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Sample records for irradiated synthetic diet

  1. Effects of antioxidants on lipid peroxide formation in irradiated synthetic diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the antioxidants, vitamin E, propyl gallate, 2-t-butyl-4-methoxy phenol (BHA), 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methoxy phenol (BHT), nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and diphenyl-p-phenylene diamine (DPPD) in concentrations ranging between 0.001 per cent and 0.1 per cent have been tested on lipid peroxide formation in synthetic diet mixtures containing herring oil (10 per cent) mixed with starch (90 per cent) irradiated with γ-ray doses of 100 to 2000 krad. On a weight basis NDGA, DPPD, BHA and BHT were most effective and vitamin E and propyl gallate were least effective. An antioxidant concentration of 0.01 per cent normally protected against peroxide formation after a dose of 500 krad but if the dose was increased to 1000 or 2000 krad, much higher doses of antioxidant, up to 0.1 per cent, were required to give protection. Antioxidants prevented peroxide developing during post-irradiation storage even when added after irradiation. Antioxidants were partially or completely destroyed by irradiation with doses of 100 krad or more. The percentage of total antioxidant destroyed depended on the concentration; much greater destruction occurred in dilute solutions than in concentrated solutions. Vitamin E and propyl gallate were most sensitive whereas NDGA was relatively resistant. Antioxidant destruction was much enhanced if irradiation was carried out in presence of herring oil. Free radicals formed in unsaturated fatty acids of the herring oil are believed to be responsible. Lecithin and citric acid, which have been described as antioxidant synergists when added with vitamin E, caused a limited enhancement of its antioxidant action against radiation-induced peroxidation. (author)

  2. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, A.K.S.; Hasan, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures. (author)

  3. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, A K.S.; Hasan, S S

    1986-12-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures.

  4. Irradiation of laboratory animal diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiker, D.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing demand for well-defined, standardized laboratory animals fr use in experimental research has led to the development of many new methods aimed at keeping the animals free of pathogenic micro-organisms. In this respect the problem of contaminated feeds has become more and more widely recognized. Chemial treatments and heat-treatments, which are the methods most commonly used at present, do have many disadvantages and this has led to an increasing interest in the application of irradiation for sterilizing animal feeds. The author reviews in some detail the various feeding studies which have been performed to date to establish whether or not irradiated feeds are safe for consumption. Much attention is now being given to feed irradiation throughout the world; it is estimated, for example, that approximately 700 tons of feed are already being irradiated per year and that this amount is likely to increase steadily in the future. These activities and recent developments are also briefly reviewed. (author)

  5. Gamma ray irradiation to semi-purified diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigawa, Akihiro; Danbara, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Yoshinobu

    1976-01-01

    Semi-purified diet containing 10% soybean oil was irradiated with gamma rays at levels of 0.6, 3 and 6 Mrad and was fed to chicks. Crude fat contents of the diets decreased and a considerable amount of peroxide was formed with high doses of irradiation. Feed consumption and feed efficiency of the highly irradiated diets were less than those of control. Metabolizable energy and digestibility of the diets, especially of fat, were decreased with the irradiation. The chicks fed with irradiated diets showed marked dilatation of the small intestine and the liver, and their erythrocytes were more fragile than those of control. The same phenomena were found with the chicks fed the diet containing the oil highly oxidized by autoxidation. Irradiation of the diet excluding oil showed little effect on the growth of chicks. It was considered that these phenomena were caused by the peroxide or other oxidation products of fat which were formed with gamma ray irradiation. (auth.)

  6. Soybean diet breast tumor incidence in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troll, W.; Wiesner, R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between feeding a diet rich in protease inhibitors and the reduction of mammary cancer induced by x-irradiation in Sprague-Dawley rats was examined. Of a total of 145 irradiated animals, 44% of the 45 rats fed a raw soybean diet containing a high concentration of protease inhibitor developed mammary tumors as compared to 74% of 50 rats fed a casein diet containing no protease inhibitor. Animals fed Purina rat chow which contained low levels of protease inhibitor exhibited a 70% mammary tumor incidence. No spontaneous neoplasms were found in any of the non-irradiated animals on the raw soybean diet whereas about 10% of the animals on the protease-free diet developed tumors. Thus, soybeans which are rich in protease inhibitors reduced the induction of mammary cancer in x-irradiated rats. This suggested that diets rich in protease inhibitors may contribute to reducing cancer incidence in man. (author)

  7. Response of irradiated diet fed rats to whole body X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Kushwaha, A.K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The response to whole body X irradiation has been studied in the brain of rats fed both on a normal diet (consisting of equal parts of wheat and gram flour) and on a low protein irradiated diet (consisting of a part of normal diet and three parts of wheat). The activity of enzymes related to the glucose metabolism (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose diphosphate aldolase) is reduced, while that of peroxidant enzymes (catalase and lipid peroxidase) increased in the brain of rats that received a diet poor in proteins and irradiated diets (normal or hypoproteic). DNA and RNA levels and protein content show a significant reduction in the brain of rats with hypoproteic and irradiated diets. The total body irradiation causes serious alterations in the brain in animals with a hypoproteic malnutritions due both to a low protein and an irradiated diet. The brain of rats fed on a low protein and irradiated diet exhibits after whole body irradiation damages more severe than those in rats fed on a normal irradiated diet

  8. Multigeneration feeding studies with an irradiated whole diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravindakshan, M.; Chaubey, R.C.; Chauhan, P.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1978-01-01

    Multigeneration feeding studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of an irradiated whole diet in Wistar rats. The parent and the four successive generations were fed on a nutritionally adequate test diet exposed to either 0.2 or 2.5Mrad gamma radiation and the effects, if any, on various parameters of animal health were assessed. In addition to an unirradiated test control, a historical control group fed on stock laboratory rations was also employed for comparison. The test diet consisted of various components including some of the basic ingredients of human diet in India. Exposure of the test diet to 0.2 or 2.5Mrad did not affect the food efficiency ratio and there were no significant differences in the growth rates of animals fed on unirradiated or irradiated diets. Reproductive performance of the rats fed on irradiated or unirradiated diets belonging to the parent, first, second or third generations were also comparable. Mortality rates and reproductive function in relation to age were also not altered due to feeding of irradiated whole diets. The haematological profile and the serum enzymes of the animals of all the generations fed irradiated diets were within normal limits. Though some differences were observed in the relative weights of some organs, these effects were limited to a particular generation, did not show any definite pattern and could not be related to the ingestion of irradiated diets. First-generation rats examined at 100-104 weeks for gross pathological manifestations including tumour incidence also did not indicate any significant differences among groups. (author)

  9. Studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Three groups of mice were observed in utero and for eighty (80) weeks thereafter to study growth, food consumption, hematology, blood chemistry and survival with particular interest in carcinogenic potential. Group I received only Purina Mouse Chow, Group II received a diet composed of 45% non-irradiated fish and 55% Purina Mouse Chow, and Group III received a diet composed of 45% gamma irradiated fish and 55% Purina Mouse Chow. Differences observed in body weights between control and fish treated diets were due to the incorporation of fish into the diet and not the results of fish being treated with gamma irradiation. Differences observed in food consumption between control and fish treated diets were due to the incorporation of fish into the diet and not the result of fish being treated with gamma irradiation. No daily observations were made which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. No observations were made at any time interval for hematology which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. No observations were made at any time interval for clinical chemistry which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Palpable mass data did not reveal any trends which could be related to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Gross observations at necropsy were limited to spontaneously occurring lesions or artifacts of necropsy technique commonly associated with animals of this species and age. Organ weight data did not reveal any trends which could be related to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Pathological findings were limited to spontaneously occurring lesions or artifacts of necropsy technique commonly associated with animals of this species and age. (orig.)

  10. Synthetic study of reactor irradiation for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Shigehiro; Furuhashi, Akira; Kanda, Keiji; Sumita, Kenji; Kakihana, Hidetake.

    1978-01-01

    This report is described on the results of the study on the reactor irradiation for medical use shared by the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo, and other seventeen facilities. Boron neutron-capturing therapy developed in Japan is extremely significant treating method for tumors by destroying tumor cells of encephaloma, etc. selectively. This is the synthetic study for promoting the above therapeutic method. Two existing reactors were reconstructed into the thermal neutron reactors for boron neutron-capturing therapy. The various preparatory and physical researches were made with the reconstruction, and the therapy was tried on eleven cases. Further experiments were made on the following points: (1) To promote treatment on encephaloma by boron neutron-capturing therapy. (2) To develop its application to malignant tumors other than encephaloma. (3) Animal irradiation experiments. (4) The basic experiments on the cellular level. (5) The study of remote controlled anesthesia. (6) To control irradiated dose. (7) To improve boron compounds. (8) To condense radioisotopes. (Kobatake, H.)

  11. Effect of Irradiation Maternal Diets on the Post-natal Development of Brain Rat Pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.

    2005-09-01

    Full text: Effect of Protein-calorie malnutrition was studied on the pups born to mothers receiving either irradiated normal diet (consisted equal parts of gram and wheat) or irradiation low protein diet (consisted one part of normal diet and three parts of heat). Level of DNA, RNA and protein content were found markedly reduced in the brain of irradiated low protein diet fed pups than in the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was found lower while catalase and lipid peroxidation activity were higher in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, compared whit the pups fed irradiated normal diet. On the whole both the irradiated low protein diet as well as irradiated normal diet fed pups showed higher index of biochemical changes than in the unirradiated low protein diet fed pups. Post-natal mortality was 60% in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, whereas the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet did not show any death. The study given evidence that feeding of the irradiated low protein diet interferes more with the development of brain compared with the pups fed on irradiated normal diet

  12. Synthetic activity of rat blood lymphocytes under acute and continuous gamma-irradiation - fluorescent microspectral study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhova, N.A.; Sergiyevich, L.A.; Aksenova, G.Y.; Karnaukhov, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of different doses of acute and continuous gamma-irradiation on the synthetic activity of rat blood lymphocytes stained with acridine orange were studied by fluorescent microspectrometry. Male rats were exposed to acute gamma-irradiation with doses of 7.5, 4 and 3 Gy, or to continuous irradiation with dose rates of 14.4, 2.1, 1.1 and 0.43 cGy/day, respectively. The changes of the synthetic activity of blood lymphocytes occurred in three main stages after acute gamma-irradiation and in four stages under continuous irradiation. The stages reflect the processes of depression and activation of the immune system under irradiation. Essential differences between the acute and continuous effects were observed in the first stage. After acute gamma-irradiation, the synthetic activity decreased sharply, indicating the predominant contribution of the damaging effect of irradiation, whereas under continuous irradiation, as a result of the stimulatory effect of low-dose irradiation, the synthetic activity increased during the first stage. (orig.)

  13. Irradiated diets and its effect on testes and adrenal gland of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, A.K.S.; Hasan, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the feeding effects of irradiated normal diet (consisting of equal parts of gram and wheat) and irradiated low protein diet (consisting one part of normal diet and three parts of wheat) on male rats for various periods starting from weaning time. Rats maintained on irradiated low protein diets showed decrease in the activity of androgen sensitive enzymes i.e., alkaline and acid phosphatase while an increase in the cholesterol content of the testes compared with irradiated normal controls. Diminution in androgen sensitive enzymes and accumulation of cholesterol in the rat testes suggest non-conversion of cholesterol into steriod hormones after feeding of irradiated low protein. Besides, rats fed on irradiated low protein diet showed increased cellular activity in the adrenal cortex and medulla as compared to rats fed on the irradiated normal diet. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Brazil nut meal and spray-dried egg powders as alternatives to synthetic methionine in organic laying hen diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, H K; Patterson, P H

    2017-09-01

    The United States organic poultry industry is currently facing a limitation on dietary inclusion of synthetic methionine (Met). This study investigated Brazil nut protein powder (BNPP), spray-dried egg white (SDEW), and spray-dried egg blend (70:30 albumen: yolk) (SDEB) as alternatives to synthetic Met in organic laying hen diets. A total of 270 Hy-Line Brown laying hens was fed 5 diets from 22 to 38 wk of age, with 6 replicates of 3 adjacent cages per diet and 3 hens per cage. Diets included a commercial control (COM) (non-organic with standard CP and synthetic Met), an organic control (ORG) (with no synthetic Met, but higher CP to meet Met requirements), and 3 organic treatment diets with no synthetic Met, but including BNPP, SDEW, or SDEB at levels to meet Met requirements. Egg production and quality, body weight (BW), feed intake, and manure nutrients and ammonia were assessed. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS, with Tukey's test used for multiple mean comparisons, and P ≤ 0.05 was deemed statistically significant. Body weight was greatest for the COM diet, and feed conversion improved for hens fed egg-based diets compared to controls. Egg weight and production did not differ between COM and treatment diets. The SDEW diet had greater albumen height and Haugh units compared to ORG and BNPP diets and greater percent albumen compared to COM and BNPP diets. Specific gravity was greatest for BNPP fed hens. Manure DM and potash were highest from COM and BNPP diets, respectively. Both egg-based diets increased ammonia flux relative to the COM diet. The BNPP and egg-based diets were lower in cost for $/metric tonne, $/dozen eggs, and $/kg of eggs compared to the ORG diet. The ingredients assessed herein could, therefore, cost-effectively replace synthetic Met in organic hen diets without negatively impacting egg production. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Micronucleus test in mice fed on irradiated whole diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.P.; Reddi, O.S.; Pentiah, P.R.; Rani, M.V.U.; Devi, K.R.; Goud, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    Eight week old Swiss albino male mice were fed on freshly irradiated or unirradiated whole diet for one week. (Exposure was to 75 or 200 kR γ rays from a 1000 Ci 60 Co γ source at a dose rate of 584 R/min.) On the seventh day, six hours after feeding, the mice were killed and bone marrow preparations were made by the Schmid technique. From each group three animals were taken and from each animal 2000 polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes were scored. It was evident from the data obtained that the irradiated whole diet failed to induce any significant increase in the incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes. Similarly, there was no significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in normochromatic erythrocytes when compared with control data. The polychromatic to normochromatic ratio was also unaffected. The diet consisted of wheat flour (60%). groundnut cake (20%), fish meal (8%), Bengal gram flour (8%), dried yeast (3%), salt/mineral mixture (1%) and traces of vitamins. (U.K.)

  16. Mutagenicity assayed by dominant lethality testing in mice fed a combined gamma-irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupova, I.; Katsarova, Ts.; Bajrakova, A.; Baev, I.; Tencheva, S.

    1980-01-01

    Mice fed a combined gamma-irradiated diet were examined for a mutagenic effect using the dominant lethality test. Their feed contained the following irradiated ingredients: 20% maize, 10% dried plums, and 5% walnut kernels. Taking into account cycle duration in spermatogenesis and oogenesis, males were fed this special diet throughout 56 days, and females throughout 21 days. The experiments involved three animal groups: (1) fed the special diet containing irradiated ingredients; (2) fed the special diet but with the ingredients nonirradiated; and (3) fed standard vivarium diet. Matings to provide the first generation were between one parent fed the special diet and a partner fed standard diet. With an adequate number of implants examined on day 16 of gestation, embryonic death rate was not found to be increased; hence, induction of dominant lethality from consumption of irradiated diet failed to be demonstrated

  17. Long-term energy output estimation for photovoltaic energy systems using synthetic solar irradiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    A general methodology is presented to estimate the monthly average daily energy output from photovoltaic energy systems. Energy output is estimated from synthetically generated solar radiation data. The synthetic solar radiation data are generated based on the cumulative frequency distribution of the daily clearness index, given as a function of the monthly clearness index. Two sets of synthetic solar irradiation data are generated: 3- and 4-day months. In the 3-day month, each month is represented by 3 days and in the 4-day month, by 4 days. The 3- and 4-day solar irradiation data are synthetically generated for each month and the corresponding energy outputs are calculated. A total of 8-year long measured hourly solar irradiation data, from five different locations in the world, is used to validate the new model. The monthly energy output values calculated from the synthetic solar irradiation data are compared to those calculated from the measured hour-by-hour data. It is shown that when the measured solar radiation data do not exist for a particular location or reduced data set is advantageous, the energy output from photovoltaic converters could be correctly calculated

  18. Grafting of acrylamide onto synthetic co polyamide by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamoud, M R; Qamhieyh, E A [Chemistry Dept., College of Ibn Al-Haitham Baghdad university-Adhamiyah-Baghdad- (Iraq)

    1995-10-01

    Grafted copolymer was prepared by using gamma irradiation to graft acrylamide onto polymeric molecule prepared by interfacial condensation between two diamine molecules like 1,2 diamino propane and 1,6 diamino-hexane in aqueous layer with sebacoyl chloride in organic layer. The resulted co polyamide was grafted with acrylamide using gamma irradiation. The optimum conditions of grafting reaction were found, also various factors such as the effect of solvents, redox systems and the role water on the radiochemical grafting were studied. Many techniques were used in the characterization of the copolymer before and after grafting. 8 figs.,.

  19. Generation of hourly irradiation synthetic series using the neural network multilayer perceptron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hontoria, L.; Aguilera, J. [Universidad de Jaen, Linares-Jaen (Spain). Dpto. de Electronica; Zufiria, P. [Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid (Spain). Grupo de Redes Neuronales

    2002-05-01

    In this work, a methodology based on the neural network model called multilayer perceptron (MLP) to solve a typical problem in solar energy is presented. This methodology consists of the generation of synthetic series of hourly solar irradiation. The model presented is based on the capacity of the MLP for finding relations between variables for which interrelation is unknown explicitly. The information available can be included progressively at the series generator at different stages. A comparative study with other solar irradiation synthetic generation methods has been done in order to demonstrate the validity of the one proposed. (author)

  20. Electrical behaviour of synthetic elastomers under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharescu, Traian; Ciuprina, Florin

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of ethylene-propylene elastomers to the action of gamma radiation causes the modification of chemical state of polymer matrix by the formation of oxygenated products. The accumulation of dipoles modifies the electrical behaviour of materials. The value of resistance increases more than three times at increasing the dose up to 200 kGy. The absorption/resorption current measurements demonstrate the bad consequence of the inversion of polarity for applied voltages. Differences between the two sorts of synthetic elastomers (ethylene-propylene copolymer and ethylene-propylene terpolymer) were pointed out. (author)

  1. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Pasteurization on the Nutritive Composition of Commercially Available Animal Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Catherine D; Cassidy, Joseph P; Kelly, John P

    2008-01-01

    Gamma radiation is used to sterilize diets for specific pathogen-free (SPF) animals. Because a gamma-irradiated diet was linked to leukoencephalomyelopathy in SPF cats, we investigated the effects of ‘typical’ (28.9–34.3 kGy) and ‘high-end’ (38.4–48.7 kGy) doses of gamma irradiation and of pasteurization (at 107 °C for 15 min) on the amounts of fat; protein; carbohydrate (and taurine in cat diet); vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, and B12; and peroxide in commercially available dry cat, dog, and rodent diets. The only treatment-related changes occurred with vitamin A and peroxide. The typical and high-end doses of gamma irradiation reduced the vitamin A level of the cat diet to 42% and 30% of the untreated value, respectively—levels below recommended allowances for growth and reproduction. Only the higher irradiation dose reduced vitamin A in the rodent diet, and neither dose altered the canine diet. Pasteurization reduced the vitamin A content of the cat diet to 50% of its original level, which was within the recommended level for this species. Irradiation increased the peroxide content of all 3 animal diets: by approximately 11-fold with the typical dose and by 14- to 25-fold with the high-end dose. Therefore gamma irradiation can have profound, selective effects on the vitamin A and peroxide contents of dry diets, and caution is advised when feeding such diets long-term and exclusively to SPF animals, particularly cats. Furthermore, pasteurization (with its fewer deleterious effects) may represent an alternative method of decontaminating diets for rodents, dogs, and cats. PMID:19049256

  2. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, H.G.; Miller, T.J.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of mice (Fsub(2b) generation of Part I study) were fed for 90 days, either stock ration or diets containing 45% fish, either non-irradiated or irradiated with 1.75 kGy. Equal amounts of cod and redfish (ocean perch) constituted the fish portion of the diet. Haematological and clinical chemical examinations revealed no treatment-related effects. There were no untoward terminal gross or histopathological changes. An initial lag in weight gain of males fed fish diets was attibuted to reduced food consumption, due to the difference in texture of the fish diets compared with the stock ration. (Auth.)

  3. The process of adaptation and evolution in irradiated synthetic populations of Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dislers, V.J.; Rasals, I.D.

    1975-01-01

    Irradiation of synthetic populations of A. thaliana caused an intense process of directed natural selection. As a result, six to eight generations after irradiation, the arithmetic mean of a number of parameters (plant height, stem length, number of internodes) exceeded the arithmetic average for plants in a non-irradiated population. The process of directed selection proceeded more intensely after the plants were irradiated repeatedly than after a single irradiation. The intensity of directed selection when the plants were irradiated with a 10 4 rad dose of fast neutrons was definitely greater than for a dose of 10 3 rad. An intermediate intensity of selection was observed when the plants were irradiated with a 3x10 4 rad dose of gamma radiation. When the plants were subjected to single and repeated 10 4 rad doses of fast neutron radiation, the arithmetic mean of certain features of the best component of the initial population (Enkheim) was exceeded in M 8 and R 6 . (author)

  4. The effects of irradiation on the mandibular bone of rats on the low calcium diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Eui Whan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of morphology and structure of bone tissue in the irradiated mandibular bone in rats which were fed a low calcium diet. In order to carry out this experiment, 64 seven-week old Sprague- Dawley strain rats weighing about 150gms were selected and equally divided into one experimental group of 32 rats and one control group with the remainder. The experimental group and the group were then subdivided into two groups when the rats reached ten-week old, 16 were assigned rats for each subdivided group, exposed to irradiation. The two irradiation groups received a single dose of 20Gy in the jaws area only and irradiated with a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. The rats in the control and experimental groups were serially termination, both sides of the dead rats mandibular bodies were removed and fixed with 10% neutral formalin. One side of the mandibular body was radiographed with a soft X-ray apparatus. Thereafter, the obtained microradiographs were observed by a light microscope. The remaining side of the mandibular bone was further decalcified and embedded in paraffin as using the general method. The specimen ectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and Rabit Anti-Human Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha}, observed by a light microscope. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Microradiogram revealed that thinning of the cortex and a decrease in the trabecula of the interradicular bone and mandibular body were observed and noted from the start to finish throughout the experiment in the non-irradiated rats on the low calcium diet rather than in the non-irradiated rats on the normal diet.In microscopic observation, there were marked osteolytic changes in the center of the bone marrow. 2. Microradiogram revealed that thinning of the cortex and a decrease in the trabecula of interradicular bone and mandibular body were more marked after 7 days in the irradiated rats in the low calcium diet rather than in the non-irradiated

  5. Therapeutic effect of an elemental diet on proline absorption across the irradiated rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohiuddin, M.; Kramer, S.

    1978-01-01

    Active absorption of [ 3 H]L-proline across the intestinal wall was used to measure functional change following irradiation of the exteriorized rat small intestine and to see whether an elemental amino acid diet would modify these changes. Segments (15 cm) of the exteriorized upper ileum of male Wistar rats were exposed to 1000 rad. Active transport against a concentration gradient of [ 3 H]L-proline from this irradiated segment was measured using the everted sac technique on days 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 30 post-irradiation. Irradiated rats maintained on a normal diet showed depression of absorptive function with only partial recovery by day 30. Irradiated rats maintained on an elemental amino acid diet also showed an initial drop in function but then recovered absorptive function completely by day 7

  6. Electronic emission and electron spin resonance of irradiated clothes: (cottons, synthetic clothes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ajouz Rima, H.

    1984-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to a new method of dosimetry applicable to accidental irradiations. It is based on the use of cotton and synthetic fabric clothes as detectors. It enables absorbed doses and body dose distributions to be estimated after an accidental irradiation. A bibliography on textile fibres used for clothing is presented in the first chapter: origin, structure, industrial treatments, effects of heat, light, ionizing radiations. In the second chapter, electronic emission generated by double stimulation (thermal and optic) is described. This phenomenon reveals changes in the surface state of cotton. Exo-emission was chosen because of its high sensitivity in dosimetry. The third chapter is devoted to the application of electron paramagnetic resonance to the dosimetry of irradiated fabrics. After a brief description of the spectrometer used, the results obtained with commercial cotton fabrics and with a special fabric realized by the Institut Textile de France are described some of these fabrics were subjected to special treatments either before or after irradiation. Synthetic fabrics (polyesters and polypropylene) have also been studied. (author)

  7. Clinical observations on the effects of elemental diet supplementation during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been conducted to assess the effects of adding an elemental diet as a supplement to a standard low-roughage diet recommended to a group of patients receiving a fractionated course of abdominal irradiation. The supplement was not found to modify patient experience of radiotherapy-induced complications. (author)

  8. Biochemical attributes of Hens Fed Irradiated Aflatoxin B1 Contamination Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.E.H.; Abdul Azeem, A.M.; Abdalla, E.A.; Ahmed, N.A.H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of feeding diet artificially contaminated with aflatoxin B 1(AFB1) at level 0.2 mg kg"-"1 AFB1, and gamma (γ) irradiated (10, 20, and 30 kGy) on reducing the deleterious effects of laying hens Golden Montaza (GM) biochemical attributes. These include liver weight, AFB1 liver residue content, AST, ALT, ALP, creatinine, total proteins, albumin and globulin, as well as, the levels of T3, T4, TSH, FSH, LH, progesterone hormone and hepatic histology. At 38 week of age, groups of laying hens were fed on a normal non-contaminated diet (G1), aflatoxin-contaminated diet (G2), and irradiated contaminated diets (G3, G4 and G5) for 3 weeks, as a duration period. When the hens reached 42 weeks of age, they were fed on normal diet for 3 weeks, as a recovery period. Results showed that AST, ALT, ALP, and creatinine significantly increased in AFs treated groups in comparison with those received AFs-containing diet and irradiated up to 30 kGy. Layers fed contaminated diet of AFB1 suffered from a lower level of total proteins, albumin and globulin. Meanwhile, the results showed that the level of serum T4 was lower, but conversely the levels of FSH were higher for those fed on diets contaminated with AFB1 compared to those fed irradiated contaminated diets with AFB1, no significant change occurred in serum blood T3, TSH, LH and progesterone in all tested groups. Treated contaminated diets with γ-irradiation at 30 kGy reduced the incidence and severity of hepatic histology. The 30 kGy radiation dose was more effective, in this respect, in all biochemical indices. For recovery period diets non-contaminated with AFB1, the results showed improvements in all biochemical indices and recovered the hepatic structure with increasing the recovery period especially for those fed on irradiated diets through the experimental duration. In conclusion, feeding of diets contaminated with AFB1 altered the blood profiles, and damaged the liver

  9. Osseointegration Of Implants In Rabbit Bone With A Low Calcium Diet And Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, So Jung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2000-01-01

    To investigate osseointergration of titanium implants into the tibia of rabbits, which were fed a low calcium diet and irradiated. To prepare the experimental model, control group was fed a normal diet and experimental group was fed a low calcium diet for 4 weeks. And then, titanium implants were inserted into the tibia of each rabbit. Experimental group was subdivided into two groups; low calcium diet/non-irradiation group and low calcium diet/irradiation group. The low calcium diet/irradiation group was irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 15 Gy at the 5th postoperative days. On the 12th, 19th, 33rd, 47th, and 61st days after implantation(1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after irradiation), the bone formation in the bone-implant interface area was examined by light microscopy and fluorescent microscopy. 1. In the control group, there began to form woven bone in the bone-implant interface area on the 12th days after implantation. As the experimental time was going on, the amount of bone which was in contact with the implant was increased. 2. In the low calcium diet/non-irradiation group, there began to form woven bone in the bone-implant interface area on the 19th days after implantation. Although the amount of bone which was in contact with the implant was increased as the experimental time was going on, the extent of increased bone was slightly weak as compared with control group. 3. In the low calcium diet/irradiation group, there began to form woven bone incompletely in the bone-implant interface area on the 19th days after implantation, but there were vascular connective tissues in the bone- implant interface area over the entire experimental period. 4. In the control group and low calcium diet/non-irradiation group, bone labeling bands were observed on the 33rd days after implantation, which suggests that the bone formation and remodeling was in process, but interstitial bone remodeling was not observed in the low calcium diet/irradiation group.

  10. Influence of x irradiation and diet on pituitary/thyroid function in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qassar, I.G.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were maintained on low iodine diet or treated with T 4 . A significant increase in thyroid weight was observed in rats on low iodine diet whereas among rats on normal diet with thyroxine injections, the thyroid was lower in weight than thyroids of control animals. Pituitary weight increased significantly in rats on low iodine diet or T 4 treatment. Labelling index was significantly higher in the group on low iodine diet. A significantly lower labelling index was observed after thyroxine treatment. Where PTU was administered to rats pretreated with either normal diet, normal diet plus T 4 , or maintained on low iodine diet and then exposed to radiation (100 to 400R) to the neck, it was not possible to distinguish the effect of such local radiation on body growth. The pre-radiation treatment did not have any effect on thyroid weight during two weeks post-radiation, suggesting that a four week post-radiation period is essential to elicit radiation effects on the thyroid. Contrary to low iodine treatment, administration of PTU did not result in any increase in pituitary weight in rats maintained on normal diet prior to radiation or in rats maintained on low iodine diet prior to radiation. There was, however, a significant increase in pituitary weight in rats injected with thyroxine prior to radiation (250R or 400R). A significant increase in serum TSH was observed two weeks after radiation and PTU treatment. A lower TSH level was observed, however, in the 250R sub-group (normal diet or T 4 injection) and in the 400R sub-group (low iodine diet). There was a significant difference among sham-irradiated and the three x-irradiated sub-groups maintained on low iodine diet. The results of these studies indicate that local x irradiation with 100 to 400R to the neck may influence thyroid/pituitary function in the rat

  11. Biological response to the synergistic effect of synthetic colour additives and gamma irradiation on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.M.; Kafafy, Y.A.; Salama, S.F.

    2007-01-01

    This Study was conducted to determine the effect of the inevitable intake of synthetic colour additives in our everyday life and radiation exposure on the levels of some physiological parameters. Female rats were divided into: I- Control group. 2- Group administrated an azo dye mixture of tartrazine and brilliant blue orally for 2 weeks (100 mg/Kg body wt). 3- Group received gamma radiation of 5 Gy. 4- Animals received the dyes mixture for 2 weeks and irradiation. Rats were examined on the 1st, 3rd and 7th days post irradiation or dyes treatment followed by irradiation. Dyes treatment induced significant decreases in hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), red blood cells (RBCs), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Significant increases of plasma total proteins and albumin levels were recorded. No significant changes of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, iron (Fe), cupper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) levels were noted. Irradiation induced significant decline in Hb, Ht, RBCs, Cu and Fe levels. Significant increases of glucose (7th day), uric acid (3rd and 7 days), total proteins (3rd day) levels, and ALT activity, while no changes were recorded in ALP, albumin or Zn levels. Dual treatment of irradiation and dyes aggravated the radiation-induced changes. Bearing in mind that safety concerns overweighed the approval of use of synthetic colors, the utilization of these colors in drug and food manufacturing should be limited to minimize the physiological disturbances and the risk concomitant to environmental oxidative stress. During the last decade, extensive studies on the use of colors in processed foods, drinks, drugs and cosmetics confirmed that they may act as xenobiotics (Guengerich, 1995). With the increasing awareness of possible health hazards associated with their use more attention has been focused on the biological

  12. Radiation damage studies on natural and synthetic rock salt utilizing measurements made during electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swyler, K.J.; Levy, P.W.

    1977-01-01

    The numerous radiation damage effects which will occur in the rock salt surrounding radioactive waste disposal canisters are being investigated with unique apparatus for making optical and other measurements during 1 to 3 MeV electron irradiation. This equipment, consists of a computer controlled double beam spectrophotometer which simultaneously records 256 point absorption and radioluminescence spectra, in either the 200 to 400 or 400 to 800 nm region, every 40 seconds. Most often the measurements commence as the irradiation is started and continue after it is terminated. This procedure provides information on the kinetics and other details of the damage formation process and, when the irradiation is terminated, on both the transient and stable damage components. The exposure rates may be varied between 10 2 or 10 3 to more than 10 8 rad per hour and the sample temperature maintained between 25 and 800 or 900 0 C. Although this project was started recently, measurements have been made on synthetic NaCl and on natural rock salt from two disposal sites and two mines. Both unstrained and purposely strained samples have been used. Most recently, measurements at temperatures between 25 and 200 0 C have been started. The few measurements completed to date indicate that the damage formation kinetics in natural rock salt are quite different from those observed in synthetic NaCl

  13. The use of synthetic and natural vitamin D sources in pig diets to improve meat quality and vitamin D content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Sarah K.; Kelly, Alan K.; Rajauria, Gaurav

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of synthetic and natural sources of vitamin D biofortification in pig diets on pork vitamin D activity and pork quality. One hundred and twenty pigs (60 male, 60 female) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 55 d feeding period. The dietary trea...

  14. Electron beam irradiation to the allogeneic, xenogenic and synthetic bone materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soung Min; Park, Min Woo; Jeong, Hyun Oh [School of Dentistry Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-07-01

    For the development of the biocompatible bony regeneration materials, allogenic, xenogenic and synthetic bone were irradiated by electron beam to change the basic components and structures. For the efficient electron beam irradiating condition of these allogenic, xenogenic and artificial bone substitutes, the optimal electron beam energy and their individual dose were established, to maximize the bony regeneration capacity. Commercial products of four allogenic bones, such as Accell (ISOTIS OrthogBiologics Co., USA), Allotis (Korea Bone Bank Co., Korea), Oragraft (LifeNet Co., USA), and Orthoblast (Integra Orthobiologics Inc., USA), six xenogenic bones, such as BBP (OscoTec Co., Korea), Bio-cera (OscoTec Co., Korea), Bio-oss (Geistlich Pharma AG, Switzerland), Indu-cera (OscoTec Co., Korea), OCS-B (Nibec Co., Korea), and OCS-H (Nibec Co., Korea), and six synthetic bones, such as BMP (Couellmedi Co., Korea), BoneMedik (Meta Biomed Co., Korea), Bone plus (Megagen Co., Korea), MBCP (Biomatlante Co., France), Osteon (Genoss Co., Korea), and Osteogen (Impladent LTD., USA), were used. We used 1.0 and 2.0 MeV superconduction accelerator, and/or microtrone with different individual 60, 120 kGy irradiation dose. Different dose irradiated specimens were divided 6 portions each, so total 360 groups were prepared. 4 portions were analyzed each by elementary analysis using FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Microscopy) and another 2 portions were grafted to the calvarial defect of Sprague-Dawley rat, following histologic, immunohistochemical analysis and TEM study were processed at the 8th and 16th weeks, in vivo. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST)

  15. Survival of irradiated mice treated with WR-151327, synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate, or ofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledney, G. D.; Elliott, T. B.; Landauer, M. R.; Vigneulle, R. M.; Henderson, P. L.; Harding, R. A.; Tom, S. P.

    1994-10-01

    Spaceflight personnel need treatment options that would enhance survival from radiation and would not disrupt task performance. Doses of prophylactic or therapeutic agents known to induce significant short-term (30-day) survival with minimal behavioral (locomotor) changes were used for 180-day survival studies. In protection studies, groups of mice were treated with the phosphorothioate WR-151327 (200 mg/kg, 25% of the LD10) or the immunomodulator, synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM; 8 mg/kg), before lethal irradiation with reactor-generated fission neutrons and γ-rays (n/γ = 1) or 60Co γ-rays. In therapy studies, groups of mice received either S-TDCM, the antimicrobial ofloxacin, or S-TDCM plus ofloxacin after irradiation. For WR-151327 treated-mice, survival at 180 days for n/γ = 1 and γ-irradiated mice was 90% and 92%, respectively; for S-TDCM (protection), 57% and 78%, respectively; for S-TDCM (therapy), 20% and 25%, respectively; for ofloxacin, 38% and 5%, respectively; for S-TDCM combined with ofloxacin, 30% and 30%, respectively; and for saline, 8% and 5%, respectively. Ofloxacin or combined ofloxacin and S-TDCM increased survival from the gram-negative bacterial sepsis that predominated in n/γ = 1) irradiated mice. The efficacies of the treatments depended on radiation quality, treatment agent and its mode of use, and microflora of the host.

  16. The effects of irradiation on the periodontal tissues of rats with the low calcium diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Mun Cheol; Lee, Sang Rae

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of periodontal tissues in the irradiated mandibular bone in rats which were fed normal diet and low calcium diet. In order to carry out this experiment, 64 seven-week old Sprague-Dawley strain rats weighing about 150 gms were selected and equally divided into one experimental group of 32 rats and one control group with the remainder. The experimental group and the control group were then subdivided into two groups when the rats reached the age of 10 weeks, 16 rats were allotted for each subdivided group was composed of 16 rats and exposed to irradiation. The two groups were irradiated a single dose of 20 Gy on the only jaw area and irradiated with a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. The rats in the control and experimental groups were warily dissected by fours on the 3rd, 7th, the 14th, and the 21st day after irradiation. After each dissection, both sides of the dead rat mandibular bodies were removed and fixed with 10% neutral formalin. The specimens sectioned and observed in histopathological, histochemical, and immunocellular chemical methods. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In the mandibles of rats with low calcium diet the increased number of fibroblasts of periodontal ligaments, many small capillaries and irregular arrangement of loose collagen fibers were detected and the partial resorption of dentin and cementum could be found by the microscopic studies. 2. In the group of irradiated rats, deaerated periodontal tissues led to the condition of irregular arrangement of collagen fibers and the decreased number of fibroblasts. But this condition was somewhat restored after 21 days of experiment. 3. Periodontal tissues of the irradiated rat group with low calcium diet were destroyed earlier than those of the irradiated rat group with normal diet. Soon this condition was restored and then high cellularity and dense collagen fibers were observed. 4. Many periodontal cells bearing tumor necrosis factor

  17. Dominant lethal mutations in male mice fed γ-irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, P.S.; Aravindakshan, M.; Aiyer, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of Swiss male mice were fed a stock ration of an unirradiated or irradiated (2.5 Mrad) test diet for 8 wk. After the feeding period, the males were mated with groups of untreated female mice for 4 consecutive weeks. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. Numbers of dead implantations, including deciduomas and dead embryos, showed no significant differences among the different groups, thus producing no evidence of any induced post-implantation lethality in mice fed on irradiated diet. Similarly, there was no indication of preimplantation lethality, since implantation rates remained comparable among different groups. Consumption of irradiated diet did not affect the fertility of mice. Total pre- and post-implantation loss, as indicated by the numbers of live implantations remained comparable among all the groups of mice. (author)

  18. A methodology for the stochastic generation of hourly synthetic direct normal irradiation time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañeta, M.; Moreno-Tejera, S.; Lillo-Bravo, I.; Silva-Pérez, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Many of the available solar radiation databases only provide global horizontal irradiance (GHI) while there is a growing need of extensive databases of direct normal radiation (DNI) mainly for the development of concentrated solar power and concentrated photovoltaic technologies. In the present work, we propose a methodology for the generation of synthetic DNI hourly data from the hourly average GHI values by dividing the irradiance into a deterministic and stochastic component intending to emulate the dynamics of the solar radiation. The deterministic component is modeled through a simple classical model. The stochastic component is fitted to measured data in order to maintain the consistency of the synthetic data with the state of the sky, generating statistically significant DNI data with a cumulative frequency distribution very similar to the measured data. The adaptation and application of the model to the location of Seville shows significant improvements in terms of frequency distribution over the classical models. The proposed methodology applied to other locations with different climatological characteristics better results than the classical models in terms of frequency distribution reaching a reduction of the 50% in the Finkelstein-Schafer (FS) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test integral (KSI) statistics.

  19. Sensitivity of Ceratitis capitata eggs irradiated in artificial diet and in mango fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A.; Yasuoka, S.T.; Amorim, E.O.; Sato, M.E.; Suplicy Filho, N.; Faria, J.T. de

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish gamma radiation doses required to prevent emergence of Ceratitis capitata adults, from irradiated eggs in artificial diet and mango fruits. Six-, twelve-, twenty-four-, and forty-eight-hour-old eggs were used. Artificial infestation by C. capitata was carried out in mangoes of Haden, Tommy and Keith cultivars. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed as a function of the embryonic development and a Probit 9 of 24.67 Gy was estimated for 48-hour-old eggs in artificial diet. No significant influence of mango fruits was found on the efficacy of irradiation. (author)

  20. Detection of defects in electron-irradiated synthetic silica quartz probed by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watauchi, Satoshi; Uedono, Akira; Ujihira, Yusuke; Yoda, Osamu.

    1994-01-01

    Defects in amorphous SiO 2 films, formed on MOS(metal/oxide/semiconductor) devices as gates, perturb its operation. The positron annihilation techniques, were applied to the study of the annealing behavior of the defects, introduced in the high purity synthetic quartz glass by the irradiation of 3-MeV electrons up to the 1x10 18 e - /cm 2 dosage. It was proved that the positron annihilation techniques were sufficiently sensitive to detect the defects in the electron-irradiated silica glasses. Three types of open-space defects were detected by the positron lifetime measurements. These can be attributed to monovacancy or divacancy type defects, vacancy clusters, and open-volume defects. A high formation probability (∼90%) of positroniums(Ps) was found in unirradiated specimens. These Ps were considered to be formed in open-volume defects. The formation probability of Ps was drastically decreased by the electron irradiation. But the size of open-volume defects was kept unchanged by the irradiation. These facts suggest that vacancy-type defects were introduced by the electron irradiation and that positrons were trapped in these defects. By the isochronal annealing in nitrogen atmosphere, the lifetime component (τ 2 ) and its relative intensity (I 2 ), attributed to positrons trapped in monovacancy or divacancy type defects and annihilated there, changed remarkably. τ 2 was constant in the temperature range up to 300degC, getting slightly shorter between 300degC and 700degC, and constant above 700degC. I 2 decreased gradually up to 300degC, constant between 300degC and 550degC, decreased above 550degC, and constant above 700degC. This revealed that the behavior of the defects, in which positrons were trapped, change by the elevation of the annealing temperature. (author)

  1. Effect of irradiation and storage in the iron availability in lamb meat treated with different diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de; Arthur, Valter

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation is an efficient method to increase the microbiological safety and to maintain the nutrients such as iron in the meat. The best absorption form, heme iron, should be preserved in order to increase the nutritional quality of stored meat. The diet can alter the nutrients contents and form in the meat. The iron is provided from the diet and it is an essential element for the metabolic processes such as oxygen transport, oxidative metabolism, and cellular growth. Meat lamb samples treated with different diets (it controls, TAC1, TAC2 and sorghum) were wrapped to vacuous, and irradiated in the doses 0, 2 and 4 kGy and stored at 4 deg C during 15 days. The values of total iron and heme iron were measured at 0 and 15 days of storage. The storage reduced the content of total iron (18.36 for 14.28 mg.100 g -1 ) and heme iron (13.78 for 10.52 mg.100 g -1 ). The diets affected the levels of total and heme iron of the meat, and the sorghum diet was the one that presented the larger content. The dose of 2 kGy was the one that affected the iron the most independently of the storage time. It was verified that the amounts of total and heme iron varied according to the storage time, irradiation doses, and lamb diets. (author)

  2. Influence of irradiation on protein and amino acids in laboratory rodent diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of irradiation treatment on the protein quality and constituent amino acids of laboratory rodent diets is reviewed and compared with other methods of sterilization - autoclaving and ethylene oxide fumigation. Gamma irradiation has been shown to have minimal influence on total protein, protein quality and total and available amino acid levels. Autoclaving reduces amino acid availability and consequently protein quality. Limited evidence shows reduction of certain available amino acids following ethylene oxide fumigation. (author)

  3. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protein, amino acids and carbohydrate contents of soya-gari diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogbadu, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    Soya-gari diet, prepared by enrichment of gari (Manihot esculanta Cranz) with soya flour, methionine, lysine and salt mixture was irradiated with doses of 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 Krad from a Co 60 γ irradiator. Gamma irradiation of the soya-gari diet with doses as high as 500 Krad had no significant effect on the amino acids, total proteins, soluble carbohydrates, hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin contents. (author)

  5. The effects of the low calcium diet and irradiation on the mandibular condyle of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hee Mun; Lee, Sang Rae

    1993-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes of mandibular condyle by low diet and the effects of irradiation on the bone in ofteoporotic state. In order to carry out this experiment, 80 served-week old Sprague-Dawley strain rats about 150gm were selected and equally divided into one experimental group of 40 rats and one control group with the remainder. The experimental group and the control group of 40 rats and one control group with the remainder. The experimental group and the control group were then subdivided into two group and exposed to irradiation. The two irradiation groups received a single dose of 20 Gy on the jaw area only and irradiated with a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. The rats in the control and experimental groups were serially terminated by fours on the 3rd, the 7th, the 14th, and the 21st day after irradiation. After termination, both sides of the dead rats mandibular condyle were removed and fixed with 10% neutral formalin. The bone mineral density of mandibular condle was measured by use of dual energy X-ray with Hitex HA-80 (Hitex Co., Japan). Thereafter, the obtained radiographs were observed, and the mandibular condyle was further decalcified and embedded in paraffin as the general method. The specimen sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, PAS and Rabbit Anti-Human Tumor Necrosis Factor-α observed by a light microscope. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In the non-irradiated group with low calcium diet, the bone mineral density of the condyle was markedly decreased after 14 days, and decrease the number of trabeculae of the condyle and resorption of the calcified cartilaginous zone were observed after 3 days. On microscopic observation, the number and size of trabecular were decreased after 7 days of experiment. 2. In the irradiated group with the low calcium diet, the bone mineral density of the condyle was markedly decreased after 14 days and resorption of the calcified cartilaginous zone and decrease the number and

  6. Feed irradiation and diet composition in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubic, G.; Vitorovic, D; Vitorovic, G.; Donic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of 137 Cs activity reduction by ration formulation in dairy cows was examined. The foodstuffs and their 137 Cs activity simulated conditions during the Chernobyl accident. It was found that a substantial reduction of radioactivity in dairy cow rations during accidental situations is possible. Using linear programming software for diet formulating by setting the criterion for lowest 137 Cs activity, and choosing conserved foodstuffs (like silage) prepared before the accident, it is possible to formulate rations significantly less radioactive. At the same time, all the nutrient needs even for high yielding cows are met successfully, so that their production is not reduced. This simple method could be very successful in domestic animal protection during possible accidents provided that the farm stores sufficient quantities of conserved feeds

  7. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petten, L.E. van; Calkins, J.E.; McConnell, R.F.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    A wholesomeness feeding study was carried out in mice fed equal amounts of cod or redfish, comprising 45% of the diet. Three groups of animals received either irradiated [1.75 kGy (175 krad)] fish, non-irradiated fish or stock ration. A 90-day subchronic study, a multigeneration reproduction, a dominant lethality and a teratology study were carried out together with an 80-week oncogenic study on the F 1 generation. No adverse effects were noted on growth, reproduction and litter behaviour, in relation to dominant lethality, teratogenicity or oncogenicity. (Auth.)

  8. Reducing crude protein content with supplementation of synthetic lysine and threonine in barley - rapeseed meal - pea diets for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmo Valaja

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the possibility to use synthetic amino acids to lower the nitrogen output from pig production. A performance experiment was carried out with 120triplet-fed growing pigs whose dietary crude protein was reduced from 179 g/feed unit (FU= 0.7 kg starch equivalent to 160, 140 and 122 g/FU, respectively. The diets were supplemented with synthetic lysine and threonine to keep the level of these amino acids constant. Dietary protein reduction did not affect the growth performance or feed conversion ratio of the pigs, but it did linearly increase the portion of fat to lean in the carcass. Significant linear effect was found in back fat (p

  9. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on object recognition memory in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Hinchman, Marie; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A.; Foster, Brian C.

    2009-04-01

    On long-duration missions to other planets astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit. Previous research using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays has shown that exposure to heavy particles, such as 56Fe, disrupts spatial learning and memory measured using the Morris water maze. Maintaining rats on diets containing antioxidant phytochemicals for 2 weeks prior to irradiation ameliorated this deficit. The present experiments were designed to determine: (1) the generality of the particle-induced disruption of memory by examining the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles on object recognition memory; and (2) whether maintaining rats on these antioxidant diets for 2 weeks prior to irradiation would also ameliorate any potential deficit. The results showed that exposure to low doses of 56Fe particles does disrupt recognition memory and that maintaining rats on antioxidant diets containing blueberry and strawberry extract for only 2 weeks was effective in ameliorating the disruptive effects of irradiation. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms by which exposure to these particles may produce effects on neurocognitive performance.

  10. Gamma irradiated micro system for long-term parenteral contraception: An alternative to synthetic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthli, S; Vavia, P

    2008-11-15

    An injectable system of levonorgestrel (LNG) was developed using biodegradable polymer of natural origin. The parenteral system was optimized for particle size and higher drug loading. The microparticulate system was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, encapsulation efficiency, moisture content, IR, DSC, XRD, residual solvent content, sterility testing, test of abnormal toxicity and test for pyrogens. The microparticles were sterilised by gamma irradiation (2.5Mrad). The system was injected intramuscularly in rabbits and the blood levels of LNG were determined using radioimmunoassay technique. An optimized drug to polymer ratio of 0.3-1.0 (w/w ratio) gave improved drug loading of about 52%. In vivo studies in rabbits showed that the drug was released in a sustained manner for a period of 1 month. The AUC(0-t) was found to be 9363.6+/-2340pg/mLday(-1) with MRT calculated to be about 16 days and Kel of 0.01day(-1). LNG levels were maintained between 200 and 400pg/mL. In vivo release exhibited an initial burst effect which was not observed in the in vitro dissolution. This promising "Progestin-only" long-term contraceptive with improved user compliance is an alternative to the synthetic expensive polymeric carriers.

  11. Status of vitamins E and A and β-carotene and health in organic dairy cows fed a diet without synthetic vitamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, B; Persson Waller, K; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    are mainly found in pasture and in grass and legume silages, but the concentrations are highly variable. This study compared the vitamin status and health of cows without synthetic vitamin supplementation (NSV group) with control cows (CON group) fed synthetic vitamins according to Swedish recommendations......Synthetic vitamin supplementation is not consistent with organic production, so it is important to investigate whether dairy cows can maintain their health and production without synthetic vitamins being added to their diet. In basic dairy cow diets, provitamin A (β-carotene) and vitamin E...... (600 IU of vitamin E and 80,000 IU of vitamin A per cow per day) to investigate whether dairy cows can fulfill their requirements of vitamins A and E without supplementation with synthetic vitamins. Vitamin concentrations in blood plasma and milk, health, fertility, milk yield, and milk composition...

  12. Shell Scotsford's experience with a 100 per cent synthetic crude diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margerum, M.

    1997-01-01

    A qualitative overview of Shell Canada's Scotford refinery was presented. The Scotford refinery is the only refinery in North America designed to run on 100 per cent synthetic crude. As a result, Scotford has a unique configuration and has faced some unique problems. Some of the challenges met in converting synthetic crude to today's products are described. The refinery's unique configuration is centered around a large hydrocracker and has high yield flexibility. The major units of the refinery are the crude unit, hydrocracker, naphtha hydrotreater and reformer, the aromatics complex, the distillate hydrogenator and the hydrogen plants. The refinery products include low sulphur gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel. Other products include LPG, FCC feed, benzene and solvents. Several process problems have been experienced at the Scotford refinery including hydrodenitrification of synthetic gasoline, PCA fouling, particulate fouling, crude unit fouling, and distillate lubricity. Solutions have been devised for most of these problems. 3 figs

  13. Effect of 60Co-irradiation on normal and low protein diet fed rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Habibullah, M.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation (Co-60) on the brain tissue in Holtzmann strain adult male rats was studied. Two doses of irradiation (450 R,950 R) were tried on animals which were fed on normal as well as low protein diets over a period of 10 generations. In the normal rats, 450 R initially caused a lowered total protein. DNA and RNA content in the brain. After 7 days a tendency towards normalcy was observed. In the 950 R irradiated normal rats the diminution of protein content appeared irreversible. In malnourished 450 R irradiated rats, the protein content rose less steeply over the 7 days of observation. A higher dose of 950 R enhanced this effect on protein and also lowered the DNA content on day 5. The RNA content in the 950 R group with malnutrition showed a marked increase towards or beyond control perhaps as an expression of uncoupled feedback control. The paper gives evidence that protein deficiency may interfere with cellular regeneration in irradiated brain. (orig.) [de

  14. Effect of /sup 60/Co-irradiation on normal and low protein diet fed rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, S S [Garhwal Univ., Srinagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Zoology; Habibullah, M [Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). Neurobiology Lab.

    1980-06-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation (Co-60) on the brain tissue in Holtzmann strain adult male rats was studied. Two doses of irradiation (450 R,950 R) were tried on animals which were fed on normal as well as low protein diets over a period of 10 generations. In the normal rats, 450 R initially caused a lowered total protein. DNA and RNA content in the brain. After 7 days a tendency towards normalcy was observed. In the 950 R irradiated normal rats the diminution of protein content appeared irreversible. In malnourished 450 R irradiated rats, the protein content rose less steeply over the 7 days of observation. A higher dose of 950 R enhanced this effect on protein and also lowered the DNA content on day 5. The RNA content in the 950 R group with malnutrition showed a marked increase towards or beyond control perhaps as an expression of uncoupled feedback control. The paper gives evidence that protein deficiency may interfere with cellular regeneration in irradiated brain.

  15. Vitamin K deficiency in SPF-rats fed a semisynthetic irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhr, N.C.; Dietzel, L.; Horn, J.

    1975-01-01

    A case of vitamin K deficiency in male SPF-rats fed an irradiated semisynthetic diet (24% Soyprotein, 0.25% DL-Methionin, 48% Cornstarch, 10% Sucrose, 5% Soyoil and 7% Cellulose and a vitamin- and mineralmixture) with a vitamin K content of 0.63 mg/kg diet is reported including clinical symptoms, pathological findings, coagulation parameters and investigations of intestinal flora. The deficiency could be reproduced experimentally in SPF- and germfree male rats and prevented by vitamin K supplementation (K 3 in the water or K 1 parenterally). Monoassoziation with an E. coli strain as well as conventionalization of SPF-rats were effective to prevent deficiency symptoms. The significance of a stable intestinal flora for intestinal vitamin K synthesis is emphasized. Nutrients and their influence on the intestinal flora are discussed with special reference to the mechanism of coprophagy, which makes intestinal vitamin K synthesis available to the rat

  16. Vitamin K deficiency in SPF-rats fed a semisynthetic irradiated diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhr, N C; Dietzel, L; Horn, J [Freie Universitaet, Berlin(West). Fachbereich Veterinaermedizin

    1975-01-01

    A case of vitamin K deficiency in male SPF-rats fed an irradiated semisynthetic diet (24% Soyprotein, 0.25% DL-Methionin, 48% Cornstarch, 10% Sucrose, 5% Soyoil and 7% Cellulose and a vitamin- and mineral mixture) with a vitamin K content of 0.63 mg/kg diet is reported including clinical symptoms, pathological findings, coagulation parameters and investigations of intestinal flora. The deficiency could be reproduced experimentally in SPF- and germfree male rats and prevented by vitamin K supplementation (K/sub 3/ in the water or K/sub 1/ parenterally). Monoassoziation with an E. coli strain as well as conventionalization of SPF-rats were effective to prevent deficiency symptoms. The significance of a stable intestinal flora for intestinal vitamin K synthesis is emphasized. Nutrients and their influence on the intestinal flora are discussed with special reference to the mechanism of coprophagy, which makes intestinal vitamin K synthesis available to the rat.

  17. The use of synthetic and natural vitamin D sources in pig diets to improve meat quality and vitamin D content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Sarah K; Kelly, Alan K; Rajauria, Gaurav; Jakobsen, Jette; Clarke, Louise C; Monahan, Frank J; Dowling, Kirsten G; Hull, George; Galvin, Karen; Cashman, Kevin D; Hayes, Aoife; O'Doherty, John V

    2018-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of synthetic and natural sources of vitamin D biofortification in pig diets on pork vitamin D activity and pork quality. One hundred and twenty pigs (60 male, 60 female) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 55 d feeding period. The dietary treatments were (1)50 μg vitamin D₃/kg of feed; (2)50 μg of 25-hydroxvitamin D₃/kg of feed (25-OH-D₃); (3)50 μg vitamin D₂/kg of feed; (4)50 μg vitamin D₂-enriched mushrooms/kg of feed (Mushroom D₂). The pigs offered the 25-OH-D₃ diet exhibited the highest (P D concentration and subsequently exhibited the highest (P D activity. Mushroom D 2 and 25-OH-D 3 supplementation increased pork antioxidant status. The vitamin D₂-enriched mushrooms improved (P D₃ is the most successful source for increasing pork vitamin D activity, while Mushroom D 2 may be a new avenue to improve animal performance and pork quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanostructured synthetic hydroxyapatite and dental enamel heated and irradiated by ER,CR:YSGG: characterized by FTIR and XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo Neto, Jose da Silva

    2009-01-01

    The study evaluate the physical changes and/or chemical that occurs in synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and in enamel under action of thermal heating in oven or laser irradiation of Er,Cr:YSGG that may cause changes in its structure to make them more resistant to demineralization aiming the formation of dental caries. The synthetic HAP was produced by reaction of solutions of Ca(NO 3 ) and (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 with controlled temperature and pH. The enamel powder was collected from the bovine teeth. Samples of powder enamel and synthetic HAP were subjected to thermal heating in oven at temperatures of 200 deg C, 400 deg C, 600 deg C, 800 deg C and 1000 deg C. For the laser irradiation of materials, were made with 5,79 J/cm 2 of irradiation, 7,65 J/cm 2 , 10,55 J/cm 2 and 13,84 J/cm 2 for synthetic HAP and 7,53 J/cm 2 , 10,95 J/cm 2 , and 13,74 J/cm 2 for the enamel. The samples were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for analysis of crystallographic phases and analysis by the Rietveld method, to determine their respective proportions in the material, as well as results of changes of the lattice unit cell parameters (axis-a, axis-c and volume), crystallites sizes and the occupation rate of sites of Ca and P atoms. The samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which should compositional changes due to treatment related to carbonate, phosphate, adsorbed water and hydroxyl radicals content. The infrared was used to measure the surface temperature generated by the laser beam in the solid samples of enamel. Besides the major hydroxyapatite crystallographic phases, there was formations of octa calcium phosphate (OCP) and phase β of tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP ) in enamel heated at 800 deg C. There was reduction of the axis-a, volume and size of crystallites to the temperatures between 400 degree C and 600 deg C and also on laser irradiated samples. Above the temperature of 600 degree C it is observed the effect in the lattice parameters. The Ca

  19. Treatment of mice with sepsis following irradiation and trauma with antibiotics and synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madonna, G.S.; Ledney, G.D.; Moore, M.M.; Elliott, T.B.; Brook, I.

    1991-01-01

    Compromise of antimicrobial defenses by irradiation can result in sepsis and death. Additional trauma can further predispose patients to infection and thus increase mortality. We recently showed that injection of synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) significantly augments resistance to infection and increases survival of mice compromised either by whole-body irradiation with gamma radiation or equal mixtures of fission neutron and gamma radiation. In this study, C3H/HeN mice were given a lethal dose of gamma radiation (8.0 Gy) and an open wound (15% total body surface area [TBSA]) 1 hr later while anesthetized. Irradiated/wounded mice became more severely leukopenic and thrombocytopenic than mice exposed to radiation alone, and died from natural wound infection and sepsis within 7 days. S-TDCM given 1 hr postirradiation increased survival of mice exposed to radiation alone. However, this treatment did not increase survival of the irradiated/wounded mice. Systemic antibiotic therapy with gentamicin or ofloxacin for 10 days significantly increased survival time compared with untreated irradiated/wounded mice (p less than 0.01). Combination therapy with topical gentamicin cream and systemic oxacillin increased survival from 0% to 100%. Treatment with S-TDCM combined with the suboptimal treatment of topical and systemic gentamicin increased survival compared with antibiotic treatment alone. These studies demonstrate that post-trauma therapy with S-TDCM and antibiotics augments resistance to infection in immunocompromised mice. The data suggest that therapies which combine stimulation of nonspecific host defense mechanisms with antibiotics may increase survival of irradiated patients inflicted with accidental or surgical trauma

  20. Treatment of mice with sepsis following irradiation and trauma with antibiotics and synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madonna, G.S.; Ledney, G.D.; Moore, M.M.; Elliott, T.B.; Brook, I. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Compromise of antimicrobial defenses by irradiation can result in sepsis and death. Additional trauma can further predispose patients to infection and thus increase mortality. We recently showed that injection of synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) significantly augments resistance to infection and increases survival of mice compromised either by whole-body irradiation with gamma radiation or equal mixtures of fission neutron and gamma radiation. In this study, C3H/HeN mice were given a lethal dose of gamma radiation (8.0 Gy) and an open wound (15% total body surface area (TBSA)) 1 hr later while anesthetized. Irradiated/wounded mice became more severely leukopenic and thrombocytopenic than mice exposed to radiation alone, and died from natural wound infection and sepsis within 7 days. S-TDCM given 1 hr postirradiation increased survival of mice exposed to radiation alone. However, this treatment did not increase survival of the irradiated/wounded mice. Systemic antibiotic therapy with gentamicin or ofloxacin for 10 days significantly increased survival time compared with untreated irradiated/wounded mice (p less than 0.01). Combination therapy with topical gentamicin cream and systemic oxacillin increased survival from 0% to 100%. Treatment with S-TDCM combined with the suboptimal treatment of topical and systemic gentamicin increased survival compared with antibiotic treatment alone. These studies demonstrate that post-trauma therapy with S-TDCM and antibiotics augments resistance to infection in immunocompromised mice. The data suggest that therapies which combine stimulation of nonspecific host defense mechanisms with antibiotics may increase survival of irradiated patients inflicted with accidental or surgical trauma.

  1. Histological and histochemical studies on liver of rat subjected to synergistic effect of natural and synthetic food colorants and/or gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, O.; Hafez, M. N.; Abd El Maguid, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present work has been carried out to detect some histological and histochemical changes in the liver of albino rats after oral administration of a mixture of the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and/ or gamma-irradiation (5 Gy). The possible ameliorative effect of the natural food colorant beta-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) orally administered with the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and irradiation was evaluated. Rats were divided into five groups: 1- Control group. 2- Group received a food colorant mixture of tartrazine and brilliant blue (100 mg/ kg body wt). 3- Group received gamma-irradiation at 5 Gy. 4-Animals received the food colorant mixture for 2 weeks and were irradiated. 5- Animals received beta-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) with the food colorant mixture for 2 weeks and were then irradiated (5 Gy). Administration of tartrazine and brilliant blue caused histopathological and histochemical changes in the liver of rat manifested by haemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, dilatation of blood sinusoids, scattered necrotic areas and a decrease in the mucopolysaccharides content. The radiation caused infiltration of inflammatory cells in the portal area, necrosis with pyknosis and karyolysis of nuclei and a decrease in the mucopolysaccharide content of hepatic cells 1 and 3 days post-irradiation. The present work also showed that the natural food colorant beta-carotene reduced the toxicity of the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and gamma-irradiation when the natural pigment was given together with the synthetic dyes used as food additives. In conclusion, synthetic food colours and/ or radiation induced histopathological and histochemical disturbances in rats. On the other hand, administration of the natural food colorant beta-carotene had a significant protective role against the damaging effects induced by these synthetic colours mixture

  2. [Hematologic indices in different age wistar rats, receiving a balanced semi-synthetic vivary diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafina, O K; Trushina, É N; Shumakova, E A; Arianova, E A; Tyshko, N V; Pashorina, V A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research of hematologic parameters of male Wistar rats 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months age, which received a balanced semisynthetic diet. Studies were carried out at the Hematology analyzer Coulter AC TTM 5 diff OV (Beckman Coulter, USA) with the program, specially developed for the study of rats' blood. According to the results of research, was found a statistically significant increased of the number of red blood cells; the concentration of hemoglobin and hematocrit in animals 2-6 months compared with rats, 1 month age. With age, there is a decrease of the mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The number of white blood cells in rats of 2-4 months age are significantly higher than in rats of 1 and 6 months age. The number of neutrophils and eosinophils in rats of to the 2 month are of is lover than once in rats of 1 month age, and increases values in animals of 6 months age. The number of lymphocytes has the highest value in the rat of 2-3 months age and the minimum value is that in animals of 6 months age. With increasing of the age of the animals the reduction of contents of monocytes was noted. The content of platelets and the platelet crit in the blood of rats 6 months age is statistically greater than those in 1-month age animals. The average volume of platelet is the stable index, with age does not change.

  3. Influence of the irradiated diet on the longevity and reproduction of Cyric cephalonic a (Stain ton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: parlayed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Graziela dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    The present work aims to irradiate diets with multiple doses, as recommended by the Decree DINAL n.o 09 of 08/03/1985 to disinfestation of insects, which means, the dose of 1,0 kGy and observes the longevity and reproduction of C. cephalonica (Staint., 1865) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae)

  4. A synthetic superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-207 mitigates radiation dermatitis and promotes wound healing in irradiated rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctrow, Susan R; Lopez, Argelia; Schock, Ashley M; Duncan, Nathan E; Jourdan, Megan M; Olasz, Edit B; Moulder, John E; Fish, Brian L; Mäder, Marylou; Lazar, Jozef; Lazarova, Zelmira

    2013-04-01

    In the event of a radionuclear attack or nuclear accident, the skin would be the first barrier exposed to radiation, though skin injury can progress over days to years following exposure. Chronic oxidative stress has been implicated as being a potential contributor to the progression of delayed radiation-induced injury to skin and other organs. To examine the causative role of oxidative stress in delayed radiation-induced skin injury, including impaired wound healing, we tested a synthetic superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase mimetic, EUK-207, in a rat model of combined skin irradiation and wound injury. Administered systemically, beginning 48 hours after irradiation, EUK-207 mitigated radiation dermatitis, suppressed indicators of tissue oxidative stress, and enhanced wound healing. Evaluation of gene expression in irradiated skin at 30 days after exposure revealed a significant upregulation of several key genes involved in detoxication of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This gene expression pattern was primarily reversed by EUK-207 therapy. These results demonstrate that oxidative stress has a critical role in the progression of radiation-induced skin injury, and that the injury can be mitigated by appropriate antioxidant compounds administered 48 hours after exposure.

  5. Effects of x irradiation on estrogen-induced synthetic processes of the avian liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holshouser, S.J.; Schjeide, O.A.; Briles, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of x irradiation on protein and lipid synthesis were studied, using estrogen-induced yolk protein syntheses by the avian liver as a test model. Female chickens, receiving a single sublethal whole-body exposure of 600 R of x irradiation at 5 wk of age, laid fewer and smaller eggs upon reaching maturity as compared to nonirradiated controls. However, chemical contents and ultracentrifuge patterns of yolk proteins were not found to be qualitatively different. Accordingly, the synthesis of no one major yolk protein appeared to be selectively inhibited by exposure of the bird to irradiation. Injection of Estrogenic Substances into hens over a period of 3 days resulted in a much greater enlargement of livers in control estrogenized birds than in irradiated estrogenized birds. Differences were also ascertained to exist between control and irradiated birds in terms of total liver RNA. This would seem to indicate a greater potential for synthesis of serum yolk protein precursors in nonirradiated estrogenized hens. (U.S.)

  6. Investigation of wholesomeness of feeding low-irradiated diet to mice. Part of a coordinated programme on the wholesomeness of the process of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baev, I.A.

    1980-06-01

    Studies are carried out on the wholesomeness of irradiated food with special reference to gamma irradiation (0.75 kGy) maize, (1 kGy) walnuts and (2 kGy) prune-plums. These include physico-chemical changes in the food constituents as well as toxicity and mutagenic effects on animals after long-term feeding test. The results indicate an increase of the carbonyl compounds after irradiation in all studied foodstuffs, but there is not significant difference in the number of the new-formed carbonyl compounds when compared with controls. Biomedical investigation are carried out to define any toxicity, consideration being given to both direct effects in adult or growing organisms and to effect in their progeny. Effects of gamma irradiated diet, including maize, walnuts and prune-plums, exposed to the above mentioned doses fed to three consecutive generations of mice have been studied. A 35% addition of irradiated feed to standard diet is shown to produce no deleterious effects as judged by mean litter size, body weight at weaning, adult body weight and organ weight, haematological measures and some enzyme activities

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional components and Cry1Ab protein in the transgenic rice with a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dianxing; Ye Qingfu; Wang Zhonghua; Xia Yingwu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the transgenic rice containing a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis were investigated. There was almost no difference in the content of the major nutritional components, i.e. crude protein, crude lipid, eight essential amino acids and total ash between the irradiated grains and the non-irradiated transgenic rice. However, the amounts of Cry1Ab protein and apparent amylose in the irradiated transgenic rice were reduced significantly by the doses higher than 200 Gy. In vivo observation showed that Cry1Ab protein contents also decreased in the fresh leaf tissues of survival seedlings after irradiation with 200 Gy or higher doses and showed inhibition of seedling growth. The results indicate that gamma irradiation might improve the quality of transgenic rice due to removal of the toxic Cry1Ab protein

  8. Biodegradability of PP/HMSPP and natural and synthetic polymers blends in function of gamma irradiation degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Elisabeth C. L.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Lima, Luis F. C. P.; Bueno, Nelson R.; Brant, Antonio J. C.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2014-01-01

    Polymers are used for numerous applications in different industrial segments, generating enormous quantities of discarding in the environment. Polymeric materials composites account for an estimated from 20 to 30% total volume of solid waste. Polypropylene (PP) undergoes crosslinking and extensive main chain scissions when submitted to ionizing irradiation; as one of the most widely used linear hydrocarbon polymers, PP, made from cheap petrochemical feed stocks, shows easy processing leading it to a comprehensive list of finished products. Consequently, there is accumulation in the environment, at 25 million tons per year rate, since polymeric products are not easily consumed by microorganisms. PP polymers are very bio-resistant due to involvement of only carbon atoms in main chain with no hydrolysable functional group. Several possibilities have been considered to minimize the environmental impact caused by non-degradable plastics, subjecting them to: physical, chemical and biological degradation or combination of all these due to the presence of moisture, air, temperature, light, high energy radiation or microorganisms. There are three main classes of biodegradable polymers: synthetic polymers, natural polymers and blends of polymers in which one or more components are readily consumed by microorganisms. This work aims to biodegradability investigation of a PP/HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) blended with sugarcane bagasse, PHB (poly-hydroxy-butyrate) and PLA (poly-lactic acid), both synthetic polymers, at a 10% level, subjected to gamma radiation at 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy doses. Characterization will comprise IR, DSC, TGA, OIT and Laboratory Soil Burial Test (LSBT).

  9. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases through February 2011. Twenty-four publications met inclusion criteria for synthetic food colors; 10 additional studies informed analysis of dietary restriction. A random-effects meta-analytic model generated summary effect sizes. Results Restriction diets reduced ADHD symptoms at an effect of g = 0.29 (95% CI, 0.07–0.53). For food colors, parent reports yielded an effect size of g = 0.18 (95% CI, 0.08–0.24; p = .0007), which decreased to 0.12 (95% CI, 0.01–0.23; p attention, the summary effect size was 0.27 (95% CI = 0.07–0.47; p = .007) and survived correction. An estimated 8% of children with ADHD may have symptoms related to synthetic food colors. Conclusions A restriction diet benefits some children with ADHD. Effects of food colors were notable were but susceptible to publication bias or were derived from small, nongeneralizable samples. Renewed investigation of diet and ADHD is warranted. PMID:22176942

  10. Biodegradability of PP/HMSPP and natural and synthetic polymers blends in function of gamma irradiation degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Lima, Luis F.C.P.; Bueno, Nelson R.; Brant, Antonio J.C.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2014-01-01

    Polymers are used for numerous applications in different industrial segments, generating enormous quantities of discarding in the environment. Polymeric materials composites account for an estimated from 20 to 30% total volume of solid waste. Polypropylene (PP) undergoes crosslinking and extensive main chain scissions when submitted to ionizing irradiation; as one of the most widely used linear hydrocarbon polymers, PP, made from cheap petrochemical feed stocks, shows easy processing leading it to a comprehensive list of finished products. Consequently, there is accumulation in the environment, at 25 million tons per year rate, since polymeric products are not easily consumed by microorganisms. PP polymers are very bio-resistant due to involvement of only carbon atoms in main chain with no hydrolysable functional group. Several possibilities have been considered to minimize the environmental impact caused by non-degradable plastics, subjecting them to: physical, chemical and biological degradation or combination of all these due to the presence of moisture, air, temperature, light, high energy radiation or microorganisms. There are three main classes of biodegradable polymers: synthetic polymers, natural polymers and blends of polymers in which one or more components are readily consumed by microorganisms. This work aims to biodegradability investigation of a PP/HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) blended with sugarcane bagasse, PHB (poly-hydroxy-butyrate) and PLA (poly-lactic acid), both synthetic polymers, at a 10% level, subjected to gamma radiation at 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy doses. Characterization will comprise IR, DSC, TGA, OIT and Laboratory Soil Burial Test (LSBT). - Highlights: • Polymeric materials composites account for an estimated from 20 to 30% total volume of solid waste. • Landfills will not be enough for an estimated accumulation of 25 million tons per year of plastics. • Incorporation of natural/synthetic polymers in PP/HMSPP to reduce

  11. The Effects of Irradiation and Calcium-deficient Diet on the Expression of Interleukin-1 during Tooth Formation of Rat Molar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Il Joong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2000-01-01

    To elucidate the effects of the irradiation and calcium-deficient diet on expression of interleukin (IL)-1 during tooth formation of rat molar. The pregnant three-week-old Spague-Dawley rats were used for the study. The control group was non-irradiation/normal diet group, and the experimental groups were irradiation/normal diet group and irradiation/calcium-diet group. The abdomen of the rats on the 9th day of pregnancy were irradiated with single dose of 350 cGy. The rat pups were sacrificed on the 14th day after delivery and the maxillae tooth germs were taken. The specimen were prepared to make sections for light microscopy, and some of tissue sections were stained immunohistochemically with anti-IL-1 antibody. In the irradiation/normal diet group, dental follicle showed fewer blood vessels, mononuclear cells, and fusions of mononuclear cells than in non-irradiation/normal diet group. Alveolar bone showed a few osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Periodontal ligament showed collagen fibers and fibroblasts with irregularity. Weak immunoreactivity for IL-1 was shown in dental follicle, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament. In the irradiation/calcium-deficient diet group, dental follicle showed sparse cellularity. Alveolar bone showed diminished number of osteoblasts. Periodontal ligament showed irregular collagen fibers and atrophy of cementoblasts and fibroblasts. No immunoreactivity for IL-1 was shown in dental follicle, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament. Irradiation and calcium-deficient diet seems to cause disturbance of the expression of interleukin-1 during tooth formation of rat molar.

  12. The Effects of Irradiation and Calcium-deficient Diet on the Expression of Interleukin-1 during Tooth Formation of Rat Molar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Joong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    To elucidate the effects of the irradiation and calcium-deficient diet on expression of interleukin (IL)-1 during tooth formation of rat molar. The pregnant three-week-old Spague-Dawley rats were used for the study. The control group was non-irradiation/normal diet group, and the experimental groups were irradiation/normal diet group and irradiation/calcium-diet group. The abdomen of the rats on the 9th day of pregnancy were irradiated with single dose of 350 cGy. The rat pups were sacrificed on the 14th day after delivery and the maxillae tooth germs were taken. The specimen were prepared to make sections for light microscopy, and some of tissue sections were stained immunohistochemically with anti-IL-1 antibody. In the irradiation/normal diet group, dental follicle showed fewer blood vessels, mononuclear cells, and fusions of mononuclear cells than in non-irradiation/normal diet group. Alveolar bone showed a few osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Periodontal ligament showed collagen fibers and fibroblasts with irregularity. Weak immunoreactivity for IL-1 was shown in dental follicle, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament. In the irradiation/calcium-deficient diet group, dental follicle showed sparse cellularity. Alveolar bone showed diminished number of osteoblasts. Periodontal ligament showed irregular collagen fibers and atrophy of cementoblasts and fibroblasts. No immunoreactivity for IL-1 was shown in dental follicle, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament. Irradiation and calcium-deficient diet seems to cause disturbance of the expression of interleukin-1 during tooth formation of rat molar.

  13. Effects of electron-beam irradiation to the hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate mixtures for the development of new synthetic bone substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soung Min; Eo, Mi Young; Kang, Ji Young; Park, Jung Min; Seo, Mi Hyun; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong Ho [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Hwan; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect and potential of electron beam irradiation treatment to new bone formation and healing in rat calvarial bone defects using hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate mixtures. We used 1.0-2.0 MeV linear accelerator and 2.0 MeV superconductive linear accelerator with different irradiation dose such as 1, 30, 60 kGy. Structural changes in this synthetic bone material were analyzed in vitro, such as SEM, elementary and FE-SEM, ATR-IR, and CSR. And after sterilization with ethylene oxide, we use it as a bone graft material, in vivo. Bilateral, standardized truenesses circular calvarial defects, 7.0 mm in diameter, were created in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In each experimental group, the defect was filled with electron beam irradiated synthetic bony mixtures. Rate were sacrificed 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-op. for radiographic, histomorphologic, immunohistochemical staining, TEM, and elementary analysis.

  14. Failure of lactose-restricted diets to prevent radiation-induced diarrhea in patients undergoing whole pelvis irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryker, J.A.; Bartholomew, M.

    1986-01-01

    Sixty-four patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy into one of three dietary groups: the control group maintained a regular diet except that they drank at least 480 cc of milk daily; the lactose-restricted group was placed on a lactose-restricted diet; and the lactase group drank at least 480 cc of milk with lactase enzyme added to hydrolyze 90% of the lactose. The patients kept records of their stool frequency and the number of diphenoxylate tablets required to control their diarrhea during a 5 week course of standard whole pelvis irradiation. The data does not support the concept that one of the mechanisms of radiation-induced diarrhea associated with pelvic irradiation is a reduction the ability of the intestine to hydrolyze ingested lactose due to the effect of the radiation on the small intestine. There was not a significant difference in stool frequency or diphenoxylate usage among the dietary groups

  15. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  16. Some Chemical Elements in Gamma Irradiated Adults of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) Fed on Different Diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elakhdar, E.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    The elemental composition of four yeast diets differ in protein composition and mixed with sugar as a carbohydrate source were compared with a standard yeast diet used for the mass rearing of med fly C. capitata. The cost availability and the effects on the quality of reared flies were the main measures for these comparisons. Moreover, the elemental composition of reared flies on the tested diets either irradiated to gamma radiation or normal beside full grown pupae (F1) were detected and compared with those reared on standard diet . Data obtained revealed that ten elements (K, N, Na, P, Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn and Cu) were detected and classified according to their quantities .However those quantities varied according to the type of used yeast ,insect stage , insect sex and irradiated dose. The major group (K, N, Na and P), moderate group (Ca, Fe and Mg) and minor group (Zn, Mn and Cu) remained unchanged although their quantities were changed inside each group. In addition, a significant increase in K, N, Na, P and Ca when diet No.4 (D4) was used to feed flies. These findings may enhance the opportunity of sterile insect technique (SIT). However Fe and Zn ions were decreased with changing the standard yeast and this is may contradict SIT. Also when normal females fed on all tested yeasts, the concentrations of the ten elements increased as compared to those fed on standard diet. These results may increase the efficiency of sterilized reared insects to compete with the native insects in the field

  17. Multiomics in Grape Berry Skin Revealed Specific Induction of the Stilbene Synthetic Pathway by Ultraviolet-C Irradiation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mami; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Nozomu; Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Goto, Susumu; Suzuki, Makoto; Jasinski, Michal; Martinoia, Enrico; Otagaki, Shungo; Matsumoto, Shogo; Saito, Kazuki; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera) accumulates various polyphenolic compounds, which protect against environmental stresses, including ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light and pathogens. In this study, we looked at the transcriptome and metabolome in grape berry skin after UV-C irradiation, which demonstrated the effectiveness of omics approaches to clarify important traits of grape. We performed transcriptome analysis using a genome-wide microarray, which revealed 238 genes up-regulated more than 5-fold by UV-C light. Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology terms showed that genes encoding stilbene synthase, a key enzyme for resveratrol synthesis, were enriched in the up-regulated genes. We performed metabolome analysis using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and 2,012 metabolite peaks, including unidentified peaks, were detected. Principal component analysis using the peaks showed that only one metabolite peak, identified as resveratrol, was highly induced by UV-C light. We updated the metabolic pathway map of grape in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database and in the KaPPA-View 4 KEGG system, then projected the transcriptome and metabolome data on a metabolic pathway map. The map showed specific induction of the resveratrol synthetic pathway by UV-C light. Our results showed that multiomics is a powerful tool to elucidate the accumulation mechanisms of secondary metabolites, and updated systems, such as KEGG and KaPPA-View 4 KEGG for grape, can support such studies. PMID:25761715

  18. Wholesomeness studies with a full diet of irradiated dates, using the insect ephestia Cautella: 1. Disinfestation doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hakkak, Z.S.; Ali, S.R.; Ahmed, M.S.H.; Al-Maliky, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    The study deals with the effect of feeding irradiated dates as a whole diet on some biological parameters of the fig moth ephestia cautella. Statistical analyses of the results indicated that the differences in the undermentioned parameters were insignificant when measured and compared with insects reared wholly either on irradiated or on unirradiated dry dates fruits. 1. Average numbers of larvae and pupae produced out of 400 seeded eggs after 30 days of incubation. 2. Average percentage of adult survival and their sex-ratio. 3. Mating frequency (average number of spermatophores per female) of the survived adults. 4. Average number of eggs laid per female. 5. Average percentage of eggs hatchability. 6. Mating frequency, average number of eggs per female and average percentage of egg hatchability of F1 progeny adults produced from insect parents reared on 100% diet of irradiated as well as on unirradiated dates. Therefore it could be concluded that disinfestation of date fruits by such a range of doses (50-100 krad) of gamma radiation might not have any adverse effect on the fig moth

  19. T-cell abnormalities after mediastinal irradiation for lung cancer. The in vitro influence of synthetic thymosin alpha-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulof, R.S.; Chorba, T.L.; Cleary, P.A.; Palaszynski, S.R.; Alabaster, O.; Goldstein, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of mediastinal irradiation (RT) on the numbers and functions of purified peripheral blood T-lymphocytes from patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were evaluated. The patients were candidates for a randomized trial to evaluate the immunorestorative properties of synthetic thymosin alpha-1. Twenty-one patients studied before RT did not exhibit any significant difference in T-cell numbers or function compared to age-matched healthy subjects. However, 41 patients studied within 1 week after completing RT exhibited significant depressions of E-rosette-forming cells at 4 degrees C (E4 degrees-RFC)/mm3, E-rosette-forming cells at 29 degrees C (E29 degrees-RFC)/mm3, OKT3/mm3, OKT4/mm3, and OKT8/mm3 (P . 0.0001); total T-cell percentages (%OKT3, P . 0.01); and T-cell proliferative responses in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLR) (P . 0.01) and to the mitogen phytohemagglutinin under suboptimal conditions (P less than or equal to 0.03). Nine patients studied before and after RT showed a significant increase in OKT4/OKT8 (P . 0.01) following RT. A short-term in vitro incubation with thymosin alpha-1 could enhance MLR of T-cells in 12 of 27 patients with post-RT abnormalities. In 13 patients who were treated with placebo, the RT-induced depression of T-cell numbers and function persisted for at least 3 to 4 months. In addition, in 12 patients progressive decreases developed in %E4 degrees-RFC, %OKT3, %OKT4, and OKT4/OKT8, which always preceded clinical relapse

  20. Controlling of bacterial flora contaminating animal diet and its components by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Helal, G.A.; El-Hady, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    The total bacterial counts in complete diets were found to range between 10 3 -10 5 cells/g, which they ranged between 10 2 and 10 6 in the main components. One hundred and sixteen bacterial colonies were isolated from the animal diet samples and found to be gram positive belonging to three genera: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus. The most radioresistant bacteria isolated at 7.5 KGy were identified as B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B.circulans and B.laterosporus. The D 1 0 values for the bacteria contaminated the diet samples ranged between 928 Gy and 2199 Gy. Meanwhile, the D 1 0 values of staph.aureus and Strapt.faecalis artificially contaminated the diet were 400 Gy and 1136 Gy, respectively. It could be recommended from obtained results that dose level of 10 KGy is quite sufficient to eliminate all pathogens from animal diets or their components. In addition, it decreases the microbial count to minimum counts and hence increases the diet shelf life.1 fig.,4 tab

  1. Effects of diet, packaging, and irradiation on protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, and color of raw broiler thigh meat during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S; Zhang, W G; Lee, E J; Ma, C W; Ahn, D U

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary treatment, packaging, and irradiation singly or in combination on the oxidative stability of broiler chicken thigh meat. A total of 120 four-week-old chickens were divided into 12 pens (10 birds/pen), and 4 pens of broilers were randomly assigned to a control oxidized diet (5% oxidized oil) or an antioxidant-added diet [500 IU of vitamin E + 200 mg/kg of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)] and fed for 2 wk. After slaughter, thigh meats were separated, ground, packaged in either oxygen-permeable or oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, and irradiated at 0 or 3 kGy. Lipid oxidation (TBA-reactive substances), protein oxidation (carbonyl), and color of the meat were measured at 1, 4, and 7 d of refrigerated storage. The lipid and protein oxidation of thigh meats from birds fed the diet supplemented with antioxidants (vitamin E + BHA) was significantly lower than the lipid and protein oxidation of birds fed the control diet, whereas the lipid and protein oxidation of broilers fed the oxidized oil diet was higher than that of birds fed the control diet. Vacuum packaging slowed, but irradiation accelerated, the lipid and protein oxidation of thigh meat during storage. Dietary antioxidants (vitamin E + BHA) and irradiation treatments showed a stronger effect on lipid oxidation than on protein oxidation. A significant correlation between lipid and protein oxidation in meat was found during storage. Dietary supplementation of vitamin E + BHA and the irradiation treatment increased the lightness and redness of thigh meat, respectively. It is suggested that appropriate use of dietary antioxidants in combination with packaging could be effective in minimizing oxidative changes in irradiated raw chicken thigh meat.

  2. Role of Vitamin E and/or High Protein Diet in Modulating Antioxidant Status and Certain Biochemical Changes in Gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the modulator effect of vitamin E and/ or high protein diet on the gamma irradiation induced changes in antioxidant Status and certain biochemical parameters. Male albino rats were exposed to 6 Gy (single dose: 0.48 Gy/min) of whole body gamma radiation. Vitamin E (50 mg/kg body weight) was daily administrated to rats via stomach tube for 3 weeks before exposure to gamma radiation continued for 3 weeks post irradiation. Other animals fed daily on high protein diet for 3 weeks before irradiation continued for 3 weeks post irradiation. A combined administration of vitamin E and Feeding on high protein diet was daily applied to another rats group for 3 weeks before irradiation continued for 3 weeks post irradiation. The results obtained revealed that the administration of vitamin E and/or feeding on high protein diet were significantly reduced the changes. induced by gamma irradiation in blood antioxidant enzymes activities (Superoxide dismutase: SOD and Catalase; CAT). concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH). Significant amelioration in the plasma level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of malondialdhyde (MDA) were observed. In addition, significant improvements were observed in liver function parameters (activities of serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and concentration of total protein and globulin. As well as, the changes in kidney function (serum creatinine and urea levels) were significantly improved. The improvements also extended to include the serum level of uric acid. Accordingly, it could be concluded that. via the adjustment of the antioxidant status, decreasing the releasing of lipid peroxides and the subsequent amending of different biochemical pathways. vitamin E and high protein diet could modulate the radiation injuries in

  3. High-fat diet exacerbates inflammation and cell survival signals in the skin of ultraviolet B-irradiated C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeran, Syed M.; Singh, Tripti; Nagy, Tim R.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation induced by chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases. We formulated the hypothesis that a high-fat diet may influence the UV-induced inflammatory responses in the skin. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet or control diet and exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm 2 ) three times/week for 10 weeks. The mice were then sacrificed and skin and plasma samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. We found that the levels of inflammatory biomarkers were increased in the UVB-exposed skin of the mice fed the high-fat diet than the UVB-exposed skin of the mice fed the control diet. The levels of inflammatory biomarkers of early responses to UVB exposure (e.g., myeloperoxidase, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin-E 2 ), proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser 473 ) were higher in high-fat-diet-fed mouse skin than control-diet-fed mouse skin. The plasma levels of insulin growth factor-1 were greater in the UVB-irradiated mice fed the high-fat diet than the UVB-irradiated mice fed the control diet, whereas the levels of plasma adiponectin were significantly lower. This pronounced exacerbation of the UVB-induced inflammatory responses in the skin of mice fed a high-fat diet suggests that high-fat diet may increase susceptibility to inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  4. The Effects of Irradiation and Calcium-deficient Diet on the Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2/4 during Early Tooth Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dai Hee; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 during early tooth development after irradiation and calcium-deficient diet. The pregnant three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. The control group was non-irradiation/normal diet group (Group 1), and the experimental groups were irradiation/normal diet group (Group 2) and irradiation/calcium-diet group (Group 3). The abdomen of the rats at the 9th day of pregnancy were irradiated with single dose of 350 cGy. The rat pups were sacrificed at embryonic 18 days, 3 days and 14 days after delivery and the maxillae tooth germs were taken. The tissue sections of specimen were stained immunohistochemically with anti-BMP-2/4 antibody. At embryo-18 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was modetate in stratum intermedium of dental organ and weak in dental papilla and dental follicle, but that of Group 2 was weak in cell layer of dental organ, and no immunoreacivity was shown in dental papilla and dental follice of Group 2 and in all tissue components of the Group 3. At postnatal-3 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was strong in cell layer of dental organ, odontoblasts and developing alveolar bone, but that of Group of 2 and Group 3 was weak in odontoblasts and developing alveolar bone. At postnatal-14 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was strong in newly formed cementum, alveolar bone and odontoblasts, but that of Group 2 was weaker than that of Group 1. In the Group 3, tooth forming cell layer showed weak immunoreactivity, but other cell layers showed no immunoreactivity. The expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 during early tooth development was disturbed after irradiation and calcium-deficient diet.

  5. The Effects of Irradiation and Calcium-deficient Diet on the Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2/4 during Early Tooth Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dai Hee; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    To investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 during early tooth development after irradiation and calcium-deficient diet. The pregnant three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. The control group was non-irradiation/normal diet group (Group 1), and the experimental groups were irradiation/normal diet group (Group 2) and irradiation/calcium-diet group (Group 3). The abdomen of the rats at the 9th day of pregnancy were irradiated with single dose of 350 cGy. The rat pups were sacrificed at embryonic 18 days, 3 days and 14 days after delivery and the maxillae tooth germs were taken. The tissue sections of specimen were stained immunohistochemically with anti-BMP-2/4 antibody. At embryo-18 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was modetate in stratum intermedium of dental organ and weak in dental papilla and dental follicle, but that of Group 2 was weak in cell layer of dental organ, and no immunoreacivity was shown in dental papilla and dental follice of Group 2 and in all tissue components of the Group 3. At postnatal-3 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was strong in cell layer of dental organ, odontoblasts and developing alveolar bone, but that of Group of 2 and Group 3 was weak in odontoblasts and developing alveolar bone. At postnatal-14 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was strong in newly formed cementum, alveolar bone and odontoblasts, but that of Group 2 was weaker than that of Group 1. In the Group 3, tooth forming cell layer showed weak immunoreactivity, but other cell layers showed no immunoreactivity. The expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 during early tooth development was disturbed after irradiation and calcium-deficient diet.

  6. Individual carotenoid content of SRM 1548 total diet and influence of storage temperature, lyophilization, and irradiation on dietary carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, N.E.; Wise, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A modified version of the AOAC procedure for the extraction of carotenoids from mixed feeds was coupled with an isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) method to measure individual carotenoids in SRM 1548 total diet and in a high-carotenoid mixed diet (HCMD). The major carotenoids identified in SRM 1548 were lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein, alpha-carotene, and zeaxanthin in descending order of concentration. The concentration of all carotenoids in SRM 1548 decreased as storage temperature increased. Significant differences in carotenoid concentrations occurred between -80 and 4 degrees C storage temperatures. Lyophilization of the HCMD significantly decreased beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations and produced an apparent increase in xanthophyll concentrations. Exposure to gamma-irradiation significantly decreased alpha-carotene and beta-carotene concentrations and led to an apparent increase in P-cryptoxanthin. SRM 1548 was found to be unsuitable for use as a reference material for carotenoid measurements, while HCMD has greater potential as a reference material

  7. Age/Radiation Parallels in the Effects of 56Fe Particle Irradiation and Protection by Berry Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, James; Bielinski, Donna; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    Exposing young rats to particles of high-energy and charge (HZE particles) enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2% blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats, perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A subsequent study has shown that whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation; these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets. The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information, while the blueberry-supplemented animals showed enhanced learning that was dependent on striatal functioning. Additional experiments in cell models to examine possible mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects have shown that, in addition to the well known free radical scavenging effects of berries, it appears that berry fruit can directly reduce stress signaling and enhance protective signals, suggesting the involvement of multiple mechanisms in the beneficial effects observed. Enhancements of "protective" signals (e.g., extracellular signal regulated kinase, ERK) include those that are involved in neuronal communication, neurogenesis, and learning and memory. Reductions in stress signaling include inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytokines, among others, induced by oxidative and inflammatory stressors. We have found these changes in both BV2 mouse microglial and hippocampal cells. We believe that the possible addition of colorful fruits such as berry fruits to the diet can possibly

  8. The effect of diets containing pistachio by products treated with electron irradiation, NaOH, and PEG on nutrients digestibility and performance of finishing Zandi lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Moradi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It has been estimated that PBP production based on fresh weight in Iran is over 400,000 MT annually. Pistachio by-products consist of 53.50% external hull (epicarp with the remaining composed of leaves, mesocarp and kernel. The results of few studies showed feeding of low levels of PBP had no effects on sheep, dairy cow and goat performance. Ensiled of PBP with PEG, NaOH and urea then treated by electron irradiation could be caused to better nutrition value via deactivation of tannins. The aim of this study was to survey the effect of diets containing pistachio by products treated by electron irradiation, NaOH, and PEG on nutrients digestibility and performance of finishing Zandi lambs. Materials and methods Twenty male Zandi lambs with the initial average body weight of 21±1.52 kg were housed in individual pens and were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design for 70 days. The basal diet consisted of 220 g/kg DM PBP, 130 g/kg DM wheat straw and 650 g/kg DM barley based concentrate. The four dietary treatments included control diet (Treatment 1; basal diet containing 22% PB, ER-PBP (Treatment 2; containing 22% electron irradiated PBP, NaOH-PBP (Treatment 3; containing 22% NaOH treated PBP and PEG-PBP (Treatment 4; PEG added to basal diet as 15 g/kg of diets DM. Throughout the 70 d experiment, body weight was measured weekly. Feed intake and ort of lambs were recorded and sampled daily for determination of nutrient intake of DM, CP (N × 6.25, EE and NDF as describes before. Apparent total digestibility of nutrients was estimated by the marker ratio technique using acid insoluble ash (AIA as an internal marker. Blood samples (10 ml were taken from jugular vein of lambs before morning feeding on d 70 of experiment. The serum concentrations of total protein (TP, albumin, creatinine, glucose and urea were determined using commercial laboratory kits (Pars Azmun Laboratory, Tehran, Iran and an auto analyzer

  9. Anti-diabetic effects of DA-11004, a synthetic IDPc inhibitor in high fat high sucrose diet-fed C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chang Yell; Jung, Mi Young; Lee, In Ki; Son, Miwon; Kim, Dong Sung; Lim, Joong In; Kim, Soon Hoe; Yoo, Moohi; Huh, Tae Lin; Sohn, Young Taek; Kim, Won Bae

    2004-01-01

    DA-11004 is a synthetic, potent NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) inhibitor where IC50 for IDPc is 1.49 microM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DA-11004 on the high fat high sucrose (HF)-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice. After completing a 8-week period of experimentation, the mice were sacrificed 1 hr after the last DA-11004 treatment and their blood, liver, and adipose tissues (epididymal and retroperitoneal fat) were collected. There was a significant difference in the pattern of increasing body weight between the HF control and the DA-11004 group. In the DA-11004 (100 mg/kg) treated group the increase in body weight significantly declined and a content of epididymal fat and retroperitoneal fat was also significantly decreased as opposed to the HF control. DA-11004 (100 mg/ kg) inhibited the IDPc activity, and thus, NADPH levels in plasma and the levels of free fatty acid (FFA) or glucose in plasma were less than the levels of the HF control group. In conclusion, DA-11004 inhibited the fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissues via IDPc inhibition, and it decreased the plasma glucose levels and FFA in HF diet-induced obesity of C57BL/6J mice.

  10. Synthetic multi-element standards: a good tool for calibration and quality control of irradiation facilities used for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermaercke, P.

    2007-01-01

    determined by the nuclear cross sections. The cross sections depend on the neutron energy E and also these physical properties are parameterised in the k0-NAA method resulting in the so-called k0-factors for each element and for the different isotopes of an element. The quantification of an element then involves the use of a ratio of k0-factors in which one k0-factor is the one for 198Au. In practice, ratios of k0-factors accounting for the energy spectrum of the neutrons (f, a) are used in an analysis. These ratios are called the comparator factor FC. It is clear that the quality assurance of the k0-NAA method requires the control of the parameters f and a for each irradiation of samples. This is generally realised by using several flux monitors e.g. a set of Zr and Au monitors which are co-irradiated with the samples to analyse. However, this approach is quite labour intensive and recently we started investigating an approach based on co-irradiation of Synthetic Multi-Element Standards (SMELS) for this purpose. SMELS contain different elements in known concentrations, and three types of materials exist: Type I (elements forming short-lived radionuclides), Type II (elements forming medium lived radionuclides) and Type III (elements forming long lived radionuclides). Au was added to all three SMELS types and Zr in type III. The objectives are to optimise the ratio of quality of analysis to workload by appropriate quality control methods to determine and monitor the irradiation parameters (f, a) using SMELS and to set up a Quality Control (QC) system for the complete measurement and analysis process for k0-NAA

  11. The Possibility of Using Irradiated Khishni (Liza abu) Fish Meal Instead of the Imported Protein Sources in The Diet of Common Carp (Cprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL shammaa, A.A; Abu Tabigh, S.M; Al Fadily, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were done,the first for ten week,in which fish meal (FM) were used instead of animal protein (AP). A total of (12) group of young common carps Cyprinus carpio L.(25.98±0.27 gm.) were fed on four experimental diets. The first three diets were with 4%, 8% and 12% of (FM) (total replacement),specific growth rate, final fish weight and protein efficiency ratio. Whereas, in the second experiment, a total of (15) groups of C.carpio (36,44±0.23 gm)were fed on five experimental diets in which (FM) were used by 12% and 15% instead of (AP) as well as by 10% and 15% instead of Soyabean meal . The fifth diets was with 0% (F M). Statistical analysis (CRD and Dun cans test ) showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between the experimental diet according to food conversion ratio. According to these results dried irradiated Khishni can be used as a (FM). and to be a good replacer for all (AP) and 50% of Soyabean (c.p. 44%) in the diet of common carp.) (author)

  12. Water resistance and surface morphology of synthetic fabrics covered by polysiloxane/acrylate followed by electron beam irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    El-Naggar, A M; Mohammed, S S; Alam, E A

    2003-01-01

    Different synthetic fabrics were treated by electron beam surface coating with two formulations based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) oligomers. The water resistance properties were investigated in terms of the percentage of water repellency and absorption. Also, the surface coated fabrics were examined by scanning electron microscopy/microscope (SEM) connected to an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) unit to determine the percentage atomic contents of elements. The results showed that the adhesion of the polysiloxane formulation to the surface depends largely on the kind of acrylate oligomer and textile fabric as indicated by the EDX analysis for silicon. In this regard, PDMS/PS formulation is more compatible with polyester and nylon-6 fabrics than PDMS/PMMA one. However, it was found that PDMS/PMMA formulation is more compatible with cotton/polyester blend than PDMS/PS. The SEM micrographs give further supports to the EDX analysis. On the basis of the perce...

  13. UV-protection of Natural and Synthetic Fabrics by Surface Treatment under the effect of Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, AW.M.; Zohdy, M.H.; Ali, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic and natural fabrics were surface coated with gamma radiation curable novel formulations. These formulations were based on naturally occurring Alum individually and in binary mixture with ZnO beside different functional oligomers and monomers. The physical properties of the treated fabrics were evaluated in terms of ultraviolet protection, moisture regain, and water absorption. Also, the effect of coating formulations on the crystallinity was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) showed that the formulation containing 30% of Alum caused a significant UPF values (50+) according to standard rating over untreated fabrics. When ZnO was incorporated in the formulation, the UPF factor was increased by two folds. A decrease in the moisture regain and water absorption of fabrics was featured with ZnO, however, in case of Alum a decrease followed by an increase was observed. In conclusion, these novel coats could be taken as an nontoxic alternative UV-resist finishing agents for fabrics

  14. Efficient in situ synthetic routes of polyaniline/poly(vinyl alcohol)/TiO2 nanocomposites using gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, T. A.; Ghazy, O. A.; Saleh, H. H.; Ali, Z. I.

    2018-02-01

    Gamma radiation was used to prepare nanocomposites based on polyaniline/titanium dioxide (PANI/TiO2) or polyaniline/poly (vinyl alcohol)/titanium dioxide (PANI/PVA/TiO2). It was found that PANI/TiO2 in the form of nanocomposite as shown by the UV/vis spectroscopy. This was through the appearance and shift of two absorption peaks at 340 and 598 nm. The SEM micrographs of the PANI/TiO2 nanocomposites showed a fibrous morphology before the treatment with HCl. The TiO2 nanoparticles are clearly seen to be precipitated on the PANI fibers and the morphology changed towards the sheets shape with highly distribution on PANI surface. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image confirms the fibrous shape of the PANI and spherical shape of TiO2 nanoparticles. The XRD study showed a several diffraction patterns of TiO2 nanoparticles confirming the PANI/TiO2 and PANI/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposites. The FT-IR analysis indicated that there is an interfacial interaction existed between the PANI and its inorganic counterpart of TiO2 nanoparticles. The dielectric constant of the PANI/PVA showed the lowest values and was increased by either doping with TiO2 or increasing irradiation dose.

  15. Effect of irradiation and storage in the iron availability in lamb meat treated with different diets; Efeito da irradiacao e do armazenamento na disponibilidade de ferro em carne de cordeiro tratado com diferentes dietas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E-mail: acornel@cena.usp.br; arthur@cena.usp.br; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br; Couto, Meylene Aparecida Luzia [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: malcouto@esalq.usp.br

    2008-10-15

    Irradiation is an efficient method to increase the microbiological safety and to maintain the nutrients such as iron in the meat. The best absorption form, heme iron, should be preserved in order to increase the nutritional quality of stored meat. The diet can alter the nutrients contents and form in the meat. The iron is provided from the diet and it is an essential element for the metabolic processes such as oxygen transport, oxidative metabolism, and cellular growth. Meat lamb samples treated with different diets (it controls, TAC1, TAC2 and sorghum) were wrapped to vacuous, and irradiated in the doses 0, 2 and 4 kGy and stored at 4 deg C during 15 days. The values of total iron and heme iron were measured at 0 and 15 days of storage. The storage reduced the content of total iron (18.36 for 14.28 mg.100 g{sup -1}) and heme iron (13.78 for 10.52 mg.100 g{sup -1}). The diets affected the levels of total and heme iron of the meat, and the sorghum diet was the one that presented the larger content. The dose of 2 kGy was the one that affected the iron the most independently of the storage time. It was verified that the amounts of total and heme iron varied according to the storage time, irradiation doses, and lamb diets. (author)

  16. [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3, small molecule synthetic peptide leptin mimetics, improve glycemic control in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anke; Anderson, Brian M; Novakovic, Zachary M; Grasso, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    We have previously shown that following oral delivery in dodecyl maltoside (DDM), [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and its myristic acid conjugate, MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3, improved energy balance and glucose homeostasis in genetically obese/diabetic mouse models. More recently, we have provided immunohistochemical evidence indicating that these synthetic peptide leptin mimetics cross the blood-brain barrier and concentrate in the area of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in normal C57BL/6J and Swiss Webster mice, in genetically obese ob/ob mice, and in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. In the present study, we describe the effects of oral delivery of [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 on glycemic control in diet-induced (DIO) mice, a non-genetic rodent model of obesity and its associated insulin resistance, which more closely recapitulates common obesity and diabetes in humans. Male C57BL/6J and DIO mice, 17, 20, and 28 weeks of age, were maintained on a low-fat or high-fat diet and given vehicle (DDM) alone or [D-Leu-4]-OB3 or MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 in DDM by oral gavage for 12 or 14 days. Body weight gain, food and water intake, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, and serum insulin levels were measured. Our data indicate that (1) [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 restore glucose tolerance in male DIO mice maintained on a high-fat diet to levels comparable to those of non-obese C57BL/6J wild-type mice of the same age and sex maintained on a low-fat diet; and (2) the influence of [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 on glycemic control appears to be independent of their effects on energy balance. These results suggest that [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and/or MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 may have application to the management of the majority of cases of common obesity in humans, a state characterized at least in part, by leptin resistance resulting from a defect in leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier. They further suggest that these small molecule synthetic peptide leptin mimetics, through their

  17. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  18. Effects of irradiated diet on longevity and prolificity of successive generations of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domarco, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The study was done in the laboratory of Entomology of the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, in Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. This research was carried out to observe the effect of irradiated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, (L.), cultivar Rosinha) on the longevity and prolificity of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). The first part of the study included the rearing of five generations of Zabrotes subfasciatus which were fed with irradiated beans (0, 10, 20, 100 e 200 krad, with a dose rate of approximately 70 krad/h). The second one consisted of growth of seven generations on irradiated beans (0, 100, 500, 1500 and 3000 krad, with a dose rate of approximately 70 krad/h). The data were obtained through daily countings of insect birth and death rates. It was concluded that irradiation modified the nutritional quality of beans, affecting the development of Zabrotes subfasciatus. This effect was studied through the longevity and prolificity, which were altered as compared with the control, once they were higher for the dosis of 1500 and 3000 krad. (author)

  19. Comparison of the effects of diet sterilization by irradiation and autoclaving on the equilibrium between eleven microbe strains seeded in the alimentary tracts of axenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducluzeau, R.; Clara, A.

    1978-01-01

    Eleven obligate or facultative anaerobe strains were seeded successively in the alimentary tracts of 'gnotoxenic' mice. The animals were divided into four groups which received a commercially available diet sterilized by autoclaving or by irradiation (4Mrad) or treated with the two methods in succession and supplemented or not supplemented in vitamins. A series of quantitative differential analyses carried out over a period of seven months on the faeces of the animals did not reveal any significant differences in the equilibrium that became established among the eleven strains in the faecal flora of the four groups of animals. At the end of the experiment quantitative differential analyses were performed of the stomachal and caecal flora of two animals from each group; again no differences were found in the equilibrium of the flora in the animals from the different groups. Any radiolytic products that may have been in the radiation-sterilized diet therefore had no detectable effect on the equilibrium of the microflora that the authors had chosen to establish in the alimentary tract of the 'gnotoxenic' animals. (author)

  20. Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids which is a subgroup of cannabinoids are commonly used for recreational drug use throughout the whole world. Although both marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2, studies have shown that synthetic cannabinoids are much more potent than marijuana. The longer use of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe physical and psychological symptoms that might even result in death, similar to many known illicit drugs. Main treatment options mostly involve symptom management and supportive care. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical and pharmacological properties of the increasingly used synthetic cannabinoids. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 317-328

  1. Sensitivity of Ceratitis capitata eggs irradiated in artificial diet and in mango fruits; Sensibilidade de ovos de Ceratitis capitata (WIED.,1824) irradiados em dieta artificial e em frutos de manga (Mangifera indica L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, A.; Yasuoka, S.T.; Amorim, E.O.; Sato, M.E.; Suplicy Filho, N. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Faria, J.T. de [Delegacia Federal de Agricultura, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish gamma radiation doses required to prevent emergence of Ceratitis capitata adults, from irradiated eggs in artificial diet and mango fruits. Six-, twelve-, twenty-four-, and forty-eight-hour-old eggs were used. Artificial infestation by C. capitata was carried out in mangoes of Haden, Tommy and Keith cultivars. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed as a function of the embryonic development and a Probit 9 of 24.67 Gy was estimated for 48-hour-old eggs in artificial diet. No significant influence of mango fruits was found on the efficacy of irradiation. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  3. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, ... stomach or intestinal surgery. A bland diet includes foods ...

  4. Synthetic Rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burastero, J.

    1975-01-01

    This work is about the laboratory scale investigation of the conditions in the rutile synthetic production from one me nita in Aguas Dulces reservoir. The iron mineral is chlorinated and volatilized selectively leaving a residue enriched in titanium dioxide which can be used as a substitute of rutile mineral

  5. Gamma irradiation of fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1983-08-01

    At a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) meeting held in 1976, recommendations were made to rationalize the unnecessarily elaborate wholesomeness evaluation procedures for irradiated foodstuffs. Irradiation at the commercially recommended doses did not adversely affect the constituents of mangoes, papayas, litchis and strawberries at the edible-ripe stage. These favourable radiation-chemical results justified the development of a theoretical model mango which could be used for extrapolation of wholesomeness data from an individual fruit species to all others within the same diet class. Several mathematical models of varying orders of sophistication were evolved. In all of them, it was assumed that the radiant energy entering the system reacted solely with water. The extent of the reaction of the other components of the model fruit with the primary water radicals was then determined. No matter which mathematical treatment was employed, it was concluded that the only components which would undergo significant modification would be the sugars. In order to extrapolate these data from the mango to other fruits, mathematical models of three fruits containing less sugar than the mango, viz. the strawberry, tomato and lemon, were compiled. With these models, the conclusion was reached that the theoretical degradation spectra of these fruits were qualitatively similar to the degradation pattern of the model mango. Theory was again substantiated by the practical demonstration of the protective effect of the sugars in the tomato and lemon. The decrease in radiation damage was enhanced by the mutual protection of the components of the whole synthetic fruits with ultimate protection being afforded by the biological systems of the real fruits

  6. Raman study of the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic microgranular HA + β-calcium triphosphate and irradiated or not with λ780 nm laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luiz Guilherme P; Marques, Aparecida Maria C; Barbosa, Artur Felipe S; Santos, Nicole R; Aciole, Jouber Mateus S; Souza, Caroline Mathias C; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B; Silveira, Landulfo

    2014-09-01

    The treatment of bone loss due to different etiologic factors is difficult, and many techniques aim to improve repair, including a wide range of biomaterials and, recently, photobioengineering. This work aimed to assess, through Raman spectroscopy, the level of bone mineralization using the intensities of the Raman peaks of both inorganic (∼ 960, ∼ 1,070, and ∼ 1,077 cm(-1)) and organic (∼ 1,454 and ∼ 1,666 cm(-1)) contents of bone tissue. Forty rats were divided into four groups each subdivided into two subgroups according to the time of killing (15 and 30 days). Surgical bone defects were made on femur of each animal with a trephine drill. On animals of group Clot, the defect was filled only by blood clot; on group Laser, the defect filled with the clot was further irradiated. On animals of groups Biomaterial and Laser + Biomaterial, the defect was filled by biomaterial and the last one was further irradiated (λ780 nm, 70 mW, Φ ∼ 0.4 cm(2), 20 J/cm(2) session, 140 J/cm(2) treatment) in four points around the defect at 48-h intervals and repeated for 2 weeks. At both 15th and 30th day following killing, samples were taken and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. At the end of the experimental time, the intensities of both inorganic and organic contents were higher on group Laser + Biomaterial. It is concluded that the use of laser phototherapy associated to biomaterial was effective in improving bone healing on bone defects as a result of the increasing deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite measured by Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Test of mutagenicity of an irradiated standard diet for laboratory animals in the host-mediated assay with salmonella typhimurium TA 1530

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenzner, R.; Renner, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Feed irradiated at a dose of 3 Mrad was tested for mutagenic activity in the host-mediated assay with the mouse as host and Salmonella typhimurium TA 1530 as indicator organism. In the in vivo and in the in vitro comparative test the irradiated feed showed no mutagenic effect. (orig.) [de

  8. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  9. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  10. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  11. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF FIVE ADULT DIETS ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NORMAL AND GAMMA IRRADIATED ADULT MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-AKHDAR, E.A.H.

    2008-01-01

    To improve the sterile insect technique for controlling the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), experiments were carried out to test the effect of four new adult protein sources on the insect vitality. Different yeasts consisting of almost the same nutritive components but differ in the quantity of protein were mixed with sugar as carbohydrate sources (2:3) and compared to the standard adult diet (enzymatic yeast hydrolysate : sugar, 1:3). Adults reared on each diet were evaluated biologically for their response to gamma radiation (90 Gy). The weight and size of the produced pupae from parents fed on the tested diets, percent of adult emergence, sex ratio, adults survival, egg hatchability and male mating competitiveness value (C.V.) for the following generations were taken as monitors for the insect vitality. The results showed that adult male and female survival for 5, 10 and 15 days from emergence, percent egg hatchability and male mating competitiveness value (C.V.) showed no sharp differences between three tested diets D3(Af), D4(YE300) and D5(YE00) as compared to the standard diet D1(YH, enzymatic yeast hydrolysate : sugar, 1:3) for parents and F1 progeny. However, when the second tested diet D2(Ay150) was used, the results showed a significant decreases in most of the tested biological aspects, especially in the male mating competitiveness value (C.V.), which is considered the most important monitor for male insect vitality

  12. Results of feeding trials of irradiated diets in human volunteers: Summary of the Chinese studies at the FAO/IAEA Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation, Shanghai, People's Republic of China, 7-11 April 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1987-01-01

    Following extensive chemical analyses and animal experimentation, which have shown that irradiated foods are safe, the Chinese researchers have carried out 8 well controlled experiments involving human volunteers consuming irradiated foods for 7 to 15 weeks periods. There were 17 to 70 test subjects in each experiment, and the total number of subjects was 439. Each clinical test in all the experiments failed to discern any significant difference between the control groups and the test groups consuming irradiated foods. Seven of the eight experiments involved investigations of chromosomal aberrations in a total of 382 individuals. Some of these experiments included freshly irradiated wheat in the diet. No significant difference between the number of chromosomal aberrations in the control groups and the test groups could be discerned in any of the seven experiments, either when evaluated individually or when all seven were pooled together. When all the experiments were pooled together, the average number of polyploidy at the beginning of the tests, before the exposure to irradiated foods, was 0.22% and 0.36% for the control and experimental groups respectively and after the exposure to the irradiated foods the polyploidy was 0.29% and 0.26% in the control and in the experimental groups respectively. The standard deviation of the mean value, 0.28%, was 0.23%. The relative increase in polyploidy in the control group, 0.29%-0.22%=+0.07%, and the relative decrease in the polyploidy in the experimental group, 0.26%-0.36%=-0.10% is statistically insignificant. In separate experiments it was shown that irradiation significantly reduces carcinogenic nitrosamines found in many foods confirming similar observation at U.S. Army Natick Laboratories in the 70's. (author). 51 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Paleo Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kaucká, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Topic: Paleo Diet Objectives: The aim of bachelor thesis is to study available literature about Paleo Diet and evaluated it. Then determine whether there is awareness of Paleo Diet in Czech republic. In addition, find out whether there is any experience in dieting according to Paleo Diet and whether Paleo Diet coul be applied in our environment. Methods: As a source of information served a survey. The research group consists of respondents who should have any experience in dieting according t...

  14. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  15. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. Coloring of synthetic fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsoy, R.

    1980-01-01

    A synthetic fluorite of the Harshaw Chemical Company is analyzed for rare earth elements, yttrium, and sodium. Samples of this fluorite are irradiated with X-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, electrons, protons, and α-particles at different energies, and their absorption spectra are analyzed. Analyzing the thermal bleaching of these radiation-coloured fluorites shows that both, impurities and radiation play a part in the coloration of synthetic fluorite. However, the main contribution comes from the radiation induced lattice defects. In the visible region spectra, the colour centre of the 5800 to 5900 A absorption band is probably mainly related with large aggregates of F-centres. The 5450 and the 5300 A absorption bands are mainly related to monovalent and divalent ion impurities and their association with lattice defects. The 3800 A absorption band seems to be related with F-centre aggregates. However, the contribution from the rare earth elements related complex color centres also plays some part for the production of this absorption band. These results indicate that the color centres of different origin can absorb light at the same wavelength. (author)

  17. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  18. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  19. A study of the ionizing radiation effect on some chemical changes in irradiated soy-bean flour, and its biological value assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Katsareva, Ts.

    1985-01-01

    The results of the assessment of a number of chemical indicators are presented, namely: formation of free radicals in defatted soy-bean flour irradiated with 10 kGy using EPR-spectrometry, alteration in the residual lipid fraction, estimated by the UV spectrometry and TB test. Assessment of the biological value of protein is done on the basis of the protein efficiency coefficient (PEC). For the purpose two kinds of synthetic diets, including 10% soy-bean protein, are employed. Growing rats of the Wistar line (body weight 55 g) are used in the experiment. The amino acid profile of irradiated and non-irradiated soy-bean flour is also outlined. The obtained results indicate that the amount of free radicals, found in soy-bean flour irradiated with dose 10 kGy,is approximately 11 times larger than in flour irradiated with 5 kGy. Changes in the UV spectrum of the lipid fraction are likewise disclosed

  20. Intra-tree activity of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae): effects of posteclosion light, crowding, adult diet, and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, R.I.; Prokopy, R.; Hsu, C.L.; Kanehisa, D.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were held under varying conditions of fight, density, food, and irradiation prior to release of males on potted guava, Psidium guajava L., plants in outdoor cages. Male activity after release was measured in terms of number of leaves visited and duration of flights within the plant canopy

  1. Heavy ion irradiations on synthetic hollandite-type materials: Ba{sub 1.0}Cs{sub 0.3}A{sub 2.3}Ti{sub 5.7}O{sub 16} (A=Cr, Fe, Al)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Ming, E-mail: mtang@lanl.gov [Materials Science & Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tumurugoti, Priyatham; Clark, Braeden; Sundaram, S.K. [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, The New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States); Amoroso, Jake; Marra, James [Materials Science & Technology Directorate, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Sun, Cheng [Materials Science & Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lu, Ping [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Wang, Yongqiang [Materials Science & Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Jiang, Ying-Bing [TEM Laboratory, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    The hollandite supergroup of minerals has received considerable attention as a nuclear waste form for immobilization of Cs. The radiation stability of synthetic hollandite-type compounds described generally as Ba{sub 1.0}Cs{sub 0.3}A{sub 2.3}Ti{sub 5.7}O{sub 16} (A=Cr, Fe, Al) were evaluated by heavy ion (Kr) irradiations on polycrystalline single phase materials and multiphase materials incorporating the hollandite phases. Ion irradiation damage effects on these samples were examined using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Single phase compounds possess tetragonal structure with space group I4/m. GIXRD and TEM observations revealed that 600 keV Kr irradiation-induced amorphization on single phase hollandites compounds occurred at a fluence between 2.5×10{sup 14} Kr/cm{sup 2} and 5×10{sup 14} Kr/cm{sup 2}. The critical amorphization fluence of single phase hollandite compounds obtained by in situ 1 MeV Kr ion irradiation was around 3.25×10{sup 14} Kr/cm{sup 2}. The hollandite phase exhibited similar amorphization susceptibility under Kr ion irradiation when incorporated into a multiphase system. - Graphical abstract: 600 keV Kr irradiation-induced amorphization on single phase hollandites compounds occurred at a fluence between 2.5×10{sup 14} Kr/cm{sup 2} and 5×10{sup 14} Kr/cm{sup 2}. The hollandite phase exhibited similar amorphization susceptibility under Kr ion irradiation when incorporated into a multiphase system. This is also the first time that the critical amorphization fluence of single phase hollandite compounds were determined at a fluence of around 3.25×10{sup 14} Kr/cm{sup 2} by in situ 1 MeV Kr ion irradiation. Display Omitted.

  2. Frequency of polyploid cells in the bone marrow of rats fed irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, K.P.; Chaubey, R.C.; Sundaram, K.; Gopal-Ayengar, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Diets containing different proportions of non-irradiated or irradiated wheat were fed to Wistar rats for 1 or 6 wk. Cytological analysis of the bone marrow showed no significant difference in the frequency of polyploid cells in the rats fed non-irradiated or irradiated wheat diets, even when the treated wheat was fed to the rats within 24 hr of irradiation. (author)

  3. Comparative efficacy of herbal and synthetic methionine on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HM) compared to synthetic methionine (SM) in the diets of domestic laying hens. The herbal methionine (Meth-o-Tas®) was supplied by Intas Pharmaceutical Limited, India. The HM and SM were added to a standard diet at 0.5 and 1.0 kg per ...

  4. Evaluation of Four Commercial Sources of Synthetic Methionine on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four diets were formulated to meet standard requirements at both starter and finisher phases in which the four commercial brands of synthetic methionine; CHL Rhodimet Analogue and DSM were supplemented in diets to represent treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Eight weeks period of the experiment. Data was ...

  5. Observations on the growth parameters of Spilosoma obliqua (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) reared on artificial diets and reproductive competence of this irradiated pest and its progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, R.; Rahman, M.M.; Islam, S.; Huque, R.

    2002-01-01

    Ten trials were conducted to standardize an artificial diet for Spilosoma oblique. The main ingredients included agar, mulberry leaves, yeast, casein, cellulose, sucrose, glucose, ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, antibiotics, vitamin C, Wesson's salt, and vitamin B complex in variable proportions. A diet formulation with increased amounts of Wesson's salt, choline chloride and iron supplement was found to be most suitable when growth parameters were measured. The deleterious effects when 6-day old pupae were treated with 100 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation were increased in the F 1 generation as compared to the parental generation. Various combinations of crosses between treated and untreated moths indicated that females were more sensitive to gamma radiation when compared to males. F 1 sterility was attained when male moths treated with 100 Gy were allowed to mate with untreated females. Two species of hymenopteran parasitoids of the genus Glyptapanteles and Meteorus were found to infest Spilosoma obliqua. These parasitoids may serve as an effective addition to an integrated pest management program for this pest in Bangladesh. (author)

  6. Nanostructured synthetic hydroxyapatite and dental enamel heated and irradiated by ER,CR:YSGG: characterized by FTIR and XRD; Hidroxiapatita sintetica nanoestruturada e esmalte dental aquecidos e irradiados por laser de Er,Cr:YSGG: caracterizacao por FTIR e por DRX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo Neto, Jose da Silva

    2009-07-01

    The study evaluate the physical changes and/or chemical that occurs in synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and in enamel under action of thermal heating in oven or laser irradiation of Er,Cr:YSGG that may cause changes in its structure to make them more resistant to demineralization aiming the formation of dental caries. The synthetic HAP was produced by reaction of solutions of Ca(NO{sub 3}) and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} with controlled temperature and pH. The enamel powder was collected from the bovine teeth. Samples of powder enamel and synthetic HAP were subjected to thermal heating in oven at temperatures of 200 deg C, 400 deg C, 600 deg C, 800 deg C and 1000 deg C. For the laser irradiation of materials, were made with 5,79 J/cm{sup 2} of irradiation, 7,65 J/cm{sup 2}, 10,55 J/cm{sup 2} and 13,84 J/cm{sup 2} for synthetic HAP and 7,53 J/cm{sup 2}, 10,95 J/cm{sup 2}, and 13,74 J/cm{sup 2} for the enamel. The samples were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for analysis of crystallographic phases and analysis by the Rietveld method, to determine their respective proportions in the material, as well as results of changes of the lattice unit cell parameters (axis-a, axis-c and volume), crystallites sizes and the occupation rate of sites of Ca and P atoms. The samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which should compositional changes due to treatment related to carbonate, phosphate, adsorbed water and hydroxyl radicals content. The infrared was used to measure the surface temperature generated by the laser beam in the solid samples of enamel. Besides the major hydroxyapatite crystallographic phases, there was formations of octa calcium phosphate (OCP) and phase {beta} of tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP ) in enamel heated at 800 deg C. There was reduction of the axis-a, volume and size of crystallites to the temperatures between 400 degree C and 600 deg C and also on laser irradiated samples. Above the temperature of 600 degree C it

  7. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  8. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  9. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  12. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  13. Packing for food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  14. Packing for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  15. Diverticulitis Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples of items allowed on a clear liquid diet include: Broth Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple juice Ice chips ... and poultry Refined white bread Fruit and vegetable juice with no ... two or three days of starting the diet and antibiotics. If you haven't started feeling ...

  16. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  17. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  19. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common questions IBS patients have is what food to avoid. This can drive a person to ... Global Treatments IBS Diet What to Do and What to Avoid Foods That Cause Cramping and Diarrhea Foods that Cause ...

  20. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  1. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  2. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  3. Whole body X-irradiation and impact of dietary factors on brain and testes of albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Chaturvedi, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the radioprotective effect of protein diet on the irradiated brain and testes. The study indicated that the less availability of protein in the diet caused a marked reduction in the protein and nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) contents of brain after irradiation. Further, the protein deficiency in diet brought about an increased deamination of protein in the brain of irradiated rats. It was noted that in response to irradiation the testes of protein deficient diet fed rats got adversely affected as compared to high protein diet fed animals. This paper gives evidence that feeding of protein enriched diet provides protection against ionizing radiation. (orig.) [de

  4. Effects of antioxidants consumption and low protein diets on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of two types of antioxidants, a natural antioxidant (Eselenium) and a synthetic antioxidant (loxidan) in diets containing protein value lower than essential requirements, on performance and histopathological changes in the liver and intestine of Japanese quails. The experimental diets were: ...

  5. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  6. Technical Assessment: Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pfizer, Bausch & Lomb, Coca - Cola , and other Fortune 500 companies 8 Data estimated by the... financial prize for ideas to drive forward the production of a sensor relying on synthetic organisms that can detect exposure to 500 specific chemicals

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility in SPF mini-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun-Yeob [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Back [Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Cheonan, Chungcheongnam-do 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo-Yong [College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ohh, Sang-Jip, E-mail: sjohh@kangwon.ac.k [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility of either soy-based or milk-based diet for specific pathogen-free (SPF) mini-pigs. Gamma irradiation of the diets was done at dosage of 10 kGy with {sup 60}Co whereas autoclaving was executed at 121 {sup o}C for 20 min. Apparent crude protein digestibilities of gamma irradiated diets were higher (p<0.05) than those of autoclaved diets regardless of diet type. Digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and total carbohydrate in the irradiated diet were higher than those of the autoclaved diet. From the results of nutrient digestibility of mini-pig diets in this study, 10 kGy gamma radiation was suggested as a convenient diet radicidation method that can minimize the decrease in nutrient digestibility on feeding to SPF mini-pigs.

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  10. Progress in food irradiation: Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesuyi, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and some of its toxic metabolites has been studied. This involved the determination of radio-sensitivity of aflatoxins to gamma radiation and the toxicity of irradiated aflatoxins, the effect of irradiation on the formation of aflatoxins in some Nigerian foodstuffs and on the macronutrients of soya-gari diet, and isolation and characterisation of radiation-induced mutants in A. flavus. A research project is now underway to investigate the effect on nutrients in foodstuffs following the destruction of fungal toxins (aflatoxins) and fungi by gamma irradiation (OGBADU, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria). (orig.) [de

  11. Raman spectroscopic study of the repair of surgical bone defects grafted or not with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-calcium triphosphate irradiated or not with λ850 nm LED light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luiz Guilherme P; Marques, Aparecida Maria C; Guarda, Milena G; Aciole, Jouber Mateus S; Andrade, Aline S; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B; Silveira, Landulfo

    2014-11-01

    The handling of bone losses due to different etiologic factors is difficult and many techniques are aim to improve repair, including a wide range of biomaterials and, recently, photobioengineering. This work aimed to assess, through Raman spectroscopy, the level of bone mineralization using the intensities of the Raman peaks of both inorganic (~960, ~1,070, and 1,077 cm(-1)) and organic (~1,454 and ~1,666 cm(-1)) contents of bone tissue. Forty rats were divided into four groups each subdivided into two subgroups according to the time of sacrifice (15 and 30 days). Surgical bone defects were made on the femur of each animal with a trephine drill. On animals of group clot, the defect was filled only by blood clot, on group LED, the defect filled with the clot was further irradiated. On animals of groups biomaterial and LED + biomaterial, the defect was filled by biomaterial and the last one was further irradiated (λ850 ± 10 nm, 150 mW, Φ ~ 0.5 cm(2), 20 J/cm(2)-session, 140 J/cm(2)-treatment) at 48-h intervals and repeated for 2 weeks. At both 15th and 30th days following sacrifice, samples were taken and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. At the end of the experimental time, the intensity of hydroxyapatite (HA) (~960 cm(-1)) were higher on group LED + biomaterial and the peaks of both organic content (~1,454 and ~1,666 cm(-1)) and transitional HA (~1,070 and ~1,077 cm(-1)) were lower on the same group. It is concluded that the use of LED phototherapy associated to biomaterial was effective in improving bone healing on bone defects as a result of the increasing deposition of HA measured by Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  13. Comparison of two synthetic food-odor lures for captures of feral Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico and implications regarding use of irradiated flies to assess lure efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robacker, David C; Thomas, Donald B

    2007-08-01

    Feral Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were trapped in a citrus orchard in Mexico by using two types of synthetic food-odor lures, the AFF lure (Anastrepha fruit fly lure, APTIV, Inc., Portland, OR) and the BioLure (two-component MFF lure, Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR). In Multilure traps (Better World Manufacturing, Inc., Miami, FL) containing water, BioLures captured about the same numbers of flies as AFF lures. In Multilure traps containing antifreeze solution, BioLures captured 2 and 5 times more flies than AFF lures in two experiments. BioLures, and AFF lures did not differ in attractiveness when used on sticky traps (Intercept trap, APTIV, Inc.; and sticky cylinder trap). Multilure traps captured >4 times as many flies as sticky traps with the exception that captures of females did not differ between Multilure and sticky traps baited with AFF lures. The percentage of females captured in Multilure traps was greater when traps were baited with BioLures compared with AFF lures, but the reverse was true for sticky traps. Sticky cylinder traps captured a higher percentage of females than Multilure traps. The most effective trap/lure combination was the Multilure trap baited with BioLure and antifreeze. In comparison with tests of these two lures in Texas, results were similar for Multilure traps, but they differed for sticky cylinder traps in that AFF lures were consistently more attractive than BioLures in Texas, but not in Mexico.

  14. Food irradiation receives international acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddoes, J M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario. Commercial Products

    1982-04-01

    Irradiation has advantages as a method of preserving food, especially in the Third World. The author tabulates some examples of actual use of food irradiation with dates and tonnages, and tells the story of the gradual acceptance of food irradiation by the World Health Organization, other international bodies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). At present, the joint IAEA/FAO/WHO standard permits an energy level of up to 5 MeV for gamma rays, well above the 1.3 MeV energy level of /sup 60/Co. The USFDA permits irradiation of any food up to 10 krad, and minor constituents of a diet may be irradiated up to 5 Mrad. The final hurdle to be cleared, that of economic acceptance, depends on convincing the food processing industry that the process is technically and economically efficient.

  15. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  17. The effects of X-ray radiation on mandibular bone of low-calcium diet rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, Akihiko (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-08-01

    In an attempt to examine the effects of X-ray on osteoporosis, a single dose of 30 Gy was delivered to the mandible in rats given low-calcium diet. Serum levels of calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) were measured; and changes in bone salt were determined by autoradiography, microradiography, and roentgenography using an electron probe microanalyzer. Body weight was lower in the irradiated group than the non-irradiated group, irrespective of types of diet. The serum Ca levels in the irradiated group given a normal diet were significantly decreased on Days 3, 7, and 14 days after irradiation. When given a low-Ca diet, these levels tended to be lower in the irradiated group than the non-irradiated group on Day 7 or later. The serum levels of inorganic P were significantly lower in the irradiated group given a normal diet than the non-irradiated group on Day 3. Rats given a low-Ca diet had the same levels, irrespective of irradiation. Autoradiography revealed that Ca-45 retention in the whole jaw was slightly greater in the irradiated group than the non-irradiated group On Days 7 and 21. Rats given a low-Ca diet in both irradiated and non-irradiated groups had a greater Ca-45 retention than those given a normal diet. Microradiography revealed that bone formation-like changes, such as flat surface of the periodontal membrane at the intra-alveolar septum, were slightly noticeable in the irradiated group of rats given a normal diet on Day 21. Thinning of the intra-alveolar septum and decrease of the trabecula at the diaphysis were also noticeable in the irradiated group of rats given a low-Ca diet. Variation of X-ray intensity was more marked on Day 7 than on Day 21 in the irradiated group given a normal diet. When given a low-Ca diet, both the irradiated and non-irradiated group had noticeable X-ray intensity variation. (N.K.).

  18. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  1. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... years, synthetic cannabinoid mixtures have been easy to buy in drug paraphernalia shops, novelty stores, gas stations, and over ... abuse, authorities have made it illegal to sell, buy, or possess some of ... use is that standard drug tests cannot easily detect many of the chemicals ...

  2. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  3. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  4. Towards a synthetic chloroplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Agapakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of eukaryotic cells is widely agreed to have proceeded through a series of endosymbiotic events between larger cells and proteobacteria or cyanobacteria, leading to the formation of mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively. Engineered endosymbiotic relationships between different species of cells are a valuable tool for synthetic biology, where engineered pathways based on two species could take advantage of the unique abilities of each mutualistic partner.We explored the possibility of using the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a platform for studying evolutionary dynamics and for designing two-species synthetic biological systems. We observed that the cyanobacteria were relatively harmless to eukaryotic host cells compared to Escherichia coli when injected into the embryos of zebrafish, Danio rerio, or taken up by mammalian macrophages. In addition, when engineered with invasin from Yersinia pestis and listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes, S. elongatus was able to invade cultured mammalian cells and divide inside macrophages.Our results show that it is possible to engineer photosynthetic bacteria to invade the cytoplasm of mammalian cells for further engineering and applications in synthetic biology. Engineered invasive but non-pathogenic or immunogenic photosynthetic bacteria have great potential as synthetic biological devices.

  5. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Synthetic Metabolic Pathways: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study...

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  8. Irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrington, Hugh

    1988-06-01

    This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

  9. Safety evaluation of irradiated foods in China: A condensed report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, D.

    1989-01-01

    Eight trials, with 439 human volunteers who consumed irradiated foods including rice, potatoes, mushrooms, peanuts, and Chinese sausages, as well as diets composed of multiple irradiated foods (irradiated at dosages of 0.2 to 8 kGy) that accounted for 60-66% of the entire diet, were carried out for 2-3 months according to a unified protocol. No adverse effects on body weight, blood pressure, ECG, hematology, blood enzyme activities, serum lipids or blood or urine 17-hydroxycortisol contents and no chromosomal aberration of peripheral blood lymphocytes were found. It is especially worthwhile to note that there was no change in the polyploidy after consumption of irradiated diets. On the basis of these results and a comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of irradiated foods, temporary hygienic standards for irradiated rice, potatoes, onions, garlic, Chinese sausages, peanuts, and mushrooms were promulgated by the Chinese Ministry of Public Health

  10. The effects of ionizing radiation in the rat's mandibular bone freeding the hypernomic calcium-deficient diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Gen; Kurita, Akihiko; Nasu, Masanori; Furumoto, Keiichi

    1994-01-01

    The mandibles of rats in a group maintained on the Ca-deficient diet for a long period were irradiated with 30 Gy. To study the effects of radiation, serum Ca and inorganic phosphorus levels were determined for 3 weeks, and the data were compared with findings obtained from rats maintained on a standard diet by autoradiography using 45 Ca and microradiography. The serum Ca level tended to decrease with time after irradiation in the irradiated group maintained on the Ca-deficient diet, but there was no significant difference between the group maintained on the Ca-deficient diet and the group maintained on the standard diet. The serum inorganic phosphorus levels were almost constant throughout the observation period in both the non-irradiated and radiated groups regardless of diet. Uptake of 45 Ca was examined by autoradiography. Both the non-irradiated and irradiated groups maintained on the Ca-deficient diet showed intense 45 Ca uptake, there was almost no difference between these groups in photographic density or in weekly changes after irradiation. The microradiographic study of bone trabeculae revealed only slight changes in the bone cortex after irradiation in the group maintained on the standard diet. On day 3 after irradiation both thinning and roughness of the trabeculae were observed in the interradicular septa and incisal inferior margin and on day 7 in cancellous bone. In the groups maintained on the Ca-deficient diet, marked thinning and roughness of the trabeculae were observed mainly in the cancellous bone. (author)

  11. Thermoluminescent characteristics of synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHAp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.; Rivera, T.; Guzman, J.; Piña-Barba, M.C.; Azorin, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of the thermoluminescent (TL) characteristics of synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHAp) obtained by the sol–gel method. For preparation of the SHAp powders, phosphorus pentoxide (P 2 O 5 ) and calcium nitrate tetrahydrated (Ca(NO 3 ) 2 –4H 2 O) were used. The powders obtained were submitted at different temperatures. The structural and morphological characterization were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy techniques. TL glow curve exhibited two peaks centered at around 200 °C and 300 °C. TL response of SHAp as a function of gamma absorbed dose was linear over a wide dose range. Fading of the storage information in the samples irradiated was also studied. The experimental results show that the synthetic hydroxyapatite obtained by the sol–gel method may have used in gamma radiation dosimetry applications. - highlights: • Dosimetric characteristics of SHAp under gamma irradiation effect were analyzed • SHAp powders were obtained by Sol–Gel method • Fading anomalous of HAp was performed showing 15% during 90 days • SHAp showed good dosimetric characteristics. • Dosimetric characteristics of SHAp have not been reported yet in the literature before this paper

  12. Food irradiation receives international acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoes, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Irradition has advantages as a method of preserving food, especially in the Third World. The author tabulates some examples of actual use of food irradiation with dates and tonnages, and tells the story of the gradual acceptance of food irradiation by the World Health Organization, other international bodies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). At present, the joint IAEA/FAO/WHO standard permits an energy level of up to 5 MeV for gamma rays, well above the 1.3 MeV energy level of 60 Co. The USFDA permits irradiation of any food up to 10 krad, and minor constituents of a diet may be irradiated up to 5 Mrad. The final hurdle to be cleared, that of economic acceptance, depends on convincing the food processing industry that the process is technically and economically efficient

  13. Synthetic Electric Microbial Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-10

    domains and DNA-binding domains into a single protein for deregulation of down stream genes of have been favored [10]. Initially experiments with... Germany DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.   Talk title: “Synthetic biology based microbial biosensors for the...toolbox” in Heidelberg, Germany Poster title: “Anaerobic whole cell microbial biosensors” Link: http://phdsymposium.embl.org/#home   September, 2014

  14. Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Irradiated Sorghum Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.D.; Farag, M.F. S. El-D.; Afify, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Substitution of yellow corn with raw sorghum grains in chick diets resulted in decreases in live body weight, accumulative feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization as compared with reference diet. Relative to raw sorghum diet, inclusion of sorghum grains irradiated at 60 and 100 kGy and/or supplemented with PEG in chick diets resulted in increases in accumulative feed consumption an efficiency feed utilization. The study suggested that irradiation treatment up to 100 kGy up grade broiler chicks performance and the combinations between radiation and PEG treatments sustain the effect of each other

  15. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  16. Foodstuff irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Report written on behalf of the Danish Food Institute summarizes national and international rules and developments within food irradiation technology, chemical changes in irradiated foodstuffs, microbiological and health-related aspects of irradiation and finally technological prospects of this conservation form. Food irradiatin has not been hitherto applied in Denmark. Radiation sources and secondary radiation doses in processed food are characterized. Chemical changes due to irradiation are compared to those due to p.ex. food heating. Toxicological and microbiological tests and their results give no unequivocal answer to the problem whether a foodstuff has been irradiated. The most likely application fields in Denmark are for low radiation dosis inhibition of germination, riping delay and insecticide. Medium dosis (1-10 kGy) can reduce bacteria number while high dosis (10-50 kGy) will enable total elimination of microorganisms and viruses. Food irradiation can be acceptable as technological possibility with reservation, that further studies follow. (EG)

  17. Hemibody irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schen, B.C.; Mella, O.; Dahl, O.

    1992-01-01

    In a large number of cancer patients, extensive skeletal metastases or myelomatosis induce vast suffering, such as intolerable pain and local complications of neoplastic bone destruction. Analgetic drugs frequently do not yield sufficient palliation. Irradiation of local fields often has to be repeated, because of tumour growth outside previously irradiated volumes. Wide field irradiation of the lower or upper half of the body causes significant relief of pain in most patients. Adequate pretreatment handling of patients, method of irradiation, and follow-up are of importance to reduce side effects, and are described as they are carried out at the Department of Oncology, Haukeland Hospital, Norway. 16 refs., 2 figs

  18. Perissodactyla diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2018-01-01

    Perissodactyla (Schoch 1989) includes tapirs, rhinoceros, wild asses, horses, and zebras. It is the order of hoofed mammals referred to as “odd-toed ungulates” because its members have one to three weight-bearing toes and walk on hoofs or “ungules.” They are herbivores that are specialized to exploit grasslands and brushy habitat (rhinos, horses, asses, zebras) or dense tropical forests (tapirs). All share a common digestive system called hindgut fermentation, or cecal digestion (in the cecum), and can consume relatively tough, coarse forage. Some perissodactyls are “browsers” that forage primarily on woody shrubs and trees, whereas others are “grazers” with a graminoid-dominated diet. They are all predominantly opportunistic feeders and select for quantity over quality of forage; that is, they consume more abundant low-quality forage instead of searching and selecting for higher-quality forage because it gives them the advantage of reducing search effort, which conserves energy.

  19. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  20. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the ... Thalassemia (for providers) Exercise for Patients with Thalassemia Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  1. Low Tyramine Headache Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find A Provider Contact Membership Donate 25 Oct Low-Tyramine Diet for Migraine Posted at 17:16h ... and Diamond Headache Clinic Headache Diet Tags: headache , low tyramine diet , MAOI , tyramine No Comments Post A ...

  2. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  3. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  4. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  5. Effect of Dietary Supplementation by Irradiated Full-Fat Rapeseed on Biochemical Changes in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farga, D. M. H.; El-Shennawy, H. M.; Soliman, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    Supplementation of 230 gk 1 of raw and irradiated full-fat rapeseed at 20 kGy in the food of male albino rats for ten weeks of age, caused significantly lower total plasma protein concentration as compared with those fed control diet, heated seeds and seeds irradiated at 50 and 70 kGy diets. On the other hand, the highest total plasma protein value was obtained from the control group flowed in descending order by heated and seeds irradiated at 70 kGy, and 50 kGy. Plasma albumin decreased significantly in rats fed either raw or rapeseed irradiated at 20 and 50 kGy as compared with rats fed control diet, heated or irradiated rapeseed at 70 kGy diets. The same result was observed with plasma globulin and A/G ratio. Supplementing the diet of rats with raw and irradiated rapeseed at 20 and 50 kGy caused significantly higher plasma transaminases activities (GOT and GPT) as compared with those fed control diet, heated or rapeseed irradiated at 70 kGy. However, rats fed raw and rapeseed irradiated at 20 kGy caused a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase as compared with those fed control diet, heated or irradiated seeds at 50 or 70 kGy diets. Moreover, there was no significant discrepancy between groups fed heated seed and seeds irradiated at 50 or 70 kGy as compared with those fed control diets. Level of plasma creatinine was significantly higher in groups of rats fed row and irradiated seeds at 20 kGy as compared with those fed heat processed and irradiated seeds at 50 kGy and 70 kGy and control diets. The results confirm that the applied radiation doses are insufficient enough to bring a complete detoxification of processed seeds. Increasing the applied radiation doses might be be beneficial in this respect

  6. Optical studies of high quality synthetic diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of fundamental and defect induced optical properties of synthetic diamond grown using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthesis or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The primary technique used for investigation is cathodoluminescence (including imaging and decay-time measurements) in addition to other forms of optical spectroscopy. This thesis is timely in that the crystallinity and purity of synthetic diamond has increased ten fold over the last few years. The diamond exciton emission, which is easily quenched by the presence of defects, is studied in high quality samples in detail. In addition the ability now exists to engineer the isotopic content of synthetic diamond to a high degree of accuracy. The experimental chapters are divided as follows: Chapter 2: High resolution, low temperature spectra reveal a splitting of the free-exciton phonon recombination emission peaks and the bound-exciton zero phonon line. Included are measurements of the variation in intensity and decay-time as a function of temperature. Chapter 3: The shift in energy of the phonon-assisted free-exciton phonon replicas with isotopic content has been measured. The shift is in agreement with the results of interatomic force model for phonon scattering due to isotope disorder. Chapter 4: A study of the shift in energy with isotopic content of the diamond of the GR1 band due to the neutral vacancy has allowed a verification of the theoretical predictions due to the Jahn Teller effect. Chapter 5: The spatial distribution of the free-exciton luminescence is studied in HPHT synthetic and CVD diamond. A variation in intensity with distance from the surface is interpreted as a significant non-radiative loss of excitons to the surface. Chapter 6: The decay-times of all known self-interstitial related centres have been measured in order to calculate the concentration of these centres present in electron irradiated diamond. (author)

  7. Synthetic staggered architecture composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite design inspired by nature. ► Tuning microstructure via changing ceramic content and aspect ratio. ► Experimental display of structure–property correlationship in synthetic composites. - Abstract: Structural biocomposites (for example, nacre in seashells, bone, etc.) are designed according to the functional role they are delegated for. For instance, bone is primarily designed for withstanding time-dependent loading (for example, withstanding stresses while running, jumping, accidental fall) and hence the microstructure is designed primarily from enhanced toughness and moderate stiffness point of view. On the contrary, seashells (which lie in the abyss of oceans) apart from providing defense to the organism (it is hosting) against predatory attacks, are subjected to static loading (for example, enormous hydrostatic pressure). Hence, emphasis on the shell structure evolution is directed primarily towards providing enhanced stiffness. In order to conform between stiffness and toughness, nature precisely employs a staggered arrangement of inorganic bricks in a biopolymer matrix (at its most elementary level of architecture). Aspect ratio and content of ceramic bricks are meticulously used by nature to synthesize composites having varying degrees of stiffness, strength and toughness. Such an amazing capability of structure–property correlationship has rarely been demonstrated in synthetic composites. Therefore, in order to better understand the mechanical behavior of synthetic staggered composites, the problem becomes two-pronged: (a) synthesize composites with varying brick size and contents and (b) experimental investigation of the material response. In this article, an attempt has been made to synthesize and characterize staggered ceramic–polymer composites having varying aspect ratio and ceramic content using freeze-casting technique. This will in-turn help us in custom-design manufacture of hybrid bio-inspired composite materials

  8. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... a sufficient amount of data for high precision flow estimation. These constrictions can be lifted by employing SA imaging. Here data is acquired simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions, and the full image can be reconstructed from this data. The talk will demonstrate the many benefits...

  9. Transition in synthetic jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 187, NOV 2012 (2012), s. 105-117 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/12/P556; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulence * synthetic jet * transition * velocity spectra Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.841, year: 2012 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0924424712005031

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  12. Irradiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira

    1977-01-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures. (Kanao, N.)

  13. Irradiation proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, A [Osaka Kita Tsishin Hospital (Japan)

    1977-06-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures.

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  15. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  16. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  17. Effects of irradiated barley on fattening quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlhelm, H.

    1999-01-01

    For the feeding experiments reported, barley grains irradiated at doses of 2, 10, and 100 kGy were used as a diet. The results obtained revealed no significant effects in the parameters analysed. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Current investigations of packaging materials used for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiszer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The article reviews current investigations of packaging materials applied for food irradiation. The increasing role of various synthetic materials is described. Author reviews radiation-induced damages in these materials. The article includes the list of materials accepted for food packaging and subsequent irradiation with different doses

  19. [Advance in flavonoids biosynthetic pathway and synthetic biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-Qiu; Wang, Cai-Xia; Kuang, Xue-Jun; Li, Ying; Sun, Chao

    2016-11-01

    Flavonoids are the valuable components in medicinal plants, which possess a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. There is an unambiguous understanding about flavonoids biosynthetic pathway, that is,2S-flavanones including naringenin and pinocembrin are the skeleton of other flavonoids and they can transform to other flavonoids through branched metabolic pathway. Elucidation of the flavonoids biosynthetic pathway lays a solid foundation for their synthetic biology. A few flavonoids have been produced in Escherichia coli or yeast with synthetic biological technologies, such as naringenin, pinocembrin and fisetin. Synthetic biology will provide a new way to get valuable flavonoids and promote the research and development of flavonoid drugs and health products, making flavonoids play more important roles in human diet and health. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with...

  1. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations.

  2. Synthetic lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Jurado, J

    1953-01-01

    A yellow solid petroleum paraffin d/sup 60/ 0.808, I number 3.5, average molecular weight 350, chlorinated and condensed with benzene, xylene, or naphthalene by the Friedel and Crafts reaction, in the presence of anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ or activated Al, gave synthetic lubricating oils. Xylene was the preferred aromatic compound, naphthalene required the use of less completely chlorinated paraffin, benzene produced resins difficult to remove and gave darker oils with excessive green fluorescence. Activated Al rather than anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ gave darker oils with higher viscosity and Conradson C values. Tar from the low-temperature distillation of lignite, used as a source of a paraffin fraction melting 40/sup 0/ to 48/sup 0/ (chlorinated to 26.5 percent Cl) and an aromatic fraction, 45 percent aromatic compounds by volume (mainly polysubstituted benzenes), I number 10, was converted to a similar synthetic lubricant with the following properties: Kinematic viscosity at 210/sup 0/ F., 50.4 centistokes; viscosity index, 92; Conradson C, 1.5 percent; solidification point, 9/sup 0/; S, 0.41 percent.

  3. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  4. LC/MS/MS identification of some folic acid degradation products after E-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, M.M.; Marchioni, E.; Zhao, M.; Kuntz, F.; Di Pascoli, T.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Bergaentzle, M.

    2012-01-01

    Folates belong to the B vitamin group based on the parental compound folic acid (FA). They are involved in important biochemical processes like DNA synthesis and repair. FA is composed of a pteridine ring, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamate moieties. The human metabolism is not able to synthesize folates and therefore obtain them from diet. FA, a synthetic vitamin, is used as a food fortificant because of its low price, relative stability and increased bioavailability compared to natural folate forms. FA is known to be a sensitive compound easily degradable in aqueous solution by ultraviolet and visible light towards various by-products. Irradiation is a process for preservation of foods that uses accelerated electrons, gamma rays or X-rays. Irradiation is proposed for the treatment of various food products, eliminating or reducing pathogens and insects, increasing the storage time and replacing chemical fumigants. This study concerns the identification of degradation products of FA after E-beam irradiation. FA aqueous solutions were irradiated with a Van de Graaff electrons beam accelerator (2 MeV, 100 μA current, 20 cm scan width, dose rate about 2 kGy/s). Applied doses were between 0 (control) and 10.0 kGy. Absorbed doses were monitored with FWT 60.00 radiochromic dosimeters. - Highlights: ► We investigated the degradation of folic acid aqueous solution after electron beam treatment. ► Radiation doses over 5 kGy promote huge folic acid degradation and appearance of several degradation products. ► PCA, PABA and pABGA, already known folic acid degradation products, are formed due to E-beam treatment. ► Xanthopterin, a new radio-induced breakdown product, is formed after irradiation treatment.

  5. Fad diets, miracle diets, diet cult… but no results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fad diets, miracle diets (in sum, diet cult are diets that make promises of weight loss or other health advantages (e.g. longer life without backing by solid science, and usually they are characterized by highly restrictive or unusual food choices. These diets are often supported by celebrities and some health “professionals”, and they result attractive among people who want to lose weight quickly. By means of pseudoscientific arguments, designers of fad, miracle or magic diets usually describe them as healthy diets with unusual properties but always with undoubted benefits. After revising the history of these diets and exploring the scientific evidence, it must be noted that there is not a diet better than eating less, moving more and eating lots of fruits and vegetables. In addition, it is necessary to be aware of our general daily habits, remembering that eating is important but it is not everything. Getting active is also very relevant to improve (or recover our health. Summarizing, eating healthy and taking care of yourself are a duty but not a miracle.

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecher, O.

    1979-01-01

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  8. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  9. Dietary protein effects on irradiated rat kidney function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, P.A.; Yatuin, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that unilaterally nephrectomized, kidney irradiated young male S-D rats have an increased median survival when placed on a low (4%) protein diet, as compared to a normal (20%) or high (50%) protein diet (200, 103, and 59 days respectively for 14 Gy irradiation). They have expanded these studies to examine the effects of irradiation and dietary protein levels on kidney function, by examining the parameters of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, urine urea nitrogen, urine creatinine, urine osmolarity, urine volume, and water consumption. Irradiated 20% protein diet animals show an increase in water consumption and urine production and also a decrease in urine osmolarity, urine urea concentration and urine creatinine concentration. These changes all support the hypothesis the kidney irradiated rats fed a normal protein diet have a reduced capability to concentrate urine compared to nonirradiated control rats. Evaluation of the same parameters in irradiated rats fed a 4% protein diet does not indicate a similar loss of concentrating capability. Whether this protection is due to the growth inhibition of the 4% protein diet or some other phenomena remains to be determined

  10. The radiation-sterilization of semi-synthetic penicillins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation in the dry state of the semi-synthetic penicillins, amoxycillin trihydrate, flucloxacillin-Na, methicillin-Na results in minimal degradation even following a 5 Mrad dose, suggesting the feasibility of their radiation-sterilization. Carbenicillin-Na is more susceptible to radiation-induced degradation but is nevertheless not affected by 1 Mrad dose. This 'low' dose may be suitable for carbenicillin with very low initial contamination. (author)

  11. Current status of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K P; Hanna, K; Waring, G O; Gipson, I; Liu, Y; Gailitis, R P; Johnson-Wint, B; Green, K

    1991-01-01

    Many of the deficiencies with human tissue epikeratoplasty might be improved by the use of a suitable synthetic lenticule. Potential biomaterials for epikeratoplasty include collagen (types I, III, or IV), collagen-hydrogel copolymers, bioactive synthetics, and coated hydrogels. The biomaterial must be engineered to achieve strict specifications of optical clarity, support of epithelial migration and adhesion, permeability to solutes, and stability to corneal proteases. Attaching synthetic lenticules to the cornea without cutting Bowman's layer by adhesives, laser welding, or direct adhesion may also improve the efficacy of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

  12. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  13. Finding Hope in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Tuija

    2017-04-01

    For some, synthetic biology represents great hope in offering possible solutions to many of the world's biggest problems, from hunger to sustainable development. Others remain fearful of the harmful uses, such as bioweapons, that synthetic biology can lend itself to, and most hold that issues of biosafety are of utmost importance. In this article, I will evaluate these points of view and conclude that although the biggest promises of synthetic biology are unlikely to become reality, and the probability of accidents is fairly substantial, synthetic biology could still be seen to benefit humanity by enhancing our ethical understanding and by offering a boost to world economy.

  14. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  15. Life after the synthetic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self-replicating ......Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self...

  16. Computational synthetic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bokowski, Jürgen

    1989-01-01

    Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...

  17. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging......Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B......-mode images have high contrast. Like all imaging modalities, ultrasound is subject to a number of inherent artifacts that compromise image quality. The most prominent artifact is the degradation by coherent wave interference, known as “speckle”, which gives a granular appearance to an otherwise homogeneous...

  18. Transionospheric synthetic aperture imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gilman, Mikhail; Tsynkov, Semyon

    2017-01-01

    This landmark monograph presents the most recent mathematical developments in the analysis of ionospheric distortions of SAR images and offers innovative new strategies for their mitigation. As a prerequisite to addressing these topics, the book also discusses the radar ambiguity theory as it applies to synthetic aperture imaging and the propagation of radio waves through the ionospheric plasma, including the anisotropic and turbulent cases. In addition, it covers a host of related subjects, such as the mathematical modeling of extended radar targets (as opposed to point-wise targets) and the scattering of radio waves off those targets, as well as the theoretical analysis of the start-stop approximation, which is used routinely in SAR signal processing but often without proper justification. The mathematics in this volume is clean and rigorous – no assumptions are hidden or ambiguously stated. The resulting work is truly interdisciplinary, providing both a comprehensive and thorough exposition of the field,...

  19. Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynaud, J -P; Bucourt, R; Salmon, J

    1975-12-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of estradiol has been obtained by coupling estradiol to albumin via a chain at position 7. For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. These criteria were used to develop assays for R 2858 and R 2453 which obviate the need to administer radioactive product in clinical pharmacology. Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone).

  20. Synthetic fuels and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1981-03-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. equal to 40-60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. equal to 50-70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long-term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  1. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  4. China's move to food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Chinese officials outlined China's past and future directions at a recent international food irradiation seminar in Shanghai sponsored by the FAO and IAEA. The meeting was attended by about 170 participants from China and 22 other countries, primarily from the Asian and Pacific region. Three food irradiation plants currently are operating in the region and 14 more are planned over the next 5 years. It was reported that China continues to suffer high food losses, up to 30% for some commodities, primarily due to preservation and storage problems. In January 1986, the first of five regional irradiation facilities planned in China officially opened in Shanghai. The Shanghai irradiation centre plans to process up to 35,000 tons of vegetables a year, as well as some spices, fruits, and non-food products. The Ministry of Public Health has approved seven irradiated foods as safe human diets: rice, potatoes, onions, garlic, peanuts, mushrooms and pork sausages; approval for apples is expected shortly. The Chinese officials at the Shanghai meeting stressed their openness to foreign participation and cooperation in food irradiation's development

  5. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  6. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  7. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  10. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  11. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  12. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  13. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2012-11-16

    Metabolic engineering emerged 20 years ago as the discipline occupied with the directed modification of metabolic pathways for the microbial synthesis of various products. As such, it deals with the engineering (design, construction, and optimization) of native as well as non-natural routes of product synthesis, aided in this task by the availability of synthetic DNA, the core enabling technology of synthetic biology. The two fields, however, only partially overlap in their interest in pathway engineering. While fabrication of biobricks, synthetic cells, genetic circuits, and nonlinear cell dynamics, along with pathway engineering, have occupied researchers in the field of synthetic biology, the sum total of these areas does not constitute a coherent definition of synthetic biology with a distinct intellectual foundation and well-defined areas of application. This paper reviews the origins of the two fields and advances two distinct paradigms for each of them: that of unit operations for metabolic engineering and electronic circuits for synthetic biology. In this context, metabolic engineering is about engineering cell factories for the biological manufacturing of chemical and pharmaceutical products, whereas the main focus of synthetic biology is fundamental biological research facilitated by the use of synthetic DNA and genetic circuits.

  14. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially...

  15. Synthetic biology of polyketide synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Backman, Tyler W.H.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-01-01

    ). The modules are composed of enzymatic domains that share sequence and functional similarity across all known PKSs. We have used the nomenclature of synthetic biology to classify the enzymatic domains and modules as parts and devices, respectively, and have generated detailed lists of both. In addition, we...... realize the potential that synthetic biology approaches bring to this class of molecules....

  16. Effects of feeding irradiated wheat to malnourished children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskaram, C.; Sadasivan, G.

    1975-01-01

    Fifteen children suffering from severe protein-calorie malnutrition were divided into three groups of five each and received diets containing either unirradiated, freshly irradiated, or stored irradiated wheat. All the children were hospitalized for a period of 6 weeks and leukocyte cultures were done initially and at intervals of 2 weeks. Children receiving freshly irradiated wheat developed polyploid cells and certain abnormal cells in increasing number as the duration of feeding increased and showed a gradual reversal to basal level of nil after withdrawal of irradiated wheat. In marked contrast, none of the children fed unirradiated diet developed any abnormal cells while children fed stored irradiated wheat showed polyploid and abnormal cells in significantly decreased numbers. Though the biological significance of polyploidy is not clear, its association with malignancy makes it imperative that the wholesomeness of irradiated wheat for human consumption be very carefully assessed. (U.S.)

  17. Computing with synthetic protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, Alexis; Molina, Franck; Amar, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    In this article we present a new kind of computing device that uses biochemical reactions networks as building blocks to implement logic gates. The architecture of a computing machine relies on these generic and composable building blocks, computation units, that can be used in multiple instances to perform complex boolean functions. Standard logical operations are implemented by biochemical networks, encapsulated and insulated within synthetic vesicles called protocells. These protocells are capable of exchanging energy and information with each other through transmembrane electron transfer. In the paradigm of computation we propose, protoputing, a machine can solve only one problem and therefore has to be built specifically. Thus, the programming phase in the standard computing paradigm is represented in our approach by the set of assembly instructions (specific attachments) that directs the wiring of the protocells that constitute the machine itself. To demonstrate the computing power of protocellular machines, we apply it to solve a NP-complete problem, known to be very demanding in computing power, the 3-SAT problem. We show how to program the assembly of a machine that can verify the satisfiability of a given boolean formula. Then we show how to use the massive parallelism of these machines to verify in less than 20 min all the valuations of the input variables and output a fluorescent signal when the formula is satisfiable or no signal at all otherwise.

  18. Irradiated food for immunocompromised people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Immune-compromise is a condition in which the natural defenses against diseases are dimished; several situations can be cited as examples, including mis nourishment, pregnancy, young and old age. This enhances the probability of suffering microbial diseases, caused by food borne pathogens. Traditionally, immune-suppressed patients in hospitals were isolated from the environment, being their food sterilized by different treatments, including irradiation. At present the medical opinion differs from this approach due to the costs and specialized requirements, uncertainties about the clinical benefits, and psychological convenience. So, the tendency nowadays seems to move, when the patient's condition allows it, from 'sterile diets' to 'low microbe diets' (or 'clean diets'). At the National Atomic Energy Commission, Argentina, under Coordinated Research Programmes of the Food and Environmental Preservation Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, in which 14 countries participated, treatments at pasteurizing doses were studied to widen the meals availability for vulnerable persons, to include some products usually considered as 'high risk' , but nutritionally or psychologically adequate. In a first experience, nutritionists working at the corresponding Service in a Buenos Aires hospital elaborated diets suitable for patients with different immune-compromise degrees, and advised on the interesting meal types to be studied. In a second experience, advanced nutrition students of the Entre Rios University performed a sensory evaluation in which 44 immune- compromised patients at the Jose de San Martin Clinical School Hospital, Buenos Aires, tasted a whole irradiated lunch composed of meals usually forbidden due to high microbial risk, though highly desired. The patients evaluated this lunch with high scores and showed enthusiastic towards the irradiation treatment. This preservation treatment could not only be useful to supply hospitals but also supermarkets. (author)

  19. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu.

    1989-01-01

    In an irradiation device for irradiating radiation rays such as electron beams to pharmaceuticals, etc., since the distribution of scanned electron rays was not monitored, the electron beam intensity could be determined only indirectly and irradiation reliability was not satisfactory. In view of the above, a plurality of monitor wires emitting secondary electrons are disposed in the scanning direction near a beam take-out window of a scanning duct, signals from the monitor wires are inputted into a display device such as a cathode ray tube, as well as signals from the monitor wires at the central portion are inputted into counting rate meters to measure the radiation dose as well. Since secondary electrons are emitted when electron beams pass through the monitor wires and the intensity thereof is in proportion with the intensity of incident electron beams, the distribution of the radiation dose can be monitored by measuring the intensity of the emitted secondary electrons. Further, uneven irradiation, etc. can also be monitored to make the radiation of irradiation rays reliable. (N.H.)

  20. Wholesomeness studies of irradiated salted and dried mackerel, using rats. Part of a coordinated programme on the wholesomeness of the process of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anukarahanonta, T.

    1978-04-01

    Chronic toxicity of irradiated salted and dried mackerel was evaluated by multi-generation rat feeding studies. Salted and dried mackerel samples were irradiated with 200krad, ground and mixed with a standard laboratory animal diet at 28% w/w. Wistar strain rats were used in the experiment and were divided into 3 groups and fed their respective diets, i.e. stock ration, diet containing 28% of non-irradiated salted and dried mackerel and diet containing 28% of irradiated salted and dried mackerel. The test was carried out for 3 generations. The results revealed no significant difference that would impose a hazard attributable to consumption of irradiated salted and dried mackerel with respect to longevity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, dominant lethal, reproductive function and biophysiological function in animals tested

  1. Growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Sharma, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Spodoptera litura was reared on natural food (castor leaves, Ricinus communis) and on a several semi-synthetic diets using quasi mass rearing techniques. The effect of the different diets and rearing regimes on S. litura growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour was measured. Spodoptera litura reared from a modified chickpea-based diet provided the greatest growth index and index of adequacy. These studies were conducted as a prerequisite for the evaluation of F 1 sterility technique. (author)

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  3. Vinca irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymery, R.

    1976-10-01

    The development programme of the VINCA radiosterilisation centre involves plans for an irradiator capable of working in several ways. Discontinuous operation. The irradiator is loaded for a certain period then runs automatically until the moment of unloading. This method is suitable as long as the treatment capacity is relatively small. Continuous operation with permanent batch loading and unloading carried out either manually or automatically (by means of equipment to be installed later). Otherwise the design of the apparatus is highly conventional. The source is a vertical panel submersible in a pool. The conveyor is of the 'bucket' type, with 4 tiers to each bucket. The batches pass successively through all possible irradiation positions. Transfert into and out of the cell take place through a maze, which also provides access to the cell when the sources are in storage at the bottom of the pool [fr

  4. Synthetic Biology and Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology, application of synthetic chemistry to biology, is a broad term that covers the engineering of biological systems with structures and functions not found in nature to process information, manipulate chemicals, produce energy, maintain cell environment and enhance human health. Synthetic biology devices contribute not only to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms, but also provide novel diagnostic tools. Methods based on synthetic biology enable the design of novel strategies for the treatment of cancer, immune diseases metabolic disorders and infectious diseases as well as the production of cheap drugs. The potential of synthetic genome, using an expanded genetic code that is designed for specific drug synthesis as well as delivery and activation of the drug in vivo by a pathological signal, was already pointed out during a lecture delivered at Kuwait University in 2005. Of two approaches to synthetic biology, top-down and bottom-up, the latter is more relevant to the development of personalized medicines as it provides more flexibility in constructing a partially synthetic cell from basic building blocks for a desired task. PMID:22907209

  5. High-water-base hydraulic fluid-irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.C.; Meacham, S.A.

    1981-10-01

    A remote system for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies is being designed under the direction of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). The design incorporates a dual hydraulic fluid actuation system in which only one of the fluids, a high-water-base (HWBF), would be exposed to ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination. A commercially available synthetic, solution-type HWBF was selected as the reference. Single-sample irradiation experiments were conducted with three commercial fluids over a range of irradiation exposures. The physical and chemical properties of the irradiated HWBFs were analyzed and compared with unirradiated samples. In general, the results of the analyses showed increasing degradation of fluid properties with increasing irradiation dose. The results also indicated that a synthetic solution-type HWBF would perform satisfactorily in the remote shear system where irradiation doses up to 10 6 Gy (10 8 rad) are expected

  6. High-water-base hydraulic fluid-irradiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.C.; Meacham, S.A.

    1981-10-01

    A remote system for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies is being designed under the direction of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). The design incorporates a dual hydraulic fluid actuation system in which only one of the fluids, a high-water-base (HWBF), would be exposed to ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination. A commercially available synthetic, solution-type HWBF was selected as the reference. Single-sample irradiation experiments were conducted with three commercial fluids over a range of irradiation exposures. The physical and chemical properties of the irradiated HWBFs were analyzed and compared with unirradiated samples. In general, the results of the analyses showed increasing degradation of fluid properties with increasing irradiation dose. The results also indicated that a synthetic solution-type HWBF would perform satisfactorily in the remote shear system where irradiation doses up to 10/sup 6/ Gy (10/sup 8/ rad) are expected.

  7. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  8. Synthetic Biology: Advancing Biological Frontiers by Building Synthetic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  9. Caffeine in the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  10. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  11. Diet-boosting foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity - diet-boosting foods; Overweight - diet-boosting foods ... Low-fat and nonfat milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese are healthy sources of calcium, vitamin D , and potassium. Unlike sweetened drinks with extra calories, milk ...

  12. Gastric Bypass Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the guidance of your doctor. A new healthy diet Three to four months after weight-loss surgery, ... as your stomach continues to heal. Throughout the diet To ensure that you get enough vitamins and ...

  13. Wholesomeness and safety of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation with gamma-rays, X-rays or fast electrons can be used to change foodstuffs in beneficial ways or to destroy harmful organisms. Gamma rays do not induce radioactivity in foods, but X-rays and fast electrons can induce short lived radioactivity if sufficiently energetic. This imposes limitations on the energies which can be used, and a short wait between irradiation and consumption may be advisable. Irradiation produces chemical changes in foodstuffs, and some foods are unsuitable for irradiation. With appropriate foods, trials with animals and human volunteers generally show that the product is safe. Some loss in nutritional quality can take place, which could be significant for some individuals, but are unlikely to be important for those on a balanced diet. Irradiation does not eliminate all risk from microbial contamination. Foods to be irradiated should be good quality, and need to be kept under proper conditions after irradiation. Irradiated foods should be appropriately labelled. Tests for radiation would help to enforce necessary controls. If the process is properly carried out on appropriate foods, and all due precautions are taken, irradiated foods are wholesome and safe. 52 references

  14. Diet induced thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp KR

    2004-01-01

    Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Resu...

  15. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23680946

  16. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

  17. Diet quality in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der Laura A.; Nguyen, Anh N.; Schoufour, Josje D.; Geelen, Anouk; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Franco, Oscar H.; Voortman, Trudy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to evaluate diet quality of 8-year-old children in the Netherlands, to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of child diet quality, and to examine tracking of diet quality from early to mid-childhood. Methods: For 4733 children participating in a population-based

  18. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth / For Teens / Are Detox Diets ... seguras las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that ...

  19. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring

  20. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  1. Radiation induced color center and colloid formation in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.; Swyler, K.J.; Klaffky, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    F-center and colloid particle formation has been studied in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt crystals with apparatus for making optical absorption measurements during irradiation. F-center and colloid formation are functions of temperature, dose, dose rate, strain applied prior to irradiation and numerous other factors. Many of the observed properties are in accord with the Jain-Lidiard theory for radiation induced F-center and colloid growth above room temperature

  2. Diet and eating after esophagectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esophagectomy - diet; Post-esophagectomy diet ... weight. You will also be on a special diet when you first get home. ... will teach you how to prepare the liquid diet for the feeding tube and how much to ...

  3. Metabolic Effects of Ketogenic Diets

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    The results of 24 metabolic profiles performed on 55 epileptic children receiving the classical ketogenic diet, the MCT diet, a modified MCT diet, and normal diets are reported from the University Department of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England.

  4. Approaches to chemical synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Stano, Pasquale; Anella, Fabrizio; Carrara, Paolo; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-07-16

    Synthetic biology is first represented in terms of two complementary aspects, the bio-engineering one, based on the genetic manipulation of extant microbial forms in order to obtain forms of life which do not exist in nature; and the chemical synthetic biology, an approach mostly based on chemical manipulation for the laboratory synthesis of biological structures that do not exist in nature. The paper is mostly devoted to shortly review chemical synthetic biology projects currently carried out in our laboratory. In particular, we describe: the minimal cell project, then the "Never Born Proteins" and lastly the Never Born RNAs. We describe and critically analyze the main results, emphasizing the possible relevance of chemical synthetic biology for the progress in basic science and biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthetic Biology for Specialty Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kelly A; Alper, Hal S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances in the field of synthetic biology and describe how those tools have been applied to produce a wide variety of chemicals in microorganisms. Here we classify the expansion of the synthetic biology toolbox into three different categories based on their primary function in strain engineering-for design, for construction, and for optimization. Next, focusing on recent years, we look at how chemicals have been produced using these new synthetic biology tools. Advances in producing fuels are briefly described, followed by a more thorough treatment of commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on how synthetic biology tools are applied to strain engineering. Finally, we discuss organism and host strain diversity and provide a future outlook in the field.

  6. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  7. Adaptive Synthetic Forces: Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Randall

    2001-01-01

    ...: perception, comprehension, and prediction. Building on these ideas, we developed techniques for improving the situation awareness in synthetic helicopter pilots for the ModSAF military simulation by giving them more human-like perception...

  8. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  9. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  10. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  11. Applicaiton and characteristics of food irradiation on food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Yiming

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation is one of non-thermal processing technology. Physical, chemical and biology effects were induced by the interaction of ionization irradiation and materials and acting on materials or food, then, food molecular was modified by rays and the harmful substances in it degraded. Irradiation is an effective method to improve food safety and extend the shelf life of food. In the article, the status of food safety at home and abroad in recently years was summarized, and the characteristic and application areas of irradiation technology in food safety were synthetically analyzed. (author)

  12. Influence of host irradiation on the bio-infectivity of Steinernema glaseri as entomopathogenic nematodes and their perpetuating parasitisation potential on a serious tropical lepidopteran pest, Spodoptera litura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, R K [Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Barik, T K; Chauhan, S [Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2005-07-01

    Biological and parabiological control measures of the lepidopteran pest, Spodoptera litura need to be eco-compatible in view of increasing environmental hazards by the chemical pesticides and development of insecticide-resistance in this pest. Among bio-control agents, the entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) appear to be promising due to their great ability for host searching and killing, high reproductive rate, and safety to the non target organisms. The EPNs need to be transported within host-insects (in vivo) into the field so that they have their proper viability as part of augmentative releases. To avoid the risk of released host insects, if unparasitized, building up of the pest population in the field, radiation-sterilisation of the host is considered desirable. Therefore, an attempt was made to ascertain the bioinfectivity of EPNs, Steinernema glaseri vis-a-vis irradiated hosts, Spodoptera litura and assess parasitisation behaviour of the infective juveniles (IJs) derived from irradiated hosts, in order to establish this biocontrol strategy using nuclear techniques. Radiation impact was ascertained on behaviour and reproduction of S. litura in order to select the range of gamma doses for sterilising the various insect stages. Radio-sensitivity decreased with age in this 'radio-resistant' pest, S. litura. Two doses were selected (40 Gy, 70 Gy), for bio-evaluation of EPNs on treated host stages. 70 Gy was determined as an overall sterilising dose for late larval and prepupal stages. Influence of host-irradiation was ascertained on EPNs bioefficacy towards hosts reared on two different diets, castor (natural food) and a semi-synthetic diet (used in mass-rearing). Host-irradiation did not influence significantly the parasitisation behaviour of EPNs on host insects reared on castor, whereas irradiation slightly affected the bio-infective response of EPNs and their proliferation rate in hosts fed on the semi-synthetic diet. Further, the parasitisation behaviour of

  13. Safety evaluation on irradiated food ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports double-blind observations of volunteers who took 35 kinds of irradiated foods as their main diet for 90 days. The subjects consisted of 70 medical students and 8 staff members in the Shanghai Medical University. They were randomly divided into two groups. One group was supplied with irradiated foods, the other acted as controls eating the same food but non-irradiated. The 35 kinds of irradiated foods were grain, meat products, vegetables, fruits, dried fruits etc. The absorbed dose of irradiation from the processed foods varied from 0.1 to 8.0 kGy. The irradiated foods made up 60.3% of the total food intake by weight. Observations during 90 days indicated that the subjects were all pleased with their diets and no adverse effects on their health were seen. Clinical and laboratory examinations included routine blood and urine tests, blood biochemical examinations, hepatic and renal function tests, endocrinological assays, cellular immunity tests, and mutagenetic studies (such as the incidence of polyploid cells, chromosomal structural aberration, rates of sister chromatid-exchanges, micronuclei test, urine Ames' test). These studies showed that the ingestion of these foods are safe for humans

  14. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Rosanna M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  15. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  16. Industrial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Production lines for rubber gloves would not appear to have much in common with particle physics laboratories, but they both use accelerators. Electron beam irradiation is often used in industry to improve the quality of manufactured goods or to reduce production cost. Products range from computer disks, shrink packaging, tyres, cables, and plastics to hot water pipes. Some products, such as medical goods, cosmetics and certain foodstuffs, are sterilized in this way. In electron beam irradiation, electrons penetrate materials creating showers of low energy electrons. After many collisions these electrons have the correct energy to create chemically active sites. They may either break molecular bonds or activate a site which promotes a new chemical linkage. This industrial irradiation can be exploited in three ways: breaking down a biological molecule usually renders it useless and kills the organism; breaking an organic molecule can change its toxicity or function; and crosslinking a polymer can strengthen it. In addition to traditional gamma irradiation using isotopes, industrial irradiation uses three accelerator configurations, each type defining an energy range, and consequently the electron penetration depth. For energies up to 750 kV, the accelerator consists of a DC potential applied to a simple wire anode and the electrons extracted through a slot in a coaxially mounted cylindrical cathode. In the 1-5 MeV range, the Cockcroft-Walton or Dynamitron( R ) accelerators are normally used. To achieve the high potentials in these DC accelerators, insulating SF6 gas and large dimension vessels separate the anode and cathode; proprietary techniques distinguish the various commercial models available. Above 5 MeV, the size of DC accelerators render them impractical, and more compact radiofrequency-driven linear accelerators are used. Irradiation electron beams are actually 'sprayed' over the product using a magnetic deflection system. Lower energy beams of

  17. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerens, H [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Saint-Lebe, L

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment.

  19. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransohoff, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Carriers, after being loaded with product to be irradiated, are transported by an input-output conveyor system into an irradiation chamber where they are received in a horizontal arrangement on racks which may support different sizes and numbers of carriers. The racks are moved by a chamber conveyor system in an endless rectangular path about a radiation source. Packers shift the carriers on the racks to maintain nearest proximity to the radiation source. The carriers are shifted in position on each rack during successive rack cycles to produce even radiation exposure. The carriers may be loaded singly onto successive racks during a first cycle of movement thereof about the source, with loading of additional carriers, and/or unloading of carriers, onto each rack occurring on subsequent rack cycles of movement

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  2. Endolymphatic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, M.M.; Ianhez, L.E.; Sabbaga, E.

    1982-01-01

    The authors analysed the clinical evolution and the result of renal transplantation some years after irradiation in 24 patients (group I) who received endolymphatic 131 I as a pre-transplantation immunesuppresive measure. The control group (group II) consisted of 24 non-irradiated patients comparable to group I in age, sex, primary disease, type of donor and immunesuppressive therapy. Significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding such factors a incidence and reversibility of rejection crises in the first 60 post-transplantation days, loss of kidney due to rejection, and dosage of azathioprine. The authors conclude that this method, besides being harmless, has prolonged immunesuppressive action, its administration being advised for receptores of cadaver kidneys, mainly those who show positive cross-match against HLA antigens for painel. (Author) [pt

  3. The effect of X-irradiation on vitamin E deficient rat liver mitochondrial ATPase and cytochrome c oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkut, S.

    1978-01-01

    Male albino rats were fed for 3 weeks on standard diets or on diets either deficient in or supplemented by vitamin E, whole-body X-irradiated and then immediately decapitated. Liver mitochondrial ATPase activity was stimulated and cytochrome c oxidase inhibited in the irradiated vitamin E deficient group. These activities were not influenced by irradiation in the rats fed on vitamin E supplemented and standard diets. The live mitochondrial vitamin E level was decreased in rats fed on the deficient diet. No differences in liver mitochondrial vitamin E levels were observed after X-irradiation of rats fed on any of the diets. The results suggest that the liver mitochondrial inner-membrane structure may be altered by a diet deficient in vitamin E. (U.K.)

  4. Meeting Report: Synthetic Biology Jamboree for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology (the name is derived from an analogy to synthetic chemistry) has recognized itself as a "field" only since about 2002. Synthetic biology has gotten some high-profile attention recently, but most people are not aware the field even exists. Synthetic biologists apply engineering principles to genomic circuits to…

  5. Progress in food irradiation: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, B.

    1978-01-01

    The initial work programme started with investigations on the use of irradiation for preserving beans, onions, rice, potato, wheat, and corn. These products constitute an important part of the average daily diet and, in spite of the large harvests, very heavy losses are incurred each year. Rather than adopt the research results obtained in other countries, the Brazilian authorities considered it essential to establish optimal dose levels for these products and to analyse for physical, chemical and organoleptic alterations under the conditions prevailing in Brazil. Similarly wholesomeness testing has been included as an integral part of the research programme in compliance with the requirements of the National Health Ministry. (orig.) [de

  6. Induction and reversion process of molecular and cytological alterations after highly irradiated food ingestion in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo M, M.I.; Fernandez C, M.

    1984-01-01

    The molecular and cytological alterations induced in a mammal (Mus musculus) fed ad libitum with a balanced pellet diet irradiated with 50 KGy gamma radiation from weaning, for different periods, are analyzed. The transient chromosomal changes that recall tumor-like phenomena could be the expression of the damage and repair processes induced by changed molecules present in irradiated food. The reversible alterations of DNA structure and cytoplasmatic soluble proteins observed in mice fed with irradiated pellet diet could be interpreted as a result of the enhancement of the repair processes which could also explain the significant increase of the radioresistance of DNA found at 200 days after irradiated food ingestion. Finally, our results would suggest an induction of a pseudo-neoplasia due to a prolongated and exclusive ingestion of food irradiated with sterilizing gamma dose. Moreover, the maintenance of the irradiated diet induce the reversion of the observed phenomena by an eventual activation of the repair mechanisms. (Author)

  7. Synthetic biology, metaphors and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-08-29

    Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.

  8. Content metamorphosis in synthetic holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbiens, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic hologram is an optical system made of hundreds of images amalgamated in a structure of holographic cells. Each of these images represents a point of view on a three-dimensional space which makes us consider synthetic holography as a multiple points of view perspective system. In the composition of a computer graphics scene for a synthetic hologram, the field of view of the holographic image can be divided into several viewing zones. We can attribute these divisions to any object or image feature independently and operate different transformations on image content. In computer generated holography, we tend to consider content variations as a continuous animation much like a short movie. However, by composing sequential variations of image features in relation with spatial divisions, we can build new narrative forms distinct from linear cinematographic narration. When observers move freely and change their viewing positions, they travel from one field of view division to another. In synthetic holography, metamorphoses of image content are within the observer's path. In all imaging Medias, the transformation of image features in synchronisation with the observer's position is a rare occurrence. However, this is a predominant characteristic of synthetic holography. This paper describes some of my experimental works in the development of metamorphic holographic images.

  9. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Natural β-carotene and whole body irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Amotz, A.; Rachmilevich, B.; Greenberg, S.; Sela, M.; Weshler, Z.

    1996-01-01

    β-Carotene and other carotenoids are reported to be potent free radical quenchers, singlet oxygen scavengers, and lipid antioxidants. Whole-body irradiation is known to cause an immunosuppression effect in mammals through the possible initiation and production of reactive oxygen species. We decided to test the possible antioxidative effect against whole-body irradiation of a natural β-carotene, composed of equal amounts of the all-trans and 9-cis isomers, obtained from the unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil. Rats were fed on ground commercial food enriched with natural β-carotene (50 mg/kg diet). On completion of 1 week with β-carotene, the rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 Gy whole-body irradiation, after which their livers and blood were removed for β-carotene and retinol analysis in comparison with control livers of animals irradiated or not, or supplemented with β-carotene after irradiation. A normal increase in body weight with no ill effects was noted in the groups of rats whose diet was supplemented by β-carotene before and after irradiation, compared with the reduction in the specific growth rate in the group of rats irradiated without β-carotene. Liver β-carotene and retinol decreased significantly after irradiation compared with the rats which were not irradiated. This decrease was not shown in rats fed β-carotene prior to irradiation, and the effect of irradiation was partially cured by supplementation with β-carotene after irradiation. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the irradiated animals showed a selective decline in 9-cis β-carotene and in retinol over all-trans β-carotene and retinyl esters. These results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene and retinol protect in vivo against the cellular damage by free radicals induced after whole-body irradiation. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Nutritional aspects of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.

    1990-06-01

    Mangoes, like most other fruits, constitute a small but very important part of human diet in tropical countries. Their carbohydrate content is a source of energy; however, their main importance is as a rich source of vitamins, particularly vitamins A and C. Increasing the shelf life of mangoes is desirable, since on ripening they become highly perishable and have a very short shelf life. Low-dose irradiation is considered to be a good method for extending their shelf life. This literature review examines the effect of radiation processing on the nutrients in mangoes. In general, irradiation has little effect on the main nutrients, vitamin C, carotenoids and carbohydrates. There is a significant loss of vitamin C only in a few varieties of mangoes, while in the others the vitamin C level is unaffected. The extension of shelf life also depends on the storage conditions, particularly temperature. While low-temperature storage followed by ripening at room temperature leads to high vitamin C levels, it reduces the carotenoid levels in some varieties. Thus, the storage and the ripening temperatures should be optimized for each variety to obtain the maximum benefit of irradiation. Long-term, multi-generation rat feeding studies to assess the wholesomeness of irradiated mangoes have shown no adverse effects

  12. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  13. Synthetic neurosteroids on brain protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids, like allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, are endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability. Inside the brain, they are highly selective and potent modulators of GABA A receptor activity. Their anticonvulsant, anesthetics and anxiolytic properties are useful for the treatments of several neurological and psychiatric disorders via reducing the risks of side effects obtained with the commercial drugs. The principal disadvantages of endogenous neurosteroids administration are their rapid metabolism and their low oral bioavailability. Synthetic steroids analogues with major stability or endogenous neurosteroids stimulation synthesis might constitute promising novel strategies for the treatment of several disorders. Numerous studies indicate that the 3α-hydroxyl configuration is the key for binding and activity, but modifications in the steroid nucleus may emphasize different pharmacophores. So far, several synthetic steroids have been developed with successful neurosteroid-like effects. In this work, we summarize the properties of various synthetic steroids probed in trials throughout the analysis of several neurosteroids-like actions.

  14. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  16. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  17. Synthetic biology and its promises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel De Cózar Escalante

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new science and emerging technology, or rather a technoscience, which converges with others such as nanotechnology, information technology, robotics, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. All have common features that could have highly concerning social and environmental impacts. With its ambitious goals of controlling complexity, redesigning and creating new living entities, synthetic biology perfectly exemplifies the new bioeconomic reality. This requires expanding the focus of the discussion beyond the limited comparative analysis of risks and benefits, to address uncertainties, reassign responsibilities and initiate a thorough social assessment of what is at stake.

  18. The Civil War Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Matthew Philip

    2005-01-01

    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  19. Effects of irradiated Ergosan on the growth performance and mucus biological components of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Najmeh; Chehrara, Fatemeh; Heidarieh, Marzieh; Nofouzi, Katayoon; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Effects of irradiated and non-irradiated Ergosan extract (alginic acid) on rainbow trout growth performance and skin mucosal immunity were compared. Ergosan was irradiated at 30 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. A total of 252 fish (128.03±9.4 g) were randomly divided into four equal groups, given the basal diet either unsupplemented with Ergosan (control group) or supplemented with crude Ergosan (5 g/kg), ethanol-extracted Ergosan (0.33 g/kg) or irradiated Ergosan (0.33 g/kg) according to this protocol: basal diet for 15 days, treatment diet for 15 days, basal diet for 10 days and treatment diet for 15 days. Highest growth performance was observed in fish fed irradiated Ergosan ( P <0.05). Dietary administration of different Ergosan types did not cause any changes in mucus protein level, but improved alkaline phosphatase level and hemagglutination titer compared with the control (basal diet without Ergosan) on day 55 of feeding trial ( P <0.05). Furthermore, the highest value of lysozyme activity was observed in gamma-irradiated Ergosan on day 55. In conclusion, gamma-irradiated Ergosan at 0.33 g/kg was found to improve growth performance and mucus biological components significantly in comparison with the control group (basal diet without Ergosan).

  20. Radiation luminescence of polymers - emission behaviour of aromatic compounds incorporated in synthetic rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1986-01-01

    For a deep understanding of a radiation protection mechanism of some aromatic compounds on synthetic polymers, their optical emission behavior under electron irradiation was studied. The fluorescence light was led out of an irradiation room through a wave guide and detected by a photomultiplier so that less noisy spectrum was obtained. Acenaphthene or acenaphthylene was added to the synthetic rubbers such as ethylene propylene diene terpolymer, styrene butadiene rubber and cis-1,4-polybutadiene. The intensities of optical emission induced by electron beams changed from polymer to polymer, while those by ultraviolet lights were independent of the kind of polymers. The dependence of emission intensity on polymers under electron irradiation was estimated to show the fact that the radiation excited energy transfers occur from the polymer matrix to the additives and that an efficiency of the energy transfer is dependent on kinds of polymers. (author)

  1. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  2. Stereoscopy in cinematographic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present experiments and results pertaining to the perception of depth in stereoscopic viewing of synthetic imagery. In computer animation, typical synthetic imagery is highly textured and uses stylized illumination of abstracted material models by abstracted light source models. While there have been numerous studies concerning stereoscopic capabilities, conventions for staging and cinematography in stereoscopic movies have not yet been well-established. Our long-term goal is to measure the effectiveness of various cinematography techniques on the human visual system in a theatrical viewing environment. We would like to identify the elements of stereoscopic cinema that are important in terms of enhancing the viewer's understanding of a scene as well as providing guidelines for the cinematographer relating to storytelling. In these experiments we isolated stereoscopic effects by eliminating as many other visual cues as is reasonable. In particular, we aim to empirically determine what types of movement in synthetic imagery affect the perceptual depth sensing capabilities of our viewers. Using synthetic imagery, we created several viewing scenarios in which the viewer is asked to locate a target object's depth in a simple environment. The scenarios were specifically designed to compare the effectiveness of stereo viewing, camera movement, and object motion in aiding depth perception. Data were collected showing the error between the choice of the user and the actual depth value, and patterns were identified that relate the test variables to the viewer's perceptual depth accuracy in our theatrical viewing environment.

  3. Synthetic biology meets tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie A; Cachat, Elise

    2016-06-15

    Classical tissue engineering is aimed mainly at producing anatomically and physiologically realistic replacements for normal human tissues. It is done either by encouraging cellular colonization of manufactured matrices or cellular recolonization of decellularized natural extracellular matrices from donor organs, or by allowing cells to self-organize into organs as they do during fetal life. For repair of normal bodies, this will be adequate but there are reasons for making unusual, non-evolved tissues (repair of unusual bodies, interface to electromechanical prostheses, incorporating living cells into life-support machines). Synthetic biology is aimed mainly at engineering cells so that they can perform custom functions: applying synthetic biological approaches to tissue engineering may be one way of engineering custom structures. In this article, we outline the 'embryological cycle' of patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis and review progress that has been made in constructing synthetic biological systems to reproduce these processes in new ways. The state-of-the-art remains a long way from making truly synthetic tissues, but there are now at least foundations for future work. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  4. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  5. Assessment of synthetic image fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kevin D.; Moorhead, Ian R.; Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Watson, Graham H.; Thomson, Mitch; Yates, T.; Troscianko, Tomasz; Tolhurst, David J.

    2000-07-01

    Computer generated imagery is increasingly used for a wide variety of purposes ranging from computer games to flight simulators to camouflage and sensor assessment. The fidelity required for this imagery is dependent on the anticipated use - for example when used for camouflage design it must be physically correct spectrally and spatially. The rendering techniques used will also depend upon the waveband being simulated, spatial resolution of the sensor and the required frame rate. Rendering of natural outdoor scenes is particularly demanding, because of the statistical variation in materials and illumination, atmospheric effects and the complex geometric structures of objects such as trees. The accuracy of the simulated imagery has tended to be assessed subjectively in the past. First and second order statistics do not capture many of the essential characteristics of natural scenes. Direct pixel comparison would impose an unachievable demand on the synthetic imagery. For many applications, such as camouflage design, it is important that nay metrics used will work in both visible and infrared wavebands. We are investigating a variety of different methods of comparing real and synthetic imagery and comparing synthetic imagery rendered to different levels of fidelity. These techniques will include neural networks (ICA), higher order statistics and models of human contrast perception. This paper will present an overview of the analyses we have carried out and some initial results along with some preliminary conclusions regarding the fidelity of synthetic imagery.

  6. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  7. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  8. Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Davison, W; Hamilton-Taylor, J

    2002-03-01

    Synthetic solutions that emulate the major ion compositions of natural waters are useful in experiments aimed at understanding biogeochemical processes. Standard recipes exist for preparing synthetic analogues of seawater, with its relatively constant composition, but, due to the diversity of freshwaters, a range of compositions and recipes is required. Generic protocols are developed for preparing synthetic freshwaters of any desired composition. The major problems encountered in preparing hard and soft waters include dissolving sparingly soluble calcium carbonate, ensuring that the ionic components of each concentrated stock solution cannot form an insoluble salt and dealing with the supersaturation of calcium carbonate in many hard waters. For acidic waters the poor solubility of aluminium salts requires attention. These problems are overcome by preparing concentrated stock solutions according to carefully designed reaction paths that were tested using a combination of experiment and equilibrium modeling. These stock solutions must then be added in a prescribed order to prepare a final solution that is brought into equilibrium with the atmosphere. The example calculations for preparing hard, soft and acidic freshwater surrogates with major ion compositions the same as published analyses, are presented in a generalized fashion that should allow preparation of any synthetic freshwater according to its known analysis.

  9. Radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, fish diet, and modulation of the effects by vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranich, A.V.; Chajkina, L.A.; Zharkov, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    Data are presented in this paper on the effect of vitamin E on rats given a fish diet after whole-body gamma-irradiation. The content of lipid peroxidation products in rat plasma, brain and liver and also content of vitamin E have been investigated. Irradiation increases lipid peroxidation in the studied tissues and decreases vitamin E content. This process is aggravat ed by the fish diet. Vitamin E given in addition to fish diet helps the organism to stabilize the antioxidant homeostasis at a qualitatively different level

  10. In-vitro Degradation Behaviour of Irradiated Bacterial Cellulose Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwis, D.; Khusniya, T.; Hardiningsih, L.; Nurlidar, F.; Winarno, H.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose membrane synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum in coconut water medium has potential application for Guided bone Regeneration. However, this membrane may not meet some application requirements due to its low biodegradation properties. In this paper, incorporation of gamma irradiation into the membrane is a developed strategy to increase its biodegradability properties. The in-vitro degradation study in synthetic body fluid (SBF) of the irradiated membrane has been analyzed during periods of 6 months by means of weight loss, mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopy observation compared to that the un-irradiated one. The result showed that weight loss of irradiated membrane with 25 kGy and 50 kGy and immersed in SBF solution for 6 months reached 18% and 25% respectively. While un-irradiated membrane did not give significant weight loss. Tensile strength of membranes decreases with increasing of irradiation dose and further decreases in tensile strength is observed when irradiated membrane was followed by immersion in SBF solution. Microscope electron image of cellulose membranes shows that un-irradiated bacterial cellulose membrane consists of dense ultrafine fibril network structures, while irradiation result in cleavage of fibrils network of cellulose. The fibrils network become loosely after irradiated membrane immersed in SBF solution due to released of small molecular weight carbohydrates formed during by irradiation from the structure (author)

  11. Combined Therapy of Septicemia with Ofloxacin and/or Synthetic Trehalose Dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) in Irradiated and Wounded Mice (Die Kombinierte Therapie der Septikaemie mit Ofloxacin und/oder Synthetischem Trehalose- Dicorynomycolat (S-TDCM) bei Bestrahlten und Verwundeten Maeusen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    ceptibility to bacterial infection from either endogenous or exogenous origin. Treatment with ofloxacin or synthetic trehalose dicorynemycolate (S...sterile. pyrogen -free water and was in- C3H-l :fN female mice (8 - 12 weeks) were jected into mice (0.l1 ml’mouse. s.c.) at adose or given a whole

  12. SEARCH OF NEW SYNTHETIC INHIBITORS OF TYROSINASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Shesterenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanin pigmentation of skin plays the most important role in the protection of organism against UV-irradiation, but the excessive accumulation of melanin brings to toxic melanodermia, melasma, lentigo and other skin lesions. Tyrosinase is the key enzyme of skin melanin pigment biosynthesis. In spite of certain progress in investigation of natural and synthetic tyrosinase inhibitors, actuality of such studies is of a high level, because the existing inhibitors are in some cases unstable, expensive, toxic, requires complex methods of synthesis or isolation from natural sources. The aim of the work is screening of new tyrosinase inhibitors, using the enzyme, isolated from Agaricus bisporus. Tyrosinase was isolated from Agaricus bisporus mushrooms by a modified method. It was found, that the introduction of polyethylene glycol 4000 in the extraction process promotes 3-fold reduction of polyphenol content, which leads to increase purity of enzyme with an increase in its activity by 25%. A search for new tyrosinase inhibitors among a wide range of compounds, including derivatives of 3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone, isatin, 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, etc was conducted. The studied substances did not displayed inhibitory effect at concentration of 0,1-0,5 mmol/dm3.

  13. Protease-sensitive synthetic prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Colby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prions arise when the cellular prion protein (PrP(C undergoes a self-propagating conformational change; the resulting infectious conformer is designated PrP(Sc. Frequently, PrP(Sc is protease-resistant but protease-sensitive (s prions have been isolated in humans and other animals. We report here that protease-sensitive, synthetic prions were generated in vitro during polymerization of recombinant (rec PrP into amyloid fibers. In 22 independent experiments, recPrP amyloid preparations, but not recPrP monomers or oligomers, transmitted disease to transgenic mice (n = 164, denoted Tg9949 mice, that overexpress N-terminally truncated PrP. Tg9949 control mice (n = 174 did not spontaneously generate prions although they were prone to late-onset spontaneous neurological dysfunction. When synthetic prion isolates from infected Tg9949 mice were serially transmitted in the same line of mice, they exhibited sPrP(Sc and caused neurodegeneration. Interestingly, these protease-sensitive prions did not shorten the life span of Tg9949 mice despite causing extensive neurodegeneration. We inoculated three synthetic prion isolates into Tg4053 mice that overexpress full-length PrP; Tg4053 mice are not prone to developing spontaneous neurological dysfunction. The synthetic prion isolates caused disease in 600-750 days in Tg4053 mice, which exhibited sPrP(Sc. These novel synthetic prions demonstrate that conformational changes in wild-type PrP can produce mouse prions composed exclusively of sPrP(Sc.

  14. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y nutrición May. 24, ...

  15. Diet, Nutrition, and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…

  16. Children's diets (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet of children is the proper amount of fat. Children under two years of age should not be on a fat-restricted diet, because cholesterol and fat are thought to be important nutrients for brain development. Children over two can have lower fat foods added ...

  17. Road diet informational guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...

  18. Diet and Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meat, skinned poultry and fish nonfat dairy products sugar-free drinks like diet soda. Controlling your weight will lower your chance ... with your doctor and dietitian to keep your diet and blood sugar in good control. Where can I get more ...

  19. Understanding the DASH diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has been widely studied and has many health benefits. Following this diet plan may help: Lower high blood pressure Reduce the ... more expensive than prepared foods. The diet is flexible enough to follow if you are vegetarian , vegan, or gluten-free .

  20. A comparative thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance study of synthetic carbonated A-type hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.C.; Rossi, A.M.; Baffa, O.

    2012-01-01

    Intensity of the 150 °C thermoluminescence peak of beta-irradiated carbonated synthetic A-type hydroxyapatite is approximately 12 times higher than that of the noncarbonated material. Deconvolution of the glow curve showed that this peak is a result of a trap distribution. An attempt was made to relate this thermoluminescence peak enhanced by carbonation with the ESR signal of the CO 2 − radical in natural or synthetic hydroxyapatite. - Highlights: ► Synthetic hydroxyapatite was carbonated with CO 2 . ► TL enhanced by 12 times in carbonated synthetic A-type hydroxyapatite. ► EPR and TL were performed to find out a relation between CO 2 − center and the TL. ► No direct relation was found between the CO 2 − center and TL enhancement.

  1. Effect of the hydrolytic state of dietary protein on post-irradiation morbidity and mucosal cell regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitler, M.K.; Mahler, P.A.; Yamanaka, W.K.; Guy, D.G.; Hutchinson, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Diets containing hydrolyzed casein have been observed to enhance post-irradiation intestinal mucosal recovery. The intake and the composition of such diets were not carefully controlled. This study attempted to do so. Male specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive either an enzymatically hydrolyzed casein semi-purified diet (EHC), a whole casein semi-purified diet (WC), or powdered lab chow (C). All diets were isonitrogenous, and the WC and C rats were pair-fed to the ad libitum fed EHC rats. Seven days after initiation of feeding, the rats were abdominally irradiated with a single 9.0 Gy dose of 137Cs gamma rays. The rats were continued on the diets for another 5 days. Intestinal mucosa from transverse segments at the duodenum, jejunum, proximal ileum, and distal ileum were measured for incorporation of ( 3 H methyl) thymidine 1 hour after intraperitoneal injection. Incorporation reached a maximum by day 4 post-irradiation regardless of diet or segment. Incorporation in the duodenum was enhanced by the EHC diet compared to the C diet, while the incorporation in the jejunum was initially suppressed by the EHC diet compared to the WC diet. In the jejunum, the number of mitoses per crypt of 25 anti-mesenteric crypts post-irradiation was increased by the EHC diet. Prior to irradiation, all groups gained similar amounts of weight. After irradiation, the C rats lost weight, while the EHC and WC rats remained the same or gained weight. Guaiac tests for occult blood were negative prior to irradiation, but positive for all rats on days 1-5 postirradiation. When calorie and protein intakes were controlled, different areas of the small intestine responded differently to EHC

  2. Study on the effect of food irradiation on some blood serum enzymes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwalli, O.M.

    1977-01-01

    Rats were fed irradiated diets as part of a study of screening tests for the safety of irradiated food. The diet consisted (g/100 g) of casein, 8.5; skim-milk, 9.4; potato starch, 50.00; wheat flour, 16.50; sucrose, 5.00; sunflower oil, 6.00; choline chloride, 0.10; salt mixture, 3.50; and vitamin mix.ure, 1.00. Diets were irradiated at 2.5 or 4.5 Mrad and were fed ad lib. for 4 months. Levels of serum (i) glutanic-pyruvic transaminase, (ii) glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, and (iii) lactic dehydrogenase were determined. No significant changes were observed in (i) or (iii) on ieeding irradiated diets, or in (ii) for male rats. Significant decreases (P [de

  3. Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition A healthy diet can reduce your risk for ... Treatment How does a stroke affect eating and nutrition? Stroke can devastate a person's nutritional health because ...

  4. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition 1. Maintain Health 2. Ease PD Symptoms 3. ... your team Seek reliable information about diet and nutrition from your medical team and local resources. Please ...

  5. Biology of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents his arguments for food scientists and biologists that the hazards of food irradiation outweigh the benefits. The subject is discussed in the following sections: introduction (units, mutagenesis, seed viability), history of food irradiation, effects of irradiation on organoleptic qualities of staple foods, radiolytic products and selective destruction of nutrients, production of microbial toxins in stored irradiated foods and loss of quality in wheat, deleterious consequences of eating irradiated foods, misrepresentation of the facts about food irradiation. (author)

  6. Body composition changes following the supplementation of different food additives to irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that deposition of fat and / or protein in animal's body before irradiation or using radio - protector material such as soyabean oil may reduce the hazard effects of radiation on life span, body weight and body compartments. Therefore, 286 mice ( 144 males and 142 females) after chemical maturity were used in this study. The animals were divided to 4 major groups. The first group was fed on chow diet, the second group was fed on radioprotector diet ( basel diet), the third group was fed on high energy diet and the forth group fed on high protein diet, for 7 weeks before the exposure to gamma-rays. At the exposure day each nutritional group was divided to 3 exposure treatments ( non-irradiated, 800 and 1200 rads). The previous hypothesis was studied for 42 days after irradiation

  7. Synthesis on spinel behaviour under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, N.; Dodane, C.; Noirot, J.; Konings, R.J.M.; Matzke, H.J.; Wiss, T.; Conrad, R.

    2001-01-01

    The spinel MgAl 2 O 4 is one of the materials able to be used in reactor for the transmutation of the minor actinides stemming from the back-end of the fuel cycle. It has been studied under irradiation since many years. Indeed, one of the first uses considered is to be employed as material for fusion reactors. Otherwise, it was shown that spinel presents nuclear and physico-chemical properties suitable for an utilization as nuclear inert matrix that loaded with an actinide phase constitutes a target devoted to the heterogeneous recycling in reactor. In order to improve the knowledge on spinel behaviour under irradiation, an assessment of the former studies must be done. The objective of this paper is to gather all the results of the spinel irradiations and to take out synthetic conclusion on the opportunity to use this material for the transmutation programme. (author)

  8. Catalysts for synthetic liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, L.A.; Turney, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysts have been designed, characterized and tested for the selective production of hydrocarbons suitable as synthetic liquid transport fuels from synthesis gas (i.e., by the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen). It was found that hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range, or suitable for conversion to that range, could be produced over several of the new catalyst systems. The various catalysts examined included: (1) synthetic cobalt clays, mainly cobalt chlorites; (2) cobalt hydrotalcites; (3) ruthenium metal supported on rare earth oxides of high surface area; and (4) a novel promoted cobalt catalyst. Active and selective catalysts have been obtained, in each category. With the exception of the clays, reproducibility of catalyst performance has been good. Catalysts in groups 2 and 4 have exhibited very high activity, with long lifetimes and easy regeneration.

  9. Design Automation in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Madsen, Curtis; Roehner, Nicholas; Densmore, Douglas

    2017-04-03

    Design automation refers to a category of software tools for designing systems that work together in a workflow for designing, building, testing, and analyzing systems with a target behavior. In synthetic biology, these tools are called bio-design automation (BDA) tools. In this review, we discuss the BDA tools areas-specify, design, build, test, and learn-and introduce the existing software tools designed to solve problems in these areas. We then detail the functionality of some of these tools and show how they can be used together to create the desired behavior of two types of modern synthetic genetic regulatory networks. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  10. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  11. Synthetic greenhouse gases under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, B.; Karlaganis, G.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses new Swiss regulations on the use of synthetic materials that posses a considerable greenhouse-warming potential. Synthetic materials such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons HCFCs, perfluoride-hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride have, in recent years, replaced chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, which were banned on account of their ozone depletion characteristics. The use of these persistent substances is now being limited to applications where more environment-friendly alternatives are not available. The measures decreed in the legislation, which include a general ban on HCFCs as of 2004 and a ban on the export of installations and equipment that use ozone-depleting refrigerants are described. Details on the legislation's effects on the Swiss refrigeration industry are listed and discussed

  12. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Trudy M [Berkeley, CA; Nikanjam, Mina [Richmond, CA

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  13. Performance and Carcass characteristics of broad breasted bronze toms fed radappertized Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, El-Din.M.H.; Mohamed, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of irradiated complete diets at dose level of 25 KGy was studied in broad breasted bronze tome evaluating their growing performances as well as characteristics of the carcasses. Two experimental groups received irradiated and non irradiated diets for 18 weeks (from the 5 t h to the 23 r d week of age). Four toms per treatment at the age of 23 weeks were slaughtered and the carcass was dissected. Radappertized diets improved body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion and reduced mortality rate. No significant differences were observed between toms fed processed and non processed diets on carcasses components, while the gizzard weight was greater for those fed the processed diets. Dressing and drawn weights in toms fed processed diets were 3% higher than in those fed non processed diets. The results suggest that sterilization of turkeys feed may have a beneficial effect on the body weight and deed conversion of turkeys consuming these diets without harmful effect on the bird

  14. Vibrational spectrum of synthetic carnotite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, E J; Botto, I L [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas

    1976-05-01

    The infrared and laser-Raman spectra of synthetic carnotite, K/sub 2/((UO/sub 2/)/sub 2/V/sub 2/O/sub 8/), are reported and discussed. Force constants for the terminal V-O bonds as well as for the UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ ions are evaluated. From the spectroscopic data, a U-O bond length of 1.81 A is estimated for the uranyl ion in this compound.

  15. Designer Drugs: A Synthetic Catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Fratantonio, James; Andrade, Lawrence; Febo, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic stimulants can cause hallucinations, aggressive behaviors, death and are sometimes legal. These substances are sold as plant food and bath salts that are "Not for Human Consumption", therefore skirting the 1986 Federal Analogue Act and giving a false pretense of safety. Studies have proved that these substances are toxic, have a high abuse potential, and are becoming extremely prevalent in the United States. This creates a dilemma for law enforcement agents, hospitals, and substance...

  16. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  17. Hydrogen speciation in synthetic quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, R.D.; Kirby, S.H.; Rossman, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The dominant hydrogen impurity in synthetic quartz is molecular H2O. H-OH groups also occur, but there is no direct evidence for the hydrolysis of Si-O-Si bonds to yield Si-OH HO-Si groups. Molecular H2O concentrations in the synthetic quartz crystals studied range from less than 10 to 3,300 ppm (H/Si), and decrease smoothly by up to an order of magnitude with distance away from the seed. OH- concentrations range from 96 to 715 ppm, and rise smoothly with distance away from the seed by up to a factor of three. The observed OH- is probably all associated with cationic impurities, as in natural quartz. Molecular H2O is the dominant initial hydrogen impurity in weak quartz. The hydrolytic weakening of quartz may be caused by the transformation H2O + Si-O-Si ??? 2SiOH, but this may be a transitory change with the SiOH groups recombining to form H2O, and the average SiOH concentration remaining very low. Synthetic quartz is strengthened when the H2O is accumulated into fluid inclusions and cannot react with the quartz framework. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Carbon-centered radicals in γ-irradiated bone substituting biomaterials based on hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlo, Jaroslaw; Strzelczak, Grazyna; Lewandowska-Szumiel, Malgorzata; Sterniczuk, Marcin; Pajchel, Lukasz; Michalik, Jacek

    2012-09-01

    Gamma irradiated synthetic hydroxyapatite, bone substituting materials NanoBone(®) and HA Biocer were examined using EPR spectroscopy and compared with powdered human compact bone. In every case, radiation-induced carbon centered radicals were recorded, but their molecular structures and concentrations differed. In compact bone and synthetic hydroxyapatite the main signal assigned to the CO(2) (-) anion radical was stable, whereas the signal due to the CO(3) (3-) radical dominated in NanoBone(®) and HA Biocer just after irradiation. However, after a few days of storage of these samples, also a CO(2) (-) signal was recorded. The EPR study of irradiated compact bone and the synthetic graft materials suggest that their microscopic structures are different. In FT-IR spectra of NanoBone(®), HA Biocer and synthetic hydroxyapatite the HPO(4) (2-) and CO(3) (2-) in B-site groups are detected, whereas in compact bone signals due to collagen dominate.

  19. Characterization of synthetic peptides by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhala, Bala Krishna; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI......-TOF-MS and LC-MS of synthetic peptides....

  20. Nutritive Value of Irradiated Egyptian Truffles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Lattif, M.S.; Atia, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the nutritive value of truffles was evaluated as protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) compared with casein C-PER. of white truffle was higher than brown truffle and therefore had a better nutritional quality over the brown truffle. Egyptian truffle could be considered as a good source of protein with good essential amino acids content and high nutritive value. It was found that white and brown truffles (Al-Kamah) grow in the north westarn coast of the Egyptian desert, white truffle was identified as Tirmania nivea while brown truffle was identified as Terfezia boudieri. Rats were fed on normal diet as (basal diet) for two weeks, then they were fed on the same diet with 10% of casein (control diet), replaced by 20% of irradiated and non irradiated white and brown truffle dried samples as a protein source. The nutritive value parameters were measured at the end of the experiment, gains in body weight, daily food intake, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio were measured, biological value, the biological effect on liver kideny function serum glucose. LDL and HDL-cholesterol were investigated too

  1. Effects of synthetic glycosides on steroid balance in Macaca fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinow, M.R.; Elliott, W.H.; McLaughlin, P.; Upson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The predominantly beta-anomer of diosgenin glucoside (DG) was synthesized and its effects on cholesterol homeostasis were tested in monkeys. Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed, during two 3-week periods, a semipurified diet with 0.1% cholesterol and a similar ration containing 1% DG, respectively. A Chow diet was given for 5 weeks between the experimental periods. Cholesterol and bile acid balance were analyzed during the last week of each semipurified diet. Diosgenin glucoside reduced cholesterolemia from 292 mg/dl to 172 mg/dl, decreased intestinal absorption of exogenous cholesterol from 62.4% to 26.0%, and increased secretion of endogenous cholesterol from -0.8 to 93.5 mg/day. The fecal excretion of neutral steroids rose from 40.7 to 157.3 mg/day; that of bile acids changed, nonsignificantly, from 23.1 to 16.0 mg/day. The cholesterol balance was -44 mg/day in the control period, and 88 mg/day in the DG-fed animals. No toxic signs were observed. Thus, when long-term studies demonstrate that the glucoside is well tolerated, DG and other synthetic glycosides with similar activities may be of use in the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis

  2. Irradiation of Eggs and Larvae of Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock) Fruit Fly to Produce Irradiation Host for Its Parasitoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh Kuswadi; Murni lndarwatmi; Nasution, Indah Arastuti

    2004-01-01

    Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) fruit fly, a major pests of commercial fruits in Indonesia, is attacked by several species of parasitoids in the field, such as by Biosteres sp. that attacks on early instar larvae and Opius sp. on late instar larvae. In order to produce irradiated host in mass rearing of both species, several dosage of gamma were tested on both eggs and larvae. Egg masses of 0.5 ml were irradiated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy and then inoculated into artificial diet. Viability of the eggs, the larval period and the number of pupae produced were observed. About 200 third instar larvae irradiated with 0, 10, 30, 50,70 dan 90 Gy and the number and quality of the pupae developed were then observed. The results showed that the eggs irradiated with tested dosage did not reduce its viability however it reduced the survival of larvae emerged. Number of pupae produced from 0.5 ml irradiated eggs were reduced from 2740 pupae to 407, 167, 113, 53 and 44 pupae, besides the pupation delayed up to three days. Irradiation on third instars larvae did not reduce its pupation, since pupae were developed from > 85 % of irradiated larvae. However, irradiation did reduced the fly emergence from the pupae. Irradiated hosts for Biosteres sp and Opius sp can be produced by irradiating eggs however it should be evaluated since the survival rate of the larvae reduced. Irradiation of third instar larvae may produce irradiated host for Opius sp So, the use of irradiated eggs or irradiated larvae as host in the colonization of the parasitoids will insure no hosts emerged as adult. However it remain to be proved whether irradiated hosts are prefered and able to support the life of parasitoid. (author)

  3. Lipid peroxidation in chicken meat during chilled storage as affected by antioxidants combined with low-dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanatt, S.R.; Paul, P.; D'Souza, S.F.; Thomas, P.

    1998-01-01

    TBA values and carbonyl content for irradiated samples of ground chicken meat were higher than for nonirradiated samples. Addition of antioxidants tocopherol (natural) or BHT (synthetic) resulted in retardation of oxidative rancidity (p0.05). Meat treated with antioxidants prior to irradiation had lower TBA values as compared to untreated irradiated counterparts. Free fatty acid (FFA) values decreased after irradiation. Addition of antioxidants prior to irradiation showed a synergistic effect in decreasing FFA content. TLC of muscle lipids indicated a reduction in the triacylglcerols content with concomitant increases in FFA of all samples during storage. All irradiated meats were acceptable for consumption up to 4 wk of storage

  4. Beneficial effects of fruit extracts on neuronal function and behavior following 56Fe irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.; Jenkins, D.; Rabin, B. M.

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge HZE particles enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2 blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties This study evaluated the efficacy of these diets on irradiation-induced deficits in these parameters by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1 5 Gy of 1 GeV n high-energy 56 Fe particles Irradiation impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information a hippocampally-mediated behavior compared to controls The blueberry diet on the other hand seemed to improve reversal learning a behavior more dependent on intact striatal function These data suggest that 56 Fe particle irradiation causes deficits in behavior and signaling in rats which were ameliorated by an antioxidant diet and that the polyphenols in these fruits might be acting in different brain regions

  5. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  6. Diet and Atherosclerosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-08-14

    Aug 14, 1974 ... Animal experiments have demonstrated the possibility of producing lesions ... countries. Mortality statistics, hospital records and necropsy ... opportunity to study possible associations between diet .... risk of American men.".

  7. Diet - clear liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group. Clear liquid diet. In: Morrison. Manual of Clinical Nutrition Management. Updated 2013. bscn2k15.weebly.com/uploads/1/2/9/2/12924787/manual_of_clinical_nutrition2013.pdf . Accessed August 20, 2016. Schattner MA, ...

  8. Diets that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get all the nutrients they need. Most vegetarians eat fewer calories than non-vegetarians. A vegetarian diet can help fight heart disease and high blood pressure. Sample Dinner Menu Vegetarian Spaghetti with Mushroom-Tomato-Asiago Cheese ...

  9. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  10. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002417.htm Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  11. Irradiation Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Fabich, Adrian; Garcia, Alia, Ruben; Glaser, Maurice; Gorine, Georgi; Jaekel, Martin, Richard; Mateu,Suau, Isidre; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Fabio; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-01-01

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in many scientific fields. This paper summarizes the facilities currently operating for proton, gamma, mixed-field and electron irradiations, including their main usage, characteristics and information about their operation. The new CERN irradiation facilities database is also presented. This includes not only CERN facilities but also irradiation facilities available worldwide.

  12. Association of Diet With Skin Histological Features in UV-B-Exposed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Tapan K; Hsia, Yvonne; Weeks, David M; Dixon, Tatiana K; Lepe, Jessica; Thomas, J Regan

    2017-09-01

    Long-term exposure to solar radiation produces deleterious photoaging of the skin. It is not known if diet can influence skin photoaging. To study the influence of a calorie-restricted diet and an obesity diet in mice exposed to long-term UV-B irradiation to assess if there is an association between diet and histopathological response to UV-B irradiation. In this animal model study in an academic setting, the dorsal skin of SKH1 hairless mice receiving normal, calorie-restricted, and obesity diets was exposed to UV-B irradiation 3 times a week for 10 weeks and were compared with corresponding controls. The mice were placed in the following groups, with 8 animals in each group: (1) intact control (C) with regular diet and no UV-B exposure, (2) intact control with UV-B exposure (CR), (3) calorie-restricted diet (CrC), (4) calorie-restricted diet with UV-B exposure (CrR), (5) obesity diet (OC), and (6) obesity diet with UV-B exposure (OR). The experiment was conducted during October through December 2013. Tissue processing and histological analysis were completed in 2016. Histomorphometric analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded skin sections stained by histological and immunohistochemical methods for estimation of epidermal thickness, epidermal proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, collagen I, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, mast cells, dermal cellularity, and adipose layer ratio. Changes in wrinkles were noted. Hairless female mice (age range, 6-8 weeks) were obtained. With a normal diet, changes from UV-B irradiation occurred in epidermal thickness, epidermal proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, collagen I, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, and mast cells, which were modestly influenced by an obesity diet. Calorie restriction influenced the skin in nonirradiated control animals, with higher values for most variables. After UV-B exposure in animals with calorie restriction, epidermal thickness was increased, but other variables were unaffected. Animals

  13. Nutritional Evaluation of NASA's Rodent Food Bar Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Yu, Diane S.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    2000-01-01

    Tests are being conducted on NASA's rodent Food Bar in preparation for long-term use as the rat and mouse diet aboard the International Space Station. Nutritional analyses are performed after the bars are manufactured and then repeated periodically to determine nutritional stability. The primary factors analyzed are protein, ash, fat, fiber, moisture, amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Nutrient levels are compared to values published in the National Research Council's dietary requirements for rodents, and also to those contained in several commonly used commercial rodent lab diets. The Food Bar is manufactured from a powdered diet to which moisture is added as it is processed through an extruder. The bars are dipped into potassium sorbate, vacuum-sealed, and irradiated. In order to determine nutrient changes during extrusion and irradiation, the powdered diet, the non-irradiated bars, and the irradiated bars are all analyzed. We have observed lower values for some nutrients (iodine, vitamin K, and iron) in the Food Bars compared with NRC requirements. Many nutrients in the Food Bars are contained at a higher level than levels in the NRC requirements. An additional factor we are investigating is the 26% moisture level in the Food Bars, which drops to about 15% within a week, compared to a stable 10% moisture in many standard lab chow diets. In addition to the nutritional analyses, the food bar is being fed to several strains of rats and mice, and feeding study and necropsy results are being observed (Barrett et al, unpublished data). Information from the nutritional analyses and from the rodent studies will enable us to recommend the formulation that will most adequately meet the rodent Food Bar requirements for long-term use aboard the Space Station.

  14. Diets: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Mediterranean diet (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Diets updates by ... foods Diet-busting foods Mediterranean diet Related Health Topics Child Nutrition DASH Eating Plan Diabetic Diet Nutrition ...

  15. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  16. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and l...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet.......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...

  17. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  18. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  19. Synthetic biology: Emerging bioengineering in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandono, Sony

    2017-05-01

    The development of synthetic biology will shape the new era of science and technology. It is an emerging bioengineering technique involving genetic engineering which can alter the phenotype and behavior of the cell or the new product. Synthetic biology may produce biomaterials, drugs, vaccines, biosensors, and even a recombinant secondary metabolite used in herbal and complementary medicine, such as artemisinin, a malaria drug which is usually extracted from the plant Artemisia annua. The power of synthetic biology has encouraged scientists in Indonesia, and is still in early development. This paper also covers some research from an Indonesian research institute in synthetic biology such as observing the production of bio surfactants and the enhanced production of artemisinin using a transient expression system. Synthetic biology development in Indonesia may also be related to the iGEM competition, a large synthetic biology research competition which was attended by several universities in Indonesia. The application of synthetic biology for drug discovery will be discussed.

  20. Printability of Synthetic Papers by Electrophotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the printability of synthetic papers by the electrophotography technique. Prints of cmyk colour fields from 20% to 100% raster tone values were printed on three types of synthetic papers (one film synthetic paper and two fiber synthetic papers. The investigation of the appearance included densitometric measurement of the cmyk prints. The results have shown differences in the optical density and optical tone value between cmyk prints made on various synthetic papers. The highest optical density and the increase of the optical tone value were observed on the film synthetic paper, where cmyk prints were more saturated. The highest abrasion resistance of cmyk prints was obtained from the fibre synthetic paper.

  1. Biochemical and Tissue Studies on Post Irradiation Recovery in Mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.M.

    2004-01-01

    three main studies were performed in this thesis, namely, mortality and survival study, biochemical studies, and studies on tissue alterations cobalt-60 gamma irradiation for low let was used for the external whole body irradiation of the irradiated animal groups. a total number of animals of 722 virgin female adult wister rats of approximately the same age and weight were used for the three studies that were performed, including the control and irradiated animal groups. the animals were housed and kept with special care at fixed temperature, humidity and diet. the study on mortality and survival included 370 animals divided into control and groups irradiated with 4,5,6,7,8 and 9 Gy. this study was followed up for one year to record the number and date of animal deaths for the different irradiated groups. for the 8 and 9 Gy irradiated groups the follow up ended after 12 weeks and 11 days respectively when animal mortality reached 100%. the maximum percent mortality was noted at the second week (3.3,8,14 and 29%) for the 4,5,6 and 7 Gy irradiated groups respectively. for the 8 and 9 Gy irradiated groups, the maximum percent mortality was noted at the first week (42.9 and 90% respectively). regression equations were applied for the percent of mortality of the 5-8 Gy irradiated groups to estimate the LD 50/30, which was found to be 6.4 Gy

  2. Irradiation studies of mallard duck eggs material containing Mirex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, R.H.; Grodner, R.M.; Graves, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Eggs containing Mirex (dodecachloropentacyclo[5.3.0.0 2 , 6 .0 3 , 9 .0 4 , 8 ]decane) from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhychos l.), fed diets with the insecticide incorporated at levels of 1 and 100 ppM for 25 weeks, were subjected to ultraviolet (uv) and γ irradiation. Seven derivatives were obtained on photolysis and eight derivatives were obtained from γ irradiation. Irradiation products appeared to be mono and dihydro derivatives of Mirex. Structural assignments for two monohydro derivatives and three dihydro derivatives were made on the basis of retention time and mass spectral data

  3. Chromosome studies on bone marrow cells of chinese hamsters fed a radiosterilized diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    Metaphase preparations of chromosomes from bone marrow cells of Chinese hamsters were examined for mutagenic effects following the feeding of a radiosterilized diet. No increase in the incidence of structural chromosomal aberrations was observed. As far as numerical aberrations were concerned, the proportion of cells with polyploidy increased to between 4 to 5 times the control level, irrespective of the moisture content of the diet. This polyploidy effect occurred very early, being detectable within 24 h, if the diet fed had been irradiated with an absorbed dose of 4.5x10 6 rad. The incidence of polyploidy remained below 0.5%, however, nor did it rise with higher radiation doses. When the feeding of the irradiated diet was stopped, the proportion of polyploid cells returned to the control level within a maximum of 6 weeks. If the diet was stored (initially) for 6 weeks following irradiation before being fed to the animals no increase in the number of polyploid cells was noted. These results are not interpreted as a mutagenic effect of the irradiated diet. (author)

  4. Hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension

  5. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    The main objective of this project was to continue the development of a synthetic aperture vector flow estimator. This type of estimator is capable of overcoming two of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems: 1) the inability to scan large region of interest with high temporal......, this thesis showed that novel information can be obtained with vector velocity methods providing quantitative estimates of blood flow and insight into the complexity of the hemodynamics dynamics. This could give the clinician a new tool in assessment and treatment of a broad range of diseases....

  6. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  7. The status of food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation is a mature technology for many uses, such as medical product sterilization, crosslinking of plastics, application of coatings, stabilization of natural and synthetic rubbers prior to vulcanization, and in plant genetics. It also has many potential applications in the food and agriculture industries, especially in the postharvest activities associated with processing, storing, and distribution and in utilization and consumption. The safety of food irradiation has been thoroughly studied and established by distinguished scientists of international stature and unimpeachable credentials. Approximately 30 countries permit food irradiation and it is commercially used in 21. Parasites are of serious concern since their impact on human health and economic productivity is significant, especially in developing countries with sanitation and food control problems. Parasites in meat and fish can be rendered sterile or inactivated with irradiation, and the potential for improved human health is significant. The second area for immediate use of irradiation is in meeting plant quarantine requirements. The benefits described above and the approval of the scientific community are moving the technology toward greater utilization

  8. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic and N-aspartic acids, and 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender- and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physicochemical and cooking characteristics of chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb; Ahmad, M.; Bibi, N.; Badshah, A.; Khan, I.

    1988-06-01

    Gamma irradiation has long been know as a method of food preservation. Radiation treatment at moderate doses has been recommended for disinfestation of legumes. The treatment is shown to the effective for reduction of flatulence causing oligosaccharides and also of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors. The nutritive quality of irradiated le is also enhanced. It has also been reported that short term feeding of irradiated diets to rats did not give any indication of mutagenic effects. (orig. /A.B.)

  10. Tracking the emergence of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Philip; Kwon, Seokbeom; Youtie, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging domain that combines biological and engineering concepts and which has seen rapid growth in research, innovation, and policy interest in recent years. This paper contributes to efforts to delineate this emerging domain by presenting a newly constructed bibliometric definition of synthetic biology. Our approach is dimensioned from a core set of papers in synthetic biology, using procedures to obtain benchmark synthetic biology publication records, extract keywords from these benchmark records, and refine the keywords, supplemented with articles published in dedicated synthetic biology journals. We compare our search strategy with other recent bibliometric approaches to define synthetic biology, using a common source of publication data for the period from 2000 to 2015. The paper details the rapid growth and international spread of research in synthetic biology in recent years, demonstrates that diverse research disciplines are contributing to the multidisciplinary development of synthetic biology research, and visualizes this by profiling synthetic biology research on the map of science. We further show the roles of a relatively concentrated set of research sponsors in funding the growth and trajectories of synthetic biology. In addition to discussing these analyses, the paper notes limitations and suggests lines for further work.

  11. Genetic monitoring of irradiated Drosophila populations treated with antimutagen melanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosseh, I.B.; Savchenko, V.K.; Lyakh, I.P.

    1986-01-01

    It was shown that viability of irradiated Drosophila is, on an average, lower than in intact populations. The fertility first decreases then increases exceeding the control level. Melanine added to the diet increases fertility and viability of both exposed and intact Drosophila populations

  12. Electron beam irradiating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, K

    1969-12-20

    The efficiency of an electron beam irradiating device is heightened by improving the irradiation atmosphere and the method of cooling the irradiation window. An irradiation chamber one side of which incorporates the irradiation windows provided at the lower end of the scanner is surrounded by a suitable cooling system such as a coolant piping network so as to cool the interior of the chamber which is provided with circulating means at each corner to circulate and thus cool an inert gas charged therewithin. The inert gas, chosen from a group of such gases which will not deleteriously react with the irradiating equipment, forms a flowing stream across the irradiation window to effect its cooling and does not contaminate the vacuum exhaust system or oxidize the filament when penetrating the equipment through any holes which the foil at the irradiation window may incur during the irradiating procedure.

  13. Intestinal ultrastructure after prolonged use of an elemental diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugon, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The role of 3 diets (Purina, whole casein and hydrolyzed casein) on the morphological aspect of the intestinal mucosa has been studied in adult mice, irradiated with a single dose of 950 R or with 4 doses of 600 R. The experimental group receiving the hydrolyzed casein exhibited always the fastest recovery. 45 days after a single irradiation, some alterations of columnar cells were still noted in the other groups. The prolonged use of an hydrolyzed casein (6 months) did not alter the structure of the mucosal cells. (orig.) [de

  14. DNA recognition by synthetic constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Elena; Mosquera, Jesús; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2011-09-05

    The interaction of transcription factors with specific DNA sites is key for the regulation of gene expression. Despite the availability of a large body of structural data on protein-DNA complexes, we are still far from fully understanding the molecular and biophysical bases underlying such interactions. Therefore, the development of non-natural agents that can reproduce the DNA-recognition properties of natural transcription factors remains a major and challenging goal in chemical biology. In this review we summarize the basics of double-stranded DNA recognition by transcription factors, and describe recent developments in the design and preparation of synthetic DNA binders. We mainly focus on synthetic peptides that have been designed by following the DNA interaction of natural proteins, and we discuss how the tools of organic synthesis can be used to make artificial constructs equipped with functionalities that introduce additional properties to the recognition process, such as sensing and controllability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Synthetic Biology of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, De-Chuan; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a family of biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters which have been extensively studied using synthetic biology and metabolic engineering methods for improving production and for widening its diversity. Synthetic biology has allowed PHA to become composition controllable random copolymers, homopolymers, and block copolymers. Recent developments showed that it is possible to establish a microbial platform for producing not only random copolymers with controllable monomers and their ratios but also structurally defined homopolymers and block copolymers. This was achieved by engineering the genome of Pseudomonas putida or Pseudomonas entomophiles to weaken the β-oxidation and in situ fatty acid synthesis pathways, so that a fatty acid fed to the bacteria maintains its original chain length and structures when incorporated into the PHA chains. The engineered bacterium allows functional groups in a fatty acid to be introduced into PHA, forming functional PHA, which, upon grafting, generates endless PHA variety. Recombinant Escherichia coli also succeeded in producing efficiently poly(3-hydroxypropionate) or P3HP, the strongest member of PHA. Synthesis pathways of P3HP and its copolymer P3HB3HP of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxypropionate were assembled respectively to allow their synthesis from glucose. CRISPRi was also successfully used to manipulate simultaneously multiple genes and control metabolic flux in E. coli to obtain a series of copolymer P3HB4HB of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB). The bacterial shapes were successfully engineered for enhanced PHA accumulation.

  16. Vectoring of parallel synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Tim; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Gomit, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    A pair of parallel synthetic jets can be vectored by applying a phase difference between the two driving signals. The resulting jet can be merged or bifurcated and either vectored towards the actuator leading in phase or the actuator lagging in phase. In the present study, the influence of phase difference and Strouhal number on the vectoring behaviour is examined experimentally. Phase-locked vorticity fields, measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), are used to track vortex pairs. The physical mechanisms that explain the diversity in vectoring behaviour are observed based on the vortex trajectories. For a fixed phase difference, the vectoring behaviour is shown to be primarily influenced by pinch-off time of vortex rings generated by the synthetic jets. Beyond a certain formation number, the pinch-off timescale becomes invariant. In this region, the vectoring behaviour is determined by the distance between subsequent vortex rings. We acknowledge the financial support from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement no. 277472).

  17. Synthetic membrane-targeted antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooturi, S K; Firestine, S M

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance continues to evolve and presents serious challenges in the therapy of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The rise of resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) suggests that antimicrobial resistance is an inevitable evolutionary response to antimicrobial use. This highlights the tremendous need for antibiotics against new bacterial targets. Agents that target the integrity of bacterial membrane are relatively novel in the clinical armamentarium. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide is a classical example of membrane-bound antibiotic. Nature has also utilized this tactic. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are found in all kingdoms, function primarily by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane. AMPs have several advantages over existing antibiotics including a broad spectrum of activity, rapid bactericidal activity, no cross-resistance with the existing antibiotics and a low probability for developing resistance. Currently, a small number of peptides have been developed for clinical use but therapeutic applications are limited because of poor bioavailability and high manufacturing cost. However, their broad specificity, potent activity and lower probability for resistance have spurred the search for synthetic mimetics of antimicrobial peptides as membrane-active antibiotics. In this review, we will discuss the different classes of synthetic membrane-bound antibiotics published since 2004.

  18. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  19. Increased induction of aberrant crypt foci by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats fed diets containing purified genistein of genistein-rich soya protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gee, J.M.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Polley, A.C.J.; Johnson, I.T.

    2000-01-01

    The isoflavonoid genistein inhibits mitosis and increases apoptosis in a variety of tumour cell lines in vitro, and may exert anticarcinogenic effects in vivo. To assess its effects on the colon, rats were fed a semi-synthetic control diet, or similar diets enriched with genistein (0.25 g/kg),

  20. Irradiation of goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.

    1992-01-01

    The necessary dose and the dosage limits to be observed depend on the kind of product and the purpose of irradiation. Product density and density distribution, product dimensions, but also packaging, transport and storage conditions are specific parameters influencing the conditions of irradiation. The kind of irradiation plant - electron accelerator or gamma plant - , its capacity, transport system and geometric arrangement of the radiation field are factors influencing the irradiation conditions as well. This is exemplified by the irradiation of 3 different products, onions, deep-frozen chicken and high-protein feed. Feasibilities and limits of the irradiation technology are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  1. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD......) would reduce the phosphorus load due to less phosphorus-containing food additives, animal protein and more plant-based proteins. METHODS: Phosphorus and creatinine were measured in plasma and urine at baseline, week 12 and week 26 in 132 centrally obese subjects with normal renal function as part....../10 MJ in the ADD group and decreased less in the NND compared to the ADD (67 ± 36 mg/10 MJ and -266 ± 45 mg/day, respectively, p high phosphorus intake and did not decrease the fractional phosphorus excretion compared with ADD. Further...

  2. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  3. Irradiation gamma on chitosan films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Luana Miranda Lopes de; Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lumilopes@hotmail.com, E-mail: drilavras@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Palmas,TO (Brazil). Departmento de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos; Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania (Brazil). Departmento de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos; Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Films are preformed structures, independent, that are used to wrap food after processing, increasing their shelf life and enhancing its bright and attractive appearance. They are prepared from biological materials as an alternative to the plastic synthetic containers to improve the quality of the environment. Chitosan is a biodegradable polymer composed of β-(1-4) linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D- glucosamine (acetylated unit). It is produced commercially by deacetylation of chitin, which is a structural component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans. She is able to form films and edible and/or biodegradable coatings. With the objective to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation (0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy) and chitosan concentrations (1 and 2%) in film properties, it was evaluated its optical, mechanical and morphological properties. The films were produced by casting. Irradiation did not affect the thickness of the films, but influenced its colors, increasing the tone of the film for a stronger yellowish color. This fact can be attributed to the increased concentration of C = O bonds of chitosan due to the breakdown of the chain reaction and the Maillard reaction. Irradiated films showed smoother surface and less rough, due to the degradation of the chitosan molecule and poor mechanical properties, not showing good flexibility and stretching. (author)

  4. Irradiation gamma on chitosan films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Luana Miranda Lopes de; Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de; Arthur, Valter

    2017-01-01

    Films are preformed structures, independent, that are used to wrap food after processing, increasing their shelf life and enhancing its bright and attractive appearance. They are prepared from biological materials as an alternative to the plastic synthetic containers to improve the quality of the environment. Chitosan is a biodegradable polymer composed of β-(1-4) linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D- glucosamine (acetylated unit). It is produced commercially by deacetylation of chitin, which is a structural component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans. She is able to form films and edible and/or biodegradable coatings. With the objective to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation (0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy) and chitosan concentrations (1 and 2%) in film properties, it was evaluated its optical, mechanical and morphological properties. The films were produced by casting. Irradiation did not affect the thickness of the films, but influenced its colors, increasing the tone of the film for a stronger yellowish color. This fact can be attributed to the increased concentration of C = O bonds of chitosan due to the breakdown of the chain reaction and the Maillard reaction. Irradiated films showed smoother surface and less rough, due to the degradation of the chitosan molecule and poor mechanical properties, not showing good flexibility and stretching. (author)

  5. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  6. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  7. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  8. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Tonstad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%] and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%] in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64–1.93, respectively. Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.01, not statistically significant while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.18. In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.03, not statistically significant. In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  9. Low Dietary Protein Status Potentiating Risk of Health Hazard in Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gawish, M.A.M.; Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abdel-Reheem, K.A.; Al-Mossallamy, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations were planned to assess the changes in certain biochemical parameters as affected by the synergistic effect of exposure to fractionated doses of rays and / or feeding on different protein levels. The date showed that animals kept on normal or low protein diet exhibited a significant decrease in serum total protein and glucose. Also , a significant increase was recorded in insulin level in rats exposed at the radiation dose level of 20 Gy. Exposure to cumulative doses of irradiation has aggrevated the hyperglycemic effect of high protein diet with a significant and marked increase of insulin at all the applied doses. Animals fed normal high or low protein diet were found to exert significant decreases in T3, T4 while a significant increase in TSH of high protein group occurred as a result of exposure to cumulative doses of gamma-irradiation. Rats kept on low protein diet exhibited losses in body weight, hypercholesterolemia, low levels of phospholipids and triglycerides as compared with the normal protein diet group. In contrast high protein diet group showed no serious effects. Irradiation has potentiated body weight losses, hypotriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia in animal group fed low protein diet with a significant increase in serum phospholipids due to the higher radiation dose of 20 Gy. Protein deficiency acted synergistically with gamma irradiation and increased the susceptibility of body organs to radiation damage. Such findings contributed to the knowledge which stimulated the decrease of the internationally recognized occupational dose limits from 50 down to 20 m Sv (ICRP 1991)

  10. Behavioral Nutraceuticals and Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Jillian M

    2018-05-01

    Behavioral problems of companion animals are becoming more widely recognized. As a result, there are a growing number of behavioral nutraceuticals and diets on the market. These products may be useful for the treatment of mild conditions, for clients who are hesitant to give their pet a psychopharmacologic agent, or sometimes in conjunction with psychopharmacologic agents. Veterinarians should critically review the research associated with nutraceuticals and diets, and have an understanding of the functional ingredients and their mechanisms of action before prescribing treatment. This article provides an overview of nutraceuticals, their mechanisms of action, and relevant research regarding their use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthetic approaches to uniform polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Monzur; Brocchini, Steve

    2006-12-30

    Uniform polymers are characterised by a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Uniformity is also defined by chemical structure in respect of (1) monomer orientation, sequence and stereo-regularity, (2) polymer shape and morphology and (3) chemical functionality. The function of natural polymers such as polypeptides and polynucleotides is related to their conformational structure (e.g. folded tertiary structure). This is only possible because of their high degree of uniformity. While completely uniform synthetic polymers are rare, polymers with broad structure and MWD are widely used in medicine and the biomedical sciences. They are integral components in final dosage forms, drug delivery systems (DDS) and in implantable devices. Increasingly uniform polymers are being used to develop more complex medicines (e.g. delivery of biopharmaceuticals, enhanced formulations or DDS's for existing actives). In addition to the function imparted by any new polymer it will be required to meet stringent specifications in terms of cost containment, scalability, biocompatibility and performance. Synthetic polymers with therapeutic activity are also being developed to exploit their polyvalent properties, which is not possible with low molecular weight molecules. There is need to utilise uniform polymers for applications where the polymer may interact with the systemic circulation, tissues or cellular environment. There are also potential applications (e.g. stimuli responsive coatings) where uniform polymers may be used for their more defined property profile. While it is not yet practical to prepare synthetic polymers to the same high degree of uniformity as proteins, nature also effectively utilises many polymers with lower degrees of uniformity (e.g. polysaccharides, poly(amino acids), polyhydroxyalkanoates). In recent years it has become possible to prepare with practical experimental protocols sufficient quantities of polymers that display many aspects of uniformity. This

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and nutritive value of sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Sorghum grains were gamma irradiated at 0, 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. Irradiated and unirradiated sorghum samples were analyzed for crude fiber contents, total nitrogen, fat, ash and tannic acid. Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were also determined. In addition, digestibility coefficient received special attention. The irradiated sorghum grains were incorporated into basal diets and fed to rats during the digestion trials. The results indicated that gamma irradiation had no effects on total nitrogen, fat and ash contents of sorghum grains. Irradiation treatments of sorghum did not cause a pronounced effect on tannic acid content even those received the highest irradiation dose (200 kGy). Moreover, the irradiation treatments decreased the NDF content of sorghum especially those subjected to 100 or 200 kGy. On the other hand, the ADF and ADL values did not show a remarkable change due to irradiation treatments. Hemicellulose content was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose levels. Also, it was noticed that feeding rats on basal diets enriched with irradiated sorghum grains had a beneficial effects on digestibility coefficient. This trend was obvious with animals supplemented with sorghum grains subjected to the relatively high irradiation dose levels. 4 tabs

  13. Synthetic Lipoproteins as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hualiang

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic lipoprotein is an effective carrier of targeted delivery for drugs. It has the very small size, good biocompatibility, suitable half-life, and specific lipoprotein receptorbinding capacity. Compared with the traditional natural lipoprotein, synthetic lipoprotein not only retains the original biological characteristics and functions, but also exhibits the excellent characteristics in drug delivery. Herein, the advantages, development, applications, and prospect of synthetic lipoproteins as drug carriers were summarized.

  14. Education of food irradiation. Study for students majoring in nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Ikuko

    2014-01-01

    As the credential for nutrition counselor with professional skills and knowledge for invalids, who also provides the nutrition education for local residence at the administrative organization, the qualification system of registered dietitian has been established in Japan. Additionally, in accordance with the legislation of Basic Act on Food Education and the revision of School Education Law, the Diet and Nutrition Teacher System has established in 2005. Therefore, registered dietitian has been approved to teach at the elementary school or junior high school as a teacher. Since registered dietitian is the educator of the “diet and nutrition,” it is important to provide proper knowledge of food irradiation at the training facility for registered dietitian. This report describes the instruction of food irradiation at the education curriculum of the registered dietitian training course. In addition, questionnaire survey result on the knowledge of food irradiation gathered from newly-enrolled students in the registered dietitian training course will also be reported. (author)

  15. Weight Gain Of Broiler Chicks Fed A Maize-Soya bean Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of substituting synthetic methionine with sodium sulphate and sodium sulphite in a maize-soyabean diet fed to broiler chicks. Two hundred and forty (240) unsexed Hubbard day old broiler chicks were fed iso-caloric and iso-trogenous maize-soyabean ...

  16. The radioprotective effect of synthetic immunomodulators on hemopoietic cfu-s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semina, O.V.; Semenets, T.N.; Dejgin, V.I.; Korotkov, A.M.; Poverennyj, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The radiotherapeutic effect of thymogen (Glu-Trp) and thymohexin (Arg-Lys-Asp-Val-Agr) synthetic peptide immunomodulators was investigated. Both thymogen and thymohexin were demonstrated to be able to reduce the damagine effect of ionizing radiation (1 Gy) on CFU-S by half. The treatment by these preparations after irradiation at dose of 4 Gy leads to more intensive restoration of CFU-S population as compared with control

  17. Mediterranean Diet: Choose This Heart-Healthy Diet Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating The heart-healthy Mediterranean diet is a healthy eating plan based on typical ... Mediterranean-style cooking. Here's how to adopt the Mediterranean diet. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're looking ...

  18. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST

  19. DASH Diet: Reducing Hypertension through Diet and Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include soy beans, collard greens and calcium-fortified beverages such as almond milk. Limit Saturated Fat A DASH diet is low in saturated fats, sodium and total fat. Studies have shown that a diet low in saturated ...

  20. Facts about food irradiation: Food irradiation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food irradiation facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food irradiation process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments also bring consumer benefits in terms of availability, storage life and improved hygiene. 2 refs

  1. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  2. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  3. Synthetic biology assemblies for sustainable space exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The work utilized synthetic biology to create sustainable food production processes by developing technology to efficiently convert inedible crop waste to...

  4. Stability of O/W Emulsion with Synthetic Perfumes Oxidized by Singlet Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Watabe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We prepared O/W emulsion composed of a synthetic perfume, n-dodecane, protoporphyrin IX disodium salt (PpIX-2Na, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and water and investigated oxidative decomposition of the synthetic perfume in the emulsion and change in the stability of the emulsion by singlet oxygen (1O2 generated by photosensitization of PpIX-2Na. We used eugenol, linalool, benzyl acetate, α-ionone, α-hexylcinnamaldehyde, and d-limonene as a synthetic perfume. The stability of the O/W emulation including eugenol and linalool significantly decreased with increasing light irradiation time. The decrease in the emulsion stability may be attributable to oxidative decomposition of eugenol and linalool by 1O2 and enlargement of the oil droplet size.

  5. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  6. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation

  7. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-07-19

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug-resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery.

  8. Synthetic biology: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I examine the positive and negative features of synthetic biology ('SynBio') from a utilitarian ethical perspective. The potential beneficial outcomes from SynBio in the context of medicine are substantial; however it is not presently possible to predict precise outcomes due to the nascent state of the field. Potential negative outcomes from SynBio also exist, including iatrogenesis and bioterrorism; however it is not yet possible to quantify these risks. I argue that the application of a 'precautionary' approach to SynBio is ethically fraught, as is the notion that SynBio-associated knowledge ought to be restricted. I conclude that utilitarians ought to support a broadly laissez-faire stance in respect of SynBio. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Synthetic biology: engineering molecular computers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Complicated systems cannot survive the rigors of a chaotic environment, without balancing mechanisms that sense, decide upon and counteract the exerted disturbances. Especially so with living organisms, forced by competition to incredible complexities, escalating also their self-controlling plight. Therefore, they compute. Can we harness biological mechanisms to create artificial computing systems? Biology offers several levels of design abstraction: molecular machines, cells, organisms... ranging from the more easily-defined to the more inherently complex. At the bottom of this stack we find the nucleic acids, RNA and DNA, with their digital structure and relatively precise interactions. They are central enablers of designing artificial biological systems, in the confluence of engineering and biology, that we call Synthetic biology. In the first part, let us follow their trail towards an overview of building computing machines with molecules -- and in the second part, take the case study of iGEM Greece 201...

  10. Effect of Enzyme Supplementation and Irradiation of Barley on Broiler Chicks Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, D.H.M.; Abd El-Hakeim, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to study the influence of irradiation treatment at dose levels of 0.20 and 60 kGy on barley beta-glucan and the effect of enzyme supplementation and irradiation of barley on broiler chicks performance. The amount of total and water-soluble beta-glucan in raw barley was 36 kg -1 , respectively. The effect of irradiation treatment on total beta-glucan was insignificant while the level of soluble beta-glucan was increased with increasing the dose levels of irradiation. The effect of irradiation treatment and enzyme supplementation of barley diets on growth and conversion performance of broiler chicks indicated that birds fed raw barley diet had lower body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion than those fed control diet throughout the experimental period. Irradiation of barley at dose of 20 kGy did not affect the chick performance (feed consumption, weight gain feed-gain ratio) that received the B 20 diet from 7 to 21 days of age, but when bird maintained on B 20 diet from 7 28 days of age, only feed-gain ratio was improved by 14.4%. The results indicate that there was a significant effect of irradiation of barley at 60 kGy (B 60) on feed -gain ratio of chicks when were fed B 60 diet from 7 to 21 days of age. The corresponding improvement in feed-gain ratio was 16.4%. When birds were fed B 60 diet from 7-28 days of age, the improvement in body weight and feed-gain ratio was 25.5 and 19.6%, respectively

  11. Influence of varying diets on radiosensitivity of quinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darenskaya, N.G.; Kuznetsova, S.S.; Lebengarts, Ya.Z.

    1975-01-01

    Seven groups of 25-day-old Guinea pig males given different diets during the entire observation period. Six groups received full-ration granulated mixed food varying in the contents of protein and cellulose, while the seventh group ate natural food. Experiments with irradiation failed to reveal any essential differences in radiosensitivity of animals grown on natural and mixed food, which enabled us to propose full-ration granulated mixed food for feeding laboratory guinea pigs

  12. Influence of varying diets on radiosensitivity of quinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darenskaya, N G; Kuznetsova, S S; Lebengarts, Ya Z

    1975-07-01

    Seven groups of 25-day-old Guinea pig males given different diets during the entire observation period. Six groups received full-ration granulated mixed food varying in the contents of protein and cellulose, while the seventh group ate natural food. Experiments with irradiation failed to reveal any essential differences in radiosensitivity of animals grown on natural and mixed food, which enabled us to propose full-ration granulated mixed food for feeding laboratory guinea pigs.

  13. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  14. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  15. Development of rampant dental caries, and composition of plaque fluid and saliva in irradiated primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, W M; Bowen, W H; Cole, M F [National Caries Program, National Institute of Dental Research, Maryland USA

    1981-01-01

    Co-60 gamma irradiation of the salivary glands of Macaca mulata monkeys fed a cariogenic diet led to the rapid onset of dental caries resembling that in irradiated human patients. Plaque fluid and saliva were sampled from irradiated monkeys, nonirradiated controls and a group of animals fed a noncariogenic diet in order to look for changes which might occur in inorganic composition related to the caries development and to dietary differences. Salivary calcium and phosphate levels were not markedly changed after irradiation: iodide levels were raised, while thiocyanate levels fell. In plaque fluid, calcium concentrations were not affected by irradiation, but were higher in animals fed a noncariogenic diet. Phosphate levels were higher with a cariogenic diet and further increased in irradiated animals. Magnesium levels were occasionally higher than those of calcium. Other differences in plaque fluid composition may be related to secondary effects of the concomitant gingival disease. The results do not point clearly a specific change in the quality of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue after irradiation which precipitates the rampant caries. It is more likely that the grat reduction in the quantity of saliva with its protective constituents is responsible.

  16. Development of rampant dental caries, and composition of plaque fluid and saliva in irradiated primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgar, W.M.; Bowen, W.H.; Cole, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Co-60 gamma irradiation of the salivary glands of Macaca mulata monkeys fed a cariogenic diet led to the rapid onset of dental caries resembling that in irradiated human patients. Plaque fluid and saliva were sampled from irradiated monkeys, nonirradiated controls and a group of animals fed a noncariogenic diet in order to look for changes which might occur in inorganic composition related to the caries development and to dietary differences. Salivary calcium and phosphate levels were not markedly changed after irradiation: iodide levels were raised, while thiocyanate levels fell. In plaque fluid, calcium concentrations were not affected by irradiation, but were higher in animals fed a noncariogenic diet. Phosphate levels were higher with a cariogenic diet and further increased in irradiated animals. Magnesium levels were occasionally higher than those of calcium. Other differences in plaque fluid composition may be related to secondary effects of the concomitant gingival disease. The results do not point clearly a specific change in the quality of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue after irradiation which precipitates the rampant caries. It is more likely that the grat reduction in the quantity of saliva with its protective constituents is responsible. (author)

  17. Effect of the antioxidants composition in diet on the sensory and physical properties of frozen farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Latorre, Mónica; Gajardo, Mónica; Bunger, Andrea; Munizaga, Alejandro; López, Luis; Aubourg, Santiago P

    2015-04-01

    Great attention has been paid to the antioxidants present in farmed fish feeds, with the replacement of synthetic antioxidants by natural ones being a main objective. In the present study, Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was fed a conventional diet that was enriched with different kinds of antioxidants: synthetic antioxidants (butylated-hydroxy toluene and ethoxyquin; diet I), a tocopherols-rich mixture (diet II) and a tocopherols-rosemary extract mixture (diet III). A comparative study of the sensory and physical changes observed in the corresponding frozen products was undertaken. After 18 months at -18 °C, fish previously fed on diet I showed higher putrid and rancid odours and rancid taste scores, while lower mean typical odour and taste values were attained. Dripping and expressible moisture values obtained for diet II-fish were lower when compared with their counterparts belonging to the diet I; additionally, microstructure analysis revealed that Z-lines integration was better preserved in fish corresponding to diets II and III. Diet II has been recognised as being the most profitable to be employed to maintain the sensory and physical properties of the frozen product when long-term storage is considered. Further research is to be continued to optimise the natural antioxidants profile. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  19. Irradiation and flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineccius, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Flavor will not be a significant factor in determining the success of irradiated foods entering the U.S. market. The initial applications will use low levels of irradiation that may well result in products with flavor superior to that of products from alternative processing techniques (thermal treatment or chemical fumigation). The success of shelf-stable foods produced via irradiation may be much more dependent upon our ability to deal with the flavor aspects of high levels of irradiation

  20. Food irradiation makes progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1984-01-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses

  1. Influence of Dietary Irradiated Curcuma ionga (Turmeric) on Physiological and Biochemical Parameters of Growing Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.; El-Shennaway, H.M.; Hamaza, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Turmeric, (Curcuma ionga), is a dietary antioxidant and has been known since ancient times to possess therapeutic properties. The present investigation examined the correlation between raw and irradiated turmeric powder (at dose levels of 10, 15 and 20 kGy) intake and the physiological effects on organs weight, haematological parameters, indices of liver function and lipid profile in growing Albino male rats. Also, this study was performed to examine the efficacy of radiation processed turmeric powder to modulate the induced hyperlipidaemia in growing Albino male rats. Thirty six male rats were equally and randomly categorized into six groups. Control group fed a reference diet (casein diet), high fat diet was daily received to rats for 6 weeks. Other animals fed daily on high fat diets containing either raw or irradiated turmeric powder (2 g per 100 g diet) at doses 10, 15 or 20 kGy for 6 weeks. The results showed that the relative spleen, kidneys, heart, lungs, and testes weight, and the levels of Hb, PCV and MCHC were not changed in animals fed the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Animals kept on HFD suffered from liver enlargement. Dietary interventions through administrating 2% (w/w) raw or irradiated turmeric powder at 20 kGy normalized the liver size as compared with those received reference diet. Meanwhile, the results revealed that rats fed on high fat diet significantly increased plasma AST, ALT, TC and TG and significant decrease was observed in HDL. Meanwhile, feeding rats on diet containing of either raw or irradiated turmeric powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy induced a significant improvement in the above mentioned parameters. These results imply that irradiated turmeric powder at 20 kGy can offer protection against the biochemical changes as a consequence of hyperlipidaemic food and contribute to the regulation of lipid metabolism safely

  2. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Growing Rats Fed Irradiated Full-Fat Rice Bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Niely, H.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran at dose levels of 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy were used in the diets of growing rats to evaluate their effect on plasma and liver lipid profile. Comparison was also done with the use of a standard casein diet. After 49 days of feeding trail, food intake and wt gain were found to be highest with rats received casein diet in comparison with those fed on rice bran diets. Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran diets, fed to rats caused a significant reduction in the level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), while a significant elevation in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in plasma was recorded compared to those fed on casein diet. Also, similar changes were observed in liver. There was a significant increase in plasma and liver HDL-c/ TC ratio and LDL-c/ HDL-c ratio. Relative liver wt of rats fed on raw and irradiated full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy was lower compared to those fed on control diet (casein diet). The casein group had the highest total plasma and liver total protein (TP) compared to the other experimental groups. Among the experimental groups, raw and processed full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy, induced no significant effect on TP content of plasma and liver

  3. Ileostomy and your diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that collects it. You will need to take care of the stoma and empty the pouch many times a day. People who have had an ileostomy can most often eat a normal diet. But some foods may cause problems. Foods that may ... Your pouch should be sealed well enough to ...

  4. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you will need to eat more protein. A high-protein diet with fish, poultry, pork, or eggs at every meal may be recommended. People on dialysis should eat 8 to 10 ounces (225 to 280 grams) of high-protein foods each day. Your provider or dietitian ...

  5. Containers in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolumen, S.; Espinosa, R.

    1997-01-01

    The preservation of food by irradiation is promising technology which increases industrial application. Packaging of irradiated foods is an integral part of the process. Judicious selection of the package material for successful trade is essential. In this paper is presented a brief review of important aspects of packaging in food irradiation [es

  6. Hepatic protein synthetic activity in vivo after ethanol administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohue, T.M. Jr.; Sorrell, M.F.; Tuma, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Hepatic protein synthetic activity in vivo was measured by the incorporation of [ 3 H]puromycin into elongating nascent polypeptides of rat liver to form peptidyl-[ 3 H]puromycin. Our initial experiments showed that saturating doses of [ 3 H]puromycin were achieved at 3-6 mumol/100 g body weight, and that maximum labeling of nascent polypeptides was obtained 30 min after injection of the labeled precursor. Labeled puromycin was found to be suitable for measuring changes in the status of protein synthesis, since the formation of the peptidyl-[ 3 H]puromycin was decreased in fasted animals and was increased in rats pretreated with L-tryptophan. [ 3 H]Puromycin incorporation into polypeptides was then measured after acute ethanol administration as well as after prolonged consumption of ethanol which was administered as part of a liquid diet for 31 days. Acute alcohol treatment caused no significant change in [ 3 H]puromycin incorporation into liver polypeptides. In rats exposed to chronic ethanol feeding, peptidyl-[3H]puromycin formation, when expressed per mg of protein, was slightly lower compared to pair-fed controls, but was unchanged compared to chow-fed animals. When the data were expressed per mg of DNA or per 100 g body wt, no differences in protein synthetic activity were observed among the three groups. These findings indicate that neither acute nor chronic alcohol administration significantly affects protein synthetic activity in rat liver. They further suggest that accumulation of protein in the liver, usually seen after prolonged ethanol consumption, is apparently not reflected by an alteration of hepatic protein synthesis

  7. Effect of Grape Seeds Oil Extracted from Radiation Processed Seeds on Lipid Metabolism and on Antioxidant Activity in Rats Fed Diets Containing Cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Grape seeds were separated from fresh grape pomace and dried at room temperature then packed in polyethylene bags and subjected to gamma rays at dose level of 10 kGy. The grape seeds oil was extracted from non and irradiated seeds. The oil quality, fatty acid composition and total phenolic compounds of oil extracted from non or irradiated seeds have been studied. The results indicated that there were significant increases in the acid value, saponification value and peroxide value of oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy by 46.2%, 2.5% and 95.2%, respectively, and the total phenolic compounds and total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) were reduced by 22.13% and 10%, respectively, as compared to those of oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. No degradation of the fatty acids; palmitic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids, were observed for oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy. However, significant decrease in oleic acid by 11.35% and increase in stearic acid by 26.22% were recorded corresponding to those for oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. The effect of grape seeds oils extracted from non or irradiated seeds on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity was investigated using 60 male Albino rats divided into six groups: (1) Control group: animals fed casein diet. (2) Ch group: animals received casein diet contains 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. (3) RGSO group: animals received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet). (4) RGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet) + 100 g cholesterol per kg diet. (5) IGSO group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet). (6) IGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet) + 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. Animals received

  8. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  9. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  10. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  11. Diet for rapid weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very-low-calorie-diets/Pages/very-low-calorie-diets.aspx . Accessed May 25, 2016. Review Date 4/24/2016 Updated by: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, ...

  12. RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF LYCOPENE IN GAMMA IRRADIATED ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOHAMED, M.I.; ALI, S.E.; HAGGAG, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the radioprotective potential of lycopene in gamma irradiated male rats. Four groups, each of sixteen rats, were assigned as follows: the first was untreated (control group), the second fed on chow diet mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg diet (lycopene group), the third exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated group) and the fourth fed on chow mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg and exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated and treated group). Animals exposed to ionizing radiation experienced decline in their body weights, increased ALT and AST enzymes and decreased serum albumin level. The study also showed decline in hemoglobin, total white blood cells count and blood platelets count. Bone marrow examination revealed profound hypoplasis and reduction of the cellular elements. Histological examination of liver, spleen, testis and intestine showed disruption of normal architecture of these organs. Irradiated and treated animals maintained a more or less steady body weight, and improved serum ALT, AST and albumin in comparison with those irradiated. The results also showed increased hemoglobin, total white blood cells, platelets count and partial improvement of bone marrow cellularity. Lycopene was also capable of partial preservation of normal architecture of liver, spleen, intestine and testis in gamma irradiated group.In conclusion, lycopene seems to be a useful radioprotector probably because of its potent antioxidant property

  13. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ROZOWSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece, both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet

  14. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  15. Study of seed for synthetical quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, C.K.; Torikai, D.

    1988-01-01

    Natural quartz blocks for seed (synthetic quartz technology) were studied by using various characterization techniques, such as X-ray topography, optical micrography, inspectoscopy, polariscopy and conoscopy, and etching. One of the most commonly found defect is the electrical or Dauphine twin. In The present research, we have developed a methodology to obtain a highly perfect seed for the synthetic quartz industries. (author) [pt

  16. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  17. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications. PMID:25022769

  18. Metal immobilization in soils using synthetic zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, L.A.; Lexmond, T.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2002-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils is a technique to improve soil quality. Synthetic zeolites are potentially useful additives to bind heavy metals. This study selected the most effective zeolite in cadmium and zinc binding out of six synthetic zeolites (mordenite-type,

  19. Synthetic and Empirical Capsicum Annuum Image Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset consists of per-pixel annotated synthetic (10500) and empirical images (50) of Capsicum annuum, also known as sweet or bell pepper, situated in a commercial greenhouse. Furthermore, the source models to generate the synthetic images are included. The aim of the datasets are to

  20. Synthetic aperture radar: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Yahya, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an introduction to synthetic aperture radar is presented. Synthetic aperture radar is a relatively new remote sensing platform and the technology has matured a lot in the last two decades. This paper introduces the concepts behind SAR principles as well as the major areas where this new technology has shown additional information. (author)

  1. Opportunities for microfluidic technologies in synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Shelly; Rouilly, Vincent; Niu, Xize; Chappell, James; Kitney, Richard I.; Edel, Joshua B.; Freemont, Paul S.; deMello, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce microfluidics technologies as a key foundational technology for synthetic biology experimentation. Recent advances in the field of microfluidics are reviewed and the potential of such a technological platform to support the rapid development of synthetic biology solutions is discussed.

  2. Irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Foodstuffs are irradiated to make them keep better. The ionizing radiation is not so strong as to cause radioactivity in the foodstuffs. At least so far, irradiation has not gained acceptance among consumers, although it has been shown to be a completely safe method of preservation. Irradiation causes only slight chemical changes in food. What irradiation does, however, is to damage living organisms, such as bacteria, DNA and proteins, thereby making the food keep longer. Irradiation can be detected from the food afterwards; thus it can be controlled effectively. (orig.)

  3. Steel desulphurization with synthetic slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heput, T.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, sulphur is considered a harmful element for steel quality, reason why all the technological steps are being taken in order to eliminate it from the metal bath. This paper deals with the influence of the chemical composition, on the slag quantity and of the bath stirring condition upon the desulphurization process in the casting ladle by treatment with synthetic slag. The experiments were made at an open-hearth plant with the steel tapping in two ladles (the desulphurization was made with synthetic slag at one ladle while the other one was considered standard and at the electric steel plant and for the synthetic slag formation a mix was used, made, according to several receipts, of: lime (50-75%, fluorine (0-17%, bauxite (0-32% and aluminous slag (8-22%. The data were processed in the calculation programs EXCEL and MATLAB, which resulted in a series of correlations between the desulphurization degree and the chemical composition of the slag, respectively the slag quantity both for the charges bubbled with Argon and the unbubbled ones.

    En general, el azufre es considerado un elemento nocivo para la calidad del acero y, por eso, en la práctica, se toman todas las medidas de orden tecnológico para su eliminación del baño metálico. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la composición química, de la cantidad de escoria y del estado de agitación del baño sobre el proceso de desulfuración en la cuchara para fundir por tratamiento con escoria sintética. Los experimentos se han realizado en una acería evacuando el acero en dos ollas (en una cuchara se efectuó la desulfuración con escoria sintética y a la otra se consideró como patrón y en un acería eléctrica y para la formación de la escoria sintética se utilizó una mezcla producida según muchas recetas, formada por: cal (50-75%, fluorina (0-17%, bauxita (0-32% y escoria aluminosa (8-22%. Los datos han sido procesados en los programas de c

  4. Biochemical and histological changes in whole body gamma-irradiated rats feed on wheat, barely and corn bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Hassan, A.A.; Ragab, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    The present work aims to study the effect of adding 3 different of dietary fibers (wheat, barley or corn bran) to normal balanced diet on liver function, blood, cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose level to counteract their elevation in whole body gamma irradiation rats. The experimental diets (balanced diet + fibre additive) were fed for 4 weeks. Samples (blood and tissue) were collected at intervals of times 7, 14 and 28 days post exposure to single dose (7 Gy) gamma irradiation. The control group consumed a fibre diet for 4 weeks, but not irradiated. The minimum aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and the lowest blood total cholestrol, triglycerides and blood glucose were observed in rats (irradiated and non-irradiated rats) fed on wheat bran experimental diet (barley or corn bran). It could be concluded that wheat fibers were more effective, as compared with other fibers contained in balanced diet, in improving the investigated parameters observed after whole body gamma irradiation exposure

  5. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes.

  6. Synthetic biology: an emerging engineering discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.

  7. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Krams, Rob

    2015-05-06

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON-OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Synthetic Organic Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Naeko; Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Tanaka, Nobuko; Okubo, Ichiro; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2018-04-18

    Though synthetic organic colorants are used in various applications nowadays, there is the concern that impurities by-produced during the manufacturing and degradation products in some of these colorants are persistent organic pollutants and carcinogens. Thus, it is important to identify the synthetic organic colorants in various products, such as commercial paints, ink, cosmetics, food, textile, and plastics. Dyes, which are soluble in water and other solvents, could be analyzed by chromatographic methods. In contrast, it is difficult to analyze synthetic organic pigments by these methods because of their insolubility. This review is an overview of mass spectrometric analysis of synthetic organic pigments by various ionization methods. We highlight a recent study of textile samples by atmospheric pressure solid analysis probe MS. Furthermore, the mass spectral features of synthetic organic pigments and their separation from other components such as paint media and plasticizers are discussed.

  9. Study of bixin oxidation by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Thais N.; Teixeira, Paula S.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea Beatriz C.

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of anatto, followed by Kenya and Peru. The fruit of the annatto tree is constituted by a capsule containing external spines and internal seeds with reddish coloration, providing a natural pigment which is environmentally efficient, being able to replace synthetic pigments and dyes. The active substance of the pigment is Bixin, which is a type of carotenoid which constitutes a greater percentage of pigment in these seeds and has a lipo soluble character. Bixin reacts with NaOH in a saponification reaction giving norbixin, which is water soluble. It is known that the destination of the dye extracted from the fruit is intended for industry, especially the food industry. The culture of annatto tree brings prospects of development in agricultural programs for medium and small producers, which are able to use decadent areas of other crops. In addition to the food sector, new applications for the pigment helps the development of family farming. The pigment extracted from annatto undergoes a natural oxidation; this work aims to evaluate this phenomenon and also the oxidation of the pigment after the irradiation process. This work also evaluates of the how the oxidation process is affected by irradiation and the modifications introduced to irradiated pigments. Irradiated and nonirradiated samples were characterized by thermogravimetry, UV-vis spectrophotometry and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results are then discussed. (author)

  10. Study on bioavailability of zinc for children's diet by using activable isotopic tracer 70Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yangmei; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Tian Weizhi; Cao Lei

    2001-01-01

    Bioavailability of zinc for three groups (low amount of diet zinc, balance amount of diet zinc and high amount of diet zinc) of children's diet is studied by using activable isotopic tracer 70 Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques. The results indicate that the fractional absorption of zinc from balance diet zinc group is the highest, up to 33.9%. A procedure of pre-irradiation concentration zinc for fecal samples using anion exchanger is developed, and the enriched 70 Zn with isotopic abundance of 18.3% is used for tracer. The mass ratios between 70 Zn and 68 Zn or 64 Zn and their contents between natural zinc and enriched zinc are used to calculate the bioavailability of zinc. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of 64 Zn of each original fecal samples and pre-irradiation concentrated zinc samples are used to normalize the chemical yield in order to reduce the uncertainty during the chemical separation procedure

  11. Recycling of sewage sludge: Feeding Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), with irradiated and dried sludge from beer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuapoehuk, W.; Piadang, S.; Tinnungwattana, W.

    1998-01-01

    Recycling of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry as supplemental feed for fish was conducted. Industrial biosludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry was irradiated at 3.32 kGy gamma irradiator, carrier type, model JS 8900, 60 Co activity at 187,088.121 Ci on 6 June 1995. For fish production study, it is needed to change the wet sludge to dry powder form by Rotadics dryer, type Stord TST 3.4 C, Stord (Thailand) Co. Ltd., at the maximum capacity of 15 T/24 h. The moisture content of finished product is at 8-10%. Fish control diet was then replaced at 60% by weight with irradiated and dried sludge to become as test diet. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), fingerlings averaging 0.67 g. in body weight was stocked into earthern ponds of 400 square meters at the density of 5 fishes per square metre. Fish were fed with two diets, control diet and test diet, for 154 days. There are no statistical differences in specific growth rate, quality of the fish flesh (Cd and Pb concentration, edible portion and off flavour) and pond water quality. Survival rate and feed conversion efficiency of the fish fed test diet are higher than control diet (P<0.05). Replacement of irradiated sludge can decrease the cost of fish production and results in better benefit than that of control diet

  12. Science with Synthetic Stellar Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Robyn Ellyn

    2018-04-01

    A new generation of observational projects is poised to revolutionize our understanding of the resolved stellar populations of Milky-Way-like galaxies at an unprecedented level of detail, ushering in an era of precision studies of galaxy formation. In the Milky Way itself, astrometric, spectroscopic and photometric surveys will measure three-dimensional positions and velocities and numerous chemical abundances for stars from the disk to the halo, as well as for many satellite dwarf galaxies. In the Local Group and beyond, HST, JWST and eventually WFIRST will deliver pristine views of resolved stars. The groundbreaking scale and dimensionality of this new view of resolved stellar populations in galaxies challenge us to develop new theoretical tools to robustly compare these surveys to simulated galaxies, in order to take full advantage of our new ability to make detailed predictions for stellar populations within a cosmological context. I will describe a framework for generating realistic synthetic star catalogs and mock surveys from state-of-the-art cosmological-hydrodynamical simulations, and present several early scientific results from, and predictions for, resolved stellar surveys of our Galaxy and its neighbors.

  13. Synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Abhigyan; Vemparala, Satyavani; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Tew, Gregory N

    2008-01-01

    Infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance are now considered the most imperative global healthcare problem. In the search for new treatments, host defense, or antimicrobial, peptides have attracted considerable attention due to their various unique properties; however, attempts to develop in vivo therapies have been severely limited. Efforts to develop synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs) have increased significantly in the last decade, and this review will focus primarily on the structural evolution of SMAMPs and their membrane activity. This review will attempt to make a bridge between the design of SMAMPs and the fundamentals of SMAMP-membrane interactions. In discussions regarding the membrane interaction of SMAMPs, close attention will be paid to the lipid composition of the bilayer. Despite many years of study, the exact conformational aspects responsible for the high selectivity of these AMPs and SMAMPs toward bacterial cells over mammalian cells are still not fully understood. The ability to design SMAMPs that are potently antimicrobial, yet nontoxic to mammalian cells has been demonstrated with a variety of molecular scaffolds. Initial animal studies show very good tissue distribution along with more than a 4-log reduction in bacterial counts. The results on SMAMPs are not only extremely promising for novel antibiotics, but also provide an optimistic picture for the greater challenge of general proteomimetics.

  14. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  15. Online professionalism: A synthetic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Katherine C; Tuck, Matthew G

    2015-04-01

    The rise of social media has increased connectivity and blurred personal and professional boundaries, bringing new challenges for medical professionalism. Whether traditional professionalism principles apply to the online social media space remains unknown. The purpose of this synthetic literature review was to characterize the original peer-reviewed research studies published between 1 January 2000-1 November 2014 on online professionalism, to assess methodologies and approaches used, and to provide insights to guide future studies in this area. The investigators searched three databases and performed manual searches of bibliographies to identify the 32 studies included. Most studies originated in the USA. Cross-sectional surveys and analyses of publicly available online content were the most common methodologies employed. Studies covered the general areas of use and privacy, assessment of unprofessional online behaviours, consensus-gathering of what constitutes unprofessional or inappropriate online behaviours, and education and policies. Studies were of variable quality; only around half of survey studies had response rates of 50% or greater. Medical trainees were the most common population studied. Future directions for research include public perspectives of online professionalism, impact on patient trust, and how to use social media productively as medical professionals.

  16. Depression, diet and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Felice N; Berk, Michael

    2013-09-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviour is driving an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that poor diet and a lack of exercise contribute to the genesis and course of depression. While studies examining dietary improvement as a treatment strategy in depression are lacking, epidemiological evidence clearly points to diet quality being of importance to the risk of depression. Exercise has been shown to be an effective treatment strategy for depression, but this is not reflected in treatment guidelines, and increased physical activity is not routinely encouraged when managing depression in clinical practice. Recommendations regarding dietary improvement, increases in physical activity and smoking cessation should be routinely given to patients with depression. Specialised and detailed advice may not be necessary. Recommendations should focus on following national guidelines for healthy eating and physical activity.

  17. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  18. Diet and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.

  19. An Algorithmic Diversity Diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Schmidt, Jan-Hinrik

    2016-01-01

    With the growing influence of personalized algorithmic recommender systems on the exposure of media content to users, the relevance of discussing the diversity of recommendations increases, particularly as far as public service media (PSM) is concerned. An imagined implementation of a diversity...... diet system however triggers not only the classic discussion of the reach – distinctiveness balance for PSM, but also shows that ‘diversity’ is understood very differently in algorithmic recommender system communities than it is editorially and politically in the context of PSM. The design...... of a diversity diet system generates questions not just about editorial power, personal freedom and techno-paternalism, but also about the embedded politics of recommender systems as well as the human skills affiliated with PSM editorial work and the nature of PSM content....

  20. Protection of Aboriginal diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.

    1989-01-01

    One aspect of public concern about uranium mining in Australia has centred on possible harm to humans, particularly Aboriginal people arising from the release of radionuclides into the environment. A dose assessment model was developed based on the dispersion of radionuclides in water, their bioaccumulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals and the diet of the critical group. Of the diet components, the consumption of freshwater mussels, fish and water lilies gives rise to greater than 90% of the total exposure. On the bases of modelling dose estimates, showing which variables are more significant in the estimation of radiation exposure resulting from release of water from Ranger, limits have been deducted from the maximum annual quantity of radionuclides that can be added to Magela Creek waters without causing members of this community to be exposed to significant amounts of radiations. 2 figs., ills

  1. Protection of Aboriginal diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, A [Office of the Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region, Sydney (Australia)

    1989-05-01

    One aspect of public concern about uranium mining in Australia has centred on possible harm to humans, particularly Aboriginal people arising from the release of radionuclides into the environment. A dose assessment model was developed based on the dispersion of radionuclides in water, their bioaccumulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals and the diet of the critical group. Of the diet components, the consumption of freshwater mussels, fish and water lilies gives rise to greater than 90% of the total exposure. On the bases of modelling dose estimates, showing which variables are more significant in the estimation of radiation exposure resulting from release of water from Ranger, limits have been deducted from the maximum annual quantity of radionuclides that can be added to Magela Creek waters without causing members of this community to be exposed to significant amounts of radiations. 2 figs., ills.

  2. Effect of irradiation on wound healing after tooth extraction in the rachitic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mee Kyung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    To observe the histopathological changes following irradiation on the wound healing after tooth extraction in the rachitic rats. In order to carry out this study, the rats were divided into four groups: Group 1 (normal diet/non-irradiation group), Group 2 (normal diet/irradiation group), Group 3 (rachitogenic diet/non-irradiation group), and Group 4 (rachitogenic diet/irradiation group). Rachitic changes were induced with rachitogenic diet No. 2 (high calcium, low phosphorus, and Vitamin D deficient diet) for 5 weeks. After the extraction of both maxillary first molars of the rats in Group 2 and 4, the head and neck of the rats were irradiated with single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. The rats were sacrificed at the 1st, 5th, 10th, and 15th day after tooth extraction. The specimens including the extraction wound were sectioned, stained with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome method and examined under the light microscope. In the Group 2, the amount of newly formed bone trabeculae on the periphery of extraction socket and osteoblastic activity were reduced. In the Group 3, epithelial fusion was not revealed on the 5th day after toothe extraction and growth rate of osteoid formation was reduced. In the Group 4, necrotized tissue at the outer surface of extraction socket and destructive changes on the alveolar bones were noted on the 10th day. Epithelial fusion was not revealed and large amounts of osteoclast were noted on alveolar bone on the 15th day. The healing process of wound after tooth extraction was retarded by irradiation and especially in the rachitic rats.

  3. Effect of irradiation on wound healing after tooth extraction in the rachitic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mee Kyung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2002-01-01

    To observe the histopathological changes following irradiation on the wound healing after tooth extraction in the rachitic rats. In order to carry out this study, the rats were divided into four groups: Group 1 (normal diet/non-irradiation group), Group 2 (normal diet/irradiation group), Group 3 (rachitogenic diet/non-irradiation group), and Group 4 (rachitogenic diet/irradiation group). Rachitic changes were induced with rachitogenic diet No. 2 (high calcium, low phosphorus, and Vitamin D deficient diet) for 5 weeks. After the extraction of both maxillary first molars of the rats in Group 2 and 4, the head and neck of the rats were irradiated with single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. The rats were sacrificed at the 1st, 5th, 10th, and 15th day after tooth extraction. The specimens including the extraction wound were sectioned, stained with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome method and examined under the light microscope. In the Group 2, the amount of newly formed bone trabeculae on the periphery of extraction socket and osteoblastic activity were reduced. In the Group 3, epithelial fusion was not revealed on the 5th day after toothe extraction and growth rate of osteoid formation was reduced. In the Group 4, necrotized tissue at the outer surface of extraction socket and destructive changes on the alveolar bones were noted on the 10th day. Epithelial fusion was not revealed and large amounts of osteoclast were noted on alveolar bone on the 15th day. The healing process of wound after tooth extraction was retarded by irradiation and especially in the rachitic rats.

  4. Synthetic Biology: Mapping the Scientific Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Burton, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    This article uses data from Thomson Reuters Web of Science to map and analyse the scientific landscape for synthetic biology. The article draws on recent advances in data visualisation and analytics with the aim of informing upcoming international policy debates on the governance of synthetic biology by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. We use mapping techniques to identify how synthetic biology can best be understood and the range of institutions, researchers and funding agencies involved. Debates under the Convention are likely to focus on a possible moratorium on the field release of synthetic organisms, cells or genomes. Based on the empirical evidence we propose that guidance could be provided to funding agencies to respect the letter and spirit of the Convention on Biological Diversity in making research investments. Building on the recommendations of the United States Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues we demonstrate that it is possible to promote independent and transparent monitoring of developments in synthetic biology using modern information tools. In particular, public and policy understanding and engagement with synthetic biology can be enhanced through the use of online interactive tools. As a step forward in this process we make existing data on the scientific literature on synthetic biology available in an online interactive workbook so that researchers, policy makers and civil society can explore the data and draw conclusions for themselves. PMID:22539946

  5. Determination of hydrogen in ice and in irradiated frozen chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchcock, C.H.S.

    1996-01-01

    The irradiation of food is a process which can improve the quality and safety of the diet; it complements more familiar methods of food preservation such as cooking and freezing. The Food Safety Act 1990 allows the controlled production and sale of irradiated food in the UK, but the market is being initially inhibited by consumer resistance; this is partly based on lack of confidence. While a detection test is not officially considered to be a prerequisite for control of irradiated food, it would provide additional safeguards valued by the consumer. Two types of test are needed; firstly, a precise reference method that can be undertaken in a specialised laboratory, preferably leading to an estimation of the original radiation dose, and secondly, a rapid screening method that can be used more widely. In the second category, a simple cheap test for the presence of the hydrogen generated during irradiation might provide a suitable basis. (author)

  6. Biological changes in experimental animals after irradiation with sublethal doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dae Seong; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Byun, Myung Woo; Jeong, Il Yun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The objective of the present study was to investigate general clinical aspects such as weekly body weight and blood changes, and weekly food intake in gamma-irradiated C57BL/6j male mice fed AIN-76A purified rodent diet for 14 weeks. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 0, 2, 4 and 6 Gy of gamma-rays (Gammacell 40 Exactor, {sup 137}Cs, MDS Nordion) at a dose rate of 1.8 {sub c}Gy per second. The mean body weight change of 6 Gy-irradiated mice significantly decreased when compared to that of the non-irradiated control mice. Moreover, high dose of radiation resulted in decreased levels of AST, ALT, but in increased levels of total cholersterol, triglyceride, HDL-C in mice.

  7. Sensory properties of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plestenjak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is a simple and effective preservation technique. The changes caused by irradiation depend on composition of food, on the absorbed dose, the water content and temperature during and after irradiation. In this paper the changes of food components caused by irradiation, doses for various food irradiation treatments, foods and countries where the irradiation is allowed, and sensory properties of irradiated food are reviewed

  8. Synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM). Behavioral effects and radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landauer, M.R.; Mcchesney, D.G.; Ledney, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM), an immunomodulator, for its survival enhancing capacity and behavioral toxicity in B6D2F1 female mice. In survival experiments, mice were administered S-TDCM (25-400 μg/mouse i.p.) 20-24 hr before 5.6 Gy mixed-field fission-neutron irradiation (n) and γ-photon irradiation. The 30-day survival rates for mice treated with 100-400 μg/mouse S-TDCM were significantly enhanced compared to controls. Toxicity of S-TDCM was measured in nonirradiated mice by locomotor activity, food intake, water consumption, and alterations in body weight. A dose-dependent decrease was noted in all behavioral measures in mice treated with S-TDCM. Doses of 100 and 200 μg/mouse S-TDCM significantly reduced motor activity beginning 12 hr postinjection with recovery by 24 hr. A dose of 400 μg/mouse significantly decreased activity within the first 4 hr after administration and returned to control levels by 32 hr following injection. Food and water intake were significantly depressed at doses of 200 and 400 μg/mouse on the day following drug administration, and were recovered in 24 hr. Body weight was significantly decreased in the 200 μg/mouse group for 2 days and in the 400 μg/mouse group for 4 days following injection. A dose of 100 μg/mouse effectively enhanced survival after fission-neutron irradiation with no adverse effect on food consumption, water intake, or body weight and a minimal, short-term effect on locomotor activity. (author)

  9. Synthetic Biology: game changer in intelectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Landeweerd

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology can be considered a game changer that plays an important role in the current NBIC, or BINC convergence of nano-, bio-, info and cognitive sciences. Although most synthetic biology experts are unaware of it, the field appeals to the imagination in its adherence to targets that were usually associated with premodern alchemist science. This paper elaborates several aspects of synthetic biology as well as its consequences for long held notions of intellectual property and the ontological categories of scientific discovery on the one hand and engineering on the other, the distinction between natural and artificial, the grown and the made.

  10. Defining the Synthetic Biology Supply Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen E.; Bonheyo, George T.; Diggans, James; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Gehrig, Lindsey; Greaves, Mark

    2017-08-01

    In this article, a team of experts in synthetic biology, data analytics, and national security describe the overall supply chain surrounding synthetic biology. The team analyzes selected interactions within that network to better understand the risks raised by synthetic biology and identifies opportunities for risk mitigation. To introduce the concept, the article will briefly describe how an understanding of supply chains has been important in promoting nuclear nonproliferation objectives. The article concludes by assessing the structure and networks identified in the supply chains to reveal potential opportunities for future biodefense research and development; options for additional information exchange; and means to interdict, detect, or deter suspicious activity.

  11. [Smart therapeutics based on synthetic gene circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shuguang; Xie, Zhen

    2017-03-25

    Synthetic biology has an important impact on biology research since its birth. Applying the thought and methods that reference from electrical engineering, synthetic biology uncovers many regulatory mechanisms of life systems, transforms and expands a series of biological components. Therefore, it brings a wide range of biomedical applications, including providing new ideas for disease diagnosis and treatment. This review describes the latest advances in the field of disease diagnosis and therapy based on mammalian cell or bacterial synthetic gene circuits, and provides new ideas for future smart therapy design.

  12. The possibility of using irradiated untraditional feed-stuffs in rabbits nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekawy, H.M.S.H.

    2007-01-01

    The present work was designed and carried out at food irradiation research department , National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Nasr City, Cairo , Egypt , in co-operation with animal production department, faculty of agriculture, Moshtohor, Benha University. The main target of the present study was to evaluate, improve and upgrade the utilization of olive cake and the possibility of replacing part of (clover hay) in rabbits diets by either non-or irradiated processed olive cake with gamma irradiation at dose levels of 20 and 60 kGy . The performance of growing rabbits digestibility, nutritive values of experimental diets, alongside some blood haematological and biochemical parameters, violability rate and economical efficiency were also studied. The growing rabbits were fed on diets without olive cake by - product (control diet) , or with 15% raw or processed olive cake at the above mentioned radiation dose (20 and 60 kGy) from cobalt-60 radioisotopes. Accordingly, a total of 4 experimental diets were used. The experimental diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous ( ∼ 17% CP), iso - caloric (∼2500 kcal DE/kg diet) and to , satisfy the nutrients requirements of growing rabbits according to agriculture ministry decree (1996)

  13. Comparative Study of Ashwagandha and Commercial Synthetic Compound on Performance of Broilers during Hot Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Shisodiya

    Full Text Available The trial was conducted for a period of six weeks on 225 day old broiler chicks, uniformly distributed into four groups of 75 chicks in each T1, T2 and T3 group. The chicks were fed with standard starter mash which contained crude protein 22.84% and metabolizable energy 2852.5 Kcal / kg (calculated value up to three weeks of age. For next 3 weeks i.e. from 4 to 6 weeks of age with finisher mash which contained crude protein 20% and metabolizable energy 2966 Kcal / kg (calculated value. Group T1 received standard broiler diet. Group T2 and T3 received standard broiler diet supplemented with Ashwagandha and commercial synthetic compound @ 0.05 % of feed respectively. The experimental birds were reared on deep litter system and rice husk was used as litter material.The supplementation of Aswagandha and commercial synthetic compound recorded significant improvement in all studied growth parameter i.e. live body weights, weekly gain in body weights and feed conversion ratio was observed in all the supplemented groups over the control group. However, feed consumption in control group was significantly higher than supplemented group. The economic returns of supplemented groups are more than the unsupplemented group. The net profit per bird was maximum in the commercial synthetic compound supplemented group followed by Ashwagandha supplemented group and lowest was recorded in control group (T1. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 310-311

  14. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A. Le Feuvre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials, where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal. Keywords: Synthetic biology, Materials, Biological materials, Biomaterials, Advanced materials

  15. [Progress in synthetic biology of "973 Funding Program" in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews progresses made in China from 2011 in areas of "Synthetic Biology" supported by State Basic Research 973 Program. Till the end of 2014, 9 "synthetic biology" projects have been initiated with emphasis on "microbial manufactures" with the 973 Funding Program. Combined with the very recent launch of one project on "mammalian cell synthetic biology" and another on "plant synthetic biology", Chinese "synthetic biology" research reflects its focus on "manufactures" while not giving up efforts on "synthetic biology" of complex systems.

  16. Irradiation - who needs it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoular, C.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the public's attitudes to the irradiation of food to ensure it is bacteria free and to prolong shelf-life are considered. The need to label irradiated food and to educate the public about its implications are emphasised. The opinions of the large food retailers who maintain that high standards in food processing, hygiene and refrigeration eliminate the need for food irradiation are discussed. (UK)

  17. Identification of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelberg, A.; Heide, L.; Boegl, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.) [de

  18. Food irradiation - now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Food irradiation technology in South Africa is about to take its rightful place next to existing food preservation methods in protecting food supplies. This is as a result of several factors, the most important of which is the decision by the Department of Health and Population Development to introduce compulsory labelling of food irradiation. The factors influencing food irradiation technology in South Africa are discussed

  19. Development of blood irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This project is designed to improve the techniques of blood irradiation through the development of improved and portable blood irradiators. A portable blood irradiator, consisting of a vitreous carbon body and thulium-170 radiation source, was attached to dogs via a carotid-jugular shunt, and its effects on the immune system measured. The device has demonstrated both significant suppression of circulating lymphocytes and prolonged retention of skin allografts

  20. Influence of natural and synthetic carotenoids on the color of egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Papa Spada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Carotenoids are incorporated into the diet of laying hens in order to modify the yolk color. A natural source of carotenoids in tropical countries is annatto, which could be used in the diets of hens. This study aimed to evaluate the addition of natural (annatto and synthetic carotenoids to the diet of laying hens (commercial and alternative and their effects on yolk color and consumer sensory perception of fresh and stored eggs obtained from two different preparations (boiled and fried. Physicochemical analysis of proximate composition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, emulsion activity and instrumental color were performed. Cooking caused significant alterations to the moisture in the preparations and this may have directly affected the color intensity, influencing factors related to egg appearance. In this study, 85 % of the panelists indicated that yolk color is an important attribute of the product’s quality. There was no antioxidant effect of the carotenoids in raw eggs. Synthetic additives should be better dosed to obtain the desired effect. Storage did not alter the proximate composition of the eggs.

  1. Synthetic food colourings and 'hyperactivity': a double-blind crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, K S

    1988-04-01

    Of 220 children referred for suspected 'hyperactivity', 55 were subjected to a 6 week trial of the Feingold diet. Forty (72.7%) demonstrated improved behaviour and 26 (47.3%) remained improved following liberalization of the diet over a period of 3-6 months. The parents of 14 children claimed that a particular cluster of behaviours was associated with the ingestion of foods containing synthetic colourings. A double-blind crossover study, employing a single-subject repeated measures design was conducted, using eight of these children. Subjects were maintained on a diet free from synthetic additives and were challenged daily for 18 weeks with either placebo (during lead-in and washout periods) or 50 mg of either tartrazine or carmoisine, each for 2 separate weeks. Two significant reactors were identified whose behavioural pattern featured extreme irritability, restlessness and sleep disturbance. One of the reactors did not have inattention as a feature. The findings raise the issue of whether the strict criteria for inclusion in studies concerned with 'hyperactivity' based on 'attention deficit disorder' may miss children who indicate behavioural changes associated with the ingestion of food colourings. Moreover, for further studies, the need to construct a behavioural rating instrument specifically validated for dye challenge is suggested.

  2. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    JAIME ROZOWSKI; ÓSCAR CASTILLO

    2004-01-01

    Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece), both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes t...

  3. Influence of diet on the results of laboratory tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Lis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood and urine laboratory tests are necessary to diagnose the state of the patient. These tests are also helpful in the assessment of diet and nutritional status of the organism. It is recommended that both blood and urine for laboratory tests be collected in the morning, from fasting patients after an overnight rest. These conditions are defined as the standard conditions for collection of material for laboratory testing. Before testing, patients should follow their natural diet and avoid physical exertion, night work, long-distance travel, as well as consumption of alcohol and drugs. They should also reduce the consumption of synthetic vitamins and herbal remedies and other dietary supplements. Medications should be limited to those that are absolutely necessary. All of these factors can affect the results of laboratory tests.

  4. Irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.; Danielsson-Tham, M.L.; Hoel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A committee has on instructions from the swedish government made an inquiry into the possible effects on health and working environment from irradition of food. In this report, a review is presented on the known positiv and negative effects of food irradiation Costs, availabilty, shelf life and quality of irradiated food are also discussed. According to the report, the production of radiolysis products during irradiation is not easily evaluated. The health risks from irradiation of spices are estimated to be lower than the risks associated with the ethenoxid treatment presently used. (L.E.)

  5. Gamma irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, Gabor; Stenger, Vilmos.

    1983-01-01

    The main parameters and the preparation procedures of the gamma radiation sources frequently applied for irradiation purposes are discussed. In addition to 60 Co and 137 Cs sources also the nuclear power plants offer further opportunities: spent fuel elements and products of certain (n,γ) reactions can serve as irradiation sources. Laboratory scale equipments, pilot plant facilities for batch or continuous operation, continuous industrial irradiators and special multipurpose, mobile and panorama type facilities are reviewed including those in Canada, USA, India, the Soviet Union, Hungary, UK, Japan and Australia. For irradiator design the source geometry dependence of the spatial distribution of dose rates can be calculated. (V.N.)

  6. Immunocytoadherence and sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumariage, M.L.; Hiesche, K.; Revesz, L.; Haot, J.

    1975-01-01

    In sublethally irradiated CBA mice, the relative and absolute numbers of spontaneous rosette forming cells against sheep erythrocytes are markedly decreased in bone marrow. The decrease of the absolute number of spontaneous RFC is also important in the spleen in spite of an increase of the RFC relative number above the normal values between the 8th and 12th day after irradiation. The graft of normal bone marrow cells immediately after irradiation or the shielding of a medullary area during irradiation promotes the recovery of the immunocytoadherence capacity of the bone marrow cells but not of the spleen cells [fr

  7. Fluorescence of irradiated hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulis, I.G.; Evdokimenko, V.M.; Lapkovskij, M.P.; Petrov, P.T.; Gulis, I.M.; Markevich, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    A visible fluorescence has been found out in γ-irradiated aqueous of carbohydrates. Two bands have been distinguished in fluorescence spectra of the irradiated solution of dextran: a short-wave band lambdasub(max)=140 nm (where lambda is a wave length) at lambdasub(β)=380 nm and a long-wave band with lambdasub(max)=540 nm at lambdasub(β)=430 nm. A similar form of the spectrum has been obtained for irradiated solutions of starch, amylopectin, lowmolecular glucose. It has been concluded that a macromolecule of polysaccharides includes fluorescent centres. A relation between fluorescence and α-oxiketon groups formed under irradiation has been pointed out

  8. Planning of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caha, A; Krystof, V [Vyzkumny Ustav Klinicke a Experimentalni Onkologie, Brno (Czechoslovakia)

    1979-07-01

    The principles are discussed of the planning of irradiation, ie., the use of the various methods of location of a pathological focus and the possibility of semiautomatic transmission of the obtained data on a two-dimensional or spatial model. An efficient equipment is proposed for large irradiation centres which should cooperate with smaller irradiation departments for which also a range of apparatus is proposed. Irradiation planning currently applied at the Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Oncology in Brno is described. In conclusion, some of the construction principles of semi-automatic operation of radiotherapy departments are discussed.

  9. Food irradiation: fiction and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (IGCFI), sponsored by World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the intention to provide to governments, especially those of developing countries, scientifically correct information about food irradiation, decided to organize a file and questions of general public interest. The document is composed by descriptive files related with the actual situation and future prospective, technical and scientific terms, food irradiation and the radioactivity, chemical transformations in irradiated food, genetic studies, microbiological safety of irradiated food, irradiation and harmlessness, irradiation and additives, packing, irradiation facilities control, process control, irradiation costs and benefits as well as consumers reaction

  10. CRISPR and the Rebirth of Synthetic Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidari, Raheleh; Shaw, David Martin; Elger, Bernice Simone

    Emergence of novel genome engineering technologies such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) has refocused attention on unresolved ethical complications of synthetic biology. Biosecurity concerns, deontological issues and human right aspects of genome editing have

  11. Thermodynamic Analysis of Ionic Compounds: Synthetic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Claude H.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how thermodynamic cycles can be used to understand trends in heats of formation and aqueous solubilities and, most importantly, how they may be used to choose synthetic routes to new ionic compounds. (JN)

  12. Synthetic biology platform technologies for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, Dana; Shis, David; Collins, James J

    2016-10-01

    The growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance calls for new approaches in the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Likewise, improved diagnostic measures are essential in guiding the application of targeted therapies and preventing the evolution of therapeutic resistance. Discovery platforms are also needed to form new treatment strategies and identify novel antimicrobial agents. By applying engineering principles to molecular biology, synthetic biologists have developed platforms that improve upon, supplement, and will perhaps supplant traditional broad-spectrum antibiotics. Efforts in engineering bacteriophages and synthetic probiotics demonstrate targeted antimicrobial approaches that can be fine-tuned using synthetic biology-derived principles. Further, the development of paper-based, cell-free expression systems holds promise in promoting the clinical translation of molecular biology tools for diagnostic purposes. In this review, we highlight emerging synthetic biology platform technologies that are geared toward the generation of new antimicrobial therapies, diagnostics, and discovery channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthetic Sediments and Stochastic Groundwater Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    For over twenty years the groundwater community has pursued the somewhat elusive goal of describing the effects of aquifer heterogeneity on subsurface flow and chemical transport. While small perturbation stochastic moment methods have significantly advanced theoretical understanding, why is it that stochastic applications use instead simulations of flow and transport through multiple realizations of synthetic geology? Allan Gutjahr was a principle proponent of the Fast Fourier Transform method for the synthetic generation of aquifer properties and recently explored new, more geologically sound, synthetic methods based on multi-scale Markov random fields. Focusing on sedimentary aquifers, how has the state-of-the-art of synthetic generation changed and what new developments can be expected, for example, to deal with issues like conceptual model uncertainty, the differences between measurement and modeling scales, and subgrid scale variability? What will it take to get stochastic methods, whether based on moments, multiple realizations, or some other approach, into widespread application?

  14. Philosophy of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This entry aims to clarify how systems and synthetic biology contribute to and extend discussions within philosophy of science. Unlike fields such as developmental biology or molecular biology, systems and synthetic biology are not easily demarcated by a focus on a specific subject area or level...... of organization. Rather, they are characterized by the development and application of mathematical, computational, and synthetic modeling strategies in response to complex problems and challenges within the life sciences. Proponents of systems and synthetic biology often stress the necessity of a perspective...... that goes beyond the scope of molecular biology and genetic engineering, respectively. With the emphasis on systems and interaction networks, the approaches explicitly engage in one of the oldest philosophical discussions on the relationship between parts and wholes, or between reductionism and holism...

  15. Defining the Synthetic Biology Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazar, Sarah L; Hund, Gretchen E; Bonheyo, George T; Diggans, James; Bartholomew, Rachel A; Gehrig, Lindsey; Greaves, Mark

    Several recent articles have described risks posed by synthetic biology and spurred vigorous discussion in the scientific, commercial, and government communities about how to best detect, prevent, regulate, and respond to these risks. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) deep experience working with dual-use technologies for the nuclear industry has shown that analysis of supply chains can reveal security vulnerabilities and ways to mitigate security risk without hindering beneficial research and commerce. In this article, a team of experts in synthetic biology, data analytics, and national security describe the overall supply chain surrounding synthetic biology to illustrate new insights about the effectiveness of current regulations, the possible need for different screening approaches, and new technical solutions that could help identify or mitigate risks in the synthetic biology supply chain.

  16. Chemical and physical change of packing materials for food induced by γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Sugita, Takiko; Yamada, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    28 kinds of antioxidants and UV-absorbents of synthetic resin with a kind of addition agent were stable by 30 kGy of irradiation. When polyethylene sheet incorporated with them were irradiated, amounts of many kinds of antioxidants largely decreased. They might be decomposed by reacting with radicals and peroxides in polymer produced by irradiation. Accordingly, they acted effectively to reduce deterioration of polymer. But UV-absorbent was not changed by irradiation. The addition agents of polyethylene sheet were not eluted by pseudo-food aqueous solvent independent on irradiation. However, on pseudo-fatty food solvent, amount of eluate decreased. So that, eluate of antioxidant and UV-absorbent in polyethylene was decreased by γ-ray irradiation which produced good effects on food hygiene. (S.Y.)

  17. Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, W.M.; Bowen, W.H.; Cole, M.F. (Caries Prevention and Research Branch, National Caries Program, NIDR, Bethesda, Maryland, USA)

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth.

  18. Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgar, W.M.; Bowen, W.H.; Cole, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth. (author)

  19. Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, W M; Bowen, W H; Cole, M F [Caries Prevention and Research Branch, National Caries Program, NIDR, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth.

  20. Synthetic Sling Failure - Evaluations and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Mackey, Thomas C. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-10-26

    The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall