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Sample records for irradiation hgf-induced survival

  1. Pyridine-pyrimidine amides that prevent HGF-induced epithelial scattering by two distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui-Jain, Adam; Hoj, Jacob P; Hargiss, J Blade; Hoj, Taylor H; Payne, Carter J; Ritchie, Collin A; Herron, Steven R; Quinn, Colette; Schuler, Jeffrey T; Hansen, Marc D H

    2017-09-01

    Stimulation of cultured epithelial cells with scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) results in individual cells detaching and assuming a migratory and invasive phenotype. Epithelial scattering recapitulates cancer progression and studies have implicated HGF signaling as a driver of cancer metastasis. Inhibitors of HGF signaling have been proposed to act as anti-cancer agents. We previously screened a small molecule library for compounds that block HGF-induced epithelial scattering. Most hits identified in this screen exhibit anti-mitotic properties. Here we assess the biological mechanism of a compound that blocks HGF-induced scattering with limited anti-mitotic activity. Analogs of this compound have one of two distinct activities: inhibiting either cell migration or cell proliferation with cell cycle arrest in G2/M. Each activity bears unique structure-activity relationships. The mechanism of action of anti-mitotic compounds is by inhibition of microtubule polymerization; these compounds entropically and enthalpically bind tubulin in the colchicine binding site, generating a conformational change in the tubulin dimer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  3. Prolongation of experimental islet transplant survival by fractionated splenic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.; Casanova, M.; Largiader, F.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments designed to delay the rejection of intrasplenic pancreatic fragment allotransplants in dogs showed increased transplant survival times from 3.1 days (controls) to 5.5 days with fractionated splenic irradiation and to 7.5 days with combined local irradiation and immunosuppressive chemotherapy. Drug treatment alone had no beneficial effect

  4. Interaction of integrin β4 with S1P receptors in S1P- and HGF-induced endothelial barrier enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiuqin; Epshtein, Yulia; Chen, Weiguo; Zhou, Tingting; Xie, Lishi; Garcia, Joe G N; Jacobson, Jeffrey R

    2014-06-01

    We previously reported sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) augment endothelial cell (EC) barrier function and attenuate murine acute lung inury (ALI). While the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood, S1P and HGF both transactivate the S1P receptor, S1PR1 and integrin β4 (ITGB4) at membrane caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEMs). In the current study, we investigated the roles of S1PR2 and S1PR3 in S1P/HGF-mediated EC signaling and their associations with ITGB4. Our studies confirmed ITGB4 and S1PR2/3 are recruited to CEMs in human lung EC in response to either S1P (1 µM, 5 min) or HGF (25 ng/ml, 5 min). Co-immunoprecipitation experiments identified an S1P/HGF-mediated interaction of ITGB4 with both S1PR2 and S1PR3. We then employed an in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) to confirm a direct ITGB4-S1PR3 association induced by S1P/HGF although a direct association was not detectable between S1PR2 and ITGB4. S1PR1 knockdown (siRNA), however, abrogated S1P/HGF-induced ITGB4-S1PR2 associations while there was no effect on ITGB4-S1PR3 associations. Moreover, PLA confirmed a direct association between S1PR1 and S1PR2 induced by S1P and HGF. Finally, silencing of S1PR2 significantly attenuated S1P/HGF-induced EC barrier enhancement as measured by transendothelial resistance while silencing of S1PR3 significantly augmented S1P/HGF-induced barrier enhancement. These results confirm an important role for S1PR2 and S1PR3 in S1P/HGF-mediated EC barrier responses that are associated with their complex formation with ITGB4. Our findings elucidate novel mechanisms of EC barrier regulation that may ultimately lead to new therapeutic targets for disorders characterized by increased vascular permeability including ALI. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of fibrinolysis inhibitors on survival time of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smok, W.

    1988-01-01

    The possibilities of alleviation of the gastrointestinal syndrome of acute radiation sickness by modification of haemorrhagic diathesis using EACA and traskolan were studied. A significant prolongation of the mean survival time was obtained in the irradiated rats treated with EACA. 7 tabs., 10 refs. (author)

  6. Curcumin inhibited HGF-induced EMT and angiogenesis through regulating c-Met dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and angiogenesis have emerged as two pivotal events in cancer progression. Curcumin has been extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials of cancer prevention due to its favorable toxicity profile. However, the possible involvement of curcumin in the EMT and angiogenesis in lung cancer remains unclear. This study found that curcumin inhibited hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-induced migration and EMT-related morphological changes in A549 and PC-9 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with curcumin blocked HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation and downstream activation of Akt, mTOR, and S6. These effects mimicked that of c-Met inhibitor SU11274 or PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin treatment. c-Met gene overexpression analysis further demonstrated that curcumin suppressed lung cancer cell EMT by inhibiting c-Met/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, we found that curcumin also significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and induced apoptosis and reduced migration and tube formation of HGF-treated HUVEC. Finally, in the experimental mouse model, we showed that curcumin inhibited HGF-stimulated tumor growth and induced an increase in E-cadherin expression and a decrease in vimentin, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression. Collectively, these findings indicated that curcumin could inhibit HGF-promoted EMT and angiogenesis by targeting c-Met and blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways.

  7. Late radiation effects in animals surviving lethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, L.A.

    1974-01-01

    Animals (rats, mice, dogs) survived lethal irradiation by means of prophylactic-therapeutic treatments or previously irradiated, were studied for late radiation effects: life span, cachexia and fat growing of hypophysical type, tissue or organ hypoplasia manifested by disturbed hemopoiesis, suppressed function of adrenal gland, etc., suppressed immune reactivity of the irradiated organism, atypical biochemical changes in DNA and protein metabolism, epilation, chronic dermatitis, ulcerations, reduced reproductivity or full sterility, damage of kidneys leading to nephrosclerosis, dishormonal states, cataracts, diffuse sclerotic processes, various kinds of malignant and non-malignant tumors. In these cases hemopoiesis compensated for a definite time peripheral blood composition, but during the late period it showed features of incompleteness: shorter life survival of erythrocytes and thrombocytes manifested by a decreased binding of labelled methionine in these blood elements, anemia and relative thrombocytopenia sometimes with an increased number of polychromatic erythrocytes in peripheral blood and a decreased number of reticulocytes at the same time; lymphopenia and relative leucopenia with an increased number of hypersegmented neutrophils. Decreased reproductivity and atypical biochemical changes available in the first generation of the irradiated animals showed the probable role of mutagenic factors in the emergence of some late radiation effects. A significant part of late radiation sequences were due to neuro-endocrine desintegrations which lead to a disturbed supply of the vessels and afterwards to their sclerosis. Some of the described late radiation effects were also observed in biological controls as festures of ageing while in irradiated animals they were manifested in an earlier period. After application of optimal amounts radioprotectors (AET, cysteamine, serotonin) a more marked protective effect is demonstrated in the early reactions (time survival

  8. Late radiation effects in animals surviving lethal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, L A

    1974-01-01

    Animals (rats, mice, dogs) survived lethal irradiation by means of prophylactic-therapeutic treatments or previously irradiated, were studied for late radiation effects: life span, cachexia and fat growing of hypophysical type, tissue or organ hypoplasia manifested by disturbed hemopoiesis, suppressed function of adrenal gland, etc., suppressed immune reactivity of the irradiated organism, atypical biochemical changes in DNA and protein metabolism, epilation, chronic dermatitis, ulcerations, reduced reproductivity or full sterility, damage of kidneys leading to nephrosclerosis, dishormonal states, cataracts, diffuse sclerotic processes, various kinds of malignant and non-malignant tumors. In these cases hemopoiesis compensated for a definite time peripheral blood composition, but during the late period it showed features of incompleteness: shorter life survival of erythrocytes and thrombocytes manifested by a decreased binding of labelled methionine in these blood elements, anemia and relative thrombocytopenia sometimes with an increased number of polychromatic erythrocytes in peripheral blood and a decreased number of reticulocytes at the same time; lymphopenia and relative leucopenia with an increased number of hypersegmented neutrophils. Decreased reproductivity and atypical biochemical changes available in the first generation of the irradiated animals showed the probable role of mutagenic factors in the emergency of some late radiation effects. A significant part of late radiation sequences were due to neuro-endocrine disintegrations. Some of the described late radiation effects were also observed in biological controls as features of ageing. After application of radioprotectors (AET, cysteamine, serotonin) a more marked protective effect is demonstrated in the early reactions (time survival till 30th day, DNA and protein metabolism, immune reactions) of the lethally irradiated animals.

  9. Efficacy of prophylactic irradiation in altering renal allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, R.; Johnson, H.K.; Braren, H.V.; Richie, R.E.

    1974-01-01

    Renal allograft rejection is a complex phenomenon involving both cell-mediated and humoral antibody responses. Most transplant programs have used a combination of therapeutic modalites to combat the immune system in an attempt to prolong both allograft and patient survival. Corticosteroids (methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol) and prednisone and azathioprine (Imuran) are widely accepted as immunosuppressive drugs; however, both are non-specific and have the disadvantage of compromising the recipients' defense mechanisms. Nevertheless, these drugs have proved to be essential to the success of renal transplantation and they are routinely used while the efficacy of other modalities continues to be evaluated. We could find no reports of a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic irradiation in the complex therapeutic situation of renal transplantation with the only variable being the administration of local graft irradiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prophylactic graft irradiation for its effectiveness in preventing graft rejection in conjunction with Imuran and corticosteroids

  10. Biochemical aspects of the immunomodular action in irradiated survival mice with 60C gama irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Agudo, N.L. del M. de.

    1983-01-01

    The radioprotective action of Calmetti-Guerin bacillus (BCG), Corynebacterium parvum, Escherichia coli Lipopolysccharides (LPS) and peptone proteose was evaluated. A single injection of the macrophage activiting agents prior to 60 Co whole-body irradiation increased the survival rate of mice in the lethal dose range. (L.M.J.) [pt

  11. Cell survival in spheroids irradiated with heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Alpen, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Biological investigations with accelerated heavy ions have been carried out regularly at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac for the past four years. Most of the cellular investigations have been conducted on cell monolayer and suspension culture systems. The studies to date suggest that heavy charged particle beams may offer some radiotherapeutic advantages over conventional radiotherapy sources. The advantages are thought to lie primarily in an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE), a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), and better tissue distribution dose. Experiments reported here were conducted with 400 MeV/amu carbon ions and 425 MeV/amu neon ions, using a rat brain gliosarcoma cell line grown as multicellular spheroids. Studies have been carried out with x-rays and high-energy carbon and neon ion beams. These studies evaluate high-LET (linear energy transfer) cell survival in terms of RBE and the possible contributions of intercellular communication. Comparisons were made of the post-irradiation survival characteristics for cells irradiated as multicellular spheroids (approximately 100 μm and 300 μm diameters) and for cells irradiated in suspension. These comparisons were made between 225-kVp x-rays, 400 MeV/amu carbon ions, and 425 MeV/amu neon ions

  12. Improving the determination of irradiation efficacy by the identification of surviving bacteria from irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko; Matsushima, Masako; Hironiwa, Takayuki; Takekawa, Tetsuya; Miyahara, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    The identification of the surviving bacteria isolated from 5 kinds of irradiated spices (all-spice, oregano, sage, paprika and black pepper) was carried out to know whether these bacteria were marker organisms to determine the efficacy of the irradiation treatment. Except in paprika, B.megaterium was detected. In allspice, paprika and black pepper B.pumilus was detected. B.cereus was detected in allspice, oregano and black pepper. Gram negative bacteria such as Methylobacterium and Enterobacter genus were also detected in oregano, sage and paprika. These bacteria were strongly resistant to radiation, and can be used as marker organisms for the determination of the efficacy of the irradiation treatment of spices. (author)

  13. Survival of synchronized diploid yeast after ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, E.; Lorido, L.; Gelos, U.

    1975-01-01

    Synchronized populations of diploid yeast were exposed to uv light and their survival thereafter upon immediate plating (IP) and after liquid holding (LH) treatment in the presence and absence of caffeine was examined. These cells were found to be most resistant to uv light during early budding (G 2 period). The effect of LH is positive throughout the cell cycle and is dependent on the radiosensitivity of the cells upon IP. Caffeine-sensitive and caffeine-insensitive components of dark repair were demonstrated. The uv light responses of logarithmic growing and synchronized populations were compared with x-ray responses of the same strain analyzed under the same conditions in a previous work. The pattern of variation in sensitivity throughout the cell cycle and the ability to recover are qualitatively similar. The caffeine-insensitive component of repair has a similar efficiency in uv and x-irradiated G 1 cells, increasing in uv-irradiated cells after the beginning of the DNA synthetic period and during the G 2 period. The findings observed under IP conditions are consistent with a model already proposed which requires the repair efficiency to oscillate during the cell cycle. The results suggest that repair pathways for lethal uv damage may share some common steps with those for x-ray damage

  14. The relationship between survival and mutagenesis in Escherichia coli after fractionated ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzidic, S.; Salaj-Smic, E.; Trgovcevic, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between survival and mutagenesis in Escherichia coli after fractionated ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was studied. The cells were incubated either in buffer or nutrient media. Regardless of incubation conditions, greater survival is observed after fractionated irradiation than after acute irradiation. When the cells are incubated in buffer, UV mutagenesis decreases with an increase in the number of dose fractions. However, when the cells are cultivated in nutrient media, the increased survival is coupled with the enhanced capacity for UV mutagenesis. The authors, therefore, assume that during incubation in nutrient media, fractionated irradiation leads to full and prolonged expression of all UV inducible (SOS) genes, including those required for mutagenesis. (Auth.)

  15. Prolongation of rat islet allograft survival by direct ultraviolet irradiation of the graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, H.; Reemtsma, K.; Hardy, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation of rat dendritic cells completely abrogated their allostimulatory capacity in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. Rat islets of Langerhans similarly irradiated remained hormonally functional when transplanted into syngeneic diabetic rats. Allogeneic transplantation across a major histocompatibility barrier of islets initially treated in vitro with ultraviolet irradiation resulted in prolonged allograft survival without the use of any immunosuppressive agents

  16. Survival curves and cell restoration of gamma irradiated chlorella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilet, Roland

    1970-01-01

    The characteristics of the living material used and the cultures developed are defined. The irradiation techniques and the dosimetry methods used are described. The clonal growth in a gelified nutrient solution was studied and the survival curves, which are very reproducible when anoxic conditions are eliminated, were established. It is shown that the radiosensitivity of Chlorella decreases with the age of the culture when the plateau of the growth curve is reached, and that for synchronous cells it varies slightly with the phase in the cycle at which the radiation is received. The restoration from sublethal damage occurs quickly and does not depend upon the continuation of the cell cycle when no multiplication occurs during the experiments and is not modified by anoxic conditions. The restoration rate is reduced at 0 deg. C. It explains the variations in the apparent radiosensitivity with the dose rate. In contrast with the results published for many cells, the restoration is incomplete. The problem of the elimination of sublethal damage during clonal development is posed. A model summarizing the experimental results and suggesting future work is given. (author) [fr

  17. Genes involved in yeast survival after irradiation with fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozin, D.; Milosevic, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Life on the Earth has evolved against a continuous background of ionizing radiation. It would be expected, therefore, that all possible mutations have been produced at some time or another; man-made radiation from medical or industrial sources will not result in any new types of mutation but will simply increase the whole spectrum of mutations that occur spontaneously. Any such lesion can be mutagenic and, in principle, lethal. To counteract the consequences of DNA damage, evolution has equipped all living cells with an intricate network of defense and repair systems. Together, these systems act as a kind of nuclear 'immune system' that is able to recognize and eliminate many types of DNA lesions. In the case of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in these processes over 30 RAD genes participate. We tested the survival of haploid and diploid rad1 yeast mutant strains at a dose of 15 Gy of γ or fast neutron radiation. We demonstrated that the lethality of rad1 mutants both haploid and diploid are significantly higher after fast neutron irradiation. The results indicate to the role and position of these genes in the DNA repair of damages specifically induced by fast neutrons. (authors)

  18. Study on cellular survival adaptive response induced by low dose irradiation of 153Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Xiao Dong

    1999-01-01

    The present study engages in determining whether low dose irradiation of 153 Sm could cut down the responsiveness of cellular survival to subsequent high dose exposure of 153 Sm so as to make an inquiry into approach the protective action of adaptive response by second irradiation of 153 Sm. Experimental results indicate that for inductive low dose of radionuclide 153 Sm 3.7 kBq/ml irradiated beforehand to cells has obvious resistant effect in succession after high dose irradiation of 153 Sm 3.7 x 10 2 kBq/ml was observed. Cells exposed to low dose irradiation of 153 Sm become adapted and therefore the subsequent cellular survival rate induced by high dose of 153 Sm is sufficiently higher than high dose of 153 Sm merely. It is evident that cellular survival adaptive response could be induced by pure low dose irradiation of 153 Sm only

  19. Investigations of the surviving microflora in irradiated black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing effect of irradiation on the microflora of ground black pepper was studied with respect to heat, reduced pH-value, salt and nitrite, and the possible relationship between the sensitizing effects of irradiation and the water activity of the spice. The change of the sensitizing effect of irradiation after irradiation during storage of the black pepper was also studied at different storage temperatures and under various conditions of humidity. The effectivity of irradiation depends to a much lesser extent on the conditions of humidity than that of ethylene-oxide treatment. Following decontamination, the remaining microflora of irradiated black pepper would be more sensitive to antimicrobial influences predominating during its use in the food industry than that of ethylene-oxide treated black pepper. The increased sensitivity of the remaining microflora of the irradiated black pepper remains unchanged for at least 6 months. (author)

  20. Effect of irradiation on the survival of Salmonella in cooled meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczawinska, M.; Szczawinski, J.; Szulc, M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of irradiation by X rays of 1, 2 and 3 kGy on the survival of Salmonella cells in meat during its storage at 0-2 0 C was investigated. The radioresistance of the Salmonella strains as well as the effect of irradiation on the organoleptic properties and shelf-life extension of meat was evaluated. Progressive dying of Salmonella cells which survived the irradiation was recorded during the storage of irradiated meat at 0-2 0 C. After irradiation and storage of meat at 8-10 0 C the number of bacteria decreased within the first days. Then, some of the strains were able to multiply, however after 14 days of storage, especially after irradiation with 3 kGy, the number of Salmonella was always lower than that immediately after irradiation. After the exposure to 3 kGy the shelf-life extension increased at least twice with the organoleptic properties changed insignificantly. (author)

  1. Effect of the irradiation of bacteria upon their survival rate during conventional methods of meat preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczawinska, M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the effect of irradiation upon the survival rate of non-sporing bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens) during basic methods of meat preservation. The bacteria were irradiated in broth by X-rays at a dose that destroyed about 90% of the bacteria (D 10 ). The survival rate of unirradiated and irradiated bacteria during cooling and freezing, in solutions of sodium chloride, nitrates and liquid smoke, was defined. The number of microorganisms was determined directly after irradiation as well as 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after irradiation. The effect of irradiation upon heat resistance of the examined species of bacteria was also defined. The microorganisms were heated in broth, at 70 0 C for 1, 2 and 5 minutes. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. On the basis of the research results, a faster dying rate of irradiated populations of S. aureus and E. coli during any type of preservation treatment, the lack of any reaction to irradiation regarding the survival rate of S. typhimurium, and the lack of any effect of irradiation upon the rate of deterioration of P. fluorescens during freezing and storage in a solution with 10% addition of NaCI, were observed. On the other hand, a pronounced effect of irradiation upon the lowering of the heat resistance of the bacteria, as well as delayed growth in other variants of the experiment, was determined. (author)

  2. The influence of fractionation on cell survival and premature differentiation after carbon ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Li Renming; Guo Chuanling; Fournier, C.; K-Weyrather, W.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the influence of fractionation on cell survival and radiation induced premature differentiation as markers for early and late effects after X-rays and carbon irradiation. Normal human fibroblasts NHDF, AG1522B and WI-38 were irradiated with 250 kV X-rays, or 266 MeV/u, 195 MeV/u and 11 MeV/u carbon ions. Cytotoxicity was measured by a clonogenic survival assay or by determination of the differentiation pattern. Experiments with high-energy carbon ions show that fractionation induced repair effects are similar to photon irradiation. The relative biological effective (RBE) 10 values for clonogenic survival are 1.3 and 1.6 for irradiation in one or two fractions for NHDF cells and around 1.2 for AG1522B cells regardless of the fractionation scheme. The RBE for a doubling of post mitotic fibroblasts (PMF) in the population is 1 for both single and two fractionated irradiation of NHDF cells. Using 11 MeV/u carbon ions, no repair effect can be seen in WI-38 cells. The RBE 10 for clonogenic survival is 3.2 for single irradiation and 4.9 for two fractionated irradiations. The RBE for a doubling of PMF is 3.1 and 5.0 for single and two fractionated irradiations, respectively. For both cell lines the effects of high-energy carbon ions representing the irradiation of the skin and the normal tissue in the entrance channel are similar to the effects of X-rays. The fractionation effects are maintained. For the lower energy, which is representative for the irradiation of the tumor region, RBE is enhanced for clonogenic survival as well as for premature terminal differentiation. Fractionation effects are not detectable. Consequently, the therapeutic ratio is significantly enhanced by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions. (author)

  3. Effect of bifidobacteria implantation on the survival time of whole-body irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokokura, Teruo; Onoue, Masaharu; Mutai, Masahiko

    1980-01-01

    Letahl dose (2 KR) of gamma-ray was irradiated on the whole bodies of mice. Survival time after irradiation was significantly longer in mice with administration of both Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4008 and transgalactosyl oligosaccharide than in mice with administration of either of the two or nothing. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Long-term survival of skin allografts in mice treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Treatment of recipient Balb/c mice with fractionated, high-dose total lymphoid irradiation, a procedure commonly used in the therapy of human malignant lymphomas, resulted in fivefold prolongation of the survival of C57BL/Ka skin allografts despite major histocompatibility differences between the strains (H-2/sup d/ and H-2/sup b/, respectively). Infusion of 10 7 (C57BL/Ka x Balb/c)F 1 bone marrow cells after total lymphoid irradiation further prolonged C57BL/Ka skin graft survival to more than 120 days. Total lymphoid irradiation may eventually prove useful in clinical organ transplantation

  5. Effect of gamma-irradiation on mouse pancreatic islet-allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, T.; Porter, J.; Gotoh, M.; Monaco, A.P.; Maki, T.

    1989-01-01

    Elimination or inactivation of lymphoid tissue in the pancreatic islet preparation achieves prolongation of islet-allograft survival. In this study we examined the effect of gamma-irradiation on mouse islet-allograft survival. In a B6AF1 isograft model, irradiation up to 2400 rad did not induce deterioration of islet function over 200 days, but greater doses caused cessation of graft function between 83 and 186 days. When DBA/2 crude islets were transplanted into B6AF1 recipients, all nonirradiated allografts were acutely rejected. Marked prolongation of allograft survival was achieved by islet irradiation with doses between 800 and 12,000 rad. With higher doses, significant numbers of allografts survived beyond the controls, but many lost function between 78 and 180 days, with none surviving greater than 200 days. Irradiation with 16,000 rad caused acute radiation damage. Because most secondary islet allografts in recipient mice that lost primary islet-graft function between 84 and 195 days survived greater than 100 days, late functional loss was probably due to the radiation injury. Combined use of recipient treatment with cyclosporin A and graft irradiation (2400 rad) achieved prolongation of DBA/2 islets in B6AF1 mice

  6. Survival of Lymphatic Cells after X-Irradiation in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, O. [Medical Biological Laboratory, National Defense Research Organization TNO, Ruswuk, Z.H. (Netherlands)

    1967-07-15

    Lymphatic tissues are generally classified among the most radiosensitive tissues of the body. The main reason for this is that histologically extensive destruction is found within a few hours after irradiation. We tried to estimate the degree of cellular degeneration by making cell suspensions from lymph nodes and thymus of mice at different times after X-irradiation with 800 R or at 24 h after radiation with different doses. The numbers of normal viable cells we obtained were expressed as percentages of the cells recovered from unirradiated control mice.

  7. Assessment of the survival of dental implants in irradiated jaws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In patients undergoing head and neck surgery for various pathologic conditions, implants are one of the best restorative options and are increasing widely used. Therefore, we evaluated the success of dental implants in the irradiated jaws of patients following treatment of oral cancer oral cancer treated patients ...

  8. Assessment of the Survival of Dental Implants in Irradiated Jaws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    frequency of dental implant placement in irradiated jaws from. 2002 to 2008 in India. Table 2 ..... Linsen SS, Martini M, Stark H. Long-term results of endosteal implants following radical oral ... Oral Health 2015:5;1-6. 21. Visch LL, van Waas MA ...

  9. An experimental study of the effect of total lymphoid irradiation on the survival of skin allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Charn Il; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of fractionated high-dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the survival of skin allograft despite major histocompatibility difference. Total lymphoid irradiation is a relatively safe form of radiotherapy, has been used extensively to treat lymphoid malignancies in humans with few side effects. A total of 90 rats, Sprague-Dawley rat as recipient and Wistar rat as donor, were used for the experiment, of which 10 rats were used to determine mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) for antigenic difference and skin allografts was performed in 30 rats given total lymphoid irradiation to assess the immunosuppressive effect of total lymphoid irradiation despite major histocompatibility difference. In addition, the peripheral white blood cell counts and the proportion of lymphocytes was studied in 10 rats given total lymphoid irradiation but no skin graft to determine the effects of bone marrow suppression. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The optimum dose of total lymphoid irradiation was between 1800 rads to 2400 rads. 2. The survival of skin graft on rats given total lymphoid irradiation (23.2 ± 6.0 days) was prolonged about three folds as compared to unirradiated control (8.7 ± 1.3 days). 3. Total lymphoid irradiation resulted in a severe leukopenia with marked lymphopenia, but the count was normal by the end of 3rd week. 4. The study suggests that total lymphoid irradiation is a nonlethal procedure that could be used successfully in animals to transplant allograft across major histocompatibility barriers

  10. An experimental study of the effect of total lymphoid irradiation on the survival of skin allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Charn Il; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-06-15

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of fractionated high-dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the survival of skin allograft despite major histocompatibility difference. Total lymphoid irradiation is a relatively safe form of radiotherapy, has been used extensively to treat lymphoid malignancies in humans with few side effects. A total of 90 rats, Sprague-Dawley rat as recipient and Wistar rat as donor, were used for the experiment, of which 10 rats were used to determine mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) for antigenic difference and skin allografts was performed in 30 rats given total lymphoid irradiation to assess the immunosuppressive effect of total lymphoid irradiation despite major histocompatibility difference. In addition, the peripheral white blood cell counts and the proportion of lymphocytes was studied in 10 rats given total lymphoid irradiation but no skin graft to determine the effects of bone marrow suppression. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The optimum dose of total lymphoid irradiation was between 1800 rads to 2400 rads. 2. The survival of skin graft on rats given total lymphoid irradiation (23.2 {+-} 6.0 days) was prolonged about three folds as compared to unirradiated control (8.7 {+-} 1.3 days). 3. Total lymphoid irradiation resulted in a severe leukopenia with marked lymphopenia, but the count was normal by the end of 3rd week. 4. The study suggests that total lymphoid irradiation is a nonlethal procedure that could be used successfully in animals to transplant allograft across major histocompatibility barriers.

  11. Prolonged survival of isolated rat islet allografts pre-irradiated with X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Toshihisa; Note, Masayuki; Nakagawara, Gizo (Fukui Medical School, Matsuoka (Japan)); Kojima, Yasuhiko

    1994-04-01

    Prior to transplantation of islets, pre-incubation, or pre-irradiation may suppress the immunogenicity of islet cells without suppressing islet function. In the presently described experiments we investigated the use of X-ray irradiation prior to transplantation to reduce islet immunogenicity. To determine whether or not the islet function was reduced after irradiation, ACI rat islets were transplanted into the subrenal capsules of isogeneic rats which had been diabetic and examined the blood glucose level over a period of 40 days. The results indicated that irradiation injury was dose-dependent and that islets irradiated with over 80 Gy lost their function. Next, allogeneic transplantation was performed using the model of ACI rats to Lewis rats without the use of any immunosuppressive agent. Non-irradiated islets were rejected within 7 days. However 20 Gy or 40 Gy irradiated islets prolonged survival (18.7[+-]5.8 days (n=6) and 26.7[+-]10.0 days (n=6), respectively). To determine the basis for this effect, MHC expression of islets was examined by the immunoperoxidase technique. Immunohistologic studies showed that 40 Gy-irradiated islets were depleted of Class II antigen positive cells while Class I antigen expression was unchanged. These results suggest that the prolongation of islets survival by X-ray irradiation may possibly be due to, in part, the depletion of donor Class II antigen positive cells. (author).

  12. Evidence that survival of γ-irradiated Escherichia coli is influenced by membrane fluidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatvin, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    Survival studies have been carried out on an Escherichia coli auxotroph (K-12 strain K1060) defective in both fatty acid degradation and in unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Cultures were grown overnight in media supplemented with either oleic or linolenic acid, and γ-irradiated at two temperatures. Gas chromatography of total cellular fatty acids demonstrated marked differences in the compositions. In the bacteria grown in oleate, plamitate accounted for 35% and oleate 43%, whereas those grown in linolenate had no oleate but contained 56% palmitate and 35% linolenate. The loss (35%) in total DNA radioactivity from ( 3 H)TdR labelled cells after irradiation at room temperature or on ice, was essentially the same in bacteria grown with linoleic or oleic acid medium. The survival of linolenic substituted bacteria was altered little by irradiation at ice-bath temperature, but the oleic-grown bacteria were much more radiosensitive when irradiated and plated from the cold. The temperatures of the membrane phase transitions are such that at ice-bath temperature (approximately 3 to 5 0 C) only the membrane of the linolenate grown bacteria could possibly still be in the liquid (unorganized) state. The results therefore indicate that one of the factors influencing survival of irradiated bacteria may be membrane fluidity, and the membranes are an important factor in determining the extent of damage, 'repair' and ultimate survival in irradiated cells. (U.K.)

  13. Prolonged heart xenograft survival using combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Saad, T.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine have profound immunosuppressive properties and permit successful heart allotransplantation. Cyclosporine used alone has not permitted consistently successful transplantation between species in all cases. Total lymphoid irradiation has not been applied to xenotransplantation. The efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation alone and in combination with cyclosporine was examined using an animal model of heart xenotransplantation. Heterotopic heart transplants were performed using inbred Syrian hamsters as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Total lymphoid irradiation was administered preoperatively over 3 weeks for a total dose of 15 gray. Cyclosporine was started on the day of surgery and was given as a daily intramuscular injection of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day until rejection was complete. Neither total lymphoid irradiation nor cyclosporine alone markedly prolonged graft survival. However, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day, dramatically prolonged graft survival to greater than 100 days in most recipients. There were no treatment-related deaths. In conclusion, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine permit successful long-term survival of heart xenotransplants in this hamster-to-rat model

  14. Survival of embryo irradiated with gamma rays by embryo culture in Brassica pekinensis Rupr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moue, T.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the survival rates and embryonic development of Brassica pekinensis RUPR. (Varieties; Kashin, Kohai 65 nichi and kairyochitose) was investigated. The purpose of this study was to seek ways of increasing the survival rates of embryos such as B.oleracea obtained through embryo culture techniques after irradiation doses affecting seed fertility and germination, for the purpose of increasing mutation rates. Embryos at different developmental stages ranging from the globular to the early heart stages were irradiated with 20 KR of gamma rays at the daily rate 0L 20 KR or 10 KR (Fig.1 and Table 1). The embryos were excised from ovules 4 to 10 days after irradiation and cultured on White's medium. The shooting and rooting rates on the 34th day of culture were higher at the dose of 10 KR/day than 20 KR/day and were lower when the materials were irradiated at the young embryonic stage (Table 3). Varietal differences in the shooting and rooting rates were also observed. The irradiated embryos survived mainly in the state of callus. It was concluded that the embryo culture technique was successful when applied to irradiated embryos excised at the young embryonic stage and that the technique affected B.pekinensis less than B.oleracea

  15. Acceleration of astrocytic differentiation in neural stem cells surviving X-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Ayumi; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Ozawa, Hiroki; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-03-28

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are highly susceptible to DNA double-strand breaks; however, little is known about the effects of radiation in cells surviving radiation. Although the nestin-positive NSCs predominantly became glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive in differentiation-permissive medium, little or no cells were GFAP positive in proliferation-permissive medium. We found that more than half of the cells surviving X-rays became GFAP positive in proliferation-permissive medium. Moreover, localized irradiation stimulated differentiation of cells outside the irradiated area. These results indicate for the first time that ionizing radiation is able to stimulate astrocyte-specific differentiation of surviving NSCs, whose process is mediated both by the direct activation of nuclear factor-κB and by the indirect bystander effect induced by X-irradiation.

  16. Long-term survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and late complications of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Mitsuru; Komori, Takashi; Ishiguro, Hideyo; Takimoto, Toru; Umeda, Ryozo

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation remains the mainstay of treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the primary site and the neck. We studied the long-term effects of irradiation in five patients who have survived ten or more years after treatment without recurrence of disease, and we were impressed by the rarity of disabling complications of the treatment. Minor complications were common, and especially troublesome were xerostomia, dental caries, postnasal crusting and neck weakness. (author)

  17. Genomic instability induced by 137Cs γ-ray irradiation in CHL surviving cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Jingyin; Liu Bingchen; Wu Hongying; Zhou Jiwen; Mu Chuanjie

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study in parallel several possible manifestations of instability of surviving CHL cells after irradiation, namely the frequencies of mutation at locus, micronuclei and apoptosis. Methods: The frequencies of mutation at HGPRT locus, micronuclei and apoptosis were assayed at various times in surviving cells irradiated with γ-rays. Results: The surviving cells showed a persistently increased frequency of mutation at the HGPRT locus after irradiation until 53 days. Mutant fraction as high as 10 -4 was scored, tens of times higher than those assayed in control cells studied in parallel. The frequency of bi nucleated cells with micronuclei determined within 24 hours after irradiation increased with dose and reached a peak value of (26.58 +- 2.48)% at 3 Gy, decreasing at higher doses to a plateau around 20%. The micronucleus frequency decreased steeply to about (14.47 +- 2.39)% within the first 3 days post-irradiation, and fluctuated at around 10% up to 56 days post-irradiation. The delayed efficiency of irradiated cells was significantly decreased. The frequency of apoptosis peaked about (24.90 +- 4.72)% at 10 Gy 48 h post-irradiation (γ-ray dose between 3-10 Gy) and then decreased to about 12% within 3 days. It was significantly higher than in control cells until 14 days. Conclusions: It shows that genomic instability induced by radiation can be transmitted to the progeny of surviving cells and may take many forms of expression such as lethal mutation, chromosome aberrations, gene mutation, etc

  18. Survival of irradiated mice treated with WR-151327, synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate, or ofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledney, G. D.; Elliott, T. B.; Landauer, M. R.; Vigneulle, R. M.; Henderson, P. L.; Harding, R. A.; Tom, S. P.

    1994-10-01

    Spaceflight personnel need treatment options that would enhance survival from radiation and would not disrupt task performance. Doses of prophylactic or therapeutic agents known to induce significant short-term (30-day) survival with minimal behavioral (locomotor) changes were used for 180-day survival studies. In protection studies, groups of mice were treated with the phosphorothioate WR-151327 (200 mg/kg, 25% of the LD10) or the immunomodulator, synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM; 8 mg/kg), before lethal irradiation with reactor-generated fission neutrons and γ-rays (n/γ = 1) or 60Co γ-rays. In therapy studies, groups of mice received either S-TDCM, the antimicrobial ofloxacin, or S-TDCM plus ofloxacin after irradiation. For WR-151327 treated-mice, survival at 180 days for n/γ = 1 and γ-irradiated mice was 90% and 92%, respectively; for S-TDCM (protection), 57% and 78%, respectively; for S-TDCM (therapy), 20% and 25%, respectively; for ofloxacin, 38% and 5%, respectively; for S-TDCM combined with ofloxacin, 30% and 30%, respectively; and for saline, 8% and 5%, respectively. Ofloxacin or combined ofloxacin and S-TDCM increased survival from the gram-negative bacterial sepsis that predominated in n/γ = 1) irradiated mice. The efficacies of the treatments depended on radiation quality, treatment agent and its mode of use, and microflora of the host.

  19. The effect of vitamin E on cellular survival after X irradiation of lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, K.; Kronings, A.W.T.

    1978-01-01

    Asynchronous cultures of a lymphocytic mouse leukaemic cell line L5178Y were X-irradiated under oxic and hypoxic conditions. The survival curves had almost no shoulder when the cells were grown under normal conditions and then irradiated in the presence of vitamin E, whereas a clear shoulder appeared when the cells were grown and irradiated in a medium supplemented with vitamin E (100 μg/ml). There was no change in the final sensitivity to lethal events in the vitamin E enriched cells. The results suggest that the radioprotective effect of vitamin E depends on its incorporation into the cell membranes. (U.K.)

  20. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in mozzarella cheese and ice cream exposed to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashisaka, A.E.; Weagant, S.D.; Dong, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The survival of Listeria monocytogenes preinoculated into ice cream and mozzarella cheese prior to gamma-irradiation treatment was determined. Samples were maintained at -78 degrees C and exposed to targeted doses of 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 kGy of gamma-irradiation. The calculated D10 values were 1.4 kGy for mozzarella cheese and 2.0 kGy for ice cream. The effective level of irradiation (12D) for inactivating L. monocytogenes was 16.8 kGy for mozzarella cheese and 24.4 kGy for ice cream

  1. A single dose of an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase 2, meloxicam, administered shortly after irradiation increases survival of lethally irradiated mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Dušek, L.; Hoferová, Zuzana; Weiterová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 176, č. 2 (2011), s. 269-272 ISSN 0033-7587 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0158 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0128 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition * lethal irradiation * survival Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.684, year: 2011

  2. Radioprotective effect of cimitidine on acutely irradiated mice survival and hematopoietic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-rong WANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the radioprotective effect of cimetidine on survival rate and hematopoietic system in acutely irradiated mice. Methods The total body irradiation doses were 6.0Gy and 8.0Gy respectively at 1.01Gy/min rate. Sixty healthy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, model group, positive-drug (523 group and cimetidine groups (33.3mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 300mg/kg. Each group had ten mice. The mice were given intragastric administration of cimetidine for 6d before the irradiation in cimetidine groups, and 523 was administered before irradiation once a day for one day in 523 group, and at 5h after irradiation, was given again. The 30d survival rate after 8.0Gy irradiation was recorded. The peripheral blood cells, bone marrow DNA content and frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (fMNPCE were determined 30d after 6.0Gy irradiation. Results After 8.0Gy irradiation, all the mice died on 21th day in model control group. The survival rates in cimetidine groups were 50%, 20% and 30%, respectively. After 6.0Gy irradiation on 30th day, compared with control group, the peripheral white blood cells (WBC and bone marrow DNA content were decreased significantly (P<0.01, P<0.05 in model group, and fMNPCE was increased significantly (P<0.05. Compared with model group, WBC was significantly increased in 300mg/kg cimetidine group (P<0.01. In cimetidine groups, the bone marrow DNA content was increased significantly after irradiation (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and the fMNPCE was decreased significantly (P<0.01 or P<0.05and tended towards normal. Conclusion Cimetidine could improve 30d survival rate of acutely irradiated mice and has good protective effect on hematopoietic system. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.12

  3. Chromosome aberrations and cell survival in irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremp, J.

    1981-01-01

    A possible correlation between chromosome aberrations and reduced proliferation capacity or cell death was investigated. Synchronized Chinese hamster fibroblast cells were irradiated with 300 rad of x rays in early G 1 . Despite synchronization the cells reached the subsequent mitosis at different times. The frequency of chromosome aberrations was determined in the postirradiation division at 2-h intervals. The highest frequency occurred in cells with a first cell cycle of medium length. The colony-forming ability of mitotic cells was measured in parallel samples by following the progress of individual mitoses. The proportion of cells forming macrocolonies decreased with increasing cell cycle length, and the number of non-colony-forming cells increased. Irrespective of various first cell cycle lengths and different frequencies of chromosome aberrations, the number of cells forming microcolonies remained constant. A correlation was found between the absence of chromosome aberrations and the ability of cells to form macrocolonies. However, cells with a long first cell cycle formed fewer macrocolonies than expected

  4. Kidney allograft survival in dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, R.J.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Lum, C.T.; Lewis, W.I.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is immunosuppressive and, in rodents, can induce a state where transplantation of allogenic bone marrow results in chimerism and permanent acceptance of organ allografts from the donor strain. Twelve splenectomized dogs were treated with TLI (150 rads per fraction, total dose 1950 to 3000 rads) before bilateral nephrectomy and renal allotransplantation. Eight dogs received bone marrow from the kidney donor. In 13 untreated control dogs renal allografts functioned for a mean +- (SE) of 4.7 +- 0.3 days. In the four TLI treated dogs who did not receive bone marrow the renal allografts functioned for 15 to 76 days (two dogs died with functioning grafts). In the eight TLI treated dogs who received donor bone marrow, two died immediately after transplantation, two rejected at 3 and 13 days, one died at 13 days with a functioning graft, and two have had the grafts function for longer than 500 days. Chimerism was not detected in the one dog tested. The response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to stimulation with phytohemaglutinin and in mixed lymphocyte culture was suppressed for at least one month after TLI. The results confirm the immunosuppressive effect of TLI. The absence of kidney rejection in two recipients of donor bone marrow show the potential of this approach to induce long-term immunologic unresponsiveness as to an organ allograft, but the outcome is unpredictable and further experiments are needed to define the optimal conditions for administration of TLI and bone marrow to the recipients

  5. Tanacetum parthenium leaf extract mediated survival protection in lethally irradiated Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, Prashanth; Pooja, S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.

    2016-01-01

    Search for less-toxic radioprotectors has spurred interest in the development of natural products. In Ayurveda, the traditional medicine, Tanacetum species have been used to treat ailments since ancient times throughout the world. Effects of the administration of different concentrations of Tanacetum parthenium leaf aqueous extract (TPLA), Tanacetum parthenium leaf ethanolic extract (TPLE) were investigated in Swiss albino mice. Mice (20-25 g) were randomly divided into 8 groups of ten animals each. The control group and the radiation group were treated daily with oral administration of saline for 15 days. Each subgroups of TPLA and TPLE were treated with doses of 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg daily for 15 days. On the 15th day, all were irradiated with 10 Gy whole body irradiation. Survival was observed daily up to 30th post-irradiation day. Data were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The significance difference in survival between control, radiation and treatment groups were observed (P < 0.001). Current studies revealed the protective effect of Tanacetum parthenium rendering high survivability in lethally irradiated mice. (author)

  6. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on pancreatic islet xenograft survival in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Lie, T.S.; Nakauo, H.; Nakagawa, K.; Segawa, M.

    1984-01-01

    Before transplantation of Syrian hamster pancreatic islet xenografts to diabetic rats the recipients received total lymphatic system irradiation and cyclosporin A treatment after transplantation for immunosuppression. The xenograft survival times were measured and the rat anti-hamster lymphocytotoxic titers were determined by 51 Cr release assay

  7. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on pancreatic islet xenograft survival in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y; Lie, T S [Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Nakauo, H; Nakagawa, K; Segawa, M [Nara Women' s Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1984-01-01

    Before transplantation of Syrian hamster pancreatic islet xenografts to diabetic rats the recipients received total lymphatic system irradiation and cyclosporin A treatment after transplantation for immunosuppression. The xenograft survival times were measured and the rat anti-hamster lymphocytotoxic titers were determined by /sup 51/Cr release assay.

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptor: an independent predictor of survival in astrocytic tumors given definitive irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhu; Shaeffer, James; Leslie, Susan; Kolm, Paul; El-Mahdi, Anas M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein was predictive of patient survival independently of other prognostic factors in astrocytic tumors. Methods and Materials: Epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression was investigated immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of 55 glioblastoma multiforme, 14 anaplastic astrocytoma, and 2 astrocytomas given definitive irradiation. We evaluated the relationship of EGFR protein expression and tumor grade, histologic features, age at diagnosis, sex, patient survival, and recurrence-free survival. Results: The percentage of tumor cells which were EGFR positive related to reduced survival by Cox regression analysis in both univariate (p = 0.0424) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0016). Epidermal growth factor receptor positivity was the only 1 of 11 clinical and histological variables associated with decreased recurrence-free survival by either univariate (p = 0.0353) or multivariate (p = 0.0182) analysis. Epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression was not related to patient age, sex, or histologic features. Conclusion: Epidermal growth factor receptor positivity was a significant and independent prognostic indicator for overall survival and recurrence-free survival for irradiated patients with astrocytic gliomas

  9. Ensemble of cell survival experiments after ion irradiation for validation of RBE models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Thomas; Scholz, Uwe; Scholz, Michael [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    There is persistent interest in understanding the systematics of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Models such as the Local Effect Model (LEM) or the Microdosimetric Kinetic Model have the goal to predict the RBE. For the validation of these models a collection of many in-vitro cell survival experiments is most appropriate. The set-up of an ensemble of in-vitro cell survival data comprising about 850 survival experiments after both ion and photon irradiation is reported. The survival curves have been taken out from publications. The experiments encompass survival curves obtained in different labs, using different ion species from protons to uranium, varying irradiation modalities (shaped or monoenergetic beam), various energies and linear energy transfers, and a whole variety of cell types (human or rodent; normal, mutagenic or tumor; radioresistant or -sensitive). Each cell survival curve has been parameterized by the linear-quadratic model. The photon parameters have been added to the data base to allow to calculate the experimental RBE to any survival level. We report on experimental trends found within the data ensemble. The data will serve as a testing ground for RBE models such as the LEM. Finally, a roadmap for further validation and first model results using the data base in combination with the LEM are presented.

  10. Comparison of six different models describing survival of mammalian cells after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sontag, W.

    1990-01-01

    Six different cell-survival models have been compared. All models are based on the similar assumption that irradiated cells are able to exist in one of three states. S A is the state of a totally repaired cell, in state S C the cell contains lethal lesions and in state S b the cell contains potentially lethal lesions i.e. those which either can be repaired or converted into lethal lesions. The differences between the six models lie in the different mathematical relationships between the three states. To test the six models, six different sets of experimental data were used which describe cell survival at different repair times after irradiation with sparsely ionizing irradiation. In order to compare the models, a goodness-of-fit function was used. The differences between the six models were tested by use of the nonparametric Mann-Whitney two sample test. Based on the 95% confidence limit, this required separation into three groups. (orig.)

  11. Survival patterns and hemopathological responses of dogs under continuous gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.M.; Fritz, T.E.; Tolle, D.V.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.; Kaspar, L.V.; Cullen, S.M.; Carnes, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Survival curves were constructed and analyzed relative to contributing hematopathological responses for groups of beagles exposed continuously for duration of life to low daily doses of whole body 60 Co gamma irradiation (27.3 rads/day to 4 rads/day). The survival curves versus time were progressively displaced toward longer survival as rates of exposure were reduced from the relatively high dose rate of 27.3 rads/day to the low dose rate of 4.0 rads/day. Average survival times increased from 57 days at 27.3 rads/day to 1830 days at 4.0 rads/day, representing fractional increased life-spans from 1.5% to 50.8%, respectively. Survival curves versus total dose were markedly displaced along the cumulative radiation dose axis at the extreme dose rates (i.e., 27.3 and 4.0 rads/day), but not at the intermediate dose rates (i.e., 13.4 and 7.9 rads/day) in which the upper linear portions of the survival curves are superimposed. From these dose-dependent survival curves, LD 50 values for whole body gamma irradiation, delivered chronically at 27.3, 13.4, 7.9, and 4.0 rads per day were estimated to be 1442, 2124, 2039, and 7161 rads, respectively. Both time- and dose-dependent survival curves for the intermediate dose rates, in contrast to the extreme dose rates, exhibited pronounced transitions in the lethality rate below the 50% survival level. These lethality rate transitions occurred at approx. 2500 rads of accumulated dose and were attributed to a shift in the spectrum of developing hematopathologies: namely, from a predominance of the acutely ablative radiation-induced lymphohematopoietic syndromes (i.e., septicemias and aplastic anemias) to a predominance of the late arising hematopoietic neoplasias (myelogenous leukemia and related myeloproliferative disorders)

  12. STI571 (Gleevec) improves tumor growth delay and survival in irradiated mouse models of glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Ling; Shinohara, Eric T.; Kim, Dong; Tan Jiahuai; Osusky, Kate; Shyr, Yu; Hallahan, Dennis E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain neoplasm that is essentially incurable. Although radiation therapy prolongs survival, GBMs progress within areas of irradiation. Recent studies in invertebrates have shown that STI571 (Gleevec; Novartis, East Hanover, NJ) enhances the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation. In the present study, the effectiveness of STI571 in combination with radiation was studied in mouse models of GBM. Methods and Materials: Murine GL261 and human D54 GBM cell lines formed tumors in brains and hind limbs of C57BL6 and nude mice, respectively. GL261 and D54 cells were treated with 5 μmol/L of STI571 for 1 h and/or irradiated with 3 Gy. Protein was analyzed by Western immunoblots probed with antibodies to caspase 3, cleaved caspase 3, phospho-Akt, Akt, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α and β. Tumor volumes were assessed in mice bearing GL261 or D54 tumors treated with 21 Gy administered in seven fractionated doses. Histologic sections from STI571-treated mice were stained with phospho-Akt and phospho-PDGFR β antibodies. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to study the response of mice bearing intracranial implants of GL261. Results: STI571 penetrated the blood-brain barrier, which resulted in a reduction in phospho-PDGFR in GBM. STI571-induced apoptosis in GBM was significantly enhanced by irradiation. STI571 combined with irradiation induced caspase 3 cleavage in GBM cells. Glioblastoma multiforme response to therapy correlated with an increase in tumor growth delay and survival when STI571 was administered in conjunction with daily irradiation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that STI571 has the potential to augment radiotherapy and thereby improve median survival

  13. Local control and survival after external irradiation for adenocarcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangala, N.; Cox, J.D.; Byhardt, R.W.; Wilson, J.F.; Greenberg, M.; Conceicao, A.L.D.

    1982-01-01

    From 1966 through 1978, 128 patients with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent external irradiation to the entire pelvis followed by additional irradiation with a field that encompassed the entire prostate with generous margins. Local recurrence was diagnosed when palpable regrowth occurred and was confirmed by biopsy. Eighteen patients (14%) had local recurrence. Actuarial (life table) local recurrence rates, however, were 24% for both for Stage B and C patients. Actuarial five year survival was 100% for the 10 Stage A patients, 91% for the 25 Stage B, and 78% for the 93 Stage C patients. Actuarial five year disease-free survival was 59% for Stage B and 69% for Stage C patients. Local recurrence was affected by the total dose to the whole pelvis and the dose at the center of the prostate. Disease-free survival was influenced by differentiation. High dose external irradiation to the prostate and regional lymph nodes offers the greatest probability of long-term disease-free survival for patients with localized disease. Late bowel complications were seen in 14 patients (11%), two of whom required colostomies. Late urinary tract complications were observed in five patients (4%)

  14. Effects of irradiation on the survival of bacterial contaminants in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary concern about microbial safety of irradiated food is the survival of pathogenic spore forming bacteria. Clostridium sporogenes was selected as the spore forming test organism for conducting inoculated pack studies for its similarities to the most toxigenic Cl. botulinum, in radiation resistance. Minimum radiation dose applied (45 kGy under cryogenic condition, in -790C was determined to eliminate Cl. sporogenes spores and other bacterial contaminants in different kind of Indonesian chicken and beef dishes. In separate studies, irradiation doses of 3 – 7 kGy at cryogenic condition was used to improve the microbiological safety of a number chilled prepared meals. The dishes or ready to eat foods were packaged in air impermeable pouches. Irradiation process was carried out after inoculation on chicken and beef dishes with certain amounts of Cl. sporogenes spores. The evaluation of colony count differences between the irradiated and unirradiated foods revealed the effect of radiation on the survival of bacterial spores or other bacterial contaminants. It was demonstrated that a minimum dose of 45 kGy under cryogenic condition eliminated the spore of Cl. sporogenes, Bacillus spp and Staphylococcus spp. Irradiation at doses 5-7 kGy significantly reduced some potential pathogenic microorganisms in samples without affecting quality up to 3 months of storage at the refrigeration temperature.

  15. Human fibroblast strain with normal survival but abnormal postreplication repair after ultraviolet light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doniger, J.; Barrett, S.F.; Robbins, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Postreplication repair has been studied in ultraviolet light (UV-irradiated) fibroblast strains derived from eight apparently normal control donors and seven xeroderma pigmentosum patients. One control donor strain had an intermediate defect in postreplication repair similar to that in excision-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts. However, unlike the xeroderma pigmentosum strains, this control donor strain had normal UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis and normal survival after irradiation with UV. This unique fibroblast strain should be useful in studies designed to elucidate the possible role of postreplication repair in UV-induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis

  16. Effect of antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract on survival time after neutron and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Antibiotic decontaminated and conventional rats were whole-body irradiated with 8 MeV neutrons (1.5 to 13 Gy) or 137 Cs gamma radiation (9 to 20 Gy). The animals were checked for survival at four hour intervals from the second to the seventh day postirradiation and at eight hour intervals on other days. Decontamination of the GI tract increased median survival time 1 to 5 days in this range of dose dependency, whereas the effect of decontamination was negligible for doses that produced mostly intestinal death. These results suggest that sepsis and endotoxin produced by bacteria from the intestinal tract play little role in acute intestinal radiation death

  17. Analysis of survival curves for Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillia irradiated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Etsuji; Danno, Akibumi; Miyazato, Mitsuru

    1994-01-01

    This study was aimed to understand the survival pattern of some microorganisms which were treated by γ-sterilization. Though most of the works were concentrated and reported with D 10 -values, it was presently found that the γ-irradiated survival curves showed sigmoid pattern and L-values were reached about half of the D 10 -value for each strains. It was further confirmed that if L-values were used for practical sterilization with D 10 -values, the estimation of sterilized levels would become more accurate. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Stem-spermatogonial survival and incidence of reciprocal translocations in the γ-irradiated boar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, B.H.; Martin, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    To assess the effects of γ-radiation on stem-cell survival and incidence of reciprocal translocations, boar testes were irradiated with 100, 200, or 400 rad. Stem-cell survival was markedly affected by 100 rad (51% of control) and reduced to 34% of control by 400 rad. Production of differentiating spermatogonia renewal was incomplete at 12 weeks. Incidence of translocations peaked at 200 rad and the number occurring at 100 and 400 rad was similar. Kinetics of porcine spermatogonial renewal differs considerably from those of the rodent and, relative to the rodent, this may account for the boar's higher sensitivity to stem-cell killing and lower sensitivity to translocation

  19. Survival of human osteosarcoma cells and normal human fibroblasts following alpha particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Gemmell, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Cell survival of human osteosarcoma cells in culture following alpha particle irradiation is reported here for the first time. The osteosarcoma cell line (TE-85) is found to be less sensitive to inactivation by 5.6 MeV alpha particles (LET 86 keV/μm) than normal diploid human fibroblasts (NFS). Values for the mean lethal doses were estimated to be 103 rads for the TE-85 cells compared with 68 rads for the NFS cultures irradiated under identical conditions. It is postulated that the aneuploidy of the tumor cells with increased DNA chromosomal material may confer a selective advantage for the survival of tumor cells relative to normal cells with diploid chromosomes

  20. Rat mammary-cell survival following irradiation with 14.3-MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, P.A.; Gould, M.N.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Clifton, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    The survival of rat mammary gland cells irradiated in situ with either single or split doses of 14.3-MeV neutrons was determined by an in vivo transplantation assay. The single-dose data are best fit to the multitarget single-hit model by the parameters D 0 = 97 cGy and n = 0.6 while the split-dose data are best fit by the parameters D 0 = 100 cGy and n = 1.2. Analysis of the combined data sets suggests that the two survival curves are not identical. Comparison of these data with previously published results following irradiation with 250-kVp x-rays is reported

  1. Rat mammary cell survival following irradiation with 14.3-MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, P.A.; Gould, M.N.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Clifton, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    The survival of rat mammary gland cells irradiated in situ with either single or split doses of 14.3-MeV neutrons was determined by an in vivo transplantation assay. The single-dose data are best fit to the multitarget single-hit model by the parameters D/sub o/ = 97 cGy and n = 0.6 while the split-dose data are best fit by the parameters D/sub o/ = 100 cGy and n = 1.2.Analysis of the combined data sets suggests that the two survival curves are not identical. Comparison of these data with previously published results following irradiation with 250-kVp X rays is reported

  2. Xenograft survival in two species combinations using total-lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has profound immunosuppressive actions and has been applied successfully to allotransplantation but not xenotransplantation. Cyclosporine (CsA) has not generally permitted successful xenotransplantation of organs but has not been used in combination with TLI. TLI and CsA were given alone and in combination to rats that were recipients of hamster or rabbit cardiac xenografts. Combined TLI and CsA prolonged survival of hamster-to-rat cardiac xenografts from three days in untreated controls to greater than 100 days in most recipients. TLI alone significantly prolonged rabbit to rat xenograft survival with doubling of survival time. However, combined treatment did not significantly prolong rabbit-to-rat cardiac xenograft survival compared with TLI alone. The hamster and rat are phylogenetically closely related. Transplants from hamsters to rat are concordant xenografts since the time course of unmodified rejection is similar to first-set rejection of allografts. Although the rabbit-to-rat transplant is also between concordant species (average survival of untreated controls: 3.2 days) the rabbit and rat are more distantly related. These results suggest that TLI is an effective immunosuppressant when applied to cardiac xenotransplants in these animal models; that the choice of species critically affects xenograft survival when TLI and/or CsA are used for immunosuppression; and that the closely related species combination tested has markedly prolonged (greater than 100 days) survival using combined TLI and CsA

  3. Modification of survival and hematopoiesis in mice by tocopherol injection following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichay, T.J.E.; Roy, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The LD 50/30 of CD-1-female mice increased from 6.6 Gy to 7.0 Gy when 2.5 mg of dl-α-tocopherol was injected immediately post irradiation. Increased survival was associated with increased numbers of hematopoietic colony forming units (CFU). Endogeneous spleen colonies were found in greater numbers in the tocopherol-treated mice after irradiation. The vitamin, however, must be injected within five hours following irradiation to have this effect. The increased numbers of CFU in tocopherol-treated mice may be due to a stimulation of recovery of repair processes. Split-dose studies suggest that most repair of sublethal damage in hematopoietic stem cells take place within seven and nine hours following irradiation. Tocopherol injection appears to enhance the recovery manifested in the split-dose assay. There is also evidence that tocopherol-treatment caused an earlier onset of mitotic activity in CFU after irradiation. The increased number of spleen colonies in tocopherol-injected mice is not due to an altered CFU seeding efficiency associated with an altered spleen microenvironment. Tocopherol injection did not affect the shoulder of the stem cell survival curve using exogenous spleen colony assays of bone marrow-derived or spleen-derived hematopoietic stem cells. There appears to be a decrease in D 0 in the higher dose region (4.3 Gy) of the bone marrow exogenous SCA survival curves for the vehicle-injected and the non-injected groups; however, the tocopherol-injected group showed no evidence of change in radiosensitivity up to the highest dose used (5.0 Gy). Data may be interpreted to suggest that the therapeutic effect of tocopherol may involve repair of hematopoietic stem cell damage in the higher dose range of bone marrow syndrome. (orig.) [de

  4. Hepatocyte transplantation improves early survival after partial hepatic resection and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, C.; Sharma, A.; Alfieri, A.; Guha, U.; Sokhi, R.; Gagandeep, S.; Gupta, S.; Vikram, B.; RoyChowdhury, J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is limited in its role as an adjuvant therapy of intrahepatic malignancies because of lower tolerance of human liver to irradiation (TD (5(5)) -TD (50(5)) ∼ 30-40 Gy). Although, surgical resection of primary or metastatic hepatic tumors has been shown to prolong survival, it is often limited by the presence of residual disease. RT could potentially improve survival of patients with positive surgical margins. However, radiation damage to the liver may be enhanced by hepatocellular proliferation induced by partial hepatic (PH) resection. We hypothesize that hepatocyte transplantation would be able to provide metabolic support and modulate the development of radiation-induced liver disease post-resection. The present study was designed to test the potential of hepatocyte transplantation in modifying the outcome of hepatocellular damage induced by PH and RT. Methods: Adult male Fischer 344 rats (Charles River) received hepatic irradiation of 50 Gy in a single fraction, after surgical exposure and shielding of the stomach and intestine, using a 320 MGC Philips orthovoltage unit. Immediately following irradiation, a two-third partial hepatectomy was performed. Four days post-radiation, the treatment group was injected with 5 x 10 6 syngeneic hepatocytes into the splenic pulp after a left subcostal incision, which allows homogeneous liver engraftment of the transplanted hepatocytes. Hematoxylin and eosin stains of liver biopsies, performed at various time points (3 days, 1, 2, 3 weeks or, anytime when animals died) were used for histologic evaluation. Time-adjusted survival was calculated from the date of irradiation by the product-limit Kaplan-Meier method, adjusting the denominator at every time point for the number of rats at risk. Results: Eight weeks after RT, 30% (n = 11) of the control animals (PH + 50 Gy) were alive compared to 100% (n = 9) of the transplant recipients (p <0.05). The median survival of the control group was 15

  5. Gamma irradiation of isolated rat islets pretransplantation produces indefinite allograft survival in cyclosporine-treated recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.F.; Lake, S.P.; Chamberlain, J.; Thirdborough, S.; Bassett, P.D.; Mistry, N.; Bell, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    In this study we have examined the use of low-dose gamma-irradiation for the reduction of islet immunogenicity in the strong allogeneic combination of WAG rat islets transplanted into diabetic AUG recipients. First, we determined that gamma-irradiation reduced immunogenicity in vitro by use of a modified MLR with WAG islets as stimulators and AUG splenocytes as responders. We then determined the maximum dose of gamma-irradiation that could be used (250 rads) before islet function was affected. As 250 rads islet pretreatment alone was ineffective in prolonging allograft survival, we combined the pretreatment with a short course (days 0, 1, 2; 30 mg/kg) of cyclosporine. We found that CsA was only effective in significantly prolonging allograft survival when given subcutaneously in olive oil. The CsA treatment alone gave a significantly prolonged survival time for the islet allografts (median, 37 days vs. 6 days for controls), but when combined with the 250 rads islet pretreatment a synergistic effect was seen with 100% becoming long-term survivors (greater than 100 days). The long-term surviving AUG rats from both the CsA alone group and the CsA plus 250 rads pretreated islets group were challenged with WAG dendritic cells (DC). The islets from the 250 rads pretreated group were subsequently rejected (day 6) while the CsA alone group were not affected. The role of low dose gamma-irradiation when combined with CsA treatment of islet graft recipients in inducing specific unresponsiveness will be discussed

  6. Gamma irradiation of isolated rat islets pretransplantation produces indefinite allograft survival in cyclosporine-treated recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.F.; Lake, S.P.; Chamberlain, J.; Thirdborough, S.; Bassett, P.D.; Mistry, N.; Bell, P.R.

    1989-06-01

    In this study we have examined the use of low-dose gamma-irradiation for the reduction of islet immunogenicity in the strong allogeneic combination of WAG rat islets transplanted into diabetic AUG recipients. First, we determined that gamma-irradiation reduced immunogenicity in vitro by use of a modified MLR with WAG islets as stimulators and AUG splenocytes as responders. We then determined the maximum dose of gamma-irradiation that could be used (250 rads) before islet function was affected. As 250 rads islet pretreatment alone was ineffective in prolonging allograft survival, we combined the pretreatment with a short course (days 0, 1, 2; 30 mg/kg) of cyclosporine. We found that CsA was only effective in significantly prolonging allograft survival when given subcutaneously in olive oil. The CsA treatment alone gave a significantly prolonged survival time for the islet allografts (median, 37 days vs. 6 days for controls), but when combined with the 250 rads islet pretreatment a synergistic effect was seen with 100% becoming long-term survivors (greater than 100 days). The long-term surviving AUG rats from both the CsA alone group and the CsA plus 250 rads pretreated islets group were challenged with WAG dendritic cells (DC). The islets from the 250 rads pretreated group were subsequently rejected (day 6) while the CsA alone group were not affected. The role of low dose gamma-irradiation when combined with CsA treatment of islet graft recipients in inducing specific unresponsiveness will be discussed.

  7. Cell survival of human tumor cells compared with normal fibroblasts following 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Henning, C.B.; Reynolds, S.D.; Holmblad, G.L.; Trier, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Three tumor cell lines, two of which were shown to be HeLa cells, were irradiated with 60 Co gamma irradiation, together with two cell cultures of normal human diploid fibroblasts. Cell survival was studied in three different experiments over a dose range of 2 to 14 gray. All the tumor cell lines showed a very wide shoulder in the dose response curves in contrast to the extremely narrow shoulder of the normal fibroblasts. In addition, the D/sub o/ values for the tumor cell lines were somewhat greater. These two characteristics of the dose response curves resulted in up to 2 orders of magnitude less sensitivity for cell inactivation of HeLa cells when compared with normal cells at high doses (10 gray). Because of these large differences, the extrapolation of results from the irradiation of HeLa cells concerning the mechanisms of normal cell killing should be interpreted with great caution

  8. Delayed reproductive death as a dominant phenotype in cell clones surviving X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.P.; Little, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Residual damage manifested as reduced cloning efficiency was observed in many of the cloned progeny of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human carcinoma SQ-20B cells surviving X-irradiation. This stable phenotype, which we have termed delayed reproductive death, persisted for >50 generations of cell replication post-irradiation. Clones showing this phenotype were aneuploid, and formed colonies with a high proportion of giant cells. By somatic cell hybridization of CHO clones, the delayed reproductive death phenotype was found to be a dominant trait; the cloning efficiency of hybrid clones was persistently depressed, as compared with that of control hybrid cells. These results suggest that delayed reproductive death represents a specific cellular response that may persist in some of the progeny of mammalian cells for long periods after X-irradiation. (author)

  9. Ovarian carcinoma: improved survival following abdominopelvic irradiation in patients with a completed pelvic operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dembo, A.J.; Bush, R.S.; Beale, F.A.; Bean, H.A.; Pringle, J.F.; Sturgeon, J.; Reid, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    A prospective, stratified, randomized study of 190 postoperative ovarian carcinoma patients with Stages IB, II, and III (asymptomatic) presentations is reported. The median time of follow-up was 52 months. Patients in whom bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy (BSOH) could not be completed because of extensive pelvic tumor had a poor prognosis which did not differ for any of the therapies tested. When BSOH was completed, pelvic plus abdominopelvic irradiation (P + AB) with no diaphragmatic shielding significantly improved patient survival rate and long-term control of occult upper abdominal disease in approximately 25% more patients than pelvic irradiation alone or followed by adjuvant daily chlorambucil therapy. The effectiveness of P + AB in BSOH-completed patients was independent of stage or tumor grade and was most clearly appreciated in patients with all gross tumor removed. Chlorambucil added to pelvic irradiation delayed the time to treatment failure without reducing the number of treatment failures

  10. Influence of locoregional irradiation on local control and survival in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutuli, B.

    1998-01-01

    Locoregional control is a crucial step in the achievement of breast cancer cure. In ductal carcinoma in situ, breast irradiation significantly reduces the rates of local recurrence whatever the histological subtypes, as demonstrated by the NSABP-B17 trial (25.8 % of local recurrences without radiotherapy vs. 11.4 % with radiotherapy). In infiltrating breast carcinomas, complementary breast irradiation has been shown to significantly improve the local control and slightly the overall survival in five randomized trials. Following mastectomy, locoregional irradiation clearly reduces the chest wall and nodal relapse rates, especially in case of lesions more than 5 cm or with nodal involvement and/or large lymphatic or vascular emboli. Two recent randomized trials confirmed the benefit of well-adapted locoregional irradiation in all subgroups, especially in patients with one to three axillary involves nodes. In the Danish trial (including pre-menopausal high-risk women), radiotherapy reduced locoregional relapses from 32 to 9 % (p<0.001) and increased the 10-year survival rate from 45 to 54% (p<0.001). In the Canadian trial, locoregional relapse rate decreased from 25 to 13 % and the 10-year survival rate increased from 56 to 65 %. The meta-analysis published in 1995 by the EBCTCG showed only a modest benefit due to locoregional irradiation in breast cancer. However, when small or old trials were excluded due to imperfect methodology or inadequate irradiation techniques, the benefit of modern radiotherapy became much more evident in a population of 7,840 patients. Locoregional irradiation appears to be able to reduce the risk of metastatic evolution occurring after local or nodal relapse and must be integrated in a multidisciplinary strategy. Treatment toxicity (especially toxicity due to irradiation of internal mammary nodes) is of special concern, as anthracycline-based chemotherapy is prescribed more often. The use of a direct field, with at least 60 % of the dose

  11. The survival effects of V79 cells irradiated with carbon ions in different let

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Zhou Guangming; He Jing; Li Wenjian; Li Qiang; Dang Bingrong; Li Xinglin; Weng Xiaoqiong; Xie Hongmei; Wei Zengquan; Gao Qingxiang

    2001-01-01

    The survival of cultured Chinese V79 hamster cells irradiated with carbon ions with different LETs were investigated. Irradiation was performed at the heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Results were compared with those obtained from the experiments with γ rats and could be concluded as follows: The survival curves for carbon ions showed as straight lines and were fitted to the one-target one-hit model, but for γ rays the curves with shoulders were fitted to the multi-target one-hit model. As the LETs were 125, 200 and 700 keV/μm for carbon ions, the inactivation cross section 35, 12 and 8 μm 2 , respectively, which suggested that under the experimental conditions, the lower the LET of carbon ions, the more seriously the irradiation killed cells. In the case of 125 keV/μm, the RBEs of carbon ions at the 0.1 and 0.37 survival levels were 1.47 and 2.19 respectively

  12. Action of caffeine on the survival of x-irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    Post-irradiation treatment of HeLa S3 cells with 1 mM caffeine results in a marked diminution of the surviving fraction as scored by colony formation. The decrease is dose-dependent; the effect of a 24-h post-irradiation treatment of a non-synchronous population with caffeine is to change the terminal slope of the survival curve and its intercept. Do is reduced from 130 to 60 rad; the extrapolation number is increased about twofold. The amount of post-irradiation killing is maximal if cells are exposed to caffeine at a concentration of at least 1 mM for 8 hours; less than 10% of unirradiated cells are killed under these conditions. Dose-response curves were also obtained for synchronous cells at various phases of the cell cycle. Similar results were obtained at all cell ages, but the magnitude of the effect is age-dependent. This age dependence was further explored in experiments in which mitotically collected cells were exposed to 300 or 500 rad doses at 2-hour intervals throughout the cell cycle. Treatment with caffeine for 24 hours after irradiation enhances the killing of cells late in the cycle more than in G 1 . The sensitivities of two other cell lines, CHO and EMT6, also were examined; both are substantially less sensitive to caffeine. The smaller cell-cycle dependence of CHO cells is qualitatively the same as that of HeLa cells

  13. Survival of mouse testicular stem cells after γ or neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.C.; Meistrich, M.L.; Thames, H.D. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The survival of mouse testicular stem cells after γ or neutron irradiation was measured by counts of repopulated tubular cross sections and by the numbers of differentiated spermatogenic cells produced. The numbers of such cells were determined either by sperm head counts of the X-isozyme of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme levels. Qualitatively similar results were obtained with all three assays. The results have confirmed that, with C3H mice, stem-cell survival is higher when the γ-radiation dose is fractionated by a 24-h interval. Single-dose γ-radiaton survival curves for the stem cell had large shoulders and also showed the presence of a radioresistant subpopulation which predominated after doses greater than 600 rad. Part of the shoulder must have resulted from repair of sublethal damage since neutron irradiation produced survival curves with smaller shoulders. The relative biological effectiveness for stem-cell killing for these neutrons (mean energy, 22 MeV) varied from about 2.9 at 10 rad of γ radiation to 2.2 at 600 rad

  14. Prolonged bone marrow and skin allograft survival after pretransplant conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersey, J.H.; Kruger, J.; Song, C.; Kloster, B.

    1980-01-01

    Current studies were designed to provide long-term survival of allogeneic skin and bone marrow in mice preconditioned with various combinations of cyclophosphamide (CY) and/or total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). Long-term skin graft and bone marrow survival was obtained across the major histocompatibility barrier (BALB/c into C57BL/6) using pregrafting conditioning with either fractionated TLI or the combination of CY with a single dose of TLI. CY alone and a single dose of TLI alone were relatively ineffective as regrafting immunosuppressive combinations. Allogeneic bone marrow was required for long-term skin graft survival with either conditioning regimen. Allogeneic marrow transplantation resulted in somewhat more deaths than syngeneic transplantation with both CY + TLI and fractionated TLI

  15. The effects of 137Cs irradiation and MAP on the survival and growth of salmonella Spp in pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Meixu

    2000-01-01

    The effects of 137 Cs irradiation (0 to 2 kGy) and MAP combination treatment on the survival and growth of Salmonella Spp are studied in sterile pork in the absence of competing microflora. A central composite response-surface design is used to test the response of the pathogen to the treatments in a single experiment. Predictive equations are developed from the analyses of variances of the resulting data. The results show that the survival of Salmonella is significant decrease with the increasing of irradiation dose, but there are no evident effects on the survival of salmonella due to the MAP. Five kinds of MAP do not show the difference on the growth of Salmonella. 50% CO 2 treatment shows the irradiation protection of Salmonella compared with air. The results indicate that the treatment combined irradiation with MAP is not more effective for controlling the survival and growth of Salmonella Spp

  16. Life prolongation and 5-year survival by intensive irradiation of inoperable lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, H.-J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of intensive radiotherapy on 1-5 year survival rates of patients with inoperable lung cancer is investigated. Some 123 cases were treated with 200 kV X-rays (> 3500 cGy tumour dose) and 1046 with cobalt-60 ν-rays (> 5000 cGy tumour dose). All patients had inoperable, histologically confirmed tumours, limited to one side of the thorax. Survival rates for 1 year were 22% and 37% respectively; for 3 years 1% and 5%; and for 5 years 0 and 2.5%. In all highly differentiated tumours the authors obtained a 5-year survival with telecobalt therapy of 6.5%, and for all oat-cell cases, 2.5%. By comparing the total result with their own control group of 'untreated', but prognostically more favourable patients (122 thoracotomized cases without resection) the increase of survival rates achieved by Cobalt-60 therapy is convincing (2.5 times for 1 year, 5 times for 2 years). Nevertheless, the very unfavourable prognosis for more than half of the cases justifies trials with systemic therapy. To date chemotherapy does not appear to influence survival times (except for small-cell tumours). Therefore randomized trials with two half-body irradiations (800 cGy each, 'Toronto method') are recommended. (Auth.)

  17. Effects of gamma ray and electron-beam irradiations on survival of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Michiko; Miyahara, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    An extension of the approval for food irradiation is desired due to the increase in the incidence of food poisoning in the world. One anaerobic (Clostridium perfringens) and four facultatively anaerobic (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis) bacteria irradiated with gamma ray or electron beam (E-beam) were tested in terms of survival on agar under packaging atmosphere. Using pouch pack, effects of two irradiations on survival of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were evaluated comparatively. E-beam irradiation was more effective than gamma ray irradiation in decreasing the lethal dose 10% (D 10 ) value of B. cereus at 4 deg C, slightly more effective in that of E. coli O157, and similarly effective in that of the other three bacteria at 4 deg C. The gamma irradiation of the bacteria without incubation at 4 deg C before irradiation was more effective than that of the bacteria with incubation overnight at 4 deg C before irradiation in decreasing the D10 values of these bacteria (B. cereus, E. coli O157, and L. monocytogenes). Furthermore, ground beef patties inoculated with bacteria were irradiated with 1 kGy by E-beam (5 MeV) at 4 deg C. The inoculated bacteria in the 1-9 mm beef patties were killed by 1 kGy E-beam irradiation and some bacteria in more than 9 mm beef patties were not killed by the irradiation. (author)

  18. Ten-Year Survival Results of a Randomized Trial of Irradiation of Internal Mammary Nodes After Mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennequin, Christophe; Bossard, Nadine; Servagi-Vernat, Stéphanie; Maingon, Philippe; Dubois, Jean-Bernard; Datchary, Jean; Carrie, Christian; Roullet, Bernard; Suchaud, Jean-Philippe; Teissier, Eric; Lucardi, Audrey; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Belot, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of irradiation of internal mammary nodes (IMN) on 10-year overall survival in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Methods and Patients: This multicenter phase 3 study enrolled patients with positive axillary nodes (pN+) or central/medial tumors with or without pN+. Other inclusion criteria were age <75 and a Karnofsky index ≥70. All patients received postoperative irradiation of the chest wall and supraclavicular nodes and were randomly assigned to receive IMN irradiation or not. Randomization was stratified by tumor location (medial/central or lateral), axillary lymph node status, and adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy vs no chemotherapy). The prescribed dose of irradiation to the target volumes was 50 Gy or equivalent. The first 5 intercostal spaces were included in the IMN target volume, and two-thirds of the dose (31.5 Gy) was given by electrons. The primary outcome was overall survival at 10 years. Disease-free survival and toxicity were secondary outcomes. Results: T total of 1334 patients were analyzed after a median follow-up of 11.3 years among the survivors. No benefit of IMN irradiation on the overall survival could be demonstrated: the 10-year overall survival was 59.3% in the IMN-nonirradiated group versus 62.6% in the IMN-irradiated group (P=.8). According to stratification factors, we defined 6 subgroups (medial/central or lateral tumor, pN0 [only for medial/central] or pN+, and chemotherapy or not). In all these subgroups, IMN irradiation did not significantly improve overall survival. Conclusions: In patients treated with 2-dimensional techniques, we failed to demonstrate a survival benefit for IMN irradiation. This study cannot rule out a moderate benefit, especially with more modern, conformal techniques applied to a higher risk population

  19. Low survival of mice following lethal gamma-irradiation after administration of inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.; Tkadlecek, L.; Viklicka, S.; Pipalova, I.; Hola, J.

    1992-01-01

    An impairment was observed of the survival of mice subjected to whole-body gamma-irradiation with a lethal dose of 10 Gy and treated with a repeated postirradiation administration of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (PGSIs) indomethacin or diclofenac. Morphological examination of the gastrointestinal tract and estimation of the blood loss into its lumen in animals treated with diclofenac did not show serious damage such as hemorrhages or perforation, but revealed structural injury to the intestinal mucosa indicating inflammatory processes. The lesions found are supposed to be connected with increased intestinal permeability which leads to endotoxin escape from the gut and a subsequent increased mortality rate of irradiated animals. It may be concluded that PGSIs are not suitable for the management of radiation sickness after an exposure to lethal doses of ionizing radiation. (author) 2 tabs., 4 figs., 20 refs

  20. The influence of scrotonin on survival of Candida guillermondii, irradiated by short-wave ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakhovskaya, M.G.; Frajkin, G.Ya.; Goncharenko, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made on the influence of serotonin on survival of Candida quilliermondu yeast irradiated by 254 nm short-wave ultraviolet. It was established that incubation with serotonin, leading to its penetration inside cells causes two opposite effects - protection from ultraviolet inactivation in preliminary incubation and intensification of cells death in postradiation incubation. Serotonin action is similar to the effects induced in C. guillermondii yeast by 334 nm long-wave ultraviolet light, that is serotonin possesses photomimetic effect. The data obtained are considered as conformaition of participation of serotonin photoinduced synthesis in manifestation of effects of long-wave ultraviolet light action on yeast

  1. Effects of insulin on the survival of irradiated chinese hamster lung cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, P S; Kwock, L; Hefter, K; Wallach, D F.H.; Brotman, R [Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, Mass. (USA)

    1977-01-01

    Insulin treatment (10/sup -7/-10/sup -9/ M) before ..gamma.. irradiation (50 to 500 rads) increases the long term survival of Chinese hamster lung cells (DON). Our data indicates that the radioprotective effect of insulin is not due to a modulation of cyclic-adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate levels within these cells. The results suggest that the radiosensitive plasma membrane component postulated to be involved in the interphase death of thymocytes and protected by insulin may have a counterpart in DON cells.

  2. Survival and photoreactivability of ultraviolet-irradiated cultured fish cells (CAF-MM1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mano, Y.; Mitani, H.; Etoh, H.; Egami, N.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity to ultraviolet light (uv) and photoreactivating ability of cultured fish clone cells (CAF-MM1) were investigated. Dose-survival relationship curves were obtained using the colony-forming technique at various postirradiation temperatures (33, 26, and 20 0 C). At 26 0 C the values of D 0 , D/sub q/, and the extrapolation number (n) were 1.74 J/m 2 , 2.62 J/m 2 , and 4.5, respectively; no marked differences in these values were found among different temperatures. Visible light illumination after uv irradiation produced a marked increase in survival. No photoreactivation effects were observed beyond about 30 h. Caffeine increased uv sensitivity of the CAF-MM1 cells, and from the results it is suggested that the cells have some caffeine-sensitive dark repair mechanisms

  3. Solar irradiance limits the long-term survival of Listeria monocytogenes in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NicAogáin, K; Magill, D; O'Donoghue, B; Conneely, A; Bennett, C; O'Byrne, C P

    2018-03-01

    Seafood has often been implicated in outbreaks of food-borne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes but the source of contamination is usually not known. In this study we investigated the possibility that this pathogen could survive in seawater for an extended time period. Freshly collected seawater samples were inoculated with 1 × 10 8  CFU per ml of L. monocytogenes EGD-e and survival was monitored by plate counting for up to 25 days. When incubated in the dark, either at ambient temperatures (4-14°C) or at 16°C, >10 4  CFU per ml survivors were present after 25 days. However, when the seawater cell suspensions were exposed to ambient light (solar irradiation) and temperatures, L. monocytogenes lost viability rapidly and no survivors could be detected after the 80 h time point. Both UV-A and visible light in the blue region of the spectrum (470 nm) were found to contribute to this effect. The stress inducible sigma factor σ B was found to play a role in survival of L. monocytogenes in seawater. Together these data demonstrate that solar irradiation is a critical determinant of L. monocytogenes survival in marine environments. The data further suggest the possibility of controlling this food-borne pathogen in food-processing environments using visible light. Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne bacterial pathogen capable of causing the life-threatening infection, listeriosis. In seafood the route of contamination from the environment is often not well understood as this pathogen is not generally thought to survive well in seawater. Here we provide evidence that L. monocytogenes is capable of surviving for long periods of time in seawater when light is excluded. Sunlight is demonstrated to have a significant effect on the survival of this pathogen in seawater, and both visible (470 nm) and UV-A light are shown to contribute to this effect. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Survival and DNA repair in ultraviolet-irradiated haploid and diploid cultured frog cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, J.J.; Hoess, R.H.; Angelosanto, F.A.; Massey, H.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Survival and repair of DNA following ultraviolet (254-nm) radiation have been investigated in ICR 2A, a cultured cell line from haploid embryos of the grassfrog, Rana pipiens. Survival curves from cells recovering in the dark gave mean lethal dose value (D 0 ) in the range 1.5-1.7 Jm -2 for both haploid and diploid cell stocks. The only significant difference observed between haploids and diploids was in the extent of the shoulder at low fluence (Dsub(q)), the value for exponentially multiplying diploid cells (3.0 Jm -2 ) being higher than that found for haploids (1.2 Jm -2 ). Irradiation of cultures reversibly blocked in the G1 phase of the cell cycle gave survival-curve coefficients indistinguishable between haploids and diploids. Post-irradiation exposure to visible light restored colony-forming capacity and removed chromatographically estimated pyrimidine dimers from DNA at the same rates. After fluences killing 90% of the cells, complete restoration of survival was obtained after 60-min exposure to 500 foot-candles, indicating that in this range lethality is entirely photoreversible and therefore attributable to pyrimidine dimers in DNA. Dimer removal required illumination following ultraviolet exposure, intact cells and physiological temperature, implying that the photoreversal involved DNA photolyase activity. Excision-repair capacity was slight, since no loss of dimers could be detected chromoatographically during up to 48 h incubation in the dark and since autoradiographically detected 'unscheduled DNA synthesis' was limited to a 2-fold increase saturated at 10 Jm -2 . These properties make ICR 2A frog cells useful to explore how DNA-repair pathways influence mutant yield. (Auth.)

  5. Stem cell factor enhances the survival of murine intestinal stem cells after photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, B.R.; Khan, W.; Hancock, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant rat stem cell factor (SCF) has been shown to decrease lethality in mice exposed to total-body irradiation (TBI) in the lower range of lethality through radioprotection of hematopoietic stem cells and acceleration of bone marrow repopulation. This study evaluates the effect of SCF on the survival of the intestinal mucosal stem cell after TBI. This non-hematopoietic cell is clinically relevant. Gastrointestinal toxicity is common during and after abdominal and pelvic radiation therapy and limits the radiation dose in these regions. As observed with bone marrow, the administration of SCF to mice prior to TBI enhanced the survival of mouse duodenal crypt stem cells. The maximum enhancement of survival was seen when 100 μ/kg of SCF was given intraperitoneally 8 h before irradiation. This regimen increased the survival of duodenal crypt stem cells after 12.0 Gy TBI from 22.5 ± 0.7 per duodenal cross section for controls to 30.0 ± 1.7 after treatment with SCF (P=0.03). The TBI dose producing 50% mortality of 6 days (LD 50/6 ) was increased from 14.9 Gy for control mice to 19.0 Gy for mice treated with SCF (dose modification factor = 1.28). These findings demonstrate that SCF (dose modification factor = 1.28). These findings demonstrate that SCF has radioprotective effects on a non-hematopoietic stem cell population and suggest that SCF may be of clinical value in preventing radiation injury to the intestine. 29 refs., 4 figs

  6. Preirradiation PSA predicts biochemical disease-free survival in patients treated with postprostatectomy external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Christopher H.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Read, Paul W.; Sanfilippo, Nicholas J.; Gillenwater, Jay Y.; Kelly, Maria D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical outcome and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and to determine prognostic factors for biochemical disease-free survival in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy without hormonal therapy. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were treated after prostatectomy with radiotherapy between March, 1988 and December, 1993. Seven patients had undetectable PSA ( 2.7. Five-year actuarial biochemical disease-free survival values were 71, 48, and 0%, respectively, for the three groups. Biochemical disease-free survival was not affected by preoperative PSA level, clinical stage, Gleason's score, pathologic stage, surgical margins, presence of undetectable PSA after surgery, surgery to radiation interval, total dose, or presence of clinically suspicious local disease. Based on digital rectal exam, there were no local failures. Conclusion: Biochemical disease-free survival after postprostatectomy radiation is predicted by the PSA at the time of irradiation. Clinical local control is excellent, but distant failure remains a significant problem in this population. The addition of concomitant systemic therapy should be investigated in patients with PSA >2.7

  7. Survival and reproductive capacity of the tobacco budworm, heliothis virescens (lepidoptera:noctuidae), irradiated as diapausing and young nondiapausing pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proshold, F.I.; North, D.T.

    1978-01-01

    Pupal survival, mating, and sperm transfer in tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), irradiated as diapause pupae, decreased proportionately with increasing doses of 3, 5, and 7.5 krad. Also, the fertility of tobacco budworms irradiated as nondiapause pupae and of the F 1 progeny of such males decreased with increasing dose. When the female partner received eupyrene sperm, insects irradiated while the pupae were in diapause were fertile as were their progeny. Therefore, it does not appear plausible to irradiate diapause pupae of our strain of tobacco budworms to obtain sterile insects for a release program. (author)

  8. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, H.L.; Xue, J.M.; Lai, J.N.; Wang, J.Y.; Zhang, W.M.; Miao, Q.; Yan, S.; Zhao, W.J.; He, F.; Gu, H.Y.; Wang, Y.G.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10 9 -1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper

  9. Effects of UV-B irradiation on growth, survival, pigmentation and nitrogen metabolism enzymes in Cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R.P.; Hader, D.P. [Institut fuer Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie, Friedrich-Alexander Universitaet, Erlangen (Germany); Kumar, H.D.; Kumar, A. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    1995-12-31

    The effects of artificial UV-B irradiation on growth, survival, pigmentation, nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and total protein profile have been studied in a number of N{sub 2}-fixing cyanobacterial strains isolated from rice (paddy) fields in India. Different organisms show different effects in terms of growth and survival. Complete killing of Anabaena sp. and Nostoc carmium occurs after 120 min of UV-B exposure, whereas the same occurs only after 150 min of exposure in the case of Nostoc commune and Scytonema sp. Growth patterns of the cells treated with UV-B revealed that Nostoc commune and Scytonema sp. are comparatively more tolerant than Anabaena sp. and Nostoc carmium. Pigment content, particularly phycocyanin, was severely decreased following UV-B irradiation in all strains tested so far. In vivo NR activity was found to increase, while in vivo GS activity was decreased following exposure to UV-B for different durations in all test organisms; although complete inhibition of GS activity did not occur even after 120 min of UV-B exposure. (author). 37 refs, 6 figs.

  10. Effects of UV-B irradiation on growth, survival, pigmentation and nitrogen metabolism enzymes in Cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.P.; Hader, D.P.; Kumar, H.D.; Kumar, A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of artificial UV-B irradiation on growth, survival, pigmentation, nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and total protein profile have been studied in a number of N 2 -fixing cyanobacterial strains isolated from rice (paddy) fields in India. Different organisms show different effects in terms of growth and survival. Complete killing of Anabaena sp. and Nostoc carmium occurs after 120 min of UV-B exposure, whereas the same occurs only after 150 min of exposure in the case of Nostoc commune and Scytonema sp. Growth patterns of the cells treated with UV-B revealed that Nostoc commune and Scytonema sp. are comparatively more tolerant than Anabaena sp. and Nostoc carmium. Pigment content, particularly phycocyanin, was severely decreased following UV-B irradiation in all strains tested so far. In vivo NR activity was found to increase, while in vivo GS activity was decreased following exposure to UV-B for different durations in all test organisms; although complete inhibition of GS activity did not occur even after 120 min of UV-B exposure. (author)

  11. Influence of diethyl maleate in irradiated mice survival and related to percentages of serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, E.; Mastro, N.L. del

    1990-01-01

    The use of radiomodifying drugs that alter the radiation effect, protecting or sensitizing cells and organisms, presents great interest in tumor radiotherapy. Glutathione (GSH) can be described as the major endogenous radioprotector. The diethyl maleate (DEM) is a drug able to block intracellular GSH. This work aims at the establishment of the radiomodifying competence of DEM administered in two different vehicles, peanut oil and aqueous ethanolic solution by the analysis of mouse survival curves as well as the relative percentages of serum proteins. Groups of animals were previously injected intraperitoneally with 0.3 ml of 418 e 150 μM DEM respectively in each one of the vehicles one hour before irradiated with an 60 Co acute dose of 9 Gy. The survival of mice was followed during 30 days and electrophoretic profiles of serum proteins 1,3 and 7 days after irradiation. The results showed that the action of DEM om mouse radiosensitivity depends on the vehicles used, considering that both media showed a radio modifier action. (author)

  12. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H.L. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xue, J.M. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lai, J.N. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, J.Y. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, W.M. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Miao, Q. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yan, S. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, W.J. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); He, F. [School of Life Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gu, H.Y. [School of Life Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Y.G. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: ygwang@pku.edu.cn

    2006-04-15

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10{sup 9}-1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper.

  13. A theoretical study on the influence of the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field on the survival fraction of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiaoqiong; Li Qiang; Zhou Guangming; Li Wenjian; Wang Jufang; Wei Zengquan

    2001-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for the homogeneity request of heavy-ion irradiation field, the most important design parameter of the heavy-ion radiotherapy facility planned in IMP (Institute of Modern Physics), the influence of the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field on the survival fraction of cells was investigated theoretically. A formula for survival fraction of cells irradiated by the un-uniform heavy-ion irradiation field was deduced to estimate the influence of the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field on the survival fraction of cells. The results show that the survival fraction of cells irradiation by the un-uniform irradiation field is larger than that of cells irradiated by the uniform irradiation field, and the survival fraction of cells increases as the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field decreasing. Practically, the heavy-ion irradiation field can be treated as uniform irradiation field when its homogeneity is better than 95%. According to these results, design request for the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field should be better than 95%. The present results also show that the agreement of homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field must be checked while comparing the survival fraction curves obtained by different laboratory

  14. Mathematical simulation of influence of irradiated cell reparative system saturation on cell survival. Communication 1. Simulation of survival curves in prokaryotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyigavko, V.G.; Meshcheryakova, O.P.; Radzyishevs'ka, Je.B.

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical models of the processes of forming survival curves for prokaryotes which are based on the idea about the possibility of saturation of radiation lesion reparation systems of DNA of the irradiated cells at the dose increase were worked out. For the simplest of the discussed models the authors discuss the question about the methods of evaluation of the model parameters

  15. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation and pretransplant blood transfusion on pancreatic islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Picon, G.; McGeorge, M.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been shown to have a strong immunosuppressive effect both experimentally and clinically. Pretransplant blood transfusions have also been shown to have a strong beneficial effect in the outcome of organ transplantation. A study was made of the effect of TLI and pretransplant blood transfusions, alone and in combination, as an immunosuppressive modality in the isolated pancreatic islet transplant in the rat model. Donor rats (Fischer RT1v1) were kept on a 50% DL-ethionine supplemented diet for 4-6 weeks prior to pancreas removal. Recipient rats (Lewis RT1) were made diabetics prior to transplantation by iv injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Transfusion protocol consisted of a biweekly transfusion of 2 ml of either donor specific or third party transfusions. Total lymphoid irradiation was carried out by daily administration of 200 rads during one week prior to transplantation. Transplantation of the isolated islets was performed by intraportal injection. Syngeneic transplant of one and a half donor pancreata in each recipient reverted the diabetic condition indefinitely (greater than 100 days). Untreated allogenic grafts had a mean survival time (MST) of 5.2 days. Total lymphoid irradiation in dosages of 800, 1000, and 1200 rads, as the only immunosuppressive regimen, prolonged the MST of allografts to 15.3, 16.5, and 21.8 days, respectively (P less than .05). Pretransplant third party blood transfusion had no effect on allograft survival (MST 6.0). When donor specific blood transfusions were given, the MST was prolonged to 25.3 days (P less than .05). When TLI was administered to recipients of donor specific transfusions, the MST of the allografts did not show any statistical significant difference when compared with untreated animals. This abrogation of the beneficial effect of specific blood transfusion was observed in all dosages of TLI employed: 800 rad (MST 3.0), 1000 rad (MST 8.0), 1200 rad (MST 5.18)

  16. The effect of natural hot environment on survival and peripheral blood lymphocytes in γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Meijuan; Zheng Li; Ding Zhenhua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of natural hot environment (NHE) on survival and peripheral blood lymphocytes in γ-irradiated in mice. Methods: After γ-irradiation at the dosage of 6.5 or 9.0 Gy, the mice were exposed to NHE for 0, 3, 6, 9 h or 30 days. After exposure to NHE, mice of the 6 h and 9 h groups, were then bred at room temperature. The survival and peripheral blood lymphocytes were observed for 30 days. Results: There were obvious differences in survival time between the groups that were exposed to NHE for 9 h and 30 d and that of the 0 h group, the mice of these three groups having been irradiated with 6.5 Gy. For 9.0 Gy-irradiated mice, the survival times of the 6, 9 h and 30 d groups were all significantly shorter than that of the 0 h group. The descending rate of peripheral blood lymphocytes in 0 h group is smaller than that of all NHE groups. There was no lymphocyte fluctuate resuscitation in all NHE groups as seen in the 0 h group. Conclusion: There is a significant decrease of survival indexes and a faster descending rate of peripheral blood lymphocytes in mice exposed to after γ-irradiation. (authors)

  17. Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the fertility and survival of worms obtained from irradiated cercariae (3 Krad), in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa Cardoso, G. de; Coelho, P.M.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the fertility of female mice, as well as the survival of worms in their portal system, have been observed in four groups of outbred albino mice (Mus musculus), experimentally infected with ca 450 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains), by transcutaneous route. The cercariae used were a) non-irradiated (control groups), and b) irradiated with 3 Krad of gamma irradiation (Co-60). From the 33 rd day on, some stability in the population of surviving worm could be observed. This population remained constant till the end of the observation period (90 th day), notedly in relation to the LE strain . Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation (at the dose of 3 Krad) is able to hinder the worm egg production in 98.1% of the infected mice. Further, it was observed that the few detected eggs were dead. Females were found to be more resistant to irradiation. The irradiation effect on the mortality of male worms was statistically significant scarcely from the 61 st day on. The long period of permanence of the sterile adult irradiated worms in the portal system of mice and their probable involvement in the development of immuno-protection (the so-called concomitant immunity, without the immuno-pathological involvements for the host) are here discussed. (author)

  18. Micronucleus formation compared to the survival rate of human melanoma cells after X-ray and neutron irradiation and hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Beuningen, D.; Streffer, C.; Bertholdt, G.

    1981-09-01

    After neutron and X-ray irradiation and combined X-ray irradiation and hyperthermia (3 hours, 42/sup 0/C), the survival rate of human melanoma cells was measured by means of the colony formation test and compared to the formation of micronuclei. Neutrons had a stronger effect on the formation of micronuclei than the combination of X-rays and hyperthermia. X-rays had the lowest effect. The dose effect curve showed a break at that dose level at which a reduction of cells was observed in the cultures. A good relation between survival rate and formation of micronuclei was found for the X-ray irradiation, but not for the neutron irradiation and the combined treatment. These observations are discussed. At least for X-rays, the micronucleus test has turned out to be a good screening method for the radiosensitivity of a biologic system.

  19. Proliferation and clonal survival of human lung cancer cells treated with fractionated irradiation in combination with paclitaxel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijn, Johannes van; Berg, Jaap van den; Meijer, Otto W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to determine the effects of a continuous exposure to paclitaxel (taxol) in combination with fractionated irradiation on cell proliferation and survival. Methods and Materials: Human lung carcinoma cells (SW1573) were given a daily treatment with 3 Gy of x-rays during 5 days in the continuous presence of 5 nM taxol. The surviving fraction and the total number of cells were determined every 24 h before and immediately after irradiation. Results: Irradiation with 5 x 3 Gy and 5 nM taxol cause approximately the same inhibition of cell proliferation. In combination these treatments have an additional effect and the cell population increases no further after the first 24 h. Whereas the cells become more resistant to taxol after the first 24 h with a minimum survival of 42%, taxol progressively reduces the population of surviving cells in combination with x-rays when the number of fractions increases, up to 25-fold relative to irradiation alone. The enhancement effect of 5 nM taxol is likely to be attributed to an inhibition of the repopulation during fractionated irradiation and not to an increased radiosensitivity. Only after treatment with 10 or 100 nM taxol for 24 h, which is attended with a high cytotoxicity, is moderate radiosensitization observed. Conclusion: Taxol, continuously present at a low concentration with little cytotoxicity, causes a progressive reduction of the surviving cell population in combination with fractionated irradiation, mainly by an inhibition of the repopulation of surviving cells between the dose fractions

  20. Ionizing radiation-induced MEK and Erk activation does not enhance survival of irradiated human squamous carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, James A.; Vroman, Benjamin T.; Christianson, Teresa J.H.; Karnitz, Larry M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation (IR) triggers several intracellular signaling cascades that have commonly been regarded as mitogenic, including the Raf-MEK-Erk kinase cascade. In addition to promoting proliferation, activated MEK and Erk may also prevent cell death induced by cytotoxic stimuli. Because Raf, MEK, and Erk are activated by IR in some tumor cell lines, this suggests that IR-induced activation of the kinase cascade may enhance the survival of irradiated cells. Methods and Materials: IR-induced activation of MEK and Erk was assessed in irradiated UM-SCC-6 cells, a human squamous carcinoma cell line. Activation of MEK and Erk was blocked with the pharmacological inhibitor of MEK activation, PD098059. Clonogenic survival was assessed in irradiated UM-SCC-6 cells that were pretreated with nothing or with the MEK inhibitor. Results: In UM-SCC-6 cells, IR doses as low as 2 Gy rapidly activated MEK and Erk. Pretreatment of the cells with the pharmacological inhibitor of MEK activation, PD098059, effectively blocked IR-induced activation of MEK and Erk. However, inhibition of the kinase cascade did not affect the clonogenic survival of irradiated cells in either early or delayed-plating experiments. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that although MEK and Erk are rapidly activated by IR treatment, these protein kinases do not affect the clonogenic survival of irradiated UM-SCC6 cells

  1. Cell Survival and DNA Damage in Normal Prostate Cells Irradiated Out-of-Field.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, L

    2014-10-31

    Interest in out-of-field radiation dose has been increasing with the introduction of new techniques, such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). These new techniques offer superior conformity of high-dose regions to the target compared to conventional techniques, however more normal tissue is exposed to low-dose radiation with VMAT. There is a potential increase in radiobiological effectiveness associated with lower energy photons delivered during VMAT as normal cells are exposed to a temporal change in incident photon energy spectrum. During VMAT deliveries, normal cells can be exposed to the primary radiation beam, as well as to transmission and scatter radiation. The impact of low-dose radiation, radiation-induced bystander effect and change in energy spectrum on normal cells are not well understood. The current study examined cell survival and DNA damage in normal prostate cells after exposure to out-of-field radiation both with and without the transfer of bystander factors. The effect of a change in energy spectrum out-of-field compared to in-field was also investigated. Prostate cancer (LNCaP) and normal prostate (PNT1A) cells were placed in-field and out-of-field, respectively, with the PNT1A cells being located 1 cm from the field edge when in-field cells were being irradiated with 2 Gy. Clonogenic and γ-H2AX assays were performed postirradiation to examine cell survival and DNA damage. The assays were repeated when bystander factors from the LNCaP cells were transferred to the PNT1A cells and also when the PNT1A cells were irradiated in-field to a different energy spectrum. An average out-of-field dose of 10.8 ± 4.2 cGy produced a significant reduction in colony volume and increase in the number of γ-H2AX foci\\/cell in the PNT1A cells compared to the sham-irradiated control cells. An adaptive response was observed in the PNT1A cells having first received a low out-of-field dose and then the bystander factors. The PNT1A cells showed a significant

  2. Cell survival and chromosomal aberrations in CHO-K1 cells irradiated by carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czub, J. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Banas, D. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Blaszczyk, A. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Buraczewska, I. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Choinski, J. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Gorak, U. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Jaskola, M.; Korman, A. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Lankoff, A.; Lisowska, H. [Institute of Biology, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Lukaszek, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Main School of Fire Service, ul. Slowackiego 52/54, 01-629 Warsaw (Poland); Szeflinski, Z. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: szef@fuw.edu.pl; Wojcik, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Biology, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    Chinese hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells were exposed to high LET {sup 12}C-beam (LET: 830 keV/{mu}m) in the dose range of 0-6 Gy and to {sup 60}Co irradiation and the RBE value was obtained. Effects of {sup 12}C-beam exposure on cell survival and chromosomal aberrations were calculated. The chromosomal aberration data were fitted with linear equation. The distribution of aberration in cells was examined with a standard u-test and used to evaluate the data according to Poisson probabilities. The variance to the mean ratio {sigma}{sup 2}/Y and the dispersion index (u) were determined. Overdispersion was significant (p<0.05) when the value of u exceeded 1.96.

  3. Pluripotent stem cells with normal or reduced self renewal survive lethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.; Neben, S.; Yee, M.; Bullis, J.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Transfusion with 10,000 or 20,000 marrow cells resulted in 30+ days survival of 15%-50% of mice exposed to an Ld90 or LD100 or radiation. The use of congenic mice with alloenzyme markers permitted the identification of host and donor cells in the peripheral blood of transfused animals. Donor cells were present initially in all hosts. Between 55% and 92% of the animals became 100% host type by 12-24 weeks after transfusion in three separate experiments. To explore whether the temporary repopulation by donor cells was due to short-lived stem cells, the marrows of several primary hosts were transfused into secondary, lethally irradiated hosts. Some of the retransplanted primary donor and host cells persisted only temporarily. It is suggested that some of the donor stem cells in both the primary and secondary hosts had an intrinsically shortened life span

  4. Effects of imidazole derivatives in the survival of 60Co irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mastro, N.L. del.

    1988-07-01

    The presence of hypoxic and radioresistant cells is considered the main reason of failure in radiotherapy of neoplasms. Hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, as nitroimidazole derivatives, have an advantage over other alternative methods for improving the effects of radiotherapy since hypoxic cells exist in considerable concentration in tumours and only in small concentration in normal tissues. Its show also a direct cytotoxicity over the hypoxic cell population. In this work, studies on combining ip administered drugs and single dose radiation treatments in healthy albino mice are presented. It was compared the action of 2-nitroimidazole, levamisole and cysteine, the latest considered as radioprotector for several biological systems. The results showed some radioprotective action for 2 - nitroimidazole (MISO), sensitizer capacity for levamisole and in those conditions, cysteine failed to produce any effects on the survival of 9 Gy 60 Co irradiated mice. (author) [pt

  5. Influence of diethylmaleate on the survival of irradiated mice and on serum protein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, E.

    1990-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is the major of the living plants or animal cell low molecular weight thiol compound which serves as a main endogenous cellular radioprotector. In order to improve radiotherapy, a possible approach should be to try to administrate hypoxic cell radiosensitizers altogether with glutathione intracellular depletors, for example, a binding GSH agent like diethylmaleate (DEM), in an attempt to overcome the neurotoxic side effects while maintaining their radiosensitizing properties. This study was performed to investigate whether the administration of DEM alone could modify the radioresistance of mice as measure by the 30-day-survival after irradiation and to establish whether this modification can be reflected in the murine serum protein profiles. Millimolar concentrations of DEM were dissolved alternatively in commercial peanut oil or absolute ethanol (final concentration 0.27%) and administered to male or female albino mice ip 1 h prior to 9 Gy sup(60) Cowhole-body irradiation with an average dose rate of 5.2 Gy/min. (author)

  6. Impacts of low dose rate irradiation on the fertility, fecundity and hatchling survival of Japanese rice fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Coughlin, D.P.; Marsh, L.C.; Yi, Yi; Winn, R.

    2004-01-01

    A renewed international interest in the effects on biota from low dose rate irradiation has recently occurred. Much of that interest is centered on the relevance of previously accepted dose rate guidelines (e.g. 10 mGy d -1 for aquatic biota) suggested by the ICRP and IAEA. All parties concerned seem to agree that additional data are needed on population level impacts from chronic low-level exposures to radionuclides. Using a Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LoDIF), we conducted an experiment on the fecundity, fertility and hatchling survival of Japanese Rice Fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes). Fish were exposed externally to 137 Cs from juvenile through adulthood at mean dose rates of 3.5, 35 and 350 mGy d -1 . Fish were bred at maturity and the following endpoints were examined: 1) the number of eggs produced; 2) the percent of eggs that hatched; and 3) the survival of hatchlings 20-days post hatch. The influence of gender was examined by breeding irradiated males with control females; control males with irradiated females; irradiated males with irradiated females; and control males with control females. The data contribute to our understanding the impacts of low dose rate irradiation. (author)

  7. Low-dose ultraviolet-B irradiation of donor corneal endothelium and graft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dana, M.R.; Olkowski, S.T.; Ahmadian, H.; Stark, W.J.; Young, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    Donor rabbit corneal endothelium was pretreated with different doses of ultraviolet (UV-B) irradiation (302 nm) before grafting to test whether allograft survival could be favorably affected in comparison with untreated corneas grafted into the same recipients. Endothelial rejection was observed in 19 of 32 (59%) eyes that received no treatment compared with five of 32 (16%) eyes that received UV-B (P less than 0.001), and increasing doses of UV-B were associated with lower rejection rates (P less than 0.05). Although exposure of donor endothelium significantly reduced endothelial rejection at all doses tested, it resulted in primary graft failure in a substantial proportion of corneas treated at high doses. Class II (Ia) antigen staining of corneal tissue was present in conjunction with clinical evidence of rejection, and the magnitude of staining correlated with the histologic extent of inflammation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed various endothelial cell surface irregularities and membrane defects in high-dose UV-treated corneas. Endothelial cell cultures exposed in vitro to UV-B light showed a dose-dependent loss in cell viability. These data suggest that UV-B pretreatment of donor corneal endothelium prolongs graft survival but that toxic side effects must be carefully controlled

  8. Survival of primates following orthotopic cardiac transplantation treated with total lymphoid irradiation and chemical immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, J.L.; Reitz, B.A.; Beiber, C.P.; Aziz, S.; Oyer, P.E.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.; Kaplan, H.S.; Stinson, E.B.; Shumway, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been used for attempts at induction of a donor-specific tolerant-like state in allograft recipients and for immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporin A (Cy A) has been shown to suppress rejection of organ grafts in many species including man. The present study was designed to test the effectiveness of TLI in combination with either Cy A or rabbit anticynomolgus thymocyte globulin (ATG) and azathioprine. Thirty-one orthotopic cardiac allografts were performed using surface cooling and total circulatory arrest in outbred cynomolgus monkeys. TLI was administered preoperatively in fractions of 100 rad until a total of 600 or 1800 rad was achieved. Cy A was administered 17 mg/kg/day. All treatment groups demonstrated extended survival. Myocardial biopsies as early as 4 weeks were consistent with mild rejection in all treatment groups. No significant synergistic effect upon survival could be demonstrated utilizing TLI (1800 rad) plus ATG and azathioprine was associated with a high incidence of early death attributable to leukopenia and infection. Cy A alone or in combination with TLI was associated with the development of lymphoid malignancy

  9. Effect of BCNU combined with total body irradiation or cyclophosphamide on survival of dogs after autologous marrow grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, A.H.G.; English, D.

    1979-01-01

    Dogs were treated with either: (1) 750 rad total body irradiation; (2) BCNU 2 or 4 mg/kg IV 48 hours prior to 750 rad total body irradiation; or (3) BCNU 4 mg/kg IV plus cyclophosphamide 30 mg/kg IV. Results showed that of 11 dogs who received 750 rad total body irradiation and did not receive cryopreserved autologous bone marrow cells, none survived, compared to an 88% survival (31 of 35 dogs) after 750 rad total body irradiation if the dogs received stored autologous bone marrow cells. However, when the dogs were treated with BCNU 2 or 4 mg/kg prior to 750 rad total body irradiation the survival rate, despite infusion of autologous bone marrow cells, dropped to 25% (3 of 12 dogs) for BCNU 2 mg/kg, and 17% (2 of 12 dogs) for BCNU 4 mg/kg. This effect did not seem to be due to direct serum inhibition of hemopoietic cell proliferation since serum obtained at various intervals after BCNU administrations failed to inhibit CFU growth in vitro. The dogs died from hemorrhage and infection; at autopsy there was hemorrhagic pneumonitis and intestinal ulcerations with petechial hemorrhages, suggesting that the combination of BCNU and total body irradiation may have synergistic toxicity on the canine gastro-intestinal tract. When BCNU was combined with cyclophosphamide, reversal of marrow toxicity occurred in 54% (6 of 11 dogs) with stored autologous bone marrow cells compared to no survival (0 of 8 dogs) with stored autologous bone marrow cells. Thus while autologous bone marrow grafts are useful for reversal of marrow toxicity due to many therapeutic protocols, such grafts alone may not provide protection against toxicity due to the combination of high dosage BCNU and total body irradiation

  10. Long term survival with whole abdominopelvic irradiation (WAI) in platinum-refractory ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cmelak, Anthony J.; Cox, Richard S.; Kapp, Daniel S.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of WAI in persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian carcinoma after initial chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1970 and 1995, 41 women with persistent or recurrent ovarian carcinoma after initial surgical debulking and chemotherapy were treated with WAI. Median age was 57 years (range 27-75). Initial FIGO stages were I and II - 5 patients (12%), III - 26 (64%), and IV - 10 (24%). Tumor grade was 1 - 4 (10%), II - 16 (39%), and III - 20 (49%). Four to eighteen (median eight) cycles of chemotherapy had been given prior to WAI. Thirty-one patients had received platinum-based regimens, and 22 of these had failed within six months after completion of chemotherapy (platinum-refractory). Prior to WAI, 11 (27%) patients had microscopic residual disease, 21 (51%) had gross residual disease up to 1.5 cm, and 9 (22%) had tumors greater than 1.5 cm in maximal diameter. Median doses of 28 Gy to the abdomen and 48 Gy to the pelvis were delivered using an open-field technique with appropriate liver and kidney shielding. Results: With follow-up of 1 month to 16.5 years, the 5-year actuarial disease specific survival was 47% in all 41 patients, and 49% in 22 platinum-refractory patients. Both disease bulk at WAI (p -4 ) and initial stage (p=0.005) were of prognostic value. Five-year disease specific survivals were stage I and II - 100%, stage III - 55%, and stage IV - 27%. Five-year disease specific survival of all nonbulky (less than 1.5 cm) patients was 40%; 0% for patients with disease greater than 1.5 cm. Five-year disease specific survival for grade I - 66%, II - 59%, and III - 33%. Stage I, II, or III patients with residual disease bulk of 1.5 cm or less before WAI had a 10-year actuarial disease specific survival of 50%. Twelve patients (29%) failed to complete the planned course of WAI due to acute toxicity (most often due to prolonged thrombocytopenia). Late bowel toxicity included obstruction in one patient and

  11. Survival and SOS response induction in ultraviolet B irradiated Escherichia coli cells with defective repair mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada Medina, Cesar Augusto; Aristizabal Tessmer, Elke Tatjana; Quintero Ruiz, Nathalia; Serment-Guerrero, Jorge; Fuentes, Jorge Luis

    2016-06-01

    Purpose In this paper, the contribution of different genes involved in DNA repair for both survival and SOS induction in Escherichia coli mutants exposed to ultraviolet B radiation (UVB, [wavelength range 280-315 nm]) was evaluated. Materials and methods E. coli strains defective in uvrA, oxyR, recO, recN, recJ, exoX, recB, recD or xonA genes were used to determine cell survival. All strains also had the genetic sulA::lacZ fusion, which allowed for the quantification of SOS induction through the SOS Chromotest. Results Five gene products were particularly important for survival, as follows: UvrA > RecB > RecO > RecJ > XonA. Strains defective in uvrA and recJ genes showed elevated SOS induction compared with the wild type, which remained stable for up to 240 min after UVB-irradiation. In addition, E. coli strains carrying the recO or recN mutation showed no SOS induction. Conclusions The nucleotide excision and DNA recombination pathways were equally used to repair UVB-induced DNA damage in E. coli cells. The sulA gene was not turned off in strains defective in UvrA and RecJ. RecO protein was essential for processing DNA damage prior to SOS induction. In this study, the roles of DNA repair proteins and their contributions to the mechanisms that induce SOS genes in E. coli are proposed.

  12. The effects of the first two rises of adrenal gland activity on survival of rats after whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffigny, Herve; Pasquier, Christian.

    1980-04-01

    Lethal irradiation of rats results in two rises of adrenal gland activity around the 3rd hour and the 3rd day following exposure respectively. The effects of each rise on survival of rats were studied during either reaction, 1) by inhibition of corticosterone synthesis by metopirone 2) by corticosterone injection to adrenalectomized rats. The first rise seemed deleterious to survival, whereas the second one was without effect. The specificity of adrenal reaction following exposure might explain the significance of the succession of other stresses for survival in the particular case of combined stresses [fr

  13. Clonogenic cell line survival of a human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 after carbon ion irradiation with different LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Suwen; Su Xu; Wang Jifang; Li Wenjian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the survival fraction of a human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 following irradiation with carbon ions with different LET. Methods: cells of the human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 were irradiated with carbon ions (LET=30 and 70 keV/μm). The survival fraction was determined with clonogenic assay after 9 days incubation in a 5% CO 2 incubator at 37 degree C. Results: When the survival fractions of 70 keV/μm were D s = 0.1 and D s=0.01 absorption dose were 2.94 and 5.88 Gy respectively, and those of 30 keV/μm were 4.00 and 8.00 Gy respectively. Conclusion: For the SMMC-7721 cell line, 70 keV/μm is more effective for cell killing than 30 keV/μm

  14. Irradiation effects of ultraviolet rays on Leptospira cells. Loss of motility, survive ability, and damages of cell structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hidezo (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    The irradiation effects of ultraviolets rays (UV) on leptospira cells were investigated. Four serovar strains of Genus Leptospira ; L. copenhageni, L. canicola, L. biflexa and L. illini were used. A sterilization lamp (Toshiba-GL-15) was lighted at intervals of 90mm on the sample fluid for several minutes. Loss of motility, survival growth and morphological damages were recognized under several conditions. The medium conditions were important, that is, the Korthof's medium was less effective than phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The irradiation time was also important, that is, L. canicola cells in PBS lost their motility and survive ability within 300sec. of irradiation, however, much more time, such as 1.200sec. was necessary in Korthof's medium. This phenomenon may be depended upon defensibility of albumin in the latter. Among the strains, L. biflexa cells showed the highest resistance in loss of motility and survive ability, and other three strains were inferior. The remarkable efects of cellular structures were also seen in the materials with 30 min. of irradiation, in both immediate time or after 24h incubation. The damages observed after 24th of irradiation were much more drastic than those of immediate time. No effect could be seen on the cells suspended in the Korthof's medium irradiated for 24h. Regarding morphological effect, there appeared relaxation of helical body, spherical body and semighost as the immediate changes. Structural damages were recognized as the collapse of cell body, such as scattering of capsule, release of axial flagella, loss or change of cytoplasmic density and break down of wall membrane complex. These phenomena were regarded as the indirect effects of UV-irradiation and autolysis in a post-mortem change.

  15. Peculiarities of hemodynamic pulmonary oedema formation in the irradiated body. [Lung oedema, whole-body irradiation, time dependence, survival curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurygin, G V; Kopylov, V N; Girs, E F; Chizhov, P A [Yaroslavskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR)

    1978-09-01

    233 white rats have been tested to establish that large doses of ionizing radiation, which cause pronounced leukopenia, increase resistance of animals to lung oedema under the effect of adrenaline. It is most pronounced on the fourth day after irradiation. Relatively small doses (lower than 100r), as well as separate irradiation of the head, chest and abdomen, in reverse, contribute to lung oedema.

  16. Sexual Competitiveness, Field Survival, and Dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fruit Flies Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Ortiz, Uriel; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Liedo, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge

    2018-04-02

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is used in area-wide pest management programs for establishing low pest prevalence and/or areas free of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). The aim of this technique is to induce high levels of sterility in the wild population, for this the released insects must have a high sexual competitiveness and field dispersal. However, radiation decreases these biological attributes that do not allow it to compete successfully with wild insects. In this study the sexual competitiveness, field survival and dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart; Diptera: Tephritidae) irradiated at 0, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy were evaluated in laboratory. A dose of 60 Gy produced 98% sterility, whereas doses of 70 and 80 Gy produced 99% sterility. Sexual competitiveness was assessed in field cages, comparing males irradiated at 0, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy against wild males for mating with wild fertile females. Males irradiated at 50 and 60 Gy achieved more matings than those irradiated at 70 and 80 Gy. Wild males were more competitive than mass-reared males, even when these were not irradiated (0 Gy). There was no effect of irradiation on mating latency, yet wild males showed significantly shorter mating latency than mass-reared males. Female remating did not differ among those that mated with wild males and those that mated with males irradiated with different doses. The relative sterility index (RSI) increased from 0.25 at 80 Gy to 0.37 at 60 Gy. The Fried competitiveness index was 0.69 for males irradiated at 70 Gy and 0.57 for those irradiated at 80 Gy, which indicates that a 10 Gy reduction in the irradiation dose produces greater induction of sterility in the wild population. There were no significant differences in field survival and dispersal between flies irradiated at 70 or 80 Gy. Reducing the irradiation dose to 60 or 70 Gy could improve the performance of sterile males and the effectiveness of the SIT. Our results also distinguish between the

  17. Survival of dental implants in native and grafted bone in irradiated head and neck cancer patients: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddula, Aravind; Assad, Daniel A; Salinas, Thomas J; Garces, Yolanda I

    2011-01-01

    To study the long-term survival of dental implants placed in native or grafted bone in irradiated bone in subjects who had received radiation for head and neck cancer. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all patients who received dental implants following radiation treatment for head and neck cancer between May 1, 1987 and July 1, 2008. Only patients irradiated with a radiation dose of 50 Gy or greater and those who received dental implants in the irradiated field after head and neck radiation were included in the study. The associations between implant survival and patient/implant characteristics were estimated by fitting univariate marginal Cox proportional hazards models. A total of 48 patients who had prior head and neck radiation had 271 dental implants placed during May 1987-July 2008. There was no statistically significant difference between implant failure in native and grafted bone (P=0.76). Survival of implants in grafted bone was 82.3% and 98.1% in maxilla and mandible, respectively, after 3 years. Survival of implants in native bone in maxilla and mandible was 79.8% and 100%, respectively, after 3 years. For implants placed in the native bone, there was a higher likelihood of failure in the maxilla compared to the mandible and there was also a tendency for implants placed in the posterior region to fail compared to those placed in the anterior region. There was no significant difference in survival when implants were placed in native or grafted bone in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. For implants placed in native bone, survival was significantly influenced by the location of the implant (maxilla or mandible, anterior or posterior).

  18. Survival of dental implants in native and grafted bone in irradiated head and neck cancer patients: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind Buddula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the long-term survival of dental implants placed in native or grafted bone in irradiated bone in subjects who had received radiation for head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for all patients who received dental implants following radiation treatment for head and neck cancer between May 1, 1987 and July 1, 2008. Only patients irradiated with a radiation dose of 50 Gy or greater and those who received dental implants in the irradiated field after head and neck radiation were included in the study. The associations between implant survival and patient/implant characteristics were estimated by fitting univariate marginal Cox proportional hazards models. Results: A total of 48 patients who had prior head and neck radiation had 271 dental implants placed during May 1987-July 2008. There was no statistically significant difference between implant failure in native and grafted bone (P=0.76. Survival of implants in grafted bone was 82.3% and 98.1% in maxilla and mandible, respectively, after 3 years. Survival of implants in native bone in maxilla and mandible was 79.8% and 100%, respectively, after 3 years. For implants placed in the native bone, there was a higher likelihood of failure in the maxilla compared to the mandible and there was also a tendency for implants placed in the posterior region to fail compared to those placed in the anterior region. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in survival when implants were placed in native or grafted bone in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. For implants placed in native bone, survival was significantly influenced by the location of the implant (maxilla or mandible, anterior or posterior.

  19. Survival of very young children with medulloblastoma (primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the posterior fossa) treated with craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saran, Frank H.; Driever, Pablo Herniz; Thilmann, Christoph; Mose, Stephan; Wilson, Paula; Sharpe, Geoff; Adamietz, Irenaeus A.; Boettcher, Heinz D.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Very young children with medulloblastoma are considered to have a worse prognosis than older children. As radiotherapy remains an important part of the treatment, the adverse prognosis could be due to inadequate radiation treatment rather than biological factors. We analyzed the published literature to examine the impact of radiotherapy on survival in this group. Methods and Materials: A Medline search was performed and we reviewed studies of treatment of medulloblastoma where radiotherapy was delivered using megavoltage equipment and the minimum follow-up allowed the calculation of 5-year survival rates. Results: Thirty-nine studies were published between 1979 and 1996 with a treatment including craniospinal irradiation and boost to the posterior fossa. Eleven studies comprising 1366 patients analyzed survival by age at diagnosis. Eight of 11 studies showed a worse 5-year survival for the younger patient group which reached statistical significance in two. There is also a suggestion of a higher proportion of children with metastatic disease at presentation in the very young age group. The usual policy in younger children was to give a lower dose of radiotherapy to the craniospinal axis (CSA) and posterior fossa (PF) with reduction of dose in the range of 15 to 25% compared to standard treatment. As dose reduction to the posterior fossa is associated with worse survival and local recurrence is the predominant site of failure, the major determinant of worse survival in very young children with medulloblastoma may be suboptimal radiotherapy. Protocols including postoperative chemotherapy with delayed, omitted, or only local tumor irradiation do not reach survival rates of protocols with standard radiotherapy, also suggesting a continued importance for irradiation. Conclusion: Very young children with medulloblastoma have a worse prognosis than older children. Inadequate radiation dose and technique to the primary tumor region may be a major contributing

  20. DNA strand breaks, repair, and survival in x-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugle, D.L.; Gillespie, C.J.; Chapman, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The yields of unrepairable single- and double-strand breaks in the DNA of x-irradiated Chinese hamster cells were measured by low-speed neutral and alkaline sucrose density gradient sedimentation in order to investigate the relation between these lesions and reproductive death. After maximal single-strand rejoining, at all doses, the number of residual single-strand breaks was twice the number of residual double-strand breaks. Both double-strand and unrepairable single-strand breaks were proportional to the square of absorbed dose, in the range 10-50 krad. No rejoining of double-strand breaks was observed. These observations suggest that, in mammalian cells, most double-strand breaks are not repairable, while all single-strand breaks are repaired except those that are sufficiently close on complementary strands to constitute double-strand breaks. Comparison with cell survival measurements at much lower doses suggests that loss of reproductive capacity corresponds to induction of approximately one double-strand break

  1. Survival and PHA-stimulation of #betta#-irradiated human peripheral blood T lymphocyte subpopulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.; Darr, D.C.; Daulden, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Human peripheral blood T lymphocyte subpopulations were identified and isolated on the basis of their ability to bind IgG (T-G), IgM (T-M), or neither immunoglobulin class (T-null). Lymphocytes were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 Gy of 60 Co #betta#-rays either as a T-cell suspension or as separated T cell subsets. Survival curves, determined 5 days after irradiation, revealed that each subset has radiosensitive and radioresistant portions, and that the T-G cell is the most sensitive subset. Mitotic indices of 48-h cultures showed that the response of unirradiated T lymphocytes to PHA varied greatly among the subsets, the highest indices being obtained for the T-M and the lowest for the T-G cells. With the possible exception of the T-G cells, the subsets are realtively resistant to mitotic effects of #betta#-rays. T-G cells suppress the PHA-induced mitotic response of the other T lymphocyte subsets, and this suppressor effect is radiosensitive, being abolished by 1.0 Gy. It is concluded that lymphocytes exposed to >= 1 Gy of #betta#-rays will have very few dividing B lymphocytes or T-G cells. This together with radiation-induced loss of T-G suppressor action means that the predominant lymphocyte types in mitosis after >=1 Gy are the radioresistant T-M and T-null cells. (orig.)

  2. Influence of the combined administration of antibiotic-resistant bifidobacteria and the corresponding antibiotics on the survival of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, V.M.; Pinegin, B.V.; Ivanova, N.P.; Mal'tsev, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    Mice irradiated with a dose of 700 R were injected with a certain antibiotic (kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillim and antibiotic resistant bifidobacteria) according to three different schemes. According to the first scheme antibiotic is in ected during the period from 1 to 7-th day, bifidobacteria-on 1, 6, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25-th day after irradiation, according to the second scheme antibiotic and bifidobacteria were injected from the fifth up to 0-th day after irradiation according to the 3-d scheme antibiotics and bifidobacteria were injected from the first up to 21-st day with 48 h interval. The largest increase in survival rate percent of irradiated animals was observed during combined injection of preparations according to the third scheme. The least medicinal effect was noted during injection of antibiotic and bifidobacteria aceording to the second scheme. Antibiotics and bifidobacteria injected separately increased survival rate of irradiated mice but at a lesser degree as compared with their combined use

  3. Survival of spermatogonial stem cells in the rat after split dose irradiation during LH-RH analogue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroonenburgh, M.J.P.G. van; Daal, W.A.J. van; Beck, J.L.; Vemer, H.M.; Rolland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A rat model has been created in which a single injection of an LH-RH analogue depot preparation (Zoladex, ICI 118630) produced a temporary interruption of the pituitary-gonadal axis. This effect applied during irradiation was investigated as a possible mechanism to protect the testis from radiation damage. A local testicular irradiation dose of 6.0 Gy was given either as a single dose or as a fractionated (2 x 3.0 Gy) dose at different time intervals ranging from 8 to 72 h. Stem cell survival was measured 11 weeks after irradiation by means of the repopulation index and the number of haploid cells (spermatids) measured by flow cytometry. Serum gonadotrophins and testosterone concentrations were measured to evaluate hormonal recovery. No significant differences were observed between serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and the duration of the fractionation interval. Stem cell survival was higher following fractionated irradiation in comparison with the single dose. For the 8 h interval an increase in recovery ratio was found, amounting to a factor of 5 of the single dose value. The fluctuating pattern of the recovery curves indicated changes in radiosensitivity of stem cells. The combination of hormonal inhibition of spermatogenesis and fractionated irradiation led to a decrease in the absolute numbers of stem cells. However, the stem cell recovery curves were identical to those seen without hormonal inhibition. It was concluded that hormonal pretreatment with Zoladex during split dose irradiation had no protective effect on stem cell survival. 37 refs.; 4 figs

  4. Significant prolongation of hamster liver transplant survival in Lewis rats by total-lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine, and splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Halperin, E.C.; Harland, R.C.; Wyble, C.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine and splenectomy alone and in combination have been studied in liver transplants from the LVG hamster to the LEW rat. Neither CsA alone, splenectomy alone, nor TLI alone prolonged graft survival. CsA/splenectomy and TLI/CsA produced significant prolongation of graft survival. TLI/CsA/splenectomy prolonged graft survival by over sixfold compared with controls. While CsA alone was ineffective in reducing lymphocytotoxic antidonor antibody, splenectomy alone or CsA/splenectomy did significantly suppress production of antibody. Only very low levels of antibody could be detected in animals treated with TLI/CsA/splenectomy. TLI/CsA/splenectomy has an immunosuppressive effect sufficient to significantly prolong liver graft survival in the LVG hamster to LEW rat combination and may represent a promising treatment protocol in experimental cross-species transplantation

  5. Survival of alpha particle irradiated cells as a function of the shape and size of the sensitive volume (nucleus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinchcomb, T.G.; Roeske, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Microdosimetry is the study of the stochastic variation of energy deposited within sub-cellular targets. As such, the size and shape of the critical target (i.e. cell nucleus) are essential when considering microdosimetric quantities. In this work, a microdosimetric analysis examines the expected cell survival as a function of the size and shape of the cell nucleus under conditions of irradiation emitting alpha particles. The results indicate that, in general, cell survival is relatively insensitive to changes in the shape of the cell nucleus when the volume is held constant. However, cell survival is a strong function of the variation in the size of the target. These results are useful when analysing the results of cell survival experiments for alpha particle emitters. (Author)

  6. Study of HeLa cells clone survival after X-ray irradiation in the presence of cisplatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulin, A. A.; Sukhikh, E. S.; Vasilyev, S. A.; Sukhikh, L. G.; Sheino, I. N.

    2017-09-01

    Radiation therapy in the presence of heavy elements nuclei (Z > 53) is widely developed these days. The presence of such nuclei in cancer cells results in the local increase of energy release from primary photon beam thus increasing relative biological efficiency. In this paper we present the preliminary results of the cell survival study while irradiating cells by X-Ray photon beam in the presence of cisplatin (Pt, Z = 78). The preliminary results show the decrease of the cell survival in the presence of both radiation and cisplatin.

  7. Survival and antigenic profile of irradiated malarial sporozoites in infected liver cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhrbier, A.; Winger, L.A.; Castellano, E.; Sinden, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Exoerythrocytic (EE) stages of Plasmodium berghei derived from irradiated sporozoites were cultured in vitro in HepG2 cells. They synthesized several antigens, predominantly but not exclusively those expressed by normal early erythrocytic schizonts. After invasion, over half the intracellular sporozoites, both normal and irradiated, appeared to die. After 24 h, in marked contrast to the normal parasites, EE parasites derived from irradiated sporozoites continued to break open, shedding their antigens into the cytoplasm of the infected host cells. Increasing radiation dosage, which has previously been shown to reduce the ability of irradiated sporozoites to protect animals, correlated with reduced de novo antigen synthesis by EE parasites derived from irradiated sporozoites

  8. Additive effects of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and irradiation on clonogenic survival of human medulloblastoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patties, Ina; Jahns, Jutta; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Glasow, Annegret [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany); Hildebrandt, Guido [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Rostock (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    Background and purpose: in recent years, epigenetic modulators were introduced into tumor therapy. Here, the authors investigated the antitumor effect of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-(5-aza-dC-)induced demethylation combined with irradiation on human medulloblastoma (MB) cells, which form the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Material and methods: three MB cell lines were treated with 5-aza-dC in a low-dose (0.1 {mu}M, 6 days) or high-dose (3/5 {mu}M, 3 days) setting and irradiated with 2, 4, 6, or 8 Gy single dose on an X-ray unit. Methylation status and mRNA expression of three candidate genes were analyzed by methylation-specific PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cell survival and mortality were determined by trypan blue exclusion test. Proliferation was analyzed by BrdU incorporation assay, and long-term cell survival was assessed by clonogenic assay. Results: 5-aza-dC treatment resulted in partial promoter demethylation and increased expression of hypermethylated candidate genes. A significant decrease of vital cell count, proliferation inhibition and increase of mortality was observed in 5-aza-dC-treated as well as in irradiated MB cells, whereby combination of both treatments led to additive effects. Although high-dose 5-aza-dC treatment was more effective in terms of demethylation, clonogenic assay revealed no differences between high- and low-dose settings indicating no relevance of 5-aza-dC-induced demethylation for decreased cell survival. MB cells pretreated with 5-aza-dC showed significantly lower plating efficiencies than untreated cells at all irradiation doses investigated. Analysis of surviving curves in irradiated MB cells, however, revealed no significant differences of {alpha}-, {beta}-values and 2-Gy surviving fraction with or without 5-aza-dC treatment. Conclusion: 5-aza-dC did not enhance radiation sensitivity of MB cells but significantly reduced the clonogenicity versus irradiation alone, which

  9. Combined action of taurine and cations of certain metals on post-irradiation survival of SOC cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yartsev, E.I.; Aldonyasov, V.I.; Yakovlev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of combined application of taurine and metals (potassium, magnesium, calcium and zinc) on the cell level have been studied. It has been found that various concentrations of taurine and potassium and zinc salts increase the survival of irradiated SOC cells up to 40% while addition of magnesium and calcium salts does not affect the taurine effectiveness. The highest effectiveness is obtained when potassium and taurine are added in equimolar amounts to the incubation medium

  10. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  11. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body γ irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice

  12. Statistical study of clone survival curves after irradiation in one or two stages. Comparison and generalization of different models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachet, Bernard.

    1975-01-01

    A statistical study was carried out on 208 survival curves for chlorella subjected to γ or particle radiations. The computing programmes used were written in Fortran. The different experimental causes contributing to the variance of a survival rate are analyzed and consequently the experiments can be planned. Each curve was fitted to four models by the weighted least squares method applied to non-linear functions. The validity of the fits obtained can be checked by the F test. It was possible to define the confidence and prediction zones around an adjusted curve by weighting of the residual variance, in spite of error on the doses delivered; the confidence limits can them be fixed for a dose estimated from an exact or measured survival. The four models adopted were compared for the precision of their fit (by a non-parametric simultaneous comparison test) and the scattering of their adjusted parameters: Wideroe's model gives a very good fit with the experimental points in return for a scattering of its parameters, which robs them of their presumed meaning. The principal component analysis showed the statistical equivalence of the 1 and 2 hit target models. Division of the irradiation into two doses, the first fixed by the investigator, leads to families of curves for which the equation was established from that of any basic model expressing the dose survival relationship in one-stage irradiation [fr

  13. Effects of non-implantation factors on survival rate of microbe irradiated by low-energy N+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianyou; Chen Linhai; Qin Guangyong; Li Zongwei; Su Mingjie; Wang Yanping; Chang Shenghe; Huo Yuping; Li Zongyi

    2006-01-01

    The effects of non-implantation factors, such as drying, vacuum and the staying time of the E.coli LE392 culture, on survival rate of E.coli LE392 were studied when E.coli LE392 was irradiated by the low-energy N + . The results show that the survival rate of E.coli LE392 does not reduce steadily all the time but rapidly drops sometime during drying. The survival rate of E.coli LE392 declines sharply as the samples are placed in vacuum, then falls in distinctively with increasing of time. the tolerance of E.coli LE392 towards vacuum increasingly strengthens when the E.coli LE392 culture is placed at room temperature. Preparing the culture in batchs can ensure the consistency of the irradiated samples and avoid errors caused by the inconsistent samples. When the non-implantation factors are controlled, E.coli is implanted by 30 kev N + of 1 x 10 14 cm -2 and 3 x 10 15 cm -2 , respectively. And the results show no difference in the E.coli's survival rates between batchs at the same dose. (authors)

  14. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation. I. Initial characterization of DNA damage, micronucleus formation, apoptosis, cell survival, and cell cycle phase redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Bant, A. M.; Kazarians, G.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Tran, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    The RBE of protons has been assumed to be equivalent to that of photons. The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced DNA and chromosome damage, apoptosis, cell killing and cell cycling in organized epithelial cells was influenced by radiation quality. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-dependent Fischer rat thyroid cells, established as follicles, were exposed to gamma rays or proton beams delivered acutely over a range of physical doses. Gamma-irradiated cells were able to repair DNA damage relatively rapidly so that by 1 h postirradiation they had approximately 20% fewer exposed 3' ends than their counterparts that had been irradiated with proton beams. The persistence of free ends of DNA in the samples irradiated with the proton beam implies that either more initial breaks or a quantitatively different type of damage had occurred. These results were further supported by an increased frequency of chromosomal damage as measured by the presence of micronuclei. Proton-beam irradiation induced micronuclei at a rate of 2.4% per gray, which at 12 Gy translated to 40% more micronuclei than in comparable gamma-irradiated cultures. The higher rate of micronucleus formation and the presence of larger micronuclei in proton-irradiated cells was further evidence that a qualitatively more severe class of damage had been induced than was induced by gamma rays. Differences in the type of damage produced were detected in the apoptosis assay, wherein a significant lag in the induction of apoptosis occurred after gamma irradiation that did not occur with protons. The more immediate expression of apoptotic cells in the cultures irradiated with the proton beam suggests that the damage inflicted was more severe. Alternatively, the cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms required for recovery from such damage might not have been invoked. Differences based on radiation quality were also evident in the alpha components of cell survival curves (0.05 Gy(-1) for gamma rays, 0

  15. SIRT1 interacts with and protects glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from nuclear translocation: Implications for cell survival after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Woo, Seon Rang; Shen, Yan-Nan; Yun, Mi Yong; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Park, Eun-Ran; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Park, Jeong-Eun; Ju, Yeun-Jin; Hong, Sung Hee; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Joon; Lee, Kee-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► SIRT1 serves to retain GAPDH in the cytosol, preventing GAPDH nuclear translocation. ► When SIRT1 is depleted, GAPDH translocation occurs even in the absence of stress. ► Upon irradiation, SIRT1 interacts with GAPDH. ► SIRT1 prevents irradiation-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH. ► SIRT1 presence rather than activity is essential for inhibiting GAPDH translocation. -- Abstract: Upon apoptotic stimulation, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a cytosolic enzyme normally active in glycolysis, translocates into the nucleus and activates an apoptotic cascade therein. In the present work, we show that SIRT1 prevents nuclear translocation of GAPDH via interaction with GAPDH. SIRT1 depletion triggered nuclear translocation of cytosolic GAPDH even in the absence of apoptotic stress. Such translocation was not, however, observed when SIRT1 enzymatic activity was inhibited, indicating that SIRT1 protein per se, rather than the deacetylase activity of the protein, is required to inhibit GAPDH translocation. Upon irradiation, SIRT1 prevented irradiation-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH, accompanied by interaction of SIRT1 and GAPDH. Thus, SIRT1 functions to retain GAPDH in the cytosol, protecting the enzyme from nuclear translocation via interaction with these two proteins. This serves as a mechanism whereby SIRT1 regulates cell survival upon induction of apoptotic stress by means that include irradiation.

  16. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60 Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  17. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 °C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  18. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)], E-mail: setsuko@affrc.go.jp; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Kanamori, Norihito [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio [School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara-city, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Kawamoto, Shinichi [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a {sup 60}Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of {beta}-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  19. Increased haematopoietic stem cell survival in mice injected with tocopherol after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, R.M.; Malick, M.A.; Clark, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Tocopherol injection (2.5 mg) immediately after irradiation reduced lethality only during bone-marrow syndrome. Endogenous spleen colony count at 8 days after X-radiation were significantly greater in vitamin-E-injected mice compared to noninjected or vehicle-injected animals; however, 59 Fe incorporation into spleen and bone marrow did not suggest enhanced erythropoietic activity in vitamin-E-injected groups at 2, 4, 8 and 10 days following irradiation. Mitotic index and frequency of micronuclei in marrow at 24 hours post irradiation (3 GY) were unaffected by tocopherol injection. The uptake of tritium from injected 3 H-tocopherol suggests that tocopherol has been accumulated in spleens but not marrows of irradiated animals within a few hours. Also tocopherol has no effect on endogenous spleen colony counts if injected after 5 hours nor is there an effect on the seeding efficiency of exogenous bonemarrow cells injected into recipients receiving tocopherol after irradiation. (orig.) [de

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on proliferation and survival of Sf9 cells: radioresistance in a Lepidopteran insect cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Lovell, K.V.; Reynolds, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Sf9 cells of Spodoptera frugiperda, when exposed to gamma-irradiation from a 60 Co source, were found markedly less sensitive to ionising radiation than mammalian cells in terms of both growth kinetics and survival. Following irradiation at 1.2 Gy S -1 there was a dose-dependent delay in Sf9 cell proliferation and plateau cell density was reduced. These effects were dependent on dose rate too. In the range 0.3 - 1.2 Gy s -1 , growth was delayed longer and reached a lower plateau with increasing dose rate. Exposure to radiation caused a decrease in adherence of cells to the substrate, and an increase in number of enlarged ('giant') cells. Analysis of colony formation after irradiation at 1.2 Gy s -1 gave a survival curve of conventional shape but with a very large D o value of 24 Gy. Extrapolation number (N) was 2.9, a value within the normal range for mammalian cells. At 0.12 Gy s -1 N had a similar value of 3.2, but D o was higher (30 Gy) than at the higher dose rate. This study indicates that the relative insensitivity of lepidoptera insects may be attributed to some extent to the intrinsic properties of their constituent cells. (author)

  1. Effects of blood transfusion and cyclophosphamide before total lymphoid irradiation on survival of rats with bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Xinze; Yan Yongtang

    1994-01-01

    The effects of blood transfusion at various intervals before and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and with different donors on the survival of rats with BMT were investigated. Cyclophosphamide was administered before total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) with 10 Gy γ-rays from a 60 Co source. All the rats in control groups and in the group with blood transfusion alone died within 4-12 days after TLI. The 60-day survival rate after TLI in the group of donor-specific blood transfusion given one day after BMT was not significantly different from that in the group with BMT alone (the 60-day survival rate was 10%). The survival rates in the groups with transfusion of both donor specific and non-specific blood one day before BMT were 20% and 40% (P<0.05) respectively. All the rats given blood transfusion three days before BMT died within 4-10 days after TLI. The survival rate in the group with both donor-specific blood transfusion and cyclophosphamide given in divided dose one day before BMT increased to 80% (P<0.01). The results show that the therapeutic effect of blood transfusion on rats with BMT is related to the time of blood transfusion

  2. Assessment of the Survival of Dental Implants in Irradiated Jaws Following Treatment of Oral Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Meenakshi Chauhan; Solanki, Swati; Pujari, Sudarshan C; Shaw, Eisha; Sharma, Swati; Anand, Abhishek; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2016-01-01

    Background: In patients undergoing head and neck surgery for various pathologic conditions, implants are one of the best restorative options and are increasing widely used. Therefore, we evaluated the success of dental implants in the irradiated jaws of patients following treatment of oral cancer oral cancer treated patients. Materials and Methods: Data of oral cancer treated patients was collected retrospectively from 2002 to 2008. We took 46 oral cancer treated patients in which implants were placed in irradiated jaws for rehabilitation. Results: It was found that out of 162 dental implants placed, 52 failed. Furthermore, there was no variation in the implant survival rate in between both the jaws. Radiation dose of <50 Gy units also showed significantly increased amount of implant survival rate. Conclusions: Implant survival is multifactorial and depends upon a number of factors like level of radiation exposure in that area, time gap between last radiation doses etc., Further research is required in this field to improve the esthetics and quality of life of cancer treated patients. PMID:27843270

  3. Assessment of the survival of dental implants in irradiated jaws following treatment of oral cancer: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Chauhan Rana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients undergoing head and neck surgery for various pathologic conditions, implants are one of the best restorative options and are increasing widely used. Therefore, we evaluated the success of dental implants in the irradiated jaws of patients following treatment of oral cancer oral cancer treated patients. Materials and Methods: Data of oral cancer treated patients was collected retrospectively from 2002 to 2008. We took 46 oral cancer treated patients in which implants were placed in irradiated jaws for rehabilitation. Results: It was found that out of 162 dental implants placed, 52 failed. Furthermore, there was no variation in the implant survival rate in between both the jaws. Radiation dose of <50 Gy units also showed significantly increased amount of implant survival rate. Conclusions: Implant survival is multifactorial and depends upon a number of factors like level of radiation exposure in that area, time gap between last radiation doses etc., Further research is required in this field to improve the esthetics and quality of life of cancer treated patients.

  4. Cryptoendolithic Antarctic Black Fungus Cryomyces antarcticus Irradiated with Accelerated Helium Ions: Survival and Metabolic Activity, DNA and Ultrastructural Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pacelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Space represents an extremely harmful environment for life and survival of terrestrial organisms. In the last decades, a considerable deal of attention was paid to characterize the effects of spaceflight relevant radiation on various model organisms. The aim of this study was to test the survival capacity of the cryptoendolithic black fungus Cryomyces antarcticus CCFEE 515 to space relevant radiation, to outline its endurance to space conditions. In the frame of an international radiation campaign, dried fungal colonies were irradiated with accelerated Helium ion (150 MeV/n, LET 2.2 keV/μm, up to a final dose of 1,000 Gy, as one of the space-relevant ionizing radiation. Results showed that the fungus maintained high survival and metabolic activity with no detectable DNA and ultrastructural damage, even after the highest dose irradiation. These data give clues on the resistance of life toward space ionizing radiation in general and on the resistance and responses of eukaryotic cells in particular.

  5. The effects of pentoxifylline on the survival of human glioma cells with continuous and intermittent stereotactic radiosurgery irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eley, Kerry W.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Chung, Theodore D.K.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Broaddus, William C.; Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K.A.; Lin, P.-S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: In linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery, treatment is delivered intermittently via multiple individual small radiotherapy arcs. The time lapses between the individual arcs permit greater damage repair and increased tumor cell survival in comparison with continuous irradiation. Because pentoxifylline (PTX) has been reported to prevent radiation-induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M checkpoint, where damage repair is critically linked to cell survival, we hypothesized that PTX would exert a favorable radiosensitization effect by reducing the recovery observed during intermittent stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: The human glioma cell line T98G was used to study the effects of continuous vs. intermittent irradiation with or without PTX. Cell cycle patterns were studied using flow cytometry. Clonogenic assays of single cells and spheroid outgrowth assays provided a quantitative measure of PTX-mediated radiosensitization. The PTX effect upon cells in low oxygen conditions was also studied in vitro after enzymatic oxygen scavenging. Results: Flow Cytometry: T98G cells exposed to both continuous and intermittent irradiation exhibit similar arrest at the G2/M checkpoint. The addition of 2 mM PTX significantly reduced the radiation-induced G2/M block in both irradiation schemes. Clonogenic Assays: The same PTX concentration applied before a continuous dose of 12 Gy, two intermittent doses of 6 Gy, or three intermittent doses of 4 Gy, all given within a 1-h interval, consistently caused radiosensitization. The drug enhancement ratios for PTX were 1.5, 2.7, and 6.0 for the continuous and two different intermittent dose schedules, respectively. Adding PTX after irradiation yielded lower enhancement ratios than pre-irradiation application. A similar pattern was observed after total doses of 4, 6, 9, or 12 Gy, as well. In low oxygen conditions, PTX was seen to have the same effects as in normoxic conditions. Spheroid Outgrowth Assays: The in vitro PTX

  6. Combined effect of water activity, radiation dose, and temperature during irradiation on the survival of three Salmonella serotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Stationary-phase cells of S. typhimurium, S. thompson and S. senftenberg were irradiated at room temperature with 10 MeV electrons, either in water or in glucose, glyzerine, NaCl, CaCl 2 , or LiCl solutions of different concentrations. Furhter experimental parameters, i.e. the temperatures O 0 C and 50 0 C, were investigated in samples whose water activity had been adjusted to certain asub(W) values. Using the sorption isotherm method, different water activities were obtained in egg powder at temperatures of 5 0 C, 25 0 C, and 45 0 C. In all experiments, the survival of Salmonellae was investigated by determining the number of surface germs. In saccharose, glucose, glyzerine, and NaCl, the radioresistance of Salmonellae increases with decreasing water activity. There is a linear relation at different temperatures between D 10 values and asub(W) values in saccharose and glucose. In glyzerine solutions, the D 10 values show a steep rise with decreasing asub(W) = 1.0 and 0.9 and a less steep rise below 0.9. Below asub(W) = 0.5, they do not change any further. At asub(W) values below 0,90, CaCl 2 and LiCl show a strong cytotoxic effect, independent of irradiation. The higher the temperature on irradiation, the lower will be the radioresistance of Salmonellae. Irradiation at a temperature of 50 0 C showed a synergistic effect. The radioresistance of Salmonellae in egg powder increased with decreasing asub(W) value of the egg powder. When egg powder was irradiated at 45 0 C, there was a strong synergistic effect which is important for practical applications of irradiation in egg powder sterilisation. The radioresistance of Salmonellae in egg powder was independent of the serotype. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Selective survival of β1-adenergic receptors in rat cerebellum following neonatal X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minneman, K.P.; Pittman, R.N.; Wolfe, B.B.; Molinoff, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    To investigate the cellular localization of β 1 - and β 2 -adrenergic receptors, the effects of intermittent neonatal X-irradiation focused on the cerebellum were determined on the densities of the two subtypes of β-adrenergic receptor. This treatment destroys the late-maturing cerebellar interneurons including the granule, basket and stellate cells. The total number of β 2 -adrenergic receptors per cerebellum was reduced by 81-83% in 6- and 12-week-old X-irradiated rats. However, the number of β 1 -adrenergic receptors per cerebellum in 6- and 12-week-old X-irradiated rats was not significantly different from that in control animals. The results suggest that β 2 receptors in the rat cerebellum are primarily associated with the small interneurons destroyed by neonatal X-irradiation. The β 1 receptors may be located on a cell population which is unaffected by this treatment, possibly on cerebellar Purkinje cells. (Auth.)

  8. Survival curves of irradiated glutathione-deficient human fibroblasts: indication of a reduced enhancement of radiosensitivity by oxygen and misonidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midander, J.; Deschavanne, P.J.; Malaise, E.P.; Revesz, L.

    1982-01-01

    Fibroblasts derived from a patient with 5-oxoprolinuria are genetically deficient in glutathione synthetase. This deficiency causes a dramatic decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH) level. The radiosensitivity of GSH deficient cells (GSH) was studied in vitro using colony forming ability as an endpoint. Cells with normal GSH level, obtained from the healthy brother of the patient, were used as controls. When irradiated in 95% air-5% CO 2 , GSH - cells are slightly but significantly more radiosensitive than GSH + controls (dose modifying factor (DMF) of 1.2). When irradiated in argon, the survival curve of GSH - cells indicates an oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of 1.5 when compared to the curve obtained in oxic conditions. The OER of control cells in the same conditions is 2.9. In comparison to results obtained in air, 100% oxygen moderately increases the radiosensitivity of GSH + cells (DMF 1,23), while it has a very low effect on GSH - cells (DMF 1.06). These results suggest that intracellular GSH plays an essential protective role in hypoxia, its effect is reduced in air and practically disappears in 100% oxygen. When cells are incubated with 8 mM misonidazole 2 hours before irradiation, the drug has a much greater sensitizing effect on GSH + cells (DMF 2.33) than on GSH - cells (DMF 1.55). The results demonstrate that intracellular GSH level plays a major role in the response of hypoxic cells, irradiated either alone or in the presence of misonidazole

  9. Remote effects in treated dogs survived acute radiation sickness. Hemodynamics at various times after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostesha, N.Ya.; Lopukhova, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Dogs were exposed to X-radiation at a dose of 15 Gy; part of them received a complex treatment. The morphological of internal organs of control dogs were made before death (on days 4 to 15 after irradiation). The treated dogs were killed 0.5-2 years following irradiation. Hemodynamics normalization was noted in 1.5-2 years in the liver, brain cortex, adrenals, insular tissue of the pancreas, and lymph nodes

  10. V79 survival following simultaneous or sequential irradiation by 15-MeV neutrons and 60Co photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.D.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Gould, M.N.

    1983-01-01

    A unique tandem source irradiation facility, composed of an intense d-T neutron source and a 60 Co teletherapy unit, was used to investigate biological responses for different neutron/photon configurations. V79 Chinese hamster cells, attached as monolayers in log-phase growth, were irradiated at 37 degrees C by either 14.8-MeV neutrons, 60 Co, or a mixture of 40% neutrons and 60% photons in simultaneous or sequential application. Measurements of cell survival indicate an increased effectiveness in cell killing for simultaneously administered neutrons and photons compared to that measured or predicted for sequentially applied beam modalities. An understanding of the magnitude of these interactive effects is important both for calculating accurate effective doses for neutron radiotherapy of deep-seated tumors, for which the photon component is appreciable, and for determination of environmental hazards to people occupationally exposed to mixtures of photons and neutrons

  11. V79 survival following simultaneous or sequential irradiation by 15-MeV neutrons and 60Co photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.D.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Gould, M.N.

    1983-01-01

    A unique tandem source irradiation facility, composed of an intense d-T neutron source and a 60 Co teletherapy unit, was used to investigate biological responses for different neutron/photon configurations. V79 Chinese hamster cells, attached as monolayers in log-phase growth, were irradiated at 37 0 C by either 14.8-MeV neutrons, 60 Co, or a mixture of 40% neutrons and 60% photons in simultaneous or sequential application. Measurements of cell survival indicate an increased effectiveness in cell killing for simultaneously administered neutrons and photons compared to that measured or predicted for sequentially applied beam modalities. An understanding of the magnitude of these interactive effects is important both for calculating accurate effective doses for neutron radiotherapy of deep-seated tumors, for which the photon component is appreciable, and for determination of environmental hazards to people occupationally exposed to mixtures of photons and neutrons

  12. Gene mutations, chromosome aberrations and survival after X-ray irradiation of cultured Chinese hamster cells at cysteamine protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elisova, I.V.; Feoktistova, I.P.

    1983-01-01

    The culture of Chinese hamster cells (clone 431) has been used to study cysteamine action on mutagenous effect of X-rays, determined by the induction of resistance of gene mutations to 6-thioguanine and chromosomal abberations, as well as on the reproductive form of death of irradiated cells. Dose--- effect curves are obtained under conditions of irradiation with and without protector. The factor of dose alteration is 2.0 for chromosomal aberrations and cell survival, and 2.8 for gene mutations. It is sUpposed that cysteamine affects the general mechanisms, which take part in the realis zation of injuries that bring about gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations and cell lethality

  13. V79 survival following simultaneous or sequential irradiation by 14.8-MeV neutrons and 60Co photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.D.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Gould, M.N.

    1981-01-01

    A unique tandem source irradiation facility, comprised of an intense d-T neutron source and a 60 Co teletherapy unit, has been used to investigate biological response for different neutron/photon configurations. V79 Chinese hamster cells, attached as monolayers in log phase growth, were irradiated at 37 0 C by either 14.8 MeV neutrons, 60 Co or by a mixture of 40% neutrons - 60% photons in simultaneous or sequential application. Measurements of cell survival indicate an increased effectiveness in cell killing for simultaneously administered neutrons and photons than was measured or predicted for sequentially applied beam modalities. An understanding of the magnitude of these interactive effects is important both for calculating accurate effective doses for neutron radiotherapy of deep-seated tumors, for which the photon component is appreciable and for determination of environmental hazards to people occupationally exposed to low levels of photons and neutrons

  14. Effect of single dose, fractionated, and hyperfractionated trunk irradiation on weight gain, respiration frequency, and survival in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Giri, P.G.S.; Giri, U.P.; Cox, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    It is concluded that, in this rat trunk irradiation model, fractionation of a single dose into two equal doses separated by 4-6 h produced a sparing effect of approx. 5Gy as measured by delay in weight gain; approx. 4Gy as measured by increased respiration frequency; and approx. 6Gy as measured by survival. Fractionation into daily doses or hyperfractionation into twice-daily doses permitted an approximate doubling of the dose required for the same suppression of weight gain. For the respiration rates and survival endpoints, fractionation or hyperfractionation produced an even greater sparing effect since there was no increase in the respiration frequency at twice the doses that would produce changes if delivered within a few hours; and since essentially no lethality was observed at twice the doses that would kill 70%-100% of animals if delivered in one day. (UK)

  15. Comparative study of G2 delay and survival after /sup 241/Americium-. cap alpha. and /sup 60/Cobalt-. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecke-Huhle, C.; Comper, W.; Hieber, L.; Pech, M.

    1982-06-01

    Survival and G2 delay following exposure to either /sup 60/Cobalt-..gamma..-rays or /sup 241/Americium-..cap alpha..-particles were studied in eight mammalian cell lines of human and animal origin including human fibroblasts from normal individuals and from patients with Ataxia telangiectasia or Fanconi's anemia. For both endpoints the effectiveness of alpha particle was greater as compared to ..gamma..-rays. RBE values for G2 delay (4.6-9.2) were in general comparable to RBE values derived from initial slopes of survival curves but higher compared to the ratio of mean inactivation doses. Ataxia cells were particularly sensitive to cell killing by ..gamma..-irradiation, however, showed average sensitivity to ..cap alpha..-particles of high LET. With the exception of Ataxia cells, cell killing and G2 delay seem to be related processes if individual cell cycle parameters are taken into account.

  16. The mass effect model of the survival rate's dose effect of organism irradiated with low energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Chunlin; Gui Qifu; Yu Zengliang

    1995-01-01

    The main characteristic of the low energy ions mutation is its mass deposition effect. Basing on the theory of 'double strand breaking' and the 'mass deposition effect', the authors suggests that the mass deposition products can repair or further damage the double strand breaking of DNA. According to this consideration the dose effect model of the survival rate of organism irradiated by low energy of N + ion beam is deduced as: S exp{-p[αφ + βφ 2 -Rφ 2 exp(-kφ)-Lφ 3 exp(-kφ)]}, which can be called 'mass effect model'. In the low energy ion beam mutation, the dose effects of many survival rates that can not be imitated by previous models are successfully imitated by this model. The suitable application fields of the model are also discussed

  17. Pegylated G-CSF Inhibits Blood Cell Depletion, Increases Platelets, Blocks Splenomegaly, and Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation but Not after Irradiation Combined with Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation alone (radiation injury, RI or combined with traumatic tissue injury (radiation combined injury, CI is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological accidents. As demonstrated in animal models, CI results in greater mortality than RI. In our laboratory, we found that B6D2F1/J female mice exposed to 60Co-γ-photon radiation followed by 15% total-body-surface-area skin burns experienced an increment of 18% higher mortality over a 30-day observation period compared to irradiation alone; that was accompanied by severe cytopenia, thrombopenia, erythropenia, and anemia. At the 30th day after injury, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets still remained very low in surviving RI and CI mice. In contrast, their RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were similar to basal levels. Comparing CI and RI mice, only RI induced splenomegaly. Both RI and CI resulted in bone marrow cell depletion. It was observed that only the RI mice treated with pegylated G-CSF after RI resulted in 100% survival over the 30-day period, and pegylated G-CSF mitigated RI-induced body-weight loss and depletion of WBC and platelets. Peg-G-CSF treatment sustained RBC balance, hemoglobin levels, and hematocrits and inhibited splenomegaly after RI. The results suggest that pegylated G-CSF effectively sustained animal survival by mitigating radiation-induced cytopenia, thrombopenia, erythropenia, and anemia.

  18. Microbial survival of space vacuum and extreme ultraviolet irradiation: strain isolation and analysis during a rocket flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffary, Roya; Nandakumar, Renu; Spencer, Dennis; Robb, Frank T; Davila, Joseph M; Swartz, Marvin; Ofman, Leon; Thomas, Roger J; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2002-09-24

    We have recovered new isolates from hot springs, in Yellowstone National Park and the Kamchatka Peninsula, after gamma-irradiation and exposure to high vacuum (10(-6) Pa) of the water and sediment samples. The resistance to desiccation and ionizing radiation of one of the isolates, Bacillus sp. strain PS3D, was compared to that of the mesophilic bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans, a species well known for its extraordinary resistance to desiccation and high doses of ionizing radiation. Survival of these two microorganisms was determined in real and simulated space conditions, including exposure to extreme UV radiation (10-100 nm) during a rocket flight. We found that up to 15 days of desiccation alone had little effect on the viability of either bacterium. In contrast, exposure to space vacuum ( approximately 10(-6) Pa) decreased cell survival by two and four orders of magnitude for Bacillus sp. strain PS3D and D. radiodurans, respectively. Simultaneous exposure to space vacuum and extreme UV radiation further decreased the survival of both organisms, compared to unirradiated controls. This is the first report on the isolated effect of extreme UV at 30 nm on cell survival. Extreme UV can only be transmitted through high vacuum, therefore its penetration into the cells may only be superficial, suggesting that in contrast to near UV, membrane proteins rather than DNA were damaged by the radiation.

  19. Effects of cell concentrations on the survival and repopulation of haemopoietic stem cells in irradiated bone marrow cell culture in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitake, Hideki; Okamoto, Yuruko; Okubo, Hiroshi; Miyanomae, Takeshi; Kumagai, Keiko; Mori, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Effects of cell concentrations on the survival and repopulation of haemopoietic stem cells after irradiation were studied in the long-term culture of mouse bone marrow cells in vitro. No difference was observed in the survival of the stem cells among cultures in which 0 - 10 7 cells were re-inoculated on the adherent cell colonies in the culture flask. Stem cells showed a significant proliferation within 1 week and the number of the stem cells exceeded the control in 3 weeks after irradiation in the cultures with less than 10 6 re-inoculated cells per flask. In contrast, there was a considerable delay in the onset of stem cell proliferation after irradiation in the culture with 10 7 cells per flask. Based on these results, a possibility that a stimulator of stem cell proliferation, released from irradiated stromal cells, is cancelled by an inhibitory factor produced by irradiated or unirradiated haemopoietic cells is postulated. (author)

  20. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiniker, Susan M.; Agarwal, Rajni; Modlin, Leslie A.; Gray, Christine C.; Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn; Kiamanesh, Eileen F.; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  1. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiniker, Susan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Agarwal, Rajni [Section of Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Modlin, Leslie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gray, Christine C. [Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Kiamanesh, Eileen F. [Cancer Clinical Trials Office, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S., E-mail: sarah2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  2. Human umbilical-cord-blood mononucleated cells enhance the survival of lethally irradiated mice. Dosage and the window of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, Olga A.; Ende, Norman; Azzam, Edouard I.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the window of time and dose of human umbilical-cord-blood (HUCB) mononucleated cells necessary for successful treatment of radiation injury in mice. Female A/J mice (27-30 weeks old) were exposed to an absorbed dose of 9-10 Gy of 137 Cs γ-rays delivered acutely to the whole body. They were treated either with 1 × 10 8 or 2 × 10 8 HUCB mononucleated cells at 24-52 h after the irradiation. The antibiotic Levaquin was applied 4 h postirradiation. The increased dose of cord-blood cells resulted in enhanced survival. The enhancement of survival in animals that received 2 × 10 8 HUCB mononucleated cells relative to irradiated but untreated animals was highly significant (P < 0.01). Compared with earlier studies, the increased dose of HUCB mononucleated cells, coupled with early use of an antibiotic, extended the window of time for effective treatment of severe radiation injury from 4 to 24-52 h after exposure. (author)

  3. The Survival and Recovery of Irradiated Bacterial Spores as Affected by Population Density and Some External Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Kiss, I.; Andrássy, E.

    1967-01-01

    The radiation resistance of Bacillus cereus spores as affected by the pH-value and cell density of the irradiated spore suspensions was investigated. The portions of the survival curves of suspensions of 10 8 , 4 x 10 3 and 5 x 10 1 per millilitre viable cell counts, respectively, were compared for a three-orders-of-magnitude decrease in viable cell count. It was established that the initial cell density did not affect radiation resistance of spores. Radiation resistance as affected by pH-value in the range of 3 to 8 was investigated. In the range of pH 5 to 8, the radiation resistance of B. cereus spores was not affected. By lowering the pH-value to below 5, the radiation resistance decreased below that observed in the neutral region. The colony-forming capacity of B. cereus, B. coagulans and B. pumilus as a function of the pH-value in the nutrient medium, and the pH-sensitivity of bacterial spores as affected by radiation, were also investigated. It was established that irradiation increased the pH-sensitivity of surviving bacterial spores in all three strains. The initial phase of spore germination (the phase accompanied by decrease of refractivity of the spores) and the division stage of vegetative cells proved to be the most sensitive to the value of the hydrogen ion concentration. (author)

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation on the survival of Pseudomonas fluorescens inoculated on romaine lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation of fresh fruits and vegetables has been utilized as a post-harvest intervention measure for inactivation of microbial pathogens. Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79, Q8R1, Q287 are non-plant pathogenic, non-pectolytic strains of a potential biocontrol agent. We tested the sensitivity of these s...

  5. The effect of cryogenic freezing and gamma irradiation on the survival of Salmonella on frozen shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unfortunately, contraction of foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood, including shrimp, is an occasional occurrence. Cryogenic freezing and gamma irradiation are safe and effective technologies that can be used to control and inactivate pathogenic bacteria in foods. In this stu...

  6. Survival of tumor cells after proton irradiation with ultra-high dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, Susanne; Hable, Volker; Greubel, Christoph; Drexler, Guido A; Schmid, Thomas E; Belka, Claus; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A

    2011-01-01

    Laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may in the future be used in radiation therapy. Laser-driven particle beams are pulsed and ultra high dose rates of >10 9 Gy s -1 may be achieved. Here we compare the radiobiological effects of pulsed and continuous proton beams. The ion microbeam SNAKE at the Munich tandem accelerator was used to directly compare a pulsed and a continuous 20 MeV proton beam, which delivered a dose of 3 Gy to a HeLa cell monolayer within < 1 ns or 100 ms, respectively. Investigated endpoints were G2 phase cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and colony formation. At 10 h after pulsed irradiation, the fraction of G2 cells was significantly lower than after irradiation with the continuous beam, while all other endpoints including colony formation were not significantly different. We determined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for pulsed and continuous proton beams relative to x-irradiation as 0.91 ± 0.26 and 0.86 ± 0.33 (mean and SD), respectively. At the dose rates investigated here, which are expected to correspond to those in radiation therapy using laser-driven particles, the RBE of the pulsed and the (conventional) continuous irradiation mode do not differ significantly

  7. DNA synthesis and cell survival after X-irradiation of mammalian cells treated with caffeine or adenine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, T.D.; Carpenter, J.G.; Dahle, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    The expression of the transient depression in the rate of DNA synthesis normally observed after exposure of randomly-dividing Chinese hamster V-79 or Chinese hamster CHO cells to ionizing radiation could be postponed by a post-irradiation treatment with 1.0 to 2.0 mM adenine or 1.5 mM caffeine. Caffeine may exert its effect by creating additional sites for replication in irradiated cells. Cells treated with caffeine or adenine for 2 or 4 hours after exposure to 3000 rad of 300 kVp X-rays exhibited depressed synthesis only after the removal of caffeine or adenine. These alterations in the timing of the X-ray-induced depression of the rate of DNA synthesis had no effect on X-ray-induced cell killing. Although a 4 hour post-irradiation treatment of randomly-dividing Chinese hamster V-79 cells with 1.0 or 2.0 mM caffeine potentiated X-ray-induced cell killing, this reduction in survival was due primarily to effects on cells not in S-phase. (author)

  8. Genistein protects against biomarkers of delayed lung sequelae in mice surviving high-dose total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.M.; Barshishat-Kupper, M.; Mog, S.R.; Mccart, E.A.; Prasanna, P.G.S.; Landauer, M.R.; Davis, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genistein on 30-day survival and delayed lung injury were examined in C57BL/6J female mice. A single subcutaneous injection of vehicle (PEG-400) or genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered 24 h before total body irradiation (7.75 Gy 60 Co, 0.6 Gy/min). Experimental groups were: No treatment+Sham (NC), Vehicle+Sham (VC), Genistein+Sham (GC), Radiation only (NR), Vehicle+Radiation (VR), Genistein+Radiation (GR). Thirty-day survivals after 7.75 Gy were: NR 23%, VR 53%, and GR 92%, indicating significant protection from acute radiation injury by genistein. Genistein also mitigated radiation-induced weight loss on days 13-28 postirradiation. First generation lung fibroblasts were analyzed for micronuclei 24 h postirradiation. Fibroblasts from the lungs of GR-treated mice had significantly reduced micronuclei compared with NR mice. Collagen deposition was examined by histochemical staining. At 90 days postirradiation one half of the untreated and vehicle irradiated mice had focal distributions of small collagen-rich plaques in the lungs, whereas all of the genistein-treated animals had morphologically normal lungs. Radiation reduced the expression of COX-2, transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) I and II at 90 days after irradiation. Genistein prevented the reduction in TGFβRI. However, by 180 days postirradiation, these proteins normalized in all groups. These results demonstrate that genistein protects against acute radiation-induced mortality in female mice and that GR-treated mice have reduced lung damage compared to NR or VR. These data suggest that genistein is protective against a range of radiation injuries. (author)

  9. Genistein Protects Against Biomarkers of Delayed Lung Sequelae in Mice Surviving High-Dose Total Body Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAY, Regina M.; BARSHISHAT-KUPPER, Michal; MOG, Steven R.; MCCART, Elizabeth A.; PRASANNA, P. G. S.; DAVIS, Thomas A.; LANDAUER, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genistein on 30-day survival and delayed lung injury were examined in C57BL/6J female mice. A single subcutaneous injection of vehicle (PEG-400) or genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered 24 h before total body irradiation (7.75 Gy 60Co, 0.6 Gy/min). Experimental groups were: No treatment + Sham (NC), Vehicle + Sham (VC), Genistein + Sham (GC), Radiation only (NR), Vehicle + Radiation (VR), Genistein + Radiation (GR). Thirty-day survivals after 7.75 Gy were: NR 23%, VR 53%, and GR 92%, indicating significant protection from acute radiation injury by genistein. Genistein also mitigated radiation-induced weight loss on days 13–28 postirradiation. First generation lung fibroblasts were analyzed for micronuclei 24 h postirradiation. Fibroblasts from the lungs of GR-treated mice had significantly reduced micronuclei compared with NR mice. Collagen deposition was examined by histochemical staining. At 90 days postirradiation one half of the untreated and vehicle irradiated mice had focal distributions of small collagen-rich plaques in the lungs, whereas all of the genistein-treated animals had morphologically normal lungs. Radiation reduced the expression of COX-2, transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) I and II at 90 days after irradiation. Genistein prevented the reduction in TGFβRI. However, by 180 days postirradiation, these proteins normalized in all groups. These results demonstrate that genistein protects against acute radiation-induced mortality in female mice and that GR-treated mice have reduced lung damage compared to NR or VR. These data suggest that genistein is protective against a range of radiation injuries. PMID:18434686

  10. The pattern of relapse and survival of elective irradiation of the upper neck for stage N0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiayun; Pan, Ziqiang; Guo, Xiaomao; Ye, Ming; Zhang, Zhen; He, Shaoqin; Liu, Taifu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate patterns of failure and survival rates of elective irradiation of upper neck in N0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. From February 1996 to November 2002, 97 patients without cervical lymph node involvement were admitted for radiotherapy alone. Before treatment, each patient underwent enhanced CT of nasopharynx and neck. All patients received radiotherapy to the nasopharynx, skull base, and upper neck drainage areas (including levels II, III, and VA). The upper neck was irradiated to a total dose of 50-56 Gy/25-28 fractions/5-5.6 weeks. For the primary tumor, 22 patients used conventional fractionation for a total dose of 70 Gy/35 fractions/7 weeks, and 75 patients used an accelerated hyperfractionationated schedule for a total dose of 78 Gy/60 fractions/6 weeks. The median follow-up of these 97 patients was 7.75 years. 10 patients had recurrences in the nasopharynx, 8 had distant metastasis, and 5 had recurrences in the cervical lymph nodes. Among the cervical lymph node failures, the areas of recurrence were in the II drainage areas in 4 patients who had neck dissections afterwards, and in IA drainage areas in 1 patient who also had recurrence in the nasopharynx. The causes of death were recurrence in the nasopharynx for 8 patients, 1 of these also had recurrence in the neck, distant metastases in 8 patients, and non-neoplastic diseases in 3 patients. The causes of failure of N0 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy alone to the nasopharynx and upper neck were nasopharyngeal recurrence, distant metastasis, and cervical recurrence in order of frequency. Elective irradiation of upper neck (II, III, VA) is advised for stage N0 patients diagnosed by enhanced CT of neck. Cervical recurrence alone is rare, which did not greatly affect the long-term survival after salvage neck dissection

  11. Cell Survival in irradiation mouse intestine is increased by DNA-Binding radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coultas, P.; Martin, R.

    1996-01-01

    Crypt survival in the mouse intestine has been used to examine effects of bisbenzimide radioprotectors. Intravenous delivery has been used for the present study in which the effects of methyl proamine (MP), a second generation Hoechst 33342 analogue have been examined. Recent results using the lung model suggest that MP is both more potent as a protector and less toxic than H 33342. The rapid nature of the crypt microcolony survival assay in mouse intestine provides an efficient way to examining factors which could impinge on the extent of radioprotection, for example, the interval between protector administration and radiation exposure. The data clearly show that for MP at 100 mg/kg, there is substantially increased crypt survival equivalent to a dose modification of about 1.33. The crypt scoring methods used indicate that protection is throughout the small intestine and preliminary data indicate that colon is also protected to a similar or slightly greater extent

  12. Tests of equal effect per fraction in microcolony assays of survival after fractionated irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.G.

    1985-01-01

    H.D Thames, Jr. and H.R. Withers propose a test of an equal effect per fraction in microcolony assays after fractionated radiation, in which the total effect is measured by counting microcolonies derived from surviving cells in a tissue. The factors considered to influence the cytocidal effect per fraction are incomplete repair, repopulation, and synchrony. The statistics used in the method are criticized and conditions are given under which the test should not be used. An alternative method of testing for an equal effect per fraction is proposed. The pros and cons of each test are discussed and compared using some mouse jejunal crypt cell survival data

  13. Radio protective effects of calcium channel blockers (Deltiazem) on survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells irradiated with different doses of gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alya, G; Shamma, M; Sharabi, N [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic), Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

    2007-03-15

    Investigations of radioprotective effects of Deltiazem (as one of the commonly used calcium channel blockers, which is used in the treatment of acute and chronic angina and spasmo angina, in addition to the treatment of different types of essential hypertension) has been carried on Saccharomyces Cerevisiae cells. Cells cultures of the most famous yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (bakers yeast) were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays. Results revealed that the necessary dose of gamma rays that leads to 10% of survived cellular population (D10 value) was about 256 Gy. This irradiation dose was used then in all irradiation experiments on culture of S. Cerevisiae cells in which different concentrations of Deltiazem (55, 110, 165 mg/Kg medium) were added before and after irradiation in order to study the radio protective effect of Deltiazem. Results showed that Deltiazem enhances survival percentage of irradiated S. Cerevisiae cultures in a concentration dependent manner. This study confirmed our previous works, which had demonstrated that Deltiazem protects lethally and supralethally irradiated rats, and enhances survival of pre-irradiated Deltiazem treated animals.(author)

  14. Radio protective effects of calcium channel blockers (Deltiazem) on survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells irradiated with different doses of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alya, G.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2007-03-01

    Investigations of radioprotective effects of Deltiazem (as one of the commonly used calcium channel blockers, which is used in the treatment of acute and chronic angina and spasmo angina, in addition to the treatment of different types of essential hypertension) has been carried on Saccharomyces Cerevisiae cells. Cells cultures of the most famous yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (bakers yeast) were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays. Results revealed that the necessary dose of gamma rays that leads to 10% of survived cellular population (D10 value) was about 256 Gy. This irradiation dose was used then in all irradiation experiments on culture of S. Cerevisiae cells in which different concentrations of Deltiazem (55, 110, 165 mg/Kg medium) were added before and after irradiation in order to study the radio protective effect of Deltiazem. Results showed that Deltiazem enhances survival percentage of irradiated S. Cerevisiae cultures in a concentration dependent manner. This study confirmed our previous works, which had demonstrated that Deltiazem protects lethally and supralethally irradiated rats, and enhances survival of pre-irradiated Deltiazem treated animals.(author)

  15. Cell survival following alpha particle irradiation: critical sites and implications for carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Gemmell, M.A.; Henning, C.B.; Gemmell, D.S.; Zabransky, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    In experiments in which mammalian cells were irradiated with 5.6 MeV alpha particles from a Tandem Van de Graaff machine we have confirmed the finding of others that the mean lethal dose (D 0 ) is about 100 rad, but by measurements of the area of the cell nuclei as irradiated we found that this mean lethal dose corresponds not to 1, as expected, but to about 27 alpha particles per cell nucleus. (The exact number appears to change slightly with cell passage number.) This allows for the possibility that the direct action of alpha particles on the nucleus may be the important event in carcinogenesis, a theory which was previously difficult to accept if a single particle hitting the nucleus anywhere was considered to be lethal. Evidence is presented to implicate the nucleolus as a possible critical site for the inhibition of reproductive integrity of the cell

  16. Gamma-irradiation of pupae of the house fly musca domestica L., and adult survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guneidy, A.M.; Abdu, R.M.; Hamed, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of gamma-irradiation on pupae of the house fly, Musca domestica L., were determined. Pupae of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5-day old, when exposed to a single dose of gamma rays, showed that the younger pupae were more susceptible than older pupae. The 1- and 2-day age groups were fully susceptible to all levels of treatment where no emergence was observed. The 3-day and 4-day age groups were of equal susceptibility to irradiation where emergence of 23.50% and 24.84%, respectively, was recorded at 5 Kr only. Pupae failed to emerge at dosages of 10, 15 and 25 Kr. Emergence was observed at all dosages in the 5-day old group of pupae where there was a correlation between dosage and emergence. At 5 Kr and 10 Kr, 85% and 66.36% of flies, respectively, emerged. This figure declined to 22.54% at 15 Kr and 4.09% at 25 Kr. Males were less susceptible than females. Flies of both sexes emerging from irradiated pupae died earlier than the control flies

  17. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus whole breast irradiation: 5-year survival analysis of a phase 3 randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Lorenzo; Meattini, Icro; Marrazzo, Livia; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Pallotta, Stefania; Saieva, Calogero; Paiar, Fabiola; Scotti, Vieri; De Luca Cardillo, Carla; Bastiani, Paolo; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Casella, Donato; Sanchez, Luis; Nori, Jacopo; Fambrini, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Simonetta

    2015-03-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been introduced as an alternative treatment method for selected patients with early stage breast cancer (BC). Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has the theoretical advantage of a further increase in dose conformity compared with three-dimensional techniques, with more normal tissue sparing. The aim of this randomised trial is to compare the local recurrence and survival of APBI using the IMRT technique after breast-conserving surgery to conventional whole-breast irradiation (WBI) in early stage BC. This study was performed at the University of Florence (Florence, Italy). Women aged more than 40years affected by early BC, with a maximum pathological tumour size of 25mm, were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either WBI or APBI using IMRT. Patients in the APBI arm received a total dose of 30 Gy to the tumour bed in five daily fractions. The WBI arm received 50Gy in 25 fractions, followed by a boost on the tumour bed of 10Gy in five fractions. The primary end-point was occurrence of ipsilateral breast tumour recurrences (IBTRs); the main analysis was by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02104895. A total of 520 patients were randomised (260 to external WBI and 260 to APBI with IMRT) between March 2005 and June 2013. At a median follow-up of 5.0 years (Interquartile Range (IQR) 3.4-7.0), the IBTR rate was 1.5% (three cases) in the APBI group (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-3.0) and in the WBI group (three cases; 95% CI 0.0-2.8). No significant difference emerged between the two groups (log rank test p=0.86). We identified seven deaths in the WBI group and only one in the APBI group (p=0.057). The 5-year overall survival was 96.6% for the WBI group and 99.4% for the APBI group. The APBI group presented significantly better results considering acute (p=0.0001), late (p=0.004), and cosmetic outcome (p=0.045). To our knowledge, this is the first randomised

  18. Effects of chronic γ-irradiation on growth and survival of the Tohoku hynobiid salamander, Hynobius lichenatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuma, Shoichi [Project for Environmental Dynamics and Radiation Effects, Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 Japan (Japan); Une, Yumi [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201 (Japan); Ihara, Sadao [Hokkaido University of Education Kushiro Campus, 1-15-55 Shiroyama, Kushiro, Hokkaido 085-8580 Japan (Japan); Matsui, Kumi [Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology 1, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201 (Japan); Kudo, Tomoo; Tokiwa, Toshihiro [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshihisa; Soeda, Haruhi [Project for Environmental Dynamics and Radiation Effects, Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 Japan (Japan); Ishikawa, Takahiro [Department of Technical Support and Development, Research, Development and Support Centre, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 Japan (Japan); Doi, Kazutaka [Project for Human Health, Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 Japan (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshito; Yoshida, Satoshi [Project for Environmental Dynamics and Radiation Effects, Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 Japan (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    The Tohoku hynobiid salamanders, Hynobius lichenatus, were chronically irradiated with γ-rays from embryonic to juvenile stages for 450 days. At 490 μGy h{sup −1} or lower dose rates, growth and survival were not significantly affected by irradiation, and any morphological aberrations and histological damages were not observed. At 4600 μGy h{sup −1}, growth was severely inhibited, and all the individuals died mostly at the juvenile stage. Chronic LD{sub 50} was 42 Gy as a total dose. In the liver, the number of hematopoietic cells was significantly reduced in the living juveniles, and these cells disappeared in the dead juveniles. In the spleen, mature lymphocytes were depleted in the living larvae, and almost all the heamtopoietic cells disappeared in the dead juveniles. These results suggest that this salamander died due to acute radiation syndrome, i.e., hematopoietic damage and subsequent sepsis caused by immune depression. The death would be also attributed to skin damage inducing infection. At 18,000 μGy h{sup −1}, morphological aberrations and severe growth inhibition were observed. All the individuals died at the larval stage due to a multiple organ failure. Chronic LD{sub 50} was 28 Gy as a total dose. Assuming that chronic LD{sub 50} was 42 Gy at lower dose rates than 4600 μGy h{sup −1}, a chronic median lethal dose rate could be estimated to be <340 μGy h{sup −1} for the whole life (>14 years). These results suggest that, among guidance dose rates, i.e., 4–400 μGy h{sup −1}, proposed by various organisations and research programmes for protection of amphibians and taxonomic groups or ecosystems including amphibians, most of them would protect this salamander but the highest value may not on the whole life scale. - Highlights: • The salamanders, Hynobius lichenatus, were chronically γ-irradiated for 450 days. • At 490 μGy h{sup −1} or lower, irradiation did not significantly affect growth and survival. • All the individuals

  19. The challenge in treating locally recurrent T3-4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the survival benefit and severe late toxicities of re-irradiation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yun-Ming; Huang, Wei-Zeng; Yuan, Xia; Bai, Li; Zhao, Chong; Han, Fei

    2017-06-27

    Effective treatments for patients with advanced locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are limited. This investigation was to determine the potential benefits from re-irradiation by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on survival and the effects of severe late toxicities. A retrospective study was conducted in 245 patients diagnosed with locally recurrent T3-T4 NPC who had undergone re-irradiation with IMRT. Follow-up data was colletedand factors associated with survival and severe late toxicities were analyzed. The 5-year local-regional failure-free survival, distant failure-free survival and overall survival rates were 60.9%, 78.3% and 27.5%, respectively. The presence of severe late complications, recurrent T4 disease and gross tumor volume >30 cm3 were associated with poor survival. The incidences of mucosal necrosis, temporal lobe necrosis, cranial neuropathy and trismus were 22.0%, 14.6%, 27.0% and 14.6% respectively. Re-irradiation with IMRT is an effective choice in patients with locally recurrent T3-T4 NPC. However, the survival benefits can be partly offset by severe late complications and optimum treatments in these patients remain a challenge.

  20. Survival of human diploid skin fibroblasts from normal individuals after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.B.; Nove, J.; Strong, L.C.; Nichols, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    The cytotoxic effect of X-rays was measured by a colony formation assay in multiple experiments with fibroblast cell strains derived from 24 presumably normal individuals, received as 65 different coded and blinded samples. Each strain was received on two or more occasions at different times and bearing different codes. The means and standard deviations of the survival curve parameters for the 24 strains were: D 0 = 123 +- 23; D 10 = 273 +- 42 cGy. The D 0 ranged from 89 to 175 and the D 10 from 196 to 372 cGy. The degree of interexperimental variation, though generally minimal, differed considerably among cell strains. There was no systematic effect of passage level, cloning efficiency, serum lot, age or sex of the donor on X-ray survival. These results confirm that the intrinsic radiosensitivity varies significantly among skin fibroblasts isolated from clinically normal individuals, apparently owing to as yet unidentified genetic factors. (Author)

  1. The LDsub(50/30) and the survival time in whole-body gamma-irradiated conventional and germfree Minnesota miniature piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, L.; Travnicek, J.; Talafantova, M.; Zahradnickova, M.

    1980-01-01

    The median lethal exposure causing the death in 30 days after single whole-body gamma-irradiation (the LD 50/30) was found to be 2731 MBq (73.8 mC/kg) for conventional piglets, but 3226 MBq (87.2 mC/kg) for germ-free piglets both irradiated 14 days after birth. After lethal exposures, the survival time in germ-free piglets was prolonged for 7 days in comparison with conventional piglets. (author)

  2. Amount of sister chromatid exchanges and survival of Chinese hamster V79-4 cells after irradiation with 0,7 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidus, I.L.; Nasonova, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of the survival and induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in Chinese hamster V79-4 cells on the dose of γ-rays and neutrons with average energy 0.7 MeV has been analysed. The value of RBE for neutrons was 5.5. It has been shown that the number of SCE increased with the dose of γ-irradiation and no induction could be detected after neutron irradiation

  3. Survival of Acholeplasma laidlawii, strain S2 after irradiation with alpha particles of /sup 241/Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liska, B.; Drasil, V.; Brza, I. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav)

    1985-05-23

    A thin layer of dry Acholeplasma laidlawii, strain S2 cells was irradiated with /sup 241/Am alpha particles. D/sub 0/ was 2.54 x 10/sup 7/ - 2.63 x 10/sup 7/ alpha particles/mm/sup 2/ (48 - 50 minutes, 409 - 422 Gy). The extrapolation number was 1.05 - 3.1. The effective cross section at D/sub 0/ was 0.038 - 0.039 ..mu..m/sup 2//alpha particle. A method of preparing thin dry layers of Acholeplasma cells was developed.

  4. Influence of intracellular adenosine-triphosphate concentration of yeast cells on survival following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, R.D.; Pohlit, W.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and starvation in buffer on the ATP-concentration of yeast cells has been studied. In both the wild-type and a respiratory-deficient mutant strain 2-deoxy-D-glucose decreases the value for ATP, while it is enhanced by glucose only in the mutant strain. Populations with different ATP-concentrations have been irradiated. The results suggest that ATP may be an essential factor in the system that determines the length of the shoulder of the dose effect curves. (orig.) [de

  5. A comparison of two-component and quadratic models to assess survival of irradiated stage-7 oocytes of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, C.A.; Koo, J.O.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, the quadratic model to analyse data of this kind, i.e. S/S 0 = exp(-αD-bD 2 ), where S and Ssub(o) are defined as before is proposed is shown that the same biological interpretation can be given to the parameters α and A and to the parameters β and B. Furthermore it is shown that the quadratic model involves one probabilistic stage more than the two-component model, and therefore the quadratic model would perhaps be more appropriate as a dose-response model for survival of irradiated stage-7 oocytes of Drosophila melanogaster. In order to apply these results, the data presented by Sankaranarayanan and Sankaranarayanan and Volkers are reanalysed using the quadratic model. It is shown that the quadratic model fits better than the two-component model to the data in most situations. (orig./AJ)

  6. A study of survival rate of the patients with esophageal carcinoma treated by pre- and/or post-operative irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eida, Koichiro

    1986-01-01

    So far there is still considerable disagreement as to the evaluation of the pre- and postoperative irradiation effects on the survival rate of the patients with esophageal carcinoma. From April 1973 to December 1983, 138 cases of thoracic esophageal carcinoma were surgically operated upon at our Department; 68 cases were irradiated and 70 cases were not irradiated prior to the surgical operation. Followup study was done and its result has been reported in this communication. A few cases treated by pre-operative irradiation survived longer than the expected longevity in spite of their low curative operation rates. Prognosis was better in the cases with well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, when marked or good responses to pre-operative irradiation with the calculated total dose of 30 Gy were recorded. There were differences in responsibility in the various histological types of esophageal carcinomas; good response in the group of well differentiated squamous carcinoma, less marked response in the groups of moderately and poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas, minor response in the types of undifferentiated and unclassifed carcinomas. From our observation it seems reasonable to say that prognosis of the patients with pre- and postoperative irradiation was better than that of those who received postoperative irradiation only. (author)

  7. Effects on combination of antibiotic-resistant bifidobacteria and corresponding antibiotics of survival of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, V.M.; Pinegin, B.V.; Ivanova, N.P.; Maltsev, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    Elimination of intestinal dysbacteriosis in irradiated animals by combining antibiotics and peparations of bifidobacteria resistant to these antibiotics prolonging the life of these animals was investigated. Broad spectrum antibiotics are used to treat intestinal dysbacteriosis. Bifidobacterial preparations are used to restore the microbial cenosis and their administration is started after antibiotics are discontinued. There are some flaws to deferred administration of bifidobacteria, since the process of colonization of the intestine with commercial bifidobacterial preparations is rather lengthy, and there is slow elevation of bifidobacterium level in the intestinal tract, whereas exogenous recontamination of the intestine by conditionally pathogenic bacteria is possible after antibiotic therapy is discontinued. Use of antibiotics alone could be the cause of intestinal dysbacteriosis

  8. Survival of irradiated glia and glioma cells studied with a new cloning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, S.; Carlsson, J.; Larsson, B.; Ponten, J.

    1980-01-01

    A method allowing cloning of monolayer cultured cells with a low plating efficiency was developed. Cells were grown in several small palladium squares to obtain a high cell density. These squares were surrounded by non-adhesive agarose to prevent large distance migration and thereby mixing of the clones. By using easily-cloned hamster cells for comparison it was found that the survival curves were similar to the curves obtained with conventional cloning. The new method was used to compare the radiosensitivity of cultured human glia and glioma cells which both have a low plating efficiency ( 0 -values (1.5 to 2.5 Gy) and large shoulders (extrapolation numbers around 5) indicating that they were rather resistant and had a high capacity for accumulation of sublethal damage. The survival curves for glia cells had lower D 0 -values (1.3 to 1.5 Gy) and no shoulders at all, indicating that they were more sensitive than the glioma cells. (author)

  9. Influence of a uvrD mutation on survival and repair of X-irradiated Escherichia coli K-12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueren, E. van der; Youngs, D.A.; Smith, K.C.

    1977-01-01

    The presence of a uvrD mutation increased the X-ray sensitivities of E.coli wild-type and polA strains, but had no effect on the sensitivities of recA and recB strains, and little effect on a lexA strain. Incubation of irradiated cells in medium containing 2,4-dinitrophenol or chloramphenicol decreased the survival of wild-type and uvrD cells, but had no effect on the survival of recA, recB and lexA strains. Alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation studies indicated that the uvrD strain is deficient in the growth-medium-dependent (Type III) repair of DNA single-strand breaks. These results indicate that the uvrD mutation inhibits certain rec + lex + -dependent repair processes, including the growth-medium-dependent (Type III) repair of X-ray-induced DNA single-strand breaks, but does not inhibit other rec + lex + -dependent processes that are sensitive to 2,4-dinitrophenol and chloramphenicol. (author)

  10. Influence of a uvrD mutation on survival and repair of x-irradiated Escherichia coli K-12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Schueren, E; Youngs, D A; Smith, K C [Stanford Univ., Calif. (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1977-06-01

    The presence of a uvrD mutation increased the x-ray sensitivities of E.coli wild-type and polA strains, but had no effect on the sensitivities of recA and recB strains, and little effect on a lexA strain. Incubation of irradiated cells in medium containing 2,4-dinitrophenol or chloramphenicol decreased the survival of wild-type and uvrD cells, but had no effect on the survival of recA, recB and lexA strains. Alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation studies indicated that the uvrD strain is deficient in the growth-medium-dependent (Type III) repair of DNA single-strand breaks. These results indicate that the uvrD mutation inhibits certain rec/sup +/lex/sup +/-dependent repair processes, including the growth-medium-dependent (Type III) repair of x-ray-induced DNA single-strand breaks, but does not inhibit other rec/sup +/lex/sup +/-dependent processes that are sensitive to 2,4-dinitrophenol and chloramphenicol.

  11. Pretreatment PSA predicts for biochemical disease free survival in patients treated with post-prostatectomy external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, C.H.; Kelly, M.; Rich, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To assess the outcome and determine prognostic factors for patients treated with external beam radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: Forty-four patients were treated after prostatectomy with radiotherapy between March 1988 and October 1993. All patients were free from clinically or radiographically suspicious local or distant disease. One patient underwent neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, but no other patients received hormonal therapy prior to radiation. Pre-radiotherapy PSA and follow-up PSA data were available in all patients. Four patients had undetectable PSA ( 7, and 11% had nodal involvement. Survival was analyzed using the life table method. Actuarial freedom from biochemical (BCM) failure, defined as a rise of greater than 10% or an undetectable PSA becoming detectable, was the primary endpoint studied. Results: Fifty-nine percent of patients had a detectable PSA return to undetectable levels after XRT. The actuarial five year freedom from biochemical failure for all patients was 24%. A significant difference in BCM disease free survival was seen for patients irradiated with a pre-XRT PSA ≤2.7 versus a pre-XRT PSA >2.7 (p=0.0001). Sixty percent of the former group were BCM disease free versus 0% in the latter. Biochemical disease free survival was not affected by preoperative PSA level, presence of undetectable PSA after surgery, surgery to radiation interval, seminal vesicle invasion, clinical stage, pathologic stage, Gleasons grade, or total dose. There were no symptomatic or clinically suspicious local failures, and there were no grade 3, 4, or 5 acute or late complications. There were 69% grade 1 and 2 acute reactions and one grade 2 late complication. Conclusions: Pelvic radiotherapy for patients with a PSA of ≤2.7 after prostatectomy was effective in biochemically controlling 60% of the patients with four years median follow up. To our knowledge these data represent the longest follow-up for this patient

  12. Effects of combination of antibiotic-resistant bifidobacteria and corresponding antibiotics on survival of irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, V.M.; Pinegin, B.V.; Ivanova, N.P.; Mal' tsev, V.N.

    1982-05-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics are used to treat intestinal dysbacteriosis of diverse etiology, including postradiation dysbacteriosis. Antibiotic therapy is instrumental in decontaminating the intestine. In addition to pathogenic microorganisms, there is disappearance of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria which perform several important and useful functions. For this reason, in addition to antibiotics, bifidobacterial preparations are used to restore the microbial cenosis and administration thereof is started after antibiotics are discontinued. There are some flaws to deferred administration of bifidobacteria, since the process of colonization of the intestine with commercial bifidobacterial preparations is rather lengthy, and there is slow elevation of bididobacterium level in the intestinal tract, whereas exogenous recontamination of the intestine by conditionally pathogenic bacteria is possible after antibiotic therapy is discontinued. On the other hand, use of antibiotics alone could, in turn, be the cause of intestinal dysbacteriosis. Our objective was to eliminate intestinal dysbacteriosis in irradiated animals by means of combining antibiotics and preparations of bifidobacteria resistant to these antibiotics, and thus prolong the life of these animals.

  13. Angiosarcoma arising in the non-operated, sclerosing breast after primary irradiation, surviving 6 years post-resection: A case report and review of the Japanese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Ito

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Angiosarcoma may occur in the non-operated breast, post irradiation. The potential difficulties of diagnosing angiosarcoma against background fibrosis should be kept in mind. Initial radical surgery currently represents the only effective treatment for improving survival in these patients.

  14. Increase of survival of x-irradiated mice by postirradiation injections of a splenic extract prepared from vaccine or endotoxin-treated syngeneic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuneoka, K; Takagi, Y; Shikita, M [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1977-05-01

    Spleens of mice which had been treated with E. coli endotoxin or typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine were extracted with isotonic saline. The extract was filtered through an asbestos filter and chromatographed on a Sephadex G-200 column. The fraction which was excluded at around 2.5-void volume (molecular weight, about 20,000) was significantly effective in increasing survival of animals when it was repeatedly injected in mice after x irradiation (600 R). The injection caused an increase of the weight of spleen of the animals with an increased number of endogenous spleen colonies. The result suggests that the life-saving effect of the spleen extract is based on its effect of stimulating repopulation of autochthonous hematopoietic cells in the x-irradiated animals. A similar splenic extract prepared from normal mice had an ambiguous effect on the survival of x-irradiated animals.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate) survival under combinations of pH and NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate; potential bioterrorism agent) survival under different levels of NaCl and pH. B. thailandensis in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with NaCl (0-3%), and pH-adjusted to 4-7 was treated with gamma irradiation (0-0.5 kGy). Surviving cell counts of bacteria were then enumerated on tryptic soy agar. Data for the cell counts were also used to calculate D 10 values (the dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/mL of B. thailandensis). Cell counts of B. thailandensis were decreased (P 10 values ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 kGy, regardless of NaCl and pH level. These results indicate that low doses of gamma irradiation should be a useful treatment in decreasing the potential bioterrorism bacteria, which may possibly infect humans through foods.

  16. Asparagine 326 in the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is essential for the cell survival after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanotayan, Rujira; Fukuchi, Mikoto; Imamichi, Shoji; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa, E-mail: yoshim@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2015-02-20

    XRCC4 is one of the crucial proteins in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). As XRCC4 consists of 336 amino acids, N-terminal 200 amino acids include domains for dimerization and for association with DNA ligase IV and XLF and shown to be essential for XRCC4 function in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. On the other hand, the role of the remaining C-terminal region of XRCC4 is not well understood. In the present study, we noticed that a stretch of ∼20 amino acids located at the extreme C-terminus of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. To explore its possible importance, series of mutants in this region were constructed and assessed for the functionality in terms of ability to rescue radiosensitivity of M10 cells lacking XRCC4. Among 13 mutants, M10 transfectant with N326L mutant (M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}) showed elevated radiosensitivity. N326L protein showed defective nuclear localization. N326L sequence matched the consensus sequence of nuclear export signal. Leptomycin B treatment accumulated XRCC4{sup N326L} in the nucleus but only partially rescued radiosensitivity of M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}. These results collectively indicated that the functional defects of XRCC4{sup N326L} might be partially, but not solely, due to its exclusion from nucleus by synthetic nuclear export signal. Further mutation of XRCC4 Asn326 to other amino acids, i.e., alanine, aspartic acid or glutamine did not affect the nuclear localization but still exhibited radiosensitivity. The present results indicated the importance of the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 and, especially, Asn326 therein. - Highlights: • Extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. • XRCC4 C-terminal point mutants, R325F and N326L, are functionally deficient in terms of survival after irradiation. • N326L localizes to the cytoplasm because of synthetic nuclear export signal. • Leptomycin B restores the

  17. Disinfestation of stored rice and corn grains by gamma irradiation. 3. Survival values for irradiated rice weevil and flour beetle and comparison of gamma irradiation and fumigation of weevil infested grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Villarcarlos, L.T.

    1976-02-01

    Survival values for Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum adults were studied using gamma radiation dosage of 25, 50, 100 and 150 krad. Results with the two species seemed similar, although the rice weevil appeared the more sensitive. Rice and corn grains were artificially infested with Sitophilus oryzae and then treated with gamma radiation or fumigation. Both treatment reduced or eliminated adult emergence although fumigation left some insecticidal residues in corn. Sterility in the adult weevils was induced by 15 or 25 krad treatment of gamma radiation. A practical control level for bulk irradiation of rice or corn grains could probably be achieved by a 25 krad treatment although complete disinfestation should be achieved by a 50 krad treatment

  18. Analysis of survival of C-18 cells after irradiation in suspension with chelated and ionic bismuth-212 using microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinchcomb, T.G.; Roeske, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    A previous analysis of non-stochastic dose based on data obtained during irradiations of C-18 cells in suspension by α particles emitted from two forms (chelated and ionic) of 212 Bi was made using survival curves. No appreciable difference in slope (1/D o ) was found between the two forms. Such non-stochastic analyses do not account for the large differences in specific energies deposited in the individual cell nuclei. This microdosimetric (1/z o ) of the individual C-18 cells using the distribution of specific energies deposited in the individual cell nuclei. The resulting sensitivity is greater for the α particles emitted from the chelated 212 Bi than from the ionic 212 Bi. An attempt to account for this greater sensitivity in terms of greater LET of α particles passing through the cell nuclei from the chelated 212 Bi is unsuccessful. Instead the greater sensitivity disappears if the microdosimetric analysis uses average values for the radii of the cell and of its nucleus rather than the values (from the peak in the cell size distribution) used by the non-stochastic dose analysis. 13 refs., 7 figs

  19. Anti-asialo GM1 antiserum treatment of lethally irradiated recipients before bone marrow transplantation: Evidence that recipient natural killer depletion enhances survival, engraftment, and hematopoietic recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberghien, P.; Longo, D.L.; Wine, J.W.; Alvord, W.G.; Reynolds, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are reported to have an important role in the resistance of lethally irradiated recipients to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Therefore, we investigated the effects of recipient NK depletion on survival, chimerism, and hematopoietic reconstitution after lethal irradiation and the transplantation of limiting amounts of T-cell-deficient bone marrow (BM). When administered before BMT, anti-asialo GM1 (ASGM1) antiserum treatment, effective in depleting in vivo NK activity, was associated with a marked increase in survival in 3 of 3 allogeneic combinations (BALB/c into C3H/HeN, C57B1/6, or C3B6F1). This enhanced survival was independent of the susceptibility of each recipient strain to accept BALB/c BM. Moreover, recipient anti-ASGM1 treatment was also effective in increasing survival in recipients of syngeneic BM, suggesting that NK cells can adversely affect engraftment independent of genetically controlled polymorphic cell surface determinants. Analysis of chimerism in surviving animals 2 months post-BMT showed that recipient NK depletion significantly increased the level of donor engraftment when high doses of BM were transplanted. These studies also demonstrated that anti-ASGM1 pretreatment mainly resulted in an increase in extramedullary hematopoiesis in the second and third week after irradiation. Anti-ASGM1 treatment also dramatically accelerated the rate of appearance of donor-derived cells with a higher level of donor-cell engraftment apparent at a time when the differences in survival between NK-depleted and control BMT recipients became significant. Peripheral cell counts were also affected by NK depletion, with significantly enhanced platelet and red blood cell recovery and a moderate increase in granulocyte recovery

  20. Anti-asialo GM1 antiserum treatment of lethally irradiated recipients before bone marrow transplantation: Evidence that recipient natural killer depletion enhances survival, engraftment, and hematopoietic recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberghien, P.; Longo, D.L.; Wine, J.W.; Alvord, W.G.; Reynolds, C.W. (Program Resources, Inc., Frederick, MD (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are reported to have an important role in the resistance of lethally irradiated recipients to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Therefore, we investigated the effects of recipient NK depletion on survival, chimerism, and hematopoietic reconstitution after lethal irradiation and the transplantation of limiting amounts of T-cell-deficient bone marrow (BM). When administered before BMT, anti-asialo GM1 (ASGM1) antiserum treatment, effective in depleting in vivo NK activity, was associated with a marked increase in survival in 3 of 3 allogeneic combinations (BALB/c into C3H/HeN, C57B1/6, or C3B6F1). This enhanced survival was independent of the susceptibility of each recipient strain to accept BALB/c BM. Moreover, recipient anti-ASGM1 treatment was also effective in increasing survival in recipients of syngeneic BM, suggesting that NK cells can adversely affect engraftment independent of genetically controlled polymorphic cell surface determinants. Analysis of chimerism in surviving animals 2 months post-BMT showed that recipient NK depletion significantly increased the level of donor engraftment when high doses of BM were transplanted. These studies also demonstrated that anti-ASGM1 pretreatment mainly resulted in an increase in extramedullary hematopoiesis in the second and third week after irradiation. Anti-ASGM1 treatment also dramatically accelerated the rate of appearance of donor-derived cells with a higher level of donor-cell engraftment apparent at a time when the differences in survival between NK-depleted and control BMT recipients became significant. Peripheral cell counts were also affected by NK depletion, with significantly enhanced platelet and red blood cell recovery and a moderate increase in granulocyte recovery.

  1. Soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities: survival and patterns of failure with conservative surgery and postoperative irradiation compared to surgery alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, S.A.; Tranbaugh, R.F.; Wara, W.M.; Beckstead, J.H.; Bovill, E.G.; Phillips, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Between 1960 and 1978, 81 patients received their primary treatment for localized soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities, buttock and shoulder at the University of California, San Francisco. Initial treatment consisted of surgery alone in 47 patients, planned conservative surgery followed by radiation therapy in 29 patients, and irradiation alone in five patients. The two- and five-year determinate survival for all cases was 86% and 73%, respectively. The local control rate achieved with surgery alone was related to the extent of surgery. Eighty-seven percent (14/16) of the patients undergoing amputation were locally controlled. Seventy-two percent (8/11) were treated with wide en bloc resection and had local tumor control while only 30% (6/20) having simple excision were controlled. The local control rate with surgery and postoperative irradiation was 90% (26/29). No patients treated with irradiation therapy alone were controlled. This review suggests that local tumor control achieved with limb preserving conservative surgery and postoperative irradiation is superior to limited surgery alone. The survival and patterns of failure of patients undergoing radical surgery is comparable to combined treatment with the risk-benefit ratio favoring the latter

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate) survival under combinations of pH and NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, Jeollabuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyoung-Hee [Department of Oral Microbiology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeollabuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon, E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.k [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, Jeollabuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate; potential bioterrorism agent) survival under different levels of NaCl and pH. B. thailandensis in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with NaCl (0-3%), and pH-adjusted to 4-7 was treated with gamma irradiation (0-0.5 kGy). Surviving cell counts of bacteria were then enumerated on tryptic soy agar. Data for the cell counts were also used to calculate D{sub 10} values (the dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/mL of B. thailandensis). Cell counts of B. thailandensis were decreased (P<0.05) as irradiation dose increased, and no differences (P>=0.05) in cell counts of the bacteria were observed among different levels of NaCl and pH. D{sub 10} values ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 kGy, regardless of NaCl and pH level. These results indicate that low doses of gamma irradiation should be a useful treatment in decreasing the potential bioterrorism bacteria, which may possibly infect humans through foods.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis ( Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate) survival under combinations of pH and NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis ( Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate; potential bioterrorism agent) survival under different levels of NaCl and pH. B. thailandensis in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with NaCl (0-3%), and pH-adjusted to 4-7 was treated with gamma irradiation (0-0.5 kGy). Surviving cell counts of bacteria were then enumerated on tryptic soy agar. Data for the cell counts were also used to calculate D10 values (the dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/mL of B. thailandensis). Cell counts of B. thailandensis were decreased ( P<0.05) as irradiation dose increased, and no differences ( P≥0.05) in cell counts of the bacteria were observed among different levels of NaCl and pH. D10 values ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 kGy, regardless of NaCl and pH level. These results indicate that low doses of gamma irradiation should be a useful treatment in decreasing the potential bioterrorism bacteria, which may possibly infect humans through foods.

  4. Prophylactic cranial irradiation could improve overall survival in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer. A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi [Tsinghua University, Medical Center Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li, Jinyu; Hu, Yi; Lin, Zhi; Jiao, Shunchang [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yibao [Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Radiotherapy, Beijing (China); Zhao, Zhifei [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing (China)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on overall survival (OS) in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer (ESCLC). Between April 2005 and May 2014, 204 patients with ESCLC who had any response (according to RECIST 1.1) to initial chemotherapy were reviewed. All patients had undergone appropriate imaging tests to exclude brain metastases before initial chemotherapy. PCI was performed on 45 patients (22.1 %) and the remaining patients (77.9 %) received no such treatment (control group). Primary endpoint was OS. The incidence of brain metastases, brain metastases-free survival (BMFS), and adverse effects were also evaluated. Survival data of the 204 patients were analyzed statistically. PCI significantly prolonged median OS from 12.6 to 16.5 months as compared to the control group (hazard ratio, HR, 0.63; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 0.41 to 0.96; p = 0.033). PCI significantly lowered the risk of brain metastases (HR 0.48; 95 % CI 0.30 to 0.76; p = 0.001). The 1-year incidence of brain metastases was 17.1 and 55.9 % in the PCI and control group, respectively. PCI significantly correlated with the increased median BMFS (p = 0.002). Additionally, multivariate analyses demonstrated that PCI was a favorable independent predictor of OS, BMFS, and the incidence of brain metastases. Acute and chronic adverse effects were generally low grade and well tolerated in patients receiving PCI. PCI after any response to initial chemotherapy significantly improved OS of ESCLC patients analyzed in this study. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung des Effekts der prophylaktischen kranialen Bestrahlung (PCI) auf das Gesamtueberleben (OS) bei Patienten mit ausgedehntem kleinzelligem Lungenkarzinom (ESCLC). Zwischen April 2005 und Mai 2014 wurden 204 Patienten mit ESCLC nach Ansprechen auf eine initiale Chemotherapie (gemaess RECIST 1.1) untersucht. Vor der Chemotherapie wurden bei allen Patienten Untersuchungen mit entsprechenden Bildgebungsverfahren

  5. Effects of sodium arsenite on the survival of UV-irradiated Escherichia coli: inhibition of a recA-dependent function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossman, T; Meyn, M S; Troll, W [New York Univ., N.Y. (USA). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

    1975-11-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical observations suggesting potential hazards of arsenic compounds in increasing the incidence of cancer have been in complete contradiction with experimental findings in animals. Because of the predominance of skin cancers in the epidemiological reports, it was decided to investigate the possibility that arsenic compounds might interfere with DNA repair. Using Escherichia coli as a test system, it is shown that this is indeed the case. Sodium arsenite, at concentrations of 0.1mM and higher, decreases the survival of ultraviolet-irradiated E.coli WP2, a strain which possesses the full complement of repair genes. The effect of the arsenite increases with increasing ultraviolet dose. Similar results were obtained with the excision repair deficient strains WWP2 (uvrA) and WP6(polA). Sodium arsenite had no effect on the survival of recA mutant, WP10. Survival of ultraviolet-irradiated WP5(exrA) was enhanced by sodium arsenite, the effect being greatest at low ultraviolet doses. It is postulated that arsenite inhibits a recA-dependent step in DNA repair. To account for the increased survival of the exrA mutant, it is suggested that in the absence of the exr/sup +/ gene, the arsenite-sensitive recA-dependent function is deleterious. The ability of arsenite to inhibit DNA repair may account for the clinical and epidemiological reports linking arsenicals with an increased incidence of cancer.

  6. Effect of oxygen on formation of micronuclei and binucleated cells and cell survival in γ-irradiated 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peng; Zheng Xiulong

    1991-01-01

    Formation of micronuclei and binucleate cells and their relationships with cell survival were studied in the aerobically- and anaerobically-irradiated 3T3 cells. The results showed taht frequency of micronuclei, percentage of micronucleus cells and percentage of binucleate cells increased linearly with the radiation dose in certain range. Oxygen enhancement ratios (OER) of micronucleus frequency, percentage of micronucleus cells, percentage of binucleate cells and cell survival were 2.02, 1.96, 1.87 and 1.83 respectively. The percentage of micronucleus cells or the percentage of micronucleus cells plus binucleate cells correlated negatively well with cell survival. The mechanism of oxygen effect in the radiation response of 3T3 cells and the significance of formation of micronuclei and binucleate cells were discussed

  7. [A case of brain metastasis discovered after surgery for lung cancer based on changes in CEA, in which long-term survival was obtained by repeated gammaknife irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Inoue, Yuichi; Sawai, Toyomitsu; Ikuta, Yasushi; Ohno, Hideaki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Higashiyama, Yasuhito; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Soda, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2005-12-01

    A 58-year-old man underwent right lower lobectomy for lung adenocarcinoma in June 1998. Since a high level of tumor marker CEA persisted after surgery, chemotherapy was additionally performed, and the CEA level subsequently normalized. However, the CEA level increased in April 1999, and brain metastasis was found in the left occipital lobe, and the first gammaknife irradiation was performed. Multiple brain metastases were found when CEA increased again in August 1999, and the second gammaknife irradiation was performed. Moreover, brain metastases were found in the left frontal and occipital lobes in February 2000, and the third gammaknife irradiation was performed. CEA normalized thereafter, but increased in February 2001. Brain metastasis was found in the right occipital lobe, and the fourth gammaknife irradiation was performed. CEA has remained within the normal range for about 4 years thereafter. Long-term survival was possible by repeated gammaknife irradiation for brain metastases. Monitoring of CEA played an important role in finding recurrent brain metastasis in this patient.

  8. Factors determinating the shape of survival curves of Escherichia coli cells irradiated by ionizing radiation with different LET. The dependence of the shape of survival curve on LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubek, S.; Krasavin, E.A.; Fajsi, Ch.

    1984-01-01

    The dependence of the shape of bacterial sUrvival curve in the case of Escherichia coli Wild type, rec - and pol - mutants on linear energy transfer is considered. When increasing LET of the radiation the shouldered survival curves are transformed to exponential ones. In the case of sensitive mutants the transformation is observed for smaller values of LET. The dependence of cell sensitivity on LET calculated on the basis of Landau-Vavilov distribution is compared with earlier calculations. The comparison showed a good agreement between two methods of calculation for ions with 4 MeV per nucleon energy

  9. Whole brain irradiation with hippocampal sparing and dose escalation on multiple brain metastases. Local tumour control and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlke, Oliver; Wucherpfennig, David; Prokic, Vesna [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Fels, Franziska [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); St. Josefs Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenburg (Germany); Frings, Lars [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Freiburg (Germany); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Egger, Karl [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Weyerbrock, Astrid [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Freiburg (Germany); Nieder, Carsten [Nordland Hospital, Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Bodoe (Norway); University of Tromsoe, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); Grosu, Anca-Ligia [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-01-16

    Hippocampal-avoidance whole brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) for multiple brain metastases may prevent treatment-related cognitive decline, compared to standard WBRT. Additionally, simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) on individual metastases may further improve the outcome. Here, we present initial data concerning local tumour control (LTC), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), toxicity and safety for this new irradiation technique. Twenty patients, enrolled between 2011 and 2013, were treated with HA-WBRT (30 Gy in 12 fractions, D{sub 98} {sub %} to hippocampus ≤ 9 Gy) and a SIB (51 Gy) on multiple (2-13) metastases using a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) approach based on 2-4 arcs. Metastases were evaluated bidimensionally along the two largest diameters in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional T1-weighed MRI. Median follow-up was 40 weeks. The median time to progression of boosted metastases has not been reached yet, corresponding to a LTC rate of 73 %. Median intracranial PFS was 40 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year PFS of 45.3 %. Median OS was 71.5 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year OS of 60 %. No obvious acute or late toxicities grade > 2 (NCI CTCAE v4.03) were observed. D{sub mean} to the bilateral hippocampi was 6.585 Gy ± 0.847 (α/β = 2 Gy). Two patients developed a new metastasis in the area of hippocampal avoidance. HA-WBRT (simultaneous integrated protection, SIP) with SIB to metastases is a safe and tolerable regime that shows favorable LTC for patients with multiple brain metastases, while it has the potential to minimize the side-effect of cognitive deterioration. (orig.) [German] Die Hippocampus-schonende Ganzhirnbestrahlung (HS-GHB) kann im Vergleich zur Standard-GHB die Verschlechterung der neurokognitiven Funktion verhindern. Zusaetzlich vermag ein simultan integrierter Boost (SIB) auf die Metastasen die Prognose der betroffenen Patienten weiter zu verbessern. In dieser Studie praesentieren wir erste Ergebnisse

  10. Effects of cisplatin and γ-irradiation on cell survival, the induction of chromosomal aberrations and apoptosis in SW-1573 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergs, J.W.J.; Franken, N.A.P.; Cate, R. ten; Bree, C. van; Haveman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Cisplatin was found to radiosensitize SW-1573 cells by inhibition of PLDR. Therefore, it was investigated whether cisplatin combined with γ-radiation leads to an increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations or apoptotic cells compared with radiation alone. Methods: Confluent cultures of the human lung carcinoma cell line SW-1573 were treated with 1 μM cisplatin for 1 h, 4 Gy γ-radiation, or a combination of both. Cell survival was studied by the clonogenic assay. Aberrations were analysed by FISH in prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) and the induction of apoptosis by counting fragmented nuclei. Results: A radiosensitizing effect of cisplatin on cell survival was observed if time for PLDR was allowed. An increased number of chromosomal fragments were observed immediately after irradiation compared with 24 h after irradiation whereas color junctions are only formed 24 h after irradiation. No increase in chromosomal aberrations was found after combined treatment, but a significantly enhanced number of fragmented nuclei were observed when confluent cultures were replated after allowing PLDR. Conclusion: The inhibition of PLDR by cisplatin in delayed plated SW-1573 cells did not increase chromosomal aberrations, but increased the induction of apoptosis

  11. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and quality changes after irradiation of beef steaks and ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, A.H.; Sebranek, J.G.; Murano, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Beef steaks and ground beef were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, or Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were packaged in air or under vacuum and irradiated at low (0.60 to 0.80 kGy) or medium (1.5 to 2.0 kGy) doses, with each dose delivered at either a low (2.8 M/min conveyor speed) or high (6.9 M/min) dose rate. Medium-dose irradiation accompanied by 7 degrees C storage resulted in no Y. enterocolitica or E. coli O157:H7 survivors being detected. There was no effect on survival of the pathogens by dose rate or storage atmosphere. No difference (P0.05) was observed in meat pH or color, but TBA values increased after 7 days storage

  12. Whole body irradiation in paediatrics: in vivo dose heterogeneity and relationship with survival and the complications rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoli, J.B.; Pignon, T.; Porcheron, D.; Juin, P.; Coze, C.; Bernard, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    No relationship has been found between the in vivo measured dose and the survival, neither relationship between the measured dose and the toxicity. The only organ for which an inter patients heterogeneity has been found was the lung. The reduction of the lung radiation dose allows to avoid any interstitial pneumopathy, but is significantly associated to a shortening of the survival. (N.C.)

  13. Factors determinating the shape of survival curves of Escherichia coli cells irradiated by ionizing radiation with different LET. Peculiarities of genom organization and the shape of survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasavin, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The basic biological mechanisms realized on molecular, cellular and population levels and stipulating the shape of dependence of the cell suriival (S) on the dose (D) are considered. One of possible causes of nonlinear S(D) dependence are the peculiarities of DNA degradation in E. coli cells. The mechanisms of genetic control of different types of degradation are discussed. Some regularities of the genetic recombination and replication of DNA in E. coli are considered. The conclusion is made that one of the basic stipulating for the shoulder on the survival curves in E. coli are the peculiarities of the chromosome replication

  14. Effect of ultraviolet-B-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusions and peritransplant immunosuppression with cyclosporine on rat cardiac allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluwole, S.F.; Lau, H.T.; Reemtsma, K.; Hardy, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that pretreatment of ACI recipients with ultraviolet-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion (UV-DST) leads to permanent cardiac allograft survival without further host immunosuppression (ACI rats are weak responders to Lewis lymphocytes in mixed-lymphocyte reaction). This study examines the effect of UV-DST and the timing of transfusions on ACI cardiac allograft survival in Lewis recipients with and without the addition of peritransplant cyclosporine (CsA) (20 mg/kg i.m.) given on days 0, +1, and +2 in relation to the time of transplantation. The mean survival time (MST) of ACI cardiac allografts in Lewis recipients was significantly increased to 33.6 +/- 5.7 days (P less than 0.001) by CsA treatment alone as compared to 6.5 +/- 0.5 days survival in control. When DST was given on day -3 combined with CsA, graft survival was increased to 42.0 +/- 9.3 days (P less than 0.01), as compared to 5.8 +/- 1.3 days when DST alone was used. When DST was irradiated with ultraviolet B (UV-DST) and administered on day -3 combined with peritransplant CsA, the MST was increased to 68.83 +/- 16.1 days as compared to an MST of 10.0 +/- 1.0 days in controls treated with UV-DST alone. When UV-DST was given on day -7 and combined with peritransplant CsA immunosuppression, the results were similar. However, when UV-DST was peritransplant CsA course, 4 of 6 recipients maintained their ACI heart allografts indefinitely (greater than 300 days) in contrast to the effect of UV-DST alone (MST of 13.5 days). Third-party (W/F) UV-irradiated blood transfusions were ineffective in prolonging ACI cardiac allografts in Lewis rats, regardless of whether the transfusions were given alone or in combination with peritransplant immunosuppression with CsA

  15. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Ansung, Gyunggi-do 456-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Jun-Sang [Animal Products Processing Division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keehyuk [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejeon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang-Do [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Ansung, Gyunggi-do 456-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun, E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.k [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (10{sup 1} CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D{sub 10} values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  16. Inability of donor total body irradiation to prolong survival of vascularized bone allografts: Experimental study in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    At the present time, the toxic side effects of recipient immunosuppression cannot be justified for human non-vital organ transplantation. Total body irradiation has proven effective in ablating various bone-marrow-derived and endothelial immunocompetent cellular populations, which are responsible for immune rejection against donor tissues. Irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy was given to donor rats six days prior to heterotopic transplantation of vascularized bone allografts to host animals. Another group of recipient rats also received a short-term (sixth to fourteenth day after grafting), low dose of cyclosporine. Total body irradiation was able merely to delay rejection of grafts across a strong histocompatibility barrier for one to two weeks, when compared to nonirradiated allografts. The combination of donor irradiation plus cyclosporine did not delay the immune response, and the rejection score was similar to that observed for control allografts. Consequently, allograft viability was quickly impaired, leading to irreversible bone damage. This study suggest that 10 Gy of donor total body irradiation delivered six days prior to grafting cannot circumvent the immune rejection in a vascularized allograft of bone across a strong histocompatibility barrier

  17. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Ham, Jun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Keehyuk; Ha, Sang-Do; Jo, Cheorun

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 10 2 to 10 3 Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (10 1 CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D 10 values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  18. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Ham, Jun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Keehyuk; Ha, Sang-Do; Jo, Cheorun

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens ( Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 10 2 to 10 3 Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (10 1 CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D 10 values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  19. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium and quality attributes of cooked pork chops and cured ham after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, A.H.; Sebranek, J.G.; Murano, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Cooked pork chops (pumped with salt/polyphosphate brine or untreated) and cured hams were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. The samples were irradiated at low (0.75 to 0.90 kGy) or medium doses (1.8 to 2.0 kGy), and each dose was delivered at either a low (2.5 M/min conveyor speed) or high (5.4 M/min) dose rate. Low-dose irradiation reduced L. monocytogenes by more than 2 log and S. typhimurium by 1 to 3 log. Pathogen populations and total plate counts (TPC) were reduced to undetectable levels by medium doses. No meat quality attributes were affected, and no dose rate effect was observed. Nitrite reduced (P 0.05) both pathogens and TPC during 7 degrees C storage in ham, especially when combined with low-dose irradiation

  20. Influence of thorax irradiation on the survival of mice with spontaneous or artificial lung metastases from a transplantable mammary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, J.; Haveman, J.; van der Schueren, E.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of thorax irradiation on lung metastases, either occurring spontaneously from a primary mammary adenocarcinoma (M8013X) transplanted on the leg or artificially induced by intravenous injection of tumor cells was studied. Increasing the interval between the moment at which lung metastases are supposed to originate and the thorax irradiation resulted in a rapid decrease of the effectiveness of this treatment in preventing the development of lung metastases. Increasing the radiation dose led to an increased number of cures; however, an increased number of mice dying of lethal lung damage was also observed. Irradiation of the lungs of mice with 5 or 10 Gy, 24 hours, 7 days or 14 days prior to i.v. injection with tumor cells, did not significantly increase the number of mice with lung metastases. Immunological resistance against the tumor played a role in our experiments with both spontaneous and artificial lung metastases

  1. Effect of spermidine on the survival of saccharomyces cerevisiae cells irradiated with different doses of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamma, M.; Alya, G.; Sharabi, N.; Azroony, R.

    2005-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were used to test the radioprotective effect of added spermidine [H 3 N(CH 2 ) 3 NH 2 (CH 2 ) 4 NH 3 ] 3+ . Spermidine plays an important role in suppressing radiation damages at certain concentration (10 -5 mol.l -1 ), either via scavenging free radicals or via the frequency of radiation-induced mutations. Spermidine increased noticeably the D 10 value at concentration of 10 -5 mol.l -1 Applying spermidine prior to irradiation was more effective than applying it post irradiation. (author)

  2. Pegylated G-CSF Inhibits Blood Cell Depletion, Increases Platelets, Blocks Splenomegaly, and Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation but Not after Irradiation Combined with Burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-05

    control mice at day 30 after burn, RI, or CI. = 6 per group. ∗ < 0.05 versus all other groups. RI: 9.5 Gy; CI: 9.5 Gy and skin burn. disease ...after irradiation. Several questions are raised. For example, howdid the red and the white pulp of the spleen look like and the different cell types get...Health Sciences, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases , the Department of Defense, or the United States government. The commercial

  3. EPR studies of free radicals decay and survival in gamma irradiated aminoglycoside antibiotics: sisomicin, tobramycin and paromomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Pilawa, Barbara; Koprowski, Robert; Wróbel, Zygmunt; Ptaszkiewicz, Marta; Swakoń, Jan; Olko, Paweł

    2012-02-14

    Radiation sterilization technology is more actively used now that any time because of its many advantages. Gamma radiation has high penetrating power, relatively low chemical reactivity and causes small temperature rise. But on the other hand radiosterilization can lead to radiolytic products appearing, in example free radicals. Free radicals in radiative sterilized sisomicin, tobramycin and paromomycin were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Dose of gamma irradiation of 25kGy was used. Concentrations and properties of free radicals in irradiated antibiotics were studied. EPR spectra were recorded for samples stored in air and argon. For gamma irradiated antibiotics strong EPR lines were recorded. One- and two-exponential functions were fitted to experimental points during testing and researching of time influence of the antibiotics storage to studied parameters of EPR lines. Our study of free radicals in radiosterilized antibiotics indicates the need for characterization of medicinal substances prior to sterilization process using EPR values. We propose the concentration of free radicals and other spectroscopic parameters as useful factors to select the optimal type of sterilization for the individual drug. The important parameters are i.a. the τ time constants and K constants of exponential functions. Time constants τ give us information about the speed of free radicals concentration decrease in radiated medicinal substances. The constant K(0) shows the free radicals concentration in irradiated medicament after long time of storage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Artificial neural network model of survival in patients treated with irradiation with and without concurrent chemotherapy for advanced carcinoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, Thomas J.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Floyd, Carey E.; Hars, Vera; Brizel, David M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of predicting survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) with an artificial neural network (ANN), and to compare ANN performance with conventional models. Methods and Materials: Data were analyzed from a Phase III trial in which patients with locally advanced SCCHN received hyperfractionated irradiation with or without concurrent cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Of the 116 randomized patients, 95 who had 2-year follow-up and all required data were evaluated. ANN and logistic regression (LR) models were constructed to predict 2-year total survival using round-robin cross-validation. A modified staging model was also examined. Results: The best LR model used tumor size, nodal stage, and race to predict survival. The best ANN used nodal stage, tumor size, stage, and resectability, and hemoglobin. Treatment type did not predict 2-year survival and was not included in either model. Using the respective best feature sets, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A z ) for the ANN was 0.78 ± 0.05, showing more accurate overall performance than LR (A z = 0.67 ± 0.05, p = 0.07). At 70% sensitivity, the ANN was 72% specific, while LR was 54% specific (p = 0.08). At 70% specificity, the ANN was 72% sensitive, while LR was 54% sensitive (p = 0.07). When both models used the five predictive variables best for an ANN, A z for LR decreased [A z = 0.61 ± 0.06, p z = 0.60 ± 0.07, p = 0.02 (ANN)]. Conclusions: An ANN modeled 2-year survival in this data set more accurately than LR or staging models and employed predictive variables that could not be used by LR. Further work is planned to confirm these results on larger patient samples, examining longer follow-up to incorporate treatment type into the model

  5. Ciprofloxacin Enhances Stress Erythropoiesis in Spleen and Increases Survival after Whole-Body Irradiation Combined with Skin-Wound Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Figure 3D ). Analysis performed on kidney lysates from the same animals, however, revealed neither CI nor CIP significantly changed the total amount of HIF...cotton for nesting and a plastic dome. Irradiation Mice were placed in well-ventilated acrylic restrainers and given specified doses of whole-body...sterile water (vehicle) and after brief centrifugation sterile-filtered using a.22 mm cellulose nitrate (CN) filter system (Corning, Corning, NY). Each

  6. Effects of carbon ion irradiation on survival rate, catalase and peroxidase activity of alfalfa M1 under low temperature stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuyang; Li Jinghua; Jiang Boling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three kinds of alfalfa including Zhonglan 1, BC-04-477 and Ta Cheng were treated with different doses of "1"2C"6"+ (75 keV) heavy ion radiation, and then the influence of survival rate, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity of M1 with low temperature stress were tested. The results showed that under the condition of 400 Gy radiation dose, the survival rate and CAT activity of Zhonglan 1 under low temperature stress have increased by 33.3%, 56.3% respectively compared with those of the control group, while there was no difference in POD activity between those two groups. The survival rate, CAT and POD activity of BC-04-477 treated with low temperature have been improved by 33.3%, 69.2%, 5.1% respectively compared with those of the control group when the radiation dose was 400 Gy. Compared with those of the control group, the survival rate, CAT and POD activity of Ta Cheng under low temperature stress have been improved by 25%, 26%,22.8% respectively when the radiation dose was 800 Gy. These results indicate that the viability and the cold resistance ability of Zhong Lan 1, BC-04-477 and Ta Cheng can be improved by "1"2C"6"+ radiation. (authors)

  7. A generalised formulation of the 'incomplete-repair' model for cell survival and tissue response to fractionated low dose-rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, P.; Joiner, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    A generalized equation for cell survival or tissue effects after fractionated low dose-rate irradiations, when there is incomplete repair between fractions and significant repair during fractions, is derived in terms of the h- and g-functions of the 'incomplete-repair' (IR) model. The model is critically dependent on α/β, repair half-time, treatment time and interfraction interval, and should therefore be regarded primarily as a tool for the analysis of fractionation and dose-rate effects in carefully designed radiobiological experiments, although it should also be useful in exploring, in a general way, the feasibility of clinical treatment protocols using fractionated low dose-rate treatments. (author)

  8. Differential effects of 18- and 24-Gy cranial irradiation on growth rate and growth hormone release in children with prolonged survival after acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicognani, A.; Cacciari, E.; Vecchi, V.; Cau, M.; Balsamo, A.; Pirazzoli, P.; Tosi, M.T.; Rosito, P.; Paolucci, G.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of two different doses of cranial irradiation on growth and growth hormone (GH) release, we studied 61 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had survived at least five years in continuous complete remission. Forty-three children received 24 Gy (group 1) and 18 children received 18 Gy (group 2). Height was evaluated at diagnosis, at the end of treatment, and 6, 12, and 24 months later. Growth hormone release was evaluated by arginine and levodopa tests after the end of treatment. After diagnosis, the height SD score decreased significantly in both groups; two years after the end of treatment, only group 1 showed an SD score for height that was still significantly lower than at diagnosis. Group 1 showed impaired GH responses to the tests and, compared with controls, group 1 in fact included a percentage of subjects with a normal response to levodopa (ie, greater than 8 micrograms/L) that was significantly lower (56.4% vs 83.3%) and a percentage of nonresponders to both tests that was significantly higher (21.6% vs 0%). These data indicate that only patients treated with lower cranial irradiation dosage (18 Gy) had complete growth recovery and normal GH responses to pharmacologic tests

  9. On the surviving fraction in irradiated multicellular tumour spheroids: calculation of overall radiosensitivity parameters, influence of hypoxia and volume effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horas, Jorge A; Olguin, Osvaldo R; Rizzotto, Marcos G

    2005-01-01

    We model the heterogeneous response to radiation of multicellular tumour spheroids assuming position- and volume-dependent radiosensitivity. We propose a method to calculate the overall radiosensitivity parameters to obtain the surviving fraction of tumours. A mathematical model of a spherical tumour with a hypoxic core and a viable rim which is a caricature of a real tumour is constructed. The model is embedded in a two-compartment linear-quadratic (LQ) model, assuming a mixed bivariated Gaussian distribution to attain the radiosensitivity parameters. Ergodicity, i.e., the equivalence between ensemble and volumetric averages is used to obtain the overall radiosensitivities for the two compartments. We obtain expressions for the overall radiosensitivity parameters resulting from the use of both a linear and a nonlinear dependence of the local radiosensitivity with position. The model's results are compared with experimental data of surviving fraction (SF) for multicellular spheroids of different sizes. We make one fit using only the smallest spheroid data and we are able to predict the SF for the larger spheroids. These predictions are acceptable particularly using bounded sensitivities. We conclude with the importance of taking into account the contribution of clonogenic hypoxic cells to radiosensitivity and with the convenience of using bounded local sensitivities to predict overall radiosensitivity parameters

  10. The survival and repair of DNA single-strand breaks in gamma-irradiated Escherichia coli adapted to methyl methane sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhestyanikov, V.D.; Savel'eva, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    The survival and repair of single-strand breaks of DNA in gamma-irradiated E.coli adapted to methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) (20 mkg/ml during 3 hours) have been investigated. It is shown that the survival of adapted bacteria of radioresistant strains B/r, H/r30, AB1157 and W3110 pol + increases with DMF (dose modification factor) ranging within 1.4-1.8 and in radiosensitive strains B s-1 , AB1157 recA13 and AB1157 lexA3 with DMF ranging within 1.3-1.4, and does not change in strains with mutation in poLA gene P3478 poLA1 and 016 res-3. The increase in radioresistance during the adaptation to MMS correlates with the acceleration of repair of gamma-ray-induced single-strand breaks in the radioresistant strains B/r and W3110 pol + and with the appearance of the ability to repair some part of DNA single-strand breaks in the mutant B s-1

  11. Prophylactic cranial irradiation may impose a detrimental effect on overall survival of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuan-shuan Xie

    Full Text Available To determine the role of brain metastases (BM and overall survival (OS in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC by performing a meta-analysis of the RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials and non-RCTs (non-randomized controlled clinical trials published in the literature.A meta-analysis was performed using trials identified through PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Two investigators independently assessed the quality of the trials and extracted data. The outcomes included BM, OS, median survival (MS, response rate (RR, Hazard ratios (HRs and odds ratios (ORs, and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were pooled using ReMan software.Twelve trials (6 RCTs and 6 non-RCTs involving 1,718 NSCLC patients met the inclusion criteria. They were grouped on the basis of study design for separate Meta-analyses. The results showed that prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI reduced the risk of BM as compared with non-PCI in NSCLC patients (OR = 0.30, 95% [CI]: 0.21-0.43, p<0.00001. However, HRs for OS favored non-PCI (HR = 1.19, 95% [CI]: 1.06-1.33, p = 0.004, without evidence of heterogeneity between the studies.Our results suggest that although PCI decreased the risk of BM, it may impose a detrimental effect on OS of NSCLC patients.

  12. Reproductive survival of explanted human tumor cells after exposure to nitrogen mustard or x irradiation; differences in response with subsequent subculture in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.; Berry, R.J.; Laing, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Curves for the survival of reproductive capacity of explanted human tumor cells, following exposure to the alkylating agent nitrogen mustard (mustine hydrochloride) or 250-kVp x rays, were obtained as soon as a satisfactory plating efficiency, i.e., greater than or approximately equal to 10 percent, was obtained from the tumor cells in vitro (usually within 2-10 weeks of explanation). It was found that all six tumor explants tested became more sensitive to the action of nitrogen mustard on serial subculture, whereas the response of four explants which were X-irradiated was invariant with further subculturing. Furthermore, all but one explant yielded survival curves which were extremely similar, with D/sub q/ values circa 440-610 rad. One line, from a seminoma, however, had a D/sub q/ of 150 rad. These radiosensitive seminoma cells were, however, the most resistant to the action of nitrogen mustard. The increase in sensitivity to nitrogen mustard with serial subculture in vitro was not associated with any change in the proliferative rate of the cells, although it may be associated with an increase in the efficiency of transport

  13. Is There a Role for Pelvic Irradiation in Localized Prostate Adenocarcinoma? Update of the Long-Term Survival Results of the GETUG-01 Randomized Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommier, Pascal, E-mail: Pascal.pommier@lyon.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); Chabaud, Sylvie [Department of Clinical Research and Innovation, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); Lagrange, Jean-Leon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire H. Mondor, Créteil (France); Richaud, Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Bergognié, Bordeaux (France); Le Prise, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Eugène Marquis, Rennes (France); Wagner, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Andrée Dutreix, Dunkerque (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Beckendorf, Veronique [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Suchaud, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de Roanne, Roanne (France); Bernier, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Perol, David [Department of Clinical Research and Innovation, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); Carrie, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To report the long-term results of the French Genitourinary Study Group (GETUG)-01 study in terms of event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) and assess the potential interaction between hormonotherapy and pelvic nodes irradiation. Patients and Methods: Between December 1998 and June 2004, 446 patients with T1b-T3, N0pNx, M0 prostate carcinoma were randomly assigned to either pelvic nodes and prostate or prostate-only radiation therapy. Patients were stratified into 2 groups: “low risk” (T1-T2 and Gleason score 6 and prostate-specific antigen <3× the upper normal limit of the laboratory) (92 patients) versus “high risk” (T3 or Gleason score >6 or prostate-specific antigen >3× the upper normal limit of the laboratory). Short-term 6-month neoadjuvant and concomitant hormonal therapy was allowed only for high-risk patients. Radiation therapy was delivered with a 3-dimensional conformal technique, using a 4-field technique for the pelvic volume (46 Gy). The total dose recommended to the prostate moved from 66 Gy to 70 Gy during the course of the study. Criteria for EFS included biologic prostate-specific antigen recurrences and/or a local or metastatic progression. Results: With a median follow-up of 11.4 years, the 10-year OS and EFS were similar in the 2 treatment arms. A higher but nonsignificant EFS was observed in the low-risk subgroup in favor of pelvic nodes radiation therapy (77.2% vs 62.5%; P=.18). A post hoc subgroup analysis showed a significant benefit of pelvic irradiation when the risk of lymph node involvement was <15% (Roach formula). This benefit seemed to be limited to patients who did not receive hormonal therapy. Conclusion: Pelvic nodes irradiation did not statistically improve EFS or OS in the whole population but may be beneficial in selected low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with exclusive radiation therapy.

  14. Similar Survival for Patients Undergoing Reduced-Intensity Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Versus Myeloablative TBI as Conditioning for Allogeneic Transplant in Acute Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikell, John L., E-mail: jmikell@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Waller, Edmund K. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Switchenko, Jeffrey M. [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Rangaraju, Sravanti; Ali, Zahir; Graiser, Michael [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Hall, William A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Langston, Amelia A. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khoury, H. Jean [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khan, Mohammad K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the mainstay of treatment for adults with acute leukemia. Total body irradiation (TBI) remains an important part of the conditioning regimen for HCST. For those patients unable to tolerate myeloablative TBI (mTBI), reduced intensity TBI (riTBI) is commonly used. In this study we compared outcomes of patients undergoing mTBI with those of patients undergoing riTBI in our institution. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with acute leukemia who underwent TBI-based conditioning, using a prospectively acquired database of HSCT patients treated at our institution. Patient data including details of the transplantation procedure, disease status, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), response rates, toxicity, survival time, and time to progression were extracted. Patient outcomes for various radiation therapy regimens were examined. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Between June 1985 and July 2012, 226 patients with acute leukemia underwent TBI as conditioning for HSCT. Of those patients, 180 had full radiation therapy data available; 83 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 94 had acute myelogenous leukemia; 45 patients received riTBI, and 135 received mTBI. Median overall survival (OS) was 13.7 months. Median relapse-free survival (RFS) for all patients was 10.2 months. Controlling for age, sex, KPS, disease status, and diagnosis, there were no significant differences in OS or RFS between patients who underwent riTBI and those who underwent mTBI (P=.402, P=.499, respectively). Median length of hospital stay was shorter for patients who received riTBI than for those who received mTBI (16 days vs 23 days, respectively; P<.001), and intensive care unit admissions were less frequent following riTBI than mTBI (2.22% vs 12.69%, respectively, P=.043). Nonrelapse survival rates were also similar (P=.186). Conclusions: No differences in OS or RFS were seen between

  15. Prognostic Impact of Erythropoietin Expression and Erythropoietin Receptor Expression on Locoregional Control and Survival of Patients Irradiated for Stage II/III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rades, Dirk; Setter, Cornelia; Dahl, Olav; Schild, Steven E.; Noack, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Prognostic factors can guide the physician in selecting the optimal treatment for an individual patient. This study investigates the prognostic value of erythropoietin (EPO) and EPO receptor (EPO-R) expression of tumor cells for locoregional control and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Fourteen factors were investigated in 62 patients irradiated for stage II/III NSCLC, as follows: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), histology, grading, TNM/American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, surgery, chemotherapy, pack years (average number of packages of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of years smoked), smoking during radiotherapy, hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy, EPO expression, and EPO-R expression. Additionally, patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R were compared to those expressing either EPO or EPO-R and to those expressing neither EPO nor EPO-R. Results: On univariate analysis, improved locoregional control was associated with AJCC stage II cancer (p 70 (p = 0.08), an N stage of 0 to 1 (p = 0.07), and no EPO-R expression (p = 0.10). On multivariate analysis, AJCC stage II and no EPO expression remained significant. No smoking during radiotherapy was almost significant. On univariate analysis, improved survival was associated with N stage 0 to 1 (p = 0.009), surgery (p = 0.039), hemoglobin levels of ≥12 g/d (p = 0.016), and no EPO expression (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, N stage 0 to 1 and no EPO expression maintained significance. Hemoglobin levels of ≥12 g/d were almost significant. On subgroup analyses, patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R had worse outcomes than those expressing either EPO or EPO-R and those expressing neither EPO nor RPO-R. Conclusions: EPO expression of tumor cells was an independent prognostic factor for locoregional control and survival in patients irradiated for NSCLC. EPO-R expression showed a trend

  16. Test of equal effect per fraction and estimation of initial clonogen number in microcolony assays of survival after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.; Withers, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    In the use of multifraction microcolony assays to infer the low-dose response of in situ renewal systems such as intestinal crypts, the assumption of equal effect per dose fraction is required. Moreover, the construction of a cell-survival curve requires knowledge of the initial count of cells capable of repopulating each renewal structure. We describe a method of designing fractionation protocols which provides a regression estimate of the initial number of clonogens per renewal structure and a test of the hypothesis of equal effect per fraction. The essential factor in the experimental design is the use of common dose fractions (use of the same dose per fraction in series with different numbers of fractions). Applications of the method to data for which the assumption of equal effect per fraction holds (four-hour fractionation interval murine testis study) and does not hold (one-hour fractionation interval murine jejunal crypt study) are presented. (author)

  17. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors

  18. Contribution of a caffeine-sensitive recombinational repair pathway to survival and mutagenesis in UV-irradiated Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Werner, M.M.; Hannan, M.A.; Nasim, A.

    1978-01-01

    Cells of wild-type Schizosacharomyces pombe exposed to UV radiation in either G1 or G2 phase show enhanced inactivation of colony-forming ability if plated in the presence of caffeine. This UV-sensitization by caffeine is abolished in both G1 an G2 phase cells by the radlmutation; since both caffeine and the radl mutation markedly reduce recombinational events, this suggests that a recombinational repair process is active in cells irradiated either in G1 or G2 phase. Caffeine-sensitive repair begins immediately and is completed before resumption of DNA synthesis. Caffeine-sensitive repair of UV-damage in G1 cells displays a considerable lag and then occurs concomitantly with DNA synthesis. UV-induced mutagenesis was examined in wild-type and rad mutants using a forward mutation system. Rad mutants which show higher UV-induced mutation rates than wild-type retain the recombinational mechanism. In contrast, rad strains which are relatively UV-immutable compared to wild-type do not possess the caffeine-sensitive UV-repair process. The recombinational process therefore may be the major pathway responsible for UV-induced mutation. (orig./AJ) [de

  19. Influence of heterogenous alpha irradiation of Chinese hamster liver on survival and the induction of cancer. IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, N A; Guilmette, R A; Eidson, A F; Griffith, W C; Brooks, A L

    1988-12-01

    Estimation of risk to the human liver from deposited alpha-emitting radionuclides currently is based on epidemiological data accumulated from patients that received injections of the X-ray contrast medium Thorotrast. These exposures resulted in highly focal distributions of radiation dose, primarily around the liver sinusoids. It is, important to understand the applicability of these human data for extrapolating risk to people that are exposed to other liver-seeking alpha emitters, such as plutonium (Pu), where the distribution of alpha dose may be much more uniform and uncomplicated by the presence of large colloid masses in the liver tissue. In this study, Chinese hamsters received intravenous injections of Thorotrast (7.4, 1.5 or 0.30 Bq/g body weight) or monomeric {sup 239}Pu citrate (7.4 Bq/g), and were held for life-span observation. Using Cox proportional hazards analysis of the dose response for several neoplastic and hyperplastic lesions observed in the liver, it was found that the relative risk for each endpoint was increased in a dose related manner for all three dose levels of Thorotrast, and that the risks for the Pu-injected animals (7.4 Bq/g) were similar to those of the hamsters injected with 1.5 Bq/g Thorotrast. Dosimetry and pathological analyses are being continued to examine the dose-response relationships for these two patterns of alpha irradiation in greater detail, particularly as they affect the liver. (author)

  20. Influence of heterogenous alpha irradiation of Chinese hamster liver on survival and the induction of cancer. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, N.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Eidson, A.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Brooks, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Estimation of risk to the human liver from deposited alpha-emitting radionuclides currently is based on epidemiological data accumulated from patients that received injections of the X-ray contrast medium Thorotrast. These exposures resulted in highly focal distributions of radiation dose, primarily around the liver sinusoids. It is, important to understand the applicability of these human data for extrapolating risk to people that are exposed to other liver-seeking alpha emitters, such as plutonium (Pu), where the distribution of alpha dose may be much more uniform and uncomplicated by the presence of large colloid masses in the liver tissue. In this study, Chinese hamsters received intravenous injections of Thorotrast (7.4, 1.5 or 0.30 Bq/g body weight) or monomeric 239 Pu citrate (7.4 Bq/g), and were held for life-span observation. Using Cox proportional hazards analysis of the dose response for several neoplastic and hyperplastic lesions observed in the liver, it was found that the relative risk for each endpoint was increased in a dose related manner for all three dose levels of Thorotrast, and that the risks for the Pu-injected animals (7.4 Bq/g) were similar to those of the hamsters injected with 1.5 Bq/g Thorotrast. Dosimetry and pathological analyses are being continued to examine the dose-response relationships for these two patterns of alpha irradiation in greater detail, particularly as they affect the liver. (author)

  1. The effect of homocysteine thiolactone and its α-alkylated derivative on the survival of irradiated E. coli AB1157

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Y.; Lubec, G.; Getoff, N.; Solar, S.; Quint, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation induced decomposition of homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL) and α-methyl-homocysteine thiolactone (α-MHCTL) was studied in aqueous solution (pH = 5.4) as a function of dose (up to 1.55 kGy) in the absence and presence of oxygen as well as in solutions saturated with N 2 O. The strongest radiolysis of both substances was observed in oxygenated solution, because of the peroxide transient formation. E. coli AB1157 were used as model of living systems for toxicity studies of α-MHCTL in the range of 6 x 10 -9 to 6 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 . Comparative survival curves of E. coli bacteria using α-MHCTL, HCTL and cysteamine in the presence of air showed that α-MHCTL is the most efficient radiation protector. Rather high radiation protective effect on bacteria was also observed in absence of oxygen. The corresponding D 37 data (kGy) are reported. (author)

  2. Nanoscale dose deposition in cell structures under X-ray irradiation treatment assisted with nanoparticles of a set of elements: an analytical approach to cell survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo B, W.; Barboza F, M. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Chernov, G., E-mail: g.chernovch@gmail.com [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Fisica, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    The goal of combining nanoparticles (Nps) with radiation therapy is to increase the differential effect between healthy and tumor tissues. Only some elements have been investigated to be used as radiosensitizers and no systematic experimental or theoretical comparisons between different materials have been developed. MacMahon, et al. (Nano scale, 2016, 8, 581) presents the first systematic computational study of the impact of elemental composition on nanoparticle radiation interaction for kilo voltage and megavoltage X-ray exposure, for a range of elements (Z = 14 - 80). In this study we present and analytical model to assess the cell survival modification responses of cell cultures under irradiation treatments with keV X-rays assisted with Nps of different materials as platinum, hafnium, gadolinium, gold, germanium, iodine and iron. This model starts from the data of radial dose deposition around a single 20 nm diameter Np irradiated with photons of an energy 20 keV higher than the element K-shell binding energy to the nano scale probability of dose distribution inside cell structures with embedded Nps (the assessment of the average dose and the average squared dose in cell structure). Also based on the Local Effect Model we estimate potential biological effects, as is the case of the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). Nano scale dose deposition exhibits a complex dependence on atomic number, as a consequence of the variations in secondary Auger electron spectra, this is manifested in significant variations in RBE. Upon in vitro experiments RBE varies from 1 to 1.6. Values representative of a high radiosensitization were observed for lower energies, ones that are well reproduced by our analytical analysis for cell cultures with a homogeneous distribution of different material Nps. (Author)

  3. High-fat diet exacerbates inflammation and cell survival signals in the skin of ultraviolet B-irradiated C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeran, Syed M.; Singh, Tripti; Nagy, Tim R.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation induced by chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases. We formulated the hypothesis that a high-fat diet may influence the UV-induced inflammatory responses in the skin. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet or control diet and exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm 2 ) three times/week for 10 weeks. The mice were then sacrificed and skin and plasma samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. We found that the levels of inflammatory biomarkers were increased in the UVB-exposed skin of the mice fed the high-fat diet than the UVB-exposed skin of the mice fed the control diet. The levels of inflammatory biomarkers of early responses to UVB exposure (e.g., myeloperoxidase, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin-E 2 ), proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser 473 ) were higher in high-fat-diet-fed mouse skin than control-diet-fed mouse skin. The plasma levels of insulin growth factor-1 were greater in the UVB-irradiated mice fed the high-fat diet than the UVB-irradiated mice fed the control diet, whereas the levels of plasma adiponectin were significantly lower. This pronounced exacerbation of the UVB-induced inflammatory responses in the skin of mice fed a high-fat diet suggests that high-fat diet may increase susceptibility to inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  4. Nanoscale dose deposition in cell structures under X-ray irradiation treatment assisted with nanoparticles of a set of elements: an analytical approach to cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo B, W.; Barboza F, M.; Chernov, G.

    2016-10-01

    The goal of combining nanoparticles (Nps) with radiation therapy is to increase the differential effect between healthy and tumor tissues. Only some elements have been investigated to be used as radiosensitizers and no systematic experimental or theoretical comparisons between different materials have been developed. MacMahon, et al. (Nano scale, 2016, 8, 581) presents the first systematic computational study of the impact of elemental composition on nanoparticle radiation interaction for kilo voltage and megavoltage X-ray exposure, for a range of elements (Z = 14 - 80). In this study we present and analytical model to assess the cell survival modification responses of cell cultures under irradiation treatments with keV X-rays assisted with Nps of different materials as platinum, hafnium, gadolinium, gold, germanium, iodine and iron. This model starts from the data of radial dose deposition around a single 20 nm diameter Np irradiated with photons of an energy 20 keV higher than the element K-shell binding energy to the nano scale probability of dose distribution inside cell structures with embedded Nps (the assessment of the average dose and the average squared dose in cell structure). Also based on the Local Effect Model we estimate potential biological effects, as is the case of the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). Nano scale dose deposition exhibits a complex dependence on atomic number, as a consequence of the variations in secondary Auger electron spectra, this is manifested in significant variations in RBE. Upon in vitro experiments RBE varies from 1 to 1.6. Values representative of a high radiosensitization were observed for lower energies, ones that are well reproduced by our analytical analysis for cell cultures with a homogeneous distribution of different material Nps. (Author)

  5. Hemopoietic stem-cell compartment of the SCID mouse: Double-exponential survival curve after γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Satoshi; Hirabayashi, Yoko; Inoue, Tohru; Kanisawa, Masayoshi; Sasaki, Hideki; Komatsu, Kenshi; Mori, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    It has been reported that SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency, scid/scid) mice are more radiosensitive than normal mice. In the present studies, graded doses of radiation were given to bone marrow cells from SCID mice, and double-exponential survival curves were observed for day-9 and day-12 colony-forming units in the spleen (CFU-S). Single-exponential curves were found for SCID CFU in in vitro assays for granulocyte/macrophage-CFUs and erythroid burst-forming units, as reported elsewhere. Since the size of this more resistant fraction seems to decrease with stem-cell maturation, the finding implies that this fraction is a primitive subpopulation of the stem-cell compartment. The mean lethal dose (D 0 ), however, of this less sensitive SCID CFU-S is much less than the D 0 of regular CFU-S in normal littermates. Spleen colonies produced by SCID bone marrow were relatively small and abortive. The size of these colonies decreased nearly exponentially with increasing doses of radiation. These colonies produced by the sensitive fraction have disappeared, being killed by a relatively low dose of radiation. This observation might account for the high lymphomagenesis arising from primitive hemopoietic stem cells in SCID mice, because the smallness of the colonies suggests that there is unrepaired or misrepaired damage. Furthermore, this less sensitive fraction might be a source of the open-quotes leakyclose quotes change of T and B cells, possibly due to the induction of an equivocal repair system which appears in the later stages of life in the SCID mice. 34 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Studies on the pathogenesis and survival of different culture forms of Listeria monocytogenes to pulsed UV-light irradiation after exposure to mild-food processing stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Derek; McNeil, Brian; Laffey, John G; Rowan, Neil J

    2012-06-01

    The effects of mild conventional food-processing conditions on Listeria monocytogenes survival to pulsed UV (PUV) irradiation and virulence-associated characteristics were investigated. Specifically, this study describes the inability of 10 strains representative of 3 different culture forms or morphotypes of L. monocytogenes to adapt to normally lethal levels of PUV-irradiation after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of salt (7.5% (w/v) NaCl for 1 h), acid (pH 5.5 for 1 h), heating (48 °C for 1 h) or PUV (UV dose 0.08 μJ/cm(2)). Findings showed that the order of increasing sensitivity of L. monocytogenes of non-adapted and stressed morphotypes to low pH (pH 3.5 for 5 h, adjusted with lactic), high salt (17.5% w/v NaCl for 5 h), heating (60 °C for 1 h) and PUV-irradiation (100 pulses at 7.2 J and 12.8 J, equivalent to UV doses of 2.7 and 8.4 μJ/cm(2) respectively) was typical wild-type smooth (S/WT), atypical filamentous rough (FR) and atypical multiple-cell-chain (MCR) variants. Exposure of L. monocytogenes cells to sub-lethal acid, salt or heating conditions resulted in similar or increased susceptibility to PUV treatments. Only prior exposure to mild heat stressing significantly enhanced invasion of Caco-2 cells, whereas subjection of L. monocytogenes cells to combined sub-lethal salt, acid and heating conditions produced the greatest reduction in invasiveness. Implications of these findings are discussed. This constitutes the first study to show that pre-exposure to mild conventional food-processing stresses enhances sensitivity of different culture morphotypes of L. monocytogenes to PUV, which is growing in popularity as an alternative or complementary approach for decontamination in the food environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship of DNA repair to chromosome aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges and survival during liquid-holding recovery in X-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Nagasawa, H.; Little, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    The repair of X-ray-induced DNA single strand breaks and DNA-protein cross-links was investigated in stationary phase, contact-inhibited mouse cells by the alkaline-elution technique. Approx. 90% of X-ray-induced single strand breaks were rejoined during the first hour of repair, whereas most of the remaining breaks were rejoined more slowly during the next 5 h. At early repair times, the number of residual non-rejoined sungle strand breaks was approx. proportional to the X-ray dose. DNA-protein cross-links were removed at a slower rate (Tsub(1/2) approx. 10-12 h). Cells were held in stationary growth for various periods of time after irradiation before subculture at low density to score for colony survival (potentially lethal damage repair), chromosome aberrations in the first mitosis, and sister-chromatid exchanges in the second mitosis. Both cell killing and the frequency of chromosome aberrations decreased during the first several hours of recovery, reaching a minimum level by 6 h; this decrease correlated temporally with the repair of the slowly rejoining DNA-strand breaks. Relatively few sister-chromatid exchanges were observed when the cells were subcultured immediately after X-ray. The exchange frequency rose to maximum levels after a 4-h recovery interval, and returned to control levels after 12 h of recovery. The possible relationship of DNA repair to these changes in survival, chromosome aberrations, and sister-chromatid exchanges during liquid-holding recovery is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Irradiations of human melanoma cells by 14 MeV neutrons; survival curves interpretation; physical simulation of neutrons interactions in the cellular medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodez, Veronique

    2000-01-01

    14 MeV neutrons are used to irradiate human melanoma cells in order to study survival curves at low dose and low dose rate. We have simulated with the MCNP code, transport of neutrons through the experimental setup to evaluate the contamination of the primary beam by gamma and electrons, for the feasibility of our experiments. We have shown a rapid decrease of the survival curve in the first cGy followed by a plateau for doses up to 30 cGy; after we observed an exponential decrease. This results are observed for the first time, for neutrons at low dose rate (5 cGy/h). In parallel with this experimental point, we have developed a simulation code which permitted the study of neutrons interactions with the cellular medium for individual cells defined as in our experimental conditions. We show that most of the energy is deposited by protons from neutron interactions with external medium, and by heavy ions for interactions into the cell. On the other hand the code gives a good order of magnitude of the dose rate, compared to the experimental values given by silicon diodes. The first results show that we can, using a theory based on induced repair of cells, give an interpretation of the observed experimental plateau. We can give an estimation of the radial distribution of dose for the tracks of charged ions, we show the possibility of calculate interaction cross sections with cellular organelles. Such a work gives interesting perspectives for the future in radiobiology, radiotherapy or radioprotection. (author) [fr

  9. Reproductive death and population kinetics in survival fractions of in vitro hamster cells during 48 hours after X-irradiation with doses up to 800 Rds. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G.

    1976-01-01

    By means of a quantitative analysis, the time dependency of the number of dead cells and the resulting statement of cell numbers are compared with colony survival curves and with the distribution of colony sizes. The obtained periodical variation of reproductively killed cells is analyzed through population kinetics and is reduced to the number of those among the irradiated cells which show radiation-induced lethal reproductive damage. Therefrom, together with both sorts of interphase-dead cells, the dose dependency of the three lethal fractions results, taking into consideration the quantitative cellular statement. The formation of maxima of reproductively killed cells at the intervals of generation time until F 3 -generation is explained by an autosynchronization of partly lethally injured cell populations. From colony size distributions a linear dose dependency of the mean colony size group can be derived; this is discussed in connection with DNA double strand breaks regarded as a possible cause of reproductive lethal damages. The data obtained concerning the development of a cell population with radiation damages are evaluated by the construction of phylogenetic schedules for every 300 rd and 500 rd. By this means, the underlying population kinetics is being revised quantitatively. (orig.) [de

  10. Survival and mutation in clones derived from V79 Chinese hamster cells irradiated with multiple small exposures to far-UV and mid-UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikebuchi, M.; Osmak, M.; Hill, C.

    1987-01-01

    Clones were isolated from U81 and N80 cells that were established by irradiation of Chinese hamster V79-M12G cells on a once a day schedule with 81 and 80 fractions of 6 J m/sup -2/ far-UV and 150 Jm/sup -2/ mid-UV (UV-B), respectively. These clones were examined for UV sensitivity to cell lethality and induction of mutations at 6TG/sup r/ (resistance to 6-thioguanine) and Oua/sup R/ (resistance to ouabain) loci. Survival curves for these clones indicate that their UV sensitivities to lethality vary from that of M12G cells to that of U81 and N80 parental cells. Clones also show heterogeneity for mutability to mid-UV: For induction of 6TG/sup r/, for example, non-mutable (U814), hypomutable (U815) and hypermutable (U811) were isolated from U81 cells. The authors are investigating by chromosome analysis and repair experiments why resistance to far-UV and mid-UV cell killing in these cells appears to be induced but the resulting survivors have a heterogeneous response to mutation induction by further doses of UV light

  11. Influence of metronidazole on the survival rate of whole-body irradiated mice and on the DNA repair synthesis of lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdon, E.; Schroeder, E.

    1978-01-01

    With reference to literature reports the effect of Metronidazole [1-(hydroxyethyl)-5-nitro-2-methyl-imidazole] on the survival rate of C 3 H inbred mice following whole-body doses ranging from 5 to 15 Gy was determined under oxic and hypoxic conditions. Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were used to study the influence of Metronidazole on radiation-induced alterations of the DNA sedimentation behavior in the alkaline sucrose gradient under oxic conditions in vitro. The effect of Metronidazole on the semiconservative DNA synthesis was investigated under oxic and hypoxic conditions in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells and L5178Y lymphoma cells. Furthermore, it was examined whether the radiation-induced inhibition of semiconservative DNA synthesis in L5178Y lymphoma cells and the radiation-induced repair synthesis in lymphocytes is influenced by Metronidazole. From the values of the LDsub(50/30) after whole-body irradiation a sensitilization factor of 1.3 was derived for Metronidazole under hypoxic conditions. Under atmospheric conditions an increase of the radiation effect by a factor of 1.1 was obtained. The protective factor of hypoxia was 1.6 and thus greater than the radiosensibilization caused by Metronidazole. The DNA synthesis was slightly inhibited by Metronidazole under both hypoxic and euoxic conditions. The studies revealed no significant influence of Metronidazole on radiation-induced changes of the DNA sedimentation behavior and of the DNA repair synthesis as well as on the radiation induced inhibition of semiconservative DNA synthesis. (author)

  12. Skin Inqjuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + γ-Photons Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI increase mortality more than whole-body γ-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6 concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP, complement 3 (C3, immunoglobulin M (IgM, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3 Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n+γ-photons radiations at 0.38 Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival.

  13. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity exacerbates ultraviolet B radiation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and cell survival signals in ultraviolet B-irradiated mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Som D.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases and in different types of cancer. Chronic inflammation induced by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases, including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. As the relationship between obesity and susceptibility to UV radiation-caused inflammation is not clearly understood, we assessed the role of obesity on UVB-induced inflammation, and mediators of this inflammatory response, using the genetically obese (leptin-deficient) mouse model. Leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice and wild-type counterparts (C57/BL6 mice) were exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm 2 ) on alternate days for 1 month. The mice were then euthanized and skin samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. Here, we report that the levels of inflammatory responses were higher in the UVB-exposed skin of the ob/ob obese mice than those in the UVB-exposed skin of the wild-type non-obese mice. The levels of UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression, prostaglandin-E 2 production, proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser 473 ) were higher in the skin of the ob/ob obese mice than the those in skin of their wild-type non-obese counterparts. Compared with the wild-type non-obese mice, the leptin-deficient obese mice also exhibited greater activation of NF-κB/p65 and fewer apoptotic cells in the UVB-irradiated skin. Our study suggests for the first time that obesity in mice is associated with greater susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammatory responses and, therefore, obesity may increase susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  14. The Gottingen minipig is a model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome: G-colony stimulating factor stimulates hematopoiesis and enhances survival from lethal total-body γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D; Holt, Rebecca K; Whitnall, Mark H

    2013-08-01

    We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Maria, E-mail: maria.moroni@usuhs.edu [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ngudiankama, Barbara F. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Christensen, Christine [Division of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Olsen, Cara H. [Biostatistics Consulting Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Owens, Rossitsa [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lombardini, Eric D. [Veterinary Medicine Department, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok (Thailand); Holt, Rebecca K. [Veterinary Science Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Whitnall, Mark H. [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  16. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F.; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H.; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D.; Holt, Rebecca K.; Whitnall, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes

  17. The influence of continuous γ-irradiation at decreasing dose-rate on the survival rote and induction of gene mutations in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistova, T.P.; Elisova, E.V.; Stavrakova, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    Continuous γ-irradiation at decreasing dose-rate was shown to be less effective than acute exposure with regard to the lethal effect and frequency of mutations of resistance to 6-thioguanine in cultured Chinese hamster cells. The cell population subjected to continuons irradiation was d more radioresistant than the intact one. Lethal and genetic effects of continuous irradiation at decreasing dose-rate were mainly determined by the contribution of the radiation dose received during the first 24 h of exposure

  18. Effects of antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract and pretreatment with sublethal doses of endotoxins on survival after whole-liver irradiation and 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Leitch, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-two rats were preconditioned by I.P. injection of sublethal doses of E. Coli endotoxin two weeks before irradiation. Thirty-two other animals were sham injected with endotoxin free water. One week before irradiation half of the endotoxin treated animals and half the sham-injected animals received non-absorbable antibiotics in their drinking water to decontaminate the intestinal tract. All 64 animals were exposed to 30 Gy whole-liver gamma-irradiation after surgically exposing the liver and moving the G.I. tract, spleen, and stomach out of the radiation field. Immediately after irradiation a 2/3 PH was performed. The animals were checked daily for 100 days postirradiation. Median survival times for sham-treated, decontaminated, endotoxin-treated, and endotoxin-treated + decontaminated animals were, respectively, 16, 26, 38, and 85 days. All animals died within 100 days except in the group receiving both endotoxin and antibiotic treatments. One third of these animals are still alive 100 days after irradiation. The significance of these results with respect to mechanisms of hepatic radiation injury are discussed

  19. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  20. Protective action of DNA preparations on the survival of cells and yield of 8-azaguanine resistant mutations in X-irradiated cell culture of chinese hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, N.N.; Feoktistova, T.P.

    1976-01-01

    A DNA preparation (molecular weight 19.6-21.0x1O 6 daltons) administered to cell culture of Chinese hamsters in concentrations of 100 to 122 μg/ml 60 minutes before and in the course of 3 days after X-irradiation (600 R) decreased the lethality of irradiated cells and reduced induction of 8-azaguanine resistant genic mutations. DNA preparations with the concentrations under study had no toxic action on cells and were not mutagenous

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on the survival and development of Gymnophalloides seoi in C3H mice. Final report for the period 1 November 1994 - 31 October 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Yong-Vil

    1996-01-01

    Gymnophalloides seoi is a peculiar human intestinal trematode in Korea transmitted by oysters. This study was carried out to observe the effects of radiation on the infectivity of G. seoi metacercariae to C3H mice and to assess the applicability of radiation for use in the control of gymnophalloidiasis. Oysters were collected from the endemic area. Non-irradiated control, metacercaria-irradiation, and oyster-irradiation groups were prepared. One hundred metacercariae were infected orally to each mouse, and worm recovery rates of three groups were compared at the seventh day post-infection. In the metacercaria-irradiation group, the worm recovery rate was significantly reduced at radiation doses higher than 200 Gy, and the number of intrauterine eggs was significantly reduced at doses over 50 Gy. In the oyster-irradiation group, 50 Gy significantly reduced the worm recovery rate and number of uterine eggs. In the two groups, no worm was recovered at 1,000 Gy. In conclusion, G. seoi metacercariae showed some resistance to radiation at lower doses than 200 Gy, but irradiation of oyster with 200-1,000 Gy could be applied as a control measure for gymnophalloidiasis. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Effects of γ-irradiation of garden rose seeds on yield growth anddevelopment of plants. Stufy of relationship between radiation variability of survival rate, growth and developement of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zykov, K.I.; Klimenko, Z.K.

    1994-01-01

    Correlations between the yield of seedings in green house, survival rate, growth and development in an outdoor plot with rigid agroecological conditions were studied, when variability of these indices was due to γ-irradiation of seeds in different modes. The results obtained allow us to suppose that when a heterogeneous population of garden roses exposed to high doses significantly reduced their germination ability, a selection of ecologically stable, well growing and developing genotypes can take place. It is accounted for direct relation between radioresistance of the seeds and their genetically conditioned ecological stability and ability of seedings to good growth and development

  3. Correlation between cell survival and DNA single-strand break repair proficiency in the Chinese hamster ovary cell lines AA8 and EM9 irradiated with 365-nm ultraviolet-A radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, M.E.; Peak, J.G.; Peak, M.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Cell survival parameters and the induction and repair of DNA single-strand breaks were measured in two Chinese hamster ovary cell lines after irradiation with monochromatic UVA radiation of wavelength 365 nm. The radiosensitive mutant cell line EM9 is known to repair ionizing-radiation-induced single-strand breaks (SSB) more slowly than the parent line AA8. EM9 was determined to be 1.7-fold more sensitive to killing by 365-nm radiation than AA8 at the 10% survival level, and EM9 had a smaller shoulder region on the survival curve ({alpha} = 1.76) than AA8 ({alpha} = 0.62). No significant differences were found between the cell lines in the initial yields of SSB induced either by {gamma}-radiation (as determined by alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation) or by 365-nm UVA (as determined by alkaline elution). For measurement of initial SSB, cells were irradiated at 0.5{sup o}C to minimize DNA repair processes. Rejoining of 365-nm induced SSB was measured by irradiating cells at 0.5{sup o}C, allowing them to repair at 37{sup o}C in full culture medium, and then quantitating the remaining SSB by alkaline elution. The repair of these breaks followed biphasic kinetics in both cell lines. EM9 repaired the breaks more slowly (T{sub 1/2} values of 1.3 and 61.3 min) than did AA8 (T{sub 1/2} values of 0.9 and 53.3 min), and EM9 also left more breaks unrepaired 90 min after irradiation (24% vs 8% for AA8). Thus, the sensitivity of EM9 to 365-nm radiation correlated with its deficiency in repairing DNA lesions revealed as SSB in alkaline elution. These results suggest that DNA may be a critical target in 365-nm induced cellular lethality and that the ability of AA8 and EM9 cells to repair DNA strand breaks may be related to their ability to survive 365-nm radiation. (author).

  4. The effect of caffeine on post-replication repair and survival in two L5178Y cell lines with different sensitivities to UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walicka, M.; Beer, J.Z.; Koerner, I.; Malz, W.

    1978-01-01

    2 Strains of murine lymphoma L5178Y cells that varied from the point of view of sensitivity to UV irradiation (mean lethal doses: 3.6 and 8.5 J/m 2 for L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S cells, respectively) also differed with respect to sensitization by caffeine. L5178Y-S cells were sensitized to UV irradiation by 0.75 mM caffeine, whereas in the same conditions L5178Y-R cells were not sensitized. Sedimentation analysis of the newly synthesized DNA indicated UV-induced gap formation in L5178Y-S cells only. The subsequent gap filling was inhibited by caffeine. Exposure to UV irradiation induced no gaps in L5178Y-R cells. However, when caffeine was added immediately after irradiation, DNA with reduced molecular weight was found in irradiated cells of both strains after a 2-h chase. On the other hand, caffeine inhibited elongation of undamaged DNA strands in neither of the 2 cell strains. (Auth.)

  5. Application of the variational dynamic of nucleic acids with a prognosis of survival in hematological patients subjected to whole-body irradiation for a bone-marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morera, Lourdes; Garcia, Omar; Proenza, Emma; Carnot, Jose

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study the variational dynamics of nuclei acids in patients either subjected or not of abortive peaks and its prospective application as a prognostic indicator which might contribute to the therapeutic decision making in cases of BMT and irradiation related acute syndromes

  6. Ghrelin Therapy Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation or Combined with Burn or Wound: Amelioration of Leukocytopenia, Thrombocytopenia, Splenomegaly, and Bone Marrow Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation alone (RI or combined with traumatic tissue injury (CI is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological events. In our laboratory, mice exposed to 60Co-γ-photon radiation (9.5 Gy, 0.4 Gy/min, bilateral followed by 15% total-body-surface-area skin wounds (R-W CI or burns (R-B CI experienced an increment of ≥18% higher mortality over a 30-day observation period compared to RI alone. CI was accompanied by severe leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, erythropenia, and anemia. At the 30th day after injury, numbers of WBC and platelets still remained very low in surviving RI and CI mice. In contrast, their RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were recovered towards preirradiation levels. Only RI induced splenomegaly. RI and CI resulted in bone-marrow cell depletion. In R-W CI mice, ghrelin (a hunger-stimulating peptide therapy increased survival, mitigated body-weight loss, accelerated wound healing, and increased hematocrit. In R-B CI mice, ghrelin therapy increased survival and numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets and ameliorated bone-marrow cell depletion. In RI mice, this treatment increased survival, hemoglobin, and hematocrit and inhibited splenomegaly. Our novel results are the first to suggest that ghrelin therapy effectively improved survival by mitigating CI-induced leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and bone-marrow injury or the RI-induced decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit.

  7. Survival and mutagenesis in UV-irradiated phage: Multi-hit kinetics of mutation induction and lack of indirect induction by infection with UV-irradiated phage of error-prone repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, G.; Mennigmann, H.D.; Kaplan, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the question of whether Weigle-reactivation (WR) and Weigle-mutagenesis (WM) can be indirectly induced by infection with UV-irradiated phage. Experiments neither with phage lambda of Escherichia coli nor with phage kappa of Serratia marcescens show such induction. In this respect phage DNA differs from F'-DNA or Hfr-DNA; possible explanations are discussed. In both systems clear plaque mutations can also be induced by UV without irradiation of the host cells; they appear, in unirradiated and irradiated host cells, with an increase in frequency which is greater than proportional to the UV dose. It is concluded that mutation induction of phage in the unirradiated host cells is due to a low level constitutive mutagenic repair; this could either be due to 'spontaneous' induction of the mutagenic SOS function or it could be a mechanism different from this one. Host irradiation would give rise to additional activity by the induced SOS function leading to WR and WM. It is further concluded that deviation of the induction kinetics from a linear dose-dependence is not due to the necessary induction of SOS functions. (author)

  8. Modification of UV-induced mutation frequency and cell survival of Escherichia coli B/r WP2 trpE65 by treatment before irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doudney, C.O.; Rinaldi, C.N.

    1984-01-01

    The UV radiation survival curve of exponentially growing cultures of Escherichia coli B/r WP2 trpE65 was modified by pretreatment for short incubation periods (up to 20 min) with chloramphenicol such that an extended exponential section of intermediate slope appeared between the shoulder and the final exponential slope. Surges of mutation to tryptophan independence occurred with each increase in slope of the survival curve. These surges were separated by extended sections of little mutation. Nalidixic acid prevented both the changes in survival and mutation. Mutation curves obtained with overnight cultures had three extended sections of little mutation alternating with section of high mutation. Reincubation for 60 min in fresh medium reduced or eliminated the low-response sections. These reappeared after 80 to 90 min, when DNA had doubled in the culture and before the initial synchronous cell divisions had occurred. Nalidixic acid prevented this reappearance

  9. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and on its growth at refrigeration temperature in poultry and red meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gursel, B.; Gurakan, G.C.

    1997-01-01

    Gamma irradiation sensitivity of a strain of Listeria monocytogenes was determined in trypticase soy broth supplemented with yeast extract (TSB-YE), in a slurry of chicken breast meat and in raw ground beef. D10 values in these different media were 0.364, 0.599, and 0.699 kGy, respectively. This organism appeared most sensitive in TSB-YE, more resistant in minced fresh chicken breast meat, and most resistant in fresh minced beef. It was found that irradiation at 2.5 kGy prior to refrigeration is an efficient way for the preservation of meat products contaminated at 10(3) to 10(4) per gram initial load of L. monocytogenes for about 7 d. However, with this initial load, the injured cells might repair themselves and cause a health hazard during storage at 4 C in the presence of air after 7 d

  11. Agonist of the adenosine A(3) receptor, IB-MECA, and inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, meloxicam, given alone or in a combination early after total body irradiation enhance survival of gamma-irradiated mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Dušek, L.; Hoferová, Zuzana; Komůrková, Denisa

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2014), s. 211-215 ISSN 0301-634X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0158; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0128 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Ionizing radiation * Acute radiation disease * Survival Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.528, year: 2014

  12. Chemical disease-free survival in localized carcinoma of prostate treated with external beam irradiation: comparison of American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus or 1 ng/mL as endpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Carlos A.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Lockett, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To compare postirradiation biochemical disease-free survival using the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus or elevation of postirradiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level beyond 1 ng/mL as an endpoint and correlate chemical failure with subsequent appearance of clinically detected local recurrence or distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: Records of 466 patients with histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated with irradiation alone between January 1987 and December 1995 were analyzed; 339 patients were treated with bilateral 120 deg. arc rotation and, starting in 1992, 117 with three-dimensional conformal irradiation. Doses were 68-77 Gy in 1.8 to 2 Gy daily fractions. Minimum follow-up is 4 years (mean, 5.5 years; maximum, 9.6 years). A chemical failure was recorded using the ASTRO Consensus or when postirradiation PSA level exceeded 1 ng/mL at any time. Clinical failures were determined by rectal examination, radiographic studies, and, when clinically indicated, biopsy. Results: Six-year chemical disease-free survival rates using the ASTRO Consensus according to pretreatment PSA level for T1 tumors were: ≤4 ng/mL, 100%; 4.1-20 ng/mL, 80%; and >20 ng/mL, 50%. For T2 tumors the rates were: ≤4 ng/mL, 91%; 4.1-10 ng/mL, 81%; 10.1-20 ng/mL, 55%; 20.1-40 ng/mL, 63%; and >40 ng/mL, 46%. When postirradiation PSA levels higher than 1 ng/mL were used, the corresponding 6-year chemical disease-free survival rates for T1 tumors were 92% for pretreatment PSA levels of ≤4 ng/mL, 58-60% for levels of 4.1-20 ng/mL, and 30% for levels >20 ng/mL. For T2 tumors, the 6-year chemical disease-free survival rates were 78% in patients with pretreatment PSA levels of 4-10 ng/mL, 45% for 10.1-40 ng/mL, and 25% for >40 ng/mL. Of 167 patients with T1 tumors, 30 (18%) developed a chemical failure, 97% within 5 years from completion of radiation therapy; no patient has developed a local recurrence or distant

  13. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerens, H [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Saint-Lebe, L

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment.

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  15. Effects of the ssb-1 and ssb-113 mutations on survival and DNA repair in UV-irradiated delta uvrB strains of Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, T C; Smith, K C

    1982-01-01

    The molecular defect in DNA repair caused by ssb mutations (single-strand binding protein) was studied by analyzing DNA synthesis and DNA double-strand break production in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli delta uvrB strains. The presence of the ssb-113 mutation produced a large inhibition of DNA synthesis and led to the formation of double-strand breaks, whereas the ssb-1 mutation produced much less inhibition of DNA synthesis and fewer double-strand breaks. We suggest that the single-strand bi...

  16. Reproductive survival and hypoxic protection as a function of radiation ionization density. Further studies with murine leukemia cells irradiated in vitro with monoenergetic accelerated charged particles and assayed in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Murine lymphocytic leukemia P-388 cells have been irradiated in vitro under aerobic or hypoxic conditions with monoenergetic track segments of beams of accelerated helium or boron ions, and survival of their reproductive capacity assessed in vivo. These cells showed a maximum cell killing per rad at a relatively low ionization density (ca. 60--80 keV/μm) and their response ceased to depend on the presence or absence of oxygen at all LET values above ea. 100 keV/μm. This is similar to the LET dependence of cell killing reported recently for human lymphocytes which die a nonreproductive interphase death, and differs from the response of human kidney-derived cells which have been studied in vitro by other workers. The significance of these differences in predicting the response of cells and tissues to radiations such as fast neutrons or pi - mesons which produce wide spectra of ionization densities is discussed briefly

  17. Modification of bacterial cell survival by postirradiation hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vexler, F B; Eidus, L Kh

    1986-01-27

    It is shown that postirradiation hypoxia affects the survival of E.coli. Hypoxic conditions immediately after a single-dose irradiation diminish cell survival in nutrient medium. Increasing time intervals between irradiation and hypoxia decrease the efficiency of the latter, while 1 h after irradiation hypoxia does not modify the survival of irradiated cells. These findings reveal that the mechanisms of action of postirradiation hypoxia on eu- and prokaryotic cells are similar.

  18. Weight and body mass index in relation to irradiated volume and to overall survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, Sandra; Söderström, Karin; Kjellén, Elisabeth; Nilsson, Per; Zackrisson, Björn; Laurell, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss is a common problem in patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (SCCHN) treated with radiotherapy (RT). The aims of the present study were to determine if treated volume (TV), as a measure of the radiation dose burden, can predict weight loss in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and to analyze weight loss and body mass index (BMI) in the same patient group in relation to 5-year overall survival. The ARTSCAN trial is a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial in patients with SCCHN. Nutritional data from the ARTSCAN trial were analyzed retrospectively using univariate and multivariate statistical methods based on information on percentage weight loss from the start of RT up to five months after the termination of RT (study cohort 1, n = 232) and information on patients’ BMI at the start of RT (study cohort 2, n = 203). TV was defined as the volume of the patient receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose. TV 64.6Gy encompasses macroscopic tumor and TV 43.7Gy elective lymph nodes of the neck. TV 64.6Gy and TV 43.7Gy were both significantly correlated with higher weight loss up to five months after the termination of RT in study cohort 1 (p < 0.001 for both). BMI at the start of RT was shown to be a prognostic factor for 5-year overall survival in study cohort 2 but weight loss was not. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 3.78 (1.46–9.75) and 2.57 (1.43–4.62) in patients with underweight and normal weight, respectively. TV can predict weight loss during RT in patients with oropharyngeal cancer regardless of clinical stage. A high BMI (>25 kg/m 2 ) at the start of RT is positively associated with survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer

  19. Irradiation of the potential cancer stem cell niches in the adult brain improves progression-free survival of patients with malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, Patrick; Lee, Percy P; DeMarco, John; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Sayre, James W; Selch, Michael; Pajonk, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common brain tumor in adults. The mechanisms leading to glioblastoma are not well understood but animal studies support that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in neural stem cells (NSC) is required and sufficient to induce glial cancers. This suggests that the NSC niches in the brain may harbor cancer stem cells (CSCs), Thus providing novel therapy targets. We hypothesize that higher radiation doses to these NSC niches improve patient survival by eradicating CSCs. 55 adult patients with Grade 3 or Grade 4 glial cancer treated with radiotherapy at UCLA between February of 2003 and May of 2009 were included in this retrospective study. Using radiation planning software and patient radiological records, the SVZ and SGL were reconstructed for each of these patients and dosimetry data for these structures was calculated. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis we show that patients whose bilateral subventricular zone (SVZ) received greater than the median SVZ dose (= 43 Gy) had a significant improvement in progression-free survival if compared to patients who received less than the median dose (15.0 vs 7.2 months PFS; P = 0.028). Furthermore, a mean dose >43 Gy to the bilateral SVZ yielded a hazard ratio of 0.73 (P = 0.019). Importantly, similarly analyzing total prescription dose failed to illustrate a statistically significant impact. Our study leads us to hypothesize that in glioma targeted radiotherapy of the stem cell niches in the adult brain could yield significant benefits over radiotherapy of the primary tumor mass alone and that damage caused by smaller fractions of radiation maybe less efficiently detected by the DNA repair mechanisms in CSCs

  20. A comparison of the survival (LD/sub 50/30/) of a number of inbred mouse strains after X and 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacha, J.; Znojil, V.; Hola, J.; Sikulova, J.

    1984-01-01

    The value of LD/sub 50/30/ for X and 60 Co gamma radiation was ascertained for several inbred mouse strains and the significance of interstrain differences in these parameters determined. The rank order of strains according to LD/sub 50/30/ differs as between the two types of radiation with the exception of the strains BALB/c and B10.LP/Ph, which are the least resistant to radiation-induced lethality with both types of radiation. The strain C57BL/10ScSnPh is highly resistant to X irradiation. The relative biological effectiveness of 60 Co gamma radiation as compared with X-radiation from the point of view of lethality fluctuates between 0.748 and 0.952 in individual strains, with a mean value of 0.866 +- 0.033. The RBE values do not correlate with the radiosensitivity of the strain, but they do correlate with the relative contribution to erythropoiesis of the spleen. (author)

  1. Comparison of the survival (LD/sub 50/30/) of a number of inbred mouse strains after X and /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacha, J.; Znojil, V.; Hola, J.; Sikulova, J. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav)

    1984-01-01

    The value of LD/sub 50/30/ for X and /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was ascertained for several inbred mouse strains and the significance of interstrain differences in these parameters determined. The rank order of strains according to LD/sub 50/30/ differs as between the two types of radiation with the exception of the strains BALB/c and B10.LP/Ph, which are the least resistant to radiation-induced lethality with both types of radiation. The strain C57BL/10ScSnPh is highly resistant to X irradiation. The relative biological effectiveness of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation as compared with X-radiation from the point of view of lethality fluctuates between 0.748 and 0.952 in individual strains, with a mean value of 0.866 +- 0.033. The RBE values do not correlate with the radiosensitivity of the strain, but they do correlate with the relative contribution to erythropoiesis of the spleen.

  2. Infusion of Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC prolongs the survival of acutely irradiated NOD/SCID mice by decreasing excessive inflammatory injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiangWei Hu

    Full Text Available A protective reagent for ARI should have the ability to repair injured tissue caused by radiation and prevent continuous damage from secondary risk factors. Trx-1 was explored as a candidate therapy for ARI, as it scavenges reactive oxygen species, regulates cell growth and differentiation, participates in immune reactions, and inhibits apoptosis by acting inside and/or outside cells. Trx-1 can also decrease excessive inflammation in ARI by regulating the creation of inflamed media, by inhibiting the activation of complement, and by reducing the chemotaxis, adhesion, and migration of inflammatory cells. As effectively and stably expressing exogenous genes in the long term and regulating immune inflammation and tissue repair, MSC are a good choice for Trx-1 gene therapy. In this study, Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC-Trx-1 were obtained by adenoviral vector-mediated infection. We first measured the redox capacity of hucMSC-Trx-1 with an antioxidant capacity (T-AOC assay, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content determination assay in vivo, a H2O2-induced oxidation hemolysis assay, and a lipid peroxidation assay in vitro. Then, we measured survival time, the protection of the hematopoietic system, and the regulation of inflammation in important organs in three treatment groups of NOD/SCID mice (treated with hucMSC-Trx-1, with hucMSC, and with saline that were exposed to 4.5 Gy (60Co-γ-ray radiation. The hucMSC-Trx-1 group achieved superior antioxidation results, protecting bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (Lin(-CD117(+: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.01, promoting the formation of red blood cells and hemoglobin (hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, P<0.05, reducing inflammation and damage in important organs (Bone marrow and lung: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.01; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05. Liver and intestine: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.05; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05, and prolonging survival (hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, P<0

  3. Decreased cell survival and DNA repair capacity after UVC irradiation in association with down-regulation of GRP78/BiP in human RSa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Ling; Kita, Kazuko; Wano, Chieko; Wu Yuping; Sugaya, Shigeru; Suzuki, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to extensive studies on the roles of molecular chaperones, such as heat shock proteins, there are only a few reports about the roles of GRP78/BiP, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced molecular chaperone, in mammalian cell responses to DNA-damaging stresses. To investigate whether GRP78/BiP is involved in resistance to a DNA-damaging agent, UVC (principally 254 nm in wavelength), we established human cells with down-regulation of GRP78/BiP by transfection of human RSa cells with antisense cDNA for GRP78/BiP. We found that the transfected cells showed higher sensitivity to UVC-induced cell death than control cells transfected with the vector alone. In the antisense-cDNA transfected cells, the removal capacities of the two major types of UVC-damaged DNA (thymine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts) in vivo and DNA synthesis activity of whole cell extracts to repair UVC-irradiated plasmids in vitro were remarkably decreased compared with those in the control cells. Furthermore, the antisense-cDNA transfected cells also showed slightly higher sensitivity to cisplatin-induced cell death than the control cells. Cisplatin-induced DNA damage is primarily repaired by nucleotide excision repair, like UVC-induced DNA damage. The present results suggest that GRP78/BiP plays a protective role against UVC-induced cell death possibly via nucleotide excision repair, at least in the human RSa cells tested

  4. Dose survival of G0 lymphocytes irradiated in vitro: A test for a possible population bias in the cohort of atomic-bomb survivors exposed to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori; Sposto, R.; Akiyama, Mitoshi.

    1993-04-01

    An in-vitro colony assay was employed for X-ray dose-survival studies of peripheral-blood lymphocytes from 117 Adult Health Study participants with Dosimetry System 1986 doses 10 values (the X-ray dose required to kill 90% of cells) for these two groups were 3.40 Gy (7.5%) and 3.34 Gy (7.8%), respectively. No statistically significant differences in their distributions were detected. In addition, neither sex nor age affected the in-vitro radiosensitivity of lymphocytes for either group or for all subjects combined. Therefore it was concluded that, as far as the G 0 -lymphocyte colony assay is concerned, there is no evidence for preferential loss of individuals with higher cellular radiosensitivity among the high-dose atomic bomb survivors. However, it should be noted that the interindividual variations in cellular radiosensitivity were not large compared with the experimental variations. Consequently, the above-mentioned results should be considered due to the small heterogeneity of lymphocyte radiosensitivity among the survivors. (J.P.N.)

  5. Failure-free survival following brachytherapy alone or external beam irradiation alone for T1-2 prostate tumors in 2222 patients: results from a single practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachman, David G.; Thomas, Theresa; Hilbe, Joseph; Beyer, David C.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate failure-free survival (FFS) for brachytherapy (BT) alone compared to external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) alone for Stage T1-2 Nx-No Mo patients over the same time period by a single community-based practice in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era. Materials and Methods: The database of Arizona Oncology Services (a multiphysician radiation oncology practice in the Phoenix metropolitan area) was reviewed for patients meeting the following criteria: (1) T1 or T2 Nx-No Mo prostate cancer; (2) no prior or concurrent therapy including hormones; (3) treatment period 12/88-12/95; and (4) treatment with either EBRT alone or BT alone ( 125 I or 103 Pd). This yielded 1527 EBRT and 695 BT patients; no patients meeting the above criteria were excluded from analysis. Median follow-up for EBRT patients was 41.3 months and, for BT patients, 51.3 months. Patients were not randomized to either therapy but rather received EBRT or BT based upon patient, treating, and/or referring physician preference. PSA failure was defined according to the ASTRO consensus guidelines. The median patient age was 74 years for both groups. Results: Failure-free survival at 5 years for EBRT and BT are 69% and 71%, respectively (p = 0.91). For T stage, no significant difference in FFS at 5 years is observed between EBRT and BT for either T1 (78% vs. 83%, p = 0.47) or T2 (67% vs. 67%, p = 0.89) tumors. Analysis by Gleason score shows superior outcomes for Gleason 8-10 lesions treated with EBRT vs. BT (5-year FFS 52% vs. 28%, p = 0.04); outcomes for lower grade lesions (Gleason 4-6) when analyzed by Gleason score alone do not significantly differ according to treatment received. Patients with initial PSA values of 10-20 ng/dL have an improved FFS with EBRT vs. BT at 5 years (70% vs. 53%, p = 0.001); outcomes for patients with initial PSA ranges of 0-4 ng/dL, of > 4-10 ng/dL, and > 20 ng/dL did not differ significantly by treatment received. FFS was also determined for presenting

  6. Infusion of Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC prolongs the survival of acutely irradiated NOD/SCID mice by decreasing excessive inflammatory injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, JiangWei; Yang, ZaiLiang; Wang, Jun; Tang, YongYong; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Hu

    2013-01-01

    A protective reagent for ARI should have the ability to repair injured tissue caused by radiation and prevent continuous damage from secondary risk factors. Trx-1 was explored as a candidate therapy for ARI, as it scavenges reactive oxygen species, regulates cell growth and differentiation, participates in immune reactions, and inhibits apoptosis by acting inside and/or outside cells. Trx-1 can also decrease excessive inflammation in ARI by regulating the creation of inflamed media, by inhibiting the activation of complement, and by reducing the chemotaxis, adhesion, and migration of inflammatory cells. As effectively and stably expressing exogenous genes in the long term and regulating immune inflammation and tissue repair, MSC are a good choice for Trx-1 gene therapy. In this study, Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC-Trx-1 were obtained by adenoviral vector-mediated infection. We first measured the redox capacity of hucMSC-Trx-1 with an antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) assay, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content determination assay in vivo, a H2O2-induced oxidation hemolysis assay, and a lipid peroxidation assay in vitro. Then, we measured survival time, the protection of the hematopoietic system, and the regulation of inflammation in important organs in three treatment groups of NOD/SCID mice (treated with hucMSC-Trx-1, with hucMSC, and with saline) that were exposed to 4.5 Gy (60)Co-γ-ray radiation. The hucMSC-Trx-1 group achieved superior antioxidation results, protecting bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (Lin(-)CD117(+): hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, PTrx-1 vs. NS, PTrx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, PTrx-1 vs. NS, PTrx-1 vs. hucMSC, PTrx-1 vs. NS, PTrx-1 vs. hucMSC, PTrx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, PTrx-1 combines the merits of gene and cell therapy as a multifunctional radioprotector for ARI.

  7. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...

  8. Survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwe, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary endpoint in the majority of the studies has been either disease recurrence or death. This kind of analysis requires a special method since all patients in the study experience the endpoint. The standard method for estimating such survival distribution is Kaplan Meier method. The survival function is defined as the proportion of individuals who survive beyond certain time. Multi-variate comparison for survival has been carried out with Cox's proportional hazard model

  9. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    During the course of external radiation exposures of burros to establish a dose-response curve for acute mortality after total irradiation, some of the animals at the three lowest exposures to gamma photons survived. These groups of 10, 9, and 10 burros were exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively. There were 10 unirradiated controls. In 1953, 20 burros were exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/week increments without acute mortality and were added to the life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros were exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons, and 14 controls were added. The total number of irradiated burros in the study was increased to 88 by the addition of 6 animals irradiated with 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a Godiva-type reactor in 1959. In this experiment two acute deaths occurred which were not included in the analysis. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures, there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia, obviously related to radiation-induced bone-marrow damage. After that period, however, deaths were from common equine diseases; no death has resulted from a malignant neoplasm. Of the original 112 burros, 15 survive (10 irradiated and 5 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma- and gamma-irradiated burros showed significant differences. The mean survival times were: controls, 28 years; gamma irradiation only, 26 years; and neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 years. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The unique radioresistance of burros has resulted in a large-animal life-span study that began in 1951. During the course of radiation exposures, some animals at three low exposures to gamma photons survived (10, 10, and 9 exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively). In 1953, 20 burros exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/wk increments were added to this life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons were added. Six burros exposed to 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a ''Godiva-type'' reactor were added in 1959 along with 22 controls. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures (320-545 R), there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia). Afterward, however, all deaths have been attributable to common equine diseases; none from malignancies. Today, 20 of the original 112 burros in these studies survive (13 irradiated and 7 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma and gamma-only irradiated burros show significant differences. Median survival time: controls, 28 yrs; gamma irradiation, 26 yrs; neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 yrs. A Weibull probability analysis predicts maximum life-span to be 42 yrs

  11. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  12. The effects of postoperative irradiation on loco-regional tumor control and survival in patients with head and neck carcinomas by tumor subsites and relative risk factors for recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K.; Johnson, Christopher R.; Payne, Cheryl; Lu Jiandong; Han, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: This study reports on a unique experience in the management of patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in which, between 1982 and 1990, patients with varied risk for recurrence were either referred for immediate postoperative irradiation by one surgical group or offered radiotherapy after surgical failure by the other. We have previously demonstrated in patients with high risk for recurrence that combined surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (S/RT) resulted in improved loco-regional tumor control (LRC) and overall patient survival (OS) for the entire patient cohort. This updated and expanded analysis describes the benefit of postoperative irradiation for patients with HNSCC depending upon relative risk factors for recurrence and different subsites of primary tumors. Materials and Methods: Of 219 patients, 190 were evaluable because of tumor locations in the major subsites analyzed, i.e. oral cavity (OC), oropharynx (OP), hypopharynx (HP), and larynx (L). Depending upon the philosophy of the two surgical groups, 79 patients were treated with combined S/RT and 111 with S alone with a >90% compliance. Minimum 2-year follow-up applies to all data reported. The two patient groups were well balanced with respect to tumor stages (AJCC 1983) and other patient characteristics. Histopathological review revealed 88 cases with one risk factor for recurrence, 49 patients with positive resection margin (PRM) and 39 with extracapsular extension (ECE); an additional 22 patients presented with both risk factors and 80 patients were found to have no risk factors. S, consisting of wide local excisions or radical resections including neck dissections, and postoperative RT with doses between 50 and 70 Gy were similar for both groups. Statistical evaluations consisted of Kaplan-Meier analyses to calculate LRC and OS rates and of multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models to estimate significance of treatment effects including S vs. S

  13. Gamma irradiation on fermentation mashes consisting mainly of cane molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, H; Shibabe, S; Ito, H

    1969-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was successfully used to pasteurize molasses. There was a 10% survival of Bacillus subtilis after irradiation with 0.3 Mrad compared to a survival of 70% after heating for 30 minutes at 80/sup 0/C. When irradiated mash was used to produce alcohol, fermentation rate and ethanol yield were higher than for heat-pasteurized mash.

  14. UV survival of human mycoplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeji; Ito, Shoko; Watanabe, Takehiko

    1979-01-01

    The inactivation by ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of mycoplasma cells of five human strains was monitored by investigating the colony-forming ability. The survival curves of five strains tested indicated that the cells of Mycoplasma buccale only are single and homogenously susceptible to UV light. The effect of the repair inhibitor, caffeine, on the colony-forming ability of UV-irradiated cells was investigated with M. buccale because of its homogeneous susceptibility to UV light. The colony formation of irradiated cells was markedly depressed by post-irradiation treatment with caffeine at concentration that had little or no effect on the colony formation of unirradiated cells. The colony-forming units (CFU) of UV-irradiated cells which were kept in broth without caffeine in the dark increased without a lag as the time in the dark increased. The colony-forming ability of the irradiated cells completely recovered after 3 hr in the dark. However, when irradiated cells were kept in the presence of caffeine, no increase in their CFU was observed. The mode of action of caffeine on UV-irradiated cells closely resembles that described for other organisms which possess dark reactivation systems for UV-induced damage in deoxyribonucleic acid. Thus, the results obtained provide evidence for the existence of a dark repair function in M. buccale. (author)

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  17. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  18. Microbiological Studies on the Influence of Combined Processes of Heat and Irradiation on the Survival of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Var. Ellipsoideus; Etudes Microbiologiques sur l'Influence d'un Traitement Mixte par Chauffage et Irradiation sur la Survie de Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Var. Ellipsoideus; Mikrobiologicheskie issledovaniya vliyaniya sovmestnykh protsessov nagreva i oblucheniya na vyzhivanie saccharomyces Cerevisiae Var. Ellipsoideus; Estudios Microbiologicos de la Influencia del Calentamiento e Irradiacion Combinados Sobre la Supervivencia del Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Var. Ellipsoideus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehlik, G.; Kaindl, K. [Institute for Biology and Agriculture, Reaktorzentrum, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1966-11-15

    In the framework of the Seibersdorf International Programme on Irradiation Preservation of Fruit and Fruit Juices one of the main items of research deals with the problem of the radiosensitization of microorganisms. To study the effect of heat and irradiation treatments on the survival of yeast cells (colony formation), a highly radioresistant strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus, grown in a semi-synthetic nutrient medium, was given a combined treatment of heating and gamma irradiation ({sup 60}Co source) at the beginning of its log phase. The heat treatment was applied either immediately before, during or immediately after the irradiation process. The temperature was varied between 20 Degree-Sign C and 52.5 Degree-Sign C. The irradiation treatment was carried out with a dose range of up to 0.3 x 10{sup 6} rad in a well-aired glass tube. The inhibiting effect of this combined treatment depends upon the sequence of heating and irradiation and shows the following results: the most effective combination is the simultaneous treatment of heating and irradiation; less effective is this combination wherein irradiation at room temperature follows the heating procedure; and most ineffective is the heating after irradiation at room temperature. The combined heat/irradiation treatment results in survival curves (survival fractions) which are straight lines in relation to the irradiation dose at a semi-logarithmic scale in the temperature range between room temperature and 45 Degree-Sign C. Above 45 Degree-Sign C the curves show, at doses lower than 30 krad, an increase of the survivals compared with the unirradiated sample. By comparing the slopes of the survival curves obtained at different temperatures, one can see that in the case of irradiation at temperatures higher than 40 Degree-Sign C there is a high synergistic effect for the simultaneous treatment, e.g. about 2 orders of magnitude at 150 krad. Based on these results the technological possibilities of

  19. Irradiation sequels of retinoblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benk, V.; Habrand, J.L.; Bloch Michel, E.; Soussaline, M.; Sarrazin, D.

    1993-01-01

    From 1975 to 1985, 34 children with a non-metastatic retinoblastoma were irradiated at the Institut Gustave-Roussy. After enucleation, 19 bilateral tumors were irradiated by two lateral opposed fields and 15 unilateral tumors by one lateral and anterior field, in the case of optic nerve being histologically positive. Dose was 45 Gy, 1.8 Gy per fraction. The 10-year-survival rate for unilateral and bilateral retinoblastomas was 79%. Long term sequels were available for 25 patients: 88% retained one functional eye. Three children with bilateral retinoblastomas developed a cataract in the residual eye between 2 and 5 years after irradiation, none with unilateral tumor. Nine patients (36%), seven with unilateral and two with bilateral tumor developed a cosmetical problem that required multiple surgical rehabilitation between 3 and 14 years after irradiation. Nine children (36%), five with unilateral and four with bilateral tumors developed growth hormone deficit between 2 and 8 years after irradiation that required hormone replacement. Their pituitary gland received 22 to 40 Gy. No osteosarcoma occurred in this population. Among long-term sequels, following irradiation for retinoblastoma, cosmetical deformities represent disabling sequels that could justify new approaches in radiotherapy, as protontherapy combined with 3-D-treatment planning

  20. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  2. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  7. Irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrington, Hugh

    1988-06-01

    This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

  8. Significance of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Nobuko; Ogami, Koji; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Koga, Kenji; Waki, Norio; Higashi, Hidefumi; Hayashi, Asami; Shibata, Koichiro; Watanabe, Katsuji

    1986-01-01

    From 1978 through 1983, 27 patients were treated with surgery followed by irradiation (irradiated group) and 29 with surery alone (non-irradiated group). In the irradiated group, 10 had stage II and 17 stage III; in the non-irradiated group, 25 had stage II and 4 stage III. The most common histology was medullary tubular carcinoma (MTC). There was no significant difference in survivals at 3 years and 5 years between the groups. Similarly, no significant difference was seen among stage II patients. Patients with MTC tended to have worse survivals in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group, with no statistically significant difference. Among stage II patients, no major differences in local recurrence were seen between the groups; the incidence of distant metastases tended to be high in the irradiated group. The incidence of both local recurrence and distant metastases for stage III patients showed a tendency to be higher in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group. The results indicated no apparent benifit of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. A randomized clinical trial is needed for the evaluation of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Food irradiation and the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival. (author)

  10. Polysaccharide prodigiosan therapy of irradiated guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.; Mosina, Z.M.; Khramchenkova, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the experiments with irradiated guinea-pigs, a therapeutic action of prodigiosan has been detected. A parenteral administration of the preparation (125 to 500 μg/kg) within the interval from 15 min to 6 hours after a short-term exposure increased the survival of animals to 50%. Prodigiosan administered to guinea-pigs given prolonged irradiation failed to affect the survival rate

  11. Foodstuff irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Report written on behalf of the Danish Food Institute summarizes national and international rules and developments within food irradiation technology, chemical changes in irradiated foodstuffs, microbiological and health-related aspects of irradiation and finally technological prospects of this conservation form. Food irradiatin has not been hitherto applied in Denmark. Radiation sources and secondary radiation doses in processed food are characterized. Chemical changes due to irradiation are compared to those due to p.ex. food heating. Toxicological and microbiological tests and their results give no unequivocal answer to the problem whether a foodstuff has been irradiated. The most likely application fields in Denmark are for low radiation dosis inhibition of germination, riping delay and insecticide. Medium dosis (1-10 kGy) can reduce bacteria number while high dosis (10-50 kGy) will enable total elimination of microorganisms and viruses. Food irradiation can be acceptable as technological possibility with reservation, that further studies follow. (EG)

  12. Cytometric analysis of irradiation damaged chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, M.E.; Raju, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation of cells in interphase results in dose-dependent damage to DNA which is discernable by flow-cytometric analysis of chromosomes. The quantity (and possibly the quality) of chromosomal changes is different in survival-matched doses of x and α irradiation. It may, therefore, be possible to use these methods for analysis of dose and type of exposure in unknown cases

  13. Hemibody irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schen, B.C.; Mella, O.; Dahl, O.

    1992-01-01

    In a large number of cancer patients, extensive skeletal metastases or myelomatosis induce vast suffering, such as intolerable pain and local complications of neoplastic bone destruction. Analgetic drugs frequently do not yield sufficient palliation. Irradiation of local fields often has to be repeated, because of tumour growth outside previously irradiated volumes. Wide field irradiation of the lower or upper half of the body causes significant relief of pain in most patients. Adequate pretreatment handling of patients, method of irradiation, and follow-up are of importance to reduce side effects, and are described as they are carried out at the Department of Oncology, Haukeland Hospital, Norway. 16 refs., 2 figs

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  16. Irradiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira

    1977-01-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures. (Kanao, N.)

  17. Irradiation proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, A [Osaka Kita Tsishin Hospital (Japan)

    1977-06-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures.

  18. Irradiation for xenogeneic transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halperin, E.C.; Knechtle, S.J.; Harland, R.C.; Yamaguchi, Yasua; Sontag, M.; Bollinger, R.R. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Radiology Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology)

    1990-05-01

    Xenogeneic transplantation (XT) is the transplantation of organs or tissues from a member of one species to a member of another. Mammalian species frequently have circulating antibody which is directed against the foreign organ irrespective of known prior antigen exposure. This antibody may lead to hyperacute rejection once it ensues so efforts must be directed towards eliminating the pre-existing antibody. In those species in which hyperacute rejection of xenografts does not occur, cell-mediated refection, similar to allograft rejection, may occur. It is in the prevention of this latter form of refection that radiation is most likely to be beneficial in XT. Both total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and selective lyphoid irradiation (LSI) have been investigated for use in conjunction with XT. TLI has contributed to the prolongation of pancreatic islet-cell xenografts from hamsters to rats. TLI has also markedly prolonged the survival of cardiac transplants from hamsters to rats. A more modest prolongation of graft survival has been seen with the use of TLI in rabbit-to-rat exchanges. Therapy with TLI, cyclosporine, and splenectomy has markedly prolonged the survival of liver transplants from hamsters to rats, and preliminary data suggest that TLI may contribute to the prolongation of graft survival in the transplantation of hearts from monkeys to baboons. SLI appears to have prolonged graft survival, when used in conjunction with anti-lymphocyte globulin, in hamster-to-rat cardiac graft exchanges. The current state of knowledge of the use of irradiaiton in experimental XT is reviewed. (author). 38 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs.

  19. Irradiation for xenogeneic transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, E.C.; Knechtle, S.J.; Harland, R.C.; Yamaguchi, Yasua; Sontag, M.; Bollinger, R.R.; Duke Univ., Durham, NC

    1990-01-01

    Xenogeneic transplantation (XT) is the transplantation of organs or tissues from a member of one species to a member of another. Mammalian species frequently have circulating antibody which is directed against the foreign organ irrespective of known prior antigen exposure. This antibody may lead to hyperacute rejection once it ensues so efforts must be directed towards eliminating the pre-existing antibody. In those species in which hyperacute rejection of xenografts does not occur, cell-mediated refection, similar to allograft rejection, may occur. It is in the prevention of this latter form of refection that radiation is most likely to be beneficial in XT. Both total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and selective lyphoid irradiation (LSI) have been investigated for use in conjunction with XT. TLI has contributed to the prolongation of pancreatic islet-cell xenografts from hamsters to rats. TLI has also markedly prolonged the survival of cardiac transplants from hamsters to rats. A more modest prolongation of graft survival has been seen with the use of TLI in rabbit-to-rat exchanges. Therapy with TLI, cyclosporine, and splenectomy has markedly prolonged the survival of liver transplants from hamsters to rats, and preliminary data suggest that TLI may contribute to the prolongation of graft survival in the transplantation of hearts from monkeys to baboons. SLI appears to have prolonged graft survival, when used in conjunction with anti-lymphocyte globulin, in hamster-to-rat cardiac graft exchanges. The current state of knowledge of the use of irradiaiton in experimental XT is reviewed. (author). 38 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  1. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  2. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  3. Preliminary study on sterilization effect of irradiation on dry vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Jianqing; Bao Jianzhong; Cao Hong; Wang Jinrong; Chen Xiulan

    2004-01-01

    The number of surviving germs relationship to irradiation dose for several species dry vegetable was studied, and the original value D 10 of the dry vegetable was given. The value will provide a theoretical reference to ascertain the appropriate irradiation dose in the irradiation process of the dry vegetable

  4. Schistosoma mansoni: aspectos quantitativos da fertilidade e sobrevida de vermes oriundos de cercárias irradiadas com 3 Krad, em camundongos Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the fertility and survival of worms obtained from irradiated cercariae (3 Krad, in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gileno de Sá Cardoso

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Quatro grupos de camundongos albinos (Mus musculus não isogênicos foram infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 450 cercárias (das cepas LE e SJ do S. mansoni não irradiadas (grupos controles e irradiadas com 3 Krad de radiação gama proveniente de cobalto-60, com a finalidade de observar o efeito da irradiação gama sobre a fertilidade das fêmeas e a sobrevida dos vermes no sistema porta. A partir do 33º dia ocorre uma certa estabilidade na população dos vermes sobreviventes, ficando esta população constante, notadamente em relação à cepa LE, até o final das observações (90º dia. Concluiu-se que esta dose de radiação gama impede a produção de ovos dos vermes em 98,1% dos camundongos infectados, sendo mortos todos os ovos detectados; as fêmeas são mais resistentes à irradiação e o efeito desta sobre a mortalidade dos machos somente se torna estatisticamente significativo a partir do 61º dia de infecção. O longo tempo de permanência de vermes adultos irradiados estéreis no sistema porta de camundongos e o seu provável envolvimento no desenvolvimento de imunoproteção, tipo imunidade concomitante sem as implicações imunopatológicas para o hospedeiro, são discutidos nesse trabalho.The effect of gamma irradiation on the fertility of female mice, as well as the survival of worms in their portal system, have been observed in four groups of outbred albino mice (Mus musculus, experimentally infected with ca 450 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains, by transcutaneous route. The cercariae used were a non-irradiated (control groups, and b irradiated with 3 Krad of gamma irradiation (Co-60. From the 33rd day on, some estability in the population of surviving worm could be observed. This population remained constant till the end of the observation period (90th day, notedly in relation to the LE strain. Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation (at the dose of 3 Krad is able to hinder the worm egg

  5. Surviving Sengstaken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Odulaja, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2015-07-01

    To report the outcomes of children who underwent Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (SBT) insertion for life-threatening haemetemesis. Single institution retrospective review (1997-2012) of children managed with SBT insertion. Patient demographics, diagnosis and outcomes were noted. Data are expressed as median (range). 19 children [10 male, age 1 (0.4-16) yr] were identified; 18 had gastro-oesophageal varices and 1 aorto-oesophageal fistula. Varices were secondary to: biliary atresia (n=8), portal vein thrombosis (n=5), alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency (n=1), cystic fibrosis (n=1), intrahepatic cholestasis (n=1), sclerosing cholangitis (n=1) and nodular hyperplasia with arterio-portal shunt (n=1). Three children deteriorated rapidly and did not survive to have post-SBT endoscopy. The child with an aortooesophageal fistula underwent aortic stent insertion and subsequently oesophageal replacement. Complications included gastric mucosal ulceration (n=3, 16%), pressure necrosis at lips and cheeks (n=6, 31%) and SBT dislodgment (n=1, 6%). Six (31%) children died. The remaining 13 have been followed up for 62 (2-165) months; five required liver transplantation, two underwent a mesocaval shunt procedure and 6 have completed endoscopic variceal obliteration and are under surveillance. SBT can be an effective, albeit temporary, life-saving manoeuvre in children with catastrophic haematemesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recommendations for the use of irradiated components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The disease 'graft-versus-host' associated with the transfusion (EIVH TA) is an adverse reaction rare but fatal, linked to the proliferation of T cells that are found in cellular components and reacting against the receptor's tissues). Gamma irradiation of cellular components is used as a prevention method because it deactivates the lymphocytes T by reducing its survival and by restraining its proliferation without producing alterations in others cells function. Recommendations for the use of gamma irradiation along with clinical indications for pediatric patients, patients with acquired immunosuppression and immunocompetent patients are given in this study. A brief description of operative aspects of irradiation procedures such as components to be irradiated, irradiation method, irradiation dose and viability of irradiated components is given [es

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecher, O.

    1979-01-01

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  9. Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  12. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  13. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  16. Hemibody irradiation in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, J.S.; Richards, J.D.M.; Blackman, G.M.; Joannides, T.; Trask, C.W.L.; Nathan, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    Eighteen patients with multiple myeloma were treated by hemibody irradiation using large single fractions, usually to a dose of 10 Gy (lower half) and 7.5 GY (upper half). All except one patient had previously been treated by multiple courses of conventional chemotherapy with melphalan and prednisone, and were considered to be resistant to further chemotherapy. In most cases, local field irradiation had also been given for symptomatic bone pain. Of the 13 patients who had symptoms at the start of hemibody irradiation, 11 improved sufficiently for their analgesia requirement to be reduced. In eight patients, there was a significant fall in circulating immunoglobulin but no patient with Bence-Jones proteinuria had complete resolution of this biochemical abnormality. Although thrombocytopenia and neutropenia were common, only two patients required platelet transfusion and the treatment was in general extremely well tolerated. Survival following hemibody irradiation was similar to the survival reported from the use of 'second-line' chemotherapy and we feel that hemibody irradiation is a more acceptable alternative for most patients. (orig.)

  17. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu.

    1989-01-01

    In an irradiation device for irradiating radiation rays such as electron beams to pharmaceuticals, etc., since the distribution of scanned electron rays was not monitored, the electron beam intensity could be determined only indirectly and irradiation reliability was not satisfactory. In view of the above, a plurality of monitor wires emitting secondary electrons are disposed in the scanning direction near a beam take-out window of a scanning duct, signals from the monitor wires are inputted into a display device such as a cathode ray tube, as well as signals from the monitor wires at the central portion are inputted into counting rate meters to measure the radiation dose as well. Since secondary electrons are emitted when electron beams pass through the monitor wires and the intensity thereof is in proportion with the intensity of incident electron beams, the distribution of the radiation dose can be monitored by measuring the intensity of the emitted secondary electrons. Further, uneven irradiation, etc. can also be monitored to make the radiation of irradiation rays reliable. (N.H.)

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  19. Vinca irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymery, R.

    1976-10-01

    The development programme of the VINCA radiosterilisation centre involves plans for an irradiator capable of working in several ways. Discontinuous operation. The irradiator is loaded for a certain period then runs automatically until the moment of unloading. This method is suitable as long as the treatment capacity is relatively small. Continuous operation with permanent batch loading and unloading carried out either manually or automatically (by means of equipment to be installed later). Otherwise the design of the apparatus is highly conventional. The source is a vertical panel submersible in a pool. The conveyor is of the 'bucket' type, with 4 tiers to each bucket. The batches pass successively through all possible irradiation positions. Transfert into and out of the cell take place through a maze, which also provides access to the cell when the sources are in storage at the bottom of the pool [fr

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  1. Enhancement of radiation effect on mouse intestinal crypt survival by timing of 5-fluorouracil administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, E.; Coffey, C.; Maruyama, Y.

    1977-01-01

    There is a marked dependence of mouse crypt survival on the sequence of combined drug-radiation treatment and on the time lapse between irradiation and drug administration. When 5-fluorouracil is administered 6 hours after irradiation or later (up to 18 hours postirradiation), crypt survival drops significantly

  2. Role of post irradiation growth delay in chemical radioprotection by caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangabhagirathi, R.; Rao, B.S.; Bhat, N.N.

    2004-01-01

    Post irradiation treatment with caffeine enhanced the survival of wild type diploid yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae X2180. The presence of caffeine during gamma irradiation also affected a similar enhancement in survival. These observations suggest that caffeine imparted significant protection against radiation. Effectiveness of caffeine, even when present only during the post irradiation period, suggests that it modulates the post irradiation recovery process in yeast cells. (author)

  3. Marrow toxicity of fractionated vs. single dose total body irradiation is identical in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Graham, T.; Appelbaum, F.R.; Deeg, H.J.; Schuening, F.G.; Shulman, H.; Pepe, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors explored in dogs the marrow toxicity of single dose total body irradiation delivered from two opposing 60 Co sources at a rate of 10 cGy/min and compared results to those seen with total body irradiation administered in 100 cGy fractions with minimum interfraction intervals of 6 hr. Dogs were not given marrow transplants. They found that 200 cGy single dose total body irradiation was sublethal, with 12 of 13 dogs showing hematopoietic recovery and survival. Seven of 21 dogs given 300 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to 6 of 10 dogs given 300 cGy fractionated total body irradiation. One of 28 dogs given 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to none of six given fractionated radiation. With granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) administered from day 0-21 after 400 cGy total body irradiation, most dogs survived with hematological recovery. Because of the almost uniform success with GCSF after 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation, a study of GCSF after 400 cGy fractionated total body irradiation was deemed not to be informative and, thus, not carried out. Additional comparisons between single dose and fractionated total body irradiation were carried out with GCSF administered after 500 and 600 cGy of total body irradiation. As with lower doses of total body irradiation, no significant survival differences were seen between the two modes of total body irradiation, and only 3 of 26 dogs studied survived with complete hematological recovery. Overall, therefore, survival among dogs given single dose total body irradiation was not different from that of dogs given fractionated total body irradiation (p = .67). Similarly, the slopes of the postirradiation declines of granulocyte and platelet counts and the rates of their recovery in surviving dogs given equal total doses of single versus fractionated total body irradiation were indistinguishable. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Comments on ''V79 survival following simultaneous or sequential irradiation by 15-MeV neutrons and 60Co photons'' by Higgins et al. [Radiat. Res. 95, 45-56(1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Brenner, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    In a recent paper Higgins et al. reported survival data for V79 Chinese hamster cells exposed simultaneously or sequentially to 15-MeV neutrons and 60 Co photons. In each case the results showed the combined modality to be more effective at cell killing than would be expected from the simple multiplication of the effects due to each radiation alone. Thus the effects of the two radiations are synergistic. In addition, simultaneous exposures yielded lower surviving fractions than sequential ones. Both these results are easy to understand, at least qualitatively, if the concepts of sublethal damage and sublethal damage repair are used. The proposition that simultaneous exposure is more effective than sequential ones thus proposition that simultaneous exposure is more effective than sequential ones thus becomes evident. Theoretical expressions have been derived also to quantify these phenomena. Higgins et al. rederive several of the equations previously obtained, however, the interpretation that they give to these equations is not appropriate. It is the purpose of this note to comment on some of these problems and offer a simple analysis and interpretation of the results based on sublethal damage repair

  5. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  6. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  7. Reactivation of UV- and γ-irradiated herpes virus in UV- and X-irradiated CV-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, K.; Niwa, O.; Sugahara, T.

    1982-01-01

    Enhanced reactivation of UV- and γ-irradiated herpes virus was investigated by the plaque assay on CV-1 monkey kidney monolayer cells irradiated with UV light or X-rays. Both UV- and X-irradiated CV-1 cells showed enhancement of survival of UV-irradiated virus, while little or no enhancement was detected for γ-irradiated virus assayed on UV- or X-irradiated cells. The enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus was greater when virus infection was delayed 24 or 48 h, than for infection immediately following the irradiation of cells. Thus the UV- or X-irradiated CV-1 cells are able to enhance the repair of UV damaged herpes virus DNA, but not of γ-ray damaged ones. (author)

  8. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  9. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  10. Comparative human cellular radiosensitivity: I. The effect of SV40 transformation and immortalisation on the gamma-irradiation survival of skin derived fibroblasts from normal individuals and from ataxia-telangiectasia patients and heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlett, C F; Green, M H; Priestley, A; Harcourt, S A; Mayne, L V

    1988-12-01

    We have compared cell killing following 60Co gamma irradiation in 22 primary human fibroblast strains, nine SV40-immortalized human fibroblast lines and seven SV40-transformed pre-crisis human fibroblast cultures. We have examined material from normal individuals, from ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients and from A-T heterozygotes. We have confirmed the greater sensitivity of A-T derived cells to gamma radiation. The distinction between A-T and normal cells is maintained in cells immortalized by SV40 virus but the immortal cells are more gamma radiation resistant than the corresponding primary fibroblasts. Cells transformed by plasmids (pSV3gpt and pSV3neo) expressing SV40 T-antigen, both pre- and post-crisis, show this increased resistance, indicating that it is expression of SV40 T-antigen, rather than immortalization per se which is responsible for the change. We use D0, obtained from a straight line fit, and D, estimated from a multitarget curve, as parameters to compare radiosensitivity. We suggest that both have their advantages; D0 is perhaps more reproducible, but D is more realistic when comparing shouldered and non-shouldered data.

  11. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Rosanna M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  12. Industrial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Production lines for rubber gloves would not appear to have much in common with particle physics laboratories, but they both use accelerators. Electron beam irradiation is often used in industry to improve the quality of manufactured goods or to reduce production cost. Products range from computer disks, shrink packaging, tyres, cables, and plastics to hot water pipes. Some products, such as medical goods, cosmetics and certain foodstuffs, are sterilized in this way. In electron beam irradiation, electrons penetrate materials creating showers of low energy electrons. After many collisions these electrons have the correct energy to create chemically active sites. They may either break molecular bonds or activate a site which promotes a new chemical linkage. This industrial irradiation can be exploited in three ways: breaking down a biological molecule usually renders it useless and kills the organism; breaking an organic molecule can change its toxicity or function; and crosslinking a polymer can strengthen it. In addition to traditional gamma irradiation using isotopes, industrial irradiation uses three accelerator configurations, each type defining an energy range, and consequently the electron penetration depth. For energies up to 750 kV, the accelerator consists of a DC potential applied to a simple wire anode and the electrons extracted through a slot in a coaxially mounted cylindrical cathode. In the 1-5 MeV range, the Cockcroft-Walton or Dynamitron( R ) accelerators are normally used. To achieve the high potentials in these DC accelerators, insulating SF6 gas and large dimension vessels separate the anode and cathode; proprietary techniques distinguish the various commercial models available. Above 5 MeV, the size of DC accelerators render them impractical, and more compact radiofrequency-driven linear accelerators are used. Irradiation electron beams are actually 'sprayed' over the product using a magnetic deflection system. Lower energy beams of

  13. Survival of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 on the surface of chicken legs or in mechanically deboned chicken meat gamma irradiated in air or vacuum at temperatures of -20 to +20 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.; Boyd, G.

    1991-01-01

    Response-surface methodology was used to develop predictive equations for the response of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 on the surface of chicken legs or within mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) to the effects of γ radiation doses of 0 to 3.60 kGy (100 krad = 1 kGy) at temperatures of -20 to +20 C in air or vacuum. A streptomycin-resistant mutant was used in these studies to allow accurate estimations of the surviving salmonellae in the presence of residual normal flora. This strain has been demonstrated to have no significant shift in its biological properties nor in its resistance to ionizing radiation. The response of S. typhimurium to gamma radiation was similar on both chicken legs and MDCM. The radiation was significantly more lethal to the bacterial cells at temperatures above freezing. The response-surface equations developed from the studies predict that the number of viable cells per gram of MDCM or per square centimeter of the surface of chicken legs would be reduced approximately 2.8 to 5.1 log units at 0 C by radiation doses within the range of 1.5 to 3.0 kGy. The results of the present studies are similar to those obtained previously with sterile mechanically deboned chicken meat

  14. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransohoff, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Carriers, after being loaded with product to be irradiated, are transported by an input-output conveyor system into an irradiation chamber where they are received in a horizontal arrangement on racks which may support different sizes and numbers of carriers. The racks are moved by a chamber conveyor system in an endless rectangular path about a radiation source. Packers shift the carriers on the racks to maintain nearest proximity to the radiation source. The carriers are shifted in position on each rack during successive rack cycles to produce even radiation exposure. The carriers may be loaded singly onto successive racks during a first cycle of movement thereof about the source, with loading of additional carriers, and/or unloading of carriers, onto each rack occurring on subsequent rack cycles of movement

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Endolymphatic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, M.M.; Ianhez, L.E.; Sabbaga, E.

    1982-01-01

    The authors analysed the clinical evolution and the result of renal transplantation some years after irradiation in 24 patients (group I) who received endolymphatic 131 I as a pre-transplantation immunesuppresive measure. The control group (group II) consisted of 24 non-irradiated patients comparable to group I in age, sex, primary disease, type of donor and immunesuppressive therapy. Significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding such factors a incidence and reversibility of rejection crises in the first 60 post-transplantation days, loss of kidney due to rejection, and dosage of azathioprine. The authors conclude that this method, besides being harmless, has prolonged immunesuppressive action, its administration being advised for receptores of cadaver kidneys, mainly those who show positive cross-match against HLA antigens for painel. (Author) [pt

  17. Repair models of cell survival and corresponding computer program for survival curve fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xun; Hu Yiwei

    1992-01-01

    Some basic concepts and formulations of two repair models of survival, the incomplete repair (IR) model and the lethal-potentially lethal (LPL) model, are introduced. An IBM-PC computer program for survival curve fitting with these models was developed and applied to fit the survivals of human melanoma cells HX118 irradiated at different dose rates. Comparison was made between the repair models and two non-repair models, the multitar get-single hit model and the linear-quadratic model, in the fitting and analysis of the survival-dose curves. It was shown that either IR model or LPL model can fit a set of survival curves of different dose rates with same parameters and provide information on the repair capacity of cells. These two mathematical models could be very useful in quantitative study on the radiosensitivity and repair capacity of cells

  18. Negative pion irradiation of mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dertinger, H.; Luecke-Huhle, C.; Schlag, H.; Weibezahn, K.F.

    1976-01-01

    Monolayers and spheroids of Chinese hamster cells (V79) were subjected to negative pion irradiation under aerobic conditions. R.b.e. values in the pion peak of 1.8 and 1.5 were obtained for monolayers and spheroids, respectively, whereas the r.b.e. for the plateau was found to be slightly higher than 1. In addition, it was observed that the higher resistance of the V79 spheroid cells than the monolayers to γ-irradiation is not diminished in the pion peak, suggesting that the underlying phenomenon of intercellular communication influences cell survival even after high-LET irradiation. (author)

  19. Lymphocyte development in irradiated thymuses: dynamics of colonization by progenitor cells and regeneration of resident cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehr, R.; Fridkis-Hareli, M.; Abel, L.; Segel, L.; Globerson, A.

    1995-01-01

    Lymphocyte development in irradiated thymuses was analyzed using two complementary strategies: an in vitro experimental model and computer simulations. In the in vitro model, fetal thymus lobes were irradiated and the regeneration of cells that survived irradiation were examined, with the results compared to those of reconstitution of the thymus by donor bone marrow cells and their competition with the thymic resident cells. In vitro measurements of resident cell kinetics showed that cell proliferation is slowed down significantly after a relatively low (10Gy) irradiation dose. Although the number of thymocytes that survived irradiation remained low for several days post-irradiation, further colonization by donor cells was not possible, unless performed within 6 h after irradiation. These experimental results, coupled with the analysis by computer simulations, suggest that bone marrow cell engraftment in the irradiated thymus may be limited by the presence of radiation-surviving thymic resident cells and the reduced availability of seeding niches. (Author)

  20. Cryopreservation and distribution of radiation-attenuated helminth larvae and the use of radioisotopes to monitor their survival. Coordinated programme on preparation of irradiated vaccines against some human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, E.

    1982-06-01

    Techniques for the cryopreservation of schistosomula are described, from the methanol/two-step cooling technique, through a technique which uses 40% methanol and rapid cooling to the current technique which employs a two-step addition of ethanediol and rapid cooling. Levels of survival with these techniques have improved from 0.3% to 5.9% and now to 47% of control values. The 40% methanol/rapid cooling technique is described in detail as this forms the basis for understanding the role of cryoprotective additives and cooling and warming rates in the cryopreservation of schistosomula. The toxicity of 12 different potentially cryoprotective compounds is described. Cryopreservation of S.japonicum and S.bovis is described. The effect of the age of the schistosomula and their cryopreservability is related to the development of water sensitivity and the permeation and damage produced by glycerol and it is postulated that morphological changes occurring in the tegument during transformation from a cercaria to schistosomulum may account for these observations. Studies with 14 C-ethanediol are described which attempt to provide an understanding of permeability of cryoprtectants to schistosomula of different ages and at different temperatures. Vaccination studies with cryopreserved and radiation-attenuated schistosomula are also reported. Radiation-attenuated schistosomula are also reported. Radiation-attenuated cercariae and schistosomula produced high (64% to 89%) levels of protection in baboons, and cryopreserved schistosomula produced comparable levels of protection in vaccinated mice to normal schistosomula. Cryopreserved radiation-attenuated schistosomula produced a significant level of protection (49% reduction) in sheep although the numbers of normally motile organisms injected was low (1,000 per dose, 2 doses). It is concluded that normally-motile cryopreserved radiation-attenuated schistosomula are as immunogenic as fresh organisms

  1. Preoperative and intraoperative irradiation for osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Kotaro; Amino, Katsuhisa; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi.

    1980-01-01

    1) 8 cases of osteosarcoma were treated with preoperative massive irradiation, the over 5 years survival rate was 3/8 (37.5%). 7 out of 8 cases (87.5%) metastasized to the lung. From these result, it is considered that tumorspecific immunological effect can not be expected from irradiation. Irradiation therapy is essentially a local treatment, and therefore systemic chemotherapy is necessary to prevent metastasis. 2) Osteosarcoma was considered to be radioresistant tumor previously, however local control can be obtained by direct view irradiation without the damage of surrounding tissue. This irradiation method is indicated only for young adult in whom the primary tumor is localized. 3) In the experimental study on heterotransplanted human osteosarcoma in nude mice, combined treatment with radiation and chemotherapy (HD-MTX, ADM and EDX) was proven to be more effective as compared with radiation alone. (author)

  2. Stem cell migration after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothdurft, W.; Fliedner, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The survival rate of irradiated rodents could be significantly improved by shielding only the small parts of hemopoietic tissues during the course of irradiation. The populations of circulating stem cells in adult organisms are considered to be of some importance for the homeostasis between the many sites of blood cell formation and for the necessary flexibility of hemopoietic response in the face of fluctuating demands. Pluripotent stem cells are migrating through peripheral blood as has been shown for several mammalian species. Under steady state conditions, the exchange of stem cells between the different sites of blood cell formation appears to be restricted. Their presence in blood and the fact that they are in balance with the extravascular stem cell pool may well be of significance for the surveilance of the integrity of local stem cell populations. Any decrease of stem cell population in blood below a critical size results in the rapid immigration of circulating stem cells in order to restore local stem cell pool size. Blood stem cells are involved in the regeneration after whole-body irradiation if the stem cell population in bone marrows is reduced to less than 10% of the normal state. In the animals subjected to partial-body irradiation, the circulating stem cells appear to be the only source for the repopulation of the heavily irradiated, aplastic sites of hemopoietic organs. (Yamashita, S.)

  3. Plasmodium falciparum: attenuation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, S.; Yonome, I.; Suzuki, M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum was investigated. The cultured malarial parasites at selected stages of development were exposed to gamma rays and the sensitivity of each stage was determined. The stages most sensitive to irradiation were the ring forms and the early trophozoites; late trophozoites were relatively insensitive. The greatest resistance was shown when parasites were irradiated at a time of transition from the late trophozoite and schizont stages to young ring forms. The characteristics of radiosensitive variation in the parasite cycle resembled that of mammalian cells. Growth curves of parasites exposed to doses of irradiation upto 150 gray had the same slope as nonirradiated controls but parasites which were exposed to 200 gray exhibited a growth curve which was less steep than that for parasites in other groups. Less than 10 organisms survived from the 10(6) parasites exposed to this high dose of irradiation; the possibility exists of obtaining radiation-attenuated P. falciparum

  4. Comparative studies in the cellular immunostimulation by whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, R.; Schwarze, G.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the cellular immune response by total body irradiation was investigated. The transplant survival (skin grafts) was determined as immune parameter. Donors were colony bred Wistar rats and recipients were colony bred Sprague Dawley rats. The investigations were carried out with irradiated rats and with rats irradiated after thymectomy and/or adrenalectomy as well as with animals without irradiation. A single total-body irradiation (1 and 2 Gy) was administered. The skin graft survival in irradiated rats was significant shorter (radiogenic immunostimulation) than in unirradiated rats; there were no significant differences between the operated (thymectomy and/or adrenalectomy) and not operated animals. Including precedent examinations this radiogenic immunostimulation is caused by relativly selective inactivation of T-suppressor cells. (orig.) [de

  5. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  6. Radiation Effect on Secondary Cancerization by Tumour Cell Grafts. Take of Irradiated Tumour Cells in Irradiated and Non-Irradiated Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costachel, O.; Sandru, Gh.; Kitzulescu, I. [Oncological Institute, Bucharest (Romania)

    1969-11-15

    This study was designed to determine the ability of haemocytoblastoma, SME and Jensen tumours, which had been irradiated in vitro, to take in C{sub 57}BL/6 mice or Wistar rats that were whole-body irradiated at 0.4 kR and 0.6 kR respectively. It was found-that the take of tumour cell grafts irradiated in vitro increased in whole-body irradiated mice and rats but not in non-irradiated ones. When Wistar rats, that had been whole-body irradiated with 0.7 and 0.8 kR 1 - 7 months earlier and survived after treatment, were grafted with Jensen tumour cells irradiated in vitro with 3 kR they were found to develop tumours and lung metastases (in contrast to non-irradiated rats). A cross resistance against non-irradiated Jensen tumour cells was obtained in non- irradiated Wistar rats by grafting irradiated Jensen tumour cells. Chromosomal analysis showed two supplementary giant markers in the Jensen tumour cells that had been irradiated in vitro before grafting. (author)

  7. Preoperative irradiation of hypernephroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, D.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1969, preoperative irradiation of hypernephiroid carcinoma has been a routine measure at the Steglitz medical clinic: It consists in the application of a focal dose of 30 Gy, fractionated into doses of 2.5 Gy, as Betatron pendulum irradiation (42 MeV photons) covering the para-aortic lymph nodes. After a treatment-free interval of 3 weeks, radical nephrectomy is carried through. Of 178 patients, 47 were in tumor stage I, 15 in stage II, 83 in stage III and 33 in stage IV. In 99 patients the treatment dated back longer than 5 years; the survival rate was 52%. 67% of the patients had survived longer than 3 years. Operation lethality was 3%. The preoperative irradiation pursues the following aims: 1. Devitalization of potentially proliferating cells in the tumor periphery, and thus prevention of displaced tumor cells growing on and postoperative local recidivations; 2. Shrinking of the tumor, facilitating the surgical intervention. In a third of the cases a measurable alteration of the tumor was confirmed by X-ray. The low operation lethality of 3% is attributed to this. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Network survivability performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunications networks to user expectations for network survivability and a foundation for continuing industry activities in the subject area. This report focuses on the survivability of both public and private networks and covers a wide range of users. Two frameworks are established for quantifying and categorizing service outages, and for classifying network survivability techniques and measures. The performance of the network survivability techniques is considered; however, recommended objectives are not established for network survivability performance.

  9. Feeding Studies of Irradiated Foods with Insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, Srisan

    1978-06-15

    Insects are of value to man in many scientific studies. Microsomal detoxication systems exist in both insects and mammals. In the preliminary investigations it was found that irradiated cocoa beans and white and red kidney beans (Phaseolus spp.) did not significantly change the percentage of egg-hatch in the insects tested. In more detailed investigations food samples that are susceptible to insect spoilage and are representatives of widely consumed human foods were fed to various insect species. The development, sex distortion and reproductivity of the insects were investigated. Cytogenetic aberrations as related to dominant lethality were studied in insects with reasonably clear chromosomal patterns. The meiosis stage was examined, using the squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining. Black beans, Phaseolus spp., irradiated with up to 200 krad of gamma rays did not apparently change the percentage of survival and the sex ratio of the bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. Dominant lethality in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, fed on irradiated black beans did not apparently occur when considering the results of cytological investigation and the number of offspring obtained. Dried sardine samples irradiated with up to 400 krad of gamma rays neither apparently affected the survival nor caused sex distortion in the cheese skipper, Piophila casei. This irradiated product apparently did not induce dominant lethality in the German cockroach as tested. Coffee processed from coffee beans that had been irradiated with up to 100 krad of gamma rays did not apparently cause adverse effects on the experimental insects. (author)

  10. Feeding studies of irradiated foods with insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.

    1978-01-01

    Insects are of value to man in many scientific studies. Microsomal detoxication systems exist in both insects and mammals. In the preliminary investigations it was found that irradiated cocoa beans and white and red kidney beans (Phaseolus spp.) did not significantly change the percentage of egg-hatch in the insects tested. In more detailed investigations food samples that are susceptible to insect spoilage and are representatives of widely consumed human foods were fed to various insect species. The development, sex distortion and reproductivity of the insects were investigated. Cytogenetic aberrations as related to dominant lethality were studied in insects with reasonably clear chromosomal patterns. The meiosis stage was examined, using the squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining. Black beans, Phaseolus spp., irradiated with up to 200 krad of gamma rays did not apparently change the percentage of survival and the sex ratio of the bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. Dominant lethality in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, fed on irradiated black beans did not apparently occur when considering the results of cytological investigation and the number of offspring obtained. Dried sardine samples irradiated with up to 400 krad of gamma rays neither apparently affected the survival nor caused sex distortion in the cheese skipper, Piophila casei. This irradiated product apparently did not induce dominant lethality in the German cockroach as tested. Coffee processed from coffee beans that had been irradiated with up to 100 krad of gamma rays did not apparently cause adverse effects on the experimental insects. (author)

  11. Protoplast fusion in Streptomyces: fusions involving ultraviolet-irradiated protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, D.A.; Wright, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    Protoplasts of Streptomyces coelicolor showed the same ultraviolet killing kinetics as spores. Irradiated protoplasts gave rise to recombinants when they were fused with unirradiated protoplasts of a strain carrying complementary genetic markers. The decline with u.v. fluence in the capacity of irradiated protoplasts to yield recombinants inheriting individual markers was some six times less steep than the survival of unfused protoplasts; thus, for example, protoplasts reduced to only 0.01% survival still yielded 10% as many recombinants as unirradiated protoplasts. Each of six widely separated markers of the irradiated parent was inherited independently of the others, with a frequency falling exponentially with u.v. fluence. (author)

  12. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Jeynes, J.C.G.; Merchant, M.J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Center, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Guildford Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Recently completed nanobeam at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre was used. •3.8-MeV single and broad proton beams irradiated Chinese hamster cells. •Cell survival curves were measured and compared with 300-kV X-ray irradiation. •Single ion irradiation had a lower survival part at ultra-low dose. •It implies hypersensitivity, bystander effect and cell cycle phase of cell death. -- Abstract: As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  13. Biology of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents his arguments for food scientists and biologists that the hazards of food irradiation outweigh the benefits. The subject is discussed in the following sections: introduction (units, mutagenesis, seed viability), history of food irradiation, effects of irradiation on organoleptic qualities of staple foods, radiolytic products and selective destruction of nutrients, production of microbial toxins in stored irradiated foods and loss of quality in wheat, deleterious consequences of eating irradiated foods, misrepresentation of the facts about food irradiation. (author)

  14. Irradiation of Eggs and Larvae of Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock) Fruit Fly to Produce Irradiation Host for Its Parasitoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh Kuswadi; Murni lndarwatmi; Nasution, Indah Arastuti

    2004-01-01

    Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) fruit fly, a major pests of commercial fruits in Indonesia, is attacked by several species of parasitoids in the field, such as by Biosteres sp. that attacks on early instar larvae and Opius sp. on late instar larvae. In order to produce irradiated host in mass rearing of both species, several dosage of gamma were tested on both eggs and larvae. Egg masses of 0.5 ml were irradiated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy and then inoculated into artificial diet. Viability of the eggs, the larval period and the number of pupae produced were observed. About 200 third instar larvae irradiated with 0, 10, 30, 50,70 dan 90 Gy and the number and quality of the pupae developed were then observed. The results showed that the eggs irradiated with tested dosage did not reduce its viability however it reduced the survival of larvae emerged. Number of pupae produced from 0.5 ml irradiated eggs were reduced from 2740 pupae to 407, 167, 113, 53 and 44 pupae, besides the pupation delayed up to three days. Irradiation on third instars larvae did not reduce its pupation, since pupae were developed from > 85 % of irradiated larvae. However, irradiation did reduced the fly emergence from the pupae. Irradiated hosts for Biosteres sp and Opius sp can be produced by irradiating eggs however it should be evaluated since the survival rate of the larvae reduced. Irradiation of third instar larvae may produce irradiated host for Opius sp So, the use of irradiated eggs or irradiated larvae as host in the colonization of the parasitoids will insure no hosts emerged as adult. However it remain to be proved whether irradiated hosts are prefered and able to support the life of parasitoid. (author)

  15. Regional Nodal Irradiation in Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Timothy J; Olivotto, Ivo A; Parulekar, Wendy R; Ackerman, Ida; Chua, Boon H; Nabid, Abdenour; Vallis, Katherine A; White, Julia R; Rousseau, Pierre; Fortin, Andre; Pierce, Lori J; Manchul, Lee; Chafe, Susan; Nolan, Maureen C; Craighead, Peter; Bowen, Julie; McCready, David R; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Gelmon, Karen; Murray, Yvonne; Chapman, Judy-Anne W; Chen, Bingshu E; Levine, Mark N

    2015-07-23

    Most women with breast cancer who undergo breast-conserving surgery receive whole-breast irradiation. We examined whether the addition of regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast irradiation improved outcomes. We randomly assigned women with node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer who were treated with breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant systemic therapy to undergo either whole-breast irradiation plus regional nodal irradiation (including internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes) (nodal-irradiation group) or whole-breast irradiation alone (control group). The primary outcome was overall survival. Secondary outcomes were disease-free survival, isolated locoregional disease-free survival, and distant disease-free survival. Between March 2000 and February 2007, a total of 1832 women were assigned to the nodal-irradiation group or the control group (916 women in each group). The median follow-up was 9.5 years. At the 10-year follow-up, there was no significant between-group difference in survival, with a rate of 82.8% in the nodal-irradiation group and 81.8% in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.13; P=0.38). The rates of disease-free survival were 82.0% in the nodal-irradiation group and 77.0% in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.94; P=0.01). Patients in the nodal-irradiation group had higher rates of grade 2 or greater acute pneumonitis (1.2% vs. 0.2%, P=0.01) and lymphedema (8.4% vs. 4.5%, P=0.001). Among women with node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer, the addition of regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast irradiation did not improve overall survival but reduced the rate of breast-cancer recurrence. (Funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute and others; MA.20 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00005957.).

  16. Biochemical and Tissue Studies on Post Irradiation Recovery in Mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.M.

    2004-01-01

    three main studies were performed in this thesis, namely, mortality and survival study, biochemical studies, and studies on tissue alterations cobalt-60 gamma irradiation for low let was used for the external whole body irradiation of the irradiated animal groups. a total number of animals of 722 virgin female adult wister rats of approximately the same age and weight were used for the three studies that were performed, including the control and irradiated animal groups. the animals were housed and kept with special care at fixed temperature, humidity and diet. the study on mortality and survival included 370 animals divided into control and groups irradiated with 4,5,6,7,8 and 9 Gy. this study was followed up for one year to record the number and date of animal deaths for the different irradiated groups. for the 8 and 9 Gy irradiated groups the follow up ended after 12 weeks and 11 days respectively when animal mortality reached 100%. the maximum percent mortality was noted at the second week (3.3,8,14 and 29%) for the 4,5,6 and 7 Gy irradiated groups respectively. for the 8 and 9 Gy irradiated groups, the maximum percent mortality was noted at the first week (42.9 and 90% respectively). regression equations were applied for the percent of mortality of the 5-8 Gy irradiated groups to estimate the LD 50/30, which was found to be 6.4 Gy

  17. Results of irradiation therapy for advanced uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Haruo; Asakawa, Hiroshi; Otawa, Hirokazu; Nemoto, Kenji; Saito, Hiroyuki

    1983-01-01

    152 patients with advanced uterine cervical cancer (76 in stage III, 47 in stage IV and 29 in recurrence) were treated at Miyagi Seijinbyo Center in fifteen years (1967-1981). Our standard treatment was a combined therapy of 6 MVX ray whole pelvis irradiation and intracavitary radium irradiation (or simple total hysterectomy) The actuarial 5-year-survival rate was 46.0% in stage III, 9.4% in stage IV and 10.3% in recurrence. In stage III, the actuarial 5-year-survival rate in nine cases with external irradiation alone was (22.2%), in 44 cases with intracavitary irradiation and external irradiation 48.7%; in 14 cases with operation and external irradiation 57.1%. No five year survival was found in nine interrupted-irradation cases. Moderate complications in the rectum and/or the urinary bladder were found in eight of 67 (12%) irradiation-completed patients in stage III. Five 5-year-survival cases (two in stage IV and three in recurrence) were reported. (author)

  18. Sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjan, Veronika

    1990-01-01

    Irradiation of Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.) was carried out in culture media and pork meat paste at room temperature with 60 Co radiation source of 6.6 kGy h -1 dose rate. The employed doses were 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kGy. One strain out of 3 survived as high as 4 kGy irradiation. Radiation with 2 kGy resulted 7 log cycles reduction of cell count. After lower irradiation doses the L.m. count decreased in proportion to increasing doses. It has been concluded that L.m. compared with Gram-negative pathogens, are less sensitive to irradiation. (author) 6 refs.; 4 figs

  19. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  20. Effects of Irradiation on Insect Host-Parasite Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahalkar, G. W.; Ramakrishnan, V. [Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1968-06-15

    Effects of host irradiation on the development of its parasite were investigated. Females of Bracon brevicomis readily accepted irradiated larvae of tile wax moth (Galleria mellonella) and rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica) for oviposition. However, irradiated wax moth larvae adversely influenced the viability of eggs laid on them and also the survival of the parasite grubs feeding on their bodies. The female grubs were affected more than the males. Rice moth larvae, on the other hand, exerted no significant influence on the viability of parasite eggs, but adversely affected the survival of the grubs. The progeny of parents that had been reared on irradiated larvae also exhibited some developmental changes although grown on non-irradiated host larvae, and these changes were more pronounced when G. mellonella was used as the host insect. (author)

  1. Thymus irradiation for myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currier, R.D.; Routh, A.; Hickman, B.T.; Douglas, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with progressive myasthenia gravis without thymoma received treatment of 3000 rads (30 Gy) to the anterior mediastinum, and a followup was conducted for five to 18 years. Twenty-four patients had generalized myasthenia, and four had ocular myasthenia gravis. Twenty patients with generalized myasthenia survived the several month post-treatment period and improved, but four died during that period. The improvement lasted a median of 1.5 years, and older patients had longer remissions than younger patients. The four patients who had ocular myasthenia did not change after treatment. Mediastinal irradiation produces a temporary remission in generalized myasthenia

  2. Thymus irradiation for myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currier, R.D.; Routh, A.; Hickman, B.T.; Douglas, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with progressive myasthenia gravis without thymoma received treatment of 3000 rads (30 Gy) to the anterior mediastinum, and a followup was conducted for five to 18 years. Twenty-four patients had generalized myasthenia, and four had ocular myasthenia gravis. Twenty patients with generalized myasthenia survived the several month post-treatment period and improved, but four died during that period. The improvement lasted a median of 1.5 years, and older patients had longer remissions than younger patients. The four patients who had ocular myasthenia did not change after treatment. Mediastinal irradiation produces a temporary remission in generalized myasthenia.

  3. Detection of chromosome aberrations in tumors lineage after irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luciana Maria Silva; Campos, Tarcisio

    2002-01-01

    When radioresistant cancerous cells are irradiated at level of few Gys, the interactions may not generate visible observations in the morphology of the cells or effects so intense such as death after few hours. The changes that will be observed depend on the combination of many factors that define the probability of cell surviving in response to the physical dose applied. Genetic factors may affect the cell response such as the cell sensitivity to irradiation, cancerous cell is studied when irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays. Besides the evaluation of the radiosensitivity of this cells when exposed to gamma irradiation, possible chromosomic aberrations and apoptosis were detected. (author)

  4. Revascularization of autogenous skin grafts placed on irradiated tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, M.; Torii, S.; Kaneda, T.; Oka, T.

    1982-01-01

    Vascular changes in rat skin after irradiation were examined microangiographically. Revascularization of the skin transplanted during the chronic stage after irradiation was also studied. The results obtained through these examinations revealed higher vascular densities at the acute and the subacute stages, and low values at the chronic stages compared with those of the control. Furthermore, when the skin grafts were transplanted to the irradiated beds in the chronic stage, primary revascularization was scant, and the inhibited capillary proliferation in the recipient sites prevented new vessel penetration. This explains why grafts transplanted to previously irradiated beds fail to survive

  5. Irradiation Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Fabich, Adrian; Garcia, Alia, Ruben; Glaser, Maurice; Gorine, Georgi; Jaekel, Martin, Richard; Mateu,Suau, Isidre; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Fabio; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-01-01

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in many scientific fields. This paper summarizes the facilities currently operating for proton, gamma, mixed-field and electron irradiations, including their main usage, characteristics and information about their operation. The new CERN irradiation facilities database is also presented. This includes not only CERN facilities but also irradiation facilities available worldwide.

  6. Modification of cell growth rate by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hisao; Takemasa, Kazuhiko; Nishiguchi, Iku; Ka, Wei-Jei; Kutsuki, Shoji; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1993-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the proliferation kinetics of the monolayer cells has been studied. Two human cell lines with different doubling times (HeLa-P and RMUG) and two clones that have the same radiosensitivity but different doubling times (HeLa-R and HeLa-S) were irradiated with a daily dose of 2 Gy for 6 days. The number of the clonogenic cells/dish was calculated by multiplying the number of total cell/dish by the survival fraction. In the rapidly growing cells (HeLa-P, HeLa-R), the number of the clonogenic cells was not decreased by the first two fractionated irradiations, but decreased thereafter at a similar rate as by single-dose fractionation, whereas the clonogenic cell number decreased from the first fractionated irradiation in the slowly growing cells (RMUG, HeLa-S). When the proliferation of clonogenic cell number increased along with a similar growth rates that was seen in all other types of cells. Further, no correlation was seen between the growth rates of cells without irradiation and cells that received irradiation. This latter result suggests that the slow growth rate of non-irradiated cells may not be the predictive factor of the tumor cure and the interruption of radiotherapy may reduce the beneficial effect of this treatment even in slow growing tumors. (author)

  7. Rheological changes in irradiated chicken eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lúcia F. S.; Del Mastro, Nélida L.

    1998-06-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may cause foodborne illnesses. Humans may introduce pathogens into foods during production, processing, distribution and or preparation. Some of these microorganisms are able to survive conventional preservation treatments. Heat pasteurization, which is a well established and satisfactory means of decontamination/disinfection of liquid foods, cannot efficiently achieve a similar objective for solid foods. Extensive work carried out worldwide has shown that irradiation is efficient in eradicating foodborne pathogens like Salmonella spp. that can contaminate poultry products. In this work Co-60 gamma irradiation was applied to samples of industrial powder white, yolk and whole egg at doses between 0 and 25 kGy. Samples were rehydrated and the viscosity measured in a Brookfield viscosimeter, model DV III at 5, 15 and 25°C. The rheological behaviour among the various kinds of samples were markedly different. Irradiation with doses up to 5 kGy, known to reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels, showed almost no variation of viscosity of irradiated egg white samples. On the other hand, whole or yolk egg samples showed some changes in rheological properties depending on the dose level, showing the predominance of whether polimerization or degradation as a result of the irradiation. Additionally, irradiation of yolk egg powder reduced yolk color as a function of the irradiation exposure implemented. The importance of these results are discussed in terms of possible industrial applications.

  8. Rheological changes in irradiated chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Lucia F. S.; Del Mastro, Nelida L.

    1998-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may cause foodborne illnesses. Humans may introduce pathogens into foods during production, processing, distribution and or preparation. Some of these microorganisms are able to survive conventional preservation treatments. Heat pasteurization, which is a well established and satisfactory means of decontamination/disinfection of liquid foods, cannot efficiently achieve a similar objective for solid foods. Extensive work carried out worldwide has shown that irradiation is efficient in eradicating foodborne pathogens like Salmonella spp. that can contaminate poultry products. In this work Co-60 gamma irradiation was applied to samples of industrial powder white, yolk and whole egg at doses between 0 and 25 kGy. Samples were rehydrated and the viscosity measured in a Brookfield viscosimeter, model DV III at 5, 15 and 25 degree sign C. The rheological behaviour among the various kinds of samples were markedly different. Irradiation with doses up to 5 kGy, known to reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels, showed almost no variation of viscosity of irradiated egg white samples. On the other hand, whole or yolk egg samples showed some changes in rheological properties depending on the dose level, showing the predominance of whether polimerization or degradation as a result of the irradiation. Additionally, irradiation of yolk egg powder reduced yolk color as a function of the irradiation exposure implemented. The importance of these results are discussed in terms of possible industrial applications

  9. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  10. Influences of nutrition on the biology and midgut histology of gamma irradiated Musca domestica L. (diptera: muscidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banditsing, C.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction between gamma irradiation and nutrition in the house fly, M. domestica, was investigated following irradiation of 2-hr-old adult virgin females mated with non-irradiated males. Radiation levels used were: 0 (non-irradiated), 250 rads, 500 rads, 750 rads, and 1,500 rads. Flies were fed diets consisting of varying ratio by weight of casein and sucrose at 1:1, 0.5:1, 1:0.5, and 0.1 respectively, and kept in the insectary at 25 +- 2 0 C and 70 percent R.H. Egg hatchability, adult emergence, body and ovary weights, survival of irradiated females, and histopathology were investigated at 4, 7, 11, and 15 days after irradiation. Survival of irradiated females was also determined at 45 days after irradiation. The results of these studies suggest that carbohydrate is important in house fly survival and repair of radiation damage

  11. Late effects of irradiation in mouse jejunum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, A.; Travis, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The response of mouse jejunum at intervals up to 1 year after single 'priming' doses of X-rays has been assessed by crypt survival after retreatment with single doses of X-rays and morphometric analysis of changes in the intestinal submucosa. The crypt dose-survival curves in mice re-irradiated at 2, 6, or 12 months after priming irradiation were displaced to higher doses in pre-treated than in non-pre-treated mice and were characterized by higher D 0 values. Misonidazole given before the test exposure reversed this effect so that the dose survival curve for crypts in pre-treated mice were superimposed on that for mice not previously irradiated, suggesting that the increase in isoeffect dose and the change in the D 0 in previously exposed mice was due to crypt hypoxia. Quantifications of the area of the submucosa showed that its area was increased at all three times after the priming doses and was a result of collagen deposition and oedema. Thus, the hypoxia in the crypts was probably secondary to these changes. Deaths began at 6-7 months after priming irradiation and were due to intestinal obstruction and stenosis. Thus, as in other tissues, two phases of injury can be assayed in the intestine of experimental animals. (author)

  12. Repair of radiation damage of Micrococcus radioproteolyticus due to gamma and UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryznar, L.; Drasil, V.

    1982-01-01

    Cells were irradiated in dry state with gamma radiation and UV radiation. The post-irradiation warming of freeze dried cells (2 hours to 60deg or to 80deg) influenced the ability to repair sublethal damage. Heating to 80deg caused a mild reduction in survival. The repair of irradiated and heated cells required more time than that of cells which had only been irradiated. (M.D.)

  13. Hemostimulating efficiency of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs under modified irradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhvoronkov, L.P.; Sklobovskaya, I.Eh.

    1988-01-01

    Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were found to have hemostimulating effect in mice after irradiation. This effect was rather definite under irradiation conditions modified by dose fractioning or radioprotective chemicals. NSAID application during fractionated irradiation with midlethal integral dose leads to almost complete recovery of bone marrow hemopoiesis by the 9th day of radiation illness. NSAID usage combined with chemical radioprotectors provides effective hemopoiesis stimulation leading to survival increase in animals, irradiated with absolutely lethal doses. (author)

  14. ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.

    2014-06-01

    ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

  15. The effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on seeds and branches of Euonymus fortunei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Yan; Inner Mongolia Agriculture Univ., Huhhot; Zhang Guosheng; Lu Renqiang; Pan Qinghua

    2006-01-01

    Seeds and plant branches of Euonymus fortunei were irradiated with 60 Co γ-ray. The results showed that after irradiation, seed germination rate, emergence rate and surviving rate were restrained, and it was negatively correlated with irradiation dose increasing significantly. The first euphylis period was delayed compared with control. Seedling height decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Semi-lethal dose of Euonymus fortunei seeds was 128.56 Gy. Branch irradiation could cause significantly number and length reduced, and it is correlated with irradiation dose increasing. The semi-lethal dose for Euonymus fortunei branches was 95.54 Gy. (authors)

  16. Restorative effect of exogenous RNA on the intestinal crypts in mice after abdominal γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Guiying; Han Shichen; Liu Aiping; Xie Xuejun; Zhou Yuankai

    1995-01-01

    The author's previous investigation revealed a restorative effect of exogenous nucleic acids on the intestinal crypt in mice after abdominal γ-irradiation. In the article, the factors influencing the restorative effect of exogenous RNA on the intestinal crypt in mice post-irradiation were studied. The results showed that: (a) RNAs from different sources all showed the crypt survival enhancement capability. (b) Bell-shaped curves correlating the crypt survival fraction and RNA doses were obtained, with the optimal doses for different routes of administration estimated. (c) Comparing the different routes of RNA administration, the intravenous injection seemed to be the most effective. (d) An exponential relationship between the crypt survival fraction and the post-irradiation time of RNA administration was found. The earlier the administration, the more effective it was. (e) Administration of RNA merely once within 6h after irradiation, the increases of crypt survival fraction was statistically significant when compared with that of the irradiated control

  17. Early Pulomonary Irradiation in Paraquat (Gramoxone) Poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Geol; Kim, Gwi Eon; Suh, Chang Ok

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate whether the early pulmonary irradiation can prevent or decrease the pulmonary damage and contribute to improve ultimate survival in paraquat lung. Materials and Methods : From Jun. 1987 to Aug. 1993, thirty patients with paraquat poisoning were evaluated. Fourteen of these patients were received pulmonary irradiation(RT). All of the patients ere managed with aggressive supportive treatment such as gastric lavage, forced diuresis, antioxidant agents and antifibrosis agents. Ingested amounts of paraquat were estimated into three groups(A: minimal 50cc). Pulmonary irradiation was started within 24 hours after admission(from day 1 to day 11 after ingestion of paraquat). Both whole lungs were irradiated with AP/PA parallel opposing fields using C0-60 teletherapy machine. A total of 10Gy(2Gy/fr. X 5 days)was delivered without correction of lung density. Results : In group A, all patients were alive regardless of pulmonary irradiation and in group C, all of the patients were died due o multi-organ failure, especially pulmonary fibrosis regardless of pulmonary irradiation. However, in group B, six of 7 patients(86%) with no RT were died due to respiratory failure, but 4 of 8 patients with RT were alive and 4 of 5 patients who received pulmonary irradiation within 4 days after ingestion of paraquat were all alive though radiological pulmonary fibrosis. All 3 patients who were received pulmonary irradiation after 4 days after ingestion were died due to pulmonary fibrosis in spite of recovery from renal and hepatic toxicity. Conclusion : It is difficult to find out the effect of pulmonary irradiation on the course of the paraquat lung because the precise plasma and urine paraquat concentration were not available between control and irradiation groups. But early pulmonary irradiation within 4 days after paraquat poisoning with aggressive supportive treatment appears to decrease pulmonary toxicity and contribute survival in patients with mouthful ingestion

  18. Electron beam irradiating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, K

    1969-12-20

    The efficiency of an electron beam irradiating device is heightened by improving the irradiation atmosphere and the method of cooling the irradiation window. An irradiation chamber one side of which incorporates the irradiation windows provided at the lower end of the scanner is surrounded by a suitable cooling system such as a coolant piping network so as to cool the interior of the chamber which is provided with circulating means at each corner to circulate and thus cool an inert gas charged therewithin. The inert gas, chosen from a group of such gases which will not deleteriously react with the irradiating equipment, forms a flowing stream across the irradiation window to effect its cooling and does not contaminate the vacuum exhaust system or oxidize the filament when penetrating the equipment through any holes which the foil at the irradiation window may incur during the irradiating procedure.

  19. Selective lymphoid irradiation. V. Synergism with pretransplant thymectomy or thymic irradiation in cardiac transplantation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iga, C.; Fawwaz, R.; Nowygrod, R.; Reemtsma, K.; Hardy, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Selective lymphoid irradiation (SLI) using palladium-109-hematoporphyrin (Pd-H), given four days prior to transplantation, combined with two doses of antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) (10 mg, days -2 and -1), was evaluated as a method of induction of permanent heterotopic cardiac allograft survival in the highly histoincompatible rat strain combination of ACI (RT1(1))-to-Lewis (RT1a). Both Pd-H and ALG localize poorly in the thymus, so this study evaluated whether thymic irradiation (TI) or thymectomy (TX) of the adult recipient results in indefinite allograft survival. Immunosuppression with Pd-H or ALG alone gave a mean survival time (MST) of 6.7 +/- 0.6 days, but the combination of the two agents led to an MST of 17.6 +/- 3.4 days. When TI was combined with Pd-H and ALG, cardiac allograft survival was prolonged to 50.2 +/- 13.9 days, but TI alone showed an MST of 10.3 +/- 1.8 days. Permanent cardiac allograft survival (greater than 250 days) was achieved in all thymectomized recipients treated with the combination of Pd-H and a brief course of ALG. These animals also accepted second-set skin grafts and rejected third-party skin grafts following more than 150 days of ACI cardiac allograft survival. Thymic irradiation, although effective in acting synergistically with SLI and ALG, led to prolonged, but limited allograft survival, although thymectomy with SLI and ALG is synergistic in prolonging allograft survival permanently without chronic immunosuppression

  20. Effect of irradiated food on life cycle of Trogoderma granarium by gamma irradiations infesting stored barley (Hordum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisodiya, Manju; Singhvi, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of irradiated food on the life cycle of Trogoderma granarium crushed barley were irradiated by Gamma irradiations. Fresh eggs were collected from stock culture for getting newly hatched first instar larvae. Twenty, first instar larvae were collected and transferred to the culture tubes containing irradiated food. The larva was observed till the emergence of adults. To calculate the survivality of insects the newly emerged adults were counted daily till the last adult and the emerged beetles were removed. The observation was also made in regard to the time required for adult emergence. The test insect was reared on Gamma irradiated food and survival rate, developmental period and growth index were recorded in different does as 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 KGy. The survival rate, developmental period and growth rate of test insect were recorded as 95%, 26.00 and 0.049 respectively at highest dose of 0.5 KGy. Where as 96.67%, 25.33 and 0.051 at lowest dose of 0.1 KGy was recorded. In control condition, they were 98.33%, 29.67 and 0.043 respectively. Irradiation against barley grains had no such effect on the developmental period, survival rate and growth index of Trogoderma granarium. It provides effective alternative to fumigants chemical pesticides which have numerous hazards and create environmental pollution. (author)

  1. Irradiation of goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.

    1992-01-01

    The necessary dose and the dosage limits to be observed depend on the kind of product and the purpose of irradiation. Product density and density distribution, product dimensions, but also packaging, transport and storage conditions are specific parameters influencing the conditions of irradiation. The kind of irradiation plant - electron accelerator or gamma plant - , its capacity, transport system and geometric arrangement of the radiation field are factors influencing the irradiation conditions as well. This is exemplified by the irradiation of 3 different products, onions, deep-frozen chicken and high-protein feed. Feasibilities and limits of the irradiation technology are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  2. Cell survival and radiation induced chromosome aberrations. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Braselmann, H.

    1986-01-01

    Human peripheral lymphocytes were irradiated in whole blood with 0.5-4.0 Gy of 220 kVp X-rays and the frequency of chromosome aberrations was determined in 1st or 2nd division metaphases discriminated by fluorescence plus giemsa staining. Using the empirical distributions of aberrations among cells, cell survival and transmission of aberrations were investigated. Considering both daughter cells, we found that 20% of fragments and 55% of dicentrics or ring chromosomes are lost during the 1st cell division; i.e. cell survival rate from 1st to 2nd generation is mainly influenced by anaphase bridging of these two-hit aberrations. Cell survival to 2nd mitosis was calculated considering this situation and compared with the survival derived from the fraction of M1 cells without unstable aberrations. The resulting shouldered survival curves showed significantly different slopes, indicating that cell reproductive death is overestimated in the latter approach. (orig.)

  3. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw, J.; Rempe, J.; Palmer, J.; Tittmann, B.; Reinhardt, B.; Kohse, G.; Ramuhalli, P.; Montgomery, R.; Chien, H.T.; Villard, J.F.

    2013-06-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of numerous parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 10 21 n/cm 2 (E> 0.1 MeV). This test will be an instrumented lead test; and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. By characterizing magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, test results will enable the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. (authors)

  4. Total body irradiation for children with malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanuki, Eiichi; Maeno, Toshio; Kamata, Rikisaburo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Mugishima, Hideo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Total body irradiation combined with high dose chemotherapy has been performed just before bone marrow transplantation in 35 children with advanced malignancies, with the object of achieving successful transplantation and improving the prognosis. Simulation was performed as follows: back scatter, flatness, dose accumulation using randophantom and dose distribution using a thermo-luminescence dosimeter and linac-graphy. The standard error of dose distribution was within 10%. In neuroblastoma, of which there were 14 cases in stage IV and one case in stage III, the 5-year survival rate was 55%. In leukemia, of which all cases were in the high-risk group (7 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 2 of acute myeloblastic leukemia) the 5-year survival rate was 55%. The 5 cases having first remission survived disease-free while the 4 cases having non-first remission died. In malignant lymphoma (6 cases in stage IV and one case in stage III, with bulky mass) the 5-year survival rate was 67%. Four cases with other diagnoses (severe aplastic anemia, and others) all survived. As yet no side effects resulting from total body irradiation have been recognized in our cases, but a longer follow-up period is necessary to observe possible late side effects. (author).

  5. Curability of esophageal carcinoma treated with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shogo; Takai, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kenji; Kakuto, Yoshihisa; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Hoshi, Akihiko; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1994-01-01

    The curability of 168 squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus treated with more than 60 Gy of irradiation between 1980 and 1987 were discussed. There were 49 autopsied cases. The curability rat was calculated after the conversion of 13 local free or 46 metastasis free patients who had not undergone autopsy into unknown cases in each analysis. Disease free, local free, and metastasis free rates were 11.2, 20.0, and 26.0%, respectively. The curability rate was higher in the superficial type cancer and stage I cases. The local control rate and the metastasis free rate were extremely poor in the infiltrative type cancer. The actuarial survival rate of overall patients was 31.5% at one year, 11.3% at three years, and 7.1% at five years. Reconstructed survival rates: disease free, local free, and metastasis free survival rates, indicated that the survival rates of overall patients might be improved by decreasing the number of intercurrent death in stage I and by elevating the ratio of the local control in stages II and III. The disease free survival rate of cases treated with low dose rate telecobalt therapy as a boost was better than that of the conventionally fractionated irradiation alone cases in stages II and III. (author)

  6. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  7. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  8. Survivability and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Survivability and Hope Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... cure or long-term survivorship." This message of hope is a hallmark of the latest advances in ...

  9. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  10. Elimination of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Fernanda Peixoto

    2005-01-01

    Food treatment by exposure to ionizing radiation, known as food irradiation, presents several attractive features such as: leaving no residues, posing no threat to consumer health, usually causing no damage to sensory or nutritional properties and acting uniformly throughout the volume of the products. This work investigated the efficiency of irradiation for eliminating Sitophilus oryzae (L.), also known as 'the rice weevil', a small beetle frequently found in infested grains. A total of 444 individuals of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) found in corn meal and noodles supplies were irradiated with gamma ray doses of 0, 0.6, 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy and then visually monitored for 4 days in order to determine the number of insects still alive. The least-squares fitting method was used to determine the survival curves as functions of post-irradiation time and dose. The living fraction of the irradiated population was found to decrease exponentially with time. The results indicated that doses of 2.0, 1.5 and 0.6 kGy cause immediate death, instantaneous immobility and death of the species within one week, respectively. The findings suggest that disinfestation of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation is an interesting option to the dangerous use of toxic chemicals. (author)

  11. Elimination of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Fernanda Peixoto [Exercito Brasileiro, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Diretoria de Suprimento. Dept. Logistico]. E-mail: peixotocastro@dlog.eb.mil.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil)]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2005-07-01

    Food treatment by exposure to ionizing radiation, known as food irradiation, presents several attractive features such as: leaving no residues, posing no threat to consumer health, usually causing no damage to sensory or nutritional properties and acting uniformly throughout the volume of the products. This work investigated the efficiency of irradiation for eliminating Sitophilus oryzae (L.), also known as 'the rice weevil', a small beetle frequently found in infested grains. A total of 444 individuals of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) found in corn meal and noodles supplies were irradiated with gamma ray doses of 0, 0.6, 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy and then visually monitored for 4 days in order to determine the number of insects still alive. The least-squares fitting method was used to determine the survival curves as functions of post-irradiation time and dose. The living fraction of the irradiated population was found to decrease exponentially with time. The results indicated that doses of 2.0, 1.5 and 0.6 kGy cause immediate death, instantaneous immobility and death of the species within one week, respectively. The findings suggest that disinfestation of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation is an interesting option to the dangerous use of toxic chemicals. (author)

  12. The effect of irradiation on the viability and toxin production of various species of fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellyei, Gy-ne.; Vanyi, A.; Petri, A.

    1979-01-01

    The procedure to sterilize various kinds of food by irradiation has been used successfully for many years. The irradiation resistance of fodder contaminating moulds and their toxins was examined. Irradiation, heat treatment, and irradiation combined with heat treatment were used in experiments with Fusarium. However, only irradiation was used with the conidium suspensions of Aspergillus and Penicillium. After an appropriate time of incubation, the survival and the toxin producing capacity were determined. The heat treatment killed Fusarium but failed to kill Aspergillus and Penicillium. Owing to irradiation the reproductive capacity all of the fungi tested decreased, but in the surviving cultures the mycotoxin production increased. Using heat treatment combined with irradiation the toxin content of samples reached a high level in a short time and became stabilized. (author)

  13. Adrenaline and serotonin therapeutic effect on the hemopoietic system of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, I.B.; Dontsova, G.V.; Rakhmanina, O.N.; Konstantinova, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Post-irradiation effect of adrenaline and serotonin on the hemopoietic system of irradiated mice has been studied. The pharmaceuticals were injected subcutaneously 15 minutes before the X-radiation exposure at a dose of 7 Gy or immediately after it. The degree of radiation injury has been estimated from 30-day survival fraction of the animals, cell state of the bone marrow, mass of spleen, cfu quantity in the bone marrow at exo- and endocolonial growth (following implantation of bone marrow cells from mice that had been injected with these drugs to irradiated recipients). Post-irradiation effect of adrenaline turned to be weaker than that of serotonin, the latter increasing the survival rate of irradiated mice to 50%. It is stated that post-irradiation therapeutic effect of adrenaline and serotonin expressed in acceleration of the irradiated hemopoietic tissue repair can be realized under direct effect of drugs on the viable hemopoietic cells, probably, by enchancement of their proliferation

  14. The preparation of recombinant interleukin-6 and its protection for irradiated guinea-pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junfu; Zhang Jie; Zhang Jianhua; Feng Jinbo; Xu Jie; Wang Baohong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To purify recombinant human interleukin-6 from gene-engineered E. coli and study the effects of IL-6 on survival period and platelet count of irradiated guinea-pigs. Methods: Recombinant human IL-6 was expressed in gene-engineered E. coli and purified with reversed phase chromatography. Purified IL-6 was then administered to irradiated guinea-pig. Results: IL-6 could significantly prolong the survival period and increase the platelet count of irradiated guinea-pigs. Conclusion: IL-6 showed its effective protection for irradiated guinea-pigs

  15. Facts about food irradiation: Food irradiation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food irradiation facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food irradiation process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments also bring consumer benefits in terms of availability, storage life and improved hygiene. 2 refs

  16. The effect of embryonal thymic calf extracts on neonatally thymectomized mice and on mice lethally irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaplicki, J.; Blonska, B.; Stec, L.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of embryonal thymic calf extracts (ETCE) on mice thymectomized at birth was investigated. ETCE was found to induce an increase in leukopenia and decrease in the level of serum gamma globulins; it also reduced survival time in mice. The effect of ETCE on lethally irradiated mice was also examined. Only long-term administration of ETCE prior to gamma irradiation at 750 rad prolonged the survival time of mice (40% permanent survival) as compared with irradiated controls; the leukocytes from mice retained mitotic capability. Neither long-term treatment with ETCE prior to irradiation at 1000 rad, nor short-term administration prior to 750 rad affected survival time. ETCE administered after irradiation of mice with 750 rad caused a rapid decrease in blood leukocytes and a significantly lowered survival time. (Auth.)

  17. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  18. Re-irradiation for metastatic brain tumors with whole-brain radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Takeshi; Kunieda, Etsuo; Kogawa, Asuka; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Tamai, Yoshifumi; Ohizumi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether second whole-brain irradiation is beneficial for patients previously treated with whole-brain irradiation. A retrospective analysis was done for 31 patients with brain metastases who had undergone re-irradiation. Initial whole-brain irradiation was performed with 30 Gy/10 fractions for 87% of these patients. Whole-brain re-irradiation was performed with 30 Gy/10 fractions for 42% of these patients (3-40 Gy/1-20 fractions). Three patients underwent a third whole-brain irradiation. The median interval between the initial irradiation and re-irradiation was 10 months (range: 2-69 months). The median survival time after re-irradiation was 4 months (range: 1-21 months). The symptomatic improvement rate after re-irradiation was 68%, and the partial and complete tumor response rate was 55%. Fifty-two percent of the patients developed Grade 1 acute reactions. On magnetic resonance imaging, brain atrophy was observed in 36% of these patients after the initial irradiation and 74% after re-irradiation. Grade ≥2 encephalopathy or cognitive disturbance was observed in 10 patients (32%) after re-irradiation. Based on univariate analysis, significant factors related to survival after re-irradiation were the location of the primary cancer (P=0.003) and the Karnofsky performance status at the time of re-irradiation (P=0.008). A Karnofsky performance status ≥70 was significant based on multivariate analysis (P=0.050). Whole-brain re-irradiation for brain metastases placed only a slight burden on patients and was effective for symptomatic improvement. However, their remaining survival time was limited and the incidence of cognitive disturbance was rather high. (author)

  19. Survival of patients with Ewing's sarcoma in Yazd-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Ali; Binesh, Fariba; Shamshiri, Hadi; Ghanadi, Fazllolah

    2014-01-01

    The Ewing's sarcoma family is a group of small round cell tumors which accounts for 10-15% of all primary bone neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of Ewing's sarcoma patients in our province and to determine of influencing factors. All patients with documented Ewing's sarcoma/ primitive neuroectodermal tumor(PNET) family pathology were enrolled in this study during a period of eight years. For all of them local and systemic therapy were carried out. Overall and event free survival and prognostic factors were evaluated. Thirty two patients were enrolled in the study. The median age was 17.5 years. Twenty (65.2%) were male and 9 (28.1%) were aged 14 years or less. Mean disease free survival was 26.8 (95%CI; 13.8-39.9) months and five year disease free survival was 26%. Mean overall survival was 38.7 months (95%CI; 25.9-50.6) and median overall survival was 24 months. Five year overall survival was 25%. From the variables evaluated , only presence of metastatic disease at presentation (p value=0. 028) and complete response (p value =0. 006) had significant relations to overall survival. Survival of Ewing's sarcoma in our province is disappointing. It seems to be mostly due to less effective treatment. Administration of adequate chemotherapy dosage, resection of tumor with negative margins and precise assessment of irradiation volume may prove helpful.

  20. Dose rate effects on survival of two insect species which commonly infest stored corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adem, E.; Uribe, R.M.; Watters, F.L.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the dose rate effects on survival of two species of insects which commonly infest commercial maize in Mexico was undertaken using 60 Co γ radiation and 1.0 MeV electrons, to determine whether an optimum dose rate exists for the irradiation of grain infested with these insects. Experiments have shown that the effectiveness of γ and electron irradiation were not influenced by dose rates from 10 to 120 Gy/min for 60 Co and 35 to 300 Gy/min for electrons when the insects were irradiated at 2500 Gy. Survival curves for each species are presented for both types of radiation. (author)

  1. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  2. Irradiation and flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineccius, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Flavor will not be a significant factor in determining the success of irradiated foods entering the U.S. market. The initial applications will use low levels of irradiation that may well result in products with flavor superior to that of products from alternative processing techniques (thermal treatment or chemical fumigation). The success of shelf-stable foods produced via irradiation may be much more dependent upon our ability to deal with the flavor aspects of high levels of irradiation

  3. Food irradiation makes progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1984-01-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses

  4. Radiosensitivity of chlorella after medium energy accelerated electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, J.C.

    1966-06-01

    The survival curves (capability of multiplication) of chlorella pyrenoidosa after irradiations can be used for soft electrons (0.65 and 1 MeV), hence penetrating into only 2 to 4 millimeters of water: the algae are laying on porous membranes and the doses are calculated from the power of the electron beam measured by the electric current on a metallic target or by Fricke's dosimetry. With these techniques, it is showed and discussed the part of anoxia in the radioprotection (magnitude or reduction of the dose calculated from the slope of survival curves: 2.5 ) that is more important than the restoration studied by the fractionation of the dose. The 0.65 and 1 MeV electrons have a biologic effect lesser than 180 keV X-rays (RBE - relative biological efficiency - calculated on the slope of survival curves is 0.92 in aerated irradiation, 0.56 in the deoxygenated irradiation). (author) [fr

  5. Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Development of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santosa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume produces apomictic seeds lead to low genetic variation. In order to induce genetic variation, germinated seeds were exposed to Gamma irradiation (Co-60 at doses of 10 to 100 Gy. Seed irradiation was conducted at Center for the Application of Isotope and Irradiation Technology -National Nuclear Energy Agency (CAIRT, Indonesia. Morphology and yield of M1 generation were observed. Results showed that irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy close to LD50 with survival rate 56%. Gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy delayed seeds germination.  Germination rates gradually increased and reached maximum at 4 weeks after planting (WAP for control plants, and 14 WAP of irradiated plants. At 16 WAP, germination rate of 10 Gy irradiated plants was 56% and 84% for those of control plants. Irradiation induced chimera as indicated by short petiole, variegated and abnornal shape of leaflets. Some irradiated plants entered dormancy at 8-10 weeks later than control ones. Prolong vegetative periode lead the plants to produce heavier corms. This study revealed the possibility to induce variation of A. muelleri by using gamma irradition. Keywords: Amorphophallus muelleri, gamma irradiation (Co-60, morphological variation, mutation breeding

  6. Containers in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolumen, S.; Espinosa, R.

    1997-01-01

    The preservation of food by irradiation is promising technology which increases industrial application. Packaging of irradiated foods is an integral part of the process. Judicious selection of the package material for successful trade is essential. In this paper is presented a brief review of important aspects of packaging in food irradiation [es

  7. Reproductive ability of female dogs (beagles) surviving a single, midlethal, whole-body x-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, A.C.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The ability of 82 irradiated and sham-treated female beagles to whelp and wean pups was tested over a major portion of their reproductive life span. The dogs were exposed to 290 or 300 R of x rays (250 kVp) either as young pups, prior to puberty, or at puberty. Although all of the irradiated dogs were fertile and produced approximately the same number of litters as controls, litters of the pup irradiated and prepubertal irradiated dams surviving throughout the study were smaller than those of controls by 17 and 9 percent, respectively. Pup survival was also reduced relative to controls; the number of pups weaned was 38 percent lower in the pup irradiated group and 18 percent lower in the prepubertal irradiated group, as compared with controls. The overall reproductive ability of dogs irradiated at puberty was similar to that of sham-treated controls

  8. Sanitizing effects of sewage sludge irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu

    2005-01-01

    A large quantity of pathogenic organisms were found in sewage sludge. An investigation was carried out on the relationship in the chain of sludge-soil-vegetable between the survival of pathogenic organisms and the irradiation dosage. After irradiation with 5-6 kGy, coliform group reduced 3 log cycles, and ascarid ova were completely eliminated with a dose of 1 kGy, making the water matched the standard quality of irrigating water. In the soil applied with irradiated sewage sludge, the total bacteria and coliforms group count reduced to one tenth, and alive ascarid ova was not detected. The coliform group on the Chinese cabbage was extremely low and reached the standard of fresh eating. (authors)

  9. ARF1 and ARF6 regulate recycling of GRASP/Tamalin and the Rac1-GEF Dock180 during HGF-induced Rac1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubek, Emily J; Santy, Lorraine C

    2018-05-04

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent signaling factor that acts on epithelial cells, causing them to dissociate and scatter. This migration is coordinated by a number of small GTPases, such as ARF6 and Rac1. Active ARF6 is required for HGF-stimulated migration and intracellular levels of ARF6-GTP and Rac1-GTP increase following HGF treatment. During migration, cross talk between ARF6 and Rac1 occurs through formation of a multi-protein complex containing the ARF-GEF cytohesin-2, the scaffolding protein GRASP/Tamalin, and the Rac1-GEF Dock180. Previously, the role of ARF6 in this process was unclear. We have now found that ARF6 and ARF1 regulate trafficking of GRASP and Dock180 to the plasma membrane following HGF treatment. Trafficking of GRASP and Dock180 is impaired by blocking ARF6-mediated recycling pathways and is required for HGF-stimulated Rac1 activation. Finally, HGF treatment stimulates association of GRASP and Dock180. Inhibition of ARF6 trafficking pathways traps GRASP and Dock180 as a complex in the cell.

  10. Decorin is down-regulated in multiple myeloma and MGUS bone marrow plasma and inhibits HGF-induced myeloma plasma cell viability and migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ida Bruun; Pedersen, Lise Mariager; Rø, Torstein Baade

    2013-01-01

    pathway in multiple myeloma (MM). METHODS: Decorin levels in paired peripheral blood and bone marrow plasma samples from healthy volunteers (HV) (n=23), and patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n=41) and MM (n=19) were determined by ELISA. Further, the ability...

  11. Effect of blood transfusions on canine renal allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Linden, C.J.; Buurman, W.A.; Vegt, P.A.; Greep, J.M.; Jeekel, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this study significantly prolonged canine renal allograft survival has been demonstrated after transfusion of 100 ml of third-party whole blood given peroperatively. Peroperative transfusions of third-party leukocyte-free blood or pure lymphocyte cell suspensions did not influence graft survival. Futhermore, no improvement in graft survival has been found after a peroperative transfuson of irradiated whole blood (2500 rad). These data suggest that delayed graft rejection after blood transfusions can only be expected after the administration of whole blood. The role of competent lymphocytes in whole blood is questionable, since a transfusion of irradiated whole blood in combination with nonirradiated lymphocytes did not lead to prolonged graft survival. Immunosuppression of the recipient directly after transfusion seems to be essential to induce the beneficial effect of blood transfusions. This has been demonstrated for a transfusion of whole blood 14 days before transplantation. A single transfusion of 100 ml of whole blood 14 days before transplantation could effectively prolong graft survival if immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone was started on the day of transfusion. No improvement in graft survival has been found with such a transfusion if preoperative immunosuppression has been omitted

  12. Effect of blood transfusions on canine renal allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Linden, C.J.; Buurman, W.A.; Vegt, P.A.; Greep, J.M.; Jeekel, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this study significantly prolonged canine renal allograft survival has been demonstrated after transfusion of 100 ml of third-party whole blood given peroperatively. Peroperative transfusions of third-party leukocyte-free blood or pure lymphocyte cell suspensions did not influence graft survival. Furthermore, no improvement in graft survival has been found after a peroperative transfusion of irradiated whole blood (2500 rad). These data suggest that delayed graft rejection after blood transfusions can only be expected after the administration of whole blood. The role of competent lymphocytes in whole blood is questionable, since a transfusion or irradiated whole blood in combination with nonirradiated lymphocytes did not lead to prolonged graft survival. Immunosuppression of the recipient directly after transfusion seems to be essential to induce the beneficial effect of blood transfusions. This has been demonstrated for a transfusion of whole blood 14 days before transplantation. A single transfusion of 100 ml of whole blood 14 days before transplantation could effectively prolong graft survival if immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone was started on the day of transfusion. No improvement in graft survival has been found with such a transfusion if preoperative immunosuppression has been omitted

  13. Significant prolongation of segmental pancreatic allograft survival in two species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the suppression of segmental pancreatic allograft rejection by cyclosporine (CSA) alone in baboons and dogs, and subtotal marrow irradiation (TL1) alone and TL 1 in combination with CSA in baboons. Total pancreatectomy in the dog and primate provided a reliable diabetic model, induced an absolute deficiency of insulin and was uniformly lethal if not treated. Continuous administration of CSA in baboons resulted in modest allograft survival. As in baboons, dogs receiving CSA 25 mg/kg/d rendered moderate graft prolongation but a dose of 40 mg/kg/d resulted in significant graft survival (greater than 100 days) in 5 of 8 allograft recipients. Irradiation alone resulted in minimal baboon pancreatic allograft survival of 20 baboons receiving TL1 1,000 rad and CSA, 3 had graft survival greater than of 100 days. Of 15 baboons receiving TL1 800 rad and CSA, 6 had graft survival of greater than 100 days. In conclusion, CSA administration in dogs and TL1 in combination with CSA in baboons resulted in highly significant segmental pancreatic allograft survival.

  14. Significant prolongation of segmental pancreatic allograft survival in two species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the suppression of segmental pancreatic allograft rejection by cyclosporine (CSA) alone in baboons and dogs, and subtotal marrow irradiation (TL1) alone and TL 1 in combination with CSA in baboons. Total pancreatectomy in the dog and primate provided a reliable diabetic model, induced an absolute deficiency of insulin and was uniformly lethal if not treated. Continuous administration of CSA in baboons resulted in modest allograft survival. As in baboons, dogs receiving CSA 25 mg/kg/d rendered moderate graft prolongation but a dose of 40 mg/kg/d resulted in significant graft survival (greater than 100 days) in 5 of 8 allograft recipients. Irradiation alone resulted in minimal baboon pancreatic allograft survival of 20 baboons receiving TL1 1,000 rad and CSA, 3 had graft survival greater than of 100 days. Of 15 baboons receiving TL1 800 rad and CSA, 6 had graft survival of greater than 100 days. In conclusion, CSA administration in dogs and TL1 in combination with CSA in baboons resulted in highly significant segmental pancreatic allograft survival

  15. Parenteral nutrition including polyamine under experimental irradiation of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, B.B.; Fedorovskij, L.L.; Lyashchenko, Yu.N.

    1982-01-01

    White rats-males were used in experiments. Irradiation dose of abdomen area is 13.5 Gy (1400 R). Parenteral nutrition using aminoacid preparation of polyamine affects favourably during radiation damage resulted from local irradiation of abdomen area. This was manifested in weakening of gastroenteric syndrom, reduction of 3.5 day death of animals and increase of their 30 day survival rate, intensification of recovery processes in small intestine, decrease of cell devastation in bone marrow

  16. Flow cytometric determination of radiation-induced chromosome damage and its correlation with cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welleweerd, J.; Wilder, M.E.; Carpenter, S.G.; Raju, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Chinese hamster M3-1 cells were irradiated with several doses of x rays or α particles from 238 Pu. Propidium iodide-stained chromosome suspensions were prepared at different times after irradiation; cells were also assayed for survival. The DNA histograms of these chromosomes showed increased background counts with increased doses of radiation. This increase in background was cell-cycle dependent and was correlated with cell survival. The correlation between radiation-induced chromosome damage and cell survival was the same for X rays and α particles. Data are presented which indicate that flow cytometric analysis of chromosomes of irradiated cell populations can be a useful adjunct to classical cytogenic analysis of irradiation-induced chromosomal damage by virtue of its ability to express and measure chromosomal damage not seen by classical cytogenic methods

  17. Light ion irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linstadt, D.; Castro, J.R.; Phillips, T.L.; Petti, P.L.; Collier, J.M.; Daftari, I.; Schoethaler, R.; Rayner, A.

    1990-09-01

    Between 1978 and 1989, 32 patients with unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma underwent light ion (helium, neon) irradiation with curative intent at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The tumors were located in the trunk in 22 patients and head and neck in 10. Macroscopic tumor was present in 22 at the time of irradiation. Two patients had tumors apparently induced by previous therapeutic irradiation. Follow-up times for surviving patients ranged from 4 to 121 months (median 27 months). The overall 3-year actuarial local control rate was 62%; the corresponding survival rate was 50%. The 3-year actuarial control rate for patients irradiated with macroscopic tumors was 48%, while none of the patients with microscopic disease developed local recurrence (100%). The corresponding 3-year actuarial survival rates were 40% (macroscopic) and 78% (microscopic). Patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma did notably well; the local control rate and survival rate were 64% and 62%, respectively. Complications were acceptable; there were no radiation related deaths, while two patients (6%) required operations to correct significant radiation-related injuries. These results appear promising compared to those achieved by low -LET irradiation, and suggest that this technique merits further investigation

  18. Irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Foodstuffs are irradiated to make them keep better. The ionizing radiation is not so strong as to cause radioactivity in the foodstuffs. At least so far, irradiation has not gained acceptance among consumers, although it has been shown to be a completely safe method of preservation. Irradiation causes only slight chemical changes in food. What irradiation does, however, is to damage living organisms, such as bacteria, DNA and proteins, thereby making the food keep longer. Irradiation can be detected from the food afterwards; thus it can be controlled effectively. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of surviving fraction using nonclonogenic staining densitometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Iku; Ogawa, Koichi; Ito, Hisao; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1994-01-01

    This study was performed to compare our nonclonogenic survival assay (densitometry assay, DM assay) with the widely used clonogenic assay. The established cell lines (HaLa, RMUG, IMR, GOTO) were grown in F 10 medium. The cells were spread in 24-well plates, irradiated with different doses, cultured for about one week and stained with crystal violet after the culture period. Taking the transparent images of the stained well on the light source with the CCD camera, the images were collected with the matrix size 64 x 64, and the integrated optical density of the entire surface of each well was determined by computer with our original program. As the number of cells in the well is reflected by its staining density, the surviving fraction was calculated as the fraction of growth in the irradiated wells relative to controls. The survival curves obtained by the densitometry method showed good correlations with those obtained by clonogenic assay. It is possible to predict intrinsic radiosensitivity with this assay, even if the cells do not form good colonies. However, this method is based on measurements in cultures which depend on the metabolism and growth kinetics of the irradiated cells. Cells should grow exponetially in the same manner in any well to obtain a result similar to that of clonogenic assay, although growth kinetics may be altered by irradiation. This, the endpoint must be strictly standardized. (author)

  20. Present status of corn grain disinfestation by irradiation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adem, E; Uribe, R M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Fisica; Watters, F L [Department of Agriculture, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Research Station; Bourges, H [Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the use of ionizing radiation for the disinfestation of grain in Mexico is reviewed. Main topics described in the paper concern determination of optimum dose for disinfestation, comparison of Co-60 gamma rays and accelerated electrons for suppressing infestation, susceptibility of different strains of insects, dose rate effects on survival of different insect species, survival of progeny of irradiated insects, germinative tests, and effect of radiation on the nutrient content of corn. The technical and economical aspects of irradiation disinfestation are mentioned.

  1. Hepatic injury after whole-liver irradiation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Leitch, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation-induced hepatic injury in rats, which is characterized by marked ascites accompanied by liver necrosis, fibrosis, and vein lesions, is described in this study. These adverse sequelae are produced within 30 days after irradiation if there is surgical removal of two-thirds of the liver immediately after whole-liver irradiation. The LD/sub 50/30/ day and median survival time after liver irradiation and two-thirds partial hepatectomy is 24 Gy and 17 days, respectively. Death is preceded by reduction in liver function as measured by [ 131 I]-labeled rose bengal clearance. Prior to death, liver sepsis and endotoxemia were detected in most irradiated, partially hepatectomized animals. Pretreatment of the animals with endotoxin and/or antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract resulted in increased survival time, but no irradiated, partially hepatectomized animal survived beyond 63 days. This suggests that sepsis and endotoxemia resulting from the bacteria in the intestine are the immediate cause of death after 30-Gy liver irradiation and partial hepatectomy. It is concluded that the hepatectomized rat model is an economical and scientifically manageable experimental system to study a form of radiation hepatitis that occurs in compromised human livers

  2. Postmastectomy irradiation in high-risk breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overgaard, M.; Juul Christensen, J.; Johansen, H.; Nybo-Rasmussen, A.; Brincker, H.; Kooy, P. van der; Frederiksen, P.L.; Laursen, F.; Panduro, J.; Soerensen, N.E.; Gadeberg, C.C.; Hjelm-Hansen, M.; Overgaard, J.; West Andersen, K.; Zedeler, K.

    1988-01-01

    All pre- and postmenopausal high-risk breast cancer patients in the protocols DBCG 77 of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group received postmastectomy irradiation before randomization to either adjuvant systemic therapy or no such treatment. The actuarial loco-regional recurrence rate at 9 years was 6-17%, with the lowest rate in patients who also received additional adjuvant chemotherapy or tamoxifen. In a subsequent study (DBCG 82) the role of postmastectomy irradiation together with systemic treatment was evaluated in high-risk patients. Pre- and menopausal patients were randomized to postmastectomy irradiation+CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil), CMF alone or CMF+TAM (tamoxifen). Postmenopausal patients were randomized to postmastectomy irradiation+TAM, TAM or CMF+TAM. At 4 years the loco-regional recurrence rate was significantly lower in the irradiated patients (5-7% vs. 23-33%). Further, disease-free survival was significantly improved in both pre- and postmenopausal irradiated patients compared with those who had only systemic treatment. At present, there are no significant differences between survival in the treatment groups. Thus, adjuvant systemic treatment alone (chemotherapy and/or tamoxifen) did not prevent loco-regional recurrences in high-risk patients after mastectomy and axillary lymph node sampling. However, a longer observation time is necessary to evaluate the consequence of primary optimal loco-regional tumour control in high-risk breast cancer patients with respect to survival. (orig.)

  3. Paranasal sinus tumors: Results of irradiation alone vs. irradiation and surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumway, R.C.; Chung, C.T.; Sagerman, R.H.; King, G.A.; Dalal, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Forty patients were treated for carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses from 1965 to 1983. Thirteen patients were treated with an integrated program of surgery plus irradiation; and 27 received irradiation alone. Five-year actuarial survival for patients with maxillary antral tumors was 45% (5 of 11) in the combined treatment group and 21% (3 of 14) in the radiation-only group. Local control for the combined treatment group was 73% (8 of 11), compared to 20% (3 of 15) for the radiation-only group (P > .01). Twenty of 24 patients dying of disease had local recurrence. The technical aspects of treatment and a review of the literature are presented

  4. Survival and transmission of symmetrical chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction between the lesions to produce chromosomal structural changes may be either asymmetrical (A) or symmetrical (S). In A, one or more acentric fragments are always produced, and there may also be the mechanical separation problems resulting from bridges at anaphase, while S-changes never produce fragment, and pose no mechanical problem in cell division. If A and S events occur with equal frequency, it might be an indication that they are truly the alternative modes of lesion interaction. Unstimulated lymphocytes were irradiated with 2.68 Gy 250 kV X-ray, and metaphases were sampled at 50 h after the stimulation. Preparations were complete diploid cells, and any obvious second division cells were rejected. So far as dermal repair and fibroblast functions are concerned, aberration burden seems to have little consequence from the view-point of the long-term survival in vivo. Large numbers of aberrations (mainly S translocation and terminal deletion) were found in the samples taken up to 60 years after therapy. Skin biopsies were removed 1 day and 6 months after irradiation and cultured. In irradiated cells, reciprocal translocations dominated, followed by terminal deletions, then inversions, while no chromosome-type aberration was seen in the control cells. a) The relative occurrence of A : S changes, b) long-term survival in vivo, c) the possibility of in vivo repair, and d) some unusual features of translocation found in Syrian hamsters are reviewed. The relevance or importance of major S events is clearly dependent upon the cells, the tissues or the organisms in which they occur. (Yamashita, S.)

  5. Outcome after re-irradiation of head and neck cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platteaux, Nele; Dirix, Piet; Vanstraelen, Bianca; Nuyts, Sandra [University Hospitals Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg (Belgium). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively report the outcome of head and neck cancer patients following re-irradiation. Patients and Methods: A total of 51 patients with recurrent or second primary head and neck cancer received re-irradiation at Leuven University Hospital. Survival and locoregional control were calculated. Doses to organs at risk were retrieved from dose-volume histograms. Radiation-related toxicities were reported. Results: The 2-year actuarial overall survival rate was 30%. On univariate analysis, surgery before re-irradiation and high radiation dose were associated with superior survival. Grade 3 acute and grade 3 or more late toxicity occurred in respectively 29.4% and 35.3% of the patients. Conclusion: Re-irradiation in head and neck cancer patients is feasible with acceptable late toxicity, although the survival remains poor. (orig.)

  6. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP2-02: FLASH Irradiation Improves the Therapeutic Index Following GI Tract Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, E; Trovati, S; King, G; Lartey, F; Rafat, M; Loo, B; Maxim, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and characterize the radiobiological effectiveness of very high dose rate radiotherapy (FLASH) compared to conventional irradiation in an in vivo model. Methods: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with doses ranging between 10 and 18 Gy using a custom stereotactic jig. A Varian Clinac 21EX was modified to allow dose rates ranging from 0.05 to 240 Gy/s at the position of the mirror. With the gantry at 180 degrees, the jig holding the individual animals was placed above the mirror to take advantage of the reduced source to target distance. Mice were irradiated with 20MeV electrons. Following irradiation, the mice were monitored twice daily for morbidity and daily for weight changes. Results: Mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had lower weight loss compared to the mice receiving conventional irradiation. Following FLASH irradiation, a maximum weight loss of ∼20% was observed at day 6 with subsequent recovery, while following conventional irradiation, higher weight losses was observed with fewer instances of recovery. Concerning survival, all mice in the conventionally irradiated groups had a 100% mortality in the range of 15.5–18 Gy, while the mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had a 100% survival in the same range. Conclusion: These results have demonstrated proof of principle that FLASH irradiations have a dramatic impact on the overall survival of mice following GI tract irradiations. If the increase in the therapeutic window can be validated and understood, this would revolutionize the field of radiation oncology and lead to increased cure rates with reduced side effects following treatment, resulting in increased quality of life for cancer survivors. Funding: DoD, Award#:W81XWH-14-1-0014, Weston Havens Foundation, Bio-X (Stanford University), the Office of the Dean of the Medical School, the Office of the Provost (Stanford University), and the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation; BL and PM are

  7. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP2-02: FLASH Irradiation Improves the Therapeutic Index Following GI Tract Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, E; Trovati, S; King, G; Lartey, F; Rafat, M; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate and characterize the radiobiological effectiveness of very high dose rate radiotherapy (FLASH) compared to conventional irradiation in an in vivo model. Methods: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with doses ranging between 10 and 18 Gy using a custom stereotactic jig. A Varian Clinac 21EX was modified to allow dose rates ranging from 0.05 to 240 Gy/s at the position of the mirror. With the gantry at 180 degrees, the jig holding the individual animals was placed above the mirror to take advantage of the reduced source to target distance. Mice were irradiated with 20MeV electrons. Following irradiation, the mice were monitored twice daily for morbidity and daily for weight changes. Results: Mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had lower weight loss compared to the mice receiving conventional irradiation. Following FLASH irradiation, a maximum weight loss of ∼20% was observed at day 6 with subsequent recovery, while following conventional irradiation, higher weight losses was observed with fewer instances of recovery. Concerning survival, all mice in the conventionally irradiated groups had a 100% mortality in the range of 15.5–18 Gy, while the mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had a 100% survival in the same range. Conclusion: These results have demonstrated proof of principle that FLASH irradiations have a dramatic impact on the overall survival of mice following GI tract irradiations. If the increase in the therapeutic window can be validated and understood, this would revolutionize the field of radiation oncology and lead to increased cure rates with reduced side effects following treatment, resulting in increased quality of life for cancer survivors. Funding: DoD, Award#:W81XWH-14-1-0014, Weston Havens Foundation, Bio-X (Stanford University), the Office of the Dean of the Medical School, the Office of the Provost (Stanford University), and the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation; BL and PM are

  8. The impact of cranial irradiation on the growth of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.J.; Foster, M.B.; D'Ercole, A.J.; McMillan, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Heights, height velocities, weights, and weight velocities were measured serially in 21 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had survived three to five years in continuous complete remission. These patients were assigned randomly to treatment regimens that varied according to whether cranial irradiation was used. Patients receiving cranial irradiation had lower height velocities during therapy than normal subjects and patients not receiving cranial irradiation. Twenty-two other children with ALL, who were irradiated but not randomized, exhibited similar alterations in growth. These results indicate that cranial irradiation, and not leukemia or antileukemia chemotherapy, causes reduced growth

  9. The value of irradiation in the combined treatment of craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronska-Gardas, A.; Zawadzka, B.; Palinski, K.; Danczak-Ginalska, Z.

    1994-01-01

    From 1968 till 1990 in the First Radiotherapy Department of the Center of Oncology in Warsaw 32 patients after non-radical surgery were treated with external beam irradiation. 20 were pediatric. We obtained overall 5-year survival in 78% and NED survival in 72% of patients. Significantly better results in pediatric group were observed. 68% of living patients are in good clinical state, able to work or learning. (author)

  10. Surviving After Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fewer tools for communicating their feelings. Surviving After Suicide Fact Sheet 3 Children are especially vulnerable to feelings of guilt and ... to take care of them. Secrecy about the suicide in the hopes of protecting children may cause further complications. Explain the situation and ...

  11. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  12. Education for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E., Jr.

    In this address, James E. Allen, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education, discusses the relationship of education to the problem of ecological destruction. He states that the solutions to the problems of air, water, and soil pollution may be found in redirected education. This "education for survival" can serve to…

  13. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  14. Radioprotective effect of exogenic hypoxia in fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazymbetov, P.; Yarmonenko, S.P.; Vajnson, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the experiments with mice it is established, that exogenic hypoxia protective effect (8%O 2 ), evaluated according to survival rate, decreases at the change from single to fractionated irradiation. Dose change factor (DCF) is equal to 1.55 and 1.22-1.31, respectively. Skin protection using exogenic hypoxia at the local fractionated irradiation is expressed more, than at the fractionated one. DCF is equal to 1.56 and 1.28, respectively. Exogenic hypoxia protection effect in the tumor is expressed rather weakly. DCF at single and fractionated irradiation constitutes 1.03 and 1.07-1.13, respectively. Due to skin preferential protection the therapeutic gain factor at irradiation under the exogenic hypoxia conditions constitutes 1.24 and 1.38-1.46, respectively, at single and fractionated irradiation

  15. Inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum by pulsed-microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J.K.; Pyun, Y.R.

    1997-01-01

    Suspensions of Lactobacillus plantarum cells were subjected to either conventional heating, continuous microwave (CW) or pulsed microwave (PW) irradiation at 50 degrees C for 30 min. Samples exposed to PW showed greater reductions (2 approximately 4 log) in survival counts than those treated with either conventional heating or CW irradiation. As exposure time increased, PW resulted in a remarkable increase in 260 nm-absorbing compounds that leaked into the suspending menstruum, as compared to CW or conventional heating, indicating that PW irradiated cells were the most injured. The growth of PW irradiated cells was delayed about 24h and the final acidity of the culture broth was about 60 approximately 80% that of other cells treated with conventional heating or CW irradiation

  16. Sludge disinfection by combined treatment of bleaching powder and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsoyo

    1987-01-01

    Sludge disinfection by combined treatment of bleaching powder and irradiation. Disinfection of sludge by combined treatment of bleaching powder and irradiation has been investigated. Sludge were obtained from water and waste sanitation department (Dinas Kebersihan) DKI located at Kebon Nanas, Jakarta. Sludge were mixed with bleaching powder at the concentration of 0, 10 and 20 mg/l and then irradiated in multipurpose panoramic batch irradiator (PANBIT) with doses of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and a dose rate 9 kGy/h. The reducing colony form unit caused by the combined treatment depend on type bacteria observed in sludge. Pathogenic bacteria as Clostridium still survive at a dose of 10 kGy on sludge containing 20 mg/l bleaching powder, but Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio were not detected in this experiment, neither in the control nor in the irradiated samples. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs

  17. Boll weevils: field and laboratory assessment of mating ability and sperm content after irradiation with or without diflubenzuron treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavaso, E.J.; Earle, N.W.; Hollier, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    Sperm depletion did not occur within the 1st week after irradiated males and females of Anthonomus grandis Boheman were released together into isolated field plots. Also, survival and mating ability did not differ as a result of treatment. The treatments were: irradiation of 4-day-old adults plus diflubenzuron (N-(4-chlorophenyl). N 1 -(2,6-difluorobenzoyl) urea)), fractionated irradiation of pupae, and fractionated irradiation of adults plus diflubenzuron

  18. Node-positive cervical cancer: impact of pelvic irradiation and patterns of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Richard G.; Chen, Alex S. J.; Flickinger, John C.; Kalnicki, Shalom; Seski, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The roles of postoperative pelvic and prophylactic paraaortic irradiation in pelvic node positive cervical cancer are currently controversial. A retrospective study was undertaken to examine the effect of pelvic irradiation on pelvic control and survival and to analyze the patterns of recurrence to determine whether indications exist for prophylactic paraaortic irradiation. Methods and Materials: From 1964 to 1991, 143 cases of FIGO Stage I and II cervical cancer undergoing exploratory laparotomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and radical hysterectomy had positive pelvic lymph nodes. Postoperatively, 108 cases were treated with whole pelvic irradiation while 35 patients were observed. Prophylactic paraaortic irradiation was not given. Results: Patients who received postoperative whole pelvic irradiation compared with those treated with radical hysterectomy alone had a significantly improved pelvic control rate, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival. The 5-year actuarial pelvic control rate was 78% vs. 45% (p = <0.0001), respectively. The 5-year actuarial DFS was 65% vs. 41% (p = 0.0004). The 5-year actuarial overall survival was 58% vs. 46% (p 0.02). In multivariate analysis, pelvic irradiation continued to show a positive effect on DFS (p = 0.0001) and overall survival (p = 0.0035). Lymphatic invasion and the total number of positive lymph nodes were the only other independent predictors of overall survival and DFS. The actuarial 5-year pelvic, paraaortic, and distant failure rates were 30%, 10%, and 28%, respectively. An isolated first recurrence in the paraaortic nodes occurred in only three cases. Conclusion: Postoperative pelvic irradiation significantly improves pelvic control, DFS, and overall survival, and should be used in patients with early stage cervical cancer and pathologically proven pelvic nodal metastases. The low incidence of isolated paraaortic nodal failure calls into question the value of routine prophylactic paraaortic

  19. Node-positive cervical cancer: impact of pelvic irradiation and patterns of failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, Richard G; Chen, Alex S. J.; Flickinger, John C; Kalnicki, Shalom; Seski, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The roles of postoperative pelvic and prophylactic paraaortic irradiation in pelvic node positive cervical cancer are currently controversial. A retrospective study was undertaken to examine the effect of pelvic irradiation on pelvic control and survival and to analyze the patterns of recurrence to determine whether indications exist for prophylactic paraaortic irradiation. Methods and Materials: From 1964 to 1991, 143 cases of FIGO Stage I and II cervical cancer undergoing exploratory laparotomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and radical hysterectomy had positive pelvic lymph nodes. Postoperatively, 108 cases were treated with whole pelvic irradiation while 35 patients were observed. Prophylactic paraaortic irradiation was not given. Results: Patients who received postoperative whole pelvic irradiation compared with those treated with radical hysterectomy alone had a significantly improved pelvic control rate, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival. The 5-year actuarial pelvic control rate was 78% vs. 45% (p = <0.0001), respectively. The 5-year actuarial DFS was 65% vs. 41% (p = 0.0004). The 5-year actuarial overall survival was 58% vs. 46% (p 0.02). In multivariate analysis, pelvic irradiation continued to show a positive effect on DFS (p = 0.0001) and overall survival (p = 0.0035). Lymphatic invasion and the total number of positive lymph nodes were the only other independent predictors of overall survival and DFS. The actuarial 5-year pelvic, paraaortic, and distant failure rates were 30%, 10%, and 28%, respectively. An isolated first recurrence in the paraaortic nodes occurred in only three cases. Conclusion: Postoperative pelvic irradiation significantly improves pelvic control, DFS, and overall survival, and should be used in patients with early stage cervical cancer and pathologically proven pelvic nodal metastases. The low incidence of isolated paraaortic nodal failure calls into question the value of routine prophylactic paraaortic

  20. Effects of low or high doses of short wavelength ultraviolet light (UVB) on Langerhans cells and skin allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odling, K.A.; Halliday, G.M.; Muller, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    Donor C57BL mouse shaved dorsal trunk or tail skin was exposed to high (200 mJ/cm 2 ) or low (40 mJ/cm 2 ) doses of short wavelength ultraviolet light (UVB) before grafting on to the thorax of BALB/c mouse recipients of the same sex. Skin grafted 1-14 days following a single high dose of UVB irradiation was ultrastructurally depleted of LC and survived significantly longer than unirradiated skin before being rejected. After a 21-day interval between exposure and grafting when LC were again present in the epidermis there was no significant difference between treated and control graft survival. Exposure to low dose UVB irradiation only significantly increased graft survival for skin transplanted 1-3 days after irradiation; skin grafted 4 days following irradiation survived for a similar period to unirradiated control skin grafts. Electronmicroscopy showed that the low UVB dose did not deplete LC from the epidermis. We conclude that after low dose UVB treatment the class II MHC antigens on the LC Plasma membrane were lost temporarily, thus prolonging graft survival, but when the plasma membrane antigens were re-expressed graft survival returned to normal. In contrast, high-dose UVB irradiation prolonged graft survival by depleting LC from the epidermis, with graft survival only returning to control values as LC repopulated the epidermis

  1. Affecting mortality of whole-body gamma-irradiated Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostal, M.; Kuna, P.; Neruda, O.; Petyrek, P.; Simsa, J.; Vavrova, J.; Skopec, F.

    1982-01-01

    The efficacy is compared of radioprotection and the complex treatment of acute radiation syndrome in laboratory dogs. One group of dogs was administered an injection of radioprotectives, the other was a control group. The treated group was administered vitamins and antibiotics in injections after the irradiation. It was found that complex treatment between days 1 and 28 after irradiation is relatively effective. In the treated dogs radioprotection does not significantly influence survival or even reduces survival. (M.D.)

  2. Sensory properties of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plestenjak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is a simple and effective preservation technique. The changes caused by irradiation depend on composition of food, on the absorbed dose, the water content and temperature during and after irradiation. In this paper the changes of food components caused by irradiation, doses for various food irradiation treatments, foods and countries where the irradiation is allowed, and sensory properties of irradiated food are reviewed

  3. Change in microflora of sewage sludge by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Takehisa, Masaaki; Iizuka, Hiroshi.

    1983-01-01

    Total bacteria of activated dewatered sludge cake of Takasaki city which amounted to 2 x 10 9 per gram diminished rapidly with the radiation dose, but slowly after 0.5 Mrad, and 10 3 per gram survived even after 10 Mrad irradiation. However, coliforms which amounted to 8 x 10 7 per gram were inactivated below 0.5 Mrad irradiation. The predominant bacteria in non-irradiated sludge were Pseudomonas cepacia and it mainly survived up to 2 Mrad, but Bacillus were predominant at 0.5 to 0.7 Mrad irradiation. The main residual flora from 2 to 5 Mrad was composed of Pseudomonas soranacearum, P. cepacia and P. delafieldii, and the main residual flora in more than 5 Mrad irradiated sludge was P. flava. These typical strains of Pseudomonas in phosphate buffer were radiation sensitive, and their D 10 values were from 0.005 to 0.021 Mrad under aerobic irradiation conditions. (author)

  4. Whole abdominal irradiation following chemotherapy in advanced ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuten, A.; Stein, M.; Steiner, M.; Rubinov, R.; Epelbaum, R.; Cohen, Y.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and sixteen patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma, who underwent primary cytoreductive surgery, received 6-11 courses of chemotherapy by cis-platin (50 mg/m2) and adriamycin (50 mg/m2) every 21 days. This was followed by second look laparotomy in 66 patients with no clinical evidence of disease. Consolidation abdominal irradiation was administered to 43 patients. Two techniques of irradiation were employed: between 1980-1983 whole abdominal irradiation was used and patients were to receive 3000 cGy in 4 weeks (Schedule I). Due to myelosuppression only 13 of 26 patients (50%) completed the planned dose of radiation. Between 1983-1985 the target volume was divided into upper and lower parts. First, the lower abdomen received 3000 cGy in 3 weeks, and then the upper abdomen received the same dose (Schedule II). Sixteen of seventeen patients (94%) thus treated, completed the planned dose of radiation. The actuarial survival for all 116 patients was 28% of 5 years. Irradiated patients with negative second look laparotomy had a survival probability of 100% at 24 months. Irradiated patients with microscopic disease at second look operation had an actuarial 5-year survival of 66%. Patients with minimal residual disease at second look laparotomy, receiving consolidation abdominal irradiation, had an actuarial survival of 5% only at 36 months. It is concluded that consolidation radiotherapy is effective in patients with negative or microscopic residual disease at second-look laparotomy. In regard to bone marrow tolerance, split field technique of irradiation is preferred

  5. Survival chance in papillary thyroid cancer in Hungary: individual survival probability estimation using the Markov method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esik, Olga; Tusnady, Gabor; Daubner, Kornel; Nemeth, Gyoergy; Fuezy, Marton; Szentirmay, Zoltan

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The typically benign, but occasionally rapidly fatal clinical course of papillary thyroid cancer has raised the need for individual survival probability estimation, to tailor the treatment strategy exclusively to a given patient. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was performed on 400 papillary thyroid cancer patients with a median follow-up time of 7.1 years to establish a clinical database for uni- and multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors related to survival (Kaplan-Meier product limit method and Cox regression). For a more precise prognosis estimation, the effect of the most important clinical events were then investigated on the basis of a Markov renewal model. The basic concept of this approach is that each patient has an individual disease course which (besides the initial clinical categories) is affected by special events, e.g. internal covariates (local/regional/distant relapses). On the supposition that these events and the cause-specific death are influenced by the same biological processes, the parameters of transient survival probability characterizing the speed of the course of the disease for each clinical event and their sequence were determined. The individual survival curves for each patient were calculated by using these parameters and the independent significant clinical variables selected from multivariate studies, summation of which resulted in a mean cause-specific survival function valid for the entire group. On the basis of this Markov model, prediction of the cause-specific survival probability is possible for extrastudy cases, if it is supposed that the clinical events occur within new patients in the same manner and with the similar probability as within the study population. Results: The patient's age, a distant metastasis at presentation, the extent of the surgical intervention, the primary tumor size and extent (pT), the external irradiation dosage and the degree of TSH suppression proved to be

  6. Irradiation sequels of retinoblastomas. Sequelles de l'irradiation externe des retinoblastomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benk, V; Habrand, J L; Bloch Michel, E; Soussaline, M; Sarrazin, D [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    1993-01-01

    From 1975 to 1985, 34 children with a non-metastatic retinoblastoma were irradiated at the Institut Gustave-Roussy. After enucleation, 19 bilateral tumors were irradiated by two lateral opposed fields and 15 unilateral tumors by one lateral and anterior field, in the case of optic nerve being histologically positive. Dose was 45 Gy, 1.8 Gy per fraction. The 10-year-survival rate for unilateral and bilateral retinoblastomas was 79%. Long term sequels were available for 25 patients: 88% retained one functional eye. Three children with bilateral retinoblastomas developed a cataract in the residual eye between 2 and 5 years after irradiation, none with unilateral tumor. Nine patients (36%), seven with unilateral and two with bilateral tumor developed a cosmetical problem that required multiple surgical rehabilitation between 3 and 14 years after irradiation. Nine children (36%), five with unilateral and four with bilateral tumors developed growth hormone deficit between 2 and 8 years after irradiation that required hormone replacement. Their pituitary gland received 22 to 40 Gy. No osteosarcoma occurred in this population. Among long-term sequels, following irradiation for retinoblastoma, cosmetical deformities represent disabling sequels that could justify new approaches in radiotherapy, as protontherapy combined with 3-D-treatment planning.

  7. Lifespan studies on different strains of mice exposed chronically to low levels of whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, L.A.; Klein, A.K.; Cain, G.R.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    Several strains of mice, chosen for their predisposition to immunohematological disorders, were exposed to low levels of 60 irradiation continuously for four weeks. All individuals were subsequently followed throughout their lifetimes. W/W/sup v/ mice, which are tyically subject to a stem cell deficiency, had a lower cumulative survival rate for the irradiated group than for the unirradiated controls. Irradiated RF/sub j/ mice had a dramatically lower cumulative survival rate than their unirradiated controls. Conversely, BXSB mice, which have a lumphoproliferative autoimmune disorder, had a higher cumulative survival rate after chronic irradiation than did unirradiated BXSBs. Irradiation had no effect upon the survival rate curves of the NZB strain, the murine model for Lupus Erythematosus

  8. Statistical and biophysical aspects of survival curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Statistic fluctuation in a series of consequently taken survival curves of asynchronous cells of a hamster of the V79 line during X-ray irradiation, are considered. In each of the experiments fluctuations are close to those expected on the basis of the Poisson distribution. The fluctuation of cell sensitivity in different experiments of one series can reach 10%. The normalization of each experiment in mean values permits to obtain the ''idealized'' survival curve. The survival logarithm in this curve is proportional to the absorbed dose and its square only at low radiation doses. Such proportionality in V lab 79 cells in the late S-phase is observed at all doses. Using the microdosimetric approach, the distance where the interaction of radiolysis products or subinjury takes place to make the dependence of injury on the dose non-linear, is determined. In the case of interaction distances of 10-100 nm, the linear component is shown to become comparable in value with the linear injury component at doses of the order of several hundred rad only in the case, when the interaction distance is close to micrometre [ru

  9. Irradiation - who needs it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoular, C.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the public's attitudes to the irradiation of food to ensure it is bacteria free and to prolong shelf-life are considered. The need to label irradiated food and to educate the public about its implications are emphasised. The opinions of the large food retailers who maintain that high standards in food processing, hygiene and refrigeration eliminate the need for food irradiation are discussed. (UK)

  10. Identification of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelberg, A.; Heide, L.; Boegl, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.) [de

  11. Food irradiation - now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Food irradiation technology in South Africa is about to take its rightful place next to existing food preservation methods in protecting food supplies. This is as a result of several factors, the most important of which is the decision by the Department of Health and Population Development to introduce compulsory labelling of food irradiation. The factors influencing food irradiation technology in South Africa are discussed

  12. Development of blood irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This project is designed to improve the techniques of blood irradiation through the development of improved and portable blood irradiators. A portable blood irradiator, consisting of a vitreous carbon body and thulium-170 radiation source, was attached to dogs via a carotid-jugular shunt, and its effects on the immune system measured. The device has demonstrated both significant suppression of circulating lymphocytes and prolonged retention of skin allografts

  13. 5 years survival after radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawska, J; Strzeszynski, J [Instytut Onkologii, Krakow (Poland)

    1973-01-01

    Radiotherapy was applied to 256 patients with lung cancer treated in the Institute of Oncology in Krakow in the years 1959-1967. Malignancy had been confirmed throughout in organs of the chest cavity, and diagnosed by microscopic examination. Eleven patients, i.e. 4%, survived 5 years. Survival rate was related to the stage of the disease and the microscopic pattern. Some patients were cured after irradiation of lung cancer, using nominal doses lower than the lethal dose for squamous cell cancer. The specific physical conditions of radiation absorption in the chest cavity evidently made the effective dose inside the cavity much higher than the nominal dose.

  14. Irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.; Danielsson-Tham, M.L.; Hoel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A committee has on instructions from the swedish government made an inquiry into the possible effects on health and working environment from irradition of food. In this report, a review is presented on the known positiv and negative effects of food irradiation Costs, availabilty, shelf life and quality of irradiated food are also discussed. According to the report, the production of radiolysis products during irradiation is not easily evaluated. The health risks from irradiation of spices are estimated to be lower than the risks associated with the ethenoxid treatment presently used. (L.E.)

  15. Gamma irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, Gabor; Stenger, Vilmos.

    1983-01-01

    The main parameters and the preparation procedures of the gamma radiation sources frequently applied for irradiation purposes are discussed. In addition to 60 Co and 137 Cs sources also the nuclear power plants offer further opportunities: spent fuel elements and products of certain (n,γ) reactions can serve as irradiation sources. Laboratory scale equipments, pilot plant facilities for batch or continuous operation, continuous industrial irradiators and special multipurpose, mobile and panorama type facilities are reviewed including those in Canada, USA, India, the Soviet Union, Hungary, UK, Japan and Australia. For irradiator design the source geometry dependence of the spatial distribution of dose rates can be calculated. (V.N.)

  16. Immunocytoadherence and sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumariage, M.L.; Hiesche, K.; Revesz, L.; Haot, J.

    1975-01-01

    In sublethally irradiated CBA mice, the relative and absolute numbers of spontaneous rosette forming cells against sheep erythrocytes are markedly decreased in bone marrow. The decrease of the absolute number of spontaneous RFC is also important in the spleen in spite of an increase of the RFC relative number above the normal values between the 8th and 12th day after irradiation. The graft of normal bone marrow cells immediately after irradiation or the shielding of a medullary area during irradiation promotes the recovery of the immunocytoadherence capacity of the bone marrow cells but not of the spleen cells [fr

  17. Fluorescence of irradiated hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulis, I.G.; Evdokimenko, V.M.; Lapkovskij, M.P.; Petrov, P.T.; Gulis, I.M.; Markevich, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    A visible fluorescence has been found out in γ-irradiated aqueous of carbohydrates. Two bands have been distinguished in fluorescence spectra of the irradiated solution of dextran: a short-wave band lambdasub(max)=140 nm (where lambda is a wave length) at lambdasub(β)=380 nm and a long-wave band with lambdasub(max)=540 nm at lambdasub(β)=430 nm. A similar form of the spectrum has been obtained for irradiated solutions of starch, amylopectin, lowmolecular glucose. It has been concluded that a macromolecule of polysaccharides includes fluorescent centres. A relation between fluorescence and α-oxiketon groups formed under irradiation has been pointed out

  18. Planning of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caha, A; Krystof, V [Vyzkumny Ustav Klinicke a Experimentalni Onkologie, Brno (Czechoslovakia)

    1979-07-01

    The principles are discussed of the planning of irradiation, ie., the use of the various methods of location of a pathological focus and the possibility of semiautomatic transmission of the obtained data on a two-dimensional or spatial model. An efficient equipment is proposed for large irradiation centres which should cooperate with smaller irradiation departments for which also a range of apparatus is proposed. Irradiation planning currently applied at the Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Oncology in Brno is described. In conclusion, some of the construction principles of semi-automatic operation of radiotherapy departments are discussed.

  19. Influence of preirradiational and postirradiational heating of lyophilized Micrococcus radioproteolyticus cells on their survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryznar, L; Drasil, V [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav

    1981-12-10

    The survival curve of Micrococcus radioproteolyticus following gamma irradiation of lyophilized cells is characterized by a broad shoulder reaching as far as the dose range 10 - 20 kGy (1 - 2 Mrad). The course of the curve indicates that under these conditions most of the changes induced by irradiation have the character of sublethal damage, which the cell can repair. The course of the survival curve does not change if the lyophilized cells are heated prior to irradiation for 2 h at 60 /sup 0/C. Certain changes do occur if the preirradiational temperature is 80 /sup 0/C. If the cells are exposed to increased temperature after irradiation even a temperature of 60 /sup 0/C brings about a marked decrease in survival. A temperature of 80 /sup 0/C after irradiation leads to extensive changes in the shape of survival curves, which are characterized by a narrowing or even disappearing of the shoulders. It can be concluded from the results obtained that an increased temperature modifies the capability of irradiated lyophilized cells to repair radiation damage.

  20. Influence of preirradiational and postirradiational heating of lyophilized Micrococcus radioproteolyticus cells on their survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryznar, L.; Drasil, V.

    1981-01-01

    The survival curve of Micrococcus radioproteolyticus following gamma irradiation of lyophilized cells is characterized by a broad shoulder reaching as far as the dose range 10 - 20 kGy (1 - 2 Mrad). The course of the curve indicates that under these conditions most of the changes induced by irradiation have the character of sublethal damage, which the cell can repair. The course of the survival curve does not change if the lyophilized cells are heated prior to irradiation for 2 h at 60 0 C. Certain changes do occur if the preirradiational temperature is 80 0 C. If the cells are exposed to increased temperature after irradiation even a temperature of 60 0 C brings about a marked decrease in survival. A temperature of 80 0 C after irradiation leads to extensive changes in the shape of survival curves, which are characterized by a narrowing or even disappearing of the shoulders. It can be concluded from the results obtained that an increased temperature modifies the capability of irradiated lyophilized cells to repair radiation damage. (author)

  1. Radiobilogical cell survival models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackrisson, B.

    1992-01-01

    A central issue in clinical radiobiological research is the prediction of responses to different radiation qualities. The choice of cell survival and dose-response model greatly influences the results. In this context the relationship between theory and model is emphasized. Generally, the interpretations of experimental data depend on the model. Cell survival models are systematized with respect to their relations to radiobiological theories of cell kill. The growing knowlegde of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms is reflected in the formulation of new models. The present overview shows that recent modelling has been more oriented towards the stochastic fluctuations connected to radiation energy deposition. This implies that the traditional cell surivival models ought to be complemented by models of stochastic energy deposition processes and repair processes at the intracellular level. (orig.)

  2. Food irradiation: fiction and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (IGCFI), sponsored by World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the intention to provide to governments, especially those of developing countries, scientifically correct information about food irradiation, decided to organize a file and questions of general public interest. The document is composed by descriptive files related with the actual situation and future prospective, technical and scientific terms, food irradiation and the radioactivity, chemical transformations in irradiated food, genetic studies, microbiological safety of irradiated food, irradiation and harmlessness, irradiation and additives, packing, irradiation facilities control, process control, irradiation costs and benefits as well as consumers reaction

  3. Carbonaceous Survivability on Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, Luann; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge about the potential contributions of comets and cosmic dust to the origin of life on Earth, we need to explore the survivability of their potential organic compounds on impact and the formation of secondary products that may have arisen from the chaotic events sustained by the carriers as they fell to Earth. We have performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments using carbon-bearing impactors (diamond, graphite, kerogens, PAH crystals, and Murchison and Nogoya meteorites) into Al plate targets at velocities - 6 km/s. Estimated peak shock pressures probably did not exceed 120 GPa and peak shock temperatures were probably less than 4000 K for times of nano- to microsecs. Nominal crater dia. are less than one mm. The most significant results of these experiments are the preservation of the higher mass PAHs (e. g., pyrene relative to napthalene) and the formation of additional alkylated PAHs. We have also examined the residues of polystyrene projectiles impacted by a microparticle accelerator into targets at velocities up to 15 km/s. This talk will discuss the results of these experiments and their implications with respect to the survival of carbonaceous deliverables to early Earth. The prospects of survivability of organic molecules on "intact" capture of cosmic dust in space via soft: and hard cosmic dust collectors will also be discussed.

  4. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  5. Treatment results by uneven fractionated irradiation, low-dose rate telecobalt therapy as a boost, and intraoperative irradiation for malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shogo; Takai, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kenji; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Kakuto, Yoshihisa; Hoshi, Akihiko; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko; Kayama, Takamasa; Yoshimoto, Takashi (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-08-01

    The prognosis of malignant glioma is extremely poor. We applied conventionally fractionated irradiation combined with 1-(4-aminio-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea (ACNU), uneven fractionated irradiation with ACNU, low dose rate telecobalt therapy as a boost, and intraoperative irradiation against 110 malignant gliomas to investigate the efficacy of these methods as alternative treatments for malignant glioma. Although local tumor control by uneven fractionated irradiation was better than that by the other methods, no significant improvement was obtained in survival rates. As a result of multiple regression analysis, age and histology were major factors for survival rates, and the difference of treatment methods was not important. Both low-dose rate telecobalt therapy as a boost and intraoperative irradiation showed little advantage because of the high risk of brain necrosis associated with them. (author).

  6. Effect of Shadowing on Survival of Bacteria under Conditions Simulating the Martian Atmosphere and UV Radiation▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Shariff; Peeters, Zan; La Duc, Myron T.; Mancinelli, Rocco; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2008-01-01

    Spacecraft-associated spores and four non-spore-forming bacterial isolates were prepared in Atacama Desert soil suspensions and tested both in solution and in a desiccated state to elucidate the shadowing effect of soil particulates on bacterial survival under simulated Martian atmospheric and UV irradiation conditions. All non-spore-forming cells that were prepared in nutrient-depleted, 0.2-μm-filtered desert soil (DSE) microcosms and desiccated for 75 days on aluminum died, whereas cells prepared similarly in 60-μm-filtered desert soil (DS) microcosms survived such conditions. Among the bacterial cells tested, Microbacterium schleiferi and Arthrobacter sp. exhibited elevated resistance to 254-nm UV irradiation (low-pressure Hg lamp), and their survival indices were comparable to those of DS- and DSE-associated Bacillus pumilus spores. Desiccated DSE-associated spores survived exposure to full Martian UV irradiation (200 to 400 nm) for 5 min and were only slightly affected by Martian atmospheric conditions in the absence of UV irradiation. Although prolonged UV irradiation (5 min to 12 h) killed substantial portions of the spores in DSE microcosms (∼5- to 6-log reduction with Martian UV irradiation), dramatic survival of spores was apparent in DS-spore microcosms. The survival of soil-associated wild-type spores under Martian conditions could have repercussions for forward contamination of extraterrestrial environments, especially Mars. PMID:18083857

  7. Facts about food irradiation: Chemical changes in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet addresses the safety of irradiated food. The irradiation process produces very little chemical change in food, and laboratory experiments have shown no harmful effects in animals fed with irradiated milk powder. 3 refs

  8. Modelling property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to predict the irradiation induced property changes in nuclear; graphite, including the effect of a change in irradiation temperature. The currently used method; to account for changes in irradiation temperature, the scaled...

  9. Effects of oxygen during γ-irradiation of Micrococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Johnson, L.D.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made of the effects of oxygen on the yield of double strand breaks in the DNA of Micrococcus radiodurans, and of the relation of these effects to cell death. The o.e.r. values for cell survival were considerably smaller than those for the yield of double strand breaks, although they showed similar trends after irradiation in different media. The o.e.r. values for the inhibition of post-irradiation enzymatic repair were similar to those for cell survival. The o.e.r. for radiation-induced breaks in DNA therefore seems to depend on radiochemical reactions that are occurring during irradiation rather than on a preferential enzymatic repair of those strand breaks that are produced by anoxic irradiation. Cell survival depends less on the number of double strand breaks produced than on the ability of the cell to repair the double strand breaks. The maximum yield of double strand breaks after oxic γ-irradiation was approximately 1.7 breaks/krad/10 10 Daltons, corresponding to 1 break per 610 eV. (U.K.)

  10. Effects of oxygen during. gamma. irradiation of Micrococcus radiodurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D K; Johnson, L D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario. Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1977-09-01

    A study has been made of the effects of oxygen on the yield of double strand breaks in the DNA of Micrococcus radiodurans, and of the relation of these effects to cell death. The OER values for cell survival were considerably smaller than those for the yield of double strand breaks, although they showed similar trends after irradiation in different media. The OER values for the inhibition of post-irradiation enzymatic repair were similar to those for cell survival. The OER for radiation-induced breaks in DNA therefore seems to depend on radiochemical reactions that are occurring during irradiation rather than on a preferential enzymatic repair of those strand breaks that are produced by anoxic irradiation. Cell survival depends less on the number of double strand breaks produced than on the ability of the cell to repair the double strand breaks. The maximum yield of double strand breaks after oxic ..gamma.. irradiation was approximately 1.7 breaks/krad/10/sup 10/Daltons, corresponding to 1 break per 610 eV.

  11. Effectiveness of gamma ray irradiation and ethyl methane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival rate and plantlet performance of DNKW001 in gamma ray + EMS 7uM treatment declined profoundly with increasing doses and LD50 was lower (104 Gy) than LD50 in gamma ray irradiation (177 Gy) alone. Variants of plantlets were detected in pre (white streaked leaf and bigger petiole with distorted leaf) and post ...

  12. Relation of intracellular cyclic AMP to the shape of mammalian cell survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, S.

    1975-01-01

    Results of experiments with V79 cells growing in tissue culture indicate that the reproductive survival of cells following irradiation is influenced by the level of intracellular 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) at the time of irradiation. Cells containing high levels of cyclic AMP induced by treatments with drugs show a characteristic survival curve in which the extent of the shoulder is increased so that the survival after low doses is enhanced. The exponential slope or D 0 , however, is decreased so that at high doses the survival of cells containing high levels of cyclic AMP may be less than that of controls. Naturally occurring changes in radiosensitivity such as those observed as cells pass through the division cycle, may also be related to parallel changes in cyclic AMP concentration occurring during the cycle. Injection of mice with compounds producing elevated cyclic AMP prior to whole-body irradiation increases survival at seven days post-irradiation. The shape of the survival curve for intestinal stem cells in these mice differs from that of the control in having an increased extrapolation number; no change in D 0 is observed in this in vivo situation. (author)

  13. Survival of lung cancer patients after combined therapy with hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharkov, V.V.; Demidchik, Yu.E.; Khodina, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a randomized study of combined therapy of lung cancer patients including large field radiotherapy (total irradiation of 20 Gy, daily fractionation of 4 Gy) and induced hyperglycemia (22-23 mmol/1) are presented. The use of new variants of combined therapy was shown to increase significantly the survival of patients, however therapeutic efficacy was different depending on the time of hyperglycemia: wheter it was used before radiotherapy sessions of after their discontinuation

  14. Irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugyaki, L.

    1977-01-01

    The author studies the criteria for the harmlessness of irradiation as a food-preservation process. The glucose and proteins of bacto-tryptone, irradiated at 5 Mrads, do not increase the Escherichia Coli C 600 lysogenous bacteriophages, compared to the induction produced by direct irradiation of the strain or to the exposition to nitrogenous yperite. The possible mutagenic effect is therefore different. Wheat flour freshly irradiated at 5 Mrads shows physico-chemical changes. When given to mice as 50% of their ration, it leads to a higher incidence of tumours and a greater number of meiotic chromosome alteration (besides some discreet physio-pathological changes in fertility and longevity). Immunoelectrophoresis in agar or agarose gel does not allow any detection of irradiation of meat, fish or eggs. A vertical electrophoresis in starch gel can lead to a differentiation between frozen or chilled meat and the one that is irradiated at 0.5 or 5 Mrads, but the same thing can't be said for fish or eggs. Lastly an irradiated mushroom shows every sign of freshness but, when planted in a suitable medium, its cuttings do not present any cell proliferation which could give a rapid and simple method of detecting the irradiation. (G.C.)

  15. Materials modified by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Application of radiation in pharmaceutical sciences and cosmetology, polymer materials, food industry, environment, health camre products and packing production is described. Nano-technology is described more detailed, because it is less known as irradiation using technology. Economic influence of the irradiation on the materials value addition is shown

  16. Special irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomez, Gerard; Veyrat, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation trials conducted on materials-testing reactors should provide a better understanding of the phenomena which characterize the working and evolution in time of electricity-generating nuclear reactors. The authors begin by outlining the objectives behind experimental irradiation (applied to the various nuclear chains) and then describe the special techniques deployed to achieve these objectives [fr

  17. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tony; Lang, Tim

    1987-01-01

    The London Food Commission summarizes its concerns about the use of food irradiation in the U.K. resulting from its working group surveys of general public opinion, trading standard officers and the food industry in the U.K., and from experience in countries already permitting irradiation to a variety of foods. (U.K.)

  18. Progress in food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The volume contains reports from 19 countries on the state of the project in the field of food irradiation (fruit, vegetables, meat, spices) by means of gamma rays. The tests ran up to 1982. Microbiological radiosensitivity and mutagenicity tests provide a yard stick for irradiation efficiency.

  19. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.

    1990-01-01

    The author explains in simple question and answer form what is entailed in the irradiation of food and attempts to dispel some of the anxieties surrounding the process. Benefits and limitations, controls, labelling safety, and tests for the detection of the use irradiation in food preparation are some of the topics dealt with in outline. (author)

  20. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue