradiation at accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupsch, H.; Riemenschneider, J.; Leonhardt, J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a container for gaseous samples for the irradiation at accelerators especially to generate short-lived radioisotopes. The container is also suitable for storage and transport of the target gas and can be multiply reused

  19. Late development of colorectal cancer subsequent to pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, T.W.; Rombeau, J.L.; Levine, H.S.; Turnbull, R.B. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Two cases of irradiation-associated carcinoma of the colon are reported and the literature reviewed. The clinical courses and operative difficulties in treating these patients are emphasized. The necessity for life-long follow-up examinations with proctoscopic and barium-enema evaluations in high-risk patients is stressed. Irradiation-associated carcinoma of the colon occurs almost exclusively in women, but should be investigated in patients of either sex who live for long periods after pelvic irradiation

  20. Vacancy Migration and Void Formation in gamma-irradiated Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1976-01-01

    Positron annihilation techniques (PAT) have been used to study the effects in ice of γ irradiation at −196°C and of subsequent heating, both in poly‐ and monocrystalline samples. The main effects of irradiation are (1) the appearance in positron lifetime spectra of two long‐lived components (1...

  1. Moving beam irradiation in combined therapy of cervix uteri cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, O M; Zholkiver, K I

    1976-07-01

    Postoperative moving beam irradiation in a dose of 3900 to 365 rad was conducted in 98 patients with the I--II stages of cervix uteri cancer. Skin reactions to irradiation were absent, marked leukopenia developed in 4 patients. Of 39 patients followed up for more than 5 years 35 have lived without relapses and metastases.

  2. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  3. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H.; Ha, P.T.L.; Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T.

    2001-01-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10 5 to ca. 6 x 10 3 by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of 62 Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  4. Effect of irradiation on sensory quality of fermented spicy chicken feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Meixu; Li Shurong; Pei Ying; Jiang Xiujie; Wang Zhidong; Deng Wenmin; Chen Xun; Huang Min; Chen Hao

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation could effectively control lactobacillus of fermented spicy chicken feet and extend its shelf life. Sensory evaluation standard of fermented spicy chicken feet was established to study the sensory change after irradiation according to related standards and research results. Color and shape (weight 30%), scent (weight 30%), texture and taste (weight 40%) were selected as sensory evaluation items. The sensory evaluation results after irradiation 3 days didn't show significance difference among control, 3, 5, 8 and 12 kGy irradiated samples, and the sensory evaluation score of 10 kGy irradiated sample was much higher then other sample groups. The results after irradiation 11d were almost as same as 3d results. It is indicated that the sensory quality of fermented spicy chicken feet would not destroyed by irradiation, and suitable dosage of irradiation may promote the sensory quality of fermented spicy chicken feet. (authors)

  5. Economic aspects of food irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Osetskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the irradiated foods world market quantitative and economic volume' estimating in 29 countries. The irradiation exposure technology development is presented in order to prospects in Russia. The main irradiated foods categories such as spices, herbs, dry vegetables, fruits, frozen and chilled meat, including frog legs, seafood, grains and others are identified. It is shown the quantitative dividing irradiated foods world market is between China (37,60%, USA (19,36%, Ukraine (14,74%, Vietnam (12,41%, Brazil (5,62%, South Africa (4,10%, Indonesia (1.30 percent, Japan (1,17%, Belgium (1,10%. The remaining 20 States took a share of 2.6%. The irradiated products world market’ economic volume amounting to 17,136.56 million rubles, is divided between the USA (48,64%, China (16,26%, Brazil (14,53%, South Africa (of 10.18%, Vietnam (of 5.88%, Indonesia (1,04%. The remaining 24 countries took a share of 3.48% while share each of them amounting less than 1%. It is revealed that the most expensive irradiated foods’ category is "spices and herbs", least – "vegetables", "cereals". The research results are shown the Russian potential irradiated foods volume consisting of meat products, the main vegetable crops, food ingredients, spices and food is about 10 million tons, more than 12 million tons, about 200 thousand tons per year respectively. The meat and poultry total production was 9,899.2 thousand tons in carcass weight, yield of grain and leguminous was 120,671.79 thousand tons; spices raw was 97.5 thousand tons, potatoes was 31,107.80 thousand tones, vegetables (excluding melons was 16,283.34 thousand tons, forage crops (except grasses was 27,674.15 thousand tons in 2016 in Russia. Therefore 100% of meat, 74% of vegetables and about 1% of spices and animal feeds may be subjected to radiation in Russia. Despite the advanced technology and status as a leader in the agricultural radiology and radioecology field commercial

  6. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Masamitsu; Meshitsuka, Gyosuke; Ishizu, Atsushi; Nakano, Junzo

    1981-01-01

    Pre-irradiation of wood in alkaline aqueous ethanol increases kraft pulp yield by up to 1.2%, as already reported. In order to clarify the mechanism of the pulp yield gain, the behaviors of lignin and carbohydrates during pre-irradiation and cooking were investigated. The results are summarized as follows: 1) γ-Irradiation of guaiacylethane in alkaline aqueous ethanol produced 5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-guaicylethane, which is formed by radical coupling between α-hydroxyethyl radical from ethanol and guaiacylethane radical having an unpaired electron at C-5. 5,5'-Dehydrodiguaiacylethane, which may be a predominant product produced by γ-irradiation in the absence of ethanol, was also detected. 2) The yield of vanillin obtained by nitrobenzene oxidation of MWL decreased with an increase of γ-ray dosage. The presence of ethanol during γ-irradiation lessened the extent of this decrease and also the degradation of cellobiose. 3) Gel filtration of the products obtained by γ-irradiation of MWL and cellobiose in the presence of 14 C-ethanol showed the possible combination between ethanol and MWL or cellobiose. 4) Molecular weight distributions of kraft lignin obtained from pre-irradiated beech chips were compared with those obtained from unirradiated chips. This result shows that γ-irradiation in the presence of ethanol decreases the ability of lignin to condense during kraft cooking. (author)

  7. Quantification of biologically effective environmental UV irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    To determine the impact of environmental UV radiation on human health and ecosystems demands monitoring systems that weight the spectral irradiance according to the biological responses under consideration. In general, there are three different approaches to quantify a biologically effective solar irradiance: (i) weighted spectroradiometry where the biologically weighted radiometric quantities are derived from spectral data by multiplication with an action spectrum of a relevant photobiological reaction, e.g. erythema, DNA damage, skin cancer, reduced productivity of terrestrial plants and aquatic foodweb; (ii) wavelength integrating chemical-based or physical dosimetric systems with spectral sensitivities similar to a biological response curve; and (iii) biological dosimeters that directly weight the incident UV components of sunlight in relation to the effectiveness of the different wavelengths and to interactions between them. Most biological dosimeters, such as bacteria, bacteriophages, or biomolecules, are based on the UV sensitivity of DNA. If precisely characterized, biological dosimeters are applicable as field and personal dosimeters.

  8. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  9. FY 2000 report on the results of the research and development project for utilization of information of high-molecular-weight structures in a living body. Survey on the technological trends of utilizing the reactions with metals in a living body; 2000 nendo seitai kobunshi kozo joho riyo gijutsu kaihatsu chosa hokokusho. 'Seitai kinzoku hanno riyo gijutsu' ni kansuru gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the survey on the technological trends of utilizing the reactions with metals in a living body, noting the bio-processes effectively coping with the environmental problems. The effects of heavy metals on microorganisms have been investigated on the molecular biology level, but are not fully elucidated. Recently, the microorganisms capable of converting inorganic metal ions in water into the insoluble compounds have been known, leading to possibility of bioremediation to solve pollution by heavy metals, which have detrimental effects on human health. Heavy metals must be recovered, because they are not extinct by decomposition. The plant aided purification has been attracting attention to cope with heavy metals accumulated in soil. Application of bacteria-aided leaching, which is adopted as one ore smelting process, to the technologies for utilizing metals in a living body has been expected, because diversified activities of inanimate matters in extreme environments have been known. Recently, bio-machining of metals aided by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, one species of independent nutrient bacteria capable of eating metals, has been developed to a potentially viable stage. (NEDO)

  10. Irradiation Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Fabich, Adrian; Garcia, Alia, Ruben; Glaser, Maurice; Gorine, Georgi; Jaekel, Martin, Richard; Mateu,Suau, Isidre; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Fabio; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-01-01

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in many scientific fields. This paper summarizes the facilities currently operating for proton, gamma, mixed-field and electron irradiations, including their main usage, characteristics and information about their operation. The new CERN irradiation facilities database is also presented. This includes not only CERN facilities but also irradiation facilities available worldwide.

  11. Irradiation of onions with the commercial potato irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shohei; Kawashima, Koji; Hayasi, Toru

    1983-01-01

    Three varieties of onion harvested in Hokkaido were irradiated with the Shohoro Potato Irradiator on 29th September, 1981. One ton of each of the varieties, Kitamiki (KI), Ohohtsuku (OH) and Furanui (FU), was used in this investigation. Onions had longer dormancy period in the order of FU>OH>KI. Higher sprouting percentage was obtained in the unirradiated onions, while they were stored at a higher temperature or stored for a longer period. Generally, unirradiated onions sprouted before they were deteriorated. Thus the number of deteriorated bulbs in the unirradiated onions was superficially less than that in the irradiated ones. When the onions which were taken from warehouses on 26th March, 1982 were stored at room temperature, the percentage of wholesome bulbs was higher in KI and OH than FU. Small buds in some of the irradiated onions turned dark after a long storage time. Quantitative estimation of this phenomena is left to be resolved. There was little relationship between the weight loss and the number of wholesome onions. (author)

  12. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  13. Association between body weight and dimensional shell traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of regression models revealed that live weight of A. achatina was best predicted with multiple linear regression models, while with live weight of A. marginata was best predicted with simple linear regression model and multiple linear regression models. A test of accuracy of the linear regression models showed ...

  14. Pyrolysis of γ-ray irradiated poly(tetrafluorethylene) powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiya, Tsutomu; Yokoyama, Norio; Ueno, Toru

    1974-01-01

    Pyrolysis of γ-ray irradiated poly(tetrafluoroethylene) powder (PTFE) has been studied at temperatures from 200 0 C to 390 0 C in the presence of air. By heating, the weight decrease of the powder and the formation of gaseous CO 2 and CO were observed. The weight decrease of the powder increased with total dose of irradiation. γ-ray irradiated PTFE decomposed partly by heating above 250 0 C. By heating at 300 0 C, the degree of weight decrease increased with heating time and reached a constant value. While at 390 0 C, successive decomposition was observed. The melting point of PTFE was depressed by irradiation, while it did not change by heating. No change of IR spectrum of PTFE by irradiation and/or heating was observed. In the irradiated PTFE, stable peroxy radical was observed by ESR measurement at room temperature, but decreased by heating at 150 0 C and disappeared at 250 0 C. Upon pre-heating the irradiated PTFE above 200 0 C, the weight decrease of the powder at 390 0 C decreased remarkably. On the basis of these results, mechanisms of the pyrolysis and thermo-stabilization of the irradiated PTFE were discussed. (auth.)

  15. Structural changes in γ-irradiated Brucella strain chemical vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dranovskaya, E.A.; Kulikov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    It was shown that γ-irradiation of Brucella strain chemical vaccine stimulated phospholipid peroxidation therein: the content of extractable total phospholipids in the exposed vaccine decreased mainly due to diminution of phosphatidynatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines. A relative content of high- and low-molecular weight protein componets increase in the γ-irradiated vaccine

  16. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation.

  17. Low Birth Weight, Very Low Birth Weight Rates and Gestational Age-Specific Birth Weight Distribution of Korean Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Son-Moon; Chang, Young-Pyo; Lee, Eun-Sil; Lee, Young-Ah; Son, Dong-Woo; Kim, Min-Hee; Choi, Young-Ryoon

    2005-01-01

    To obtain the low birth weight (LBW) rate, the very low birth weight (VLBW) rate, and gestational age (GA)-specific birth weight distribution based on a large population in Korea, we collected and analyzed the birth data of 108,486 live births with GA greater than 23 weeks for 1 yr from 1 January to 31 December 2001, from 75 hospitals and clinics located in Korea. These data included birth weight, GA, gender of the infants, delivery type, maternal age, and the presence of multiple pregnancy. ...

  18. Technological quality of irradiated Moroccan citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussaid El Idrissi, M.; R'Kiek, C.; Farahat Laaroussi, S.; Zantar; Mouhib, M.; El Guerrouj, D.; Toukour, L.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of irradiation at doses of 125, 250, 375, and 500 Gy, commonly used for quarantine treatment, on the quality of Maroc-late orange, the most common export variety of Morocco was investigated. In the first study fruits were irradiated without any previous cold conditioning treatment as practiced by the export trade for quarantine purposes. In the second study fruits obtained from the normal chain after conditioning was irradiated. Storage of irradiated fruits was studied at room temperature and 10 deg. C at 0 deg. C in case of control fruits. The parameters studied included juice yield, total solids, reducing and total sugars, total acids and volatile acids, dry weight and weight loss. The results showed that irradiation did not affect the technological quality of citrus fruits during four weeks storage. The result thus far points to the possibility for the successful application of irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to the classical methods, which result in browning of the peel. The browning phenomenon could be controlled by waxing and will be the subject of a future study. (author)

  19. Live animal and carcass characteristics of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex, age and pre-slaughter conditioning on live animal, carcass dimensions and carcass composition were evaluated. The goats were large with live weight, carcass weight and carcass dimensions in the range of the large breeds of southern Africa. They had a high lean and low fat content. Intact males were ...

  20. Electron beam irradiating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, K

    1969-12-20

    The efficiency of an electron beam irradiating device is heightened by improving the irradiation atmosphere and the method of cooling the irradiation window. An irradiation chamber one side of which incorporates the irradiation windows provided at the lower end of the scanner is surrounded by a suitable cooling system such as a coolant piping network so as to cool the interior of the chamber which is provided with circulating means at each corner to circulate and thus cool an inert gas charged therewithin. The inert gas, chosen from a group of such gases which will not deleteriously react with the irradiating equipment, forms a flowing stream across the irradiation window to effect its cooling and does not contaminate the vacuum exhaust system or oxidize the filament when penetrating the equipment through any holes which the foil at the irradiation window may incur during the irradiating procedure.

  1. Anticipated consumer reaction to irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction on first hearing of food irradiation is horror, revulsion, and disbelief that we could seriously anticipate such a thing. Ignorance coupled with fear of anything to do with the nuclear industry is the reason for such extreme reaction. Before anyone rushes into marketing irradiated foods, a lot of careful preparation must be done. A consumer education program is essential. The consumers must be told why it is proposed to irradiate food, what benefits it will bring to the public. Enough need will have to be demonstrated to overcome the supposed risk factor. Symbol on all irradiated foods must not be used to alert or alarm the consumer but rather as a piece of information. It will be necessary to be ever vigilant, to keep up the diligent training of food irradiators, food handlers and food inspectors. Irradiation is not a substitute for good manufacturing practice. So by using a different name or symbol, irradiated foods will soon be a part of our lives

  2. Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy

    2018-03-01

    There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.

  3. [Living better or living longer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvy, A

    1987-01-01

    It has been just 2 centuries since France began to struggle seriously against mortality and excess fertility. Life expectancy, which for millenia had been under 30 years at birth, began to increase because of the discovery of effective treatments, improved production and standards of living, and access of large numbers of persons to health care. France, in the 2nd half of the 18th century, became the first country in which fertility regulation was achieved on a wide scale. The failure of England, a country of similar culture, to follow suit until a century later remains unexplained. After World War II, simple and fairly inexpensive means of mortality control, such as vaccines and water purifiers, became widely distributed throughout the developing world. These countries, which traditionally had mortality rates of 35 or 40/1000 and fertility of 40-45/1000, experienced rapid declines in mortality rates while their fertility remained constant or even increased. Because antinatal techniques diffused so much more slowly, the equilibrium of births and deaths was disturbed as rates of increase of 2 or 3% per year became common. Although the inhabitants of poor countries were not concerned, perhaps through ignorance of what was occurring, the rich countries were alarmed by the increase. Their principal objective became to spread contraception in the poor countries. The available methods at the time, however, were none too reliable. When oral contraceptive pills became available, fertility dropped to very low levels in Europe but such factors as cost and illiteracy discouraged use in many underdeveloped countries. Fertility declined in a few insular states such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore even before the appearance of pills. Life expectancies in developing countries except a few in Africa have increased since World War II and are now higher than in Europe at the turn of the century. "Health for all by the year 2000" is an astonishing slogan for a serious

  4. Irradiation of goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.

    1992-01-01

    The necessary dose and the dosage limits to be observed depend on the kind of product and the purpose of irradiation. Product density and density distribution, product dimensions, but also packaging, transport and storage conditions are specific parameters influencing the conditions of irradiation. The kind of irradiation plant - electron accelerator or gamma plant - , its capacity, transport system and geometric arrangement of the radiation field are factors influencing the irradiation conditions as well. This is exemplified by the irradiation of 3 different products, onions, deep-frozen chicken and high-protein feed. Feasibilities and limits of the irradiation technology are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  5. Expert Coaching in Weight Loss: Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stefanie Lynn; Ahmed, Rezwan; Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2018-03-13

    Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (Pcoaching session attendance (Pcoaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. Participant's one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. ©Stefanie Lynn Painter, Rezwan Ahmed, Robert F Kushner, James O Hill, Richard Lindquist, Scott

  6. Expert Coaching in Weight Loss: Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Background Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (Pcoaching session attendance (Pcoaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. Conclusions Participant’s one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. PMID:29535082

  7. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieu N. Lan [Post Harvest Technology Inst. of Vietnam (Viet Nam)

    2000-09-01

    Application of irradiated chitosan has been investigated for coating of fruit preservation. Anti-fungal activity of chitosan was induced by {gamma}-ray irradiation in dry condition at 25 kGy. The irradiated chitosan can suppress the growth of Aspergillus. spp. and Fusarium. spp. isolated from Vietnam mango. Fusarium. spp. was sensitive for irradiated chitosan than the other strains. The coating from irradiated chitosan solution at dose 31 kGy has prolonged the storage life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango keeps good colour, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the control is spoiled completely and the sample of fruit with unirradiated chitosan coating could not ripe. The effect is due to the anti-fungal activity and change in physico-chemical properties of chitosan by irradiation. Radiation causes the decrease in viscosity affecting the gas permeability of coating film. The irradiated chitosan coating has positive effect on mango that is susceptible to chilling injury at low storage temperature. (author)

  8. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu N, Lan; Nguyen D, Lam; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Application of irradiated chitosan has been investigated for coating of fruit preservation. Anti-fungal activity of chitosan was induced by γ-ray irradiation in dry condition at 25 kGy. The irradiated chitosan can suppress the growth of Aspergillus. spp. and Fusarium. spp. isolated from Vietnam mango. Fusarium. spp. was sensitive for irradiated chitosan than the other strains. The coating from irradiated chitosan solution at dose 31 kGy has prolonged the storage life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango keeps good colour, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the control is spoiled completely and the sample of fruit with unirradiated chitosan coating could not ripe. The effect is due to the anti-fungal activity and change in physico-chemical properties of chitosan by irradiation. Radiation causes the decrease in viscosity affecting the gas permeability of coating film. The irradiated chitosan coating has positive effect on mango that is susceptible to chilling injury at low storage temperature. (author)

  9. Brain fibronectin expression in prenatally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meznarich, H.K.; McCoy, L.S.; Bale, T.L.; Stiegler, G.L.; Sikov, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Activation of gene transcription by radiation has been recently demonstrated in vivo. However, little is known on the specificity of these alterations on gene transcription. Prenatal irradiation is a known teratogen that affects the developing mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Altered neuronal migration has been suggested as a mechanism for abnormal development of prenatally irradiated brains. Fibronectin (FN), an extracellular glycoprotein, is essential for neural crest cell migration and neural cell growth. In addition, elevated levels of FN have been found in the extracellular matrix of irradiated lung. To test whether brain FN is affected by radiation, either FN level in insoluble matrix fraction or expression of FN mRNA was examined pre- and postnatally after irradiation. Mice (CD1), at 13 d of gestation (DG), served either as controls or were irradiated with 14 DG, 17 DG, or 5,6, or 14 d postnatal. Brain and liver were collected from offspring and analyzed for either total FN protein levels or relative mRNAs for FN and tubulin. Results of prenatal irradiation on reduction of postnatal brain weight relative to whole are comparable to that reported by others. Insoluble matrix fraction (IMF) per gram of brain, liver, lung, and heart weight was not significantly different either between control and irradiated groups or between postnatal stages, suggesting that radiation did not affect the IMF. However, total amounts of FN in brain IMF at 17 DG were significantly different (p < .02) between normal (1.66 ± 0.80 μg) and irradiated brains (0.58 ± 0.22 μg). FN mRNA was detectable at 13, 14, and 17 DG, but was not detectable at 6 and 14 d postnatal, indicating that FN mRNA is developmentally regulated. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Desempenho de cordeiros inteiros ou submetidos a diferentes métodos de castração abatidos aos 30 kg de peso vivo Performance of intact or submitted to different methods of castration lambs slaughtered at 30 kg of live weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro

    2003-06-01

    weaning, at 84 days, the animals were fed lot until 30 to 32 kg of live weight, and then slaughtered. There were no significant differences among treatments and genetic groups for birth, weaning and slaughter weights, for average daily gain from birth to slaughter, and for age at slaughter. The average daily weight gain from birth to slaughter were 0.179, 0.177, 0.170 and 0.147 kg, and the age at slaughter were 152.2, 156.0, 161.5 and 188.9 days, respectively, for intact, castrated with burdizzo, with rubber bands and with knife lambs. Hampshire Down, Ile de France and Suffolk had 0.176; 0.163 and 0.166 kg of average daily weight gain, respectively. Intact lambs presented lower carcass true yields; there were no other important differences among treatments for the studied traits. Hampshire Down lambs presented greater cold carcass yields, while Suffolk had lower carcass true yields and lower neck percentage, and the Ile de France showed the shortest carcasses. Birth weight had significant effects on lamb weight gains and age at slaughter. The results suggest no significant differences on the performance of intact and castrated by different methods lambs slaughtered between 30 to 32 kg, and that meat lambs from different genetic groups can present significant differences when slaughter at same weight.

  11. The impact of cranial irradiation on the growth of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.J.; Foster, M.B.; D'Ercole, A.J.; McMillan, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Heights, height velocities, weights, and weight velocities were measured serially in 21 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had survived three to five years in continuous complete remission. These patients were assigned randomly to treatment regimens that varied according to whether cranial irradiation was used. Patients receiving cranial irradiation had lower height velocities during therapy than normal subjects and patients not receiving cranial irradiation. Twenty-two other children with ALL, who were irradiated but not randomized, exhibited similar alterations in growth. These results indicate that cranial irradiation, and not leukemia or antileukemia chemotherapy, causes reduced growth

  12. Use of infrared spectroscopy to study the γ-irradiated dextran structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komar, V.P.; Bondarenko, N.T.; Zhbankov, R.G.; Markevich, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of the fractions of γ-irradiated dextran aqueous solutions have been investigated in the range 3800 -1 -400 cm -1 . Infrared spectra of the irradiated non-fractionated dextran do not differ from those of non-irradiated dextran whereas the spectra of the fractions beginning with the molecular weight 50x1O 3 dalton and lower differ considerably. With decreasing molecular weight of the fractions, more significant changes in the spectra are observed. A polymer obtained as a result of γ-irradiation of dextran differs in structure from the initial product. It is assumed that similar transformations can take place upon irradiation of other polysaccharides

  13. Comparative study on the effect of boiling, autoclaving and irradiation treatments of artichoke by-product on growth perfor mance and digestibility of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, S.H.; Zakaria, S.M.; El-Faramawy, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Sixty broiler chicks (21 days old) were assigned into six equal groups. artichoke by-product (ABP) was subjected to different treatments (Boiling, autoclaving and gamma irradiation at 75 and 100 kGy). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of using ABP with different treatments on growth performance and their nutrient digestibility. Results revealed that, chicks fed diets containing raw ABP or irradiated with 100 kGy showed the highest values of live body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and dressing percentages compared with those fed a control diet. The lowest values of those parameters resulted by the chicks fed the diets of boiling or autoclaving ABP. Digestibility coefficients of crude protein, nitrogen free extract, crude fiber and organic matter increased by increased by increasing dose level of gamma irradiation. It could be recommended to use ABP in raw state up to 10% replacement of yellow corn without any adverse effects on chick performance. The use of irradiation treatment of ABP at 100 kGy improved remarkable feed utilization and growth performance

  14. Ganho de peso vivo e fermentação ruminal em novilhos mantidos em pastagem cultivada de clima temperado e recebendo diferentes suplementos Live weight gain and ruminal fermentation by steers grazing cool-season grass pasture and given different supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Floriano da Silveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos para avaliar o ganho de peso vivo (Experimento 1 e parâmetros da fermentação ruminal (Experimento 2 em quarenta novilhos cruzados Charolês e Nelore, mantidos em pastagem cultivada de inverno, por quatro horas diárias e não suplementados, ou por somente duas horas, mas suplementados (1% do peso vivo com silagem de planta inteira, silagem de grão úmido ou com grão seco de sorgo. Os animais alimentados somente com pastagem obtiveram os maiores ganhos de peso vivo (P0,05 pela suplementação, as de amônia e açúcares foram maiores nos animais mantidos somente com pastagem e nos suplementados com silagem de grão úmido, e menores nos animais suplementados com silagem de planta inteira ou com grão seco de sorgo (PTwo experiments to evaluate daily weight gain (Experiment 1 and ruminal fermentation parameters (Experiment 2 were carried out. Nelore and Charolais crossbreed steers grazing on cool-season pasture during four hours daily or during only two hours daily but supplemented (1% of live weight with sorghum whole plant silage, wet grain silage or dry grain were used. Animals fed only with pasture obtained the highest and, those supplemented with whole plant silage, the lowest daily weight gain (P0.05 by supplementation. Ammonia and sugar concentrations were higher by animals fed only with pasture or supplemented with sorghum wet grain silage and lower by those supplemented with whole plant silage or dry grain (P<0.05. Ruminal pH values were lower by animals supplemented with sorghum wet grain silage (P<0.05. Supplements did not improve weight gain of steers grazing cool-season pasture but ruminal fermentation varied through a day and was different among supplements. Results also indicate that, besides supplement type, synchrony between grazing and supplementation schedule may represent a conditioning factor to improve feed efficiency use by animals.

  15. Facts about food irradiation: Food irradiation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food irradiation facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food irradiation process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments also bring consumer benefits in terms of availability, storage life and improved hygiene. 2 refs

  16. Defective bursa regeneration after irradiation of young thymectomized chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhogal, B.S.; Chi, D.S.; Galton, J.E.; Bell, M.K.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of the bursa of Fabricius to regenerate after gamma-irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution was examined in chickens thymectomized (TX) immediately after hatching. Irradiation (2 X 500 R) 3 weeks after hatching was followed by impaired bursa regeneration, as judged both by bursa/body weight ratios and by bursa follicle development 3-6 weeks later in TX as compared to control birds. Germinal center formation in the spleen was deficient, and immune responses to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) and B. abortus (BA) were moderately reduced in the TX as compared to control birds irradiated at 3 weeks but not in TX birds irradiated at 5 weeks of age

  17. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  18. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth / For Teens / Should I Gain Weight? ... something about it. Why Do People Want to Gain Weight? Some of the reasons people give for ...

  19. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  20. Technological characteristics of bread containing integral irradiated flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    Wheat is normally used to make bread, pasta, and noodles, because among the cereal flours, only wheat flour has the ability to form cohesive dough upon hydration. For that reason, only partial substitution of wheat flour can be recommended. In this work, pan breads were prepared with 30% content of irradiated whole wheat, whole rye and coarse cornmeal and the influence of blending on bread making capabilities investigated through some technological characteristics. All-brand wheat, rye and cornmeal flours were irradiated with 0, 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a 60 Co and the deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with those blends were then determined. Breads prepared with irradiated whole wheat flour showed an increase in the deformation force with the increase of radiation dose. The bread height presented also an increase for the doses of 1 and 3 kGy. Breads prepared with refined wheat flour blended with irradiated whole rye flour showed an increased deformation force for radiation doses of 1 and 3 kGy and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 1 kGy. Coarse cornmeal blended flour showed a great increase of the deformation force upon irradiation, and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 3 kGy. The results indicate that the addition of irradiated integral flour, whole wheat, whole rye flour and cornmeal to wheat flour may confer changes in physical properties beside an increment in nutritional value. (author)

  1. Coat pigmentation effects in West African Dwarf goats: live weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although coat pigmentation had no significant effect on all the body dimensions studied except leg length, it was observed that the white and or tan goats had the largest frame size on the average followed by the brown (Bbl) goats. They however, had shorter legs when compared with either 1he brown or black goals.

  2. Effect of management practices on milk yield and live weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    0.05). Milk yield was less sustained on farm. Week of lactation affected milk yield ( P<0.01). In experiment 2, five goats of each of Red Sokoto or Sahelian breeds were randomly assigned to either groundnut haulms or concentrate as supplement.

  3. Effects of Transport on Live Weight and Behavior of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study has monitored the effects of transport stress on some biochemical indicators of stress and behavior lambs at time of slaughter. The research was carried out in the cold season, on a number of 120 lambs, transported for 6h- 16h, to be slaughtered. During our research, we followed the changes in bodyweight, behaviours expressed by sheep, and plasma cortisol levels. Bodyweight loss recorded in the slaughterhouse to 24 hours of departure transportation was of 4-5%. The behavioural manifestations of lambs were different from the destination, depending on journey duration. Lambs behaviour was different depending on the journey, the resting and watering were mostly present manifestations. Increased in cortisol levels measured at 3 h after leaving the vehicle was maintained at 9 h after the journey. Increased duration of rest before slaughter can reduce the stress of transport in case of lambs ensures obtaining good quality meat.

  4. Live weight and reproduction performance of Zimbabwean Blue and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NARGA

    breeding the superiority of ZB birds was reduced to between 4 and 8%, expressed relative to SAB ... The number of shell deaths was affected by both sire line and dam line. .... A standard drenching, vaccination and ectoparasite treatment was.

  5. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  6. Irradiation and flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineccius, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Flavor will not be a significant factor in determining the success of irradiated foods entering the U.S. market. The initial applications will use low levels of irradiation that may well result in products with flavor superior to that of products from alternative processing techniques (thermal treatment or chemical fumigation). The success of shelf-stable foods produced via irradiation may be much more dependent upon our ability to deal with the flavor aspects of high levels of irradiation

  7. Food irradiation makes progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1984-01-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses

  8. Use of the dog spleen for studying effects of irradiation and chemotherapeutic agents, with suggested uses of other organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, L.D.; De Rose, G.; Cooke, D.

    1976-01-01

    The irradiation of the exteriorized spleen of the dog, with the animal lead-shielded, produced constant changes in the white blood cells. The time of recovery from the irradiation effect was determined. The normal canine spleen could handle live pneumococci injected into the splenic artery, as proven by sterile cultures of splenic vein samples. The size of the bolus used was determined by repeated trials and proved to be one billion pneumococci per pound of body weight. The capacity of the irradiated spleen to handle this number of pneumococci was impaired. It was found that whole body irradiation, nitrogen mustard, thio-tepa, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, vinblastine, and azothioprine all impaired this capacity of the spleen. The dose of the chemotherapeutic agent was the same in milligrams per kilogram as that used in the cancer clinic. A method for determining the recovery time following the use of one or more agents was developed with the repeated use of the spleen model. By extending the methods used with the spleen it was found that similar use could be made, usually without surgery, of the liver, gut, and lungs

  9. Living with endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvic pain - living with endometriosis; Endometrial implant - living with endometriosis; Endometrioma - living with endometriosis ... counter pain relievers can reduce the pain of endometriosis. These include: Ibuprofen (Advil) Naproxen (Aleve) Acetaminophen (Tylenol) ...

  10. Neutron irradiation of rat embryos in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In the rat radiation is most effective in producing congenital anomalies during the organ-forming period (days 9 to 13), which is approximately equivalent to the 14th to 50th days of human pregnancy. We have exposed female Sprague--Dawley rats on the 18th day of pregnancy to single whole-body doses of fission neutrons (20 to 150 rads). After 20 rads there was a small decrease in body weight which lasted from birth to weaning. During this period 9% of the irradiated rats died compared with 4% of the controls. After 50 rads, 65/275 (23.6%) of the rats died between birth and weaning, and the body-weight loss of the survivors was increased. After 100 rads, 62/133 (47%) died at birth or day 1 and 103/133 (77.4%) died before weaning. A large and significant decrease in body weight persisted in the survivors. After 150 rads of fission neutrons, all 95 rats died within 48 hr of birth. From cross-fostering experiments, we believe this is a direct effect of radiation on the embryos and not an indirect action through the mother or her milk. The LD 50 for the period from birth to weaning is approximately 75 rads of fission neutrons. Studies of organ weight were conducted daily for the first week after birth in an attempt to find the cause of radiation mortality. Body weight of the irradiated animals averaged only about one-half that of the controls. The liver, kidney, brain, and testes of the neutron-irradiated rats weighed significantly less than those of the controls. The weights of the spleen, lungs, duodenum, and stomach were decreased but not significantly. The bone marrow appeared depleted in the irradiated long bones, but the spleen maintained active hematopoiesis 1 to 2 months after neutron exposure

  11. Detection of irradiated components in flavour blends composed of non-irradiated species herbs and vegetable seasonings by thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec-Czechowska, K.; Stachowicz, W.

    2003-01-01

    The results of experiments on the detection of irradiated component in commercial flavour blends composed of a mixture of non-irradiated spices, herbs and seasonings are presented. A method based on the thermoluminescence measurements on silicate materials isolated from blends has been adapted. It has been proved that by applying of this technique it is possible to detect 0.95% by weight of paprika, irradiated with a dose of 7 kGy, which was a minor component of non-irradiated flavour blends. (author)

  12. Transgenerational developmental effects and genomic instability after X-irradiation of preimplantation embryos: Studies on two mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Buset, J.; Neefs, M.; Vankerkom, J.; Benotmane, M.A.; Derradji, H.; Hildebrandt, G.; Baatout, S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent results have shown that irradiation of a single cell, the zygote or 1-cell embryo of various mouse strains, could lead to congenital anomalies in the fetuses. In the Heiligenberger strain, a link between the radiation-induced congenital anomalies and the development of a genomic instability was also suggested. Moreover, further studies showed that in that strain, both congenital anomalies and genomic instability could be transmitted to the next generation. The aim of the experiments described in this paper was to investigate whether such non-targeted transgenerational effects could also be observed in two other radiosensitive mouse strains (CF1 and ICR), using lower radiation doses. Irradiation of the CF1 and ICR female zygotes with 0.2 or 0.4 Gy did not result in a decrease of their fertility after birth, when they had reached sexual maturity. Moreover, females of both strains that had been X-irradiated with 0.2 Gy exhibited higher rates of pregnancy, less resorptions and more living fetuses. Additionally, the mean weight of living fetuses in these groups had significantly increased. Exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in CF1 fetuses issued from control and X-irradiated females. In the control group of that strain, polydactyly and limb deformity were also found. The yields of abnormal fetuses did not differ significantly between the control and X-irradiated groups. Polydactyly, exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in fetuses issued from ICR control females. In addition to these anomalies, gastroschisis, curly tail and open eye were observed at low frequencies in ICR fetuses issued from X-irradiated females. Again, the frequencies of abnormal fetuses found in the different groups did not differ significantly. In both CF1 and ICR mouse strains, irradiation of female zygotes did not result in the development of a genomic instability in the next generation embryos. Overall, our results suggest that, at the moderate doses used, developmental defects

  13. Transgenerational developmental effects and genomic instability after X-irradiation of preimplantation embryos: Studies on two mouse strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P., E-mail: pjacquet@sckcen.be [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Buset, J.; Neefs, M. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vankerkom, J. [Division of Environmental Research, VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Benotmane, M.A.; Derradji, H. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Hildebrandt, G. [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstrasse 9a, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, University of Rostock, Suedring 75, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Baatout, S. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-05-01

    Recent results have shown that irradiation of a single cell, the zygote or 1-cell embryo of various mouse strains, could lead to congenital anomalies in the fetuses. In the Heiligenberger strain, a link between the radiation-induced congenital anomalies and the development of a genomic instability was also suggested. Moreover, further studies showed that in that strain, both congenital anomalies and genomic instability could be transmitted to the next generation. The aim of the experiments described in this paper was to investigate whether such non-targeted transgenerational effects could also be observed in two other radiosensitive mouse strains (CF1 and ICR), using lower radiation doses. Irradiation of the CF1 and ICR female zygotes with 0.2 or 0.4 Gy did not result in a decrease of their fertility after birth, when they had reached sexual maturity. Moreover, females of both strains that had been X-irradiated with 0.2 Gy exhibited higher rates of pregnancy, less resorptions and more living fetuses. Additionally, the mean weight of living fetuses in these groups had significantly increased. Exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in CF1 fetuses issued from control and X-irradiated females. In the control group of that strain, polydactyly and limb deformity were also found. The yields of abnormal fetuses did not differ significantly between the control and X-irradiated groups. Polydactyly, exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in fetuses issued from ICR control females. In addition to these anomalies, gastroschisis, curly tail and open eye were observed at low frequencies in ICR fetuses issued from X-irradiated females. Again, the frequencies of abnormal fetuses found in the different groups did not differ significantly. In both CF1 and ICR mouse strains, irradiation of female zygotes did not result in the development of a genomic instability in the next generation embryos. Overall, our results suggest that, at the moderate doses used, developmental defects

  14. Containers in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolumen, S.; Espinosa, R.

    1997-01-01

    The preservation of food by irradiation is promising technology which increases industrial application. Packaging of irradiated foods is an integral part of the process. Judicious selection of the package material for successful trade is essential. In this paper is presented a brief review of important aspects of packaging in food irradiation [es

  15. Características da carcaça e da carne de cordeiros terminados com dietas contendo diferentes proporções de silagens de grãos de milho = Components of live weight, carcass and meat caracteristics of lambs fed with diets containing corn grain silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Belisário de Andrade

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados componentes do peso vivo, características objetivas e subjetivas da carcaça, características físico-químicas do músculo Longissimus lumborum e a proporção dos principais tecidos que compõem o lombo de 24 cordeiros, machos não castrados, mestiços Hampshire Down, terminados em confinamento e alimentados com dietasdiferentes à base de silagem de grãos de milho úmidos, com inclusão de girassol ou ureia. Os tratamentos não afetaram: peso vivo ao abate, peso da carcaça quente, rendimentos de carcaça, sangue, pele, aparelho reprodutor com bexiga, aparelho respiratório, baço, rins egordura perirrenal, fígado, coração, trato gastrintestinal vazio, cabeça e patas. Não houve diferença significativa para peso da carcaça fria, condição corporal, conformação de carcaça, cobertura de gordura, consistência de gordura, cor da carne, espessura de gordura, área de olho de lombo, proteína bruta; proporções de: músculo, ossos, gordura e outros tecidos do músculo Longissimus lumborum. Perda por cozimento, índice de fragmentação miofibrilar e índices de cores L*, a* e b* não diferiram quanto aos tratamentos. Os cordeiros podem serterminados com qualquer uma das dietas, pois apresentaram semelhanças para as características analisadas.The study evaluated the live weight components, objective and subjective carcass characteristics and physical-chemicalcharacteristics of the Longissimus lumborum muscle and the proportion of tissues that constitute the loin of twenty-four intact males lambs, Hampshire Down crossbreed, fattened in a drylot system. The lambs were fed with different diets based on corn grain silage with the addition of sunflower seeds or urea. The treatments did not affect live weight and hot carcass weight at slaughter, carcass yield, blood, skin, reproductive system with bladder, respiratory system, spleen, kidneys and perineal fat, liver, heart, emptygastrointestinal tract, head or feet. There

  16. Improvement of polyethylene by irradiation in artificial joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonishi, H.; Takayama, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The decrease in socket thickness of several total hip prostheses was measured on X-ray film. The following prostheses were compared: (1) SOM ''28 mm metal head and an ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE) socket irradiated with 10 8 rad of γ-radiation'', (2) T-28 ''28 mm metal head and a UHMWPE socket not irradiated'', (3) Bioceram ''28 mm alumina head and UHMWPE not irradiated'' and (4) irradiated Bioceram ''28 mm alumina head and UHMWPE socket irradiated with 10 8 rad of γ-radiation''. The average steady state wear rate of SOM, T-28, Bioceram and irradiated Bioceram were 0.076, 0.247, 0.098 and 0.072 mm/year, respectively. The weight bearing portion of the irradiated socket presented a clearly-outlined and irregular pattern of about 0.1 μm thickness having a smooth ripple surface. The scratch and holding phenomenon characteristic of non-irradiated sockets was not observed at all. In our experimental tests using an IS sliding wear test machine, the wear measured as decrease of thickness was smallest at 10 8 rad, although there was an increase in the coefficient of friction. Our experimental and clinical findings suggest that the best total hip prosthesis at present is one with an alumina head and a UHMWPE socket irradiated with 10 8 rad of γ-radiation. (author)

  17. Using Gamma Irradiation to Modify Properties of Polysaccharides (Guar Gum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, H.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation processing of material is one of most recent technology used in modification of material properties. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on the Polysaccharides Viscosity and Molecular Weight, as definition of Guar Gum. Its series of glactomanene (glactos + manose). (1-2-,3). Guar Gum powder was the main material and Co-60 irradiator facility as main technique. For gamma–ray source of required doses, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy. Viscosity of the aqueous suspensions of irradiated Guar Gum at different concentrations (0.1–0.5%) was measured, also it measured for solutions made of irradiated powder. Results used to calculate the difference occur in molecular weight, in order to determine the irradiation effect in the material. The monitored rheological parameters showed (non-Newtonian Behavior) of the samples which processed by gamma irradiation. The decrease tendency of the viscosity by irradiation of samples under study (different concentrations) and compared with control also for irradiated powder decrease of the concentration as well has been noticed. From results evaluation concluded that the viscosity values for all studied concentrations decreased by irradiation. This aspect suggests a depolymerization phenomenon of the aqueous Guar Gum solutions. This study contributes to the knowledge of the viscoelastic properties of Guar Gum as powder or aqueous solution, with application for food, agriculture, medical products, Petroleum and construction. (author)

  18. Adaptive response after low level irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelevina, I I; Afanasjev, G G; JaGotlib, V; Tereschenko, D G; Tronov, V A; Serebrjany, A M [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemical Physics

    1996-02-01

    The experiments conducted on cultured HeLa (tissue culture) cells revealed that there is a limit of dose above which adaptive response was not observed and a limit of dose below which this response was not induced. The exposure of cells in the territories with elevated radiation background leads to genome instability which results in enhanced radiosensitivity. Investigations on the blood lymphocytes of people living in contaminated regions revealed that adaptive response was more significant in children whereas in adults there was slight increase. Acute irradiation serves as a tool revealing the changes that took place in DNA during chronic low level irradiations after Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  19. An irradiation marker for mango seed weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heather, N.W.; Lescano, H.G.; Congdon, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to look for a method to determine whether live mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangifera (Fabricius) present in fruit had been irradiated at a quarantine dose or lower. We looked specifically for anatomical effects on the supra-oesophageal ganglion of larvae and tested a biochemical method for detection of the effects of irradiation on the protein profile of pupae. Neither method was successful. However, because for most international export markets mangoes need only be found free of the pest at inspection sourcing from pest-free production orchards and quality control systems incorporating requisite pest management components could prove practicable and satisfy most markets. (author)

  20. The Techniques Of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olorunda, A.O. Department Of Food Technology, University Of Ibadan, Nigeria.

    1996-01-01

    Food irradiation is a technique which is increasingly being recognised as an effective method for reducing post-harvest food losses, ensuring hygienic quality of food and facilitating wider trade of certain food items. Irradiation of food may be used to achieve a variety of desirable objectives including the following which are classified according to the average radiation dose requirement: i. Low dose application (up to about 1 kg), for inhibition of sprouting in yams, potatoes, onions, etc. insect disinfestation and delay of ripening in fruits. ii. Medium dose applications (about 1-10kgy), for reduction of micro-organisms and improvement in technological properties of food. iii. High dose application (about 10-50kgy) which is used for sterilization for commercial purposes and elimination of viruses. From the point of view of food safety the energy level of the radiation applied to food is the most important characteristics that has to be regulated in order to prevent the possible formation of induced radio activity. Fortunately, the most commonly used isotopic sources 60Co and 137Cs; and machine sources such as the electron beam generators, induced radio activity is negligible, short lived and lower than that causing radio activity. This and other scientific and technical aspects of the commercial application irradiation technology with respect Nigeria have been examined in this paper along side with those of its politics and social policy

  1. Structure and properties of UV-irradiated LLDPE and alloy of PA66 and the irradiated LLDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Qianping; Zou Hua; Wu Shishan; Shen Jian

    2006-01-01

    Some oxygen-containing groups such as C=O, C-O and -OH were introduced onto linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) chains by UV irradiation in air. Their concentration increased with the irradiation time. Crystal shape of the irradiated LLDPE remained an orthorhombic structure, while space of the crystalline plane kept unchanged. The melting temperature and crystallinity decreased due to the LLDPE chain scission into small molecules compound and crystalline defects caused by UV irradiation. Compared with pristine LLDPE, hydrophilicity of the irradiated LLDPE increased due to the introduction of polar oxygen-containing groups, but the tensile strength decreased due to the LLDPE chain degradation and reduction of crystallinity. The temperature of initial weight loss of the irradiated LLDPE was lower than that of pristine LLDPE. An alloy of PA66 and the irradiated LLDPE (irradiated PA66/LLDPE) was prepared by melting blend at 260-270 degree C. Compared to non-irradiated PA66/LLDPE alloy, dispersion of LLDPE particles in the irradiated PA66/LLDPE alloy and interfacial interactions between the components were markedly improved. Therefore, tensile strength and impact strength of the irradiated PA66/ LLDPE were higher than those of the control. (authors)

  2. Effect of irradiation and cold storage on the physiological characteristics of the pear fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; El-Latif, F.A.; Taha, F.

    1988-01-01

    With the aim of extending shelf life of fruits and the effects of gamma irradiation at the 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy dose levels, the present investigation has been undertaken to illustrate, the possible application of gamma irradiation processing to prolong the storage period of mature pear fruit. Significant differences had been found between irradiated and non-irradiated fruits regarding total soluble solids, weight loss, decay, firmness, titrable acidity and moisture content

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on lifespan and offspring physiology of male drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Jiangyu; Gu Wei; Jiang Fangping; Han Hetong

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of γ-rays irradiation on adult longevity and physiological changes in F 1 generation.Male Drosophila melanogaster at 1 ∼ 2 days old were irradiated by γ-rays with doses of 5, 10, 15 and 30 Gy. In all experimental groups, mean lifespan, maximum lifespan and 90% of lethaldeath irradiated flies were reduced(at P 1 generation of irradiated group, body weight increased, but the capacity of physiological stress declined. (authors)

  4. Irradiation effect on onion keeping-quality after sea-shipment from Argentina to the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, T.C.; Langerak, D.I.; Curzio, O.A.; Croci, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Onion losses occur due to sprouting and rot. Onion cultivar Valenciana was irradiated with 60 Gy, shipped from Argentina to the Netherlands, and stored 6 months at 4 degrees C. The rot in unirradiated samples increased after 4 months while rot in irradiated samples remained almost constant. Irradiation almost completely prevented sprouting. Storage losses were 50% for unirradiated and 20% for irradiated samples. Irradiated samples showed an improvement in general appearance. Irradiation reduced weight loss and damaged bulbs were more susceptible to storage rot

  5. Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity.

  6. Elimination of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Fernanda Peixoto

    2005-01-01

    Food treatment by exposure to ionizing radiation, known as food irradiation, presents several attractive features such as: leaving no residues, posing no threat to consumer health, usually causing no damage to sensory or nutritional properties and acting uniformly throughout the volume of the products. This work investigated the efficiency of irradiation for eliminating Sitophilus oryzae (L.), also known as 'the rice weevil', a small beetle frequently found in infested grains. A total of 444 individuals of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) found in corn meal and noodles supplies were irradiated with gamma ray doses of 0, 0.6, 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy and then visually monitored for 4 days in order to determine the number of insects still alive. The least-squares fitting method was used to determine the survival curves as functions of post-irradiation time and dose. The living fraction of the irradiated population was found to decrease exponentially with time. The results indicated that doses of 2.0, 1.5 and 0.6 kGy cause immediate death, instantaneous immobility and death of the species within one week, respectively. The findings suggest that disinfestation of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation is an interesting option to the dangerous use of toxic chemicals. (author)

  7. Elimination of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Fernanda Peixoto [Exercito Brasileiro, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Diretoria de Suprimento. Dept. Logistico]. E-mail: peixotocastro@dlog.eb.mil.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil)]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2005-07-01

    Food treatment by exposure to ionizing radiation, known as food irradiation, presents several attractive features such as: leaving no residues, posing no threat to consumer health, usually causing no damage to sensory or nutritional properties and acting uniformly throughout the volume of the products. This work investigated the efficiency of irradiation for eliminating Sitophilus oryzae (L.), also known as 'the rice weevil', a small beetle frequently found in infested grains. A total of 444 individuals of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) found in corn meal and noodles supplies were irradiated with gamma ray doses of 0, 0.6, 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy and then visually monitored for 4 days in order to determine the number of insects still alive. The least-squares fitting method was used to determine the survival curves as functions of post-irradiation time and dose. The living fraction of the irradiated population was found to decrease exponentially with time. The results indicated that doses of 2.0, 1.5 and 0.6 kGy cause immediate death, instantaneous immobility and death of the species within one week, respectively. The findings suggest that disinfestation of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation is an interesting option to the dangerous use of toxic chemicals. (author)

  8. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image.

  9. Keeping carrots quality during storage by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nashaby, F.M.; Hafez, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Fresh carrots were gamma irradiated at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. A portion of the irradiated carrots was stored at ambient temperature (20-25 degree C) and the rest was packed in polyethylene bags and stored in refrigerator temperature (5± 1 degree C). The results indicated that the sprouting of carrots were completely inhibited by radiation dose of 0.2 KGy either at ambient temperature or cold storage, while the non-irradiated samples started to sprout after 2 and 4 weeks of storage at ambient temperature and cold storage respectively. Furthermore, samples treated with gamma rays showed lower values of weight loss compared to the untreated ones during storage. Concerning storage temperature, it was found that the rate of weight loss during storage was higher at ambient temperature than in refrigerator. Micro-organisms were greatly affected by gamma rays, their counts were found to be decreased by increasing irradiation dose as compared with the control sample. Moreover, during storage period, refrigerated samples showed lower bacterial and molds counts than samples stored at ambient temperature. On the other hand, it was also observed that irradiated samples at the higher dose i.e. 1.0 KGy stored either at ambient temperature or in refrigerator showed higher bacterial and molds counts than unirradiated ones. The lowest dose (0.1 KGy) had no effect on carotene and sugars contents of carrots while increasing the dose above 0.2 KGy led to gradual decrease in carotene contents and gradual increase in total soluble sugars contents of the samples with increasing the irradiation dose compared with the nonirradiated ones. The results proved that gamma irradiation dose of 0.2 Gy was effective for sprout inhibition of carrots and increase their shelf-life to 10 weeks at ambient temperature without adverse effects on carotene and sugars contents of treated carrots

  10. Differential androgenesis in gamma irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihyang; Yoon, Yongdal [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The Leydig cells of the testis account for at least 75% of the total testosterone produced in the normal adult male. Whereas the production of estrogen from androgen is catalyzed by aromatase cytochrome P450, which is found in many tissues, including gonad, brain, adipose tissue, bone, and heart. The gamma-irradiation causes the impairment of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male mice. The present study was performed to analyze changes in testosterone concentrations and expression of steroidogenic enzyme of mice after whole body gamma-irradiation. Eight-week-old male ICR mice were irradiated with 6.5 or 10 Gy. At days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 after irradiation, testes were removed and processed for paraffin sections and isolation of mRNA. We calculated the gonad index from body and testis weight, and checked the testis volume. Hormonal analysis was performed by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA) in serum and intratesticular fluid. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression kinetics of the apoptotic gene and the cytochrome P450 aromatase gene after irradiation. In gamma-irradiated mice, the body weight reduced in comparison to that of the control group. Therefore, gonad indices increased. The testosterone concentrations in serum and intratesticular fluid were significantly reduced. RT- PCR data represented that the expression of Fas, Fas ligand, and aromatase cytochrome P450 showed the specific patterns against control groups. These results indicated that gamma- irradiation of adult mice induced the alteration of androgenesis and suggested that might counteract the spermatogenesis.

  11. Safety evaluation of irradiated foods in China: A condensed report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, D.

    1989-01-01

    Eight trials, with 439 human volunteers who consumed irradiated foods including rice, potatoes, mushrooms, peanuts, and Chinese sausages, as well as diets composed of multiple irradiated foods (irradiated at dosages of 0.2 to 8 kGy) that accounted for 60-66% of the entire diet, were carried out for 2-3 months according to a unified protocol. No adverse effects on body weight, blood pressure, ECG, hematology, blood enzyme activities, serum lipids or blood or urine 17-hydroxycortisol contents and no chromosomal aberration of peripheral blood lymphocytes were found. It is especially worthwhile to note that there was no change in the polyploidy after consumption of irradiated diets. On the basis of these results and a comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of irradiated foods, temporary hygienic standards for irradiated rice, potatoes, onions, garlic, Chinese sausages, peanuts, and mushrooms were promulgated by the Chinese Ministry of Public Health

  12. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  13. Reproductive function in mice exposed to ancestral and direct irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.J.; Sprackling, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    Reproduction was studied in 13 inbred strains of mice that had been exposed continuously to 60 Co gamma radiation for varying numbers of generations. At weaning the mice were removed from the irradiation chamber and were tested for reproductive performance. Ancestral and direct levels of irradiation were determined for each animal. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile, and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the 10th day of pregnancy. The number of resorptions, dead embryos, and live embryos were counted, and the ratio of living embryos to the total number of embryos was determined for each litter. The overall fertility curves were sigmoid in the range of doses below those which caused complete sterility, which indicated some sort of cumulative damage. In 11 of the 13 strains studied, an increase in ancestral and/or direct irradiation led to significant decreases in fertility. The means of the number alive in the litters for the control and irradiated mice in each strain showed a definite trend toward fewer live mice in utero after irradiation. Least-squares analyses of variance were made to detect possible effects of any of six irradiation variables (ancestral linear, ancestral quadratic, ancestral cubic, direct linear, direct quadratic, or direct cubic) or of strain differences on total litter size and on ratio. Strain effects were significant in each instance. Litter size was more likely to be affected by radiation variables than ratios were

  14. Differential-thermal analysis of irradiated lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichek, F.; Eyubova, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In this theme our purpose is to explain thermo-differential analysis of lignites irradiated. During experiment Caraman Ermenek (washed), Caraman Ermenek (crude), Nevshehir (crude), Slopi (crude), Trakya Harman (washed) lignite coals were used. Five of five kinds of coal samples with 3mm and 1gr of each sample were obtained. Then they were filled into the Tubes after having dried total 25 samples with 1 gr at 1000 degrees temperature for one hour. Air in the tubes was pumped out and closed. Coal samples in vacuum medium were irradiated by gamma rays of Co60 at 5.5 kGy, 19.2 kGy, 65.7 kGy, 169.6 kGy, 411.2 kGy doses to the normal conditions. Then differential thermal analysis was carried out both in original and the samples irradiated. Argon gas was used to make inert medium in the camera. T=200-8500 degrees temperature was selected. At the experiment done from 1000-1300 degrees temperatures too great endothermic reaction pick was begun to form by being observed thermal changings. At 3000-4200 degrees temperature exothermic reaction picks and at 7000 degrees parallel exothermic reaction picks were observed. Initial endothermic and exothermic reaction picks in five lignite samples were observed like a sharp curve. At the end coal irradiated samples were compared with original coal samples. At the result of experiment it was revealed that in comparison with original coal samples coal samples irradiated form exothermic and endothermic curves at very reaction pick and temperature intervals of these pick were large. Besides loss of weight was observed to begin at low temperatures in samples irradiated and especially momentary weight loss at some heats in the rang of known temperatures was observed in the coal Slopi contain in bitumen. Because of heat the weigh loss in the non irradiated samples forms parabolic curve and because of heat the weight loss in the samples irradiated forms stepped curves. It has shown that the coal irradiated can be easily departed by

  15. Sprouting inhibition of rhizomes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Chosdu, Rahayu

    1985-01-01

    Sprouting inhibition by gamma irradiation to prolong the storage life of 4 species of rhizomes, namely curcuma domestica, kaemferia galanga, curcuma xanthoriza and curcuma aeruginosa, has been carried out. Two groups of samples were used, freshly harvested rhizomes and fresh rhizomes which have been stored for about two weeks. The samples were packed in a plastic net bag, each contained about 100 grams of rhizomes. Irradiation was carried out at room temperature at the doses of 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 kGy. Post irradiation storage was done at room temperature with relative humidity ranging between 85 and 95%. The results showed that irradiation doses of 0.06 to 0.08 kGy was sufficient to inhibit sprouting of freshly harvested rhizomes and prolonged its storage life for 6 weeks, while in the other group sprouting still occured at the dose of 0.25 kGy. Irradiation dose up to 0.25 kGy did not cause significant effect on moisture and volatile oil contents, as well as volatile oil characteristics of the samples. About 50% of weight losses were found either in irradiated or unirradiated samples after being stored for 8 weeks. Odour and texture were evaluated organoleptically while mould growth and insect damage were observed visually. (author)

  16. Safety evaluation on irradiated food ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports double-blind observations of volunteers who took 35 kinds of irradiated foods as their main diet for 90 days. The subjects consisted of 70 medical students and 8 staff members in the Shanghai Medical University. They were randomly divided into two groups. One group was supplied with irradiated foods, the other acted as controls eating the same food but non-irradiated. The 35 kinds of irradiated foods were grain, meat products, vegetables, fruits, dried fruits etc. The absorbed dose of irradiation from the processed foods varied from 0.1 to 8.0 kGy. The irradiated foods made up 60.3% of the total food intake by weight. Observations during 90 days indicated that the subjects were all pleased with their diets and no adverse effects on their health were seen. Clinical and laboratory examinations included routine blood and urine tests, blood biochemical examinations, hepatic and renal function tests, endocrinological assays, cellular immunity tests, and mutagenetic studies (such as the incidence of polyploid cells, chromosomal structural aberration, rates of sister chromatid-exchanges, micronuclei test, urine Ames' test). These studies showed that the ingestion of these foods are safe for humans

  17. Allergy, living and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R

    2012-01-01

    Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....

  18. Natural β-carotene and whole body irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Amotz, A.; Rachmilevich, B.; Greenberg, S.; Sela, M.; Weshler, Z.

    1996-01-01

    β-Carotene and other carotenoids are reported to be potent free radical quenchers, singlet oxygen scavengers, and lipid antioxidants. Whole-body irradiation is known to cause an immunosuppression effect in mammals through the possible initiation and production of reactive oxygen species. We decided to test the possible antioxidative effect against whole-body irradiation of a natural β-carotene, composed of equal amounts of the all-trans and 9-cis isomers, obtained from the unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil. Rats were fed on ground commercial food enriched with natural β-carotene (50 mg/kg diet). On completion of 1 week with β-carotene, the rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 Gy whole-body irradiation, after which their livers and blood were removed for β-carotene and retinol analysis in comparison with control livers of animals irradiated or not, or supplemented with β-carotene after irradiation. A normal increase in body weight with no ill effects was noted in the groups of rats whose diet was supplemented by β-carotene before and after irradiation, compared with the reduction in the specific growth rate in the group of rats irradiated without β-carotene. Liver β-carotene and retinol decreased significantly after irradiation compared with the rats which were not irradiated. This decrease was not shown in rats fed β-carotene prior to irradiation, and the effect of irradiation was partially cured by supplementation with β-carotene after irradiation. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the irradiated animals showed a selective decline in 9-cis β-carotene and in retinol over all-trans β-carotene and retinyl esters. These results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene and retinol protect in vivo against the cellular damage by free radicals induced after whole-body irradiation. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Influência do período de descanso da pastagem de capim-elefante na produção de leite de vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu Effect of grazing interval for elephantgrass pastures on milk yield and live weight changes of crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermino Deresz

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar o efeito de três períodos de descanso (T30 = 30 dias, T36 = 36 dias e T45 = 45 dias sobre a produção de leite e variação de peso vivo de vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu em pastagem de capim-elefante manejada em sistema rotativo. O experimento foi realizado durante a estação chuvosa, usando-se 18 vacas, tendo em média 30 dias de lactação e peso vivo médio de 488 kg. As vacas foram distribuídas pelos tratamentos em seis blocos completos ao acaso, constituídos de duas séries de piquetes (repetição de área e três vacas/piquete, formados com base na produção de leite e no peso vivo no início da lactação. A lotação foi de 4,5 vacas/ha para todos os tratamentos e as vacas não receberam concentrado. O período de ocupação dos piquetes foi de três dias. A pastagem foi adubada com 200 kg/ha de N e K2O, divididos em três aplicações, durante a época das chuvas. Foram aplicados também 40 kg de P2O5 e 1 t de calcário dolomítico, no início da época das chuvas. A produção média de leite corrigida para 4% de gordura foi de 11,4; 10,6; e 10,3 kg/vaca/dia e o ganho médio diário, de 114, 160 e 116 g para os tratamentos T30, T36 e T45, respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para produção de leite, nem para ganho de peso.The objective of this trial was to study the effect of three grazing intervals (T30 = 30 days, T36 = 36 days and T45 = 45 days on milk yield and live weight changes of crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows grazing elephantgrass pasture rotationally managed. The experiment was conducted during the rainy season using 18 crossbred cows averaging 30 days of lactation and 488 kg of average live weight. The cows were allocated to experimental treatments according to a completely randomized block design, with six blocks, two series of paddocks and three cows/paddock, based on milk yield and body weight of cows at the beginning of lactation. The stocking rate

  20. Production of long-lived hafnium isomers in reactor irradiations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, Jindřich

    -, - (2006), s. 48-56 ISSN 1574-1818 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : production * Hf Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  1. Biochemical and Tissue Studies on Post Irradiation Recovery in Mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.M.

    2004-01-01

    three main studies were performed in this thesis, namely, mortality and survival study, biochemical studies, and studies on tissue alterations cobalt-60 gamma irradiation for low let was used for the external whole body irradiation of the irradiated animal groups. a total number of animals of 722 virgin female adult wister rats of approximately the same age and weight were used for the three studies that were performed, including the control and irradiated animal groups. the animals were housed and kept with special care at fixed temperature, humidity and diet. the study on mortality and survival included 370 animals divided into control and groups irradiated with 4,5,6,7,8 and 9 Gy. this study was followed up for one year to record the number and date of animal deaths for the different irradiated groups. for the 8 and 9 Gy irradiated groups the follow up ended after 12 weeks and 11 days respectively when animal mortality reached 100%. the maximum percent mortality was noted at the second week (3.3,8,14 and 29%) for the 4,5,6 and 7 Gy irradiated groups respectively. for the 8 and 9 Gy irradiated groups, the maximum percent mortality was noted at the first week (42.9 and 90% respectively). regression equations were applied for the percent of mortality of the 5-8 Gy irradiated groups to estimate the LD 50/30, which was found to be 6.4 Gy

  2. Femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigsby, Perry W; Roberts, Heidi L; Perez, Carlos A

    1995-04-30

    Purpose: The incidence and risk factors are evaluated for femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: The radiation therapy records of 1313 patients with advanced and recurrent cancer of the vagina, vulva, cervix, and endometrium, treated at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology from 1954 to 1992, were reviewed. Median follow-up was 12.7 years. From this group, 207 patients were identified who received irradiation to the pelvis and groins with anterposterior-posterior anterior (AP-PA), 18 MV photons. Data were reviewed regarding irradiation dose to the femoral neck and other presumed risk factors including age, primary site, stage, groin node status, menopausal status, estrogen use, cigarette use, alcohol consumption, and osteoporosis. Results: The per-patient incidence of femoral neck fracture was 4.8% (10 out of 207). Four patients developed bilateral fractures. However, the cumulative actuarial incidence of fracture was 11% at 5 years and 15% at 10 years. Cox multivariate analysis of age, weight, and irradiation dose showed that only irradiation dose may be important to developing fracture. Step-wise logistic regression of presumed prognostic factors revealed that only cigarette use and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis prior to irradiation treatment were predictive of fracture. Conclusion: Femoral head fracture is a common complication of groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Fracture in our database appears to be related to irradiation dose, cigarette use, and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis. Special attention should be given in treatment planning (i.e., shielding of femoral head/neck and use of appropriate electron beam energies for a portion of treatment) to reduce the incidence of this complication.

  3. Femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigsby, Perry W.; Roberts, Heidi L.; Perez, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence and risk factors are evaluated for femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: The radiation therapy records of 1313 patients with advanced and recurrent cancer of the vagina, vulva, cervix, and endometrium, treated at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology from 1954 to 1992, were reviewed. Median follow-up was 12.7 years. From this group, 207 patients were identified who received irradiation to the pelvis and groins with anterposterior-posterior anterior (AP-PA), 18 MV photons. Data were reviewed regarding irradiation dose to the femoral neck and other presumed risk factors including age, primary site, stage, groin node status, menopausal status, estrogen use, cigarette use, alcohol consumption, and osteoporosis. Results: The per-patient incidence of femoral neck fracture was 4.8% (10 out of 207). Four patients developed bilateral fractures. However, the cumulative actuarial incidence of fracture was 11% at 5 years and 15% at 10 years. Cox multivariate analysis of age, weight, and irradiation dose showed that only irradiation dose may be important to developing fracture. Step-wise logistic regression of presumed prognostic factors revealed that only cigarette use and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis prior to irradiation treatment were predictive of fracture. Conclusion: Femoral head fracture is a common complication of groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Fracture in our database appears to be related to irradiation dose, cigarette use, and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis. Special attention should be given in treatment planning (i.e., shielding of femoral head/neck and use of appropriate electron beam energies for a portion of treatment) to reduce the incidence of this complication

  4. Irradiation and Post-Irradiation Storage of Chicken: Effects on Fat and Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Tarboush, H.M.; Al-Kahtani, H.A.; Abou-Arab, A.A.; Atia, M.; Bajaber, A.S.; Ahmed, M.A.; El-Mojaddidi, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Chicken were subjected to gamma irradiation doses of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and post-irradiation storage of 21 days at 4±2º. The effects on fat and protein of chicken were studied. Rate of formation of total volatile basic-nitrogen was less in irradiated samples particularly in samples treated with 5.0KGy during the entire storage. Fatty acid profiles of chicken lipids were not significantly (P≤ 0.05) affected by irradiation especially at doses of 5.0 KGy. However, irradiation caused a large increase in thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values which continued gradually during storage. Changes in amino acids were minimal. Irradiated and unirradiated samples showed the appearance of protein subunits with molecular weights in the range of 10.0 to 88.0 and 10.0 to 67.0 KD, respectively. No changes were observed in the sarcoplasmic protein but the intensity of bands in all irradiated samples decreased after 21 days of storage

  5. Sensory properties of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plestenjak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is a simple and effective preservation technique. The changes caused by irradiation depend on composition of food, on the absorbed dose, the water content and temperature during and after irradiation. In this paper the changes of food components caused by irradiation, doses for various food irradiation treatments, foods and countries where the irradiation is allowed, and sensory properties of irradiated food are reviewed

  6. Post-irradiation replication and repair in UV-irradiated cells of Proteus mirabilis depends on protein synthesis and a functioning rec+ gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofemeister, J.

    1977-01-01

    The amount of and the molecular weight of newly synthesized DNA (piDNA) as well as its repair after UV irradiation in excision-proficient strains of P.mirabilis and E.coli K12 have been compared. A fraction of post-replication repair (PRR) in P.mirabilis is found to be dependent on de novo protein synthesis after UV irradiation. Pre-irradiation by UV and pre-treatment with nalidixic acid increase the efficiency of post-irradiation replication and PRR even in the presence of chloramphenicol. An inducible repair function in P.mirabilis is supposed to stimulate post-irradiation replication and repair. (author)

  7. Post-irradiation replication and repair in uv-irradiated cells of Proteus mirabilis depends on protein synthesis and a functioning rec/sup +/ gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofemeister, J [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Gatersleben. Zentralinstitut fuer Genetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung

    1977-02-28

    The amount of and the molecular weight of newly synthesized DNA (piDNA) as well as its repair after uv irradiation in excision-proficient strains of P.mirabilis and E.coli K12 have been compared. A fraction of post-replication repair (PRR) in P.mirabilis is found to be dependent on de novo protein synthesis after uv irradiation. Pre-irradiation by uv and pre-treatment with nalidixic acid increase the efficiency of post-irradiation replication and PRR even in the presence of chloramphenicol. An inducible repair function in P.mirabilis is supposed to stimulate post-irradiation replication and repair.

  8. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP2-02: FLASH Irradiation Improves the Therapeutic Index Following GI Tract Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, E; Trovati, S; King, G; Lartey, F; Rafat, M; Loo, B; Maxim, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and characterize the radiobiological effectiveness of very high dose rate radiotherapy (FLASH) compared to conventional irradiation in an in vivo model. Methods: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with doses ranging between 10 and 18 Gy using a custom stereotactic jig. A Varian Clinac 21EX was modified to allow dose rates ranging from 0.05 to 240 Gy/s at the position of the mirror. With the gantry at 180 degrees, the jig holding the individual animals was placed above the mirror to take advantage of the reduced source to target distance. Mice were irradiated with 20MeV electrons. Following irradiation, the mice were monitored twice daily for morbidity and daily for weight changes. Results: Mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had lower weight loss compared to the mice receiving conventional irradiation. Following FLASH irradiation, a maximum weight loss of ∼20% was observed at day 6 with subsequent recovery, while following conventional irradiation, higher weight losses was observed with fewer instances of recovery. Concerning survival, all mice in the conventionally irradiated groups had a 100% mortality in the range of 15.5–18 Gy, while the mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had a 100% survival in the same range. Conclusion: These results have demonstrated proof of principle that FLASH irradiations have a dramatic impact on the overall survival of mice following GI tract irradiations. If the increase in the therapeutic window can be validated and understood, this would revolutionize the field of radiation oncology and lead to increased cure rates with reduced side effects following treatment, resulting in increased quality of life for cancer survivors. Funding: DoD, Award#:W81XWH-14-1-0014, Weston Havens Foundation, Bio-X (Stanford University), the Office of the Dean of the Medical School, the Office of the Provost (Stanford University), and the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation; BL and PM are

  9. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP2-02: FLASH Irradiation Improves the Therapeutic Index Following GI Tract Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, E; Trovati, S; King, G; Lartey, F; Rafat, M; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate and characterize the radiobiological effectiveness of very high dose rate radiotherapy (FLASH) compared to conventional irradiation in an in vivo model. Methods: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with doses ranging between 10 and 18 Gy using a custom stereotactic jig. A Varian Clinac 21EX was modified to allow dose rates ranging from 0.05 to 240 Gy/s at the position of the mirror. With the gantry at 180 degrees, the jig holding the individual animals was placed above the mirror to take advantage of the reduced source to target distance. Mice were irradiated with 20MeV electrons. Following irradiation, the mice were monitored twice daily for morbidity and daily for weight changes. Results: Mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had lower weight loss compared to the mice receiving conventional irradiation. Following FLASH irradiation, a maximum weight loss of ∼20% was observed at day 6 with subsequent recovery, while following conventional irradiation, higher weight losses was observed with fewer instances of recovery. Concerning survival, all mice in the conventionally irradiated groups had a 100% mortality in the range of 15.5–18 Gy, while the mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had a 100% survival in the same range. Conclusion: These results have demonstrated proof of principle that FLASH irradiations have a dramatic impact on the overall survival of mice following GI tract irradiations. If the increase in the therapeutic window can be validated and understood, this would revolutionize the field of radiation oncology and lead to increased cure rates with reduced side effects following treatment, resulting in increased quality of life for cancer survivors. Funding: DoD, Award#:W81XWH-14-1-0014, Weston Havens Foundation, Bio-X (Stanford University), the Office of the Dean of the Medical School, the Office of the Provost (Stanford University), and the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation; BL and PM are

  10. Effects of ion beam irradiation on Oncidium lanceanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Nurul Aliaa Idris; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2006-01-01

    Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of an orchid (Oncidium lanceanum) were irradiated using 220 MeV 12 C 5+ ion, accelerated by AVF cyclotron at JAEA, Japan in 2005. Five different doses were applied to the PLBs; 0, 1.0, 2.0, 6.0 and 12.0 Gy. Following irradiation, these PLBs were maintained in cultures for germination and multiplication. Irradiation effects on growth and seedling regeneration patterns as well as morphological characteristics of the in vitro cultures were monitored and recorded. In general, average fresh weights of the irradiated PLBs increased progressively by irradiating the explants at 1.0, 2.0 and reached the maximum at 6.0 Gy. The figure however dropped when the explants were irradiated at 12 Gy. Surprisingly, although the highest average fresh weight was recorded on PLBs irradiated at 6.0 Gy, most of these PLBs were not able to regenerate into complete shoots. On average, only 21 seedlings were successfully regenerated from each gram of these PLBs. The highest shoot regeneration was recorded on cultures irradiated at 2.0 Gy in which 102 seedlings were obtained from one gram of the PLBs. Most of the regenerated seedlings have been transferred to glass house for morphological screening. Molecular analysis showed the presence of DNA polymorphisms among the seedlings from different doses

  11. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure. Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  12. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  13. Prospective study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsella, T.J.; Malcolm, A.W.; Bothe, A. Jr.; Valerio, D.; Blackburn, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    A prospective study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation was carried out in 32 patients with a primary pelvic malignancy and prior weight loss. Both curative and palliative patients were eligible for the study. Seventeen patients were randomized to receive intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH) and fifteen patients served as controls who were maintained on their regular diet. Patients were stratified by percent body weight loss. Tolerance to therapy was assessed by evaluation of functional status and by using nutritional parameters of body weight change, change in serum protein levels, and response to delayed hypersensitivity skin tests. The curative IVH group tolerated therapy well by both functional and nutritional measurements. All curative IVH patients completed the planned radiation therapy without a treatment break and were fully active following treatment. Patients gained an average of 4.0 kg body weight during irradiation, which was significantly different from the curative control patients. They demonstrated a significant increase in serum transferrin reflecting an improvement in visceral protein. In addition, all showed a positive response to delayed hypersensitivity skin tests at the completion of irradiation. The palliative IVH patients often did poorly because of progression of disease and demonstrated only an elevation of serum transferrin during treatment. The results in the curative IVH group suggest a potential adjunctive role for intravenous hyperalimentation in the malnourished cancer patient undergoing pelvic irradiation. Clearly, further study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation is needed using curative patients with a single tumor type and significant prior weight loss

  14. Living related donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L; Chen, Y S; Liu, P P; Chiang, Y C; Cheng, Y F; Huang, T L; Eng, H L

    1997-10-01

    Living related liver transplantation (LRLT) has been developed in response to the paediatric organ donor shortage. According to the International Living Donor Registry, 521 transplants had been performed in 515 patients between December 8 1988 and January 19 1996 in 30 centres worldwide. The overall actuarial patient and graft survival rates were 82.7 and 80%, respectively. Between June 17 1994 and November 30 1996, the authors performed 11 LRLT at the Chung Gung Memorial Hospital. The living donors consisted of 10 mothers and one father. The mean graft weight was 303 g and the mean graft recipient weight ratio was 2.2%. Donor hepatectomy was performed without vascular inflow occlusion. The intra-operative blood loss ranged from 30 mL to 120 mL with an average of 61 mL, and blood transfusion was not required in all donors both intra-operatively and during the postoperative period. Underlying diseases of the recipients were biliary atresia (n = 10) and glycogen storage disease (n = 1). The mean graft cold ischaemia time was 106 min, the mean second warm ischaemia time was 51 min and the mean interval between portal and arterial reperfusion was 81 min. The initial LRLT results were promising with all donors having been discharged without complication. The recipients experienced a few complications, all of which were manageable with early intervention. All 11 recipients are alive and well. These are encouraging results and the authors hope to expand the use of live donors for liver transplantation to cope with demand.

  15. Results from irradiation of tobacco seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyrbev, B.; Velikov, S.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out in the Struma river valley with tobacco seedlings in the period 1984-1987. The seeds were gamma irradiated with 1000 R and 2000 R and sowed after 2-3 days with and without fertilizers. The results from phenological observations and biometrical measurements of the seedlings showed no positive radiation effect on the sprouting and phenophase transition. No significant changes between irradiated plants and controls were detected in the total weight of the seedlings, the number, height, length and width of the leaves, the yield and quality of tobacco. In conclusion the authors do not recommend gamma irradiation of tobacco seeds as a plant growth stimulation agent. 3 tabs

  16. Studies on the storage of irradiated potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharabash, M; Orabi, I O [National Center for research and radiation Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Eloksh, I I; Abd-Alia, M A [Faculty of Agric. Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Tubers of alpha and king edward potato cultivars were exposed to O, 10 or 50 krad and stored under room temperature and good ventilation in perforated standard carton boxes. 10 Krad was the promising dosage for sprouting inhibition for both the two cultivars. Total losses in weight were partially dependent on the volume of the dosage, the time elapsed after irradiation and cultivar used. Ascorbic acid slightly decreased, whilst sugar fractions were increased during storage in irradiated tubers. Sugar fractions were sharply decreased in boiled or fried potatoes. Also, chlorogenic acid was increased by prolonging the storage time and/or increasing the exposure dose. After-cooking discoloration (darkening) was reduced by gamma irradiation and/or extending the storage period. Using 0.5% citric acid or 0.5% sodium citrate solution inhibited the after-cooking discoloration. 8 tabs.

  17. Studies on the storage of irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.; Orabi, I.O.; Eloksh, I.I.; Abd-Alia, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Tubers of alpha and king edward potato cultivars were exposed to O, 10 or 50 krad and stored under room temperature and good ventilation in perforated standard carton boxes. 10 Krad was the promising dosage for sprouting inhibition for both the two cultivars. Total losses in weight were partially dependent on the volume of the dosage, the time elapsed after irradiation and cultivar used. Ascorbic acid slightly decreased, whilst sugar fractions were increased during storage in irradiated tubers. Sugar fractions were sharply decreased in boiled or fried potatoes. Also, chlorogenic acid was increased by prolonging the storage time and/or increasing the exposure dose. After-cooking discoloration (darkening) was reduced by gamma irradiation and/or extending the storage period. Using 0.5% citric acid or 0.5% sodium citrate solution inhibited the after-cooking discoloration. 8 tabs

  18. Utilization of irradiated sludge for fish feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Syamsu, Suwirma; Subagyo, Lydia Andini

    1994-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the use of irradiated sludge pellet for fish feed, namely pellet A consisting of irradiated sludge and shrimp waste (1:3); pellet B consisting of irradiated sludge and commercial pellet (1:2). Pellet C, which is a commercial fish feed, was used as control. Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was used in this experiment. The feed pellet with a dose of 5% of total body weight was given 3 times per day. The results of the experiments showed that based on food conversion for the relative growth of the catfishes, and heavy metal content, pellet A was the best. No contamination of Salmonella or Shigella bacteria was detected in each pellet. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs, 1 fig

  19. Irradiation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L.): microbiological and sensory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuhako, Vanessa Provenzano

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demand for fresh foods have stimulated the marketing of minimally processed vegetables. However, these products maintain most of their natural microbiota even after being sanitized, including pathogenic microorganisms. Refrigerated storage allows the growth of psychotropic microorganisms and among them the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes may represent a risk to pregnant women and their fetuses and to immunocompromised people. Non-thermal alternative processes for food preservation, such as irradiation, can reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganism populations without impairing substantial changes in sensory, physical or chemical attributes. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated on minimally processed lettuce, to evaluate its effect on lettuce leaves through acceptance sensory test and to determine the irradiated vegetable shelf life through sensory and microbiological tests. A mixture of 4 types of lettuce (Iceberg, Boston, Loose-leaf and Red loose-leaf) were artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (7 log UFC/g lettuce) and then exposed to 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 and 1.2 kGy, under refrigeration. The DlO values for L. monocytogenes varied fram 0.18 to 0.21 kGy. Sensory and microbiological tests indicated that the shelf life of Iceberg lettuce stored at 7 deg C was 5 and 7 days for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples, respectively, and for the irradiated and non-irradiated Loose-leaf lettuce samples were 10 days. For the non-irradiated Boston sample, the shelf life was 3 days and for the Irradiated 7 days. Red loose-leaf showed 5 and 4 days of shelf lives for the irradiated and non-irradiated, respectively. Irradiated samples presented better microbiological quality than non-irradiated ones. The irradiation is feasible process to improve quality and safety of lettuce leaves. (author)

  20. Women's challenges with postpartum weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kristen S; Bushee, Tracy D; Phillips, Jennifer D; Kirkpatrick, Terrie; Catledge, Courtney; Braveboy, Kristin; O'Rourke, Carol; Patel, Neema; Prophet, Malshundria; Cooper, Anita; Mosley, Lori; Parker, Christie; Douglas, Gaye M

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to examine women's experiences of weight loss during the postpartum period. Understanding women's positive and negative experiences can assist health care providers to successfully intervene in helping women lose weight following pregnancy and avoid long-term weight gain and obesity development. Phenomenology, according to Husserl's perspective. Private location of the women's choosing. Twenty-six women, who ranged in age from 25 to 35 years, and had given birth within the last 5 years, were interviewed regarding their experiences with postpartum weight loss. The majority of the sample was Caucasian. Interviews were transcribed and themes were identified from each of the interviews. Comparisons were made between interviews to identify common experiences between women. Data were analyzed according to the Giorgi method. The women in the study had a wide range of experiences. Themes that emerged from the interviews related to women's challenges with return to prepregnancy weight. These included: time and motivation issues, the need for support, and weight and other struggles. This study provides a look inside the lives of women faced with the reality of losing weight after childbirth. Losing weight after delivery is multi-faceted and influenced by many factors. Interventions to assist women with weight loss should target the challenges described in this paper. When effective strategies are developed, education can be done during pregnancy to prepare for the postpartum period. Ultimately, future research efforts can help us to eliminate pregnancy as a risk factor for obesity in women.

  1. Irradiation - who needs it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoular, C.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the public's attitudes to the irradiation of food to ensure it is bacteria free and to prolong shelf-life are considered. The need to label irradiated food and to educate the public about its implications are emphasised. The opinions of the large food retailers who maintain that high standards in food processing, hygiene and refrigeration eliminate the need for food irradiation are discussed. (UK)

  2. Identification of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelberg, A.; Heide, L.; Boegl, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.) [de

  3. Food irradiation - now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Food irradiation technology in South Africa is about to take its rightful place next to existing food preservation methods in protecting food supplies. This is as a result of several factors, the most important of which is the decision by the Department of Health and Population Development to introduce compulsory labelling of food irradiation. The factors influencing food irradiation technology in South Africa are discussed

  4. Development of blood irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This project is designed to improve the techniques of blood irradiation through the development of improved and portable blood irradiators. A portable blood irradiator, consisting of a vitreous carbon body and thulium-170 radiation source, was attached to dogs via a carotid-jugular shunt, and its effects on the immune system measured. The device has demonstrated both significant suppression of circulating lymphocytes and prolonged retention of skin allografts

  5. Irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.; Danielsson-Tham, M.L.; Hoel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A committee has on instructions from the swedish government made an inquiry into the possible effects on health and working environment from irradition of food. In this report, a review is presented on the known positiv and negative effects of food irradiation Costs, availabilty, shelf life and quality of irradiated food are also discussed. According to the report, the production of radiolysis products during irradiation is not easily evaluated. The health risks from irradiation of spices are estimated to be lower than the risks associated with the ethenoxid treatment presently used. (L.E.)

  6. Gamma irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, Gabor; Stenger, Vilmos.

    1983-01-01

    The main parameters and the preparation procedures of the gamma radiation sources frequently applied for irradiation purposes are discussed. In addition to 60 Co and 137 Cs sources also the nuclear power plants offer further opportunities: spent fuel elements and products of certain (n,γ) reactions can serve as irradiation sources. Laboratory scale equipments, pilot plant facilities for batch or continuous operation, continuous industrial irradiators and special multipurpose, mobile and panorama type facilities are reviewed including those in Canada, USA, India, the Soviet Union, Hungary, UK, Japan and Australia. For irradiator design the source geometry dependence of the spatial distribution of dose rates can be calculated. (V.N.)

  7. Immunocytoadherence and sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumariage, M.L.; Hiesche, K.; Revesz, L.; Haot, J.

    1975-01-01

    In sublethally irradiated CBA mice, the relative and absolute numbers of spontaneous rosette forming cells against sheep erythrocytes are markedly decreased in bone marrow. The decrease of the absolute number of spontaneous RFC is also important in the spleen in spite of an increase of the RFC relative number above the normal values between the 8th and 12th day after irradiation. The graft of normal bone marrow cells immediately after irradiation or the shielding of a medullary area during irradiation promotes the recovery of the immunocytoadherence capacity of the bone marrow cells but not of the spleen cells [fr

  8. Fluorescence of irradiated hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulis, I.G.; Evdokimenko, V.M.; Lapkovskij, M.P.; Petrov, P.T.; Gulis, I.M.; Markevich, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    A visible fluorescence has been found out in γ-irradiated aqueous of carbohydrates. Two bands have been distinguished in fluorescence spectra of the irradiated solution of dextran: a short-wave band lambdasub(max)=140 nm (where lambda is a wave length) at lambdasub(β)=380 nm and a long-wave band with lambdasub(max)=540 nm at lambdasub(β)=430 nm. A similar form of the spectrum has been obtained for irradiated solutions of starch, amylopectin, lowmolecular glucose. It has been concluded that a macromolecule of polysaccharides includes fluorescent centres. A relation between fluorescence and α-oxiketon groups formed under irradiation has been pointed out

  9. Planning of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caha, A; Krystof, V [Vyzkumny Ustav Klinicke a Experimentalni Onkologie, Brno (Czechoslovakia)

    1979-07-01

    The principles are discussed of the planning of irradiation, ie., the use of the various methods of location of a pathological focus and the possibility of semiautomatic transmission of the obtained data on a two-dimensional or spatial model. An efficient equipment is proposed for large irradiation centres which should cooperate with smaller irradiation departments for which also a range of apparatus is proposed. Irradiation planning currently applied at the Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Oncology in Brno is described. In conclusion, some of the construction principles of semi-automatic operation of radiotherapy departments are discussed.

  10. Food irradiation - a fresh case of radiation phobia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robotham, F.P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two arguments are being used by the opponents of food irradiation. One is that the process is hazardous to both plant operators and members of the public who live nearby. The second is that the irradiation process harms the eventual consumers of the food from either induced radiolytic products or substantially reduced nutritional loss and vitamin loss. This paper argues that whether or not the second point is valid, the process itself is inherently safe and does not present any untoward radiological hazard

  11. Irradiation chamber and sample changer for biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Daues, H.W.; Fischer, B.; Kopf, U.; Liebold, H.P.; Quis, D.; Stelzer, H.; Kiefer, J.; Schoepfer, F.; Schneider, E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an irradiaton system with which living cells of different origin are irradiated with heavy ion beams (18 <- Z <- 92) at energies up to 10 MeV/amu. The system consists of a beam monitor connected to the vacuum system of the accelerator and the irradiation chamber, containing the biological samples under atmospheric pressure. The requirements and aims of the set up are discussed. The first results with saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chinese Hamster tissue cells are presented. (orig.)

  12. Effects of ion beam irradiation on Oncidium lanceanum orchids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of an orchid (Oncidium lanceanum) were irradiated using 220 MeV 12 C 5+ ions, accelerated by AVF cyclotron at JAEA, Japan in 2005. Five different doses were applied to the PLBs; 0, 1.0, 2.0, 6.0 and 12.0 Gy. Following irradiation, these PLBs were maintained in cultures for germination and multiplication. Irradiation effects on growth and seedling regeneration patterns as well as molecular characteristics of the in vitro cultures were monitored and recorded. In general, average fresh weights of the irradiated PLBs increased progressively by irradiating the explants at 1.0, 2.0 and reached the maximum at 6.0 Gy. The figure however dropped when the explants were irradiated at 12 Gy. Surprisingly, although the highest average fresh weight was recorded on PLBs irradiated at 6.0 Gy, most of these PLBs were not able to regenerate into complete shoots. On average, after 4 months of irradiation, only 21 seedlings were successfully regenerated from each gram of these PLBs. The highest shoot regeneration was recorded on cultures irradiated at 2.0 Gy in which 102 seedlings were obtained from one gram of the PLBs. Some morphological changes were seen on in vitro plantlets derived from PLBs irradiated at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 Gy. Most of the regenerated seedlings have been transferred to glasshouse for further morphological selection. Molecular analysis showed the presence of DNA polymorphisms among the seedlings from different doses of irradiation. (Author)

  13. Irradiated multilayer film for primal meat packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustig, S.; Schuetz, J.M.; Vicik, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent deals with a heat-shrinkable, multilayer film suitable for use in fabricating bags for packaging primal and sub-primal meat cuts and processed meats. The multilayer film has a first outer layer of a first ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, a core layer of a polyvinylidene chloride-vinyl chloride copolymer containing between about 70 weight percent and about 90 weight percent vinylidene chloride as a barrier film, and a second outer layer of a second ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer. The multilayer film is preferably made by co-extrusion of the layers, and then it is biaxially stretched. After biaxial stretching, the entire multilayer film is substantially uniformly irradiated to a dosage level of between about 2 megarads and about 3 megarads and heat-sealed in the form of a bag. The film is not significantly discoloured by the irradiation and the bag has improved toughness properties and heat-sealing characteristics

  14. Investigation on the effects of gamma irradiation on bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.S.; Braz, D.; Motta, L.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Brazil has more than 218,000 km of asphalt-paved highways. Bitumen is a generic term for natural or manufactured black or dark-colored solid, semisolid, or viscous cementitious materials that are composed mainly of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (90-95%). Several papers have shown that the irradiation process has changed the mechanical behavior in some polymers. This work aims to analyze the behavior of Brazilian irradiated Bitumen (CAP 50-70). In order to provide a preliminary evaluation, bitumen samples and cylindrical specimens of asphaltic mixture were tested. The bitumen samples were irradiated 0.1 to 300 kGy, and asphaltic mixture specimen was irradiated 5 to 300 kGy. The cylindrical asphaltic mixture specimen of 10.16 cm diameter used in this study was molded using an asphalt-aggregate mixture. The specimens were irradiated in LIN/UFRJ/Brazil using a Gamma cell Co 60 source of gamma irradiation with an applied dose rate of 29.7 Gy/min. After irradiated, the bitumen samples were subjected to penetration test and the asphaltic mixtures were subjected to indirect tensile strength test (diametral compression) for determination of the resilient modulus, according to ASTM method D 4123. The results of these experiments for each dose were compared with the control (nonirradiated). As expected, the penetration results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) decreases with increasing of irradiation dose for bitumen samples and the resilient modulus results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) increases with increasing of irradiation dose for asphaltic mixture. (author)

  15. Food irradiation: fiction and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (IGCFI), sponsored by World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the intention to provide to governments, especially those of developing countries, scientifically correct information about food irradiation, decided to organize a file and questions of general public interest. The document is composed by descriptive files related with the actual situation and future prospective, technical and scientific terms, food irradiation and the radioactivity, chemical transformations in irradiated food, genetic studies, microbiological safety of irradiated food, irradiation and harmlessness, irradiation and additives, packing, irradiation facilities control, process control, irradiation costs and benefits as well as consumers reaction

  16. Weighted network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Illes; Abel, Daniel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos-Renyi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs

  17. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  18. The effect of monomer molecular weight on grafting reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Minghong; Ding Zhongli; Ma Zueteh

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, some condensed ethylene glycol acrylate monomers with different molecular weight being grafted to the PE film by means of pre-irradiation is reported. The effect of molecular weight of monomer on grafting reaction and the hydrophilicity of grafting sample have been discussed. The experimental results show: molar degrees of grafting decreased non-linearly with the increasement of molecular weight of monomer, the grafting reaction of polymer is greater effected by the swelling degree of PE film, the greater the swelling degree of grafting material, the higher the grating degree grafting is, the initial rate of grafting reaction decreased with the increasement of molecular weight of monomer. (author)

  19. Weight management in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Key learning points:\\ud - Women who start pregnancy in an overweight or obese weight category have increased health risks\\ud - Irrespective of pre-pregnancy weight category, there are health risks associated with gaining too much weight in pregnancy for both mother and baby\\ud - There are currently no official weight gain guidelines for pregnancy in the UK, thus focus needs to be on supporting pregnant women to eat healthily and keep active

  20. 5 CFR 591.222 - How does OPM use the expenditure weights to combine price indexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.222 How does OPM use the expenditure weights to...

  1. Neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara D. Mendez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of neighborhood racial composition or neighborhood poverty in association with pregnancy-related weight are limited. Prior studies of neighborhood racial density and poverty has been in association with adverse birth outcomes and suggest that neighborhoods with high rates of poverty and racial composition of black residents are typically segregated and systematically isolated from opportunities and resources. These neighborhood factors may help explain the racial disparities in pre-pregnancy weight and inadequate weight gain. This study examined whether neighborhood racial composition and neighborhood poverty was associated with weight before pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy and if this association differed by race. Methods: We used vital birth records of singleton births of 73,061 non-Hispanic black and white women in Allegheny County, PA (2003–2010. Maternal race and ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body-mass-index (BMI, gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth record data, and measures of neighborhood racial composition (percentage of black residents in the neighborhood and poverty (percentage of households in the neighborhood below the federal poverty were derived using US Census data. Multilevel log binomial regression models were performed to estimate neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight (i.e., overweight/obese and gestational weight gain (i.e., inadequate and excessive. Results: Black women as compared to white women were more likely to be overweight/obese before pregnancy and to have inadequate gestational weight gain (53.6% vs. 38.8%; 22.5% vs. 14.75 respectively. Black women living in predominately black neighborhoods were slightly more likely to be obese prior to pregnancy compared to black women living in predominately white neighborhoods (PR 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16. Black and white women living in high

  2. Biological changes in experimental animals after irradiation with sublethal doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dae Seong; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Byun, Myung Woo; Jeong, Il Yun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The objective of the present study was to investigate general clinical aspects such as weekly body weight and blood changes, and weekly food intake in gamma-irradiated C57BL/6j male mice fed AIN-76A purified rodent diet for 14 weeks. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 0, 2, 4 and 6 Gy of gamma-rays (Gammacell 40 Exactor, {sup 137}Cs, MDS Nordion) at a dose rate of 1.8 {sub c}Gy per second. The mean body weight change of 6 Gy-irradiated mice significantly decreased when compared to that of the non-irradiated control mice. Moreover, high dose of radiation resulted in decreased levels of AST, ALT, but in increased levels of total cholersterol, triglyceride, HDL-C in mice.

  3. Rat parotid gland pathophysiology following 137Cs irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, J.C.; Izutsu, K.T.; Truelove, E.L.; Menard, T.W.; Anderson, M.C.; Morton, T.H.; Siegel, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in rat parotid gland function were measured between 3 and 30 days following exposure to 1800 R of 137 Cs irradiation to the head. Glandular fluid secretion capability as indicated by volume of secretion, maximum rate of secretion, and duration of secretion following pilocarpine stimulation decreased concomitantly with gland weight following irradiation. Thus gland weight is probably indicative of residual glandular-potential for fluid secretion following irradiation. The relation between salivary sodium concentration and flow rate was assumed to be indicative of glandular electrolyte transport capability. Salivary sodium concentrations were not elevated over control values at any flow rate. Therefore, there is no evidence for an irradiation-induced defect in the ductal sodium resorption mechanism. Rather, the observed salivary sodium changes are consistent with a decrease in the relative glandular proportion of acini to ducts

  4. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  5. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Training manual on food irradiation technology and techniques. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the revised Training Manual is to help scientists to acquire the necessary knowledge needed for performing proper research and development work in the field of food irradiation. The Manual presents an up-to-date picture of the current state of food irradiation and reflects the important advances made in the technology of food irradiation, in the radiation chemistry of foods, in the microbiology of irradiated foods, in wholesomeness and standardization. It contains the following chapters: (1) Radionuclides and radiation; (2) Radiation detection and measurement; (3) Radiation protection; (4) Radiation chemistry; (5) Effects of radiation on living organisms; (6) Preservation of foods; (7) Radiation preservation of foods; (8) Packaging; (9) Combination processes; (10) Limitations of food irradiation; (11) Wholesomeness of irradiated foods; (12) Government regulation of irradiated foods; (13) Food irradiation facilities; (14) Commercial aspects of food irradiation; (15) Literature sources. The practical part of the Manual contains a revised and expanded series of detailed laboratory exercises in the use of ionizing radiation for food processing

  7. Facts about food irradiation: Chemical changes in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet addresses the safety of irradiated food. The irradiation process produces very little chemical change in food, and laboratory experiments have shown no harmful effects in animals fed with irradiated milk powder. 3 refs

  8. Modelling property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to predict the irradiation induced property changes in nuclear; graphite, including the effect of a change in irradiation temperature. The currently used method; to account for changes in irradiation temperature, the scaled...

  9. Race, Ethnicity, Concentrated Poverty, and Low Birth Weight Disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (< 2500 grams) rates were calculated for non-Hispanic Black, Latino, and non-Hispanic White live singleton births. Concentrated poverty was defined as poor persons living in ne...

  10. Living Gluten Free

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease" Articles Celiac Disease Changes Everything / What is Celiac Disease? / Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment / Four Inches and Seven Pounds… / Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten-Free Spring 2015 Issue: Volume 10 ...

  11. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  12. Weight reduction intervention for obese infertile women prior to IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsson, Snorri; Bergh, Christina; Friberg, Britt

    2017-01-01

    in the weight reduction group reaching BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2 or reaching a weight loss of at least five BMI units to the IVF only group. No statistical differences in live birth rates between the groups in either subgroup analysis were found. LIMITATIONS, REASON FOR CAUTION: The study was not powered to detect a small......STUDY QUESTION: Does an intensive weight reduction programme prior to IVF increase live birth rates for infertile obese women? SUMMARY ANSWER: An intensive weight reduction programme resulted in a large weight loss but did not substantially affect live birth rates in obese women scheduled for IVF...... in infertile obese women. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A prospective, multicentre, randomized controlled trial was performed between 2010 and 2016 in the Nordic countries. In total, 962 women were assessed for eligibility and 317 women were randomized. Computerized randomization with concealed allocation...

  13. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etoh, H. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1980-10-01

    Effects of continual irradiation for a long term on fishes and aquatic invertebrates were outlined. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms were less than acute effects induced when the same dose was irradiated once. The radiosensitivity of the genital organ to continual irradiation was high. There was a difference in radiosensitivity of the genital organ between female and male, and the degree of the difference varied according to kinds of animals. In an experiment on continual irradiation of adult killifishes, ova recovered from radiation damage, but spermatozoa did not recover. Incubation rates of eggs obtained from aquatic organisms which lived in water where radioactive sewage flowed into decreased significantly, and the frequency of reverse position of salivary gland chromosomes which were peculiar to exposed organisms increased in larvae of Chironomus tentans.

  14. Effect of γ-ray irradiation on polystyrene, poly (methyl methacrylate), and their copolymer prepared by cast polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukame, Takahiro; Kutsuzawa, Michio; Saitoh, Hideki; Shibasaki, Yoshio

    1998-01-01

    Effect of γ-ray irradiation on polystyrene (PS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and their copolymer prepared by cast polymerization was studied using size exclusion chromatography. The main chemical reactions in irradiated polymers were crosslinking and scission. Conversion of all irradiated samples increased regardless of the concentration of initiator (AIBN) used for cast polymerization. On γ-ray irradiation, the molecular weight of PS increased and its distribution broadened, whereas the molecular weight of PMMA decreased. These phenomena should be attributable to the competitive occurrence of scission and crosslinking in PS by γ-ray irradiation, whereas scission occurred mainly in PMMA. (author)

  15. Paternity after irradiation for testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossa, S.D.; Almaas, B.; Jetne, V.; Bjerkedal, T.; Norske Radiumhospital, Oslo. Dept. of Medical Physics; Norwegian Council for Science and the Humanities, Oslo)

    1986-01-01

    According to the Medical Birth Registry (MBR) of Norway, 69 of about 430 patients irradiated for testicular cancer (stage I+II) during 1966-1978 fathered at least one child after radiation therapy (median observation time 136 months, range 36-191 months). A total of 95 children were born. Between 10 and 122 months elapsed between discontinuation of irradiation and the birth of the first child born after radiation therapy. Though the total doses to the abdominal irradiation field were higher in patients irradiated by a linear accelerator (1971-1978), than in those treated by a betatron (1966-1970), the gonadal doses were generally lower in the former group due to better gonadal shielding. In the children, the sex ratio and the median weight and length at birth were comparable to those values seen in a control group from the MBR. No increased frequency of malformations was observed. It is concluded that modern radiation therapy techniques allow post-irradiation fathership in a significant number of patients without risk of neonatal problems or malformations in the children. (orig.)

  16. Irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugyaki, L.

    1977-01-01

    The author studies the criteria for the harmlessness of irradiation as a food-preservation process. The glucose and proteins of bacto-tryptone, irradiated at 5 Mrads, do not increase the Escherichia Coli C 600 lysogenous bacteriophages, compared to the induction produced by direct irradiation of the strain or to the exposition to nitrogenous yperite. The possible mutagenic effect is therefore different. Wheat flour freshly irradiated at 5 Mrads shows physico-chemical changes. When given to mice as 50% of their ration, it leads to a higher incidence of tumours and a greater number of meiotic chromosome alteration (besides some discreet physio-pathological changes in fertility and longevity). Immunoelectrophoresis in agar or agarose gel does not allow any detection of irradiation of meat, fish or eggs. A vertical electrophoresis in starch gel can lead to a differentiation between frozen or chilled meat and the one that is irradiated at 0.5 or 5 Mrads, but the same thing can't be said for fish or eggs. Lastly an irradiated mushroom shows every sign of freshness but, when planted in a suitable medium, its cuttings do not present any cell proliferation which could give a rapid and simple method of detecting the irradiation. (G.C.)

  17. Materials modified by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Application of radiation in pharmaceutical sciences and cosmetology, polymer materials, food industry, environment, health camre products and packing production is described. Nano-technology is described more detailed, because it is less known as irradiation using technology. Economic influence of the irradiation on the materials value addition is shown

  18. Special irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomez, Gerard; Veyrat, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation trials conducted on materials-testing reactors should provide a better understanding of the phenomena which characterize the working and evolution in time of electricity-generating nuclear reactors. The authors begin by outlining the objectives behind experimental irradiation (applied to the various nuclear chains) and then describe the special techniques deployed to achieve these objectives [fr

  19. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tony; Lang, Tim

    1987-01-01

    The London Food Commission summarizes its concerns about the use of food irradiation in the U.K. resulting from its working group surveys of general public opinion, trading standard officers and the food industry in the U.K., and from experience in countries already permitting irradiation to a variety of foods. (U.K.)

  20. Progress in food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The volume contains reports from 19 countries on the state of the project in the field of food irradiation (fruit, vegetables, meat, spices) by means of gamma rays. The tests ran up to 1982. Microbiological radiosensitivity and mutagenicity tests provide a yard stick for irradiation efficiency.

  1. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.

    1990-01-01

    The author explains in simple question and answer form what is entailed in the irradiation of food and attempts to dispel some of the anxieties surrounding the process. Benefits and limitations, controls, labelling safety, and tests for the detection of the use irradiation in food preparation are some of the topics dealt with in outline. (author)

  2. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue

  3. Food Irradiation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, T.

    1981-09-15

    Since 1967 research activities on food irradiation in Japan have been carried out under the National Food Irradiation Programme by the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission. The programme has been concentrated on the technological and economical feasibility and wholesomeness testings of seven irradiated food items of economic importance to the country, i.e. potatoes, onions, wheat, rice, 'kamaboko' (fish-paste products), 'Vienna' sausages and mandarin oranges. By now most studies, including wholesomeness testings of these irradiated food items, have been completed. In Japan, all foods or food additives for sale are regulated by the Food Sanitation Law enforced in 1947. Based on studies made by the national programme, irradiated potatoes were given 'unconditional acceptance' for human consumption in 1972. At present, irradiated potatoes are the only food item which has so far been approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Unless the Minister of Health and Welfare has declared that items are not harmful to human health on obtaining comments from the Food Sanitation Investigation Council, no irradiated food can be processed or sold. In addition, the import of irradiated foodstuffs other than potatoes from foreign countries is prohibited by law.

  4. Post irradiation conical keratosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestey, J.P.; Hunter, J.A.A.; Mallet, R.B.; Rodger, A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have recently seen 3 patients affected by a widespread eruption of minute keratoses confined to areas of irradiated skin with clinical and histologial features of which they have been unable to find previous literary descriptions. A fourth patient with similar clinical and histopathological features occurring after exposure only to actinic irradiation is described. (author)

  5. Post irradiation conical keratosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestey, J.P.; Hunter, J.A.A. (Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK)); Mallet, R.B. (Westminster Hospital, London (UK)); Rodger, A. (Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (UK))

    1989-03-01

    The authors have recently seen 3 patients affected by a widespread eruption of minute keratoses confined to areas of irradiated skin with clinical and histologial features of which they have been unable to find previous literary descriptions. A fourth patient with similar clinical and histopathological features occurring after exposure only to actinic irradiation is described. (author).

  6. Irradiation damage in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Most superconductors are quite sensitive to irradiation defects. Critical temperatures may be depressed, critical currents may be increased, by irradiation, but other behaviours may be encountered. In compounds, the sublattice in which defects are created is of significant importance. 24 refs

  7. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  8. Food irradiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review is given of the control and monitoring of food irradiation with particular emphasis on the UK situation. After describing legal aspects, various applications of food irradiation in different countries are listed. Other topics discussed include code of practice for general control for both gamma radiation and electron beam facilities, dose specification, depth dose distribution and dosimetry. (U.K.)

  9. Uniformly irradiated polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiated film having substantial uniformity in the radiation dosage profile is produced by irradiating the film within a trough having lateral deflection blocks disposed adjacent the film edges for deflecting electrons toward the surface of the trough bottom for further deflecting the electrons toward the film edge

  10. Thyroid weight with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raulier-Fabry, C.; Hammer, R.

    1965-01-01

    A large number of data on thyroid weight of euthyroid subjects have been collected from the literature in this study. The most probable average weight of the gland appears to be 20 g in the adult and 2 g in the newborn. A decrease in weight has been observed during the first year of life (1 g at 6 months) and only in the second year of life the initial birth weight is reached again. The weight curve may be considered as consisting of three straight lines: from 2 to 7, from 7 to 18 and from 18 to 25 years, their slopes being respectively 0.6, 0.9 and 0.5 g/year. The variations in weight of the thyroid during adulthood are sufficiently small to consider it as having constant value between 25 and 55 years. The available information points to a negligible weight difference between sexes. (authors) [fr

  11. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on appearance of osteoclasts during wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Likinobu; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Yajima, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing. (author)

  12. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on appearance of osteoclasts during wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Likinobu; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Yajima, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Masayuki

    2007-07-01

    We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing.

  13. Prenatal effects of ancestral irradiation in inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprackling, L.E.S.

    1975-01-01

    Mice from 13 inbred strains (S, Z, E, Bab, BaB, BrR, C, K, N, Q, G, CFW, CF1) received continuous cobalt 60 irradiation at low dose rates for varying numbers of consecutive generations. Some Bab and BaB mice had received continuous irradiation for from 24 to 31 generations and the other mice had up to six generations of continuous irradiation in their ancestry. At weaning, the mice were removed from the irradiation room and were mated within strains either to sibs or nonsibs. Ancestral and direct irradiation doses were calculated. The ancestral dose was the effective accumulated dose to the progeny of the mated mice. The direct dose was the amount of irradiation received by any mated female from her conception to her weaning. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the tenth day of pregnancy; the sum of moles, dead embryos, and live embryos was the total in utero litter size. A ratio of the living embryos to the total number of embryos in utero was determined for each litter. An increase in ancestral or direct irradiation dose significantly decreased fertility in 11 of the 13 strains. The fertility curves for the pooled data were sigmoid in the area of the doses below those that caused complete sterility. Among the controls, there were significant strain differences in total litter size and in the ratio. Strain X--Y plots, with ancestral or direct doses plotted against total litter size or ratio, revealed the tendency for litter size to decrease as dose increased. The only trend shown for ratio was for the litters with ratios of 0.50 or less to appear more frequently among the irradiated mice. The few corpora lutea counts revealed nothing of significance. Generally, there was a definite trend toward fewer mice alive in utero among the irradiated mice

  14. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  15. Irradiation of goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunt, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Mechanical handling apparatus is adapted to handle goods, such as boxed fruit, during a process of irradiation, in palletized form. Palletized goods are loaded onto wheeled vehicles in a loading zone. Four vehicles are wheeled on a track into an irradiation zone via a door in a concrete shield. The vehicles are arranged in orthogonal relationship around a source of square section. Turntables are positioned at corners of the square shaped rail truck around the source selectively to turn the vehicles to align then with track sections. Mechanical manipulating devices are positioned in the track sections opposed to sides of the source. During irradiation, the vehicles and their palletized goods are cylically moved toward the source to offer first sides of the goods for irradiation and are retraced from the source and are pivoted through 90 0 to persent succeeding sides of the goods for irradiation

  16. Irradiation of packaged food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is used to improve the safety of food by killing insects and microorganisms, to inhibit sprouting in crops such as onions and potatoes and to control ripening in agricultural produce. In order to prevent re-infestation and re-contamination it is essential that the food is suitably packed. Consequently, the packaging material is irradiated whilst in contact with the food, and it is important that the material is resistant to radiation-induced changes. In this paper the nature of the irradiation process is reviewed briefly, together with the known effects of irradiation on packaging materials and their implications for the effective application of food irradiation. Recent research carried out at the Leatherhead Food RA on the possibility of taint transfer into food is described. (author)

  17. Issues in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.

    1987-04-01

    This discussion paper has two goals: first, to raise public awareness of food irradiation, an emerging technology in which Canada has the potential to build a new industry, mainly oriented to promising overseas markets; and second, to help build consensus among government and private sector decision makers about what has to be done to realize the domestic and export potential. The following pages discuss the potential of food irradiation; indicate how food is irradiated; outline the uses of food irradiation; examine questions of the safety of the equipment and both the safety and nutritional value of irradiated food; look at international commercial developments; assess the current and emerging domestic scene; and finally, draw some conclusions and offer suggestions for action

  18. Extracorporeal irradiation -Physicist perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaprabhu, N.; Saravanan, K.S.; Gunaseelan; Vivekanandam, S.; Reddy, K.S.; Parthasarathy; Mourougan, S.; Elangovan, K.

    2008-01-01

    Extracorporeal irradiation (ECI) involves irradiation of body tissues, particularly malignant bones of the extremities, outside the body. This involves en bloc resection of the tumour, extracorporeal irradiation of the bone segment with a single dose of 50 Gy or more, and reimplantation of the irradiated bone with fixation devices. Bone tumours like Ewing's Sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma and Oesteosarcoma; in the involved sites like femur, tibia, humerus, ilium and sacrum can be treated with ECI. The reimplanted bone simply acts as a framework for appositional bone growth from surrounding healthy bones. The conventional indications for postoperative irradiation are still applied. The major advantages of ECI are the precise anatomic fit of the reimplanted bone segment, preservation of joint mobility and its potential in avoiding the growth discrepancy commonly seen in prosthetic replacement. The use of ECI was first described in 1968 and practiced in Australia since 1996. In our center, we have completed six ECIs

  19. Yogurt and weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  20. Understanding weight stigmatization: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossrow, N H; Jeffery, R W; McGuire, M T

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate, in a nonclinical sample of adults, thoughts on and experiences with weight stigmatization. Focus groups were used to collect information. Participants were recruited through a newspaper advertisement and flyers posted in public places in Minneapolis and St. Paul. During the focus groups, participants were led in a discussion about their thoughts on weight stigmatization and personal experiences of being treated differently or poorly because of their weight. Six gender-specific focus groups consisted of 31 adult volunteers (17 women and 14 men). Perceptions of weight-based stereotypes and weight stigmatization and personal reports of having been treated differently or poorly owing to weight were measured. Participants reported a variety of experiences of being treated differently or poorly because of their weight. These included teasing, harassment, slurs and insults, negative judgments and assumptions, and perceived discrimination. Participants reported that such experiences occurred at home, among friends and strangers, at work, and in health care settings. Women reported a greater number and a greater variety of negative experiences than men. The results indicated that participants experienced weight-based stigmatization in many aspects of their lives. Awareness of these experiences may assist in the development of treatments for overweight individuals.

  1. Shelf life extension of mushrooms (agaricus bisporus) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Kovacs, E.

    1980-01-01

    Fresh mushrooms were irradiated (0, 1.0, 2.5 kGy) and kept for 8 days at 287 K (14 deg C). The stored samples were studied for different quality parameters. It was observed that the growth rate was higher in the pileus than in the stipe portion of mushrooms. Veils started unstretching on the first day, and on the second day all were open in the control samples. An irradiation dose of 2.5 kGy strongly inhibited the veil opening throughout the storage period. Highly significant moisture loss occurred during storage. Irradiation significant reduced the weight loss after 2 days of storage. Highly significantly softening occurred in storage, but irradiation improved this condition. The irradiation dose of 2.5 kGy showed better results than 1.0 kGy. (author)

  2. Thrombogenicity tests on ar-irradiated polycarbonate foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, Gustavo F.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Silva, Tiago F.; Moro, Marcos V.; Added, Nemitala; Tabacniks, Manfredo H., E-mail: g.ferraz@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Delgado, Adriana O. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Cunha, Tatiana F. [Biosintesis P and D do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Higa, Olga Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Understanding polymer surface properties is extremely important for the most wide range of their applications, from basic coating to the most complex composites and biomaterials. Low energy ion beam irradiation of polymer can improve such surface properties. By modifying its surface biocompatibility, polymers are excellent candidates for biomaterials, due to its malleability and low weight, when compared to metals. In this work, we irradiated 30-μm Bisphenol-A Polycarbonate foils with 23-keV Argon ion beam at six different doses. Aluminium foils were simultaneously irradiated in order to measure the doses by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The surface modifications after the argon ion beam irradiation were analyzed by water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. Platelet adhesion tests were used in order to investigate thrombogenicity, showing a growing tendency with the irradiated Argon dose. (author)

  3. Effects of gamma-irradiation on meat proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, H.S.; Kim, M.R.; Kim, J.O.; Lim, S.I.; Byun, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    The proteins extracted from beef, pork and chicken meats were irradiated with up to 100 kGy at room temperature. The extracted proteins were evaluated on their in vitro digestibility by incubating successively with pepsin and pancreatin conjugate. Amino acid compositions and SDS-PAGE pattern were also analyzedin for these proteins. Gamma irradiation within the applied dose range (up to 100 kGy) produced negligible in in vitro digestibility and amino acid composition. Analysis of gamma-irradiated proteins by SDS-PAGE revealed radiolysis of ovalbumin to proteins or peptides with lower molecular weight. On the other hand, the proteins directly extracted from irradiated meats containing moisture were also evaluated for their in vitro digestibility, amino acid compositions and SDS-PAGE pattern. However, the results obtained from this experiment were similar to those of irradiated proteins after extraction from the meats

  4. Conservation by irradiation of the cooled chicken meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toraa, Sofiene

    2004-01-01

    The irradiation like treatment of decontamination showed a great effectiveness. Indeed the amount 2 KGy destroyed more than 90% of total germs and the complete elimination of the germs of fecal contamination. The irradiation doses: 2 and 4 KGy significantly slow down the development of the germs of contamination during the cooled conservation of the chicken meat compared to the control meats. The physicochemical composition did not modify by irradiation in a clear way. Thus, the majority of the measured parameters (pH, capacity of water retention, amino acid quantity, and the loss of weight during cooking) remained stable after the ionizing treatment. Lastly, the irradiation makes it possible to preserve the chicken meat 16 days compared to the control meat, which was damaged at the 6 2nd days of conservation. Theses result showed the effectiveness of the irradiation process on the lengthening storage cooled period of chicken meat. (author). 8 refs

  5. Thrombogenicity tests on ar-irradiated polycarbonate foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, Gustavo F.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Silva, Tiago F.; Moro, Marcos V.; Added, Nemitala; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Cunha, Tatiana F.; Higa, Olga Z.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding polymer surface properties is extremely important for the most wide range of their applications, from basic coating to the most complex composites and biomaterials. Low energy ion beam irradiation of polymer can improve such surface properties. By modifying its surface biocompatibility, polymers are excellent candidates for biomaterials, due to its malleability and low weight, when compared to metals. In this work, we irradiated 30-μm Bisphenol-A Polycarbonate foils with 23-keV Argon ion beam at six different doses. Aluminium foils were simultaneously irradiated in order to measure the doses by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The surface modifications after the argon ion beam irradiation were analyzed by water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. Platelet adhesion tests were used in order to investigate thrombogenicity, showing a growing tendency with the irradiated Argon dose. (author)

  6. Assessment of pain during head and neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, D.E.; Janjan, N.; Byhardt, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation therapy for patients with head and neck malignancies frequently results in painful mucositis, which is usually poorly controlled with standard analgesics or topical anesthetics. To better understand the temporal development of radiation-induced pain and the effects of this pain on activities of daily living, 14 patients undergoing radiation therapy for a newly diagnosed head and neck malignancy completed daily pain diaries during the course of irradiation. All patients developed painful mucositis, usually beginning during the second or third week of radiation. Despite the use of analgesics/anesthetics, pain was rated as moderate or severe on 37% of treatment days and was noted to be constant or present throughout most of the day on 58% of treatment days. Eating and sleep disturbances related to pain occurred on 55% and 34% of treatment days, respectively. Eight patients had greater than a 2-kg weight loss. Radiation induces a predictable pattern of pain and comorbidity, which may be amenable to earlier and more aggressive analgesic treatment

  7. Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular system following testicular X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verjans, H.L.; Eik-Nes, K.B.

    1976-01-01

    Testes of adult, male rats were exposed to a total dose of 1500 R of X-irradiation. Testicular weight decreased from day 8 after X-ray treatment. This decrease was, however, precded by an increment of the testis weight on day 4 following treatment. X-ray treatment of testes was associated with significant increase in serum FSH. Testicular irradiation had, however, no effect on ventral prostate and seminal vesicles weights. Serum testosterone increased only on day 1, 2 and 4 after irradiation, while serum LH levels tended to increase from day 8 post-irradiation. These changes were not significant, however, when compared with non-irradiated controls. At 7, 13 and 20 days following 1500 R of bilateral, testicular X-irradiation, the hypothalamic-pituitary unit was still capable of responding to exogenous gonadotrophin releasing factor. Serum FSH may in male rats be regulated at least partly by circulating steroids of testicular origin and partly by an unknown factor of non-interstitial cell nature. (author)

  8. Neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Dara D; Thorpe, Roland J; Amutah, Ndidi; Davis, Esa M; Walker, Renee E; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Bodnar, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Studies of neighborhood racial composition or neighborhood poverty in association with pregnancy-related weight are limited. Prior studies of neighborhood racial density and poverty has been in association with adverse birth outcomes and suggest that neighborhoods with high rates of poverty and racial composition of black residents are typically segregated and systematically isolated from opportunities and resources. These neighborhood factors may help explain the racial disparities in pre-pregnancy weight and inadequate weight gain. This study examined whether neighborhood racial composition and neighborhood poverty was associated with weight before pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy and if this association differed by race. We used vital birth records of singleton births of 73,061 non-Hispanic black and white women in Allegheny County, PA (2003-2010). Maternal race and ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body-mass-index (BMI), gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth record data, and measures of neighborhood racial composition (percentage of black residents in the neighborhood) and poverty (percentage of households in the neighborhood below the federal poverty) were derived using US Census data. Multilevel log binomial regression models were performed to estimate neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight (i.e., overweight/obese) and gestational weight gain (i.e., inadequate and excessive). Black women as compared to white women were more likely to be overweight/obese before pregnancy and to have inadequate gestational weight gain (53.6% vs. 38.8%; 22.5% vs. 14.75 respectively). Black women living in predominately black neighborhoods were slightly more likely to be obese prior to pregnancy compared to black women living in predominately white neighborhoods (PR 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16). Black and white women living in high poverty areas compared with women living in

  9. Some features of irradiated chitosan and its biological effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Le; Hien, Nguyen Quoc; Luan, Le Quang; Hanh, Truong Thi; Man, Nguyen Tan; Ha, Pham Thi Le; Thuy, Tran Thi [Nuclear Research Institute, VAEC, Dalat (Viet Nam); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Preparation of chitosan oligomer by radiation degradation was carried out on the gamma Co-60 source. The radiation degradation yield (G{sub d}) of the chitosan was found to be of 1.03. The oligochitosan with 50% of dp>8 fraction was obtained by irradiating the 10% (w/v) chitosan solution in 5% acetic acid at 45 kGy for the chitosan having the initial viscometric average molecular weight, Mv=60,000. Irradiated chitosan showed higher antifungal effect than that of unirradiated one. Furthermore, the irradiated chitosan also showed the growth-promotion effect for plants. (author)

  10. Some features of irradiated chitosan and its biological effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai, Le; Hien, Nguyen Quoc; Luan, Le Quang; Hanh, Truong Thi; Man, Nguyen Tan; Ha, Pham Thi Le; Thuy, Tran Thi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2001-01-01

    Preparation of chitosan oligomer by radiation degradation was carried out on the gamma Co-60 source. The radiation degradation yield (G d ) of the chitosan was found to be of 1.03. The oligochitosan with 50% of dp>8 fraction was obtained by irradiating the 10% (w/v) chitosan solution in 5% acetic acid at 45 kGy for the chitosan having the initial viscometric average molecular weight, Mv=60,000. Irradiated chitosan showed higher antifungal effect than that of unirradiated one. Furthermore, the irradiated chitosan also showed the growth-promotion effect for plants. (author)

  11. Analysis of volatile organic compounds and sensory characteristics of pork loin samples irradiated to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Zhengchi; Sun Dakuan; Qin Zongying; Jin Jiang; Zhu Liandi; Yao Side; Sheng Kanglong

    2005-01-01

    Fresh pork loin samples, protein enzyme inactivated at (72 ± 3) degree C and vacuum packaged, were irradiated to up to 45 kGy at -20 degree C by 60 Co γ-rays. The irradiated samples were examined by various kinds of method to study high dose irradiation effects of sensory changes (meat color and off-odor), transverse shearing strength, weight loss in steam cooking, volatile organic compounds, and lipid oxidation. The results showed that the high dose irradiation produced no serious effects to the pork loin samples, and volunteer responses showed fine acceptability to the irradiated meat. (authors)

  12. Study of the effects of a prenatal or postnatal irradiation of 150 rads in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffigny, H.; Pasquier, C.

    Pregnant females and newborn rats were exposed to a gamma irradiation of 150 rads. The stage of gestation at the time of irradiation varied from 14 to 21 days. The newborn rats were irradiated at 0, 1 and 2 days of age. The effect of irradiation of foetus and newborn rats depends on the age of the animal at the time of irradiation. This effect was specially important at the beginning of the foetal life. Neonatal mortality, growth of body weight and adult brain development were investigated. A modification of germ cell radiosensitivity during the period studied, was emphasized [fr

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of apples (Malus domestica L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bachir, M [Atomic Energy Commission (AECS), Dept. of Radiation Agriculture, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1997-12-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on storability of two main apple varieties in Syria, Golden Delicious and Starking, were investigated. Fruits were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 kGy and combined irradiation with 1 kGy after packaging the fruits with polyethylene or paper bags. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 C deg and 80 to 90% Rh. Weight loss and spoilage were evaluated throughout the different storage periods. Firmness, coloration and pH values were estimated immediately after irradiation. The results showed that in both varieties, gamma irradiation increased the weight loss after 45 days of storage in the 1995, but not in the 1996 season. After 180 days of storage gamma irradiation had different effects on weight loss depending on the season and variety, and increased the fungal spoilage. Application of gamma irradiation prevented the growth of Aspergillus niger and the formation of skin scald in Golden Delicious fruits. Immediately after treatment, gamma irradiation increased the softening of fruits, changed their colour from green to yellow and decreased the pH value of the juice. Combined treatments decreased the rate of weight loss and skin scald in Golden Delicious fruits and increased the fungal spoilage. (author)

  14. Effect of gamma radiation and temperature on ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) sprout and weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirikulvadhana, Suda; Prompubesara, Chavangsakdhi.

    1979-09-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) preservation was conducted by irradiated ginger at 0 (control), 4, 6 and 10 Krad and then stored at 20(+-1) deg C and room temperature (32+-3 deg C) with 75% relative humidity. The results of the experiment are as follows: after 1 month storage at 32 deg C both irradiated and non-irradiated ginger weight losses were 15-18% and water contents decreased from 88.67 to 81.82%. Only non-irradiated ginger sprouted 1 cm. in length by average at this time. Weight loss after three month storage of irradiated 0, 4, 6 and 10 Krad ginger increased to 36.37, 32.67, 34.95 and 35.95% respectively, and the water contents decreased to 69.33, 72.00, 73.33 and 70.66% respectively. No sprout also, was found in 4-10 Krad ginger. The weight loss of non-irradiated ginger stored at 20 deg C for 6 months was lower than those irradiated ginger, i.e. only 21.07 for 0 Krad but 26.55, 28.07 and 34.30% for 4, 6 and 10 Krad ginger respectively. In addition, water contents were found to be highest in non-irradiated ginger (76.00%) but lowest in irradiated ginger, at 10 Krad (66,66%). However, non-irradiated ginger sprouted 1.5 cm but no sprout was found in irradiated ginger. In conclusion, radiation only 4 Krad inhibited ginger sprout and did not decrease ginger weight (P<.01). Furthermore, cool temperature at 20 deg C delayed ginger sprout up to 4 months and decreased ginger weight loss

  15. Polymerization of calcium caseinates solutions induced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Jobin, M.; Mezgheni, E.; Srour, M.; Boileau, S.

    1998-01-01

    Solutions of calcium caseinate (5%) combined with propylene glycol (PG) or triethylene glycol(TEG) (0, 2.5% and 5%) and used for the development of edible films and coatings, were irradiated at doses between 0 to 128 kGy. Solutions were chromatographed through toyopearl HW 55F resin to observe the effect of irradiation on cross-link reactions. In unirradiated calcium caseinate solutions, two peaks could be observed (fractions 30 and 37) while samples irradiated at 64 kGy and 128 kGy showed one shifted peak at fraction 32 and 29 respectively. No effect of the plasticizers was observed. According to proteins standards of knowed molecular weights, the molecular weight of calcium caseinate increased approximately 10 times when irradiated at 128 kGy and 5 times when irradiated at 64 kGy. The physico-chemical properties of bio-films prepared with the irradiated solutions, demonstrated that tensile strength at break increased with increase of irradiation dose. A maximum dose was obtained at 16 kGy

  16. Influences of nutrition on the biology and midgut histology of gamma irradiated Musca domestica L. (diptera: muscidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banditsing, C.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction between gamma irradiation and nutrition in the house fly, M. domestica, was investigated following irradiation of 2-hr-old adult virgin females mated with non-irradiated males. Radiation levels used were: 0 (non-irradiated), 250 rads, 500 rads, 750 rads, and 1,500 rads. Flies were fed diets consisting of varying ratio by weight of casein and sucrose at 1:1, 0.5:1, 1:0.5, and 0.1 respectively, and kept in the insectary at 25 +- 2 0 C and 70 percent R.H. Egg hatchability, adult emergence, body and ovary weights, survival of irradiated females, and histopathology were investigated at 4, 7, 11, and 15 days after irradiation. Survival of irradiated females was also determined at 45 days after irradiation. The results of these studies suggest that carbohydrate is important in house fly survival and repair of radiation damage

  17. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish......Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth....../cup/day). Compared to non-coffee drinkers, intake of eight or more cups of coffee per day was associated with an adjusted birth weight difference of −65 g [95% confidence interval (CI) −92 to −39] for non-smokers and −79 g [95% CI −124 to −34] for women smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day. Women drinking eight...

  18. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  19. Food irradiation 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation principles; its main applications, advantages and limitations; wholesomeness, present activities at Ezeiza Atomic Centre; research coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency; capacity building; and some aspects on national and international regulations, standards and commercialization are briefly described. At present 56 countries authorize the consumption of varied irradiated foods; trade is performed in 32 countries, with about 200 irradiation facilities. Argentina pioneered nuclear energy knowledge and applications in Latin America, food irradiation included. A steady growth of food industrial volumes treated in two gamma facilities can be observed. Food industry and producers show interest towards new facilities construction. However, a 15 years standstill in incorporating new approvals in the Argentine Alimentary Code, in spite of consecutive request performed either by CNEA or some food industries restricts, a wider industrial implementation, which constitute a drawback to future regional commercialization in areas such as MERCOSUR, where Brazil since 2000 freely authorize food irradiation. Besides, important chances in international trade with developed countries will be missed, like the high fresh fruits and vegetables requirements United States has in counter-season, leading to convenient sale prices. The Argentine food irradiation facilities have been designed and built in the country. Argentina produces Cobalt-60. These capacities, unusual in the world and particularly in Latin America, should be protected and enhanced. Being the irradiation facilities scarce and concentrated nearby Buenos Aires city, the possibilities of commercial application and even research and development are strongly limited for most of the country regions. (author) [es

  20. Neonatal irradiation nephropathy in the growing dog. I. Renal morphological and functional adaptations following neonatal, sublethal, whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, W.L.; Phemister, R.D.; Jaenke, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Sixty beagles were used to study the effects of exposure to 330 R 60 Co γ radiation (bilateral, whole-body) at 2 days of age on renal functional and morphological development in the growing dog. A significant deficit in grams kidney per kilogram body weight was found in irradiated dogs at 50 days of age (P < 0.05), but not at 125 or 200 days of age. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) per kilogram body weight and GFR per gram kidney were not significantly different between irradiated and nonirradiated dogs at 50, 125, or 200 days of age, but blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly elevated in irradiated dogs throughout this period (P < 0.05). The fractional distribution of intracortical renal blood flow, as determined by radiolabeled microspheres, to the outermost cortex was found to be reduced in irradiated animals at all ages evaluated (P < 0.05). The fractional blood flow to the outermost renal cortex was negatively correlated with BUN in both irradiated (P < 0.05) and nonirradiated (P < 0.05) animals. Based on prior demonstrations of reductions in nephron numbers following similar irradiation, these data indicate increases in mean single nephron GFR and nephronal hypertrophy in the kidneys of the neonatally irradiated dog. The renal functional and morphological adaptations are sufficient to maintain adequate renal function in growing, neonatally irradiated dogs. The BUN elevations in irradiated dogs are believed to be related to changes in intracortical renal blood flow, rather than indicating renal insufficiency. The possible importance of the functional and morphological adaptations to the subsequent development of chronic renal failure in neonatally irradiated animals is discussed