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Sample records for irradiated rat salivary

  1. Effects of cobalt 60 irradiation on rat salivary glands; Correlation of early changes with irradiation dose

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    Shigematsu, Yoshiaki (Meikai Univ., Sakado, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-11-01

    A single irradiation of Co-60 was given to the head and neck region in male Sprague-Dawley rats. According to the time, dose and fractionation factor (TDF), the experimental animals were equally divided into the group of 11.36 Gy (TDF 50), the group of 17.82 Gy (TDF 100), and the group of 27.97 Gy (TDF 200). Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and biochemically one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation. Parotid saliva samples were also collected after stimulation with pilocarpine, and the flow rate, concentration of total salivary protein, and {alpha}-amylase activity were assessed. The parotid gland showed the most significant decrease in {alpha}-amylase activity at 3 days in all groups. {alpha}-amylase activity in the submandibular and sublingual glands was much lower than in the parotid gland. Non-lysosome enzyme, acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity in the salivary glands was increased. Similarly, a lysosomal enzyme, {beta}-D-glucuronidase in the salivary glands was increased. Alkaline phosphatase activity was increased in the parotid gland and decreased in the submandibular and sublingual glands. Salivary flow rate in the parotid gland was decreased one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation, markedly depending on irradiation doses. Light microscopy of the salivary glands revealed atrophy, vacuolization, and degranulation in acinar cells, especially in granular tubule cells. Electron microscopy revealed vacuolization and degeneration of mitochondria, secretory granules, and other organelles in the cytoplasm of acinar cells. Morphological changes of secretory granules were dose-dependent. Not only morphological but also biochemical changes in the parotid gland occurred synchronously. (N.K.) 56 refs.

  2. CONTRASTING DOSE-RATE EFFECTS OF GAMMA-IRRADIATION ON RAT SALIVARY-GLAND FUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VISSINK, A; DOWN, JD; KONINGS, AWT

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Co-60 irradiation delivered at high (HDR) and low (LDR) dose-rates on rat salivary gland function. Total-body irradiation (TBI; total doses 7.5, 10 and 12.5 Gy) was applied from a Co-60 source at dose-rates of 1 cGy/min (LDR) and 40 cGy/min (HD

  3. Studies on irradiation effects on rat salivary glands; Morphological and functional changes after sup 60 Co. gamma. irradiation

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    Saotome, Hitoshi (Meikai Univ., Sakado, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-07-01

    Following {sup 60}Co {gamma} irradiation (17.82 Gy) given as a single dose, time, dose and fractionation factor (TDF) 100, to the head and neck area of rats, the major salivary glands were examined at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 49 days for evidence of microscopic and ultrastructural damage as well as for changes in various enzymes. In addition, parotid salivary function assessed in terms of flow rate, total salivary protein, and secretion of {alpha}-amylase activity was also determined. In the early stage after {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiation 17.82 Gy (TDF 100), systemic effects, body weight loss, and dehydration were observed, and the animals tended to recover from these effects within 1 or 2 weeks. Regarding the irradiation effect on the salivary glands, the parotid gland was showed severe damage; the submandibular, moderate; and the sublingual, slight. Also the effects remained longer in the parotid. Proliferation of granular convoluted tubule cells was retarded by irradiation. The total protein in the parotid gland was decreased after irradiation, whereas the submandibular and sublingual were showed slight or no change. The amount of activity of {alpha}-amylase and of alkaline phosphatase activity in the parotid gland, and that of acid phosphatase and {beta}-D-glucuronidase in all glands, was dependent on the degree of morphological damage observed following irradiation. The salivary flow rate in the parotid gland was depressed 7 days after irradiation to approximately 1/7 of normal, and recovery was noted by 49 days post irradiation. The total protein and {alpha}-amylase activity in the parotid saliva were decreased within several days after irradiation, but had recovered to normal levels. (author).

  4. Evaluation of radioprotective effect of aloe vera and zinc/copper compounds against salivary dysfunction in irradiated rats.

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    Nejaim, Yuri; I V Silva, Amaro; V Vasconcelos, Taruska; J N L Silva, Emmanuel; M de Almeida, Solange

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective and reparative effects of compounds based on aloe vera, zinc, and copper against salivary gland dysfunction in Wistar rats. A total of 150 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 12 groups, in which the animals received aloe vera and/or zinc and copper. In eight of these groups the animals were also subjected to irradiation before or after administration of the substances. After 27 days, sialometry tests were performed. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test (P aloe vera before or after irradiation showed a significantly higher salivary flow rate than rats that had been simply irradiated. When both substances were administered, a statistically significant difference in the salivary flow rate was observed in comparison with the irradiation alone group seven days after irradiation. The present results suggest that aloe vera exerts positive protective and reparative effects, and can be considered a potential radioprotective substance.

  5. Immunohistochemical study on effects of [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation on salivary gland ducts of rat

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    Saitoh, Kazuhiko (Meikai Univ., Sakato, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1992-09-01

    Cytokeratin distribution in salivary glands was detected by use of polyclonal antikeratin antiserum (TK) and monoclonal antibodies (KL 1, RGE 53, and RPN 1164). The salivary glands of male rats received either 17.82 Gy or 27.97 Gy [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation in a single exposure and were then compared immunohistochemically with those of normal rats. Polyclonal anti-keratin antiserum (TK), which reacts with 41-65 KD keratins, stained almost all ducts in normal glands. RPN 1164 (no. 8 keratin) staining was negative in intercalated ducts of normal parotid and submandibular glands, but strongly positive in both striated and excretory ducts of these glands. Monoclonal antibody KL 1 (55-57 KD keratins) and RGE 53 (no. 18 keratin) did not bind to any ductal or acinar epithelia. Only in the sublingual gland were acini positive for TK staining, possibly indicating myoepithelial cells. No effects of [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation were apparent regarding keratin distribution in the intercalated in apical cytoplasm by [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation. Also, in the excretory duct, the basal side of the cells exhibited weakened staining following [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation were the most significant in the parotid and the least in the sublingual gland. Also this reaction depended upon the doses of [sup 60]Co used. The present findings suggested that negative or weakened staining at the basal and perinuclear portions of striated duct cells specifically reflects the primary or secondary cell damage produced by [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation. Since the distribution of cytoskeletal proteins in the cytoplasm reflects certain pathological conditions, immunohistochemical detection of these proteins seem to have a diagnostic value with respect to cellular injury. (J.P.N.) 77 refs.

  6. An electron microscopic study on the cobalt-60 irradiation effects on the salivary gland of the white rat

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    Park, Chang Seo; Yoon, Jung Ho [Department of Dental Science, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-11-15

    This study was undertaken to observe the histopathologic changes in salivary gland of the white rats when exposed to megavoltage fractionated dose of cobalt-60 irradiation and 78 female white rats, weighing approximately 180 gm, were divided into control and 3 experimental groups. Irradiation on experimental groups was delivered by using 6000 curies MeV ALCYON cobalt-60 teletherapy unit with exposure rate 183 rads per minute, in source skin distance 80 cm, 600 rads every 3 days. In experimental groups, Group I was irradiated of total dose 1200 rads for a period of 6 days, Group II was irradiated of total dose 2400 rads for a period of 12 days and Group III was irradiated of total dose of 4800 rads for a period of 24 days. The animals were sacrificed serially at 3 hours, 6 hours, 10 hours, 1st day, 4th day, 7th day after each completion of irradiation exposure. At sacrifice, salivary glands were excised and examined microscopically and electromicroscopically. The results were as follows: 1. The acinar cells of parotid and submaxillary gland showed damage varied with dose, 1200 rads resulted in very mild injury while 4800 rads caused most extensive injury. 2. The acinar cells of parotid and submandibular gland showed similar ultrastructural alterations, appeared as pleomorphic nucleus, decreased numbers and pleomorphism of secretory granules, distension of rough endoplasmic reticulum, expansion and pallor appearance of mitochodria, and hypertrophy of Golgi complex. 3. Parotid serous cells were the most sensitive components, displaying morphological alterations of radiation damage as early as 3 hours, followed by submandibular seromucinous cells and secretory tubular cells. 4. The mucous cells of sublingual gland, as well as the whole ductal lining cells of each salivary gland, displayed no significant alterations. 5. No evidence of microvascular injury through whole experimental groups indicated that microvascular impairment does not contribute to early salivary

  7. Effects of split-dose X irradiation on rat salivary gland function

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    Vissink, A.; s-Gravenmade, E.J.; Ligeon, E.E.; Konings, A.W. (Department of Radiobiology, University of Groningen (Netherlands))

    1991-07-01

    The effect of a single local dose of 15 Gy on salivary gland function in male Albino Wistar rats was compared with the effect of two doses of 7.5 Gy. The intervals chosen were 0-24 h and 1 week. Before and 1-30 days after the last radiation dose, samples of parotid and submandibular saliva were collected simultaneously after stimulation of the glands with pilocarpine. Irradiation with the single dose resulted in an increased lag phase and potassium concentration, and a decreased flow rate and sodium concentration. The rate of secretion of amylase was decreased during Days 1-6, increased at Day 10, and was decreased again at Day 30. With two dose fractions, substantial dose-sparing effects on lag phase, flow rate, and secretion of amylase were observed for both the very early (0-6 days postirradiation) and later (6-30 days postirradiation) effects. These effects were maximal when the interval between the fractions was 6 h. A significant dose-sparing effect on electrolytes was observed for the later effects only, again with a maximum for the 6-h interval. The dose-sparing observed for the very early effects cannot be explained satisfactorily by repair of sublethal damage (SLD), redistribution of cells over the cell cycle, or repopulation of salivary gland tissue between the doses. In contrast to the earlier dose-sparing effects, the split-dose recovery seen for later damage may be attributed, in part, to SLD repair in providing for greater reproductive survival of intercalated ductal cells and enhanced tissue regeneration.

  8. Effect of irradiation on cell transcriptome and proteome of rat submandibular salivary glands.

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    Raluca Stiubea-Cohen

    Full Text Available Salivary glands (SGs are irreversibly damaged by irradiation (IR treatment in head and neck cancer patients. Here, we used an animal irradiation model to investigate and define the molecular mechanisms affecting SGs following IR, focusing on saliva proteome and global transcription profile of submandibular salivary gland (SSG tissue.We show that saliva secretion was gradually reduced to 50% of its initial level 12 weeks post-IR. Saliva protein composition was further examined by proteomic analysis following mass spectrometry (MS analysis that revealed proteins with reduced expression originating from SSGs and proteins with increased expression derived from the serum, both indicating salivary tissue damage. To examine alterations in mRNA expression levels microarray analysis was performed. We found significant alterations in 95 genes, including cell-cycle arrest genes, SG functional genes and a DNA repair gene.Tissue damage was seen by confocal immunofluorescence of α-amylase and c-Kit that showed an increase and decrease, respectively, in protein expression. This was coherent with real-time PCR results.This data indicates that IR damages the SSG cells' ability to produce and secrete saliva and proteins, and maintain the physiological barrier between serum and saliva. The damage does not heal due to cell-cycle arrest, which prevents tissue regeneration. Taken together, our results reveal a new insight into IR pathobiology.

  9. THE ROLE OF SECRETORY GRANULES IN RADIATION-INDUCED DYSFUNCTION OF RAT SALIVARY-GLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETER, B; VANWAARDE, MAWH; VISSINK, A; SGRAVENMADE, EJ; KONINGS, AWT

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini, At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy

  10. THE ROLE OF SECRETORY GRANULES IN RADIATION-INDUCED DYSFUNCTION OF RAT SALIVARY-GLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETER, B; VANWAARDE, MAWH; VISSINK, A; SGRAVENMADE, EJ; KONINGS, AWT

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini, At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy o

  11. Muscarinic receptor stimulation increases tolerance of rat salivary gland function to radiation damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Vissink, A; Zeilstra, LJW; Konings, AWT

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate if muscarinic receptor-stimulated activation of the PLC/PIP2 second messenger pathway prior to irradiation increases the radiotolerance of rat salivary gland. Materials and methods: Rats were treated with pilocarpine, methacholine, reserpine, methacholine plus reserpine, or

  12. Muscarinic receptor stimulation increases tolerance of rat salivary gland function to radiation damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Vissink, A; Zeilstra, LJW; Konings, AWT

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate if muscarinic receptor-stimulated activation of the PLC/PIP2 second messenger pathway prior to irradiation increases the radiotolerance of rat salivary gland. Materials and methods: Rats were treated with pilocarpine, methacholine, reserpine, methacholine plus reserpine, or a

  13. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a

  14. Influence of bethanechol on salivary parameters in irradiated patients

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    Cotomacio, Claudia; Campos, Luana; Simões, Alyne; Jaguar, Graziela; Crosato, Edgard-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Background Some studies have shown evidence that the prophylactic use of bethanechol chloride (BC) may be useful in preventing the incidence and/or severity of xerostomia (XT). However, the indication of BC in irradiated patients with XT needs to be better characterized. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of BC on XT, salivary flow rate, and salivary composition in patients previously submitted to head and neck radiotherapy. Material and Methods Forty five irradiated patients complaining of XT used 50 mg/day of BC for 3 months, and the salivary parameters were evaluated in 4 Phases (Before BC therapy, after one month of BC, 2 months of BC, and 3 months of BC). Biochemical analysis included buffering capacity; pH; total protein concentration (TP); amylase concentration (AM); catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (PX) activities. In addition, unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and XT was classified. Results According to the XT grading system used, patients showed improvement in XT between Phase 1, and Phases 2, 3 and 4. In addition, some changes were observed in TP concentration (decreased); AM concentration (increased); and PX and CAT activities (decreased and increased, respectively) after Phase 2, for stimulated saliva collection (p<0.05). Conclusions Our results suggested that when BC was used to treat salivary gland dysfunction induced by head and neck radiotherapy, improvement in XT symptoms, and some changes in saliva composition were shown. Key words:Radiotherapy, xerostomia, hyposalivation, saliva, biochemistry. PMID:27918737

  15. Radiation-induced apoptosis in relation to acute impairment of rat salivary gland function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper, GMRM; Cammelli, S; Zeilstra, LJW; Coppes, RP; Konings, AWT

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To find an answer to the question: Are the acute radiation effects on salivary gland function, as seen in earlier studies, causally related to radiation-induced apoptosis? Materials and methods: Rat parotid and submandibular glands were X-irradiated with doses up to 25 Gy and morphological

  16. Modification of late radiation response of rat salivary glands by pentoxifylline and diltiazem

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    Suh, Hyun Suk; Yang, Kwang Mo; Kang, Yun Kyung [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To elucidate me effects of pentoxifylline and diltiazem on the late response of the salivary glands of the rat after irradiation. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: (a) irradiation alone (b) irradiation with pentixifylline (PTX) (c) irradiation with diltiazem (DTZ) (d) irradiation with both PTX and OT2, Irradiation was given in a single fraction of 16 Gy using 4 MV photon energy through an anterior port encompassing the left side of the salivary gland leaving the right side of salivary gland as a control. PTX, 20 mg/kg and/or OT2, 50 mg/kg were infused intraperitoneally before irradiation. Two rats from each group were sacrificed on the 10th week and the rest was sacrificed on the 16th week after irradiation. Histopathologic examinations were undertaken for each section and the proportion of vacuolated cells out of the total number of cells under light microscopic fields was calculated. The statistical significance in the difference of the proportion of the vacuolated cells among the experimental groups was evaluated by a x{sup 2}-test. Irradiated salivary glands of the 10th week group revealed markedly increased number of vacuolated cells compared to those of unirradiated control. The proportion of vacuolated cells was significantly reduced in both the PTX qroup (p vaJue=0.001) and the combined PTX and DTX group compared to those of irradiation alone group. The DTZ alone group did not reveal the significant reduction of vacuolated cells compared to those of irradiation alone group (p value, >0.05). The 16th week groups revealed similar findings to those of the 10th week group, but the degree of chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates and interstitial fibrosis was increased and the number of acinar cells was reduced compared to those of the 10th week group. PTX significantly reduced the late radiation response of salivary glands, but DTZ did not reduce the same degree as PTX did. Taking the positive results of this study into consideration, it

  17. Salisphere derived c-Kit(+) cell transplantation restores tissue homeostasis in irradiated salivary gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanduri, Lalitha S. Y.; Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Faber, Hette; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; van Os, Ronald P.; Coppes, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: During radiotherapy salivary glands of head and neck cancer patients are unavoidably co-irradiated, potentially resulting in life-long impairment. Recently we showed that transplantation of salisphere-derived c-Kit expressing cells can functionally regenerate irradiated salivary glands

  18. Irradiation of salivary glands in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Irradiation des glandes salivaires dans la sclerose laterale amyotrophique

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    Bourry, N.; Lapeyre, M.; Tortochaux, J.; Gilliot, O.; Achard, J.L.; Verrelle, P. [Centre Jean-Perrin, Dept. de Radiotherapie 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Clavelou, P.; Rouvet, S. [CHU Gabriel-Montpied, Service de Neurologie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2006-11-15

    The irradiation of salivary glands in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is efficient. A dose about 20 Gy in five seances delivered by electrons seems a correct compromise between efficiency and toxicity. (N.C.)

  19. Increased Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Excretion in Rats with Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Somayeh; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Shahsavari, Fatemeh; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Grayesh-Nejad, Siyavash; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2015-11-01

    Increased nitric oxide (NO) formation is mechanistically linked to pathophysiology of the extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. NO is formed by either enzymatic or non-enzymatic pathways. Enzymatic production is catalyzed by NO synthase (NOS) while entero-salivary circulation of nitrate and nitrite is linked to non-enzymatic formation of NO under acidic pH in the stomach. There is no data on salivary excretion of nitrate and nitrite in cirrhosis. This study was aimed to investigate salivary levels of nitrate and nitrite in a rat model of biliary cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Four weeks after the operation, submandibular ducts of anesthetized BDL and control rats were cannulated with polyethylene microtube for saliva collection. Assessment of pH, nitrite and nitrate levels was performed in our research. We also investigated NOS expression by real time RT-PCR to estimate eNOS, nNOS and iNOS mRNA levels in the submandibular glands. Salivary pH was significantly lower in BDL rats in comparison to control animals. We also observed a statistically significant increase in salivary levels of nitrite as well as nitrate in BDL rats while there was no elevation in the mRNA expression of nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS in submandibular glands of cirrhotic groups. This indicates that an increased salivary level of nitrite/nitrate is less likely to be linked to increased enzymatic production of NO in the salivary epithelium. It appears that nitrate/nitrite can be transported from the blood stream by submandibular glands and excreted into saliva as entero-salivary circulation, and this mechanism may have been exaggerated during cirrhosis.

  20. Stem cell injury and restitution after ionizing irradiation in intestine, liver, salivary gland, mesenteric lymph node

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    Lee, Jae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Lee, Sun Joo; Jang, Won Suk [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    There is little information about radiation injury on stem cell resident in other organs. In addition there is little experimental model in which radiation plays a role on proliferation stem cell in adult organ. This study was carried out to evaluate the early response of tissue injury and restitution in intestine, liver, salivary gland and lymph node, and to develop in vivo model to investigate stem cell biology by irradiation. The study is to assay the early response to radiation and setup an animal model for radiation effect on cellular response. Duodenal intestine, liver, submandibular salivary gland and mesenteric lymph node were selected to compare apoptosis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression to radiosensitivity. For the effect of radiation on cellular responses, rats were irradiated during starvation. Conclusionly, this study showed the value of apoptosis in detection system for evaluating cellular damage against radiation injury. Because apoptosis was regularly inducted depending on tissue-specific pattern, dose and time sequence as well as cellular activity. Furthermore in vivo model in the study will be helped in the further study to elucidate the relationship between radiation injury and starvation or malnutrition. (author). 22 refs., 6 figs

  1. Salivary gland-sparing prophylactic pilocarpine treatment has no effect on tumor regrowth after irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, R; Kampinga, HH; Coppes, RP

    2002-01-01

    Radiotherapy, of head and neck cancer frequently damages the salivary glands. Prophylactic administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine reduces subsequent radiation damage to the salivary glands in rats, but its effects on tumor cell radiosensitivity and tumor regrowth after irradia

  2. ACUTE IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION OF RAT SUBMANDIBULAR GLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VISSINK, A; KALICHARAN, D; GRAVENMADE, EJ; JONGEBLOED, WL; LIGEON, EE; NIEUWENHUIS, P; KONINGS, AWT

    1991-01-01

    In this study the morphologic and functional changes were compared after irradiation (single dose, 15 Gy) of rat submandibular salivary glands. Before and 1-10 days after local irradiation of the gland region, samples of submandibular saliva were collected after stimulation by pilocarpine. At the sa

  3. Salivary Alterations in Rats with Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease.

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    Ana Carolina Romero

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze changes in saliva composition and salivary secretion process of rats with chronic kidney disease induced by 5/6 nephrectomy to set the foundation for salivary studies related to CKD.CKD was induced in Wistar rats via 5/6 nephrectomy. Blood and saliva samples were collected from Control, Sham and CKD groups at 8 and 12 weeks after the surgery. Salivation was stimulated via intraperitoneal injections of pilocarpine (1.0 mg/Kg body weight or isoproterenol (5.0 mg/Kg body weight. Saliva was collected and immediately stored at -80°C until analysis. The salivary flow rate, total protein, amylase and peroxidase activities, and urea concentrations were measured. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine concentrations were also evaluated.Increases in BUN and serum creatinine concentrations were observed in the CKD groups. Amylase activity was significantly reduced in response to both stimuli in the CKD groups at 8 weeks and increased in the CKD groups at 12 weeks in response to isoproterenol stimulus. The peroxidase activities of the CKD groups were significantly reduced in response to isoproterenol stimulation and were increased at 12 weeks in response to pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary urea was significantly increased in the CKD groups at 8 weeks in response to the isoproterenol stimuli and at 12 weeks in response to both salivary agonists.The pattern of alterations observed in this experimental model is similar to those observed in patients and clearly demonstrates the viability of 5/6 nephrectomy as an experimental model in future studies to understand the alterations in salivary compositions and in salivary glands that are elicited by CKD.

  4. Salivary Alterations in Rats with Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ana Carolina; Bergamaschi, Cassia Toledo; de Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to analyze changes in saliva composition and salivary secretion process of rats with chronic kidney disease induced by 5/6 nephrectomy to set the foundation for salivary studies related to CKD. Methods CKD was induced in Wistar rats via 5/6 nephrectomy. Blood and saliva samples were collected from Control, Sham and CKD groups at 8 and 12 weeks after the surgery. Salivation was stimulated via intraperitoneal injections of pilocarpine (1.0 mg/Kg body weight) or isoproterenol (5.0 mg/Kg body weight). Saliva was collected and immediately stored at -80°C until analysis. The salivary flow rate, total protein, amylase and peroxidase activities, and urea concentrations were measured. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations were also evaluated. Results Increases in BUN and serum creatinine concentrations were observed in the CKD groups. Amylase activity was significantly reduced in response to both stimuli in the CKD groups at 8 weeks and increased in the CKD groups at 12 weeks in response to isoproterenol stimulus. The peroxidase activities of the CKD groups were significantly reduced in response to isoproterenol stimulation and were increased at 12 weeks in response to pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary urea was significantly increased in the CKD groups at 8 weeks in response to the isoproterenol stimuli and at 12 weeks in response to both salivary agonists. Conclusions The pattern of alterations observed in this experimental model is similar to those observed in patients and clearly demonstrates the viability of 5/6 nephrectomy as an experimental model in future studies to understand the alterations in salivary compositions and in salivary glands that are elicited by CKD. PMID:26859883

  5. The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands

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    Peter, B.; Van Waarde, M.A.W.H.; Konings, A.W.T. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, A. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)]|[Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); `s-Gravenmade, E.J. [Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1995-02-01

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Protective effects of alpha lipoic acid on radiation-induced salivary gland injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Kim, Kyung Mi; Jung, Myeong Hee; Jung, Jung Hwa; Kang, Ki Mun; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Radiation therapy is a treatment for patients with head and neck (HN) cancer. However, radiation exposure to the HN often induces salivary gland (SG) dysfunction. We investigated the effect of α-lipoic acid (ALA) on radiation-induced SG injury in rats. Results ALA preserved acinoductal integrity and acinar cell secretary function following irradiation. These results are related to the mechanisms by which ALA inhibits oxidative stress by inhibiting gp91 mRNA and 8-OHdG expression and apoptosis of acinar cells and ductal cells by inactivating MAPKs in the early period and expression of inflammation-related factors including NF-κB, IκB-α, and TGF-β1 and fibrosis in late irradiated SG. ALA effects began in the acute phase and persisted for at least 56 days after irradiation. Materials and Methods Rats were assigned to followings: control, ALA only (100 mg/kg, i.p.), irradiated, and ALA administered 24 h and 30 min prior to irradiation. The neck area including the SG was evenly irradiated with 2 Gy per minute (total dose, 18 Gy) using a photon 6-MV linear accelerator. Rats were killed at 4, 7, 28, and 56 days after radiation. Conclusions Our results show that ALA could be used to ameliorate radiation-induced SG injury in patients with HN cancer. PMID:27072584

  7. Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands.

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    Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung

    2013-11-15

    Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4-5 weeks) without any selection. After five passages, we obtained adherent cells that expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface antigen markers, such as CD44, CD49f, CD90 and CD105, but not the hematopoietic stem cell markers, CD34 and CD45, and that were able to undergo adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, hSGSCs were differentiated into amylase-expressing cells by using a two-step differentiation method. Transplantation of hSGSCs to radiation-damaged rat salivary glands rescued hyposalivation and body weight loss, restored acinar and duct cell structure, and decreased the amount of apoptotic cells. These data suggest that the isolated hSGSCs, which may have characteristics of mesenchymal-like stem cells, could be used as a cell therapy agent for the damaged salivary gland.

  8. Latent and persistent lethal injury in mouse salivary gland cells following gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, T.

    1976-07-01

    Newly synthesized DNA in previously irradiated and isoproterenol-stimulated mouse salivary gland cells was found to be quickly degraded when the stimulation for DNA synthesis was given 10 days after a dose of 1000 rad ..gamma.. radiation. The degradation of the DNA was due to degeneration of acinar cells prior to mitosis. When the stimulation with isoproterenol was given 1 or 3 months after irradiation, DNA degradation in parotids was not detectable. An autoradiographic analysis revealed, however, that about half of the acinar cells labeled with tritiated thymidine were eliminated from irradiated parotids in a few days, even when the stimulation with isoproterenol was given 3 months after irradiation. This indicates that irradiation of mouse salivary gland cells produced latent lethal damage and that this damage is unmasked by the stimulation for DNA synthesis and cell division.

  9. Managing excessive saliva with salivary gland irradiation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Alexander; Stanic, Sinisa

    2015-05-15

    A significant fraction of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are unable to swallow saliva, which may result in the spillage of saliva outside of the oral cavity. Although anticholinergic agents and botulin toxin injections are considered the first line of treatment, they have not been effective for all patients. We performed a literature search on therapeutic salivary gland irradiation in patients with ALS. We searched the PubMed for English language publications up to December 2014 on therapeutic salivary gland irradiation in patients with ALS. The search was performed using the following key words: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, excessive salivation, sialorrhea, and radiation therapy. The majority of ALS patients with excessive salivation respond well to salivary gland irradiation. The whole bilateral submandibular, and whole or partial bilateral parotid glands have been the target tissue for radiation therapy in most of the published studies. Various radiation therapy regimens have been utilized. The response to radiation therapy lasts for several months. The majority of ALS patients with excessive salivation respond well to salivary gland irradiation. Neurologists should consider this treatment option for select patients with ALS and excessive salivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bone marrow-derived cells rescue salivary gland function in mice with head and neck irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumita, Yoshinori; Liu, Younan; Khalili, Saeed; Maria, Ola M; Xia, Dengsheng; Key, Sharon; Cotrim, Ana P; Mezey, Eva; Tran, Simon D

    2011-01-01

    Treatment for most patients with head and neck cancers includes ionizing radiation. A consequence of this treatment is irreversible damage to salivary glands (SGs), which is accompanied by a loss of fluid-secreting acinar-cells and a considerable decrease of saliva output. While there are currently no adequate conventional treatments for this condition, cell-based therapies are receiving increasing attention to regenerate SGs. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can differentiate into salivary epithelial cells and restore SG function in head and neck irradiated mice. BMDCs from male mice were transplanted into the tail-vein of 18Gy-irradiated female mice. Salivary output was increased in mice that received BMDCs transplantation at week 8 and 24 post-irradiation. At 24 weeks after irradiation (IR), harvested SGs (submandibular and parotid glands) of BMDC-treated mice had greater weights than those of non-treated mice. Histological analysis shows that SGs of treated mice demonstrated an increased level of tissue regenerative activity such as blood vessel formation and cell proliferation, while apoptotic activity was increased in non-transplanted mice. The expression of stem cell markers (Sca-1 or c-kit) was detected in BMDC-treated SGs. Finally, we detected an increased ratio of acinar-cell area and approximately 9% of Y-chromosome-positive (donor-derived) salivary epithelial cells in BMDC-treated mice. We propose here that cell therapy using BMDCs can rescue the functional damage of irradiated SGs by direct differentiation of donor BMDCs into salivary epithelial cells.

  11. Restoring the secretory function of irradiation-damaged salivary gland by administrating deferoxamine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junye Zhang

    Full Text Available One of the major side effects of radiotherapy for treatments of the head and neck cancer is the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands. The aim of the present study is to investigate the efficacy of deferoxamine (DFO to restore the secretory function of radiation-damaged salivary glands in mice.DFO (50 mg/kg/d was administered intraperitoneally in C57BL/6 mice for 3 days before and/or after point-fixed irradiation (18 Gy of submandibular glands. The total 55 mice were randomly divided into: (1 Normal group: mice received no treatment (n = 5; (2 Irradiation group (IR: mice only received irradiation (n = 5; (3 Pre-DFO group (D+IR (n = 10; (4 Pre+Post DFO group (D+IR+D (n = 10; (5 Post-DFO group (IR+D (n = 10; (6 For each DFO-treated group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml sterilized water alone (by which DFO was dissolved for 3 days before and/or after irradiation, and served as control. Sham1: Pre-sterilized water group (n = 5; sham2: Pre+Post sterilized water group (n = 5; sham3: Post-sterilized water group (n = 5. The salivary flow rate (SFR was assessed at 30th, 60th and 90th day after irradiation, respectively. After 90 days, all mice were sacrificed and their submandibular glands were removed for further examinations.The salivary glands showed remarkable dysfunction and tissue damage after irradiation. DFO restored SFR in the irradiated glands to a level comparable to that in normal glands and angiogenesis in damaged tissue was greatly increased. DFO also increased the expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF while reduced apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Sca-1+cells were preserved in the salivary glands treated with DFO before IR.Our results indicate DFO could prevent the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands in mice. The mechanism of this protective effect may involve increased angiogenesis, reduced apoptosis of acinar cells and more preserved stem cells.

  12. Morphology of parasympathetic neurons innervating rat lingual salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miwon; Chiego, Daniel J; Bradley, Robert M

    2004-03-31

    Saliva is essential for taste function and not only does saliva influence taste reception, but also taste perception initiates salivation. As a first step in investigating circuits involved in gustatory-salivary reflexes, we have studied the morphology of the rat inferior salivatory nucleus (ISN), which contains parasympathetic secretomotor neurons that control the parotid and lingual (von Ebner) salivary glands. By applying the fluorescent label Fluorogold to the cut end of the glossopharyngeal nerve, the neurons supplying only the lingual salivary glands were labeled. Confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction were used to analyze the labeled neurons in the horizontal plane to determine their morphological characteristics. Additional neurons were studied in the coronal plane to determine the influence of the plane of section on neuron morphology. Reconstructions indicated that inferior salivatory neurons extend in a rostral-caudal distribution just adjacent to the medial border of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST). There is considerable morphological variability among neurons, with neurons having up to 6 primary dendrites and 17 dendritic segments that extend a maximum of 834 microm from the soma. However, although ISN neurons vary in the size and complexity of their dendritic trees, distributions of all measures of neuron morphology are unimodal, indicating that distinct groups of neurons are not revealed based on these measures. There is, however, variability in the orientation pattern of the dendritic trees that is not represented in either the population or mean measures. Individual neurons can be categorized with either mediolateral, rostro-caudal or no apparent preferred orientation. Comparisons of neurons in rostral, intermediate or caudal third of the ISN revealed regional differences in neuron morphology; neurons in the caudal third have significantly longer dendrites than those in the intermediate or rostral third. Thus, while ISN

  13. Differential effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on salivary factors in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Dr T J; Shittu, S T; Meludu, C C; Salami, A A

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on salivary factors in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 animals each as control, total sleep deprivation (TSD) and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) groups. The multiple platform method was used to induce partial and total sleep deprivation for 7days. On the 8th day, stimulated saliva samples were collected for the analysis of salivary lag time, flow rate, salivary amylase activity, immunoglobulin A secretion rate and corticosterone levels using ELISA and standard kinetic enzyme assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Dunnett T3 post hoc tests. Salivary flow rate reduced significantly in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as the control group (p=0.01). The secretion rate of salivary IgA was significantly reduced in the TSD group compared with the control group (p=0.04). Salivary amylase activity was significantly elevated in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as control group (psleep deprivation is associated with reduced salivary flow rate and secretion rate of IgA as well as elevated levels of salivary amylase activity in rats. However, sleep recovery of four hours in the PSD group produced ameliorative effects on the impaired functions of salivary glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of irradiation on expression of clusterin in the rast salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O, Gyu Myeong; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    To investigate clusterin expression in the acini and ductal cells of rat submandibular glands after Co-60 gamma irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 2, 5, 10, and 15 Gy on the head and neck region. All the rats were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimens including the submandibular gland were sectioned and observed using a immunohistochemical method. In the 2 Gy group, clusterin expression was similar to that of the control group at 1 day after irradiation and it was observed in the striated ductal cells at 3 days after irradiation. In the 5 Gy group, clusterin expression was observed in the striated ductal cells at 1 day after irradiation and gradually increased in the 10 and 15 Gy groups. In the 15 Gy group, clusterin expression was prominent in the striated ductal cells at 1 day after irradiation. but it gradually decreased with the experimental period. The destruction of the striated ductal cells was observed in the 2 Gy group at 21 days after irradiation and in the 5, 10, and 15 Gy group at 7 days after irradiation. The destruction of the acinar cells was observed in the 2 Gy group at 28 days after irradiation and in the 5, 10, and 15 Gy groups at 14 days after irradiation. Clusterin expression was induced by low doses of irradiation and it appeared to be involved in the regulation of cellular response to irradiation.

  15. Common immunophenotypic features of submandibular salivary glands and thymus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dožić Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Submandibular salivary gland is a part of the neuro-immune-endocrine system. It contains biological factors which regulate a number of functions in the body including the modulation of thymus function. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate immunophenotypic characteristics of submandibular salivary glands of rats during ontogenesis, using the panels of monoclonal antibodies and to compare with the phenotypic characteristics of epithelial components of the thymus. Methods. Submandibular salivary glands and thymus were obtained from 1, 30 and 60 days old male AO (Albino, Oxford rats. Streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method was used for staining. Results. Immunohistochemical analysis of rat submandibular salivary glands showed phenotypic heterogeneity of particular components of this gland during the postnatal development. We demonstrated that rat submandibular salivary glands share common antigens with rat thymic epithelial cells, but the observed phenotypic similarity between the individual regions was considered much more significant. Our data showed that the phenotypic similarity between duct epithelial cells and subcapsular epithelial cells and most medullary cells, whereas cortical epithelial cells are phenotypically similar to acinar cells. Conclusion. This immunohistological study showed phenotypic complexity of the submandibular salivary gland and similarity to the thymus that opens new perspectives in studying phenotypic similarities between this gland and lymphatic organs.

  16. Influence of laser photobiomodulation (GaAlAs) on salivary flow rate and histomorphometry of the submandibular glands of hypothyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Vivianne Cruz; Beanes, Graziele; Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Ramalho, Maria José Pedreira; Rodriguez, Tania Tavares

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of laser photobiomodulation in salivary flow, weight, and histomorphometry of the submandibular glands of hypothyroid rats. Fifty-six male Wistar albino rats were divided in euthyroid group and hypothyroid group, treated with propylthiouracil (PTU) to induce hypothyroidism. Each group was divided into control (without laser) and laser groups (GaAlAs): λ660 nm (40 mW), λ780 nm (40 mW), and λ780 nm (70 mW). The laser application on the submandibular gland occurred after 2 weeks of PTU treatment and repeatedly during 2 weeks every 48 h. The rats were anesthetized, tracheostomized, and the evaluation of the salivary flow rate (μL/min/100 g body weight) was made by the weight of the saliva collected for 15 min from the first drop. After the animals' death, the glands were dissected and processed for histological analysis. There was an evident reduction of the salivary flow of hypothyroid rats in all groups in comparison to euthyroid group (Mann-Whitney test, p photobiomodulation compared with their control groups. Histological analysis revealed a decrease in the parenchyma of the salivary glands of hypothyroid rats, but the laser was not able to reverse this process. Hypothyroid rats irradiated or not with laser showed acini and acinar cells with significantly smaller areas than euthyroid groups. The laser photobiomodulation protocol used was not able to change salivary flow or reverse the acinar atrophy process in the submandibular glands of hypothyroid rats.

  17. Impaired mitochondria and intracellular calcium transients in the salivary glands of obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Tanajak, Pongpan; Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-04-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) causes not only obese-insulin resistance, but is also associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in several organs. However, the effect of obese-insulin resistance on salivary glands has not been investigated. We hypothesized that obese-insulin resistance induced by HFD impaired salivary gland function by reducing salivation, increasing inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as impairing mitochondrial function and calcium transient signaling. Male Wistar rats (200-220 g) were fed either a ND or an HFD (n = 8/group) for 16 weeks. At the end of week 16, salivary flow rates, metabolic parameters, and plasma oxidative stress were determined. Rats were then sacrificed and submandibular glands were removed to determine inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, mitochondrial function and dynamics, and intracellular calcium transient signaling. Long-term consumption of an HFD caused obese-insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammation, and apoptosis in the salivary glands. In addition, impaired mitochondrial function, as indicated by increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and mitochondrial swelling in salivary glands and impaired intracellular calcium regulation, as indicated by a reduced intracellular calcium transient rising rate, decay rates, and amplitude of salivary acinar cells, were observed in HFD-fed rats. However, salivary flow rate and level of aquaporin 5 protein were not different between both groups. Although HFD consumption did not affect salivation, it caused obese-insulin resistance, leading to pathophysiological alteration of salivary glands, including impaired intracellular calcium transients, increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and salivary mitochondrial dysfunction.

  18. Adrenergic effects on secretion of amylase from the rat salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adrenergic agents on secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in vivo. Saliva was collected from the distal oesophagus in conscious rats. Adrenaline increased the concentration of amylase in saliva and serum significantly....... The result of infusion of alpha- and beta-adrenergic antagonists as well as noradrenaline and isoproterenol showed that secretion of salivary amylase is predominantly mediated by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors, especially of the beta 1-subtype. Investigation of the isoenzyme pattern in saliva......, pancreatic juice and serum demonstrated that the major component in serum is salivary amylase. This study has shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in rats. Though the secretion is mainly exocrine small amounts of amylase is found in serum, which seems...

  19. Dynamic uptake of radioactive substance in rat salivary gland following /sup 3/H-melatonin administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Wongprapairot, P.; Trakulrungsi, W.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamics of radioactive accumulation in rat greater salivary gland following systemic administration of /sup 3/H-melatonin was studied to determine a possible action of the hormone in the gland. Progressive decline of /sup 3/H-melatonin concentrations was found in the serum, lung, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and salivary gland during 60 min following the administration. On the contrary, there was a progressive accumulation of radioactive substance other than /sup 3/H-melatonin in the salivary gland but not in other tissues mentioned. The radioactivity was also progressively and preferentially localized in the nuclear fraction of the gland cells. These results suggest a possible direct action of melatonin derivative in rat salivary gland.

  20. Various emetogens increase the secretion of salivary amylase in rats: a potential model in emesis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hideo; Miwa, Eri; Iwachido, Takako; Kitaura, Harumi; Furukawa, Hatsue

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of various emetic agents: cisplatin, apomorphine, lithium chloride (LiCl), rolipram, sibutramine, and the beta(3)-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist CL316243 on salivary amylase secretion in rats. We also determined the inhibitory effect of granisetron, a 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonist, on cisplatin-induced increased salivary amylase activity and the inhibitory effect of bilateral abdominal vagotomy on increases in salivary amylase activity induced by cisplatin and LiCl. Granisetron was administered 15 min before and 1 h after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin (10 - 15 mg/kg, i.v.) increased salivary amylase activity dose-dependently and induced an acute increase from 1.5 h post-treatment with 15 mg/kg. Apomorphine (1 - 3 mg/kg, s.c.), LiCl (120 mg/kg, i.p.), rolipram (3 - 10 mg/kg, p.o.), and sibutramine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) induced significant increases in salivary amylase secretion. On the other hand, CL316243 did not stimulate salivary amylase secretion. The increased amylase activity induced by cisplatin (15 mg/kg, i.v.) was inhibited significantly by granisetron (1 or 3 mg/kg x 2, i.v.) or tended to be inhibited by bilateral abdominal vagotomy, whereas an increase in amylase activity produced by LiCl was not inhibited by abdominal visceral nerve section. These results suggest that salivary amylase activity is useful as a marker for emesis in rats, a species that does not exhibit vomiting.

  1. Ionizing irradiation induces apoptotic damage of salivary gland acinar cells via NADPH oxidase 1-dependent superoxide generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Yoshihisa; Sasabe, Eri; Ueta, Eisaku; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2008-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important roles in various physiological processes. Recently, several novel homologues of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase have been discovered and this protein family is now designated as the Nox family. We investigated the involvement of Nox family proteins in ionizing irradiation-induced ROS generation and impairment in immortalized salivary gland acinar cells (NS-SV-AC), which are radiosensitive, and immortalized ductal cells (NS-SV-DC), which are radioresistant. Nox1-mRNA was upregulated by gamma-ray irradiation in NS-SV-AC, and the ROS level in NS-SV-AC was increased to approximately threefold of the control level after 10Gy irradiation. The increase of ROS level in NS-SV-AC was suppressed by Nox1-siRNA-transfection. In parallel with the suppression of ROS generation and Nox1-mRNA expression by Nox1-siRNA, ionizing irradiation-induced apoptosis was strongly decreased in Nox1-siRNA-transfected NS-SV-AC. There were no large differences in total SOD or catalase activities between NS-SV-AC and NS-SV-DC although the post-irradiation ROS level in NS-SV-AC was higher than that in NS-SV-DC. In conclusion, these results indicate that Nox1 plays a crucial role in irradiation-induced ROS generation and ROS-associated impairment of salivary gland cells and that Nox1 gene may be targeted for preservation of the salivary gland function from radiation-induced impairment.

  2. [Functional morphology of the submandibular salivary glands of white rats during aging involution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, M G

    1979-12-01

    Functional morphology of different zones of submandibular glands of albino rats was studied quantitatively with due regard for the stages of neuroendocrine system involution. It is shown that function of salivary glands during ageing is not altered; cyclic fluctuations with estral cycle phases are maintained similarly to those in young animals. But the basal level of proteins and mucopolysaccharides is reduced, their mean levels being equal to the minimal level in young animals. On the other hand, activation of enzymes responsible for energy and transport processes takes place and their relationships change. The data obtained prove the relationship between salivary and endocrine glands and confirm the viewpoint that in early age involution disintegration occurs between different parameters of the functional activity of salivary glands rather than there take place changes in their function.

  3. Comparison of radiosensitivity of rat parotid and submandibular glands after different radiation schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the radiosensitivity of rat parotid and submandibular gland functioning after local single dose, conventional fractionated and accelerated fractionated irradiation. Methods: The salivary glands of male albino Wistar rats were locally irradiated with a single do

  4. A study on the changing of the irradiated mice salivary glands and it's influence to the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funahara, Takayuki; Nasu, Masanori; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-02-01

    X-ray irradiation (10 Gy) was given to the salivary gland in mice. Protein and glycoprotein syntheses in the salivary glands and pancreas were examined by using {sup 3}H-leucine and {sup 14}C-acetylglucosamine as tracers. Quantitative analysis of serum amylase and histochemical examination were also conducted. Uptake of {sup 3}H-leucine was low in the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands 3 and 7 days after irradiation, which were close to those in the non-irradiated group 21 days after irradiation. Uptake of {sup 14}C-acetylglucosamine in the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands varied with time, which was similar to that of {sup 3}H-leucine uptake. The uptake of both {sup 14}C-acetylglucosamine and {sup 3}H-leucine in the pancreas, as opposed to that in the salivary glands, varied with time, with the highest levels on Days 3 and 7, respectively. Serum amylase level, determined by the maltopentaose method, was 5,341+-772 mU/ml in the non-irradiated group. On Day 3, it was 6,706+-583 mU/ml. This was slightly higher than the level in the non-irradiated group on Days 7 and 21, with no statistically significant difference. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed hypertrophy of the glandular cells on Day 3, atrophy of the glandular cells on Day 7, and irregular cell arrangement on Day 21 for the parotid gland; and atrophied granular ampulla on Day 3, and hypertrophy on Day 7 for the submandibular gland. No marked changes were observed in either the sublingual gland or pancreas. Ninhydrin staining revealed a decreased stainability in the submandibular gland on Day 3; and an increased stainability in the pancreas on Day 7. In conclusion, protein and glycoprotein syntheses in the salivary glands after X-ray irradiation of 10 Gy decreased on Days 3 and 7, respectively. This seemed to be associated with compensatory function of the pancreas. (N.K.).

  5. Dopamine, vesicular transporters, and dopamine receptor expression in rat major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, Daniele; Traini, Enea; Mancini, Manuele; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Mahdi, Syed Sarosh; Amenta, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    The localization of dopamine stores and the expression and localization of dopamine (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT) type-1 and -2 and of dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptor subtypes were investigated in rat submandibular, sublingual, and parotid salivary glands by HPLC with electrochemical detection, as well as immunochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Male Wistar rats of 2 mo of age were used. The highest dopamine levels were measured in the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and sublingual glands. Western blot analysis revealed DAT, VMAT-1, VMAT-2, and dopamine receptors immunoreactivity in membrane preparations obtained from the three glands investigated. Immunostaining for dopamine and transporters was developed within striated ducts. Salivary glands processed for dopamine receptors immunohistochemistry developed an immunoreaction primarily in striated and excretory ducts. In the submandibular gland, acinar cells displayed strong immunoreactivity for the D2 receptor, while cells of the convoluted granular tubules were negative for both D1-like and D2-like receptors. Parotid glands acinar cells displayed the highest immunoreactivity for both D1 and D2 receptors compared with other salivary glands. The above localization of dopamine and dopaminergic markers investigated did not correspond closely with neuron-specific enolase (NSE) localization. This indicates that at least in part, catecholamine stores and dopaminergic markers are independent from glandular innervation. These findings suggest that rat major salivary glands express a dopaminergic system probably involved in salivary secretion. The stronger immunoreactivity for dopamine transporters and receptors in striated duct cells suggests that the dopaminergic system could regulate not only quality, but also volume and ionic concentration of saliva.

  6. Rescue of salivary gland function after stem cell transplantation in irradiated glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M A Lombaert

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome. In this study, a clinically applicable method for the restoration of radiation-impaired salivary gland function using salivary gland stem cell transplantation was developed. Salivary gland cells were isolated from murine submandibular glands and cultured in vitro as salispheres, which contained cells expressing the stem cell markers Sca-1, c-Kit and Musashi-1. In vitro, the cells differentiated into salivary gland duct cells and mucin and amylase producing acinar cells. Stem cell enrichment was performed by flow cytrometric selection using c-Kit as a marker. In vitro, the cells differentiated into amylase producing acinar cells. In vivo, intra-glandular transplantation of a small number of c-Kit(+ cells resulted in long-term restoration of salivary gland morphology and function. Moreover, donor-derived stem cells could be isolated from primary recipients, cultured as secondary spheres and after re-transplantation ameliorate radiation damage. Our approach is the first proof for the potential use of stem cell transplantation to functionally rescue salivary gland deficiency.

  7. Histometric investigations of irradiated rat testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulisch, B.

    1977-01-01

    Testes of 44 Wistar rats were locally exposed to hard 300 R X-rays. A histological examination was then carried out whose findings were compared with those of 13 control animals. The so-called hit method of Haug was employed. Evaluations of 100 sections of seminiferous tubules per animal showed that the ratio of germ cell area to tubule area decreased on irradiation. The area of basal cell nuclei decreased strongly and had been reduced to 1/5 of the original count on day 13 post irradiation. The area of spermatocyte nuclei was not reduced until day 13, that of spermatide nuclei not until day 26 post irradiation. The reduction of spermatocytes and spermatides is due to a lack of supply by the precurser cells which are irreversibly damaged by irradiation. Onset of repopulation of the germinal epithelium started on day 39 post irradiation. The reduction of the cross section of the seminiferous tubules, which was manifested as reduction of the total tubulus area , was accompanied by a decrease of cytoplasma area . The luminar area was strongly reduced on day 26. On this day, apart from Sertoli cells, almost only spermatides, which had taken over part of the luminar area , were found in the tubules. After transformation of these spermatides into spermatozoa, the luminar area increased again. The interstitial area increased on irradiation, but the author was unable to find out whether this was an absolute or a relative increase. These histometric investigations are a further proof of the existence of the hormone inhibin , which is assumed to control gonadotropin secretion.

  8. Salivary stimulation by prolonged release of pilocarpine using films in diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The local use of prolonged drug delivery in the oral cavity provides many advantages, i.e., it increases pharmacologic actions in the desired local site, allows smaller doses and reduces adverse effects. Pilocarpine is a cholinergic drug approved by the FDA for treating glandular hypofunction; however, the adverse effects associated with it limit its use. Objective: To evaluate cytotoxicity of films in adherent fibroblasts and their ability to release pilocarpine in vivo for a prolonged time in the oral cavity of diabetic rats and its effect on salivary flow.Methods: Chitosan and Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Methocel K4MCR films were prepared in 1% acetic acid and pilocarpine was added under magnetic stirring. Cytotoxicity of films was evaluated in adherent fibroblasts HS27 and assessed by neutral red technique. The sialogogue effect of films was evaluated on the floor of the mouth of diabetic rats. Later, histopathological analysis was performed using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome stains. Results: Films were biocompatible and had 96% cell viability. It was possible to increase stimulation of salivary flow in diabetic rats (6.36±0.987mg/hr compared to the control group (0.5±0.06mg/hr. The histopathological analysis did not show inflammatory infiltrate in the area where films were placed. Conclusion: Films were biocompatible and had high cell viability. Also, they considerably increased salivary flow in diabetic rats, without triggering an inflammatory infiltrate in the area which indicates that it is a biocompatible product for sustained release and safe for pilocarpine administration.

  9. Damage Effects of Rat Thymus After Cranial Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Ying-qi; WANG; Xiao; SUI; Li; KONG; Fu-quan; MA; Nan-ru

    2012-01-01

    <正>To study the damage effects of the thymus and investigate the interaction of hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) in neuroimmunological signaling pathway, the rat model of cranial irradiated by carbon ions was establish. By means of enzyme-linked immunoassay (Elisa), one day of post-irradiation with carbon ions, for the group of control, irradiated or drug (Longxuejie) treated,

  10. THE ROLE OF SECRETORY GRANULES IN THE RADIOSENSITIVITY OF RAT SALIVARY-GLAND ACINI - A MORPHOLOGICAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETER, B; VANWAARDE, MAWH; VISSINK, A; GRAVENMADE, EJS; KONINGS, AWT

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the radiosensitivity of salivary gland tissue pretreated with isoproterenol to establish a status of depletion of secretory granules in acinar cells at the time of irradiation. Nuclear aberrations and cell lysis were taken as parameters for cell death. Local

  11. Rescue of Salivary Gland Function after Stem Cell Transplantation in Irradiated Glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Wierenga, Pieter K.; Faber, Hette; Stokman, Monique A.; Kok, Tineke; Visser, Willy H.; Kampinga, Harm H.; de Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential x

  12. Effects of Chinese herbs on salivary fluid secretion by isolated and perfused rat submandibular glands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masataka Murakami; Mu-Xin Wei; Wei Ding; Qian-De Zhang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether Chinese herbs (CHs) relieve xerostomia (dry mouth) by increasing salivary secretion.METHODS: The submandibular glands of Wistar rats were surgically isolated and perfused arterially with buffered salt solution. After control perfusion,recording started 5 min prior to the start of stimulation.After fluid secretion was induced by 0.2 mmol/L carbamylcholine (CCh) in the perfusate for 10 min,Chinese herb (CH) was added in the perfusion for 5 min. CCh was then overloaded at 0.2 mmol/L in the perfusion for 20 min. The volume of salivary fluid secretion was recorded by a computer-controlled balance system.RESULTS: Saliva secretion formed an initial ephemeral peak at 30 s followed by a gradual increase to a sustained level. CH alone induced no or little saliva in all types of CH selected. During perfusion with CH ,overloading of CCh promoted fluid secretion in 15 of 20 CHs. This promotion was classified into four patterns,which were eventually related to the categories of CH: Overall sustained phase was continuously raised ( Yin-nourishing, fluid production-promoting and heatclearing agents); The sustained secretion rose to reach a maximum then decreased ( Qi-enhancing agent); Sustained secretion rose to reach the highest maximum and was then sustained with a slight decline (swelling-reducing, phlegm-resolving and pus-expelling agents); Stimulation of salivary secretion without any added stimulants. Addition of CCh raised the fluid secretion to reach the highest maximum then sharply decreased to a lower sustained level (blood activating agent).CONCLUSION: The present findings lead to the conclusion that various CHs have different promotional effects directly on the salivary gland.

  13. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack

    2011-01-01

    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  14. Hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-09-01

    The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension.

  15. Use of microgravity bioreactors for development of an in vitro rat salivary gland cell culture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M. L.; Moriarity, D. M.; Campbell, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    During development, salivary gland (SG) cells both secrete factors which modulate cellular behavior and express specific hormone receptors. Whether SG cell growth is modulated by an autocrine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-mediated signal transduction pathway is not clearly understood. SG tissue is the synthesis site for functionally distinct products including growth factors, digestive enzymes, and homeostasis maintaining factors. Historically, SG cells have proven difficult to grow and may be only maintained as limited three-dimensional ductal-type structures in collagen gels or on reconstituted basement membrane gels. A novel approach to establishing primary rat SG cultures is use of microgravity bioreactors originally designed by NASA as low-shear culture systems for predicting cell growth and differentiation in the microgravity environment of space. These completely fluid-filled bioreactors, which are oriented horizontally and rotate, have proven advantageous for Earth-based culture of three-dimensional cell assemblies, tissue-like aggregates, and glandular structures. Use of microgravity bioreactors for establishing in vitro models to investigate steroid-mediated secretion of EGF by normal SG cells may also prove useful for the investigation of cancer and other salivary gland disorders. These microgravity bioreactors promise challenging opportunities for future applications in basic and applied cell research.

  16. [Lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver of irradiated rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlakova, A; Paulikova, E; Diatelinka, I

    1984-01-01

    The incorporation of 14C from [U-14C] glucose and 3H from 3H2O into the total lipids fatty acids and glycogen of the liver incorporation of 3H from 3H2O into blood glucose was studied in rats totally irradiated in a dose of 14.4 Gy. It is shown that in the liver of irradiated rats glucose is accumulated in considerable amounts as glycogen but it is slightly used as a source of carbon for lipid synthesis. The study of 3H incorporation shows that irradiation stimulates glucogenesis, glyconeogenesis and lipogenesis in the liver.

  17. Adenovirus-mediated hAQP1 expression in irradiated mouse salivary glands causes recovery of saliva secretion by enhancing acinar cell volume decrease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teos, L Y; Zheng, C-Y; Liu, X; Swaim, W D; Goldsmith, C M; Cotrim, A P; Baum, B J; Ambudkar, I S

    2016-07-01

    Head and neck irradiation (IR) during cancer treatment causes by-stander effects on the salivary glands leading to irreversible loss of saliva secretion. The mechanism underlying loss of fluid secretion is not understood and no adequate therapy is currently available. Delivery of an adenoviral vector encoding human aquaporin-1 (hAQP1) into the salivary glands of human subjects and animal models with radiation-induced salivary hypofunction leads to significant recovery of saliva secretion and symptomatic relief in subjects. To elucidate the mechanism underlying loss of salivary secretion and the basis for AdhAQP1-dependent recovery of salivary gland function we assessed submandibular gland function in control mice and mice 2 and 8 months after treatment with a single 15-Gy dose of IR (delivered to the salivary gland region). Salivary secretion and neurotransmitter-stimulated changes in acinar cell volume, an in vitro read-out for fluid secretion, were monitored. Consistent with the sustained 60% loss of fluid secretion following IR, a carbachol (CCh)-induced decrease in acinar cell volume from the glands of mice post IR was transient and attenuated as compared with that in cells from non-IR age-matched mice. The hAQP1 expression in non-IR mice induced no significant effect on salivary fluid secretion or CCh-stimulated cell volume changes, except in acinar cells from 8-month group where the initial rate of cell shrinkage was increased. Importantly, the expression of hAQP1 in the glands of mice post IR induced recovery of salivary fluid secretion and a volume decrease in acinar cells to levels similar to those in cells from non-IR mice. The initial rates of CCh-stimulated cell volume reduction in acinar cells from hAQP1-expressing glands post IR were similar to those from control cells. Altogether, the data suggest that expression of hAQP1 increases the water permeability of acinar cells, which underlies the recovery of fluid secretion in the salivary glands

  18. Growth hormone reduces mortality and bacterial translocation in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-de-Segura, I.A.; Miguel, E. de [`La Paz` Hospital, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Experimental Surgery; Prieto, I. [`La Paz` Hospital, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of General and Digestive Surgery; Grande, A.G. [`La Paz` Hospital, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Oncology Radiotherapy; Garcia, P.; Mendez, J. [`La Paz` Hospital, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry; Guerra, A. [`La Paz` Hospital, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology

    1998-09-01

    Growth hormone stimulates the growth of intestinal mucosa and may reduce the severity of injury caused by radiation. Male Wistar rats underwent abdominal irradiation (12 Gy) and were treated with either human growth hormone (hGH) or saline, and sacrificed at day 4 or 7 post-irradiation. Bacterial translocation, and the ileal mucosal thickness, proliferation, and disaccharidase activity were assessed. Mortality was 65% in irradiated animals, whereas hGH caused a decrement (29%, p<0.05). Bacterial translocation was also reduced by hGH (p<0.05). Treating irradiated rats with hGH prevented body weight loss (p<0.05). Mucosal thickness increased faster in irradiated hGH-treated animals. The proliferative index showed an increment in hGH-treated animals (p<0.05). Giving hGH to irradiated rats prevented decrease in sucrose activity, and increment in lactase activity. In conclusion, giving hGH to irradiated rats promotes the adaptative process of the intestine and acute radiation-related negative effects, including mortality, bacterial translocation, and weight loss. (orig.)

  19. Irradiation effects on rat submandibular glands; An assessment by enzymcytochemistry, sialometry and sialochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vissink, A.; Kalicharan, D.; Gravenmade, E.J.; Jongebloed, W.L.; Ligeon, E.E.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Konings, A.W.T. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands))

    1990-01-01

    From a number of animal studies irradiation induced changes in salivary gland function are known, but the mechanism underlying these changes and the consequences for the secretion and the composition of saliva are poorly understood. A good technique to study the intracellular sites of increased or decreased phosphatase activity is the cerium method. In the current project, acute effects of irradiation on rat submandibular gland function and morphology were studied by means of enzymcytochemistry, sialometry and sialochemistry. A single dose of 15 Gy was chosen as a reference because saturation of the irradiation effect starts at a dose of about 15 Gy. Short-term effects were studied, because maximum changes and major recovery of functional parameters occurred within ten days after irradiation. Irradiation seemed not to result in major changes in the initial AcPase, AlPase and G6Pase activities within the experimental period, While significant changes were observed in the activity of AMPase and ATPase. Changes in these activities were predominantly observed at the interface of the mucous acini and convoluted granulated tubes with myoepithelial cells, at blood vessels and at neurosecretory structures for the early effects (day 3). A change in phosphatase activities at luminal membranes, including observation of AlPase activity, was observed from day 6. When comparing these data with the changes observed in sialometrical and sialochemical variables it seems that irradiation-induced changes in phosphatase activities are not causally related to the observed alterations in lag phase and flow rate. Their contribution to changes in electrolyte concentrations is probably more substantial. (author).

  20. Osteogenic Matrix Cell Sheets Facilitate Osteogenesis in Irradiated Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Uchihara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of large bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors is a significant challenge in orthopedic surgery. Extracorporeal autogenous irradiated bone grafting is a treatment option for bone reconstruction. However, nonunion often occurs because the osteogenic capacity is lost by irradiation. In the present study, we established an autogenous irradiated bone graft model in the rat femur to assess whether osteogenic matrix cell sheets improve osteogenesis of the irradiated bone. Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were prepared from bone marrow-derived stromal cells and co-transplanted with irradiated bone. X-ray images at 4 weeks after transplantation showed bridging callus formation around the irradiated bone. Micro-computed tomography images at 12 weeks postoperatively showed abundant callus formation in the whole circumference of the irradiated bone. Histology showed bone union between the irradiated bone and host femur. Mechanical testing showed that the failure force at the irradiated bone site was significantly higher than in the control group. Our study indicates that osteogenic matrix cell sheet transplantation might be a powerful method to facilitate osteogenesis in irradiated bones, which may become a treatment option for reconstruction of bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors.

  1. Suppression of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction by IGF-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten H Limesand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radiation is a primary or secondary therapeutic modality for treatment of head and neck cancer. A common side effect of irradiation to the neck and neck region is xerostomia caused by salivary gland dysfunction. Approximately 40,000 new cases of xerostomia result from radiation treatment in the United States each year. The ensuing salivary gland hypofunction results in significant morbidity and diminishes the effectiveness of anti-cancer therapies as well as the quality of life for these patients. Previous studies in a rat model have shown no correlation between induction of apoptosis in the salivary gland and either the immediate or chronic decrease in salivary function following gamma-radiation treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: A significant level of apoptosis can be detected in the salivary glands of FVB mice following gamma-radiation treatment of the head and neck and this apoptosis is suppressed in transgenic mice expressing an activated mutant of Akt (myr-Akt1. Importantly, this suppression of apoptosis in myr-Akt1 mice preserves salivary function, as measured by saliva output, three and thirty days after gamma-radiation treatment. In order to translate these studies into a preclinal model we found that intravenous injection of IGF1 stimulated activation of endogenous Akt in the salivary glands in vivo. A single injection of IGF1 prior to exposure to gamma-radiation diminishes salivary acinar cell apoptosis and completely preserves salivary gland function three and thirty days following irradiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies suggest that apoptosis of salivary acinar cells underlies salivary gland hypofunction occurring secondary to radiation of the head and neck region. Targeted delivery of IGF1 to the salivary gland of patients receiving head and neck irradiation may be useful in reducing or eliminating xerostomia and restoring quality of life to these patients.

  2. Pathogenesis of post-irradiation infection. 2. Role of neutrophils in the defence of irradiated rats against Yersinia enterocolitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, H.; Platteau, B.; Bakour, R.; Janssens, M.; Wauters, G. (Universite de Louvain, Bruxelles (Belgium))

    1982-07-01

    Wistar R inbred rats showed a substantial mortality when they were given Yersinia enterocolitica eight days after a 6.5 Gy total body irradiation. The possibility to abolish the high susceptibility of these irradiated rats to Yersinia enterocolitica by intravenous injections of isogenic neutrophils is presented: irradiated rats injected with 7 to 10.10/sup 7/ isogenic neutrophils, by the intravenous route, just before or after the administration of Yersinia enterocolitica, were not susceptible. On the contrary, control irradiated rats, not transfused, were killed by the same bacterial challenge.

  3. Apoptosis in the craniofacial tissues of irradiated growing rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Hang Moon; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won [Seoul National Univ. College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the apoptosis induction in tissues constituting the craniofacial region of growing rat by irradiation. The submandibular gland, brain, articular cartilage of condylar head, and calvarium were extracted from 20-day-old rats irradiated 10 Gy. Apoptosis of each tissue was examined by DNA fragmentation and estimated quantitatively using apoptotic index on TUNEL assay. Apoptotic index of each tissue was calculated by the equation for apoptotic cells/total cells X 1,000 on the images of confocal laser scanning microscopy. Apoptotic index was analyzed statistically according to the time lapse after irradiation on the tissues. In the submandibular gland, apoptotic index was significantly increased from 6 hours after irradiation showing the highest value at 12 hours and decreased to the control level at 3 days after irradiation. In the brain, apoptotic index was abruptly reached to the maximum value at 6 hours after irradiation and decreased to the control level at 4 days after irradiation. Articular cartilage and calvarium showed no or little apoptotic signals. The results obtained by the apoptotic index accorded with that of DNA fragmentation. Radiation was closely related with the apoptosis of submandibular gland and brain but, not related with the apoptosis of the articular cartilage of condylar head and calvarium. The changes induced by radiation of the hard tissues would not be explained by apoptosis.

  4. Effects of high-fat diet on salivary α-amylase, serum parameters and food consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lénia; Mouta, Raquel; Costa, Ana Rodrigues; Pereira, Alfredo; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Amado, Francisco; Antunes, Célia M; Lamy, Elsa

    2015-06-01

    Salivary α-amylase, a major protein in saliva, has been described as a marker of sympathetic nervous system activity, hence for metabolic energy balance. In this context, its expression in overweight and obesity is of interest. Rats fed with a diet enriched with sunflower oil differentially gained weight yielding two subgroups according to their susceptibility (OP) or resistance (OR) to obesity. Elevated plasmatic levels of leptin in the OP subgroup and altered plasmatic lipid profiles (lower triglycerides and higher total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio compared to controls) in the OR subgroup were observed. Animals from the OP subgroup presented higher α-amylase expression and activity even prior to the dietary treatment, suggesting that this salivary protein may constitute a putative indicator of susceptibility for fat tissue accumulation. After 18 weeks of high-fat diet consumption, salivary α-amylase levels did not significantly change in the OP subgroup, but increased 3-fold in the OR subgroup. The increase in α-amylase levels for the latter might represent an adaptation to lower starch intake. These results suggest that salivary α-amylase secretion might be useful to predict susceptibility for weight gain induced by high-fat diet consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Systemic transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the regeneration of irradiation-induced salivary gland damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yol Lim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cell-based therapy has been reported to repair or restore damaged salivary gland (SG tissue after irradiation. This study was aimed at determining whether systemic administration of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs can ameliorate radiation-induced SG damage. METHODS: hAdMSCs (1 × 10(6 were administered through a tail vein of C3H mice immediately after local irradiation, and then this infusion was repeated once a week for 3 consecutive weeks. At 12 weeks after irradiation, functional evaluations were conducted by measuring salivary flow rates (SFRs and salivation lag times, and histopathologic and immunofluorescence histochemistry studies were performed to assay microstructural changes, apoptosis, and proliferation indices. The engraftment and in vivo differentiation of infused hAdMSCs were also investigated, and the transdifferentiation of hAdMSCs into amylase-producing SG epithelial cells (SGCs was observed in vitro using a co-culture system. RESULTS: The systemic administration of hAdMSCs exhibited improved SFRs at 12 weeks after irradiation. hAdMSC-transplanted SGs showed fewer damaged and atrophied acinar cells and higher mucin and amylase production levels than untreated irradiated SGs. Immunofluorescence TUNEL assays revealed fewer apoptotic cells in the hAdMSC group than in the untreated group. Infused hAdMSCs were detected in transplanted SGs at 4 weeks after irradiation and some cells were found to have differentiated into SGCs. In vitro, a low number of co-cultured hAdMSCs (13%-18% were observed to transdifferentiate into SGCs. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that hAdMSCs have the potential to protect against irradiation-induced cell loss and to transdifferentiate into SGCs, and suggest that hAdMSC administration should be viewed as a candidate therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced SG damage.

  6. Similar ex vivo expansion and post-irradiation regenerative potential of juvenile and aged salivary gland stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maimets, Martti; Bron, Reinier; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Salivary gland dysfunction is a major side effect of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer patients, which in the future might be salvaged by autologous adult salivary gland stem cell (SGSC) therapy. Since frail elderly patients may have decreased activity of SGSCs, we aimed

  7. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  8. Protection of radiation-induced damage to the hematopoietic system, small intestine and salivary glands in rats by JNJ7777120 compound, a histamine H4 ligand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego J Martinel Lamas

    Full Text Available Based on previous data on the histamine radioprotective effect on highly radiosensitive tissues, in the present work we aimed at investigating the radioprotective potential of the H4R ligand, JNJ7777120, on ionizing radiation-induced injury and genotoxic damage in small intestine, salivary glands and hematopoietic tissue. For that purpose, rats were divided into 4 groups. JNJ7777120 and JNJ7777120-irradiated groups received a daily subcutaneous JNJ7777120 injection (10 mg/kg starting 24 h before irradiation. Irradiated groups received a single dose of 5 Gy on whole-body using Cesium-137 source and were sacrificed 3 or 30 days after irradiation. Tissues were removed, fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin or PAS staining and histological characteristics were evaluated. Proliferative and apoptotic markers were studied by immunohistochemistry, while micronucleus assay was performed to evaluate DNA damage. Submandibular gland (SMG function was evaluated by methacholine-induced salivation. Results indicate that JNJ7777120 treatment diminished mucosal atrophy and preserved villi and the number of crypts after radiation exposure (240±8 vs. 165±10, P<0.01. This effect was associated to a reduced apoptosis and DNA damage in intestinal crypts. JNJ7777120 reduced radiation-induced aplasia, preserving medullar components and reducing formation of micronucleus and also it accelerated bone marrow repopulation. Furthermore, it reduced micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood (27±8 vs. 149±22, in 1,000 erythrocytes, P<0.01. JNJ7777120 completely reversed radiation-induced reduced salivation, conserving glandular mass with normal histological appearance and reducing apoptosis and atrophy of SMG. JNJ7777120 exhibits radioprotective effects against radiation-induced cytotoxic and genotoxic damages in small intestine, SMG and hematopoietic tissues and, thus, could be of clinical value for patients undergoing radiotherapy.

  9. Decontamination properties of bentonite in rats irradiated contaminated with radiocesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, S.; Dziura, A. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Decontamination properties of bentonite were examined in rats irradiated with 154.5 mC/kg and contaminated with 13.83 kBq of Cs-137. The rats were fed a granulated LSM diet supplemented with 10% bentonite for 1, 3 and 5 days and were examined radiometrically for Cs-137 concentration in the small intestine, liver, kidneys, lung, spleen, heart, muscles, tongue, blood, brain, testicles and prostate. The findings revealed that the highest decontamination efficacy in the rats contaminated 1 and 5 days postirradiation was achieved after three-day administration of bentonite. (author). 16 refs, 2 tabs.

  10. Gastroprotective effect of kefir on ulcer induced in irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Hanan A; Ismail, Amel F M

    2015-03-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the protective effect of kefir milk on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in γ-irradiated rats. The results of the present study revealed that treatment with γ-irradiation and/or ethanol showed a significant increase in ulcers number, total acidity, peptic, H(+)K(+)ATPase, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and MDA level, which were accompanied by a significant decrease in the mucus content, the stomach GSH level, the GSH-Px activity and DNA damage. Pre-treatment with kefir milk exert significant improvement in all the tested parameters. Kefir milk exerts comparable effect to that of the antiulcer drug ranitidine. In conclusion, the present study revealed that oral administration of kefir milk prevents ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in γ-irradiated rats that could attribute to its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and radio-protective activities.

  11. Differential activation of nitric oxide synthase through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rat salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leirós, C P; Rosignoli, F; Genaro, A M; Sales, M E; Sterin-Borda, L; Santiago BordaE

    2000-03-15

    Muscarinic receptors play an important role in secretory and vasodilator responses in rat salivary glands. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) appears to be one of the multiple effectors coupled to muscarinic receptors in both submandibular and sublingual glands although some differences have been found depending on the gland studied. First, submandibular glands had a lower basal activity of nitric oxide synthase than sublingual glands and the concentration-response curve for carbachol was bell-shaped in the former but not in sublingual glands. Second, cGMP levels displayed a similar profile to that observed for NOS activity in both glands. Third, protein kinase C also coupled to muscarinic receptor activation in the glands might have a regulatory effect on nitric oxide production since its activity was higher in basal conditions in submandibular than sublingual glands and it also increased in the presence of the agonist at a concentration that inhibited NOS activity in submandibular glands. The effects appear to be partly related to the expression of a minor population of M(1) receptors in submandibular glands absent in sublingual as determined in binding and signaling experiments with the muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine.

  12. Characterization and immunohistochemical localization of rat salivary cobalamin-binding protein and comparison with human salivary haptocorrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1985-01-01

    Rat saliva contains a cobalamin-binding protein that binds cobalamin as well as cobinamide. The protein binds cobalamin with an affinity constant of 8 X 10(10) l X mol-1, and it binds cobalamin over a more narrow pH range (pH 7.5-10) than does human haptocorrin. It has a Stokes radius of 2.45 nm......-1, n = 8). Immunohistochemical studies show haptocorrin in the secretory acini of the submandibular and parotid glands of the rat. In the human submandibular gland, the protein is detected both in the mucous secretory acini and in the intercalated ducts....

  13. Common Deletion (CD) in mitochondrial DNA of irradiated rat heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Raquel Gomes; Ferreira-Machado, Samara C.; Almeida, Carlos E.V. de, E-mail: raquelgsiqueira@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcanatara Gomes. Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Silva, Dayse A. da; Carvalho, Elizeu F. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcanatara Gomes. Lab. de Diagnosticos por DNA; Melo, Luiz D.B. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Parasitologia Molecular

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to map the common deletion (CD) area in mtDNA and investigate the levels of this deletion in irradiated heart. The assays were developed in male Wistar rats that were irradiated with three different single doses (5, 10 or 15 Gy) delivered directly to the heart and the analyses were performed at various times post-irradiation (3, 15 or 120 days). The CDs area were sequenced and the CD quantified by real-time PCR. Our study demonstrated that the CD levels progressively decreased from the 3rd until the 15th day after irradiation, and then increased thereafter. Additionally, it was observed that the levels of CD are modulated differently according to the different categories of doses (moderate and high). This study demonstrated an immediate response to ionizing radiation, measured by the presence of mutations in the CD area and a decrease in the CD levels. (author)

  14. Common Deletion (CD in mitochondrial DNA of irradiated rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAQUEL G. SIQUEIRA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to map the common deletion (CD area in mtDNA and investigate the levels of this deletion in irradiated heart. The assays were developed in male Wistar rats that were irradiated with three different single doses (5, 10 or 15 Gy delivered directly to the heart and the analyses were performed at various times post-irradiation (3, 15 or 120 days. The CDs area were sequenced and the CD quantified by real-time PCR. Our study demonstrated that the CD levels progressively decreased from the 3rduntil the 15th day after irradiation, and then increased thereafter. Additionally, it was observed that the levels of CD are modulated differently according to the different categories of doses (moderate and high. This study demonstrated an immediate response to ionizing radiation, measured by the presence of mutations in the CD area and a decrease in the CD levels.

  15. An microscopic study of the irradiation effect on the submandibular glands of the white rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myeong Soo; Lim, Cheong Hwan [Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Hee [Sinsung College, Dangjin (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    This study was undertaken to observe the histopathologic changes in submandibular glands of the white rats when exposed to megavoltage fractionated dose of CLINAC 2100 C-D 6 MV X-RAY irradiation and 42 female white rats, weighing approximately 100gm, were divided into control and 2 experimental groups. At sacrifice, submandibular glands were excised and examined microscopically and electromicroscopically. The results were as follows: The acinar cells of submandibular gland showed damage varied with dose, 12 Gy resulted in very mild injury while 24 Gy caused extensive injury. The acinar cells of submandibular gland showed similar ultrastructual alterations, appeared as pleomorphic nucleus, decreased numbers and pleomorpgism of secretory granules, distention of rough endoplasmic reticulum, expansion and pallor appearance of mitochondria, and hypertrophy of Golgi complex. A serous cells were the most sensitive components, displaying morphological alterations of radiation damage as early as 3 hours, followed by submandibular seromucinous cells and secretory tubular cells. The mucous cells, as well as the whole ductal lining cells, displayed no significant alterations. No evidence of microvascular injury through whole experimental groups indicated that microvascular impairment dose not contribute to early, salivary gland injury.

  16. Teratogenic effect of Californium-252 irradiation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satow, Yukio; Lee, Juing-Yi; Hori, Hiroshi; Okuda, Hiroe; Tsuchimoto, Shigeo; Sawada, Shozo; Yokoro, Kenjiro (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1989-06-01

    The teratogenicity of Californium-252 (Cf-252) irradiation which generates approximately 70% 2.3 MeV fast neutron and 30% gamma rays was evaluated. A single whole body exposure of Cf-252 at various doses was given to pregnant rats on day 8 or 9 of pregnancy, followed by microscopic autopsy of the fetuses at the terminal stage of pregnancy to search for external and internal malformations. For comparison, pregnant rats were irradiated with various doses of Cobalt-60 (Co-60) standard gamma rays at the same dose rate (1 rad/min.). The doses were 20-120 rad of Cf-252 and 80-220 rad of Co-60. Using frequency of radiation induced malformations observed on day 8 of pregnancy as an index, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 2.3-2.7 was obtained from the straight line obtained by modifying by the least squares method the frequency curves of malformed fetuses in total implants and in surviving fetuses. The types of malformations induced by Cf-252 and Co-60 irradiation were alike. Using fetal LD/sub 50/ as an index, 2.4 was obtained as RBE when irradiated on day 8 of pregnancy and 3.1 as that when irradiated on day 9. The results showed that Cf-252 had stronger a teratogenic effect than Co-60 gamma rays. (author).

  17. Antioxidants and lipoperoxides in the organs of irradiated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.

    1965-01-01

    Antioxidants in organs of normal and irradiated rats were determined by means of the stable free-radical α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl. High doses of ionizing radiation reduced the level of water-soluble antioxidants; the fat-soluble antioxidants were unaffected, and the ability of the proteins...... to react with the stable free radical was unchanged or slightly elevated. It is concluded that the water-soluble non-protein antioxidants act as free radical scavengers in radiation. No great amounts of lipoperoxides were found in the irradiated animals. The basic analogy, but at the same time the great...

  18. Arginine metabolism in the salivary glands of protein-deficient rats and its potential association with the oral microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwonwu, C O; Ilupeju, F; Warren, R C

    1994-01-01

    Salivary glands and their secretions play key roles in the prevention of dental diseases. The antibacterial and physicochemical properties of saliva are compromised in chronic malnutrition. The present study has examined the possibility that some malnutrition-induced changes in salivary gland function are potentially capable of promoting growth and metabolic activities of pathogenic oral microorganisms. Compared to well-fed controls, rats fed a 3% protein diet for 18 days showed a significant reduction (p accounting for 12.2% of the total essential amino acids as compared with a figure of only 4.6% for the controls. The total free amino acid pool in whole saliva was relatively unaffected by malnutrition, but the levels of the basic amino acids arginine and histidine were marginally increased. Many oral bacterial species, some of which are dominant plaque microorganisms, utilize the arginine deiminase (EC 3.5.3.6) pathway. Thus, increased availability of free arginine from salivary glands offers a plausible explanation for the frequently reported observation of differential overgrowth of several potentially pathogenic microorganisms including some mutants streptococci in protein-deficient laboratory animals and may well apply to similar findings in malnourished populations in Third World countries.

  19. 3D printing of rat salivary glands: The submandibular-sublingual complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, M P; Parnigotto, M; Merigo, F; Marzola, P; Daducci, A; Tambalo, S; Boschi, F; Colombo, L; Sbarbati, A

    2014-06-01

    The morphology and the functionality of the murid glandular complex, composed of the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands (SSC), were the object of several studies conducted mainly using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using a 4.7 T scanner and a manganese-based contrast agent, we improved the signal-to-noise ratio of the SSC relating to the surrounding anatomical structures allowing to obtain high-contrast 3D images of the SSC. In the last few years, the large development in resin melting techniques opened the way for printing 3D objects starting from a 3D stack of images. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of the 3D printing technique of soft tissues such as the SSC in the rat with the aim to improve the visualization of the organs. This approach is useful to preserve the real in vivo morphology of the SCC in living animals avoiding the anatomical shape changes due to the lack of relationships with the surrounding organs in case of extraction. It is also harmless, repeatable and can be applied to explore volumetric changes occurring during body growth, excretory duct obstruction, tumorigenesis and regeneration processes. 3D printing allows to obtain a solid object with the same shape of the organ of interest, which can be observed, freely rotated and manipulated. To increase the visibility of the details, it is possible to print the organs with a selected zoom factor, useful as in case of tiny organs in small mammalia. An immediate application of this technique is represented by educational classes.

  20. Sialogogue-related radioprotection of salivary gland function : The degranulation concept revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Zeilstra, LJW; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT

    1997-01-01

    To investigate whether secretory granules play a role in the radiosensitivity of the salivary glands of rats, parotid acinar cells, submandibular acinar cells and/or submandibular granular convoluted tubule (GCT) cells were degranulated prior to irradiation. Degranulation of GCT cells was obtained b

  1. Can {alpha}-tocopherol and {beta}-carotene supplementation reduce adverse radiation effects on salivary glands?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funegaard, U.; Johansson, I.; Ericson, T. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cariology; Malmer, B.; Henriksson, R. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    1995-12-31

    In this study, we evaluated whether supplementation with antioxidant vitamins can reduce the adverse effects of irradiation on the salivary glands in the rat. Four groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were given a basic diet providing 0.6 mg {alpha}-tocopherol and no {beta}-carotene per day. In two groups the basic diet was supplemented with 3.4 mg {alpha}-tocopherol and 6 mg {beta}-carotene per day from 14 days before irradiation until 12 days after complete irradiation. One group of rats given basic diet and one group given supplemented diet were irradiated with 7 Gy daily for five consecutive days. Isoproterenol and pilocarpine-stimulated whole saliva was collected from all rats 2, 4 and 26 weeks after irradiation. Vitamin-supplemented irradiated rats had higher secretion rates on all three occasions compared with those of irradiated rats given basic diet. The changes in saliva composition seen in irradiated rats were less accentuated in vitamin-supplemented, irradiated rats. The proportions of acinar cells were significantly decreased both in parotid and submandibular glands 26 weeks after irradiation. Supplementation with {alpha}-tocopherol and {beta}-carotene did not alter the morphology of the glands. (author).

  2. 涎腺放射性损伤机制及其防治的研究进展%Mechanism and preventive treatment of irradiated salivary gland injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀秀; 向彬

    2011-01-01

    对头颈部恶性肿瘤进行放射治疗,不可避免地引起涎腺的放射损伤,严重影响患者生活质量.放射性涎腺损伤的主要临床和功能改变为腺体肿胀,涎液分泌减少,涎液电解质和蛋白质分泌异常等;其主要病理变化是腺泡细胞变性萎缩、导管扩张、间质纤维化以及淋巴细胞浸润等;其机制与p53信号分子通路介导的细胞凋亡、活性氧所致的膜损伤作用、水通道蛋白1和5表达降低、腱糖蛋白-C和胞外基质蛋白表达增加以及血管内皮细胞损伤等因素密切相关;改进放射治疗技术、颌下腺移植转位保护及合理应用细胞保护剂和促涎剂,可以减轻放射性涎腺损伤.本文对涎腺放射损伤的分子机制及其防治进展进行综述.%Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer inevitably causes radiogenic salivary gland injury, resulting in diminished life quality of the patients. The major clinical and functional changes of irradiated salivary gland damage include swollen glands, dramatically reduced saliva secretion, and abnormal secretion of electrolyte and protein in saliva. The most prominent pathological changes of radiation - induced salivary impairment are pyknotic nuclei, vacuolization of acinar cells, lysis of acinar cells, dilated duct, fibrosis of mesenchyma, and lymphocytic infiltration. The underlying mechanisms might be closely related to factors such as p53 depended apoptosis signaling pathway, reactive oxygen induced membrane injury, decreased expressions of aquaporin - 1 and aquaporin- 5, increased expressions of tenascin - C and extracellular matrix proteins, and damage of vascular endothelial cells. By improving radiotherapy, performing autologous submandibular gland transplantation, and appropriately utilizing cytoprotectants and sialagogues, salivary gland injury could be effectively alleviated. This review will discuss the molecular mechanisms and the preventive treatments of radiation - induced

  3. Glucidic and lipidic metabolic changes in rats induced by irradiation and the effect of adrenalectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groza, P.; Ghizari, E.; Butculescu, I.; Ciontescu, L.; Ciuntu, L.

    1975-01-01

    In experiments on X-irradiated rats (1000 R) the hepatic glycogen, total lipids, phospholipids content, and plasma glucose, cholesterol and beta-lipoprotein concentration were determined in intact and adrenalectomized animals. It was confirmed that irradiation produces a hepatic glycogen and blood glucose increased concentration. The glucidic metabolic response on irradiation is diminished by adrenalectomy. The adrenalectomy-induced modifications in the lipid metabolism of irradiated rats are more inconstant, which corresponds with its relative independence from glucocorticoid hormones.

  4. Glucidic and lipidic metabolic changes in rats induced by irradiation and the effect of adrenalectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, P; Ghizari, E; Butculescu, I; Ciontescu, L; Ciuntu, L

    1975-01-01

    In experiments on X-irradiated rats (1000 R) the hepatic glycogen, total lipids, phospholipids content, and plasma glucose, cholesterol and beta-lipoprotein concentration were determined in intact and adrenalectomized animals. It was confirmed that irradiation produces a hepatic glycogen and blood glucose increased concentration. The glucidic metabolic response on irradiation is diminished by adrenalectomy. The adrenalectomy-induced modifications in the lipid metabolism of irradiated rats are more inconstant, which corresponds with its relative independence from glucocorticoid hormones.

  5. Induction of salivary kallikreins by the diet containing a sweet-suppressive peptide, gurmarin, in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ayako; Nakamura, Yuki; Sugita, Daigo; Shirosaki, Shinya; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Katsukawa, Hideo; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Imoto, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2006-07-28

    Gymnema sylvestre (gymnema) contains gurmarin that selectively inhibits responses to sweet substances in rodents. The present study investigated possible interaction between gurmarin and the submandibular saliva in rats fed diet containing gymnema. Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated that relative amounts of two proteins in the saliva clearly increased in rats fed the gymnema diet. However, rats previously given section of the bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve showed no such salivary protein induction. Analyses of amino acid sequence indicate that two proteins are rat kallikrein 2 (rK2) and rat kallikrein 9 (rK9). rK2 and rK9, a family of serine proteases, have a striking resemblance of cleavage site in the protein substrates. Interestingly, gurmarin possesses comparable residues with those rK2 and rK9 prefer. The kallikreins significantly inhibited immunoreaction between gurmarin and antigurmarin antiserum. These results suggest that rK2 and rK9 increased by chemosensory information for the gymnema diet via the glossopharyngeal nerve might cleave gurmarin or at least cause specific binding with it.

  6. Serum metabonomics of rats irradiated by low-dose γ-rays

    OpenAIRE

    HE, YING; Xian-rong SHEN; Deng-yong HOU; Yu-ming LIU; Ding-wen JIANG; Qing-rong WANG; Ke-xian LI; Chen, Wei; Tian-tian QIAN

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of low-dose γ-rays on the metabolites in rat serum. Methods Sixteen healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and irradiated group (n=8). The rats in irradiated group were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays with a dose rate of 72mGy/h for 7 days (1 hour per day). At the 7th day after irradiation, blood samples were taken from abdominal aorta to obtain the serum. The metabolic fingerprints of serum were obtained from the two groups of rats, and 1H nuc...

  7. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments.

  8. The Effects of Low-Power Laser Irradiation on Inflammation and Apoptosis in Submandibular Glands of Diabetes-Induced Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Alyne; Uchiyama, Toshikazu; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Kuboyama, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes can lead to dysfunction of the secretory capacity in salivary glands. Activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligands has been suggested to participate in chronic disorders such as diabetes and its complications. In this study, the expression of RAGE, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and advanced glycation end products (AGE), as well as the effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) in salivary glands of diabetic rats were evaluated, and the mechanisms involved were characterized. The expression of RAGE and HMGB1 at the protein and mRNA levels was observed in submandibular glands (SMGs) of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A diode laser was applied at 660 nm, 70 mW, 20 J/cm2, 0.56 J/point, with a spot area of 0.028 cm2 and its in vivo effects and the pathways involved were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis were performed for inflammatory and apoptosis markers. Diabetes up-regulates HMGB1/AGE/RAGE axis gene expression in SMGs that is associated with activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Interestingly, LPLI suppresses NF-κB activation induced by inflammation. LPLI also reduces diabetes-induced apoptosis. That effect was accompanied by decreased levels of Bax, and cleaved caspase 3, which were up-regulated in diabetes. Taken together, our data suggest that LPLI reduces diabetes-induced inflammation by reducing the induction of HMGB1, ultimately leading to inhibition of apoptosis in submandibular glands of diabetic rats. PMID:28099448

  9. Metabolism of glycosylated human salivary amylase: in vivo plasma clearance by rat hepatic endothelial cells and in vitro receptor mediated pinocytosis by rat macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesen, T.E.; Alpers, D.H.; Stahl, P.D.; Rosenblum, J.L.

    1984-09-01

    Salivary-type amylase normally comprises about 60% of the amylase activity in human serum, but only a small fraction is a glycosylated isoenzyme (amylase A). In contrast, 1/3 of amylase in human saliva is glycosylated. Since glycosylation can affect circulatory clearance, we studied the clearance of amylase A in rats and its uptake by rat alveolar macrophages. Following intravenous injection, /sup 125/I-labeled amylase A disappeared rapidly from plasma (t 1/2 . 9 min) and accumulated in the liver. Simultaneous injection of mannose-albumin slowed its clearance to a rate comparable to that of /sup 125/I-labeled nonglycosylated salivary amylase (t 1/2 . 45 min). In contrast, galactose-albumin had no effect. Electron microscope autoradiography of the liver following injection of /sup 125/I-labeled amylase A revealed a localization of grains over the hepatic endothelial cells. In vitro studies indicated that amylase A is taken up by alveolar macrophages via receptor-mediated pinocytosis. Uptake was linear over time, saturable, and inhibited by mannan and mannose-albumin, but not by galactose-albumin. We conclude that amylase A, which is a naturally occurring human glycoprotein with at most three terminal L-fucose residues per molecule, is recognized in rats by a mannose receptor located on hepatic endothelial cells. We speculate that this receptor, by rapidly clearing circulating amylase A, may be responsible for the low level of amylase A in human serum.

  10. Rat salivary gland reveals a more restricted IgA repertoire than ileum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, Maaike; Evenhuis, Willem N. H.; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Bos, Nicolaas A.

    Secretory IgA is the most abundantly produced Ig in different mucosal tissues, such as the gastrointestinal tract and the salivary glands. These mucosal tissues are considered to be part of the common mucosal immune system. The specificity and immunoglobulin (19) V-H gene repertoire of the IgA

  11. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination. PMID:26221370

  12. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination.

  13. Effect of irradiation on the dental pulp tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ho Duk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To observe the histological changes in the pulp tissues of mandibular molars in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into four groups : control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in irradiation and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the mandibular molars were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetes group, capillary dilatation was observed. However, there was no obvious morphologic alteration of the odontoblasts. In the irradiation group, generalized necrosis of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the odontoblasts and dilatation of the capillaries were noted in the early experimental phases. In the diabetes-irradiation group, generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts was noted in the late experimental phases. This experiment suggest that dilatation of the capillaries in the dental pulp tissue is induced by diabetic state, and generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues is induced by irradiation of the diabetic group.

  14. Microwave irradiation and instrumental behavior in rats: unitized irradiation and behavioral evaluation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebovitz, R.M.; Seaman, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A facility for the exposure of small animals to pulse-modulated microwave radiation (PM MWR) concurrent with their performance of operant behavioral tasks is described. The computer-managed facility comprises an array of 32 individual waveguide exposure cells, each enclosing instrumental conditioning apparatus within a plastic subhousing. The distribution of the microwave electric field intensity within the waveguide was measured by a nonperturbing probe and the modifications induced by the behavioral apparatus and animal within the waveguide determined. Input and interior voltage standing-wave ratios are presented to characterize the design of the chambers and to demonstrate the suitability of the chambers for whole-body irradiation of rat. The specific absorption rate (SAR) is presented utilizing data derived from incremental thermometric examination of saline loads and of selected sites in rat carcasses. This is compared with the whole-body SAR derived from the input/output energy balance equation for the waveguide. The results of continuous monitoring of the SAR by the latter method, while unrestrained rats were engaged in operant and exploratory behavior within the waveguide, are utilized to derive a relationship between chamber input power and the dose rate for adult rats behaviorally active within the waveguide. From these data, we conclude that the experimental array provides a practical method for exposing a large number of animals to PM MWR for long periods of time and coincident with the establishment and/or performance of complex operant behavior.

  15. SGLT1 protein expression in plasma membrane of acinar cells correlates with the sympathetic outflow to salivary glands in diabetic and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino-Silva, Robinson; Alves-Wagner, Ana B T; Burgi, Katia; Okamoto, Maristela M; Alves, Adilson S; Lima, Guilherme A; Freitas, Helayne S; Antunes, Vagner R; Machado, Ubiratan F

    2010-12-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction is a feature in diabetes and hypertension. We hypothesized that sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) participates in salivary dysfunctions through a sympathetic- and protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated pathway. In Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), diabetic WKY (WKY-D), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and diabetic SHR (SHR-D) rats, PKA/SGLT1 proteins were analyzed in parotid and submandibular glands, and the sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to the glands was monitored. Basal SNA was threefold higher in SHR (P acinar cells were regulated in parallel to the SNA. Electrical stimulation of the sympathetic branch to salivary glands increased (∼30%, P acinar cells. Taken together, our results show highly coordinated regulation of sympathetic activity upon PKA activity and plasma membrane SGLT1 content in salivary glands. Furthermore, the present findings show that diabetic- and/or hypertensive-induced changes in the sympathetic activity correlate with changes in SGLT1 expression in basolateral membrane of acinar cells, which can participate in the salivary glands dysfunctions reported by patients with these pathologies.

  16. Evaluation of radioprotectors by the Na/sup +/ influx study in RBC of lethally irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, M.N.; Basu, S.K.; Ghose, A.

    1984-09-01

    Sodium homeostasis in adult male albino Sprague Dawley rats has been examined 24 hours after exposure to 11 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. Rate of influx of /sup 22/Na in red blood corpuscles (in vitro) of irradiated rats significantly increased and was modified by the administration of some radioprotective drugs prior to irradiation. Solcoseryl and AET (200 mg/kg) gave excellent protection and the combinations of 5-HTP with AET or MPG rendered better protection than when used alone.

  17. Protective effects of Chinese herbal medicine Huqi extractum on salivary glands against radiation in Wistar rats%斛芪浸膏对Wistar大鼠涎腺辐射损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳丽; 秦丽萍; 王凯丽; 李柏

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨中药复方斛芪浸膏对Wistar大鼠涎腺辐射损伤的保护作用.方法:100只Wistar大鼠随机分为假照射组,模型组和高、中、低剂量斛芪浸膏组.除假照射组大鼠外,采用60Coγ射线15 Gy单次局部照射大鼠头颈部建立涎腺辐射损伤模型.于灌胃3 d及40 d后,分别收集唾液,比色法检测唾液中K+、Na+含量,碘-淀粉酶比色法检测唾液淀粉酶活性,酶联免疫吸附测定法检测唾液中分泌型免疫球蛋白A(secretory immunoglobulin A,sIgA)含量;取涎腺组织苏木精-伊红染色检测涎腺形态改变.结果:用药3 d后,各辐射组大鼠均出现涎腺辐射损伤,与假照射组比较,模型组及低、中剂量斛芪浸膏组唾液sIgA含量及体质量下降,唾液淀粉酶活性升高.涎腺组织病理切片显示,用药3 d后各辐射组腺泡胞浆水肿,空泡形成,40 d后涎腺实质细胞萎缩,数量减少.用药40 d后,高剂量斛芪浸膏组大鼠唾液sIgA含量、淀粉酶活性及体质量接近假照射组;涎腺组织结构与假照射组差别不明显.结论:斛芪浸膏能促进涎腺辐射损伤大鼠腺泡结构和功能的恢复.%Objective: To explore the protective effects of Huqi extractum, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, on salivary glands against radiation in Wistar rats.Methods: One hundred Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-exposure group, untreated group, and low-, medium- and high-dose Huqi groups.Local irradiation of 60Co gamma-rays with a single dose of 15 Gy was applied to the salivary glands of the Wistar rats except the sham-exposure group.After 3- and 40-day treatment, saliva was collected.Colorimetric method, iodine-amylase colorimetric method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect concentrations of sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ) and secretory immunoglobulin A (slgA) and activity of salivary amylase.Pathological changes of salivary gland tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin straining

  18. Effects of the cafeteria diet on the salivary glands of trained and sedentary Wistar rats - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i1.7473

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel Marçal Natali

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effect of the aerobic physical training and the cafeteria diet introduced after weaning of Wistar rats and on the morphology of the main salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, sublingual. Male rats after weaning were subjected to the cafeteria diet or the standard rodent chow, and either performed aerobic physical training in a treadmill for 100 days, or did not performed any physical activity. Analyses were done considering the response in body weight, adipose tissues and salivary glands, and the data were submitted to statistical treatment (p < 0.05. The morphological and morphometric analyses of the salivary glands were performed through histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Despite the normophagic behavior, the rodents fed with the cafeteria diet became obese, with repercussions on parotid gland weight. However, this obesity and/or physical training did not influence the histological organization of the salivary glands. The morphometric analysis of the submandibular glands pointed out a reduction in the levels of serous acinar cells as an effect of the diet and physical training. In conclusion, the parotid and the submandibular glands alter themselves due to the nature and consistency of food present in the cafeteria diet as well as due to the aerobic physical training.

  19. Cognitive dysfunction and histological findings in adult rats one year after whole brain irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Sato, Mitsuya; Takeda, Norio [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Brain Research Inst.

    2001-12-01

    Cognitive dysfunction and histological changes in the brain were investigated following irradiation in 20 Fischer 344 rats aged 6 months treated with whole brain irradiation (WBR) (25 Gy/single dose), and compared with the same number of sham-irradiated rats as controls. Performance of the Morris water maze task and the passive avoidance task were examined one year after WBR. Finally, histological and immunohistochemical examinations using antibodies to myelin basic protein (MBP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neurofilament (NF) were performed of the rat brains. The irradiated rats continued to gain weight 7 months after WBR whereas the control rats stopped gaining weight. Cognitive functions in both the water maze task and the passive avoidance task were lower in the irradiated rats than in the control rats. Brain damage consisting of demyelination only or with necrosis was found mainly in the body of the corpus callosum and the parietal white matter near the corpus callosum in the irradiated rats. Immunohistochemical examination of the brains without necrosis found MBP-positive fibers were markedly decreased in the affected areas by irradiation; NF-positive fibers were moderately decreased and irregularly dispersed in various shapes in the affected areas; and GFAP-positive fibers were increased, with gliosis in those areas. These findings are similar to those in clinically accelerated brain aging in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Binswanger's disease, and multiple sclerosis. (author)

  20. Late behavioural and neuropathological effects of local brain irradiation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, H; Katzung, N; Sowinski, P; Hopewell, J W; Wilkinson, J H; Bywaters, T; Rezvani, M

    1998-03-01

    The delayed consequences of radiation damage on learning and memory in rats were assessed over a period of 44 weeks, commencing 26 weeks after local irradiation of the brain with single doses of X-rays. Doses were set at levels known to produce vascular changes alone (20 Gy) or vascular changes followed by necrosis (25 Gy). Following T-maze training, 29 weeks after irradiation, irradiated and sham control groups performed equally well on the forced choice alternation task. When tested 35 weeks after irradiation, treated rats achieved a much lower percentage of correct choices than controls in T-maze alternation, with no difference between the two irradiated groups. At 38-40 weeks after irradiation, rats receiving both doses showed marked deficits in water maze place learning compared with age-matched controls; performance was more adversely affected by the higher dose. The extent of impairment was equivalent in the two groups of rats irradiated with 25 Gy, those trained or not previously trained in the T-maze, suggesting that water maze acquisition deficits were not influenced by prior experience in a different spatial task. In contrast to water maze acquisition, rats irradiated with 20 Gy showed no deficits in working memory assessed in the water maze 44 weeks after irradiation, whereas rats receiving 25 Gy showed substantial impairment. Rats receiving 25 Gy irradiation showed marked necrosis of the fimbria and degeneration of the corpus callosum, damage to the callosum occurring in animals examined histologically 46 weeks after irradiation, but in only a third of the animals examined at 41 weeks. However, there was no evidence of white matter necrosis in rats irradiated with 20 Gy, examined 46 weeks after irradiation. These findings demonstrated that local cranial irradiation with single doses of 20 and 25 Gy of X-rays produced delayed impairment of spatial learning and working memory in the rat. The extent of these deficits appears to be task- and dose

  1. Effect of melatonin and time of administration on irradiation-induced damage to rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Take

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ionizing irradiation on testes and the protective effects of melatonin were investigated by immunohistochemical and electron microscopic methods. Eighty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into 10 groups. The rats in the irradiated groups were exposed to a sublethal irradiation dose of 8 Gy, either to the total body or abdominopelvic region using a 60Co source at a focus of 80 cm away from the skin in the morning or evening together with vehicle (20% ethanol or melatonin administered 24 h before (10 mg/kg, immediately before (20 mg/kg and 24 h after irradiation (10 mg/kg, all ip. Caspace-3 immunoreactivity was increased in the irradiated group compared to control (P < 0.05. Melatonin-treated groups showed less apoptosis as indicated by a considerable decrease in caspace-3 immunoreactivity (P < 0.05. Electron microscopic examination showed that all spermatogenic cells, especially primary spermatocytes, displayed prominent degeneration in the groups submitted to total body and abdominopelvic irradiation. However, melatonin administration considerably inhibited these degenerative changes, especially in rats who received abdominopelvic irradiation. Total body and abdominopelvic irradiation induced identical apoptosis and testicular damage. Chronobiological assessment revealed that biologic rhythm does not alter the inductive effect of irradiation. These data indicate that melatonin protects against total body and abdominopelvic irradiation. Melatonin was more effective in the evening abdominopelvic irradiation and melatonin-treated group than in the total body irradiation and melatonin-treated group.

  2. Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

  3. [Thapsigargin-sensitive and insensitive intracellular calcium stores in acinar cells of the submandibular salivary gland in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopach, O V; Kruhlykov, I A; Voĭtenko, N V; Fedirko, N V

    2005-01-01

    Acinar cells of rat submandibular salivary gland are characterized by heterogeneity of intracellular Ca2+ stores. In the present work we have studied this heterogeneity using Arsenazo III dye to measure a cellular total calcium content and Fura-2/AM, to determine free cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). We have found that the amount of Ca2+ released by inhibition of Ca2+ ATPase of the ER with thapsigargin comprises approximately 30% of total ER calcium. This result was obtained in experiments on both intact and permeabilized acinar cells. We have also shown that both Ca2+ ATPase inhibition with thapsigargin and emptying the stores with acetylcholine (ACh) led to activation of store-operated Ca2+ influx (an increase in total calcium content of approximately 14%). In permeabilized cells application of ACh after preincubation with thapsigargin led to a further decrease in total cellular calcium content (approximately 38%). At the same time in intact cells it resulted in generation of [Ca2+]i transients with gradually decreasing amplitudes. Thus, ACh is capable of producing an additional release of Ca2+ from thapsigargin-insensitive stores. This additional release is IP3-dependent since it was completely blocked by heparin. We conclude that in acinar cells of rat submandibular gland thapsigargin-sensitive and thapsigargin-insensitive Ca2+ stores could exist.

  4. Binge Drinking of Ethanol during Adolescence Induces Oxidative Damage and Morphological Changes in Salivary Glands of Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155

  5. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1987-04-01

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance.

  6. Influence of limited feeding on metabolic changes in lipids after single lethal irradiation of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropila, M.; Alers, I.; Alersova, E.; Dyatelinka, I.; Praslichka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia))

    A study was made of the influence of adaptation of rats to limited feeding (2 h a day during 3 weeks) and the response of the adapted animals to whole body X-irradiation with a lethal dose of 14.35 Gy. The concentration of unesterified fatty acids in the blood and the total cholesterol content were shown to decrease between the 1st and 24th hours following irradiation: the content of phospholipids decreased 60 min after irradiation. In the bone marrow of rats adapted to limited feeding, a more pronounced accumulation of triacylglycerols was noted as late as 72 h after irradiation.

  7. Effect of irradiation on the healing of extraction sockets in diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Joong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    To observe the histologic pattern of healing in molar tooth extraction sockets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injecting streptozotocin. Control rats were injected with a citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the right maxillary first molar was extracted under general anesthesia from each of the rats. After the extraction, rats in the diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. In the diabetic and diabetic-irradiated groups, the early healing process of the socket extraction was similar to the control group, but bone formation was delayed at 7 days after the treatment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, alveolar bone surrounding the extraction socket showed sighs of necrosis at 3 days after treatment, and hemorrhage was observed in connective tissue within the extraction socket at 14 days after treatment. The experiment revealed that the healing process of the extraction socket was severely delayed and retarded by irradiation in the diabetic state.

  8. Accumulation of radioactivity in rat brain and peripheral tissues including salivary gland after intravenous administration of {sup 14}C-D-aspartic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Takeshi; Santa, Tomofumi; Homma, Hiroshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Sugihara, Juko; Kodama, Hirohiko; Yoshikawa, Masayoshi

    1997-03-01

    After the intravenous administration of {sup 14}C-D-aspartic acid (Asp) into Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 7-week-old), the distribution and elimination of radioactivity was investigated by the whole body autoradiography. High radioactivities were detected in pineal gland, pituitary gland and salivary gland at 30 min after administration. The other tissues detected were liver, lung, adrenal gland, pancreas and spleen where D-Asp was reported to occur naturally. After 24 hr, the radioactivities were still detected at high levels in the pineal, pituitary and salivary glands. The data suggested the natural occurrence of D-Asp in salivary gland. After careful examination utilizing fluorescent derivatization and chiral separation by high-performance liquid chromatography, the presence of D-Asp was, for the first time, demonstrated in salivary gland in situ, the concentration of which was 7.85 {+-} 1.0 nmol/g. The administration of {sup 14}C-L-Asp was also carried out. The data suggested that D-Asp in the circulating blood is one of the sources of the tissue D-Asp. (author)

  9. 一次性18 Gy放射对大鼠颌下腺损伤的实验研究%A Morphological and Salivary Flow Rate Study on the Effects of Radiation on Rat Submandibular Glands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉成; 熊雪妍; 陈凤山; 姚元元

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to observe the changes of rat submandibular gland morphology and salivary flow rate after radiation. Methods: Forty SD rats were randomly divided into experiment group and control group. In experiment group, a one-time 18 Gy irradiation was applied locally on the submandibular glands. In the control group, only celiac anesthesia was administered. 8 weeks later, saliva from both groups was collected with polyethylene tube, their volume weighed, and salivary flow rate calculated. After death, submandibular glands were draw out and weighed. Morphology examination was assessed by HE staining. Results: Water and food consumption in radiated rats decreased, with less activity. But drinking frequency was higher than that of control group. Salivary flow rate was (18.64 ?.23) jJiL/min in control group, and (10.70 10.22) u,L/min in experiment group, with an equivalent to 57.42% in control group (P<0.05). Morphological changes of the radiated submandibular gland cells showed edema, and interstitial vascular congestion. The number of vacuoles in the acinar cells increased significantly. Conclusion: Effects of radiation on rat submandibular gland include obvious salivary flow rate reduction, and degenerative changes of acinar cells. Long-term effects of radiation on the morphology of rat submandibular gland and saliva secretory function still need further observation and research.%目的:观察一次性18 Gy放射对大鼠颌下腺组织学形态和唾液流率的改变.方法:40只大鼠随机分为实验组和对照组,每组20只.实验组一次性18 Gy局部照射大鼠颌下腺区域,对照组只麻醉不放射.8周后处死所有大鼠,处死前插管法提取大鼠颌下腺唾液,称取其质量,计算唾液流率,比较两组唾液流率的改变.处死后取颌下腺组织,经4%多聚甲醛固定,切片,HE染色,镜下观察颌下腺的组织学形态.结果:放射后实验组进食进水量下降、活动减少.实验组

  10. Lipid composition of liver microsomes and mitochondria after acute and chronic {gamma}-irradiation of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markevich, L.N.; Kolomiitseva, I.K. [Institute of Cell Biophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    Acute {gamma}-irradiation of rats at doses of 100 and 270 Gy stimulates lipid synthesis and changes the lipid composition of liver cell organelles. The content of cholesterol and cholesterol esters in microsomes increased at 100 Gy and decreased at 270 Gy, with total phospholipid content remaining unchanged. The lipid content in mitochondria decreased considerably 1 h after irradiation at 270 Gy. This change was significantly less pronounced 47 h later. Under chronic {gamma}-irradiation (0.129 Gy/day), cholesterol and cardiolipin in mitochondria increased. The changes in lipid content caused by acute irradiation are presumed to be related to activated synthesis of lipids in the liver. The modification of the lipid content of mitochondria observed in chronically irradiated rats may indicate that energy-metabolizing liver cell systems are involved in the adaptation to irradiation.

  11. The Salivary IgA Flow Rate Is Increased by High Concentrations of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Cecum of Rats Ingesting Fructooligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Yamamoto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA serves as a major effector in mucosal immunity by preventing submucosal invasion of pathogens. However, the mechanism by which consumption of fermentable fibers increases IgA in saliva was not fully elucidated. This study investigated the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS intake and time after feeding on IgA levels in the saliva and cecal digesta and on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA in the cecum in rats. Five-week-old rats were fed a fiber-free diet or a diet with 50 g/kg FOS for zero, one, four, and eight weeks. Ingestion of FOS at one and eight weeks led to a higher IgA flow rate of saliva per weight of submandibular gland tissue (p < 0.05, which positively correlated with the concentration of SCFA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.86, p = 0.0006, n = 12, but showed no correlation with the concentration of IgA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.15, p = 0.3, n = 48. These results suggested that ingestion of FOS increased salivary IgA secretion through high levels of SCFA in the large intestine, which was produced by fermentation of FOS. Thus, continuously ingesting FOS for more than one week could increase secretion of salivary IgA.

  12. The Salivary IgA Flow Rate Is Increased by High Concentrations of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Cecum of Rats Ingesting Fructooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuko; Takahahi, Toru; To, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Hayashi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tomoko; Kamata, Yohei; Saruta, Juri; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2016-08-17

    Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) serves as a major effector in mucosal immunity by preventing submucosal invasion of pathogens. However, the mechanism by which consumption of fermentable fibers increases IgA in saliva was not fully elucidated. This study investigated the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) intake and time after feeding on IgA levels in the saliva and cecal digesta and on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the cecum in rats. Five-week-old rats were fed a fiber-free diet or a diet with 50 g/kg FOS for zero, one, four, and eight weeks. Ingestion of FOS at one and eight weeks led to a higher IgA flow rate of saliva per weight of submandibular gland tissue (p IgA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.15, p = 0.3, n = 48). These results suggested that ingestion of FOS increased salivary IgA secretion through high levels of SCFA in the large intestine, which was produced by fermentation of FOS. Thus, continuously ingesting FOS for more than one week could increase secretion of salivary IgA.

  13. Effect of irradiation on the temporomandibular joint in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To investigate the histopathological changes in the temporomandibular joint in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat following irradiation. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 250 gm were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in the control group were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the temporomandibular joint were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetic group, severe bone resorption in the mandibular condyle was observed throughout the period of experiment. Necrosis of bone marrow and trabeculae was observed at 28 days after diabetic state. Atrophy and fibrosis in the retrodiscal tissue was gradually progressed during the time of the experiment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, severe bone resorption in the mandibular condyle was observed during the early experimental phases, but regeneration of bone marrow was initiated at 14 days after diabetic state and irradiation. Also, calcification of abnormal trabeculae was observed at 28 days after diabetic state and irradiation. The retrodiscal tissue was degenerated in the early experimental phases, but it had been gradually regenerated during the experimental time. This experiment suggests that bone resorption and degeneration in the mandibular condyle are caused by the induction of diabetes, and abnormal bone formation is induced after irradiation in diabetic state.

  14. The green tea extract epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    You, Hua; Wei, Li; Sun, Wan-Liang; Wang, Lei; YANG, ZAI-LIANG; Liu, Yuan; Zheng, Ke; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Wei-Jing

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in green tea, on irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and elucidated its mechanism of action. A rat model of irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis was generated using a 60Co irradiator and a dose of 22 Gy. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with EGCG (25 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (DEX; 5 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. Mortality rates and lung index values were calculated. The severity of fibr...

  15. FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL RECOVERY OF INJURED SPINAL CORD FOLLOWING DELAYED X-IRRADIATION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-gang Li; De-ze Jia; Dong-hai Wang; Yu-hang Su; Qing-lin Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that delayed X-irradiation can enhance the functional and structural recovery of the injured spinal cord in rats,Methods Seventy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, 35 rats in each. The control group sustained a one-minute clip compression (force of clip was 30 g) injury of the spinal cord at the T2 level, without X-irradiation. The experimental group received X-irradiation 14 days after injury. Neurological function was assessed by the modified Tarlov method, including hind limbs movement, inclined plane, and pain withdrawal. These tests were performed in a blinded fashion at 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 , and 42 days after injury. At 43 days after injury, histological examination of the injured spinal cord was performed following decapitation of the rats.Results Sixty-two rats met the experimental requirements (spinal cord injury was similar), 32 rats in experimental group and 30 rats in control group. Statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups in hind limbs movement and inclined plane (P <0.01), but not in the pain withdrawal test The edema and necrosis areas of injured spinal cords in experimental group were less than those in control group, and axons in experimental group were significantly more than those in control group (P < 0.01).Conclusion Delayed X-irradiation following spinal cord injury may enhance functional recovery by improving and restoring structural integrity of the injured spinal cord in rats.

  16. DEGRANULATION OF RAT SALIVARY-GLANDS FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH RECEPTOR-SELECTIVE AGONISTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETER, B; VANWAARDE, MAWH; VISSINK, A; SGRAVENMADE, EJ; KONINGS, AWT

    1995-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to find a drug that induces an almost complete degranulation of secretory cells in rat parotid and submandibular glands. 2. Phenylephrine (alpha-adrenergic), isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic) and mecholine (muscarinic cholinergic) were tested. Time and degree of maximal de

  17. Mechanical properties of UV irradiated rat tail tendon (RTT) collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sionkowska, Alina; Wess, Tim

    2004-04-01

    The mechanical properties of RTT collagen tendon before and after UV irradiation have been investigated by mechanical testing (Instron). Air-dried tendon were submitted to treatment with UV irradiation (wavelength 254 nm) for different time intervals. The changes in such mechanical properties as breaking strength and percentage elongation have been investigated. The results have shown, that the mechanical properties of the tendon were greatly affected by time of UV irradiation. Ultimate tensile strength and ultimate percentage elongation decreased after UV irradiation of the tendon. Increasing UV irradiation leads to a decrease in Young's modulus of the tendon.

  18. Cytogenetic studies on bone marrow cells in rats irradiated with helium nuclei and protected with adeturone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, B.; Bulanova, M.; Mileva, M. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya); Govorun, R.; Rizhov, N.; Fedorenko, B. (Institut Mediko-Biologicheskikh Problem, Moscow (USSR))

    1981-01-01

    Rats of the ''Wistar'' breed have been irradiated with helium nuclei-energy 3.3 Gev/nucleon with doses of 0.5 to 4 Gy. 15 minutes prior to irradiation part of the patients were injected intraperitoneally with 300 mg/kg Adeturone. The structural chromosome aberrations in medullar cells of non-protected and protected animals have been established microscopically. An increase has been found of the different kinds of aberrations depending on the applied irradiation dose. Adeturone decreases the irradiation effect, especially in higher doses. After 1 Gy the aberrations decrease from 1.5 to 3 times.

  19. Relationship between oxidative damage and colon carcinogenesis in irradiated rats: influence of dietary countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nancy; Sanders, Lisa; Wu, Guoyao; Davidson, Laurie; Ford, John; Braby, Leslie; Carroll, Raymond; Chapkin, Robert; Lupton, Joanne

    Galactic cosmic radiation not only kills colon epithelial cells, it also generates a cellular environment that can lead to oxidative DNA damage. We previously demonstrated that a diet containing fish oil and pectin protects against initiation of colon cancer by enhancing apoptotic removal of cells with oxidative DNA adducts (8-OHdG), and that apoptosis was highly correlated with colon cancer suppression. We hypothesized this diet combination will mitigate the oxidative damage occurring from radiation and thus reduce colon cancer. The experiment tested the effect of radiation (± 1 Gy, 1 GeV/n Fe ions) on redox balance, apoptosis, and 8-OHdG levels at initiation and colon tumor incidence. Diets contained fish oil or corn oil, and cellulose or pectin (2x2 factorial design). Rats received the diets 3 wk before irradiation (half of the rats), followed by azoxymethane (AOM) injections 10 and 17 d later (all rats). Just prior to AOM injection, irradiated fish oil/pectin rats had a more reduced redox state in colonocytes (lower GSSG, P rats. A shift to a more oxidative state (lower GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio, P rats. Changes in redox balance likely contributed to lower 8-OHdG levels in colonocytes from rats consuming the fish oil diets. Dietary pectin enhanced (P rats. Similar to the 8-OHdG results, colon tumor incidence was 42% higher (P rats fed corn oil vs fish oil diets. In summary, fish oil/pectin diets created a more reduced colon environment in irradiated rats that was evident 10 d after irradiation. The ensuing oxidative shift in those rats after AOM injection may have enhanced apoptosis; effectively eliminating more DNA damaged cells. Thus, inclusion of fish oil and pectin in diets for long-duration space flights should help suppress the elevation in colon cancer risk caused by galactic cosmic radiation. Funded by NSBRI (NASA NCC 9-58), NIH CA90301, NIEHS P-30-ES09106.

  20. Comparison of GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT4 and SGLT1 mRNA Expression in the Salivary Glands and Six Other Organs of Control, Streptozotocin-Induced and Goto-Kakizaki Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Jurysta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The expression and localization of several distinct glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT4, and SGLT1 was recently characterized in the parotid gland of normal rats by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The major aims of the present study was to compare the mRNA expression of these glucose transporters in both the parotid gland and submaxillary gland of control rats, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and hereditarily diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed in the parotid and submaxillary salivary glands and, for purpose of comparison, also in the heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and pancreas from control animals and either streptozotocin-treated or Goto-Kakizaki rats. Results: The expression of GLUT4, but not GLUT1 or SGLT1, mRNA was decreased in the diabetic rats. The results also allow comparing both the mRNA expression level of the four glucose transporters in salivary glands and six other organs, and the diabetes-induced changes in such an expression in distinct locations. Conclusion: The mRNA expression of the insulin-dependent GLUT4 transporter was the sole to be significantly decreased in the salivary glands of diabetic animals. The possible consequence of such a decrease in terms of the control of salivary glucose concentration requires further investigation.

  1. NMR characteristics of intracellular K in the rat salivary gland: A sup 39 K NMR study using double-quantum filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Yoshiteru; Murakami, Masataka; Suzuki, Eiji; Watari, Hiroshi (National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Myodaiji, Okazaki (Japan)); Nagayama, Kuniaki (JEOL ltd., Akishima, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-01-23

    Intracellular K of the perfused rat mandibular salivary gland was measured by {sup 39}K NMR spectroscopy at 8.45 T. Multiple-quantum NMR arising from multiple-exponential decay was used to eliminate the resonance due to extracellular K in the perfused gland at 25{degree}C. The resonance due to intracellular K consisted of two Lorentzian signals. These results suggest the possibility of the presence of a single homogeneous population of intracellular K with a correlation time of ca. 2.5 {times} 10 {sup {minus}8} s and a quadrupolar coupling constant ca. 1.4 MHz.

  2. Thermal denaturation of UV-irradiated wet rat tail tendon collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sionkowska, Alina

    2005-04-01

    The thermal helix-coil transition of UV irradiated collagen in rat tail tendon has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. During UVB irradiation the tendons were immersed in water to keep the collagen fibers in a fully hydrated condition at all times. UV irradiation induced changes in collagen which caused both stabilization and destabilization of the triple helix in fibers. The helix-coil transition for non-irradiated collagen occurred near 64 degrees C, for irradiated 1 and 3 h at 66 and 67 degrees C, respectively. After irradiating for longer times (20-66 h) the helix-coil transition peak occurred at much lower temperatures. The peak was very broad and suggested that collagen was reduced by UV to different polypeptides of different molecular weight and different lower thermal stabilities. It was caused by the disruption of a network of hydrogen-bonded water molecules surrounding the collagen macromolecule.

  3. Serum metabonomics of rats irradiated by low-dose γ-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying HE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of low-dose γ-rays on the metabolites in rat serum. Methods Sixteen healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and irradiated group (n=8. The rats in irradiated group were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays with a dose rate of 72mGy/h for 7 days (1 hour per day. At the 7th day after irradiation, blood samples were taken from abdominal aorta to obtain the serum. The metabolic fingerprints of serum were obtained from the two groups of rats, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares (OSC-PLS method were used for pattern recognition, and the difference in metabolite profile between two groups was identified by SIMCA-P software. Results The rat serum 1H NMR spectra revealed a significant difference between control group and irradiated group, the OSC-PLS plots of the serum samples presented marked clustering between two groups. Compared with the control group, the content of lipid, glucose, creatine, glycine/glucose, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein/low density lipoprotein and unsaturated fatty acid increased, while the content of lactic acid, threonine/lipid, alanine, N-acetyl glycoprotein 1, N-acetyl glycoprotein 2, saturated fatty acid and phosphatidyl choline decreased in irradiated group. Conclusion Irradiation with low-dose γ-ray could induce changes in metabolites in rat serum, concerning mainly immune function, energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.07.02

  4. Effect of irradiation on wound healing after tooth extraction in the rachitic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mee Kyung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    To observe the histopathological changes following irradiation on the wound healing after tooth extraction in the rachitic rats. In order to carry out this study, the rats were divided into four groups: Group 1 (normal diet/non-irradiation group), Group 2 (normal diet/irradiation group), Group 3 (rachitogenic diet/non-irradiation group), and Group 4 (rachitogenic diet/irradiation group). Rachitic changes were induced with rachitogenic diet No. 2 (high calcium, low phosphorus, and Vitamin D deficient diet) for 5 weeks. After the extraction of both maxillary first molars of the rats in Group 2 and 4, the head and neck of the rats were irradiated with single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. The rats were sacrificed at the 1st, 5th, 10th, and 15th day after tooth extraction. The specimens including the extraction wound were sectioned, stained with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome method and examined under the light microscope. In the Group 2, the amount of newly formed bone trabeculae on the periphery of extraction socket and osteoblastic activity were reduced. In the Group 3, epithelial fusion was not revealed on the 5th day after toothe extraction and growth rate of osteoid formation was reduced. In the Group 4, necrotized tissue at the outer surface of extraction socket and destructive changes on the alveolar bones were noted on the 10th day. Epithelial fusion was not revealed and large amounts of osteoclast were noted on alveolar bone on the 15th day. The healing process of wound after tooth extraction was retarded by irradiation and especially in the rachitic rats.

  5. The carcinogenic effect of localized fission fragment irradiation of rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, A L; Buckley, P; Gore, D J; Jenner, T J; Major, I R; Bailey, M R

    1980-03-01

    In a preliminary investigation of 'hot particle' carcinogenesis uranium oxide particles were introduced into the lungs of rats either by intubation of a liquid suspension of the particles or by inhalation of an aerosol. Subsequently the animals were briefly exposed to slow neutrons in a nuclear reactor, resulting in localized irradiation of the lung by fission fragments emitted from 235U atoms in the oxide particles. The uranium used in the intubation experiments was either enriched or depleted in 235U. Squamous cell carcinomas developed at the site of deposition of the enriched uranium oxide in many cases but no lung tumours occurred in the rats with the depleted uranium oxide, in which the lung tissue was exposed to very few fission fragments. Only enriched uranium oxide was used in the inhalation experiments. Pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas occurred after the fission fragment irradiation but were fewer than in the intubation experiments. Adenocarcinomas of the lung were seen in rats exposed to uranium oxide without subsequent irradiation by neutrons in the reactor and in rats irradiated with neutrons but not previously exposed to uranium oxide. It is concluded that (i) fission fragments were possibly implicated in the genesis of the squamous cell carcinomas, which only developed in those animals exposed to enriched uranium oxide and neutrons and (ii) the adenocarcinomas in the rats inhaling enriched uranium oxide only were likely to have been caused by protracted irradiation of the lung with alpha-rays emitted from the enriched uranium.

  6. Irradiated lymphocytes do not adoptively transfer diabetes or prevent spontaneous disease in the BB/W rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordes, J.P.; Handler, E.S.; Like, A.A.; Nakano, K.; Rossini, A.A.

    1986-06-01

    Diabetes in the BB/W rat is autoimmune in origin, and lymphocytes from acutely diabetic animals activated by concanavalin A (con A) induce the disease in adoptive recipients. We report that irradiation of these cells prevents adoptive transfer of diabetes. Through 60 days of age, diabetes occurred in none of 47 BB/W rats given irradiated con A cells, but in 21 of 36 (58%) given nonirradiated cells. Between 60 and 130 days of age, however, spontaneous diabetes occurred in 18 of 34 untreated control rats (53%) and 16 of 32 rats (50%) given two injections of irradiated con A activated spleen cells. We conclude that irradiation prevents adoptive transfer of BB/W rat diabetes and that irradiated con A activated lymphocytes from acutely diabetic rats do not protect against spontaneous disease in susceptible recipients.

  7. The Effect of Photoluminescence of Bioceramic Irradiation on Middle Cerebral Arterial Occlusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the possible effect of photoluminescence of bioceramic (PLB on ischemic cerebral infarction (stroke, by using an animal model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce MCAO to block the origin of the left MCAO; three months later, the positive chronic stroke rats were selected by running tunnel maze; the MCAO rats with significant chronic stroke and neurological defects were used for treadmill experiments with varying speed settings to test their capability for restoration after muscular fatigue under conditions of with and without PLB irradiation. As a result, PLB irradiation could improve exercise completion rate and average running speed during slow and fast treadmill settings. After PLB irradiation, the selected MCAO rats successfully completed all the second-round treadmill exercises at the maximum speed setting, and they had better restoration from muscular fatigue. An in vitro cell study on astrocytes of rats by bioceramic irradiation further demonstrated increased intracellular nitric oxide. To explain these results, we suggest that cortical brain stimulation of microcirculation and enhancement of peripheral muscular activity are the main causes of the improved exercise performance in MCAO rats by PLB.

  8. Detection of DNA fragmentation in {gamma}-irradiated rat tongue epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Motoaki; Nakamura, Motoyasu [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry; Nishioka, Takeshi; Shirato, Hiroki

    1996-03-01

    Apoptosis is the predominant form of cell death and occurs under variety of physiological and pathological conditions. In the present study, we detected the apoptotic cells and S phase cells in rat tongue epithelium in both normal and irradiated conditions. After 24 hours from irradiation, cell cycle arrest was obvious and the number of apoptotic cell reached the maximum level; however there was no detectable DNA fragmentation in basal cells. (author).

  9. Low dose X-irradiation mitigates diazepam induced depression in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

    2016-10-01

    Depression is considered as one of the most prevalent health ailments. Various anti-depressant drugs have been used to provide succour to this ailment, but with little success and rather have resulted in many side effects. On the other hand, low dose of ionizing radiations are reported to exhibit many beneficial effects on human body by stimulating various biological processes. The present study was conducted to investigate the beneficial effects of low doses of X-rays, if any, during diazepam induced depression in rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were segregated into four different groups viz: Normal control, Diazepam treated, X-irradiated and Diazepam + X-irradiated. Depression model was created in rats by subjecting them to diazepam treatment at a dosage of 2 mg/kg b.wt./day for 3 weeks. The skulls of animals belonging to X-irradiated and Diazepam + X-irradiated rats were X-irradiated with a single fraction of 0.5 Gy, given twice a day for 3 days, thereby delivered dose of 3 Gy. Diazepam treated animals showed significant alterations in the neurobehavior and neuro-histoarchitecture, which were improved after X-irradiation. Further, diazepam exposure significantly decreased the levels of neurotransmitters and acetylcholinesterase activity, but increased the monoamine oxidase activity in brain. Interestingly, X-rays exposure to diazepam treated rats increased the levels of neurotransmitters, acetylcholinesterase activity and decreased the monoamine oxidase activity. Further, depressed rats also showed increased oxidative stress with altered antioxidant parameters, which were normalized on X-rays exposure. The present study, suggests that low dose of ionizing radiations, shall prove to be an effective intervention and a novel therapy in controlling depression and possibly other brain related disorders.

  10. Avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats irradiated with a sublethal dose of gamma-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomášová, Lenka; Smajda, B; Bona, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, whether a sublethal dose of gamma-rays will influence the avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats and whether the response to radiation depends on time of day of its application. Adult male Wistar rats were tested in elevated plus-maze, in hot plate test and in the light/dark box in 4 regular intervals during a day. After two weeks the animals were irradiated with a whole-body dose 6 Gy of gamma-rays. One day after irradiation the animals were repeatedly tested in the same way, as before irradiation. In the plus-maze test an increased level of anxiety was established. The irradiation significantly decreased the locomotor activity of rats, but the extent of exploratory and comfortable behaviour were not altered. After irradiation, an elevated aversion to the thermal stimulus was observed in the hot plate test. The effects of radiation were more pronounced in the light period of the day, than in the dark one. No significant differences in aversion to light were detected after irradiation. The obtained results indicate, that sublethal doses of ionizing radiation can markedly influence the reactivity of animals to adverse stimuli, their motoric activity and emotional status, as well.

  11. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative stress in rat skin tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-04-01

    Schisandrin B (Sch B) and schisandrin C (Sch C), but not schisandrin A and dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate, protected rat skin tissue against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury, as evidenced by a reversal of solar irradiation-induced changes in cellular reduced glutathione and α-tocopherol levels, as well as antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde production. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production in rat skin microsomes. Taken together, Sch B or Sch C, by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent eliciting of a glutathione antioxidant response, may prevent photo-aging of skin.

  12. Transport of. cap alpha. -aminoisobutyric acid into rat parotid after X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodner, Lipa

    1989-04-01

    Rat parotid gland exposed to 20 Gy X-irradiation exhibits functional alteration 3 days after exposure. The flow rate of saliva and the uptake of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid by the gland was reduced to 50% of values for the control non-irradiated glands. When the same gland was studied in an in vitro system it functioned normally. K/sup +/ release and ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid uptake by the irradiated dispersed acinar cells was comparable to the control. Transport alteration from the circulatory system into the parotid gland may cause the initial radiation-induced damage.

  13. Effect of x-ray irradiation on lipid peroxide levels in the rat submandibular gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, M.; Takashima, H.; Oka, T.; Ohishi, N.; Yagi, K.

    1986-07-01

    We examined the effect of local x-ray irradiation on the changes in the lipid peroxide level in submandibular gland, liver, and blood plasma. Rats five weeks of age received a single low dose of 3 Gy x-ray irradiation to their neck regions. The lipid peroxide level in the submandibular gland was significantly enhanced at seven days after irradiation, as was the level in the blood plasma at two hours, seven and 14 days after irradiation. The lipid peroxide level in the liver decreased, as compared with levels in the controls. There was a slight tendency for acinar cells of the submandibular gland to show pyknosis and anomalous nuclei within three days after irradiation. These results suggest that radiation injury results in an elevation of the lipid peroxides in the submandibular gland, and an increased level in the blood.

  14. Influence of irradiation on collagen content during wound healing in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Solange Maria de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present experimental research was to investigate the effects of electron irradiation on the collagen content and on the organization of the granulation tissue of skin, in diabetic rats. In this study, 48 Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: control, irradiated, diabetic and irradiated diabetic. First, diabetes mellitus was induced in the last two groups, by means of a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin. Fifteen days later, all animals underwent a surgery in order to create an excisional wound on their anterior dorsal skin. On the third post-operative day, only an approximately 1-cm-wide area around the wounds was exposed to 1 Gy of 6 MeV electron beam radiation, which was delivered in a single dose. Wound healing was examined by means of polarized light microscopy at 4-, 7-, 13- and 21-day time intervals after wounding. Based upon an essentially qualitative evaluation, it was possible to conclude that local electron irradiation and diabetes' associated dysfunctions caused a decrease in the collagen content of newly-formed tissue, which was more pronounced in irradiated diabetic animals. The macromolecular organization of granulation tissue was delayed in irradiated, diabetic and irradiated diabetic animals, in relation to what was observed in control animals.

  15. Influence of irradiation on collagen content during wound healing in diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Solange Maria de; Ferreira, Rivea Ines; Boscolo, Frab Norberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Diagnostico Oral

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the present experimental research was to investigate the effects of electron irradiation on the collagen content and on the organization of the granulation tissue of skin, in diabetic rats. In this study, 48 Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: control, irradiated, diabetic and irradiated diabetic. First, diabetes mellitus was induced in the last two groups, by means of a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin. Fifteen days later, all animals underwent a surgery in order to create an excisional wound on their anterior dorsal skin. On the third post-operative day, only an approximately 1-cm-wide area around the wounds was exposed to 1 Gy of 6 MeV electron beam radiation, which was delivered in a single dose. Wound healing was examined by means of polarized light microscopy at 4-, 7-, 13- and 21-day time intervals after wounding. Based upon an essentially qualitative evaluation, it was possible to conclude that local electron irradiation and diabetes' associated dysfunctions caused a decrease in the collagen content of newly-formed tissue, which was more pronounced in irradiated diabetic animals. The macromolecular organization of granulation tissue was delayed in irradiated, diabetic and irradiated diabetic animals, in relation to what was observed in control animals. (author)

  16. An Experimental Study on the Effects of Co-60 Irradiation on the Rat Tongue Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Kee; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-02-15

    It is known that radiation therapy is a kind of treatment choices of the maxillofacial tumors. This study is designed to investigate the effects of irradiation on rat's tongue tissues as functional tissues which relate to taste, mastication, and pronunciation. 88 rats (Sprague Dawley branch, male) were divided into control group of 4 and experimental group of 84. Experimental group was singly exposed to Co-60 irradiation with 8, 13, 18 Gy in the head and neck region. Animals were sacrificed on 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 28 days after the irradiation. The specimens were observed by histopathological examination employing H-E stain and Van-Gieson stain. The results were follows; 1. The tongue tissue were severely swollen on the 1 hour after irradiation, but gradually decreased in course of time. 2. The basal cells of epithelium of tongue proliferated at initial stage of irradiation, but gradually decreased. The Keratin layer were gradually increased. 4. The tissue changes after irradiation were gradually increased by the degree of irradiation.

  17. Induction of Lipocalin2 in a Rat Model of Lung Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Sultan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we showed that lipocalin2 (LCN2 serum levels increased after liver irradiation and during acute-phase conditions. Here, we evaluate LCN2 expression and serum levels after single-dose lung irradiation with 25 Gy, percutaneously administered to the lung of randomly-paired male Wistar rats. Due to the concave anatomy of the lung recesses, the irradiation field included the upper part of the liver. No rat died due to irradiation. In control tissue, lung immunohistochemistry showed a high constitutive expression of LCN2+ granulocytes. LCN2 mRNA levels in lung tissue increased up to 24 h (9 ± 2.3-fold after irradiation. However, serum LCN2 levels remained undetectable after lung irradiation. LCN2 expression in the upper part of the liver increased up to 4.2-fold after lung irradiation, but the lower liver showed an early decrease. Acute-phase cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α showed a significant increase on transcript level in both lung and upper liver, whilst the lower liver did not show any considerable increase. In conclusion, constitutive expression of LCN2 in local immune cells demonstrates its local role during stress conditions in the lung. The absence of LCN2 in the serum strengthens our previous findings that the liver is the key player in secreting LCN2 during stress conditions with liver involvement.

  18. Histomorphologic change of radiation pneumonitis in rat lungs: captopril reduces rat lung injury induced by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee [College of Medicine, Keimhyung Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To assess the histomorphologic changes in the rat lung injury induced by radiation, to determine whether captopril reduces the rat lung injury and to evaluate change in TNF-{alpha} and TGF {beta} and rat lung damage by radiation and captopril. Right lungs in male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided irradiation alone (10, 20, 30 Gy) or radiation (same dose with radiation alone group) with captopril (500 mg/L). Radiation alone group were sacrificed at twelve hours and eleven weeks after radiation and radiation with captopril group (captopril group) were sacrificed at eleven weeks after radiation with captopril. We examined the light microscope and electron microscopic features in the groups. In radiation alone group, there were patch parenchymal collapse and consolidation at twelve hours after radiation. The increase of radiation dose shows more prominent the severity and broader the affected areas. Eleven weeks after radiation, the severity and areas of fibrosis had increased in proportion to radiation dose given in the radiation alone group. There was notable decrease of lung fibrosis in captopril group than in radiation alone group. The number of mast cells rapidly increased with increase of radiation dose in radiation alone group and the degree of increase of mast cell number and severity of collagen accumulation more decreased in captopril group than in radiation alone group. In radiation alone group expression of TNF-{alpha} and TGF-{beta}] increased according to increase of radiation dose at twelve hours after radiation in both group. At eleven weeks after radiation, expression of TGF- P increased according to increase of radiation dose in radiation group but somewhat decreased in captopril group. In the captopril group the collagen deposition increased but less dense than those of radiation alone group. The severity of perivascular thickening, capillary change, the number and degranulation of mast cells more decreased in the captopril group than in the radiation

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation prevents diabetes mellitus in the Bio-Breeding/Worcester (BB/W) rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, A.A.; Slavin, S.; Woda, B.A.; Geisberg, M.; Like, A.A.; Mordes, J.P.

    1984-06-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) at doses of 2200 rads or greater prevented diabetes in susceptible BB/W rats. Two of 29 (7%) treated rats became diabetic compared with 23 of 39 (59%) controls. TLI did not, however, prevent insulitis or thyroiditis in nondiabetic rats, nor did it restore the depressed concanavalin-A responsiveness of BB rat lymphocytes. T-lymphocyte subset proportions were the same in both groups. TLI was associated with significant radiation-related mortality, and nondiabetic TLI-treated rats weighed significantly less than controls. It was concluded that TLI is effective in the prevention of BB rat diabetes. However, TLI fails to correct the subclinical immunologic abnormalities of the model and is associated with significant morbidity.

  20. Effect of irradiation on the expression of caspase-3 in the submandibular gland of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heung Ki; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    To observe the histopathological changes and caspace-3 expression in the submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250gm were divided into four groups; control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in the control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, rats in irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the submandibular gland were sectioned and observed using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods. In the irradiation group, the condensed nucleus, karyolysis, and degeneration of the acinar cells and atrophy of the duct cells were observed in the early experimental phase. However, the acinar cells were found to be normal at 28 days after irradiation. In the diabetes group, the condensed nucleus, karyolysis, atrophy, and degeneration of the acinar cells were observed in the early experimental phase. However, the acinar cells were found to be normal at 21 days, after diabetic state induction. In the diabetes-irradiation group, the ductal epithelial cells were predominant in their glandular tissues at 28 days after irradiation. In all of the experimental groups, the most prominent change of the acinar cells and ductal cells were observed at 14 days after diabetic state induction and irradiation. The expression of caspase-3 in the acinar cells and ductal cells of the submandibular gland was weak after irradiation, but that in the acinar cells, ductal cells, and fibrous cells of the submandibular gland was prominent after diabetic state induction.

  1. Teratological Effects of Gamma-Irradiation during three Gestaional Intervals in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham A. Al-Shaibani, **Nadia, H. Ismail, ***Omaima S. Eissa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work: The present study aimed to evaluate the teratological effects of gamma-irradiation during three intervals of gestation; pre-implantation, organogenesis and fetal periods in rats. Material and methods: Four groups of pregnant rats were used in this study; the first one (GI served as control. The second (GII, third (GIII and fourth (GIV groups were subjected to whole body -radiation at a sub-lethal single dose level of 4 Gy at the third day, 10th day and 14th day of gestation respectively. Pregnant rats were sacrificed at the 20th day of gestation, implantation sites, resorption, embryonic death, fetal death, growth retarded fetuses, external malformations and skeletal malformation were recorded. Results: The results showed that whole body -irradiation caused resorption in the embryos of pregnant rats especially in those exposed during the pre-implantation period than the two other periods. The embryonic and fetal deaths were prominent in the fetuses maternally exposed to whole body -irradiation during the organogenesis period. The highest percentage of growth retarded fetuses was found in fetuses maternally exposed to -rays during the organogenesis period followed by fetuses maternally exposed to -irradiation during the fetal period and then fetuses maternally exposed to -irradiation during the pre-implantation period. The skeletal malformations as a result of -irradiation were mostly represented in less ossification in the skull bones, less ossification in the vertebral centra and wavy ribs. The most affected fetal skeleton was perceptive in GIII (fetuses maternally exposed to -irradiation during the organogenesis period followed by GII and then GIV.

  2. Vitamin C affects the antioxidative/oxidative status in rats irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemiec, T.; Sawosz, E.; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    Four grups of twenty growing Wistar rats were irradiated with either UV, IR, UV+IR light or were not irradiated (control). Ten rats from each group received a diet supplemented with 0.6% of L-ascorbic acid. The effects of the mega-dose of vitamin C were evaluated by changes in the antioxidative....../oxidative status. UV and IR radiation promoted oxidative DNA degradation in rat livers and supplementation with ascorbic acid strengthened the prooxidative effects on DNA oxidation in rats irradiated with UV or IR light. Vitamin C also increased the tiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration...... in rats from all groups except UV+IR-irradiated. The combined UV+IR light, corresponding to solar radiation, had no negative effects on redox homeostasis in rats. Furthermore, L-ascorbic acid showed antioxidative properties by increasing the concentration of Total Antioxidative State (TAS) in plasma...

  3. The effects of Pycnogenol(®) on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değer, K Cumhur; Şeker, Ahmet; Özer, Ilter; Bostancı, E Birol; Dalgıç, Tahsin; Akmansu, Müge; Ekinci, Özgür; Erçin, Uğur; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Akoğlu, Musa

    2013-01-01

    Pycnogenol(®) has excellent radical scavenging properties and enhances the production of antioxidative enzymes which contributes to the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract. Irradiation delivered to the abdominal region, typically results in severe damage to the intestinal mucosa. The effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by the formation of free radicals through radiolysis. Irradiation has local effects on tissues. These local effects of irradiation on the bowel are believed to involve a two-stage process which includes both short and long term components. In our study we aimed to investigate the short term effects of Pycnogenol(®) on the healing of colon anastomoses in irradiated bowel. Sixty male Wistar-Albino rats were used in this study. There were three groups: Group I, control group (n = 20); group II which received preoperative irradiation (n = 20); group III which received per oral Pycnogenol(®) before irradiation (n = 20). Only segmeter colonic resection and anastomosis was performed to the control group (Group I). The other groups (Group II, III) underwent surgery on the 5th day after pelvic irradiation. On postoperative days 3 and 7, half of the rats in each group were sacrificed and then relaparotomy was performed. There was no statistical difference between groups with respect to biochemical parameters. Bursting pressure was significantly higher in the Control and Group III compared with the Group II. In conclusion, the present study showed that preoperative irradiation effect negatively on colonic anastomoses in rats by means of mechanical parameters and administration of Pycnogenol(®) preoperatively ameliorates this unfavorable effect.

  4. Influence of x irradiation and diet on pituitary/thyroid function in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qassar, Iyad G.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were maintained on low iodine diet or treated with T/sub 4/. A significant increase in thyroid weight was observed in rats on low iodine diet whereas among rats on normal diet with thyroxine injections, the thyroid was lower in weight than thyroids of control animals. Pituitary weight increased significantly in rats on low iodine diet or T/sub 4/ treatment. Labelling index was significantly higher in the group on low iodine diet. A significantly lower labelling index was observed after thyroxine treatment. Where PTU was administered to rats pretreated with either normal diet, normal diet plus T/sub 4/, or maintained on low iodine diet and then exposed to radiation (100 to 400R) to the neck, it was not possible to distinguish the effect of such local radiation on body growth. The pre-radiation treatment did not have any effect on thyroid weight during two weeks post-radiation, suggesting that a four week post-radiation period is essential to elicit radiation effects on the thyroid. Contrary to low iodine treatment, administration of PTU did not result in any increase in pituitary weight in rats maintained on normal diet prior to radiation or in rats maintained on low iodine diet prior to radiation. There was, however, a significant increase in pituitary weight in rats injected with thyroxine prior to radiation (250R or 400R). A significant increase in serum TSH was observed two weeks after radiation and PTU treatment. A lower TSH level was observed, however, in the 250R sub-group (normal diet or T/sub 4/ injection) and in the 400R sub-group (low iodine diet). There was a significant difference among sham-irradiated and the three x-irradiated sub-groups maintained on low iodine diet. The results of these studies indicate that local x irradiation with 100 to 400R to the neck may influence thyroid/pituitary function in the rat. (ERB)

  5. Reversal of impaired wound healing in irradiated rats by platelet-derived growth factor-BB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustoe, T.A.; Purdy, J.; Gramates, P.; Deuel, T.F.; Thomason, A.; Pierce, G.F. (Washington Univ. Medical Center, St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1989-10-01

    This study examined the potential influence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB homodimers (PDGF-BB) on surgical incisions in irradiated animals with depressed wound healing. Rats were irradiated with either 800 rads total body or 2,500 rads surface irradiation. Parallel dorsal skin incisions were made 2 days later, and PDGF-BB was applied topically a single time to one of two incisions. In total body-irradiated rats, bone marrow-derived elements were severely depressed, wound macrophages were virtually eliminated, and PDGF-BB treatment was ineffective. However, in surface-irradiated rats, PDGF-BB treatment recruited macrophages into wounds and partially reversed impaired healing on day 7 (p less than 0.005) and day 12 (p less than 0.001). PDGF-BB-treated wounds were 50 percent stronger than the paired control wounds. The results suggest PDGF requires bone marrow-derived cells, likely wound macrophages, for activity and that it may be useful as a topical agent in postirradiation surgical incisions.

  6. Histological and physiological studies on rat heart following irradiation with single doses of X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, T.K.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the first 6 months after x-irradiation, most rats appeared normal, gaining weight after initial growth delay. Their general condition then declined, death occurring from about 230 days post-irradiation. Mean survival was dose-dependent, ranging from 550 +-12 days to 260 +- 13 days after 20 Gy and 50 Gy respectively. At post-mortem, 70% of irradiated animals had slight pleural effusions and 38% ascites. Early myocardial injury, indicated by T-wave abnormalities, were observed 2 months post-irradiation, consistent with observed degenerative changes seen in the myocardium, but the difference between cardiac output values measured in irradiated and control animals was very small. About 7 months after irradiation, ECG studies showed onset of arrhythmia. Histologically, in addition to chronic myocardial changes, lesions were observed in the larger vessel walls. Measurements of 'equivalent heart muscle wall thickness' showed a dose-dependent decline in irradiated animals after this. Histological and physiological changes were reflected by substantial reduction in cardiac output values in irradiated animals.

  7. Effects of acute gamma-irradiation on extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis in developing rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojević, I.; Drakulić, D.; Veličković, N.; Milošević, M.; Petrović, S.; Horvat, A.

    2009-09-01

    Cell membrane is highly sensitive to irradiation which, acting directly or indirectly, may disturb functions of constitutive proteins including membrane enzymes. Plasma membrane surface-located enzyme chain of ecto-nucleotide triphospho diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases) and 5'-nucleotidase are involved in termination of cell purinergic signalization by hydrolyzing extracellular, excitatory adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as well as nucleotide di-, and mono-phosphate (ADP and AMP) to neuroprotective adenosine. Extracellular ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolyzes were examined in purified synaptic plasma membranes after whole-body acute irradiation. All measurements were done 24 h after irradiation of developing (15-, 30-day-old) and adult (90-day-old) rats with low (50 cGy) and high (2 Gy) dose of gamma-rays. Both, high and low doses inhibited nucleotide hydrolyses in 15-day-old rats; in 30-day-old rats low dose of radiation inhibited ADP and AMP hydrolyses while high dose inhibited only ATP hydrolyse. In adult rats high dose induced no effects, while low dose stimulated nucleotides hydrolyses. According to obtained results it was concluded that ecto-nucleotidases of young rats are more sensitive to irradiation, since even low dose induces inhibition of ecto-nucleotidases activities. Ionizing radiation, by decreasing brain nucleotide hydrolyses in developing rats, induces accumulation of ATP and decreases production of adenosine in synaptic cleft which could be neurocytotoxic. On the contrary, in adult rats low dose of radiation stimulates NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activity and protective adenosine production which indicates protective and adaptive mechanisms developed in adult brain neuronal cells.

  8. Experimentally induced intestinal metaplasia in Wistar rats by x-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H.

    1978-11-01

    The gastric region of 5-week-old female Wistar rats was irradiated daily with 500 rad of x-ray up to a total of six times. Goblet cells and marker enzymes of the small intestine, such as lactase, trehalase, and maltase, appeared in the pyloric region of the glandular stomach of the rats from the 1st week after final irradiation. Intestinal type crypt without Paneth cells was observed from the 8th week. Sucrase activity appeared from the 26th week. Intestinal metaplasia with Paneth cells appeared from the 71st week. The number of goblet cells, intestinal type crypts, and Paneth cells increased with age. Gastric adenocarcinoma did not develop after irradiation.

  9. Functional and structural alterations of epithelial barrier properties of rat ileum following X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dublineau, I. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de la RadioProtection de l' Homme, Service de Radiobiologie et d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France)]. E-mail: isabelle.dublineau@irsn.fr; Lebrun, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Dept. de Radiopathologie et de Radiobiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France); Grison, S.; Griffiths, N.M. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de la RadioProtection de l' Homme, Service de Radiobiologie et d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France)

    2004-02-01

    Irradiation of the digestive system leads to alterations of the small intestine. We have characterized the disruption of the barrier integrity in rat ileum from 1 to 14 days following irradiation ranging from 6 to 12 Gy. The intestinal permeability to {sup 14}C-mannitol and {sup 3}H-dextran 70,000 was measured in vitro in Ussing chambers. In parallel to these functional studies, immunohistochemical analyses of junctional proteins (ZO-1 and {beta}-catenin) of ileal epithelium were performed by confocal microscopy. Irradiation with 10 Gy induced a marked decrease in epithelial tissue resistance at three days and a fivefold increase in mannitol permeability, without modifications of dextran permeability. A disorganization of the localization for ZO-1 and {beta}-catenin was also observed. At 7 days after irradiation, we observed a recovery of the organization of junctional proteins in parallel to a return of intestinal permeability to control value. In addition to these time-dependent effects, a gradual effect on epithelial integrity of the radiation doses was observed 3 days after irradiation. This study shows a disruption of the integrity of the intestinal barrier in rat ileum following abdominal X-irradiation, depending on the time postirradiation and on the delivered dose. The loss of barrier integrity was characterized by a disorganization of proteins of tight and adherent junctions, leading to increased intestinal permeability to mannitol. (author)

  10. Steroidogenesis in the testes and the adrenals of adult male rats after. gamma. -irradiation in utero at late pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Keiko; Takahashi, Masakazu; Ishii-Ohba, Hiroko; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Inano, Hiroshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1990-02-01

    Pregnant rats were irradiated with 2.1Gy {gamma}-ray of {sup 60}Co at day 20 of gestation. Seventy days after birth, the body weight of the fetally irradiated male pups was significantly lower than the control. The testes, ventral prostates and seminal vesicles were atrophied by irradiation, whereas no decreased weight of the adrenals was observed. Histological examination of the testes of the irradiated rats revealed a complete disappearance of germinal cells. Sertoli cells and Leydig cells appeared normal, and no apparent histological difference was observed in the adrenals between the control and the irradiated rats. Examination of steroidgenesis in testes and adrenals led to the conclusion that irreversible damage was induced in spermatogenesis and androgen production by the fetal irradiation, whereas corticoidogenesis was not affected. (author).

  11. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Kyoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  12. Platelet-rich plasma in bone repair of irradiated tibiae of Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumieiro, Emne Hammoud; Abrahao, Marcio; Jahn, Ricardo Schmitutz, E-mail: gumieiro@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Otorhinolaringology and Head and Neck Surgery; Segretto, Helena [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Oncology; Alves, Maria Tereza de Seixas [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Patology; Nannmark, Ulf [The Sahlgrenska Academy of Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Clinical Sciences. Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology; Granstroem, Goesta [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery; Dib, Luciano Lauria [Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Dentistry. Dept. of Stomatology

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the influence of PRP addition on bone repair of circular defects created in irradiated tibiae of rats by histometric analysis. Methods: sixty male Wistar rats had the right tibiae irradiated with 30 Gy. After 30 days monocortical defects were created and platelet-rich plasma as applied in 30 rats. In the control group defects were created but not filled. The animals were sacrificed after 4, 7, 14, 21, 56 and 84 days and the tibiae removed for histological processing. Results: there was a tendency in the PRP group to increased bone neoformation from 14-days to 84-days; in the control group increased bone neoformation was not seen after 21 days or later. Conclusion: the addition of platelet-rich plasma had a beneficial effect in the initial cellular regeneration period and enhanced bone formation in later periods when compared to control. (author)

  13. Single liver lobe repopulation with wildtype hepatocytes using regional hepatic irradiation cures jaundice in Gunn rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Preparative hepatic irradiation (HIR, together with mitotic stimulation of hepatocytes, permits extensive hepatic repopulation by transplanted hepatocytes in rats and mice. However, whole liver HIR is associated with radiation-induced liver disease (RILD, which limits its potential therapeutic application. In clinical experience, restricting HIR to a fraction of the liver reduces the susceptibility to RILD. Here we test the hypothesis that repopulation of selected liver lobes by regional HIR should be sufficient to correct some inherited metabolic disorders. METHODS: Hepatocytes (10(7 isolated from wildtype F344 rats or Wistar-RHA rats were engrafted into the livers of congeneic dipeptidylpeptidase IV deficient (DPPIV(- rats or uridinediphosphoglucuronateglucuronosyltransferase-1A1-deficient jaundiced Gunn rats respectively by intrasplenic injection 24 hr after HIR (50 Gy targeted to the median lobe, or median plus left liver lobes. An adenovector expressing hepatocyte growth factor (10(11 particles was injected intravenously 24 hr after transplantation. RESULTS: Three months after hepatocyte transplantation in DPPIV(- rats, 30-60% of the recipient hepatocytes were replaced by donor cells in the irradiated lobe, but not in the nonirradiated lobes. In Gunn rats receiving median lobe HIR, serum bilirubin declined from pretreatment levels of 5.17 ± 0.78 mg/dl to 0.96 ± 0.30 mg/dl in 8 weeks and remained at this level throughout the 16 week observation period. A similar effect was observed in the group, receiving median plus left lobe irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: As little as 20% repopulation of 30% of the liver volume was sufficient to correct hyperbilirubinemia in Gunn rats, highlighting the potential of regiospecific HIR in hepatocyte transplantation-based therapy of inherited metabolic liver diseases.

  14. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-26

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects.We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model.Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males.

  15. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  16. Effects of low intensity laser acupoint irradiation on inhibiting islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guoxin; Xiong, Leilei; Li, Xinzhong

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of low intensity semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on inhibiting islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes, a method using a high-fat diet and low-dose intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin established a type 2 diabetes mellitus rat model. Model rats were randomly divided into a laser acupoint irradiation group, rosiglitazone control group, and placebo group; each group had 10 rats. In addition, 10 normal male rats were selected for the normal control group. The Housanli, Neiting and Yishu acupoints of the rats in the laser acupoint irradiation group were irradiated with a 10 mW semiconductor laser; each point was irradiated for 15 min, once every 2 d over 28 d, for a total of 14 episodes of irradiation. The rosiglitazone group rats were given rosiglitazone (0.2 mg kg-1) intragastrically; the placebo group rats were given 0.9% brine (0.2 mg kg-1) intragastrically, once daily, for four consecutive weeks. The change of fasting blood glucose was determined before and after each treatment. The islet beta-cell apoptosis was determined. The islet beta-cell apoptosis rates of the laser acupoint irradiation group and the rosiglitazone group were significantly lower than the rate of the placebo group. Even though the rate was lower in the laser acupoint irradiation group than in the rosiglitazone group, there was no significant difference between them. It is shown that acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can effectively inhibit islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ochoa, Sergi; Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. One hundred forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis.

  18. Antibody response in cattle, sheep and rats to infection with. gamma. -irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, D.L.; Doy, T.G. (Agricultural Research Council, Compton (UK). Inst. for Research on Animal Diseases); Hanna, R.E.B. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK))

    1982-05-01

    Cattle, sheep and rats were infected orally with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica, or with normal metacercariae. The antibody response was monitored in each host to metacercarial tegument (T0), juvenile tegument (T1), adult tegument (T2) and gut antigens. The response was examined at weekly intervals for cattle and sheep throughout 15 weeks of infection and four weeks after infection in rats, using an indirect fluorescent antibody labelling technique. It was found that the irradiated metacercariae engendered a normal humoral response to T0, T1 and gut antigens in all three hosts although the antibody levels were somewhat reduced due to early death or stunting of the flukes. T0 and T1 appeared to be antigenically similar. Antibodies against T2 appeared late in the animals infected with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae and the titres attained were considerably lower than in the controls. The T2 antigen stimulus in the animals given ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae was probably provided by flukes which 'broke through' the developmental barrier imposed by irradiation and which were found alive at autopsy.

  19. The signal transduction mechanisms on the intestinal mucosa of rat following irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, J. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, K. J.; Lee, J. S. [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1997-06-01

    Phospholipase C(PLC) isozymes play significant roles in signal transduction mechanism. The exact mechanisms of these signal transduction following irradiation, however, were not clearly documented. Thus, this study was planned to determine the biological significance of PLC, ras oncoprotein, EGFR, and PKC in damage and regeneration of rat intestinal mucosa following irradiation. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated to entire body with a single dose of 8Gy. The rats were divided into 5 groups according to the sacrifice days after irradiation. The expression of PLC, ras oncoprotein, EGRF PKC in each group were examined by the immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The histopathologic findings were observed using H and E stain, and the mitoses for the evidence of regeneration were counted using the light microscopy and PCNA kit. The phosphoinositide(PI) hydrolyzing activity assay was also done for the indirect evaluation of PLC-{gamma}1 activity. In the immunohistochemistry, the expression of PLC-{beta} was negative for all groups. The expression of PLC-{gamma}1 was highest in the group III followed by group II in the proliferative zone of mucosa. The expression of PKC-{delta}1 was strongly positive in group I followed by group II in the damaged surface epithelium. The above findings were also confirmed in the immunoblotting study. In the immunoblotting study, the expressions of PLC-{beta}, PLC-{gamma}1, and PLC-{delta}1 were the same as the results of immunohistochemistry. The expression of ras oncoprotein was weakly positive in groups II, III and IV and the expression of PKC was weakly positive in the group II and III. PLC-{gamma}1 mediated signal transduction including ras oncoprotein, EGFR, and PKC play a significant role in mucosal regeneration after irradiation. PLC-{delta}1 mediated signal transduction might have an important role in mucosal damage after irradiation. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the signal transduction mediating the PLC

  20. Effect of low-energy laser (He-Ne) irradiation on embryo implantation rate in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Anat; Kraicer, P. F.; Oron, Uri

    1997-12-01

    Attempts to date to increase the rate of embryo implantation, for example by assisting embryo hatching from the zona pellucida, have failed. Recently, several studies have suggested the biostimulating effect of low power laser irradiation. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the potential of low power laser irradiation of the uterus to enhance embryo implantation rate in the rat. Rat potential of low power laser irradiation of the uterus to enhance embryo implantation rate in the rat. Rat blastocysts were flushed from the uterus on day 5 of gestation. They were transferred to the uteri of pseudopregnant recipients on day 4 or 5 of pseudopregnancy. One cornu of the recipient uterus was irradiated; the other was used as control. On day 5 of pregnancy, irradiation did not change implantation rate after 10 or 30 sec of irradiation while 120 sec. of irradiation significantly decreased embryonic implantation. On the other hand, on day 4 of pregnancy, 120 sec. of radiation allowed embryonic implantation to a level similar to that seen after synchronized transfer. Conclusion: He-Ne laser irradiation of the exposed rat uterus can attenuate embryo implantation rate.

  1. Effects of low-dose fractionated external irradiation on metabolic and structural characteristics of rat thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadolnik, L.; Niatsetskaya, Z. [Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Grodno (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The problem of thyroid radiosensitivity to the effect of low dose external ionizing irradiation presently seems to be the least studied, and the experimental findings - the most contradictory. The aim of the work was to study the effects of long-term low-dose fractionated irradiation on the iodide metabolism and structure of the thyroid. Female Wistar rats weighing 140-160 g were irradiated 20 times (5 times a week, for 4 weeks) using a 60 Co installation. The single absorbed doses were 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 Gy and the total ones - 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 Gy, respectively. The animals were decapitated after 1 day, 4 and 24 weeks following the last irradiation. The thyroid tissue was used to assay for thyro-peroxidase (T.P.O.) activity as well as total, protein -bound and free iodide concentrations. Microscopic and morphometric examination of histologic thyroid preparations was carried out. Blood was assayed for thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations. After a day following the irradiation, the thyroid showed a pronounced increase in the concentration of total iodide (30.0-54.4%) as well in that of free (32.1-60.8%) and protein-bound ones (24.4-37.4%). The most pronounced iodide concentration elevation was noted in the 0.1 -Gy animals, with thyroid T.P.O. activity being raised by 48.0%. Only the 0.5 Gy-group had 1.4-1.5-fold reduced thyroid hormone levels. Four weeks after the irradiation, studied parameters of irradiated rats were brought back to the control values, except for the 0.5 Gy-group. However, after 24-weeks, the 0.5-and 0.25- irradiated rats experienced a 12-20% thyroid weight elevation in comparison with the control. The thyroid of these animals demonstrated reduced contents of total and free iodide as well as T.P.O. activity by 24.5 and 34.8%. The 0.1 Gy-group had a 1.7-fold increased T.P.O. activity. The concentration of the thyroid hormones was maintained diminished only in the 0.5 Gy -irradiated group. However

  2. Enhancement of leukocyte adhesion after percutaneous irradiation in rats with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasa-Marcel Maksan; Eduard Schmidt; Eduard Ryschich; Wolfgang Harms; Jan Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of percutaneous radiation on leukocyte-endothelium interaction (LEI) in experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: Twelve ACI rats underwent HCC-inoculation,six of which on day 12 received low-dose external radiation and six did not. After 12 h intravital microscopy was performed.RESULTS: LEI was significantly reduced in tumor tissue.However, irradiation of liver sinusoids and tumor tissue with 6 Gy led to a significant activation of leukocyte adhesion in the tumor with a marked increase of the proinfiammatory cytokine TNF-α.CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the immunological tumor-endothelial barrier can be overcome by external irradiation.

  3. HeNe laser irradiation delivered transcutaneously: its effect on the sciatic nerve of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, M; Rochkind, S; Razon, N; Bartal, A

    1986-01-01

    For our study of the effect of low energy laser irradiation (LELI) on living tissue we used HeNe laser on rats. The exponential absorption was reaffirmed in the living tissues overlying the sciatic nerve. An optimal range of energy between 3.5 and 7 J--associated with energy concentration of 4-10 J/cm2 delivered transcutaneously--was found to cause a significant increase in action potential in the sciatic nerve. The effect lasted for more than 8 months after the irradiation session.

  4. Thermal helix-coil transition in UV irradiated collagen from rat tail tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sionkowska, A; Kamińska, A

    1999-05-01

    The thermal helix-coil transition in UV irradiated collagen solution, collagen film and pieces of rat tail tendon (RTT) were compared. Their thermal stability's were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and by viscometric measurements. The denaturation temperatures of collagen solution, film and pieces of RTT were different. The helix-coil transition occur near 40 degrees C in collagen solution, near 112 degrees C in collagen film, and near 101 degrees C in pieces of RTT. After UV irradiation the thermal helix-coil transition of collagen samples were changed. These changes depend on the degree of hydratation.

  5. Structural chromosomal aberrations in bone-marrow cells of single and fractionally irradiated adeturone-protected rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, B.; Bulanova, M.; Pantev, T.; Mileva, M (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1981-01-01

    Single irradiation with doses of 0.0516 K/kg and 0.1032 K/kg and fractionated twice with a dose of 0.0516 K/kg at intervals between the two irradiations of 3, 6 and 17 hours were performed in sexually mature wistar rats, using cesium gamma-source ''IGUR-1''. Single and fractionated irradiation was associated with the radiomodifying effect of the protector adeturone, which was administered before the first and second irradiation to elucidate its effect and the mechanism of its protective action. Bone-marrow cell preparation for chromosomal analysis was made from irradiated and protected animals 20 hours after irradiation. The quantitative results were statistically analyzed, showing that adeturone has a potent peotective effect on single-irradiated animals. In animals exposed to fractionated irradiation with adeturone applied before the first and second irradiation procedure at 3 and 6 hours between the two fractions. There was a statistically lower yield of chromosomal aberrations, than after a single irradiation. A marked protective effect of adeturone was noticed also between a fractionated irradiation and a fractionated with protection one, when the protector was administered before the first or second irradiation with 3 and 6 hours between them. No such effect has been observed at a 17 hour interval between the two irradiations. These data show that adeturone intensifies the repair process in irradiated cells. The semi restoration period in protected animals was twice as low.

  6. Fluid and sodium loss in whole-body-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Whole-body and organ fluid compartment sizes and plasma sodium concentrations were measured in conventional, GI decontaminated, bile duct ligated, and choledochostomized rats at different times after various doses of gamma radiation. In addition, sodium excretion was measured in rats receiving lethal intestinal radiation injury. After doses which were sublethal for 3-5 day intestinal death, transient decreases occurred in all the fluid compartments measured (i.e., total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume). No recovery of these fluid compartments was observed in rats destined to die from intestinal radiation injury. The magnitude of the decreases in fluid compartment sizes was dose dependent and correlated temporally with the breakdown and recovery of the intestinal mucosa but was independent of the presence or absence of enteric bacteria or bile acids. Associated with the loss of fluid was an excess excretion of 0.83 meq of sodium between 48 and 84 h postirradiation. This represents approximately 60% of the sodium lost from the extracellular fluid space in these animals during this time. The remaining extracellular sodium loss was due to redistribution of sodium to other spaces. It is concluded that radiation-induced breakdown of the intestinal mucosa results in lethal losses of fluid and sodium as evidenced by significant decreases in total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume, and plasma sodium concentration, with hemoconcentration. These changes are sufficient to reduce tissue perfusion leading to irreversible hypovolemic shock and death.

  7. Effects of neonatal. gamma. -ray irradiation on rat hippocampus: Pt. 1; Postnatal maturation of hippocampal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Represa, A.; Dessi, F.; Beaudoin, M.; Ben-Ari, Y. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), 75 - Paris (France))

    1991-01-01

    The axons of dentate granule cells, the mossy fibres, establish synaptic contacts with the thorny excrescences of the apical dendrite of CA3 pyramidal neurons. Dentate granule cells develop postnatally in rats, whereas the CA3 pyramidal cells are generated before birth. In the present studies, using unilateral neonatal {gamma}-ray irradiation to destroy the granule cells in one hemisphere, we have studied the effect of mossy fibre deprivation on the development of their targets. We show that such ''degranulation'' prevents the normal development of giant thorny excrescences, suggesting that the development of thorny excrescences in CA3 pyramidal neurons is under the control of mossy fibres. In contrast, irradiation of the hippocampus of the neonatal rat does not affect the development of the dendritic arborization of CA3 pyramidal cells and their non-mossy dendritic spines. (author).

  8. Therapeutic effect of DNA preparations varying in molecular mass on irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushkacheva, G.S.; Turdakova, V.A.; Rusina, T.N.; Luzanova, O.V.; Rogacheva, S.A.

    1979-12-01

    Studies were made of the therapeutic effect of rat thymus and spleen DNA as a function of its polymerization in experiments on Wistar rats exposed to radiation in doses of 750, 820, 840 and 875 R. Base preparations with a mean molecular mass of 34.10/sup 6/ dalton, mechanically degraded to 14.5.10/sup 6/, 9.2.10/sup 6/, 5.8.10/sup 6/, dalton and, by means of ultrasound, to 0.9.10/sup 6/ dalton were used. Preparations with average polymerism, with molecular mass of 5.5.10/sup 6/ to 13.10/sup 6/ dalton, had a marked therapeutic effect, increasing survival of irradiated animals by 15 to 25%, as compared to the irradiated control.

  9. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  10. Changes in the neuroglial cell populations of the rat spinal cord after local X-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B M; Hopewell, J W

    1979-10-01

    A 16 mm length of cervical spinal cord of young adult female rats was irradiated with 4000 rad of 250 kV X rays. Counts of astrocyte and oligodendrocyte nuclei were made in the dorsal columns of both irradiated and control cervical cords during the latent period before the onset of radionecrosis. The numbers of both astrocyte and oligodendrocyte nuclei were reduced one month after exposure to radiation. Both cell populations showed an apparent recovery but this was subsequently followed by a rapid loss of cells prior to the development of white-matter necrosis. The oligodendrocyte population in unirradiated spinal cords increased with age, and mitotic figures were observed among the neuroglia of both irradiated and control cervical spinal cords. A slow, natural turnover of neuroglial cells in the cervical spinal cord is proposed and the relevance of this to the manifestation of delayed white matter necrosis is discussed.

  11. Effect of Heavy Ion Head Irradiation on Immune System Function in Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Ying-qi; WANG; Xiao; SUI; Li; KONG; Fu-quan; LEI; Run-hong; MA; Hong; DENG; Yu-lin; LI; Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Heavy ion radiation is a great threat to astronaut’s health.While as the most promising cancer radiotherapy,the effect of heavy ion brain radiation on immune system function in the relevant research is rare.So the brain injury model that rats were subjected to 15 Gy of head irradiation was built.By detecting lymphocyte percentage,thymus,spleen,body weight and different developmental stages of

  12. Increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the cerebellum of the x-irradiated dystonic rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopico, A.M.; Rios, H.; Mayo, J.; Zieher, L.M. (Departamentos de Biologia Celular e Histologia y de Farmacologia y Toxicologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, (Argentina))

    1990-08-01

    The exposure of the cephalic end of rats to repeated doses of x-irradiation (150 rad) immediately after birth induces a long-term increase in the noradrenaline (NA) content of cerebellum (CE) (+ 37.8%), and a decrease in cerebellar weight (65.2% of controls), which results in an increased NA concentration (+ 109%). This increase in the neurotransmitter level is accompanied by a dystonic syndrome and histological abnormalities: Purkinje cells (the target cells for NA afferents to CE) fail to arrange in a characteristic monolayer, and their primary dendritic tree appears randomly oriented. The injection of reserpine 0.9 and 1.2 mg/kg ip to adult rats for 18 h depletes cerebellar NA content in both controls (15.7 {plus minus} 4 ng/CE and 2.8 {plus minus} 1.5 ng/CE, respectively) and x-irradiated rats (17.1 {plus minus} 1 ng/CE and 8.3 {plus minus} 2 ng/CE, respectively). The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in CE of adult rats, measured by an in vitro assay, is significantly increased in neonatally x-irradiated animals when compared to age-matched controls (16.4 {plus minus} 1.4 vs 6.32 {plus minus} 0.6 nmol CO2/h/mg prot., p less than 0.01). As observed for NA levels, a net increase in TH activity induced by the ionizing radiation is also measured: 308.9 {plus minus} 23.8 vs 408.2 {plus minus} 21.5 nmol CO2/h/CE, p less than 0.01 (controls and x-treated, respectively). These results suggest that x-irradiation at birth may induce an abnormal sprouting of noradrenergic afferents to CE. The possibility that these changes represent a response of the NA system to the dystonic syndrome is discussed.

  13. Suppression by methylprednisolone of the expression of LFA-1 by alveolar macrophages in irradiated rat lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Hirokazu; Kawana, Akihiko; Shioya, Sumie; Tsuji, Chizuko; Ohta, Yasuyo [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-03-01

    To study the effects of methylprednisolone on acute radiation-induced lung injury, we counted neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages, and measured the expression on alveolar macrophages of lymphocyte function associated molecule-1 (LFA-1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid recovered from irradiated rat lungs. Twenty 10-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each: a radiation group (R), which received 20 Gy of radiation from {sup 60}Co to the left hemithorax in one fraction; a methylprednisolone treatment group (RS), which received the same dose of radiation as the R group, along with 2.0 mg{center_dot}kg{sup -1} of methylprednisolone (6{alpha} methylprednisolone 21-acetate) by intramuscular injection 6 hours before and every 48 hours after irradiation; an untreated control group (C); and a methylprednisolone control group (S), which received the same dosage of methylprednisolone as the RS group. Rats were kept under specific-pathogen-free conditions. Bronchoalveolar lavage of the left lung was done in all 4 groups 2 week after irradiation. The number of neutrophils in the recovered fluid was significantly higher in the R and RS groups than in the C and S groups. The expression of LFA-1 on alveolar macrophages was significantly higher in the R group than in the RS, C, and S groups. The number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the expression of LFA-1 on alveolar macrophages were significantly higher in the R group than in the RS groups. These results suggest that the increase in the expression of LFA-1 on alveolar macrophages and the increase in the number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are related to acute radiation-induced lung injury. Methylprednisolone suppressed the expression of LFA-1 on alveolar macrophages and the increase in the number of neutrophils measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 2 weeks after irradiation. (author).

  14. Sensory dynamics of intense microwave irradiation: A comparative study of aversive behaviors by mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justesen, D.R.

    1981-10-01

    The results of two experiments are reported, the first on 24 mice and 14 rats, all experimentally naive, that were observed for evidence of adventitious escape from faradic shock or from a potentially lethal, 2450-MHz microwave field in a multi-mode cavity. All of ten rats irradiated at a whole-body-averaged dose rate of 60 mW/g convulsed and expired, presumably from radiation-induced hyperpyrexia. Eight of ten mice irradiated at 60 mW/g survived the four sessions of irradiation, but reliable evidence of escape learning was not observed. The data of the second experiment, which was a pilot study of four rats with an extensive history of exposure to intense but intermittently applied microwave fields, revealed that the animals learned to thermoregulate behaviorally by locomoting in and out of the safe-area circle. A strong relation between dose rate (30, 60, and 120 mW/g) and proportion of time spent in the safe area was observed (r = .97). Post-exposure means of colonic temperature during three sets of sessions under the different rates of energy dosing were highly stable and averaged 39.6 deg C.

  15. Influence of x irradiation and diet on pituitary/thyroid function in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qassar, Iyad G. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Rats were maintained on low iodine diet or treated with T4. A significant increase in thyroid weight was observed in rats on low iodine diet whereas among rats on normal diet with thyroxine injections, the thyroid was lower in weight than thyroids of control animals. Pituitary weight increased significantly in rats on low iodine diet or T4 treatment. Labelling index was significantly higher in the group on low iodine diet. A significantly lower labelling index was observed after thyroxine treatment. Where PTU was administered to rats pretreated with either normal diet, normal diet plus T4, or maintained on low iodine diet and then exposed to radiation (100 to 400R) to the neck, it was not possible to distinguish the effect of such local radiation on body growth. The pre-radiation treatment did not have any effect on thyroid weight during two weeks post-radiation, suggesting that a four week post-radiation period is essential to elicit radiation effects on the thyroid. Contrary to low iodine treatment, administration of PTU did not result in any increase in pituitary weight in rats maintained on normal diet prior to radiation or in rats maintained on low iodine diet prior to radiation. There was, however, a significant increase in pituitary weight in rats injected with thyroxine prior to radiation (250R or 400R). A significant increase in serum TSH was observed two weeks after radiation and PTU treatment. A lower TSH level was observed, however, in the 250R sub-group (normal diet or T4 injection) and in the 400R sub-group (low iodine diet). There was a significant difference among sham-irradiated and the three x-irradiated sub-groups maintained on low iodine diet. The results of these studies indicate that local x irradiation with 100 to 400R to the neck may influence thyroid/pituitary function in the rat. (ERB)

  16. Gamma knife irradiation of injured sciatic nerve induces histological and behavioral improvement in the rat neuropathic pain model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Yagasaki

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of gamma knife (GK irradiation on injured nerves using a rat partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL model. GK irradiation was performed at one week after ligation and nerve preparations were made three weeks after ligation. GK irradiation is known to induce immune responses such as glial cell activation in the central nervous system. Thus, we determined the effects of GK irradiation on macrophages using immunoblot and histochemical analyses. Expression of Iba-1 protein, a macrophage marker, was further increased in GK-treated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. Immunohistochemical study of Iba-1 in GK-irradiated injured sciatic nerves demonstrated Iba-1 positive macrophage accumulation to be enhanced in areas distal to the ligation point. In the same area, myelin debris was also more efficiently removed by GK-irradiation. Myelin debris clearance by macrophages is thought to contribute to a permissive environment for axon growth. In the immunoblot study, GK irradiation significantly increased expressions of βIII-tubulin protein and myelin protein zero, which are markers of axon regeneration and re-myelination, respectively. Toluidine blue staining revealed the re-myelinated fiber diameter to be larger at proximal sites and that the re-myelinated fiber number was increased at distal sites in GK-irradiated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. These results suggest that GK irradiation of injured nerves facilitates regeneration and re-myelination. In a behavior study, early alleviation of allodynia was observed with GK irradiation in PSL rats. When GK-induced alleviation of allodynia was initially detected, the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, a potent analgesic factor, was significantly increased by GK irradiation. These results suggested that GK irradiation alleviates allodynia via increased GDNF. This study provides novel evidence that GK

  17. Morphometric Study of the Irradiation Effect on the Cartilage Formation in the Rat Mandibular Condyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hwa; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    This study was undertaken to quantitatively estimate the degree of the damage and recovery of the irradiated rat condylar cartilage using the Image Analyzer. Experimental animals were 16 male rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain at the age of 20 day irradiated with the dose of 10 Gy in their head and neck region. Four rats were sacrificed at the each of the following time intervals - 1, 4, 7 and 14 days, respectively. The same number of control group animals were sacrificed at the each age of 21, 24, 27 and 34 days, respectively. The specimens were stained with 0.5% toluidine blue and examined with light microscope. The condylar cartilage was divided into 4 zones; fibrous zone, proliferating zone, upper hypertrophic zone, and lower hypertrophic zone. And then, the proliferating zone was subdivided into 2 layers - upper and lower layer, and upper and lower hypertrophic zone were subdivided into three layers, respectively - upper, middle and lower layer. With the aid of Image Analyzer, morphometric analysis was performed. The thickness, the numerical density of cells, the cell area density, the extracellular matrix area density, the mean area of single cell, the mean area of extracellular matrix per single cell were measured and analysed. In the experimental group, the thickness of the fibrous zone was slightly increased and that of the proliferating zone and the upper and the lower hypertrophic zone was markedly decreased. With time, the thickness of the fibrous zone was gradually increased and that of the proliferating zone and the upper and the lower hypertrophic zone was steadily in the decreased state. The numerical density of cells of the proliferating zone was increased on post-irradiated 1 day, but decreased after post-irradiated 4 day, and that of the upper hypertrophic zone was decreased. The numerical density of cells of the lower hypertrophic zone was decreased in the early stage and then was decreased or not significantly different from that of the control

  18. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel [Center for Radiotherapy Research, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Université de Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4 (Canada); Masson-Côté, Laurence; Guillot, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.guillot@usherbrooke.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4, Canada and Center for Radiotherapy Research, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Université de Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Methods: Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Results: The authors’ results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. Conclusions: The authors’ results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife.

  19. Gamma knife treatment of rat glioma Influences of irradiation dose on apoptosis and necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wang; Mianshun Pan; Xinggen Fang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Apoptosis and necrosis are cellular death mechanisms that are induced in glioma cells following gamma knife irradiation. Increased apoptosis is essential for maintaining and enhancing treatment efficacy.OBJECTIVE: To observe apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms of rat glioma models induced by gamma knife treatment and to analyze the influences of irradiation doses on apoptosis and necrosis. DESIGN: Controlled animal experiment. SETTING: Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University and Gamma Knife Center of Hefei Brain Hospital.MATERIALS: Eighteen female specific pathogen free Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 180-210 g and 5-6 weeks old, were purchased from the Experimental Animal Center, Medical College of Suzhou University. Rat C6 glioma cells were purchased from the cell bank of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Annexin V-FITC Reagent Kit (Bender Med System. Company, USA) and a flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur) were provided.METHODS: The experiment was conducted at the Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University and Gamma Knife Center of Hefei Brain Hospital from December 2006 to May 2007. All rats were inoculated with C6 glioma cells, i.e., 4 μL of a C6 glioma cell suspension was injected 5 mm deep in the cortex. All rats were divided randomly into a model group, 9-Gy treatment group, and 12-Gy treatment group. There were six rats in each group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Apoptosis and necrosis of normal brain tissue and glioma were observed by Flow Cytometry one week after irradiation, and pathological changes to tumor tissue were identified by HE staining.RESULTS: Eighteen rats were initially selected for the study: two rats from the model and 12-Gy treatment groups died from accidental anesthesia. The remaining 16 rats were included in the final result analysis. Cellular apoptosis and necrosis: apoptosis and necrosis were significantly increased in the treatment groups after gamma knife irradiation, compared to the model group (P < 0

  20. Effect of cobalt-60 irradiation on the developing tooth germ of rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Dong Soo; Lee, Ki Sik [Department of Dental Radiology, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1976-11-15

    The author observed the effects of the cobalt-60 irradiation on the amelogenesis and dentinogenesis of the albino rat fetuses by means of histological and histochemical methods. Female in oestrus were mated overnight and examined the next morning for evidence of copulation. The lower left abdomen of mothers were exposed to cobalt-60 irradiation on the 10th day of gestation, 100R 200R and 300R respectively. The fetuses were removed from the mothers on the 18th day of gestation. The employed histochemical methods were PAS reaction, colloidal iron reaction, aldehyde fuchsin stain, -amino acid reaction, -SH radical reaction, and methyl green pyronin stain. The results were as follows; 1. The group irradiated by 100R made no histological differences in comparison with the control group. 2. Increasing the irradiation to 200R, abnormal dentin formation occurred, and resulted in enamel hypoplasia, atrophy, and necrosis of odontoblasts. In dentinal papilla, the dilation and the degeneration of the blood vessels, excessive reticular atrophy, and osteodentin were revealed. 3. With the more irradiation (200R-300R), the positive material of PAS, {alpha}-amino acid and aldehyde fuchsin tended to decrease in the ameloblast and in the odontoblast. No significant changes appeared in DNA, the stainability of methylgreen pyronin.

  1. Transplantation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells improves locomotion deficits in rats with spinal cord irradiation injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    Full Text Available Demyelination contributes to the functional impairment of irradiation injured spinal cord. One potential therapeutic strategy involves replacing the myelin-forming cells. Here, we asked whether transplantation of Olig2(+-GFP(+-oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs, which are derived from Olig2-GFP-mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs, could enhance remyelination and functional recovery after spinal cord irradiation injury. We differentiated Olig2-GFP-mESCs into purified Olig2(+-GFP(+-OPCs and transplanted them into the rats' cervical 4-5 dorsal spinal cord level at 4 months after irradiation injury. Eight weeks after transplantation, the Olig2(+-GFP(+-OPCs survived and integrated into the injured spinal cord. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the grafted Olig2(+-GFP(+-OPCs primarily differentiated into adenomatous polyposis coli (APC(+ oligodendrocytes (54.6±10.5%. The staining with luxol fast blue, hematoxylin & eosin (LFB/H&E and electron microscopy demonstrated that the engrafted Olig2(+-GFP(+-OPCs attenuated the demyelination resulted from the irradiation. More importantly, the recovery of forelimb locomotor function was enhanced in animals receiving grafts of Olig2(+-GFP(+-OPCs. We concluded that OPC transplantation is a feasible therapy to repair the irradiated lesions in the central nervous system (CNS.

  2. Effects of Low-Intensity Laser Irradiation on Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effects of low-intensity 630 nm semiconductor laser irradiation at 3.6 J/cm2 (LISL on wound healing in diabetic rats were studied in this paper. Methods. 36 diabetic rats with dorsal cutaneous excisional wounds were divided into three LISL groups and a control group randomly. The three LISL groups were irradiated with LISL at 5, 10, and 20 mW/cm2 five times a week for two weeks, respectively. The process of wound healing was assessed by assessing blood glucose, calculating percentage of wound closure, histopathological evaluation, and immunohistochemical quantification. Results. Blood glucose of all groups remained at similar levels throughout the experiment. LISL could obviously promote wound contraction, fibroblasts proliferation, and collagen synthesis, alter bFGF and TGF-β1 expression, and reduce inflammatory reaction in the early and middle phases of chronic wound-healing process. However, LISL could not shorten cicatrization time, and the treatment effects were not sensitive to illuminate parameters in the later phase of the experiment. Conclusions. LISL might have auxiliary effects in the early and middle phases of wound healing in STZ-induced diabetic rats, but the reciprocity rule might not hold. The wound-healing process of early-phase diabetes rats shows typical characteristics of self-limited disease.

  3. Cranial irradiation modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and corticosteroid receptor expression in the hippocampus of juvenile rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velickovic, Natasa; Djordjevic, Ana; Drakulic, Dunja; Stanojevic, Ivana; Secerov, Bojana; Horvat, Anica

    2009-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, essential for normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, exert their action on the hippocampus through two types of corticosteroid receptors: the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Recent studies report that exposure of juvenile rats to cranial irradiation adversely affects HPA axis stability leading to its activation along with radiation- induced inflammation. This study was aimed to examine the acute effects of radiation on HPA axis activity and hippocampal corticosteroid receptor expression in 18-day-old rats. Since immobilization was part of irradiation procedure, both irradiated and sham-irradiated animals were exposed to this unavoidable stress. Our results demonstrate that the irradiated rats exhibited different pattern of corticosteroid receptor expression and hormone levels compared to respective controls. These differences included upregulation of GR protein in the hippocampus with a concomitant elevation of GR mRNA and an increase in circulating level of corticosterone. In addition, the expression of MR, both at the level of protein and gene expression, was not altered. Taken together, this study demonstrates that cranial irradiation in juvenile rats leads to enhanced HPA axis activity and increased relative GR/MR ratio in hippocampus. The present paper intends to show that neuroendocrine response of normal brain tissue to localized irradiation comprise both activation of HPA axis and altered corticosteroid receptor balance, probably as consequence of innate immune activation.

  4. Genetic effects of acute spermatogonial x-irradiation of the laboratory rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, J.R.; Chapman, A.B.

    1977-02-01

    The genetic effects of one generation of spermatogonial x-irradiation in rats, by a single dose of 600 r in one experiment and by a fractionated dose of 450 r in another, were measured in three generations of their descendants. Estimates of dominant lethal mutation rates, (2 to 3) x 10/sup -4//gamete/r, from litter size differences between irradiated and nonirradiated stock were consistent with previous estimates from rats and mice. Similar consistency was found for estimates of sex-linked recessive mutation rates, (1 to 2) x 10/sup -4/ chromosome/r, from male proportions within strains; however, when measured in crossbreds the proportion of males was higher in the irradiated than in the nonirradiated lines. This inconsistency in results is in keeping with the contradictory results reported for recessive sex-linked lethal mutation rates in mice. The effects used to estimate recessive lethal mutation rates which were unusually high, (2 to 14) x 10/sup -4//gamete/r, were not significant. Other factors that could have contributed to the observed effects are postulated.

  5. Radioprotection of the rat parotid gland by WR-2721: morphology at 60 days post-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, N.E.; Sodicoff, M.; Liss, J.; Davis, M.; Sinesi, M.

    1980-04-01

    The ultrastructure of rat parotid glands protected by S-2(3-aminopropylamino) ethyl phosphorothioate (WR-2721) was evaluate 60 days following a single dose of 3.2 kR of x-irradiation and compared with that of similarly irradiated but non-protected glands. Non-protected glands suffered a drastic reduction in the amount of acinar tissue while ducts and blood vessels exhibited only minor morphological changes. The evidence of acinar loss was provided by the presence of excessive and redundant basal laminae around surviving acini, and large condensations of empty basal laminal profiles in the spaces between surviving structures. The blood vessels present at 60 days post-irradiation showed no evidence of damage. However, there were additional layers of basal lamina around occasional capillaries, which others have interpreted as evidence of previous endothelial repair. The WR-2721 protected glands showed similar signs of damage but to a much lesser degree. Therefore, this paper shows that WR-2721 is effective in protecting the rat parotid gland, specifically the radiosensitive acinar cells.

  6. Ultrastructural study of seminiferous tubules in the rat after prenatal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatier, R.; Grignon, G.; Touati, F.

    1982-01-01

    Is the presence of germinal cells necessary for the Sertoli cells to acquire normal features. To respond to this question we have studied the development of the Sertoli cells in rats irradiated at the end of the foetal life. In the prenatal irradiated rats, the lumen of the seminiferous tubules appears later than in the control rats. The Sertoli cells show numerous flexuous apical processes, with central microtubule bundles. These processes regress progressively after the 40th day of life when the tubular lumen appears; numerous junctional complexes differentiate with the same structure as those of control animals. There are important dilatations of the intercellular spaces. The cytoplasmic organelles show a normal development up to the 40th day of life. After this period, the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus clearly regress while important dilatations appear in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and persist in the adult animal. From the 35th day on, the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules is irregular and multilayered. The differentiation of the Sertoli cells seems to be independent of the presence of germinal cells until the 40th day of life and presents several particularities; thereafter the Sertoli cells show signs of regression.

  7. Radioprotective effect of Curcuma longa extract on γ-irradiation-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Ahmed S; Hawas, Asrar M; Amin, Nour El-Din; Elnashar, Magdy M; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the modulatory effect of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (L.) against γ-irradiation (GR), which induces biochemical disorders in male rats. The sublethal dose of GR was determined in primary hepatocytes. Also, the effect of C. longa extract was examined for its activity against GR. In rats, C. longa extract was administered daily (200 mg/kg body mass) for 21 days before, and 7 days after GR exposure (6.5 Gy). The lipid profile and antioxidant status, as well as levels of transaminases, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) were assessed. The results showed that in hepatocytes, the aqueous extract exhibited radioprotective activity against exposure to GR. Exposure of untreated rats to GR resulted in transaminase disorders, lipid abnormalities, elevation of lipid peroxidation, trace element alterations, release of IL-6 and TNF, and decrease in glutathione and protein level of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) and peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX-1). However, treatment of rats with this extract before and after GR exposure improved antioxidant status and minimized the radiation-induced increase in inflammatory cytokines. Changes occurred in the tissue levels of trace elements, and the protein levels of SOD-1 and PRDX-1 were also modulated by C. longa extract. Overall, C. longa exerted a beneficial radioprotective effect against radiation-induced oxidative stress in male rats by alleviating pathological disorders and modulating antioxidant enzymes.

  8. Differential expression of Egr1 and activation of microglia following irradiation in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmann, H.; Woelfel, S.; Meyermann, R. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Brain Research; Ohneseit, P. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Div. of Radiobiology and Molecular Environmental Research; Stransky, E. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Psychiatry; Vonthein, R. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medical Biometry; Wick, W. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of General Neurology; Simon, P. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Brain Research; Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). General Internal Medicine

    2007-05-15

    Background: Little is known about the immediate effects of whole-brain {gamma}-irradiation. The authors hypothesize that Egr1 as an immediate early gene and microglia both participate in early reactions. Material and Methods: Both, expression of Egr1 and cellular distribution were studied in a temporal sequence in different brain regions of rats subjected to irradiation with 10 Gy. Brain tissue was examined using immunohistochemistry, real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), and Western blotting. Results: Astroglia and oligodendroglia showed increased Egr1 immunoreactivity within the first hours following irradiation. This was accompanied by a strong peak in CD68 immunoreactivity histologically attributable to activated microglia. A high constitutive expression of Egr1 protein in the nuclei of activated neurons was reduced following irradiation and RT-PCR demonstrated significantly reduced levels of egr1-lv as a neuronal activity-related mRNA variant. Conclusion: The induction of Egr1 in glial cells, as well as the activation of microglia take place earlier than histological changes reported so far. The authors revealed a temporal sequence of reactions that point toward the initiation of an immediate inflammatory response including reduced neuronal activity. (orig.)

  9. Effect of propolis feeding on rat tissues damaged by X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Seo, Eul Won [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Tae Jeong [Kaya Univ., Goryeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of propolis feeding on rat tissues damaged by X-ray irradiation. It was shown that the number of white blood cell in X-ray irradiated group supplemented with propolis increased as much to those of the control group and also the GOT activities among the blood components were decreased after propolis feeding. The mineral contents such as Mg, Fe, Ca, Mn, Cu, Mo, Ni, As in liver were increased as compared with those of the control group but maintained lower level than those of only irradiated groups, implying that the propolis feeding elevated the recovery capability of white blood cell effectively and propolis have a potential resistance to cell damage by X-ray. According to histological observations of the testis, intestine and liver tissues which are irradiated after feeding propolis, the numbers of damaged undifferentiated cells were decreased in testis and the shape of the goblet cells and inner and outer muscular layers in intestine were restored to the original state and the hepatocytes and interlobular veins were shown intact in liver, suggesting that propolis has a potential capacity to restore cell shapes or resist deformation of cell.

  10. Short- and long-term effects of irradiation on laryngeal mucosa of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidegran, M. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology; Forsgren, S. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Anatomy; Dahlqvist, Aa. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology; Franzen, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Domeij, S. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Histology and Cell Biology

    1999-07-01

    Although radiotherapy is often used to treat laryngeal carcinoma, there is little information on the effects of this treatment on laryngeal structures. Rats were irradiated to the head and neck region and the larynges were studied by light- and electron-microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Ten days after irradiation, a change in the ultrastructural appearance of the granules of the subglottic glands was observed. Substance P-, bombesin- and enkephalin-like immunoreactivity was increased in local ganglionic cells and glandular nerve fibres. The mast cells were reduced in number. At examination 4-6 months after irradiation, there were no obvious differences compared with controls concerning mast-cell numbers and neuropeptide expression. The ultrastructural changes seen in the subglottic glands remained to some extent. The results show that structural changes in the subglottic glands occur concomitantly with an increased expression of certain neuropeptides in the innervation of these glands, which implies a relationship between these two parameters. The mast cells respond drastically to irradiation, but in the long run, regeneration of these cells occurs. (orig.)

  11. A 1-year time course study of the relaxation times and histology for irradiated rat lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioya, S.; Haida, M.; Fukuzaki, M.; Ono, Y.; Tsuda, M.; Ohta, Y.; Yamabayashi, H. (Tokai Univ. School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    To investigate the NMR relaxation times for irradiated rat lung tissue, we measured T1 and T2 at 11 different times during the injury's 1-year time course. A biexponential analysis of T2 was used to determine T2 fast (T2f) and T2 slow (T2s). In addition, we measured water content and correlated changes in the relaxation times with pathological changes. The correlation indicates the following: (1) Shortly after irradiation, the biexponential T2 decay for 1/3 of the samples became monoexponential and there were no noticeable pathological changes observed using light microscopy. (2) During radiation pneumonitis, T2f and T2s were prolonged. This accompanied acute edematous changes and inflammatory cell infiltration. (3) Finally, during radiation fibrosis T1 shortened and collagen increased. We observed no significant correlation between relaxation time changes and water content changes throughout the 1-year time course.

  12. Congenital hydrocephalus following X-irradiation of pregnant rats on an early gestational day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, I.K.; Takeuchi, Y.K.

    1986-03-01

    When pregnant rats were X-irradiated at a dose of 100 R on gestational day 9.5, a considerable number of postnatally-viable hydrocephalic offspring resulted, all of which were accompanied with bilateral micro- or anophthalmia. Histological studies revealed that the cerebral aqueduct of the congenital hydrocephalic brain was severely stenosed, and the subcommissural organ was reduced in size and displaced at some distance from the anterior end of the cerebral aqueduct. From embryological studies, it was considered that the maldevelopment of the subcommissural organ in the X-irradiated fetus might cause a reduction in the amount of its secretions which function as a cushion preventing complete closure of the cerebral aqueduct during fetal life, resulting in stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct.

  13. Low level laser therapy on injured rat muscle: assessment of irradiation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Although studies show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in facilitating the muscle healing process, scientific evidence is still required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT and to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation. Here we evaluate the effect of different LLLT wavelengths, using continuous coherent Laser illumination (830 nm and 980 nm) and non-coherent LED illumination (850 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through the quantification of cytokines in systemic blood. We verified that all applied doses of coherent radiation produce an effect on reducing the concentration of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines, while no treatment effect was observed after irradiation with non-coherent radiation. The best results were obtained for 40 mW at 830 nm. The results may suggest an important role of coherence properties of laser in LLLT.

  14. Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coca-Pelaz, A.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Triantafyllou, A.; Hunt, J.L.; Rinaldo, A.; Strojan, P.; Haigentz, M., Jr.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Takes, R.P.; Poorten, V. Van der; Ferlito, A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicopathological features, prognosis and therapeutic strategies for mucoepidermoid carcinoma originating in salivary and salivary-type glands of the head and neck are reviewed. We emphasise histopathological aspects, appraise the value of histochemistry, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry

  15. Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Guney

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the day-night differences in intestinal oxidative-injury and the inflammatory response following total body (TB or abdominopelvic (AP irradiation, and the influence of melatonin administration on tissue injury induced by radiation. Rats (male Wistar, weighing 220-280 g in the irradiated groups were exposed to a dose of 8 Gy to the TB or AP region in the morning (resting period - 1 h after light onset or evening (activity span - 13 h after light onset. Vehicle or melatonin was administered immediately before, immediately after and 24 h after irradiation (10, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively to the irradiated rats. AP (P < 0.05 and TB (P < 0.05 irradiation applied in the morning caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels. Melatonin treatment in the morning (P < 0.05 or evening (P < 0.05 decreased TBARS levels after TB irradiation. After AP irradiation, melatonin treatment only in the morning caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels (P < 0.05. Although we have confirmed the development of inflammation after radiotherapy by histological findings, neither AP nor TB irradiation caused any marked changes in myeloperoxidase activity in the morning or evening. Our results indicate that oxidative damage is more prominent in rats receiving TB and AP irradiation in the morning and melatonin appears to have beneficial effects on oxidative damage irrespective of the time of administration. Increased neutrophil accumulation indicates that melatonin administration exerts a protective effect on AP irradiation-induced tissue oxidative injury, especially in the morning.

  16. Irradiation of rat brain reduces P-glycoprotein expression and function

    OpenAIRE

    Bart, J.; Nagengast, W B; Coppes, R P; Wegman, T D; van der Graaf, W T A; Groen, H J M; Vaalburg, W; de Vries, E G E; Hendrikse, N.H.

    2007-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) hampers delivery of several drugs including chemotherapeutics to the brain. The drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), expressed on brain capillary endothelial cells, is part of the BBB. P-gp expression on capillary endothelium decreases 5 days after brain irradiation, which may reduce P-gp function and increase brain levels of P-gp substrates. To elucidate whether radiation therapy reduces P-gp expression and function in the brain, right hemispheres of rats wer...

  17. METOVITAN PREVENTS ACCUMULATION OF THIAMIN DIPHOSPHATE OXYGENIZED FORM IN RAT TISSUES UNDER IRRADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. M. Parkhomenko; G. V. Donchenko; L. I. Chehovskaya; S. P. Stepanenko; O. A. Mejenskaya; E. N. Gorban

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to test the ability of the drug “Metovitan” to prevent the redox balance disturbance in the tissues and thiamine diphosphate irreversible oxidation upon exposure of ionizing radiation on the body. The rats were undergo to a single exposure of the X-ray therapeutic instrument RUM-17 to create a dose of 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 Gy. Preparation “Metovitan” were administered at a dose of 25 mg per 1 kg body weight for 22–24 h before irradiation. Contents of thiamin...

  18. Micro-CT evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the mandibular incisors of irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende Barbosa, Gabriella Lopes de; Almeida, Solange Maria de, E-mail: gabriellalopes@live.com [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Departmento de Diagnostico Oral; Pimenta, Luiz Andre [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Dentistry, Department of Dental Ecology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a micro computerized tomographic evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the volume of mandibular incisors of irradiated rats. A second aim was to make a quantitative assessment of the effect of x-ray exposure on these dental tissues. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups: control, irradiated control, resveratrol, and irradiated resveratrol. The resveratrol groups received 100 mg/kg of resveratrol, whereas the irradiated groups were exposed to 15 Gy of irradiation. The animals were sacrificed 30 days after the irradiation procedure, and their mandibles were removed and scanned in a micro computerized tomography unit. The images were loaded into Mimics software to allow segmentation of the mandibular incisor and assessment of its volume. The results were compared by One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test, considering a 5% significance level. The irradiated groups showed significantly diminished volumes of the evaluated teeth, as compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The resveratrol group presented higher values than those of the irradiated groups, and volumes similar to those of the control group. High radiation doses significantly affected tooth formation, resulting in alterations in the dental structure, and thus lower volumes. Moreover, resveratrol showed no effective radioprotective impact on dental tissues. Future studies are needed to evaluate different concentrations of this substance, in an endeavor to verify its potential as a radioprotector for these dental tissues. (author)

  19. Micro-CT evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the mandibular incisors of irradiated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Lopes DE REZENDE BARBOSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to perform a microcomputed tomographic evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the volume of mandibular incisors of irradiated rats. A second aim was to make a quantitative assessment of the effect of x-ray exposure on these dental tissues. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups: control, irradiated control, resveratrol, and irradiated resveratrol. The resveratrol groups received 100 mg/kg of resveratrol, whereas the irradiated groups were exposed to 15 Gy of irradiation. The animals were sacrificed 30 days after the irradiation procedure, and their mandibles were removed and scanned in a microcomputed tomography unit. The images were loaded into Mimics software to allow segmentation of the mandibular incisor and assessment of its volume. The results were compared by One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test, considering a 5% significance level. The irradiated groups showed significantly diminished volumes of the evaluated teeth, as compared with the control group (p < 0.05. The resveratrol group presented higher values than those of the irradiated groups, and volumes similar to those of the control group. High radiation doses significantly affected tooth formation, resulting in alterations in the dental structure, and thus lower volumes. Moreover, resveratrol showed no effective radioprotective impact on dental tissues. Future studies are needed to evaluate different concentrations of this substance, in an endeavor to verify its potential as a radioprotector for these dental tissues.

  20. Rat parotid cell function in vitro following x irradiation in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodner, L.; Kuyatt, B.L.; Hand, A.R.; Baum, B.J.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of X irradiation on rat parotid acinar cell function was evaluated in vitro 1, 3, and 7 days following in vivo exposure to 2000 R. Several cellular functions were followed: protein secretion (amylase release), ion movement (K/sup +/ efflux and reuptake), amino acid transport (..cap alpha..-amino(/sup 14/C)isobutyric acid), and an intermediary metabolic response ((/sup 14/C)glucose oxidation). In addition both the morphologic appearance and in vivo saliva secretory ability of parotid cells were assessed. Our results demonstrate that surviving rat parotid acinar cells, isolated and studied in vitro 1-7 days following 2000 R, remain functionally intact despite in vivo diminution of secretory function.

  1. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J. (St. Radbond Academic Hospital, Nijmegen, Netherlands); Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  2. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  3. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delporte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands.

  4. Pre-exposure to low-power diode laser irradiation promotes cytoprotection in the rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Zhang, Shisheng; Liao, Huaping; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether pre-exposure to low-power laser irradiation can provoke an effect on cellular protection in the rat retina. The right eyes of 40 rats were exposed to a 3-mm diode laser beam for 1 min in different light intensities and different experimental sets: group A low power of 60 mW (34.27 J/cm(2) on the retina in consideration of the energy losses along the optical pathway) prior to high power of 80 mW (44.88 J/cm(2) on the retina in consideration of the energy losses along the optical pathway), group B high power, group C low power, group D (the left eyes from the counterpart of group A) and group E (untreated rat eyes) as controls. Morphological retinal change retinas were assessed using light microscopy and/or transmission electron microscopy. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and cleaved caspase 3 protein expression were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot. Cellular injury was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Hsp 70 expression in the inner plexiform layer and the outer plexiform layer in group A were 73.09 ± 6.49 and 78.03 ± 3.05%, respectively, which was significantly higher (P power laser irradiation stimulates a hyperexpression of Hsp70 together with a hypoexpression of cleaved caspase 3 in rat retina, which may suggest a cellular protective effect.

  5. An experimental model of acute encephalopathy after total body irradiation in the rat: effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761); Effet de l'extrait de Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) chez le rat sur un modele experimental d'encephalopathie aigue apres irradiation corporelle totale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamproglou, I.; Bok, B. [Hopital Bichat, 75 - Paris (France); Boisserie, G.; Mazeron, J.J.; Baillet, F. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Drieu, K. [IHB-IPSEN, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-06-01

    To define the therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in an experimental model of acute encephalopathy following total body irradiation in rats. Ninety four-month-old rats received 4.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) at day 1 while 15 rats received sham irradiation. A behavioural study based on a conditioning test of negative reinforcement, the one-way avoidance test, was performed test, was performed after irradiation. Orally treatment was started one day (study A) or twenty two days (study B) after irradiation and repeated daily for twelve days. In the irradiated group, three subgroups were defined according to the treatment received: EGb 761 (50 mg/kg), EGb 761 (100 mg/kg), water. This work comprised two consecutive studies. In study A (45 rats) the one-way avoidance test was administered daily from day 7 to day 14. In study B (45 rats) the behavioural test was performed from day 28 to day 35. Study A (three groups of 15 rats): following TBI, irradiated rats treated with water demonstrated a significant delay in a learning the one-way avoidance test in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (P < 0.0002) or irradiated rats treated with EGb 761 (50 mg/kg; P < 0.007) or EGb 761 (100 mg/kg; P < 0.0002). The irradiated rats, treated with EGb 761 (50 or 100 mg/kg) did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. Study B (three groups of 15 rats): the irradiated rats, treated with water of EGb 761 (50 or 100 mg/kg) did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. (authors)

  6. Evaluation by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the number of free radicals produced in irradiated rat bone; Evaluation par resonance paramagnetique electronique du nombre de radicaux libres produits dans l'os de rat irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, G.; Valderas, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The number of long half-life free radicals created by gamma irradiation in the bones of the rat has been determined from the electrons paramagnetic resonance spectrum. This number decreases slowly with time (calculated half life: 24 days). It is proportional to the dose of gamma radiation given to the rat. The method could find interesting applications in the field of biological dosimetry. (authors) [French] Le nombre de radicaux libres a vie longue crees par irradiation gamma dans l'os de rat a ete determine a partir du spectre de resonance paramagnetique electronique. Ce nombre decroit lentement avec le temps (demi-vie calculee {approx_equal} 24 jours). IL est proportionnel a la dose de rayonnement gamma delivree au rat. La methode pourra trouver en dosimetrie biologique des applications interessantes. (auteurs)

  7. Early ultrastructural changes in the dorsal mucosa of rat tongue after irradiation, with special reference to the microvasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obinata, Ken-ichi; Ohshima, Hayato; Ito, Jusuke [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Takano, Yoshiro

    1997-09-01

    To clarify the acute effects of irradiation on the ultrastructural conformation of the dorsal mucosa of the rat tongue, with special reference to the changes in microvasculature. The proboscis of seventy rats were irradiated. The animals were then perfusion-fixed, followed by India ink-injection or resin casting at 3 to 7 days after irradiation. The bulk, frozen sections, or plastic embedded sections of the treated rat tongues were examined by light and electron microscopy. In the dorsal epithelium of the rat tongue, multi-nucleated cells appeared in the basal layer at 3 days after irradiation. At day 5, the thickness of the epithelial layer and connective tissue papillae decreased dramatically, concomitant with the shortening of the capillary loops. At day 7, lingual papillae and connective tissue papillae disappeared, leaving dissociated epithelial cells and numerous neutrophils migrating throughout the tissue. Subepithelial blood vessels displayed drastic dilation with a number of neutrophils adhering to the endothelial surface, but without ultrastructural abnormalities in its cellular components. Early changes in the dorsal mucosa of the irradiated rat tongue were limited to the basal epithelial cells, leading to a total disruption of the epithelial layer. Atrophic changes of the capillary loops is due to the loss of the connective tissue papillae. Dilation and conformational changes of the subepithelial capillaries appear to result from the inflammatory reaction, taking place secondarily to the loss of the epithelial barrier of the irradiated tongue. A difference in radiosensitivity among the epithelial, endothelial, and mesenchymal cell components of the rat tongue in vivo is suggested. (author)

  8. Radioprotective effect of green tea and grape seed extracts mixture on gamma irradiation induced immune suppression in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desouky, Wael; Hanafi, Amal; Abbas, Manal M

    2017-04-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) and grape seed extract (GSE) have antioxidant and radioprotective effects. The current study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effect of GTE and GSE mixture on radiation-induced immune suppression in rats. A total of 35 male albino rats were divided into five groups: group 1 (control rats). The 2nd and 3rd groups rats were exposed to a single dose of gamma radiation (5 and 10 Gy), respectively. The 4th and 5th groups of rats were gamma-irradiated with 5 and 10 Gy, respectively, then administrated by gavage with GTE and GSE mixture (100 mg: 200 mg/kg BW), respectively, for 14 consecutive days. Gamma irradiation induced hematological, immunological and biochemical effects in rats. Treated rats with GTE and GSE mixture (1:2) showed an increase in concentrations of immune cells including CD4 and CD8. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines Tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein elevated after γ-irradiation and significantly decreased by mixture administration. Moreover, groups treated with antioxidant mixture showed a significant increase in all hematological parameters and a significant decrease in cholesterol and triglyceride levels. GTE and GSE mixture is a good radioprotector and immune modulator compound, indicating its possible use as an adjuvant during radiotherapy.

  9. Investigation of irradiated rats DNA in the presence of Cu(II) chelates of amino acids Schiff bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetyan, N H; Torosyan, A L; Malakyan, M; Bajinyan, S A; Haroutiunian, S G

    2016-01-01

    The new synthesized Cu(II) chelates of amino acids Schiff bases were studied as a potential radioprotectors. Male albino rats of Wistar strain were exposed to X-ray whole-body irradiation at 4.8 Gy. This dose caused 30% mortality of the animals (LD30). The survival of animals exposed to radiation after preliminary administration of 10 mg/kg Cu(II)(Nicotinyl-L-Tyrosinate)2 or Cu(II)(Nicotinyl-L-Tryptophanate)2 prior to irradiation was registered about 80 and 100% correspondingly. Using spectrophotometric melting and agarose gel electrophoresis methods, the differences between the DNA isolated from irradiated rats and rats pretreated with Cu(II) chelates were studied. The fragments of DNA with different breaks were revealed in DNA samples isolated from irradiated animals. While, the repair of the DNA structure was observed for animals pretreated with the Cu(II) chelates. The results suggested that pretreatment of the irradiated rats with Cu(II)(Nicotinyl-L-Tyrosinate)2 and Cu(II)(Nicotinyl-L-Tryptophanate)2 compounds improves the liver DNA characteristics.

  10. Effect of compensating filters on the isodose charts of rat and guinea-pig phantoms irradiated with "fission-neutrons".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaránd, P

    1976-01-01

    Isodose charts were calculated for rat and guinea-pig phantoms exposed to a modified fission spectrum with a most probable energy of 1.3 MeV. Infinite tissue equivalent cylinders (r = 2.5 and 3.3 cm) and a plane source emitting neutrons according to a cosine distribution were assumed and an albedo code was used. Combined effect of (tissue-equivalent or polyethylene) compensating filters (or simply filters) and a bilateral irradiation or rotation was studied. Bilateral irradiation and the use of a filter resulted in a uniform irradiation of a rat phantom (Dmax/Dmin less than 1.15), while a uniform irradiation of a guinea-pig phantom could be obtained by the combined use of filters and rotation. If rotation is possible a Dmax/Dmin less than 1.05 ratio can be achieved. Filters + rotation should be used in all circumstances when geometrical restrictions do not prevent the installation of a rotation equipment. In this case bilateral irradiation + compensating filters are advisable. Unilateral irradiation of small laboratory animals (mouse, rat, guinea-pig) should be avoided.

  11. Effect of D-penicillamine on the concentration of reduced glutathione in the liver of irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oroszlan, G.; Buzasi, E.; Szabo, T.; Lakatos, L.; Karmazsin, L. (Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Debrecen (Hungary). Cyermekklinika)

    1984-12-01

    Rats received whole-body sup(60)Co-irradiation of 10 Gy total dose with a dose-rate of 0.6 Gy per min. The concentration of reduced glutathione increased upon irradiation; this increase was diminished by D-penicillamine pretreatment in newborn but not in adult rats. The age-dependent effects of D-penicillamine might explain the clinical observation that the frequency of retrolental fibrosis is decreased by D-penicillamine in small-weight pre-term neonates.

  12. Decontamination effectiveness of ferrocyanides in irradiated rats contaminated internally with radiocesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, S.; Dziura, A.; Grosicki, A. (National Veterinary Research Inst., Pulawy (Poland). Lab. of Radiological Protection and Isotopic Investigations)

    1991-01-01

    The experiment was performed on 192 Wistar rats irradiated with 154.5 mC kg{sup -1}. Thereafter, the animals were divided into 5 groups and were treated as follows: group I, controls, with Cs-137; groups II and III with Cs-137 followed by 2-fold administration of ferric ferrocyanide (FF) and ammonium ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF), respectively; groups IV and V with Cs-137 followed by 6-fold and 10-fold administration of FF and AFCF, respectively. Organ and muscle (16 samples) concentrations of Cs-137 in groups I-III were measured on days 1, 3, 5 and 7, and those of groups IV-V on day 7 after the contamination. The results indicated that in rats contaminated internally with Cs-137 one day post irradiation 2-fold treatment with FF and AFCF in the day resulted in a similar and significant decrease of Cs-137, whereas manyfold treatment (6 x or 10 x) with these agents did not increase their decontamination effectiveness. (orig.).

  13. Effect of Alpha-Particle Irradiation on Brain Glycogen in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, L. S.; Klatzo, Igor; Miquel, Jaime; Tobias, Cornelius; Haymaker, Webb

    1962-01-01

    The studies of Klatzo, Miquel, Tobias and Haymaker (1961) have shown that one of the earliest and most sensitive indications of the effects of alpha-particle irradiation on rat bran is the appearance of glycogen granules mainly in the neuroglia of the exposed area of the brain. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive, alpha-amylase soluble granules were demonstrated within 12 hr after irradiation, preceding by approximately 36 hr the first microscopically detectable vascular permeability disturbances, as shown by the fluorescein labeled serum protein technique. These studies suggested that the injurious effects of alpha-particle energy were on cellular elements primarily, according to the physical properties and distribution of the radiation in the tissue, and that the vascular permeability disturbances played a secondary role in pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to correlate the histochemical observations on glycogen with a quantitative assessment of the glycogen in the irradiated brain tissue. It is felt that such a study may contribute to the understanding of radiation injury at the molecular level. A practical aspect of this problem is that the information on biological radiation effects due to accelerated particles from the cyclotron source, is employed in this study, is applicable to radiation from cosmic particles both in free space and entrapped in the Van Allen belts.

  14. Protective Effects of Hong Shan Capsule against Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Damage in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong Shan Capsule (HSC, a crude drug of 11 medicinal herbs, was used in clinical practice for the treatment of radiation injuries in China. In this study, we investigated its protection in rats against acute lethal total-body irradiation (TBI. Pre-administration of HSC reduced the radiation sickness characteristics, while increasing the 30-day survival of the irradiated rats. Administration of HSC also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of mice after exposure to lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed the dramatic effect of HSC on alterations of gene expression caused by lethal TBI. Pretreatment with HSC prevented differential expression of 66% (1398 genes of 2126 genes differentially expressed in response to TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 32 pathways, such as pathways in cancer and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. Our analysis indicated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC modulated these pathways induced by lethal TBI, such as multiple MAPK pathways, suggesting that pretreatment with HSC might provide protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways. Our data suggest that HSC has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radio-protective agent to minimize irradiation damage.

  15. Protective Effects of Hong Shan Capsule against Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Damage in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Jing; Xu, Weiheng; Qi, Yang; Lu, Yiming; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Zhenlin; Chu, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2015-08-12

    Hong Shan Capsule (HSC), a crude drug of 11 medicinal herbs, was used in clinical practice for the treatment of radiation injuries in China. In this study, we investigated its protection in rats against acute lethal total-body irradiation (TBI). Pre-administration of HSC reduced the radiation sickness characteristics, while increasing the 30-day survival of the irradiated rats. Administration of HSC also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of mice after exposure to lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed the dramatic effect of HSC on alterations of gene expression caused by lethal TBI. Pretreatment with HSC prevented differential expression of 66% (1398 genes) of 2126 genes differentially expressed in response to TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 32 pathways, such as pathways in cancer and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Our analysis indicated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC modulated these pathways induced by lethal TBI, such as multiple MAPK pathways, suggesting that pretreatment with HSC might provide protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways. Our data suggest that HSC has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radio-protective agent to minimize irradiation damage.

  16. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on amphetamine- and lithium chloride-induced taste avoidance learning in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Szprengiel, Aleksandra; Joseph, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Rats were maintained on diets containing either 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 1.5 Gy of 56Fe particles in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three days following irradiation, the rats were tested for the effects of irradiation on the acquisition of an amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). The rats maintained on the control diet failed to show the acquisition of a CTA following injection of amphetamine. In contrast, the rats maintained on antioxidant diets (strawberry or blueberry extract) continued to show the development of an amphetamine-induced CTA following exposure to 56Fe particles. Neither irradiation nor diet had an effect on the acquisition of a LiCl-induced CTA. The results are interpreted as indicating that oxidative stress following exposure to 56Fe particles may be responsible for the disruption of the dopamine-mediated amphetamine-induced CTA in rats fed control diets; and that a reduction in oxidative stress produced by the antioxidant diets functions to reinstate the dopamine-mediated CTA. The failure of either irradiation or diet to influence LiCl-induced responding suggests that oxidative stress may not be involved in CTA learning following injection of LiCl.

  17. Post-irradiation dietary vitamin E does not affect the development of radiation-induced lung damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, Erwin M; van Gameren, Mieke M; Kampinga, Harm H; Szabó, Ben G; Coppes, Rob P

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether application of post-irradiation vitamin E, an anti-oxidant, could prevent the development of radiation induced lung damage. Wistar rats were given vitamin E enriched or vitamin E deprived food starting from 4 weeks after 18Gy single dose irradiation of the right thorax. Neither breathing frequencies nor CT density measurements revealed differences between the groups. It is concluded that post-irradiation vitamin E does not influence radiation-induced fibrosis to the lung.

  18. Alteration of phospholipase D activity in the rat tissues by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, M. S. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Cho, Y. J. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Choi, M. U. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Natural Sciences

    1997-09-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline. Recently, PLD has been drawing much attentions and considered to be associated with cancer process since it is involved in cellular signal transduction. In this experiment, oleate-PLD activities were measured in various tissues of the living rats after whole body irradiation. The reaction mixture for the PLD assay contained 0.1{mu}Ci 1,2-di[1-{sup 14}C]palmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, 0.5mM phosphatidylcholine, 5mM sodium oleate, 0.2% taurodeoxycholate, 50mM HEPES buffer(pH 6.5), 10mM CaCl{sub 2}, and 25mM KF. phosphatidic acid, the reaction product, was separated by TLC and its radioactivity was measured with a scintillation counter. The whole body irradiation was given to the female Wistar rats via Cobalt 60 Teletherapy with field size of 10cm x 10cm and an exposure of 2.7Gy per minute to the total doses of 10Gy and 25Gy. Among the tissues examined, PLD activity in lung was the highest one and was followed by kidney, skeletal muscle, brain, spleen, bone marrow, thymus, and liver. Upon irradiation, alteration of PLD activity was observed in thymus, spleen, lung, and bone marrow. Especially PLD activities of the spleen and thymus revealed the highest sensitivity toward {gamma}-ray with more than two times amplification in their activities. In contrast, the PLD activity of bone marrow appears to be reduced to nearly 30%. Irradiation effect was hardly detected in liver which showed the lowest PLD activity. The PLD activities affected most sensitively by the whole-body irradiation seem to be associated with organs involved in immunity and hematopoiesis. This observation strongly indicates that the PLD is closely related to the physiological function of these organs. Furthermore, radiation stress could offer an important means to explore the phenomena covering from cell proliferation to cell death on these organs. (author).

  19. Cell therapy for salivary gland regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C-Y; Chang, F-H; Chen, C-Y; Huang, C-Y; Hu, F-C; Huang, W-K; Ju, S-S; Chen, M-H

    2011-03-01

    There are still no effective therapies for hyposalivation caused by irradiation. In our previous study, bone marrow stem cells can be transdifferentiated into acinar-like cells in vitro. Therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation with bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells may help functional regeneration of salivary glands. Bone marrow stem cells were labeled with nanoparticles and directly co-cultured with acinar cells to obtain labeled acinar-like cells. In total, 140 severely combined immune-deficiency mice were divided into 4 groups for cell therapy experiments: (1) normal mice, (2) mice receiving irradiation around their head-and-neck areas; (3) mice receiving irradiation and intra-gland transplantation with labeled stem cells; and (4) mice receiving irradiation and intra-gland transplantation with labeled acinar-like cells. Our results showed that salivary glands damaged due to irradiation can be rescued by cell therapy with either bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells for recovery of saliva production, body weight, and gland weight. Transdifferentiation of bone marrow stem cells into acinar-like cells in vivo was also noted. This study demonstrated that cell therapy with bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells can help functional regeneration of salivary glands, and that acinar-like cells showed better therapeutic potentials than those of bone marrow stem cells.

  20. Effects of He-Ne laser irradiation on chronic atrophic gastritis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Hui Shao; Yue-Ping Yang; Jie Dai; Jing-Fang Wu; Ai-Hua Bo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of He-Ne laser irradiation on experimental chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) in rats.METHODS: Sixty-three male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including normal control group, model control group and three different dosages He-Ne laser groups. The chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG)model in rats was made by pouring medicine which was a kind of mixed liquor including 2% sodium salicylate and 30% alcohol down the throat for 8 wk to stimulate rat gastric mucosa, combining with irregular fasting and compulsive sporting as pathogenic factors; 3.36, 4.80, and 6.24J/cm2doses of He-Ne laser were used, respectively for three different treatment groups, once a day for 20 d. The pH value of diluted gastric acid was determined by acidimeter,the histopathological changes such as the inflammatory degrees in gastric mucosa, the morphology and structure of parietal cells were observed, and the thickness of mucosa was measured by micrometer under optical microscope.RESULTS: In model control group, the secretion of gastric acid was little, pathologic morphological changes in gastric mucosa such as thinner mucous, atrophic glands, notable inflammatory infiltration were found. After 3.36 J/cm2 dose of He-Ne laser treatment for 20 d, the secretion of gastric acid was increased (P<0.05), the thickness of gastric mucosa was significantly thicker than that in model control group (P<0.01), the gastric mucosal inflammation cells were decreased (P<0.05). Morphology, structure and volume of the parietal cells all recuperated or were closed to normal.CONCLUSION: 3.36J/cm2 dose of He-Ne laser has a significant effect on CAG in rats.

  1. In vivo dosimetry of high-dose fractionated irradiation in an experimental set-up with rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortan, L.; Van Hecke, H.; Van Duyse, B.; De Neve, W.; De Meerleer, B. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde; Pattyn, P.; Van Renthergem, K. [Ghent University (Belgium). Dept. of Surgery

    1995-12-01

    The feasibility to irradiate a limited section of a rat abdomen with well-defined edges was assessed. Because of the relative small volume involved, in vivo dosimetry with TLDs was necessary in providing us information about the accuracy of the irradiation method. Three to five days prior to the start of the radiotherapy treatment, two plastic strips - each containing a TLD-dosimeter (Harshaw TLD10 LiF rods, 1 mm dia x 6 mm) sealed in polyethylene tubing, and a lead bean - were implanted in the rat abdomen. The plastic strips made a closed loop around the bowel, through the mesenterium, and were fixed with a single stitch on the inner abdominal wall. One loop was made in the hepatic area; another was made in the lower abdomen, around the rectosigmoid. Conscious animals were irradiated using a purpose-build plexi-holder, with rear legs immobilised to avoid longitudinal movements. The implanted lead beans enabled us to simulate the rat prior to each radiation session. This way, the radiation field could be set up individually for each rat, in such way that the rectosigmoid area received full dose and the hepatic area received no irradiation dose at all. Irradiation was carried out, using 5 MV photons of a linear accelerator. Fifteen animals per group were irradiated according a conventional (2.0 Gy / fraction; 5 fractions / week) or a hyperfractionated (1.6 Gy / fraction; 2 daily fractions; 5 days / week) schedule, with different total doses. Prior to implantation, TLDs were individually calibrated and checked for stability. After removal from the abdomen . TLDs were tested again for accuracy. TLDs with an unacceptable read-out curve were rejected (about 2 to 4 TLDs per group of 15). The obtained accumulated doses - as determined by TLD read-outs-were comparable to the theoretical doses, indicating that fractionated radiation of small fields, with well defined mark off, in rats is feasible.

  2. Dopamine-induced amylase secretion from rat parotid salivary gland in vitro: an effect mediated via noradrenergic and cholinergic nerves.

    OpenAIRE

    Hata, F.; Ishida, H.; Kondo, E

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dopamine on amylase secretion by rat parotid tissue was examined in vitro. Dopamine induced marked amylase secretion from the tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Its EC50 value was about 4 microM and the maximal response was obtained at a concentration of 100 microM. The dopamine-induced secretion was inhibited by the dopamine-antagonists haloperidol, (+)-butaclamol and spiroperidol. Atropine reduced the dopamine-induced secretion significantly, and physostigmine enhanced the sec...

  3. Effect of sodium selenite on bone repair in tibiae of irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Anna Silvia Setti da [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR, (Brazil). Dept. of Physics; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Oral Diagnosis], e-mail: flaviamaria@fop.unicamp.br; Manzi, Flavio Ricardo [Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Stomatology; Chicareli, Mariliani [State Univ. of Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. of Oral Diagnosis

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the radioprotective effect of sodium selenite on the bone repair process in tibiae of female rats. For such purpose, 100 female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, albinus) were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=25), according to the treatment received: administration of distilled water (control); administration of sodium selenite; gamma radiation; and administration of sodium selenite plus gamma radiation. A bone defect was prepared on both tibiae of all animals. Three days after surgery, the gamma radiation and selenium/ gamma radiation groups received 8 Gy gamma rays on the lower limbs. Five animals per group were sacrificed 7, 14, 21, 28 days after surgery for evaluation of the repair process by bone volumetric density analysis. The 5 animals remaining in each group were sacrificed 45 days postoperatively for examination of the mature bone by scanning electron microscopy. Based on all analyzed parameters, the results of the present study suggest that sodium selenite exerted a radioprotective effect in the bone repair of tibia of irradiated rats. (author)

  4. HSP25 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae June; Lee, Yoon Jin; Kwon, Hee Choong; Lee, Su Jae; Bae, Sang Woo; Lee, Yun Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Irradiation (IR) is a central treatment modality administered for head and neck malignancies. A significant consequence of this IR treatment is irreversible damage to salivary gland in the IR field. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) induced radioresistance in vitro. HSP25 interferes negatively with apoptosis through several pathways which involve its direct interaction with cytochrome c, protein kinase c delta or Akt. And localized gene transfer to salivary glands has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP25 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

  5. Cell kinetic study on the relation between irradiation hypogeusia and taste buds in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Hideharu; Furumoto, Keiichi [Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the mechanism of hypogeusia caused by irradiation. X-ray treatment at 10 Gy or 20 Gy was given to the maxillofacial region including the tongue in rats, and the involvement of taste bud for hypogeusia was investigated. In addition, cytological kinetics were immunohistologically studied using bromodeoxyuridine in the taste bud and in the lingual mucosal epithelium. The following results were obtained: In the 10 Gy group, the number of taste bud become less after the exposure, but no hypogeusia was observed during the experimental period. In the 20 Gy group, any labeled taste bud was not observed on the 7th day, and all taste buds disappeared by the 10th day. In the lingual mucosal epithelium, the number of basal cells decreased to the minimum, and the body weight and total water intake decreased coincidently in the 20 Gy group, which were few in the 10 Gy group. (author)

  6. Evaluation of low level laser therapy irradiation parameters on rat muscle inflammation through systemic blood cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, Matias; Pinheiro, João. P.; Morgado, António M.

    2014-02-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for inflammation treatment. Here, we evaluate the effect of different doses, using continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. Animals were randomly divided into five groups per wavelength (5 animals per group: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mW) plus a control group. LLLT was applied during five days, with constant exposure time and irradiated area (3 minutes; 0.5026 cm2). Blood was collected on days 0, 3 and 6. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Rats were killed on day 6. Muscle inflammatory cells were counted using optical microscopy. Treatment effects occurred for all applied doses (largest effect at 40 mW: 7.2 J, 14 J/cm2 per irradiation), with reduction of proinflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines and lower number of inflammatory cells. Results were better for 830 nm. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Hz). Treatment effects were observed at higher frequencies, with no significant differences between them. However, the treatment effect was lower than for continuous illumination. LLLT effect on inflammation treatment can be monitored by measuring systemic blood cytokines. A larger treatment effect was observed with continuous illumination, where results seem to be compatible with a biphasic dose response.

  7. The influence of antiorthostatic unloading and long gamma-irradiation on rat bone marrow (MSCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Maria; Bobyleva, Polina; Shtemberg, Andrey; Buravkova, Ludmila

    With the prospect of long interplanetary spaceflight becoming a real possibility there are some important questions that need to be answered regarding the combined effects of microgravity and long gamma-irradiation.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of synchronous antiorthostatic unloading and fractional gamma-irradiation on the functional characteristics of rat bone marrow multipotent stromal cells (MSCs).This experiment was carried out following all rules laid out by the Commission on Bioethics at the SSC RF - IBMP RAS. In this experiment the Wistar rats were kept in an unloaded position for a duration of 30 days. They were also subjected to 6 doses of gamma-radiation on the “GOBO-60” with a source of (137) Cs. The dose rate set to 1 meter 50 sGr / H (Total dose of 3 Gr).The study revealed a significant reduction in the number of colonies (CFU-F) in all cultures from the experimental groups when compared to the control groups. The most significant reduction was observed in the group, which had been subject to combined unloading, and radiation. This result was confirmed by examination of cell cultures during 10 days of growth.We found that the CD45 expression was increased in the groups exposed to radiation. At the same time a reduction in the expression of CD90 was observed during combination of radiation and unloading we found.The experimental groups also differed from the control group showing smaller lipid inclusions and decreased expression of alkaline phosphates in the MSCs. This experiment concluded that the bone marrow MSCs after a combination of unloading and multiple radiation sessions, showed a decrease in proliferation and differentiation potential which could reduce the adaption and reparative capacity of the organism.

  8. The recovery of the salivary function in the course of time among patients damaged by a cancer of the O.R.L. sphere treated by conformal irradiation with intensity modulation; La recuperation de la fonction salivaire au cours du temps chez les patients atteints de cancer de la sphere ORL traite par irradiation conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, M.; Valinta, D.; Banal, P.; Roch, P.; Bensaoula, O.; Labib, A. [Centre Rene-Huguenin, 92 - Saint-Cloud (France); Halimi, P.; Hans, S. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-11-15

    The conformal radiotherapy with intensity modulation (R.C.M.I.) has allowed for 8 patients a partial preservation of the salivary production. The salivary production was insufficient to allow a correct quality of life for patients because the decrease of salivary production had a limited clinical translation. (N.C.)

  9. Low energy scatter due to in-situ irradiation of solid tumors in laboratory rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritenour, E.R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the pattern of scattered radiation in laboratory rat cadavers during irradiation of solid tumors on the animals' flanks was performed. The animals were wrapped in a lead shield having a circular cutout through which the tumor protruded. Irradiations were performed with a 250 kVp 15ma X-ray machine with a measured half value layer of 1.39 mmCu. Lead shielding was of sufficient thickness to attenuate essentially all of the beam. The absorbed dose measured in the animal was then due to internal scatter from the tumor. Arrays of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed beneath the skin of 17 animals bearing a solid tumor (hepatoma H-4-II-E). Absorbed dose was seen to vary isotropically, decreasing as the inverse distance squared from the tumor. Analysis of experimental error played a major role in this study. A pilot study resulted in standard errors that were 35% of the mean absorbed dose measurements. A careful reassessment of methods of manipulating the animals and the dosimetry system resulted in a reduction in standard error to 14% of the mean for small groups (less than 10 animals).

  10. METOVITAN PREVENTS THE ACCUMULATION OF THIAMINE DIPHOSPHATE OXIDIZED FORM IN RAT TISSUES UNDER IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkhomenko Yu. M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test the ability of the drug "Metovitan" to prevent the redox balance disturbance in the tissues and thiamine diphosphate irreversible oxidation upon exposure of ionizing radiation on the body. The rats were subjected to a single exposure of the X-ray therapeutic instrument RUM-17 to create a dose of 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 Gray. Preparation "Metovitan" was administered at a dose of 25 mg per 1 kg body weight for 22–24 h before irradiation. Contents of thiamine diphosphate, reduced SH-groups and reactive oxygen species in blood and brain were determined using previously described methods. It has been shown that the active form of the thiamine diphosphate content in the blood was decreased depending on the doses (from 0.5 to 5.0 Gray. At the same time the content of thiamine diphosphate oxidized form was increased. Furthermore the critical changes occurred in metabolic processes redox state parameters, namely, the level of free SH-groups was reduced and the level of reactive oxygen species was increased. Similar changes were observed in the brain tissue. The Metovitan single administration to the animals the day before irradiation, at 25 mg per 1 kg of body weight dose, promotes the protection of the intracellular thiamine diphosphate and redox status in animal tissues (blood, brain tissue from the negative influence of irradiation (at 0.5; 1.0 Gray doses. These results give reason to recommend the drug for treating of the staff that is involved in the elimination of radioactive contamination. To provide the protection from the higher doses, other scheme of the treatment should be probably recommended.

  11. Experimental studies on radiation injury of the salivary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kazuko

    1987-06-01

    Parotid glands of male Wistar rats were irradiated. In the first group, the animals were irradiated by 4 fractions of 4 different daily doses ; 4.7 Gy, 5.7 Gy, 6.6 Gy and 7.4 Gy. Each dose corresponds to 30 Gy, 40 Gy, 50 Gy and 60 Gy by ordinary 2 Gy-a-day irradiation respectively in the estimation of TDF value. Degree of radiation injury and recovery of the parotid glands was examined histologically, and the area ratio (acini/total gland) was calculated at 1, 3 and 6 months after the completion of irradiation. In the second group, the animals were irradiated by the following schedule ; 10 fractions of 3.6 Gy daily (I-group) and 20 fractions of 1.8 Gy (II a-group), 2.2 Gy (II b-group) and 2.9 Gy (II c-group) twice-a-day, for 2 weeks, 5 days per week. Histological changes of parotid glands the irradiation, such as collapse of acini, degeneration of acinar cells, dilatation of ducts, fibrosis and fatty replacement were found. These changes increased corresponding to the absorbed dose. In 60 Gy-group the area ratio (acini/total gland) decreased with time, 1, 3 and 6 months after the irradiation (40 %, 20 % and 10 % of the control group, respectively), while, there was no remarkable change in 50 Gy-group (60 %) and 40 Gy-group (70 - 80 %). Whereas the area ratio in 30 Gy-group decreased at 1 and 3 months (80 - 85 %), it increased up to the nearly equal level of the control group at 6 months after the irradiation. It was suggested that the borderline dose which allowed the salivary gland to recover from radiation injury existed between 30 Gy and 40 Gy. The area ratio of II b-group at 1 and 3 months after the irradiation (50 %, 48 %) was nearly equal to that of I-group (53 %, 57 %). While the area ratio of II a-group (71 %, 73 %) was larger than that of I-group with a statistical significance. (J.P.N.).

  12. Reduction of interleukin-6 expression in human synoviocytes and rheumatoid arthritis rat joints by linear polarized near infrared light (Superlizer) irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Hidefumi; Imaoka, Asayo; Kuboyama, Noboru; Abiko, Yoshimitsu

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disorder that involves inflammation and pain of joints. Low-level laser irradiation is being evaluated for treating RA, however, the effectiveness of linear polarized near infrared light (SuperLizer; SL) irradiation is unclear. It has been reported that interleukin 6 (IL-6) plays a key role in the progression of RA. In our previous study, using DNA microarray analysis, we examined the gene expression profiling of human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A in response to IL-1ß administration and SL irradiation. As a result, IL-6 was listed in altered gene as increased by IL-1ß and decreased by SL irradiation. The reduction of IL-6 gene expression in MH7A by SL irradiation was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Effect of SL irradiation on the RA inflammation in the collagen induced arthritis (CIA) rats was also studied by measuring temperature. IL-6 production in knee joint of rats was analyzed by immunohisto-chemistry. Scatter plot analysis demonstrated that an increase in IL-6 gene expression by IL-1ß was reduced by SL irradiation. The reduction of IL-6 mRNA level by SL irradiation was successfully confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. SL irradiation treated CIA rat decreased the temperature of knee joints. The immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a strong IL-6 staining in synovial membrane tissue of CIA rat joint, and SL irradiation significantly reduced the staining. Since IL-6 has been identified to be an important proinflarnmatory cytokine in the pathogenesis of RA, the reduction of IL-6 expression is one of mechanisms in reduction of inflammation in RA joints by SL irradiation suggesting that SL irradiation may be useful for RA therapy. SL irradiation reduced IL-6 gene expression in MH7A, and reduced inflammation and IL-6 protein expression in knee joint of CIA rats.

  13. Radiation effects on rat testes. VIII. Kinetic properties of hydrolases following partial body gamma irradiation of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G S; Bawa, S R

    1975-05-01

    Kinetic properties such as Michaelis constant (Km), maximum velocity (Vmax), temperature coefficient (Q10) and energy of activation (Ea) for hydrolysis of adenosine-5'-phosphate at pH 9.5 and sodium pyrophosphate at pH 8.35 by normal and radiated testes supernatants have been described. Kinetic parameters are related to respective phosphohydrolases (phosphatases). (1) Km values for 5'nucleotidase and inorganic pyrophosphatase of normal testis were determined as 1.25 X 10(-3)M and 0.81 X 10(-3)M respectively; (II) Vmax correspond to 318 mug P/15 min and 430 mug P/15 min for 100 mg tissue respectively; (III) Q10 for 5 nucleotidase is 1.7 and for inorganic pyrophosphatase is 4.2 at a temperature 10-30degreesC; (IV) Ea for hydrolysis of AMP and sodium pyrophosphate were calculated by Arrhenius plots as 17000 and 9000 cal/mol. (V) Km values for irradiated enzymes are similar to the control values suggesting that the binding capacities of these enzymes with their substrates remain unaffected after radiation; (VI) Vmax for radiated enzymes correspond to a value of 500 mug P/100 mg tissue/15 min for 5'nucleotidase and 118 mug P/100 mug tissue/15 min for inorganic pyrophosphatase; (VII) 110 for 5'nucleotidase is 2.2 and inorganic pyrophosphatase 1.16 at 10-30degreesC; (VIII) Ea for irradiated 5'nucleotidase is comparable to those of normal rats whereas for inorganic pyrophosphatase Ea is moderately declined. The observed changes have been related to the different types of metabolic activity in germinal and nongerminal cells of testes.

  14. Anti-tumor response induced by immunologically modified carbon nanotubes and laser irradiation using rat mammary tumor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Joseph T.; Hasanjee, Aamr M.; Bahavar, Cody F.; Zhou, Fefian; Liu, Hong; Howard, Eric W.; Bullen, Liz C.; Silvy, Ricardo P.; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is being developed as a treatment modality for metastatic cancer which can destroy primary tumors and induce effective systemic anti-tumor responses by using a targeted treatment approach in conjunction with the use of a novel immunoadjuvant, glycated chitosan (GC). In this study, Non-invasive Laser Immunotherapy (NLIT) was used as the primary treatment mode. We incorporated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) into the treatment regimen to boost the tumor-killing effect of LIT. SWNTs and GC were conjugated to create a completely novel, immunologically modified carbon nanotube (SWNT-GC). To determine the efficacy of different laser irradiation durations, 5 minutes or 10 minutes, a series of experiments were performed. Rats were inoculated with DMBA-4 cancer cells, a highly aggressive metastatic cancer cell line. Half of the treatment group of rats receiving laser irradiation for 10 minutes survived without primary or metastatic tumors. The treatment group of rats receiving laser irradiation for 5 minutes had no survivors. Thus, Laser+SWNT-GC treatment with 10 minutes of laser irradiation proved to be effective at reducing tumor size and inducing long-term anti-tumor immunity.

  15. Transplantation of low-power laser-irradiated olfactory ensheathing cells to promote repair of spinal cord injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haoxian Chen; Xinfeng Zheng; Weibin Sheng; Qin Wei; Tao Jiang; Gele Jin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that low-power laser (LPL) irradiation can promote the regeneration of peripheral nerves and central nerves, as well as influence cellular proliferation. Therefore, it is thought to be a potential treatment for spinal cord injury.OBJECTIVE: Utilizing histological observations and behavioral evaluations, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), irradiated by LPL, on functional repair of rats following transversal spinal cord injury.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal experiment was performed at the animal experimental center in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University between January 2007 and February 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 52 Sprague Dawley rats were included in this experiment. Twelve rats were used to harvest OECs, some of which were irradiated by LPL on days 3, 5, and 7 in culture.The remaining 40 rats were used to establish T12 complete spinal cord transection injury.DMEM/F12 medium was purchased from Sigma, USA, Fluorogold was provided by Chemicon,USA, and the LY/JG650-D500-16 low-power laser was produced by Xi'an Lingyue Electromechanical Science And Technology Co., Ltd., China.METHODS: The successful rat models were randomly divided into three groups: OEC transplantation, LPL-irradiated OEC transplantation, and control. These animals were microinjected with OEC suspension, LPL-irradiated OEC suspension, and DMEM/F12 medium(10 μL) respectively 4 weeks after spinal cord was completely transected at the T12 level.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Spinal cord injury was observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining.Expression of nerve growth factor receptor p75 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were determined using immunohistochemical staining. Regeneration of spinal nerve fibers in rats was assayed by Fluorogold retrograde labeling method. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scores were used to evaluate motor

  16. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  17. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PROPOLIS ON GAMMA- IRRADIATED NIGELLA SATIVA EXTRACT INDUCED BLOOD AND IMMUNE CHANGES IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Moseilhy Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study conducted to test the effect of Nigella Sativa (NS, 5 mg kg-1 of body weight, or γ-irradiated Nigella Sativa (GRNS on the changes of blood component profiles, liver, kidney functions and immune cytokines secretion in male Wistar rats. Moreover, the possible protection by propolis (200 mg kg-1 B. W. on the changes induced by NS and GRNS was examined. Results revealed that both NS and GRNS administration for two weeks induced changes in blood, GPT, GOT and urea levels and co-administration with propolis significantly ameliorated such changes. Also, liver histology showed numerous vacuolar degeneration and fatty changes in γ-irradiated groups which disappeared in presence of propolis. Kidney histology of NS administered rats showed less lymphocytic infiltration, while GRNS groups showed desquamation in the cytoplasm of the renal tubules, hemorrhage in the renal corpuscle and lymphocytic infiltration which disappeared when propolis given together with GRNS. Finally propolis induced protective effect on the changes induced in TNF-α and IL-10 secretion by either NS or GRNS in Wistar rats. In conclusion, the findings of present study clarified the protective effect of propolis on changes induced by γ-irradiated NS on blood, liver, kidney and cytokines changes in Wistar rats.

  18. Fermentation enhances Ginkgo biloba protective role on gamma-irradiation induced neuroinflammatory gene expression and stress hormones in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amel F M; El-Sonbaty, Sawsan M

    2016-05-01

    Ionizing radiation has attracted a lot of attention due to its beneficial and possible harmful effects to the human population. The brain displays numerous biochemical and functional alterations after exposure to irradiation, which induces oxidative-stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study evaluated the neuro-protective role of fermented Ginkgo biloba (FGb) leaf extract, compared to non-fermented G. biloba (Gb) leaf extract against γ-irradiation (6Gy) in the rats' brain. The changes of the Gb phytochemical constituents after fermentation, using Aspergillus niger were evaluated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and elevation of the calcium level in the brain cytosolic fraction of γ-irradiated rats. Further, significant increases in the malondialdehyde (MDA), the stress hormones (catecholamines); epinephrine (EN), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels and the interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene expression relative ratio in parallel with a significant decrease in the glutathione (GSH) content and DNA fragmentation in the brain tissues of the γ-irradiated rats were observed. The pre-treatment with Gb extract significantly amended these biochemical parameters. Meanwhile, the pre-treatment with the FGb showed more improvement, compared to Gb, of these biochemical parameters in the brain of γ-irradiated rats, which could be attributed to the enhancement of its antioxidant activity after fermentation. These findings suggested that fermentation enhances the protective effect of Gb in the brain on the neuroinflammation, release of the stress hormones, apoptosis and oxidative damage induced by γ-irradiation. fermentation improved the bio-activities of Gb leaf extract and thus enhanced the in-vivo antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities, leading to

  19. Melatonin may play a role in modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression levels to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohseni, Mehran [Department of Radiology and Medical Physics, Faculty of Paramedicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mihandoost, Ehsan, E-mail: mihandoost.e@gmail.com [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirazi, Alireza [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepehrizadeh, Zargham [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bazzaz, Javad Tavakkoly [Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghazi-khansari, Mahmoud [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The close relationship between free radicals effects and apoptosis process has been proved. Melatonin has been reported as a direct free radical scavenger. We investigated the capability of melatonin in the modification of radiation-induced apoptosis and apoptosis-associated upstream regulators expression in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes. Rats were irradiated with a single whole body Cobalt 60-gamma radiation dose of 8 Gy at a dose rate of 101 cGy/min with or without melatonin pretreatments at different concentrations of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into eight groups of control, irradiation-only, vehicle-only, vehicle plus irradiation, 10 mg/kg melatonin alone, 10 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation, 100 mg/kg melatonin alone and 100 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation. Rats were given an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of melatonin or the same volume of vehicle alone 1 h prior to irradiation. Blood samples were taken 4, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation for evaluation of flow cytometric analysis of apoptotic lymphocytes using Annexin V/PI assay and measurement of bax and bcl-2 expression using quantitative real-time PCR (RT{sup 2}qPCR). Irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation showed an increase in the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes significantly different from control group (P < 0.01), while melatonin pretreatments in a dose-dependent manner reduced it as compared with the irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation groups (P < 0.01) in all time points. This reduced apoptosis by melatonin was related to the downregulation of bax, upregulation of bcl-2, and therefore reduction of bax/bcl-2 ratio. Our results suggest that melatonin in these doses may provide modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression as well as bax/bcl-2 ratio to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis.

  20. Effect of irradiation on gene expression of rat liver adhesion molecules. In vivo and in vitro studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriconi, Federico; Malik, Ihtzaz; Ahmad, Ghayyor; Dudas, Joszef; Ramadori, Giuliano [Dept. of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Goettingen Univ. (Germany); Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Vorwerk, Hilke; Hille, Andrea; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Background and purpose: Migration of leukocytes into tissue is a key element of innate and adaptive immunity. An animal study showed that liver irradiation, in spite of induction of chemokine gene expression, does not lead to recruitment of leukocytes into the parenchyma. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression of adhesion molecules, which mediate leukocyte recruitment into organs, in irradiated rat liver in vivo and rat hepatocytes in vitro. Material and methods: Rat livers in vivo were irradiated selectively at 25 Gy. Isolated hepatocytes in vitro were irradiated at 8 Gy. RNA extracted within 48 h after irradiation in vivo and in vitro was analyzed by real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and Northern blot. Adhesion molecule concentration in serum was measured by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Cryostat sections of livers were used for immunohistology. Results: Significant radiation-induced increase of ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), JAM-1 (junctional adhesion molecule-1), {beta}{sub 1}-integrin, {beta}{sub 2}-integrin, E-cadherin, and P-selectin gene expression could be detected in vivo, while PECAM-1 (platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1) gene expression remained unchanged. In vitro, {beta}{sub 1}-integrin, JAM-1, and ICAM-2 showed a radiation-induced increased expression, whereas the levels of P-selectin, ICAM-1, PECAM-1, VCAM-1, Madcam-1 (mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1), {beta}{sub 2}-integrin, and E-cadherin were downregulated. However, incubation of irradiated hepatocytes with either tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-){alpha}, interleukin-(IL-)1{beta}, or IL-6 plus TNF-{alpha} led to an upregulation of P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Conclusion: The findings suggest that liver irradiation modulates gene expression of the main adhesion molecules in vivo and in cytokine-activated hepatocytes, with the exception of PECAM-1. This may be one reason for the lack of

  1. Effect of combined treatment with x-irradiation and 5-fluorouracil in multicellular spheroids of rat glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, Kenji; Katakura, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Jiro; Sasaki, Takehito; Mori, Teruaki

    1987-12-01

    The effect of combined treatment with X-irradiation and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) on the spheroids of rat glioma clone-6 cells was compared with that on exponentially grown monolayer cells. Isobolographic analysis showed the effect of the combined treatment to be supra-additive in both multicellular spheroids and monolayer cells when irradiation followed 24 hours of treatment with 5-Fu. X-irradiation prior to 5-Fu treatment showed an additive effect. The effect of X-irradiation on spheroids was enhanced after 3 hours of 5-Fu treatment, whereas its effect on monolayer cells was augmented only when prior 5-Fu treatment exceeded 12 hours. Potentiation of the effect of X-irradiation on spheroids by prior treatment with 5-Fu is thought to be due to reoxygenation of previously hypoxic cells and partial synchronization of proliferating cells. These results suggest that when X-irradiation is applied shortly after 5-Fu treatment the effect on solid tumors is selectively enhanced, while the effect on actively proliferating normal tissues is reduced.

  2. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  3. Boswellic acids extract attenuates pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin and oxidative stress from gamma irradiation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Somaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by an altered cellular composition of the alveolar region with excessive deposition of collagen. Lung inflammation is also common in pulmonary fibrosis. This study aims to test the inhibition of 5-lipooxygenase (5-LOX by boswellic acid (BA extract in an experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis using bleomycin (BL. Methods Boswellic acid extract (1 g/kg was force-fed to rats seven days prior to administration of BL or gamma irradiation or both. BL (0.15 U/rat in 25 μl of 0.9% normal saline (NS or 0.9% NS alone was administered intratracheally. Rats were exposed to two fractionated doses of gamma irradiation (0.5 Gy/dose/week with a gamma cell-40 (Cesium-137 irradiation units, Canada during the last two weeks of the experiment. BA was administered during BL or irradiation treatment or both. After the animals were sacrificed, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed; lungs were weighed and processed separately for biochemical and histological studies. Results In rats treated with BL, levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were significantly elevated (P = 0.05 and P = 0.005. Hydroxyproline was highly and extensively expressed. Immunoreactive compounds were abundantly expressed, represented in the levels of macrophages infiltrate, accumulation of eosinophils and neutrophils in the lung as well as the aggregation of fibroblasts in the fibrotic area. The levels of lipoxygenase enzyme activity were significantly increased (P = 0.005. Antioxidant activities measured in BL-treated rats deteriorated, coupled with the elevation of both levels of plasma lipid peroxide (LP content and bronchoalveolar lavage lactate dehydrogenase activity. BA-treated rats had reduced number of macrophages, (P = 0.01, neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (P = 0.01 and protein (P = 0.0001. Moreover, the hydroxyproline content was significantly lowered in BA

  4. Effects of 2. 0 Gy of /sup 60/Co gamma rays irradiation on rat embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juing-Yi; Satow, Yukio

    1987-01-01

    Pregnant rats of Donryu strain were exposed to a whole-body /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. ray irradiation of a single dose of 2.0 Gy (Dose rate: 0.5 Gy/min) on day 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11 of gestation (sperm day = day 0). The rats were sacrificed on day 18 and the offspring were examined for external and visceral malformations. Malformed embryos occurred between days 7 and 11 with the highest incidence occurring on day 9. Dose with 2.0 Gy increased the rate of resorption or death (52.1 %), in the survivors, caused congenital malformation in a majority of embryos (86.5 %) on day 8 of gestation. There is an increase in malformation (93.3 %) and growth retardation, but no increase in mortality (42.9 %) on day 9 of gestation. Relatively few anomalies resulted from irradiation on day 7 of gestation. The peak day for cardiovascular anomalies occurred on day 9 (88.3 % of all survival embryos) with high levels also occurring on day 8 (86.5 %). Cardiovascular anomalies consisted of VSD, hypoplasia of the pulmonary trunk, coarctation of the aorta, double aortic arch, right aortic arch, riding aorta, complete transposition of the aorta, persistent atrioventricular canal, vascular ring, aberrant right subclavian artery and others. Similar anomalies, but at a lower incidence, were produced by /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. ray at dose levels of 2.0 Gy on day 10 or 11 of gestation. Cases of cleft lip and cleft palate or facial cleft were observed seventeen fetuses on day 9 of gestation (31 %). Exencephaly occurred in nine embryos treated on day 9 (16.1 %) and in one embryos treated on day 10. Tail defects appeared with treatment on day 9 with the latter predominating on day 11. The present study show that maximum resorption (52.1 %) was seen with treatment on day 8 whereas the highest rate of malformation (93.3 %) was observed with treatment on day 9. (J.P.N.).

  5. Regionally distinct responses of microglia and glial progenitor cells to whole brain irradiation in adult and aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kun; Schindler, Matthew K; McQuail, Joseph A; Forbes, M Elizabeth; Riddle, David R

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy has proven efficacy for treating brain tumors and metastases. Higher doses and larger treatment fields increase the probability of eliminating neoplasms and preventing reoccurrence, but dose and field are limited by damage to normal tissues. Normal tissue injury is greatest during development and in populations of proliferating cells but also occurs in adults and older individuals and in non-proliferative cell populations. To better understand radiation-induced normal tissue injury and how it may be affected by aging, we exposed young adult, middle-aged, and old rats to 10 Gy of whole brain irradiation and assessed in gray- and white matter the responses of microglia, the primary cellular mediators of radiation-induced neuroinflammation, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, the largest population of proliferating cells in the adult brain. We found that aging and/or irradiation caused only a few microglia to transition to the classically "activated" phenotype, e.g., enlarged cell body, few processes, and markers of phagocytosis, that is seen following more damaging neural insults. Microglial changes in response to aging and irradiation were relatively modest and three markers of reactivity - morphology, proliferation, and expression of the lysosomal marker CD68- were regulated largely independently within individual cells. Proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors did not appear to be altered during normal aging but increased following irradiation. The impacts of irradiation and aging on both microglia and oligodendrocyte precursors were heterogeneous between white- and gray matter and among regions of gray matter, indicating that there are regional regulators of the neural response to brain irradiation. By several measures, the CA3 region of the hippocampus appeared to be differentially sensitive to effects of aging and irradiation. The changes assessed here likely contribute to injury following inflammatory challenges like brain irradiation and

  6. Regionally distinct responses of microglia and glial progenitor cells to whole brain irradiation in adult and aging rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hua

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy has proven efficacy for treating brain tumors and metastases. Higher doses and larger treatment fields increase the probability of eliminating neoplasms and preventing reoccurrence, but dose and field are limited by damage to normal tissues. Normal tissue injury is greatest during development and in populations of proliferating cells but also occurs in adults and older individuals and in non-proliferative cell populations. To better understand radiation-induced normal tissue injury and how it may be affected by aging, we exposed young adult, middle-aged, and old rats to 10 Gy of whole brain irradiation and assessed in gray- and white matter the responses of microglia, the primary cellular mediators of radiation-induced neuroinflammation, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, the largest population of proliferating cells in the adult brain. We found that aging and/or irradiation caused only a few microglia to transition to the classically "activated" phenotype, e.g., enlarged cell body, few processes, and markers of phagocytosis, that is seen following more damaging neural insults. Microglial changes in response to aging and irradiation were relatively modest and three markers of reactivity - morphology, proliferation, and expression of the lysosomal marker CD68- were regulated largely independently within individual cells. Proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors did not appear to be altered during normal aging but increased following irradiation. The impacts of irradiation and aging on both microglia and oligodendrocyte precursors were heterogeneous between white- and gray matter and among regions of gray matter, indicating that there are regional regulators of the neural response to brain irradiation. By several measures, the CA3 region of the hippocampus appeared to be differentially sensitive to effects of aging and irradiation. The changes assessed here likely contribute to injury following inflammatory challenges like

  7. Effects of neonatal. gamma. -ray irradiation on rat hippocampus: Pt. 2; Development of excitatory amino acid binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessi, F.; Represa, A.; Ben-Ari, Y. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), 75 - Paris (France))

    1991-01-01

    In the rat, neonatal irradiation produces a destruction of denate granule cells and prevents the development of the mossy fibre-CA3 pyramidal cell synapse. The developmental increase of high affinity kainate binding sites in the stratum lucidum was reduced on the irradiated side as compared with the control side. This suggests that a proportion of high affinity kainate binding sites is associated with mossy fibres. In contrast, the development profile of N-methyl-D-aspartate binding sites, which are associated with associational and commissural synapses in CA3, was not affected by irradiation. The role that afferent fibres may play in the development of pyramidal cells is discussed in connection with the modulatory effects of glutamate receptors on the development of neurons. (author).

  8. Low power laser and LED irradiation effect on proliferation and differentiation of Wistar rats mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Diana; Solarte, Efrain; Fierro, Leonardo; Criollo, William

    2013-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that appropriately cultured and stimulated mesenchymal cells, can give rise to cells of all tissues of the body. We evaluate the cell proliferation and differentiation induced by low power light irradiation in cell cultures of mesenchymal cells, isolated and previously characterized, from Wistar rats. Roche® XTT and LDH tests were used to assess proliferation and cytotoxicity. Cellular differentiation was determined by optical microscopy and using specific fluorescent markers. We report laser cellular proliferation enhancement by 532 and 473 nm, and the best cell culture response by a dose of 2 Jcm-2. Although a three day irradiation protocol the cultures grown and no cytotoxicity was detected. Cellular differentiation occurred, and the production of cardiomyocytes was promoted by the cell proliferation stimulated by low power laser irradiation.

  9. Tumour bed irradiation of human tumour xenografts in a nude rat model using a common X-ray tube

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V Tokalov; W Enghardt; N Abolmaali

    2010-06-01

    Studies that investigate the radiation of human tumour xenografts require an appropriate radiation source and highly standardized conditions during radiation. This work reports on the design of a standardized irradiation device using a commercially available X-ray tube with a custom constructed lead collimator with two circular apertures and an animal bed plate, permitting synchronous irradiation of two animals. Dosimetry and the corresponding methodology for radiotherapy of human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft tumours transplanted to and growing subcutaneously on the right lower limb in a nude rat model were investigated. Procedures and results described herein prove the feasibility of use of the device, which is applicable for any investigation involving irradiation of non-tumorous and tumorous lesions in small animals.

  10. Transplantation tolerance in adult rats using total lymphoid irradiation: permanent survival of skin, heart, and marrow allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavin, S.; Reitz, B.; Bieber, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.; Strober, S.

    1978-03-01

    Lewis rats given total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) accepted bone marrow allografts from AgB-incompatible donors. The chimeras showed no clinical signs of graft-versus-host disease. Skin allografts from the marrow donor strain survived for more than 150 days on the chimeras. However, third-party skin grafts were rejected promptly. Although heart allografts survived more than 300 days in Lewis recipients given TLI and bone marrow allografts, detectable levels of chimerism were not required for permanent survival.

  11. The effects of pre-emptive low-dose X-ray irradiation on MIA induced inflammatory pain in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Suk-Chan; Lee, Go-Eun; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Junesun; Lee, Taewoong; Lee, Wonho

    2013-07-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of pre-emptive low-dose irradiation on the development of inflammatory pain and to characterize the potential mechanisms underlying this effect in osteoarthritis (OA) animal model. Whole-body X-irradiations with 0.1, 0.5, 1 Gy or sham irradiations were performed for 3 days before the induction of ostearthritis with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) (40 µl, in saline) into the right knee joint in male Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests for arthritic pain including evoked and non-evoked pain were conducted before and after MIA injection and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) expression level was measured by western blot. Low-dose radiation significantly prevented the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and reduction in weight bearing that is regarded as a behavioral signs of non-evoked pain following MIA injection. Low-dose radiation significantly inhibited the increase in iNOS expression after MIA injection in spinal L3-5 segments in rat. These data suggest that low-dose X-irradiation is able to prevent the development of arthritic pain through modulation of iNOS expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Thus, low-dose radiotherapy could be substituted in part for treatment with drugs for patients with chronic inflammatory disease in clinical setting.

  12. Pregnancy-dependent initiation in tumorigenesis of Wistar rat mammary glands by sup 60 Co-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inano, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Keiko; Ishii-Ohba, Hiroko; Ikeda, Kiyomi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)); Wakabayashi, Katsumi (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). Hormone Assay Center)

    1991-06-01

    Pregnant Wistar rats received whole body irradiation with 260 cGy {gamma}-rays at days 7, 14 and 20 of pregnancy and then were treated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) for 1 year. The highest incidence (92.9%) for tumorigenesis of mammary glands was observed in the rats irradiated in late pregnancy. Histological examination showed that tumors were classified as fibroadenoma and adenocarcinoma. To determine the reasons for specific induction of mammary tumors by irradiation in late pregnancy, hormone concentrations in serum and estrogen receptors in mammary glands during pregnancy were measured. Concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone and placental lactogen at day 20 were higher than at days 7 and/or 14, but no difference was observed in the concentrations of prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone during pregnancy. The estrogen receptor in mammary glands at day 20 was indicated to have the highest affinity and the highest binding capacity during pregnancy. Normal mammary glands at day 20 were suggested to have more abundant epithelial cells in the mammary lobes than those at days 7 and 14. The data suggest that the critical requirements for the initiation of tumorigenesis by {gamma}-rays are dependent upon the differentiated state of mammary glands exposed to various hormones, and that the concentration and persistence of the synthetic estrogen (DES) are necessary for the promotion of tumorigenesis of the irradiated mammary glands. (Author).

  13. Evaluation of the effect of a gamma irradiated DBM-pluronic F127 composite on bone regeneration in Wistar rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Al Kayal

    Full Text Available Demineralized bone matrix (DBM is widely used for bone regeneration. Since DBM is prepared in powder form its handling properties are not optimal and limit the clinical use of this material. Various synthetic and biological carriers have been used to enhance the DBM handling. In this study we evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on the physical-chemical properties of Pluronic and on bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs amount in DBM samples. In vivo studies were carried out to investigate the effect on bone regeneration of a gamma irradiated DBM-Pluronic F127 (DBM-PF127 composite implanted in the femur of rats. Gamma irradiation effects (25 kGy on physical-chemical properties of Pluronic F127 were investigated by rheological and infrared analysis. The BMP-2/BMP-7 amount after DBM irradiation was evaluated by ELISA. Bone regeneration capacity of DBM-PF127 containing 40% (w/w of DBM was investigated in transcortical holes created in the femoral diaphysis of Wistar rat. Bone porosity, repaired bone volume and tissue organization were evaluated at 15, 30 and 90 days by Micro-CT and histological analysis. The results showed that gamma irradiation did not induce significant modification on physical-chemical properties of Pluronic, while a decrease in BMP-2/BMP-7 amount was evidenced in sterilized DBM. Micro-CT and histological evaluation at day 15 post-implantation revealed an interconnected trabeculae network in medullar cavity and cellular infiltration and vascularization of DBM-PF127 residue. In contrast a large rate of not connected trabeculae was observed in Pluronic filled and unfilled defects. At 30 and 90 days the DBM-PF127 samples shown comparable results in term of density and thickness of the new formed tissue respect to unfilled defect. In conclusion a gamma irradiated DBM-PF127 composite, although it may have undergone a significant decrease in the concentration of BMPs, was able to maintains bone regeneration capability.

  14. Radioprotective effects of hesperidin on oxidative damages and histopathological changes induced by X-irradiation in rats heart tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhasan Rezaeyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate radioprotective effects of hesperidin (HES administration before the irradiation on the cardiac oxidative stress and histopathological changes in an experimental rat model. The cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure cause morbidity and mortality in patients who received radiotherapy. HES, an antioxidant flavonoid found in citrus fruits, suggests the protection against the tissue damage. Fifty-eight rats were divided into four groups: Group 1 received phosphate buffered saline (PBS and sham radiation; Group 2, HES and sham radiation; Group 3, PBS and radiation; and Group 4, HES and radiation. The rats were exposed to single dose of 18 Gy of 6 MV X-ray. One hundred milligrams per kilogram doses of HES was administered for 7 days before irradiation. The estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and histopathological analyses was performed at 24 h and 8 weeks after radiation exposure. The irradiation of chest area resulted in an elevated MDA level and decreased SOD activity. Moreover, long-term pathological lesions of radiation were inflammation, fibrosis, the increased number of mast cells and macrophages, and development of plaque, vascular leakage, myocardial degeneration, and myocyte necrosis. Although the administration of HES decreases inflammation, fibrosis, mast cell and macrophage numbers, and myocyte necrosis, it did not result in reduced thrombus, myocardium degeneration, and vascular leakage. In conclusion, these results suggest that HES can perform a radioprotection action. The protective effect of HES may be attributable to its immunomodulatory effects and free radical-scavenging properties.

  15. The effect of cynanchi wilfordii radix ethanol extracts upon irradiated rat's blood and organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Oh; Choi, Jun Hyeok; Shin, Ji Hye; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Do Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The development of radioprotector is being actively conducted in order to reduce the damage from over radiation exposure at radiation accident or radiation therapy. So this study was confirmed for radiation protective effects using the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix that has been known to be effective for antioxidant activity, anti-cancer, immune enhancing effects. The method of this study was administered orally Cynanchi wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts to Sprague Dawley Rat(SD Rat) for 14 days once a day, while measuring changed blood cell, spleen index, liver and uterus tissue along the change in time of 1, 4, 7 and 21 days after X-ray beam of 7 Gy irradiation. As the result of the experiment, the experimental group's rats which are administered with Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts showed a rapid recovery in white blood cell count(p < 0.05) and spleen index(p < 0.05). In addition, condensation of nuclei, cytoplasmic swelling, and inflammatory cell infiltration in experimental group's liver cell was decreased more than in irradiation group's component. Further, experimental group's Uterine gland decreased the apoptosis more than irradiation group's components did. It is expected that Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix extracts will be useful as a new radioprotector. With above in mind, this paper may provide appropriate implications with the field of emergency management such as radiation accident.

  16. Study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on tooth extraction wound healing in rats. With special reference to irradiation after extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Akiyoshi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo. School of Dentistry)

    1983-11-01

    The wound of the upper jaw 3 days after the first molar tooth extraction in female rats was exposed to 1,500 rads (Group 2) and 2,000 rads (Group 3) of the 10 MeV electron beams, and its pathohistological changes were compared with those of rats with the tooth extraction alone (control group). In the control group, the tooth extraction wound was covered with epithelium 10 days later and new bones were formed 17 days later. Wound healing with the epithelium was seen in all irradiated rats 24 days later. The formation of the new teeth was seen 24 days later in the Group 2 and 38 days later in Group 3. Cell infiltration under the epithelial layers was still observed in some of the Group 3, although the wound was covered with epithelium, and the new bone covering the extraction wound was formed 38 days later. Healing was prolonged in Group 3, as compared with that in Group 2.

  17. Pediatric salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Zachary T. [University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Goud, Asha R. [University of California Irvine Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Orange, CA (United States); Lowe, Lisa H. [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Shao, Lei [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Pathology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2009-07-15

    A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

  18. Hepatic progenitor cell lines from allyl alcohol-treated adult rats are derived from gamma-irradiated mouse STO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjun; Sell, Stewart; Leffert, Hyam L

    2003-01-01

    In attempts to recharacterize several markers of putative rat liver progenitor cells, single-stage reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses failed to confirm the reported immunochemical detection of albumin, alpha(1)-fetoprotein, and cytochrome P450-1A2 in the clonal line, 3(8)#21, and the cloned derivative, 3(8)#21-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein). Undetectable expression occurred whether or not both lines were cultured on or off feeder layers of gamma-irradiated mouse embryonic STO (SIM [Sandoz inbred Swiss mouse] thioguanine-resistant ouabain-resistant) cells. PCR amplification of liver progenitor cell chromosomal (rat and mouse Pigr, rat INS1, mouse INS2) and mitochondrial (rat and mouse COX1) genes revealed only mouse sequences. Further analyses of rat and mouse COX1 sequences in cells from untampered storage vials of all 11 reported liver progenitor cell lines and strains revealed only mouse sequences. In addition, uniquely similar metaphase spreads were observed in STO, 3(8)#21, and 3(8)#21-EGFP cells. The combined results suggest that the previously reported "rat" liver progenitor cell lines were most likely generated during early derivation in cell culture from gamma-radiation-resistant or ineffectively irradiated mouse STO cells used as the feeder layers. These findings reveal new types of artifacts encountered in cocultures of tissue progenitor cells and feeder layer cell lines, and they sound a cautionary note: phenotypic and genotypic properties of feeder layers should be well-characterized before and during coculture with newly derived stem cells and clonal derivatives.

  19. Evaluation of photon irradiation treatment upon calcium content of ribs of Wistar rats using micro-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parreiras Nogueira, Liebert; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pereira de Almeida, Andre; Braz, Delson; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de; Salata, Camila; Andrade, Cherley Borba; Silva, Claudia Marcello da [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory / COPPE / UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute / State University of Rio de Janeiro, 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory / COPPE / UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratory of Radiological Sciences / State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-05-17

    Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have deleterious consequences on bone health. Among the treatment strategies used for breast cancer treatment, the most used are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy may be given to destroy the cancer cells using high-dose x-rays. Protocols vary considerably, but generally whole body irradiation totals from 10 to 15 Gy, whereas local therapy totals from 40 to 70 Gy. In clinical practice, the quantitative evaluation of bone tissue relies on measurements of bone mineral density values, which are closely associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Improved survivorship rates of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy increase the importance of understanding the mechanisms and long-term effects of radiation-induced bone loss. In this work, we investigated the variation on calcium distribution in ribs of female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to photon irradiation with a single dose of 20 Gy. The determination of the calcium distribution was performed using synchrotron radiation microfluorescence (SR-{mu}XRF) at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Animals were irradiated using the linear accelerator Varian registered (CLINAC 2100) at the University Centre for Cancer Control of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (CUCC/UERJ). The total dose delivered was 20 Gy. The animals were about three months old and weighting about 200g. They were distributed into two groups (seven per group): control (did not receive any treatment) and irradiated (submitted to irradiation procedure) groups. Results showed that calcium content decreased within the dorsal ribs of rats submitted to radiotherapy in comparison to the control group.

  20. Evaluation of photon irradiation treatment upon calcium content of ribs of Wistar rats using micro-XRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Liebert Parreiras; Barroso, Regina Cély; de Almeida, André Pereira; Braz, Delson; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Salata, Camila; Andrade, Cherley Borba; da Silva, Claudia Marcello

    2012-05-01

    Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have deleterious consequences on bone health. Among the treatment strategies used for breast cancer treatment, the most used are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy may be given to destroy the cancer cells using high-dose x-rays. Protocols vary considerably, but generally whole body irradiation totals from 10 to 15 Gy, whereas local therapy totals from 40 to 70 Gy. In clinical practice, the quantitative evaluation of bone tissue relies on measurements of bone mineral density values, which are closely associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Improved survivorship rates of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy increase the importance of understanding the mechanisms and long-term effects of radiation-induced bone loss. In this work, we investigated the variation on calcium distribution in ribs of female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to photon irradiation with a single dose of 20 Gy. The determination of the calcium distribution was performed using synchrotron radiation microfluorescence (SR-μXRF) at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Animals were irradiated using the linear accelerator Varian® (CLINAC 2100) at the University Centre for Cancer Control of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (CUCC/UERJ). The total dose delivered was 20 Gy. The animals were about three months old and weighting about 200g. They were distributed into two groups (seven per group): control (did not receive any treatment) and irradiated (submitted to irradiation procedure) groups. Results showed that calcium content decreased within the dorsal ribs of rats submitted to radiotherapy in comparison to the control group.

  1. The Effects of Irradiation and Calcium-deficient Diet on the Expression of Interleukin-1 during Tooth Formation of Rat Molar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Joong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    To elucidate the effects of the irradiation and calcium-deficient diet on expression of interleukin (IL)-1 during tooth formation of rat molar. The pregnant three-week-old Spague-Dawley rats were used for the study. The control group was non-irradiation/normal diet group, and the experimental groups were irradiation/normal diet group and irradiation/calcium-diet group. The abdomen of the rats on the 9th day of pregnancy were irradiated with single dose of 350 cGy. The rat pups were sacrificed on the 14th day after delivery and the maxillae tooth germs were taken. The specimen were prepared to make sections for light microscopy, and some of tissue sections were stained immunohistochemically with anti-IL-1 antibody. In the irradiation/normal diet group, dental follicle showed fewer blood vessels, mononuclear cells, and fusions of mononuclear cells than in non-irradiation/normal diet group. Alveolar bone showed a few osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Periodontal ligament showed collagen fibers and fibroblasts with irregularity. Weak immunoreactivity for IL-1 was shown in dental follicle, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament. In the irradiation/calcium-deficient diet group, dental follicle showed sparse cellularity. Alveolar bone showed diminished number of osteoblasts. Periodontal ligament showed irregular collagen fibers and atrophy of cementoblasts and fibroblasts. No immunoreactivity for IL-1 was shown in dental follicle, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament. Irradiation and calcium-deficient diet seems to cause disturbance of the expression of interleukin-1 during tooth formation of rat molar.

  2. HZE ⁵⁶Fe-ion irradiation induces endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta: role of xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy, Kevin G; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Kim, Jae Hyung; Oh, Young; Attarzadeh, David O; Sevinc, Baris; Kuo, Maggie M; Shoukas, Artin A; Vazquez, Marcelo E; Berkowitz, Dan E

    2011-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has been implicated in the development of significant cardiovascular complications. Since radiation exposure is associated with space exploration, astronauts are potentially at increased risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) iron-ion radiation on vascular and endothelial function as a model of space radiation. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body dose of iron-ion radiation at doses of 0, 0.5 or 1 Gy. In vivo aortic stiffness and ex vivo aortic tension responses were measured 6 and 8 months after exposure as indicators of chronic vascular injury. Rats exposed to 1 Gy iron ions demonstrated significantly increased aortic stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity. Aortic rings from irradiated rats exhibited impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation consistent with endothelial dysfunction. Acute xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition or reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging restored endothelial-dependent responses to normal. In addition, XO activity was significantly elevated in rat aorta 4 months after whole-body irradiation. Furthermore, XO inhibition, initiated immediately after radiation exposure and continued until euthanasia, completely inhibited radiation-dependent XO activation. ROS production was elevated after 1 Gy irradiation while production of nitric oxide (NO) was significantly impaired. XO inhibition restored NO and ROS production. Finally, dietary XO inhibition preserved normal endothelial function and vascular stiffness after radiation exposure. These results demonstrate that radiation induced XO-dependent ROS production and nitroso-redox imbalance, leading to chronic vascular dysfunction. As a result, XO is a potential target for radioprotection. Enhancing the understanding of vascular radiation injury could lead to the development of effective methods to ameliorate radiation-induced vascular damage.

  3. Influence of laser and LED irradiation on mast cells of cutaneous wounds of rats with iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher Rosa, Cristiane; Oliveira Sampaio, Susana C. P.; Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; Ferreira, Maria F. L.; Zanini, Fátima A. A.; Santos, Jean N.; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

    2011-03-01

    This work aimed to study histologically the effect of Laser or LED phototherapy on mast cells on cutaneous wounds of rats with iron deficiency. 18 rats were used and fed with special peleted iron-free diet. An excisional wound was created on the dorsum of each animal which were divided into: Group I - Control with anemia + no treatment; Group II - Anemia + Laser; Group III - Anemia + LED; Group IV - Healthy + no treatment; Group V - Healthy + Laser; Group VI - Healthy + LED. Irradiation was performed using a diode Laser (λ660nm, 40mW, CW, total dose of 10J/cm2, 4X2.5J/cm2) or a RED-LED ( λ700nm, 15mW, CW, total dose of 10J/cm2). Histological specimens were routinely processed, cut and stained with toluidine blue and mast cell counts performed. No significant statistic difference was found between groups as to the number of degranulated, non-degradulated or total mast cells. Greater mean values were found for degranulated mast cells in the Anemia + LED. LED irradiation on healthy specimens resulted in a smaller number of degranulated mast cells. Our results leads to conclude that there are no significant differences in the number of mast cells seven days after irradiation following Laser or LED phototherapy.

  4. Chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of rats irradiated with different gamma-doses and protected with adeturone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, B.; Mileva, M.; Bulanova, M.; Pantev, T. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1982-01-01

    Sexually mature wistor rats were irradiated on cesium gamma source ''IGUR-1'' with emissive power 3.25 mA/kg. The animals were divided in five groups of 10 rats each. They were irradiated respectively with 0.0129 C/kg, O, 0.0258 C/kg, 0.0516 C/kg, 0.1032 C/kg and control group. Five animals of each group received 300 meg/g weight Adeturone 15 minutes before exposure. The animals were sacrifices 20 hours after irradiation and preparations made from bone-marrow cells for chromosomal analysis. The number of structural chromosomal aberrations, aberrant cells and total number of aberrations in protected and in nonprotected cells were read under high-power microscope. The results were statistically processed by variation and regression analysis. It was found that Adeturone displays strong protective effect on the hereditary cell structures in all animals exposed to doses higher than 0.0129 C/kg, with the exception of chromatid fragments at a dose of 0.0258 C/kg. Mathematical models of the curves of the yields of chromatid and chromosomal fragments, aberrant cells and total number of aberrations in protected and nonprotected animals were described.

  5. Studies of the effects of radiation or surgery on the salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase composition in salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirsat, A.V.; Talavdekar, R.V.; Rajpal, R.M. (Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay (India))

    The total amylase activity and the isoamylase composition of saliva were studied in patients with salivary gland tumours before and after treatment to evaluate the efficiency of treatment in terms of its ability to restore normal or nearly normal salivary function. The material for the study comprised 35 normal subjects, one case of mumps and eight cases of histologically proved salivary gland tumours, three of which received radiation treatment and one was subjected to total parotidectomy. It is observed that there is a marked deviation from normal in the total salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase pattern in mumps and untreated salivary gland tumours and some increase in amylase activity is noticeable after treatment of these tumours, the increase being more marked after surgery. The salivary isoamylase pattern restored to normal in case of mumps after recovery and in salivary gland tumour after surgery but not after irradiation. These findings suggest that in view of the deleterious effects of radiaton on salivary gland function, surgery is preferable to radiation as the treatment of choice. Further studies are underway to assess the utility of the heat labile salivary amylase fraction obseved in these cases in detecting recurrences.

  6. EFFECT OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPLEX FROM WINE ON RATS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES ACTIVITY AT X-RAY IRRADIATION LOW DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. V. Datsyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the consumption of natural polyphenolic complex from grape wine in drinking water in the daily dose 2.5 ± 1.1 mg polyphenols/kg body mass of rats during the 10 day before exposure to radiation leads to increased of superoxide dismutase and gluthathione reductase activities in peripheral blood on 24 and 48 hours after full body X-ray irradiation (30 cGy. The of catalase, gluthathione peroxidase activities and the of the reactive thiobarbituric acid substances content in total lysates of peripheral blood within 72 hours after exposure are comparable to those in control rats. Marked decreased of catalase and superoxide dismutase activities at 24, 48 and 24 hours, respectively, was observed after exposure to ionizing radiation and increased content of lipid peroxidation products in all above mentioned time points. The decreased of superoxide dismutase and gluthathione peroxidase activities in lysates of rats aorta at 48 hour and increased content of the reactive thiobarbituric acid substances during 72 hours after radiation exposure were observed. The consumption of polyphenolic complex from wine did not change the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in lysates of aorta rats treated with ionizing radiation, whereas gluthathione reductase and gluthathione peroxidase activities was increased during 72 hours after radiation influence. The content of TBA reactive substances was significantly decreased in lysates of aorta rats that were exposed to radiation and polyphenols of grape wine, compared with those of animals that were exposed to radiation alone.

  7. Effect of He-Ne laser irradiation on spontaneous contractive activity and basal tone level of rat portal vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrishchev, Nikolai N.; Barabanova, Valeria V.; Mikhailova, Irina A.; Chephu, Svetlana G.

    2000-11-01

    To study the effect of He-Ne irradiation (632.8 nm, 15 mW/cm2) on spontaneous contractive activity the fragments of rat portal vein weremounted isometrically in Krebs buffer. Irradiation of vessel fragments by He-Ne laser during 3,5 and 10 min caused the decrease of ton up to 50%, which lasted in postirradiation period (the observation time - 10 min). The frequency of phasic and tonic contractions did not change, but the amplitude increased up to 40% as compared to the initial level. The decreased basal tone level and the increased amplitude of phasic oscillations lasted in postirradiation period. Adding NO synthasa blocator (N - nitro-L-arginine) to Krebs solution before irradiation caused no significant changes mentioned above parameters. Irradiation and coputing of the same parameters of spontaneous contractive activity of vena porta caused no effects, mentioned in the absence of the blocator. From the results it is concluded that the decrease of tone is evoked by the increase of EDRF production and cGMP. The increase of amplitude of phasic and tonic contractions is connected with increase of Ca++ entry in every contraction cycle as a result of membrane Ca++ pool increase.

  8. Dietary supplementation of extracts from a halophyte affects the level of the circulating enzymes in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. G.; Lee, B. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H.; Youn, Y. D. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Extracts from Salicornia herbacea with two extraction methods (using water or ethanol) were examined for their potential as a radioprotector. This plant accumulates a great amount of salt , Mg, Ca, Fe, and K and thus contains high levels of mineral in its body. It is famous as a remedial material for the constipation and glycosuria in folk medicine. The present study was designed to explore the in vivo antioxidant effects of water - and ethanol- extracts of S. herbacea. Both extracts of the plants were tested for their free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH assay. For the in vivo studies, male F344 rats (3 week- old) received po administration of both extracts 0.5 mg/ml during 5 days before whole- body irradiation. Six hours after irradiation, we measured the body and organ weight and collected blood. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed a similar pattern six hours after irradiation. In case of the water extract - dietary group after irradiation, the levels of all enzymes had a tendency to decrease toward to the base level. Therefore, the results reflects the antioxidant activity of S. herbacea extracts and its potential to protect against radiation damage.

  9. Fractionated irradiation and late changes in rat parotid gland: effects on the number of acinar cells, potassium efflux, and amylase secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzen, L.; Gustafsson, H.; Sundstroem, S.; Karlsson, M.; Littbrand, B.; Henriksson, R. (Umeaa Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Otorhinolaryngology, Histology and Cell Biology)

    1993-07-01

    The authors used different in vitro secretory models and quantitative morphological characterization of rat parotid gland following fractionated unilateral irradiation to one gland on a 5-day fraction schedule with 6 MV photons (total dose 30, 35, 40 and 45 Gy) or a two-fractions regimen in 5 days with total dose of 24 and 32 Gy. The contralateral shielded gland served as control, and parallel analyses of irradiated and control glands were performed 180 days following the last irradiation. The relative noradrenaline stimulated electrolyte secretion ([sup 86]rubidium tracer for potassium) was decreased in the irradiated compared with control glands. The noradrenaline-stimulated exocytotic amylase release was not significantly affected by irradiation, but the gland content of amylase was decreased dose-dependently. The quantitative morphological analysis revealed a dose-dependent decline in the number of acinar cells; the other parenchymal cells were unaffected by irradiation compared with controls. (author).

  10. Isolation and identification of previtamin D/sub 3/ from the skin of rats exposed to ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holick, M.F. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston); Richtand, N.M.; McNeill, S.C.; Holick, S.A.; Frommer, J.E.; Henley, J.W.; Potts, J.T. Jr.

    1979-03-20

    The process of the photolytic activation of vitamin D precursor(s) in the skin has been elucidated by a detailed analysis of the products formed after ultraviolet light exposure. The photolytic product isolated from the skin of rats exposed to ultraviolet irradiation was identified as previtamin D/sub 3/ by several criteria including its characteristic ultraviolet absorption spectrum, mass spectrum, and thermal isomerization to vitamin D/sub 3/, which itself was identified also by mass spectroscopy. Vitamin D/sub 3/ per se was not formed by ultraviolet irradiation-vitamin D/sub 3/ arises exclusively from the thermal conversion of previtamin D/sub 3/. Detectable amounts of lumisterol/sub 3/ or tachysterol/sub 3/ were not seen.

  11. Effect of a vitamin D{sub 3}-based nutritional supplement ('Videchol') on carbohydrate metabolism of rats following chronic low dose-rate irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starikovich, L.S.; Vernikovska, Ya.I.; Vigovska, T.V.; Veliky, M.M. [Lviv Ivan Franko National University, Department of Biochemistry, Lviv (Ukraine); Becerril Aragon, G.A. [Lviv Ivan Franko National University, Department of Biochemistry, Lviv (Ukraine)]. E-mail: gabriel_aragon@mail.ru

    2001-09-01

    In this study we evaluated the effects of the administration of a vitamin D{sub 3} preparation 'Videchol' to chronically irradiated rats (1 cGy day{sup -1}) by the assessment of the activities of several glycolytic enzymes: lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) (EC 1.1.1.28), pyruvate kinase (PK) (EC 2.7.1.40) and hexokinase (HK) (EC 2.7.1.1), in populations of erythroid and myeloid bone marrow cells. Videchol treatment of irradiated rats led to the normalisation of HK and LDH activity at cumulative doses of around 30 cGy in granulocyte-monocyte cells and to normalisation of LDH and PK activities in erythroid cells starting at 20 cGy in comparison with irradiated rats who did not receive Videchol. The reaction kinetic parameters of LDH in erythrocytes changed according to the redistribution pattern of the isozymes throughout the different stages of the experiment. The administration of Videchol to irradiated rats led to a rearrangement of the LDH isozymes ratio characterised by kinetic properties more comparable to those of the controls. Thus, vitamin D{sub 3} appears to induce a normalisation of carbohydrate metabolism in rats chronically irradiated with low dose-rate ionising radiation. (author)

  12. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.;

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases...... of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising...... malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising...

  13. [Effect of supposed radioprotectors on oxidation-reduction of vitamin E in the tissues of irradiated rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranich, A V; Pocherniaeva, V F; Dubinskaia, G M; Mishchenko, V P; Mironova, N G; Gugalo, V P; Nazarets, V V

    1993-01-01

    In experiments with mature Wistar male rats under irradiation by dose of 5 Gy the effect of emoxypine, citomedine and echinacea purpurea on the content of liposoluble vitamin A, carotene, vitamin E and its metabolites (quinone and oxidized tocopherol) in blood plasma, spleen, liver and testes was studied. It was shown the drugs under study mobilized the internal reserves of these vitamins and promoted effective functioning of vitamin E redox system. Mechanisms of their action are different. The drugs might be used as radioprotectors, but they exhaust the reserves of the liposoluble vitamins. Therefore they should be used in a combination with vitamin preparations.

  14. Salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M;

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance...... of the expression of these structures in a retrospective study of 133 patients with salivary gland carcinomas, using immunohistochemistry and a panel of well-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Sialosyl-Tn, T and sialosyl-T antigens were not correlated with prognosis...

  15. Arrested neuronal proliferation and impaired hippocampal function following fractionated brain irradiation in the adult rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torsten Meldgaard; Kristjansen, P.E.G.; Bolwig, Tom Gert

    2003-01-01

    irradiation blocked the formation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. At different time points after the termination of the irradiation procedure, the animals were tested in two tests of short-term memory that differ with respect to their dependence on hippocampal function. Eight and 21...

  16. Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases and some major substrates in the rat cerebellum after neonatal X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolphin, A.C.; Detre, J.A.; Schlichter, D.J.; Nairn, A.C.; Yeh, H.H.; Woodward, D.J.; Greengard, P.

    1983-02-01

    The levels of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (type I), or cGMP-dependent protein kinase, or protein I, and of a 23,000 MW substrate for the cGMP-dependent protein kinase were measured in cerebella from normal rats and in the cerebella from rats in which a selective loss of interneurons in the cerebellar cortex had been produced by X-irradiation. A decrease was observed in the concentrations of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and of protein I, whereas an increase was observed in the concentrations of cGMP-dependent protein kinase and of the 23,000 MW substrate. The data, taken together with the results of other studies, support the interpretation that cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein I are distributed throughout the cerebellum, but that cGMP-dependent protein kinase and the 23,000 MW substrate are highly concentrated in Purkinje cells.

  17. Intra-oral administration of rebamipide liquid prevents tongue injuries induced by X-ray irradiation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Takako; Uematsu, Naoya; Sakurai, Kazushi

    2017-07-01

    Oral mucositis is a common and serious side effect in patients who undergo cytotoxic cancer therapies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of rebamipide on radiation-induced glossitis model in rats. Glossitis was induced by a single dose of 15 Gy of X-rays to the snouts of rats (day 0). A novel form of rebamipide liquid comprising its submicronized crystals was administered intra-orally. The preventive effect of rebamipide on tongue injuries was macroscopically evaluated on day 7 following irradiation. The pretreatment period, dosing frequency, and dose dependency of rebamipide were examined. Two percent rebamipide liquid, administered six times a day for 14 days from day -7 to day 6, significantly decreased the ulcer-like area. However, no significant effect was observed when rebamipide was given either from day -4 or from day -1. Four or six times daily, 2% rebamipide liquid significantly inhibited the ulcer-like injury area ratio, but not when given twice daily. Rebamipide liquid, 1, 2, and 4% six times daily significantly reduced the area ratios of total injury and ulcer-like injury in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were dramatically elevated in the irradiated tongues of control rats on day 7 without rebamipide liquid treatment. They were dose-dependently and significantly suppressed in rebamipide-treated groups. Intra-oral administration of rebamipide liquid prevented oral mucositis dose-dependently accompanied by the suppression of inflammatory expression in the radiation-induced rats' glossitis model.

  18. Low-Level Laser Irradiation Improves Functional Recovery and Nerve Regeneration in Sciatic Nerve Crush Rat Injury Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chau-Zen; Chen, Yi-Jen; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Yeh, Ming-Long; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Ho, Mei-Ling; Liang, Jen-I; Chen, Chia-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The development of noninvasive approaches to facilitate the regeneration of post-traumatic nerve injury is important for clinical rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the effective dose of noninvasive 808-nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on sciatic nerve crush rat injury model. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 experimental groups: a normal group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 8 J/cm2 and a sciatic nerve crush injury group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 3, 8 or 15 J/cm2. Rats were given consecutive transcutaneous LLLT at the crush site and sacrificed 20 days after the crush injury. Functional assessments of nerve regeneration were analyzed using the sciatic functional index (SFI) and hindlimb range of motion (ROM). Nerve regeneration was investigated by measuring the myelin sheath thickness of the sciatic nerve using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by analyzing the expression of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) in sciatic nerve using western blot and immunofluorescence staining. We found that sciatic-injured rats that were irradiated with LLLT at both 3 and 8 J/cm2 had significantly improved SFI but that a significant improvement of ROM was only found in rats with LLLT at 8 J/cm2. Furthermore, the myelin sheath thickness and GAP43 expression levels were significantly enhanced in sciatic nerve-crushed rats receiving 808-nm LLLT at 3 and 8 J/cm2. Taken together, these results suggest that 808-nm LLLT at a low energy density (3 J/cm2 and 8 J/cm2) is capable of enhancing sciatic nerve regeneration following a crush injury. PMID:25119457

  19. Transcranial low-level infrared laser irradiation ameliorates depression induced by reserpine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Haitham S

    2016-11-01

    Transcranial low-level infrared laser is a modality of therapy based on the principle of photons delivered in a non-invasive manner through the skull for the treatment of some neurological conditions such as psychological disorders, traumatic brain injuries, and neurodegenerative diseases among others. In the present study, effects of low-level infrared laser irradiation with different radiation powers (80, 200, and 400 mW, continuous wave) were investigated on normal animals subjected to forced swimming test (FST). Results indicated that there are changes in FST parameters in animals irradiated with laser; the lowest dose provoked a significant increase in animal activity (swimming and climbing) and a significant decrease in animal's immobility, while the highest laser dose resulted in a complete inverse action by significantly increasing animal immobility and significantly decreasing animal activity with respect to control animals. The lowest dose (80 mW) of transcranial laser irradiation has then utilized on animals injected with a chronic dose of reserpine (0.2 mg/kg i.p. for 14 days) served as an animal model of depression. Laser irradiation has successfully ameliorated depression induced by reserpine as indicated by FST parameters and electrocorticography (ECoG) spectral analysis in irradiated animals. The findings of the present study emphasized the beneficial effects of low-level infrared laser irradiation on normal and healthy animals. Additionally, it indicated the potential antidepressant activity of the low dose of infrared laser irradiation.

  20. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  1. Delayed erythropoiesis in irradiated rats grafted with syngeneic marrow: effects of cytotoxic drugs and iron-deficiency anemia. [Gamma radiation; cyclophosphamide; busulfan; dimethylmyleran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodday, P.; Bennett, M.; Vitalle, J.J.

    1976-09-01

    Erythropoiesis in spleens of lethally irradiated Lewis rats grafted with 4-35 x 10/sup 6/ syngeneic marrow cells was inhibited or delayed during the test period of 5 days; this was in marked contrast to observations in irradiated mice. The mechanism of this inhibition was the subject of this study. Pretreatment of recipients 9 days prior to irradiation with the cytotoxic drugs cyclophosphamide (CY), busulfan (BUS), or dimethylmyleran (DMM), or the induction of iron deficiency with anemia in recipients reversed this delayed erythropoiesis. However, neither iron-deficiency anemia nor pretreatment with BUS or DMM affected the ability of irradiated recipients to reject 20 to 50 x 10/sup 6/ allogeneic marrow cells. The administration of commercial preparations of erythropoietin to hosts stimulated erythropoiesis moderately. However, proliferation of syngeneic marrow cells was not enhanced when infused into lethally irradiated spontaneous hypertensive (SH) inbred-strain rats which have high levels of endogenous erythropoietin. Finally, plasma from irradiated rats treated with phenylhydrazine to produce severe anemia was rich in erythropoietin but failed to stimulate erythropoiesis in the cell transfer system. Two hypotheses are considered.

  2. A synthetic superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-207 mitigates radiation dermatitis and promotes wound healing in irradiated rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctrow, Susan R; Lopez, Argelia; Schock, Ashley M; Duncan, Nathan E; Jourdan, Megan M; Olasz, Edit B; Moulder, John E; Fish, Brian L; Mäder, Marylou; Lazar, Jozef; Lazarova, Zelmira

    2013-04-01

    In the event of a radionuclear attack or nuclear accident, the skin would be the first barrier exposed to radiation, though skin injury can progress over days to years following exposure. Chronic oxidative stress has been implicated as being a potential contributor to the progression of delayed radiation-induced injury to skin and other organs. To examine the causative role of oxidative stress in delayed radiation-induced skin injury, including impaired wound healing, we tested a synthetic superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase mimetic, EUK-207, in a rat model of combined skin irradiation and wound injury. Administered systemically, beginning 48 hours after irradiation, EUK-207 mitigated radiation dermatitis, suppressed indicators of tissue oxidative stress, and enhanced wound healing. Evaluation of gene expression in irradiated skin at 30 days after exposure revealed a significant upregulation of several key genes involved in detoxication of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This gene expression pattern was primarily reversed by EUK-207 therapy. These results demonstrate that oxidative stress has a critical role in the progression of radiation-induced skin injury, and that the injury can be mitigated by appropriate antioxidant compounds administered 48 hours after exposure.

  3. Ameliorative effect of septilin, an ayurvedic preparation against gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Heba Hosny; Ismael, Naglaa El-Sayed Rifaat; Hafez, Hafez Farouk

    2014-04-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce multiple organ dysfunctions directly related to an increase of cellular oxidative stress, due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study was aimed to investigate the effect of septilin (an ayurvedic poly-herbal formulation containing the principal herbs, namely Commiphora wightii, Trinospora cordifolia, Rubia cardifolia, Emblica officinalis, Saussurea lappa and Glycyrrhiza glabra) against whole body gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative damage in hepatic and brain tissues in rats. Administration of septilin for 5 days (100 mg/kg) prior to radiation resulted in a significant increase in both superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total glutathione (GSH) level in hepatic and brain tissues, while serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) was reduced by gamma-irradiation. Also, septilin resulted in a significant decrease in NO(x), nitric oxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hepatic and brain tissues and a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) and total cholesterol levels and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, as well as serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), compared to irradiated group. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that septilin exhibited potential antioxidant activity and showed radioprotective effect against gamma-radiation by preventing oxidative stress and scavenging free radicals.

  4. Expression of activated ATF-2, CREB and c-Myc in rat colon transversum after whole-body gamma-irradiation and its contribution to pathogenesis and biodosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejchal, Jaroslav; Osterreicher, Jan; Vilasová, Zdenka; Tichý, Ales; Vávrová, Jirina

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of our study is to examine phospho-ATF-2(Thr-69/71) (phospho-activating transcription factor-2, p-ATF-2), phospho-CREB(Ser-133) (phospho-cAMP response binding element protein, p-CREB), and phospho-c-Myc(Thr-58/Ser-62) (phosho-myelocytomatosis protooncogene, p-c-Myc) expression in irradiated rat colon transversum. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided to 28 groups and irradiated with whole-body gamma-radiation of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 Gy. Samples were taken 4 and 24 hours after the irradiation, immunohistochemically stained. P-ATF-2, p-CREB, and p-c-Myc expression was measured. We measured increased cytoplasmatic p-ATF-2 expression 4 hours after irradiation by 0.25 - 1, 10 Gy and 24 hours after irradiation by 0.5 - 1, 10 Gy. Increased cytoplasmatic p-CREB expression was found 4 hours after irradiation by 0.25 - 1, 9, 10 Gy and 24 hours after irradiation by 0.25 - 1, 4, 10 Gy. Increased p-c-Myc cytoplasmatic expression was found 4 hours after irradiation by 0.25, 0.75, 4, 5 Gy and 24 hours after irradiation by 0.75, 1, 10 Gy. Nuclear p-ATF-2, p-CREB, and p-c-Myc expressions were similar to their cytoplasmatic expressions. The detection of p-ATF-2 and p-CREB might be considered as a perspective biodosimetric tool for irradiated enterocytes in vivo. The use of p-c-Myc appears to be controversial due to the ambivalent expression values.

  5. Adrenoceptor-activated nitric oxide synthesis in salivary acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia; Dissing, Steen; Tritsaris, Katerina

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the cellular regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid and human labial salivary glands, using the newly developed fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) indicator, DAF-2. We found that sympathetic stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) caus...

  6. Loss of albumin and megalin binding to renal cubilin in rats results in albuminuria after total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammani, Raghunatha R; Sharma, Mukut; Seetharam, Shakuntla; Moulder, John E; Dahms, Nancy M; Seetharam, Bellur

    2002-08-01

    The role of the renal apical brush-border membrane (BBM) endocytic receptors cubilin and megalin in the onset of albuminuria in rats exposed to a single dose of total body irradiation (TBI) has been investigated. Albuminuria was evident as immunoblot (IB) analysis of the urine samples from TBI rats revealed excretion of large amounts of albumin. IB analysis of the BBM proteins did not reveal any significant changes in cubilin or megalin levels, but (125)I-albumin binding to BBM from TBI rats declined by 80% with a fivefold decrease (from 0.5 to 2.5 microM) in the affinity for albumin. IB analysis of cubilin from the BBM demonstrated a 75% loss when purified using albumin, but not intrinsic factor (IF)-cobalamin (Cbl) ligand affinity chromatography. Immunoprecipitation (IP) of Triton X-100 extract of the BBM with antiserum to cubilin followed by IB of the immune complex with an antiserum to megalin revealed a 75% loss of association between megalin and cubilin. IP studies with antiserum to cubilin or megalin and IB with antiserum to the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II-receptor (CIMPR) revealed that CIMPR interacted with both cubilin and megalin. In addition, TBI did not disrupt the association of CIMPR with either cubilin or megalin in BBM. These results suggest that albuminuria noted in TBI rats is due to selective loss of albumin and megalin, but not CIMPR or IF-Cbl binding by cubilin. Furthermore, these results also suggest that albumin and IF-Cbl binding to cubilin occur at distinct sites and that in the rat renal BBM, CIMPR interacts with both cubilin and megalin.

  7. Antinociceptive effect of linear polarized 0.6 to 1.6 microm irradiation of lumbar sympathetic ganglia in chronic constriction injury rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneshige, Hiroshi; Toda, Katsuhiro; Ma, Dianli; Kimura, Hiroaki; Asou, Tomohiro; Ikuta, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Linear polarized near-infrared light created with linear polarized near-infrared light therapy equipment (Super Lizer HA-550, Tokyo Iken Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) has been used for the treatment of various painful disorders in Japan. Irradiation near the stellate ganglion with a Super Lizer (ISGL) is an especially notable therapeutic method used with stellate ganglion block (SGB) or substitutes for SGB. ISGL is a safe, simple, well-tolerated, and effective treatment. We examined the effects of irradiation with a Super Lizer applied to an area near the lumbar sympathetic ganglia on the ligated side in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, which is believed to be an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Rats showing thermal hyperalgesia in a radiant heat test 1 wk postoperatively were used in Experiments 1 and 2: (1) Thermal hyperalgesia of irradiation group (n = 11) was less than that of the control or nonirradiation (n = 11) group at 1, 3, and 8 h after irradiation; however, the effect disappeared 12 h after irradiation. (2) Daily irradiation (n = 16) and 1 wk (n = 14) from 7 days after nerve ligation significantly shortened the interval from thermal hyperalgesia until recovery. Rats showing mechanical hyperalgesia in the von Frey hair test 1 wk postoperatively were used in Experiment 3: 1 wk irradiation beginning 7 days after nerve ligation (n = 9) did not promote the recovery from mechanical hyperalgesia. We speculate that repeated ISGL may be more effective than a single ISGL in alleviating pain in CRPS patients. We cannot explain the discrepancy between the results obtained in Experiments 2 and 3. We believe the results of this study are relevant to the effect of ISGL for patients with upper-limb CRPS: irradiation near the lumbar sympathetic ganglia of the rat is effective for thermal but not mechanical pain in CCI.

  8. The action of a dietary retinoid on gene expression and cancer induction in electron-irradiated rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F.J.; Chen, S.; Xu, G.; Wu, F.; Tang, M.S. [New York Univ., NY (United States). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    Current models of radiation carcinogenesis generally assume that the DNA is damaged in a variety of ways by the radiation and that subsequent cell divisions contribute to the conversion of the damage to heritable mutations. Cancer may seem complex and intractable, but its complexity provides multiple opportunities for preventive interventions. Mitotic inhibitors are among the strongest cancer preventive agents, not only slowing the growth rate of preneoplasias but also increasing the fidelity of DNA repair processes. Ionizing radiation, including electrons, is a strong inducer of cancer in rat skin, and dietary retinoids have shown potent cancer preventive activity in the same system. A non-toxic dietary dose of retinyl acetate altered gene expression levels 24 hours after electron irradiation of rat skin. Of the 8740 genes on an Affymetrix rat expression array, the radiation significantly (5 fold or higher) altered 188, while the retinoid altered 231, including 16 radiation-altered genes that were reversely altered. While radiation strongly affected the expression of stress response, immune/inflammation and nucleic acid metabolism genes, the retinoid most strongly affected proliferation-related genes, including some significant reversals, such as, keratin 14, retinol binding protein, and calcium binding proteins. These results point to reversal of proliferation-relevant genes as a likely basis for the anti-radiogenic effects of dietary retinyl acetate. (author)

  9. The action of a dietary retinoid on gene expression and cancer induction in electron-irradiated rat skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Fredric J.; Chen, Shuaili; Xu, Guijuan; Wu, Feng; Tang, Moon-Shong

    2002-01-01

    Current models of radiation carcinogenesis generally assume that the DNA is damaged in a variety of ways by the radiation and that subsequent cell divisions contribute to the conversion of the damage to heritable mutations. Cancer may seem complex and intractable, but its complexity provides multiple opportunities for preventive interventions. Mitotic inhibitors are among the strongest cancer preventive agents, not only slowing the growth rate of preneoplasias but also increasing the fidelity of DNA repair processes. Ionizing radiation, including electrons, is a strong inducer of cancer in rat skin, and dietary retinoids have shown potent cancer preventive activity in the same system. A non-toxic dietary dose of retinyl acetate altered gene expression levels 24 hours after electron irradiation of rat skin. Of the 8740 genes on an Affymetrix rat expression array, the radiation significantly (5 fold or higher) altered 188, while the retinoid altered 231, including 16 radiation-altered genes that were reversely altered. While radiation strongly affected the expression of stress response, immune/inflammation and nucleic acid metabolism genes, the retinoid most strongly affected proliferation-related genes, including some significant reversals, such as, keratin 14, retinol binding protein, and calcium binding proteins. These results point to reversal of proliferation-relevant genes as a likely basis for the anti-radiogenic effects of dietary retinyl acetate.

  10. The Possible Improving Effects of γ-Irradiated and/or Extruded Soy Flour on Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaat G. HAMZA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is serious conditions that can cause fatal complications without careful management. Among the dietary supplementation with functional food, soybeans possess variety of antioxidant compounds that may lower incidence of hypercholesterolemia and degenerative cardiovascular disease. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of gammairradiated and/or extruded soy flour on hypercholesterolemic rats. Processing of soy flour by γ-irradiation and/or extrusion reduced the amount of antinutritional factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitor and resulted in different changes in the total amino acids and fatty acid contents. The animals maintained on the HCD showed remarkable decrease in the level of HDL-C associated with significant increase in the values of serum total lipid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, vLDL-C and the risk ratio in addition to serum concentration of urea, creatinine and uric acid in comparison with those of the control group. However, dietary supplementation of raw and treated soy flour resulted in reduction in the bad changes induced by HCD in the above mentioned parameters. In conclusion, treated soy flour supplementation in diet of rats pointed out to its hypocholesterolemic effect and its ability to improve lipid profile and kidney function of hypercholesterolemic rats.

  11. Sialography And Salivary Scan Study Of Salivary Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yun Kyung; Lee, Sang Rae; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to established the characteristic radiographic features in salivary gland diseases by means of sialography and scintigraphy. Sialograms and scintigrams with diseases of salivary gland were examined. In this group were 5 salivary stones, 14 sialadenitis, 17 Sjogren's syndromes and 8 benign tumors. The obtained results were as follows;1. In the configuration of the shape of main duct, those revealed that modified curvilinear and curvilinear types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes but reverse sigmoid and angular types were in sialolithiasis and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 2. In the configuration of the course of main duct, those revealed that smooth types were predominant in sialadenitis and irregular types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes and benign tumors and irregular types were seen in all salivary stones and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 3. In the type of intraglandular pattern, those revealed that destructive changes of salivary duct system and parenchyma were severe in sialadenitis and salivary stones and predominantly severe in Sjogren's syndromes. 4. The function of salivary gland was decreased severely in Sjogren's syndrome. and also decrease in salivary stone and sialadenitis. In benign tumor, the uptake of radioisotope was not seen in lesion and the function of salivary gland decreased in its remaining normal parenchyma.

  12. Treatment Options by Stage (Salivary Gland Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  13. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland Cancer Go to Health ... These glands are found below the jawbone. Enlarge Anatomy of the salivary glands. The three main pairs ...

  14. Effects of wearing bio-active material coated fabric against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damaged in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jung Ae; Kim, Hye Rim; Yoon, Sun Hye; Nam, Sang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Jang, Beom Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Go, Kyung Chan; Yang, Gwang Wung; Rho, Young Hwan; Park, Hyo Suk [Research and Development Center, VENTEX Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Ionizing radiation causes cellular damage and death through the direct damage and/or indirectly the production of ROS, which induces oxidative stress. This study was designed to evaluate the in vivo radioprotective effects of a bio-active material coated fabric (BMCF) against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Healthy male SD rats wore bio-active material coated (concentrations in 10% and 30%) fabric for 7 days after 3 Gy of γ-irradiation. Radioprotective effects were evaluated by performing various biochemical assays including spleen and thymus index, WBC count, hepatic damage marker enzymes [aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] in plasma, liver antioxidant enzymes, and mitochondrial activity in muscle. Exposure to γ-irradiation resulted in hepatocellular and immune systemic damage. Gamma-irradiation induced decreases in antioxidant enzymes. However, wearing the BMCF-30% decreased significantly AST and ALT activities in plasma. Furthermore, wearing the BMCF-30% increased SOD (superoxide dismutase) and mitochondrial activity. These results suggest that wearing BMCF offers effective radioprotection against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in SD rats.

  15. Dental mineralization and salivary activity are reduced in offspring of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR A mineralização dental e a atividade salivar estão reduzidas em filhotes de ratas espontaneamente hipertensas (SHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracieli Prado Elias

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Several pathologies have been diagnosed in children of hypertensive mothers; however, some studies that evaluated the alterations in their oral health are not conclusive. This study analyzed the salivary gland activity and dental mineralization of offsprings of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Thirty-day-old SHR males and Wistar rats were studied. The salivary flow was evaluated by injection of pilocarpine, the protein concentration and salivary amylase activity, by the Lowry method and kinetic method at 405 nm, respectively. Enamel and dentin mineralization of the mandibular incisors was quantified with aid of the microhardness meter. The results were analyzed by the ANOVA or Student's t test (pDiversas patologias têm sido diagnosticadas em filhos de mães hipertensas, entretanto alguns estudos que avaliaram as possíveis alterações na saúde oral não são conclusivos. Neste trabalho foram analisadas a atividade das glândulas salivares e a mineralização dental de filhotes de ratas espontaneamente hipertensas (SHR. Ratos machos, com 30 dias de vida, SHR e Wistar, foram estudados. O fluxo salivar foi avaliado pela injeção de pilocarpina e a concentração de proteínas e atividade da amilase na saliva, pelo método de Lowry e método cinético a 405 nm, respectivamente. A mineralização do esmalte e dentina de incisivos inferiores foi quantificada através da medida da microdureza. Os resultados foram analisados pelo teste ANOVA ou t de Student's não pareado (p<0,05. Verificou-se que o fluxo salivar (0,026 mL/min/100 g ± 0,002 e a concentração de proteínas na saliva (2,26 mg/mL ± 0,14 de filhotes SHR estavam reduzidos em comparação com filhotes normotensos Wistar (0,036 mL/min/100 g ± 0,003 e 2,91 mg/mL ± 0,27, respectivamente, porém sem nenhuma alteração da atividade da amilase (SHR: 242,4 U/mL ± 36,9, Wistar: 163,8 U/mL ± 14,1. A microdureza mostrou-se menor tanto no esmalte (255,8 KHN ± 2,6 quanto na dentina (59

  16. Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-González, S; Bradley, K; Rico-Pérez, J; Vogiatzis, P; Golka, D; Nigam, A; Sivaramalingam, M; Kazmi, S

    2015-11-01

    Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) or malignant myoepithelioma is a rare entity. MC usually presents as a slow-growing painless mass arising in the parotid gland, but may involve other salivary glands. This tumour may be particularly locally aggressive, but its clinical and biological features are not yet fully understood. MC may arise from pre-existing benign lesions, such as pleomorphic adenomas or benign myoepitheliomas, or may arise de novo. It usually affects patients over 50 years old, with no gender preference. Because it is often asymptomatic, the presentation and diagnosis can be delayed by months, even years. The current WHO classification considers MC to be an intermediate- to high-grade malignancy. Other published data suggest it is likely to be a high-grade neoplasm, consistent with its aggressive behaviour. Its epidemiology, histopathological features, immunohistochemical profile, clinical behaviour and optimal management are not well understood. Following review of the current literature we aim to address these.

  17. Salivary duct carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Helle; Elhakim, Mohammad Talal; Godballe, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    1990 to 2005 were identified. Histological slides were reviewed, and data concerning demographics, tumour site, clinical stage, treatment profiles and follow-up were retrieved. Survival estimates and prognostic factors were evaluated by comparing Kaplan-Meier plots using the Mantel-Haenszel log......-rank test. RESULTS: Salivary duct carcinoma showed an incidence of 0.04/100.000 inhabitants/year. Distant recurrence was seen in 52% of patients. Five-year overall survival, disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival were 32%, 42% and 35%, respectively. Univariate analyses suggested that overall...... stage (III/IV) and vascular invasion have a negative impact on all survival measures. Involved resection margins correlated with a poorer overall survival and disease-specific survival, whereas adjuvant radiotherapy improved overall survival and recurrence-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: Salivary duct...

  18. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  19. Labial salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, B W; Damm, D D; Weir, J C; Fantasia, J E

    1988-05-15

    A study was conducted on labial salivary gland tumors from four oral pathology laboratories. Of the 103 identified tumors, 87 (84.5%) were from the upper lip, whereas 16 (15.5%) were from the lower lip. Of the 87 upper lip tumors, 80 (92.0%) were benign. Forty-three of these were monomorphic adenomas and 37 were pleomorphic adenomas. Seven malignant tumors of the upper lip were as follows: four adenoid cystic carcinomas, two acinic cell carcinomas, and one adenocarcinoma. Of the 16 lower lip tumors, 15 (93.8%) were malignant. Thirteen of these were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and two were acinic cell carcinomas. The only benign lower lip tumor was an intraductal papilloma. These results confirm the findings of previous investigations, showing that minor salivary gland tumors are much more common in the upper lip than the lower lip, but that lower lip tumors are more likely to be malignant.

  20. Low-dose X-irradiation of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Efficacy of different fractionation schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebmann, A.; Hindemith, M.; Jahns, J.; Kamprad, F.; Hildebrandt, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany); Madaj-Sterba, P.; Weisheit, S. [Medical-Experimental Center, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    Background and purpose: low-dose radiotherapy is widely accepted as a very effective treatment option for inflammatory symptoms associated with painful degenerative joint disorders. Radiation doses and fractionation schedules in practical use are empirical and mainly based on clinical observations. Experimental data are rare. The efficacy of low-dose X-irradiation on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats using different fractionation schemes was investigated in vivo, in order to explore whether there is a dose and fractionation dependence. Material and methods: adjuvant arthritis in female lewis rats (n = 128) was induced by intradermal injection of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis on day 0. Both arthritic hind paws were sham-irradiated (group 1: days 10-14; group 2: days 15-19; group 3: days 22-26) or X-irradiated with either 5 x 1.0 Gy (group 4: days 10-14; group 6: days 15-19; group 8: days 22-26; group 10: days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18) or 5 x 0.5 Gy (group 5: days 10-14; group 7: days 15-19; group 9: days 22-26; group 11: days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18; group 12: days 10-14 and 22-26). The clinical parameters arthritis score (AS), hind paw volume (HPV), and body weight were determined. Results: a significant decrease of the clinical arthritis parameters was observed following 5 x 0.5 Gy or 5 x 1.0 Gy during the acute maximum of the inflammatory response (days 15-19). The most pronounced treatment effect was reached after two daily fractionated series of 5 x 0.5 Gy with an early treatment onset (days 10-14) and repetition in interval (days 22-26). After the application of 5 x 1.0 Gy on days 10-14 or in a protracted scheme (days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18), only a nonsignificant positive trend could be detected. Daily fractionated X-irradiation in the chronic phase of adjuvant arthritis (days 22-26) did not show any positive clinical effect. Conclusion: low-dose radiotherapy is able to prevent a full-blown arthritic reaction if given during the florid phase of

  1. DNA-flow cytometry of defined stages of rat seminiferous epithelium: Effects of 3 Gy of high-energy X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, M.; Veromaa, T.; Kulmala, J.; Kaipia, A.; Parvinen, M.; Toppari, J. (Univ. of Turku (Finland))

    1990-05-01

    Testes of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated locally by 3 Gy of 4 MeV X-rays produced by a linear accelerator. This type and dose of radiation gives an even distribution through the testis and selectively kills the proliferating spermatogonia. The seminiferous tubular cells were quantified by DNA flow cytometry at defined stages of the epithelial cycle at 7, 17, 22, 38, 52, and 80 days after irradiation. The flow cytometric technique was modified by using frozen instead of fresh samples. Freezing did not alter cell numbers when compared with fresh samples. At 7 days post-irradiation no significant changes were observed in any cell population by DNA flow cytometry, whereas histological analysis revealed a reduction in intermediate and type B spermatogonia. At 17 and 22 days post-irradiation, the number of cells at meiotic prophase (4C) was decreased, particularly in stages II-V of the cycle. In stages VII-VIII, cell numbers were 40 and 31%, and in stages IX-XIII, 24 and 43% of that in non-irradiated controls at 17 and 22 days, respectively. At 38 days after irradiation, both 4C and 1C (haploid) cells were decreased in number. The 4C cells were reduced to 24, 17, and 13% of that in non-irradiated controls in stages II-V, VII-VIII, and IX-XIII of the cycle, respectively. The corresponding numbers of 1C cells were 5, 17, and 4%. At 52 days after irradiation, 1C cells had declined to 38 and 19% of control values in stages II-V and IX-XIII, respectively. In stages II-V, 1C' cells (haploid cells with condensed nuclei) declined to 28% of controls at 52 days. The present data provide a quantitative basis for the use of X-ray-irradiated rat testes as a model system in experiments pursuing interactions between Sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells.

  2. Extracorporeal irradiation of the blood in a rat model for human acute myelocytic leukemia. Increased efficacy after combination with cell mobilization by low-molecular-weight dextran sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenbeek, A.; Martens, A.C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The efficacy of extracorporeal irradiation of the blood (ECIB) in combination with cell mobilization by dextran sulfate (DS; MW 17,000) was investigated in a rat model for human acute myelocytic leukemia. Repeated injections with DS (q 3 hr) induced a significant increase in the number of peripheral

  3. Effect of Whole-Body X-Irradiation of the Synthesis of Individual Fatty Acids in Liver Slices from Normal and Fasted Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Hansen, Lisbeth Grænge; Faber, M.

    1965-01-01

    (1) Using (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) butyrate as precursors, rat-liver fatty acids were synthesized in vitro and assayed by paper chromatography. (2) Whole-body x-irradiation induced a change in the synthetic pattern of hepatic fatty acids towards a relatively enhanced synthesis of palmitic acid...

  4. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  5. Cinétique de l'apoptose induite après irradiation α in vitro de macrophages alvéolaires de rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizon, C.; Poncy, J. L.; Fritsch, P.

    1998-04-01

    After in vitro α-particle irradiation of rat alveolar macrophages, apoptosis and necrosis induction have been quantified. Results show a different radiosensitivity depending on time after cell plating and a maximal apoptosis frequency which occurred 48 hours after the end of irradiation. L'induction d'apoptose et de nécrose a été quantifiée d'après irradation α in vitro de macrophages alvéolaires de rats. Les résultats montrent une radiosensibilité dépendante du temps de culture et l'apparition d'un pic d'apoptose 48 heures après la fin de l'irradiation.

  6. [Use of the most recent reagent (CuFL) for stimulation of NO synthesis by the medicinal leech salivary cell secretion in the cultures of human endothelium cells (HUVEC) and in rat cardiomiocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskova, I P; Alekseeva, A Iu; Kostiuk, S V; Neverova, M E; Smirnova, T D; Veĭko, N N

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal leech salivary cell secretion (SCS) may stimulate NO-production in cultures of human endothelium cells (HUVEC) and rat cardiomiocytes (RCM). This effect was detected using a NO specific reagent, - the complex Cu2+ with a fluorescein derivative (Cu-Fl). NO had also been detected in the cells by fluorescent electronic microscopy and determined quantitatively in the cells and in culture fluid by the fluorescence method. SCS stimulated NO synthesis in HUVEC cells (but not in RCM) is accompanied by NO release into intercellular space. Localization of NO synthesis centers is presented and it is shown that the increase in NO levels during the SCS action on HUVEC and RCM is associated with the increase in the activity of eNOS/nNOS, but not iNOS. In endothelial cells SCS activates nitrosylation processes, assessed by the increase of nitrite-ions in the culture medium. It is therefore important to use Cu-Fl, other than Griss-reagent, during the first hour of analysis of NO synthesis. The NO-depended mechanism of SCS action on endothelial cells might be a factor in providing of its positive action in hirudotheraphy.

  7. 烟酰胺磷酸核糖转移酶在大鼠涎腺的表达及定位%Expression and localization of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase in salivary glands of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵西博; 张歆; 李秀秀; 高媛; 向彬; 张福胤

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the expression and distribution of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt)in rat salivary glands. [ Methods ] The expressions of Nampt mRNA and protein were investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR) and Western Blot in the parotid,submandibular and major sublingual glands of rat.Immunohistochemical assay was applied to detect the distribution of Nampt in these glands too. [ Results] The results of RT- PCR showed that the optical density of the expression of Nampt mRNA was 82.04% ,50.89% and 30.53% respectively in the parotid, submandibular and major sublingual glands of rat ( P < 0.05, compared with actin). The results of Western blot showed that the optical density of the expression of Nampt protein was 77.34% ,47.61% and 31.78% ,respectively in these glands (P < 0.05, compared with actin). Nampt protein was widely distributed in them, mainly localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of both serous acinar cells and ductal cells. [ Conclusions] Nampt mRNA and protein are expressed in the parotid,submandibular and major sublingual glands of rat,and may be involved in underlying mechanisms of physiology and patho- physiology in the salivary glands.%[目的]研究烟酰胺磷酸核糖转移酶(nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase,Nampt)在大鼠涎腺的表达和分布.[方法]应用半定量逆转录聚合酶链法(RT-PCR)和免疫印迹法检测大鼠正常腮腺、颌下腺和大舌下腺组织Nampt mRNA及蛋白质的表达.采用免疫组织化学法检测大鼠腮腺、颌下腺和大舌下腺组织Nampt的分布.[结果]大鼠腮腺、颌下腺和大舌下腺组织均有Nampt的mRNA及蛋白质表达,RT-PCR结果显示其表达相对光密度值分别为:腮腺82.04%,颌下腺50.89%,大舌下腺30.53%(与aetin比较,P<0.05);Western Blot结果显示其表达相对光密度值分别为:腮腺77.34%,颌下腺47.61%,大舌下腺31.78%(与actin比较,P<0.05).Nampt均主要分布于

  8. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S.B.; Pedersen, A.M.L.; Vissink, A.

    2010-01-01

    submandibular and minor salivary glands, as these glands are major contributors to moistening of oral tissues. Other cancer treatments also induce salivary gland hypofunction, although to a lesser severity, and in the case of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, the adverse effect is temporary. Fields of sparse...... literature included pediatric cancer populations, cancer chemotherapy, radioactive iodine treatment, total body irradiation/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and immunotherapy......This systematic review aimed to assess the literature for prevalence, severity, and impact on quality of life of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies. The electronic databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE were searched for articles published in English since...

  9. Irradiation of rat brain reduces P-glycoprotein expression and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, J.; Nagengast, W.B.; Coppes, R.P.; Wegman, T.D.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Groen, H.J.; Vaalburg, W.; Vries, E.G.F. de; Hendrikse, N.H.

    2007-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) hampers delivery of several drugs including chemotherapeutics to the brain. The drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), expressed on brain capillary endothelial cells, is part of the BBB. P-gp expression on capillary endothelium decreases 5 days after brain irradiation,

  10. MASM, a Matrine Derivative, Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Multiple Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Jing; Lu, Yiming; Qiu, Lei; Xu, Weiheng; Lu, Bin; Hu, Zhenlin; Chu, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2016-05-17

    Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait and has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-fibrosis, and immunosuppressive properties. In our previous studies, the matrine derivative MASM was synthesized and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against liver fibrosis. In this study, we mainly investigated its protection against lethal total-body irradiation (TBI) in rats. Administration of MASM reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of rats before or after lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that pretreatment of rats with MASM significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed that pretreatment with MASM had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by TBI. Pretreatment with MASM prevented differential expression of 53% (765 genes) of 1445 differentially expressed genes induced by TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 21 pathways, such as metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Our data indicated that pretreatment of rats with MASM modulated these pathways induced by TBI, suggesting that the pretreatment with MASM might provide the protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways, such as multiple MAPK pathways. Therefore, MASM has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radioprotective agent to minimize irradiation damages and in combination with radiotherapy to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy.

  11. MASM, a Matrine Derivative, Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Multiple Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait and has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-fibrosis, and immunosuppressive properties. In our previous studies, the matrine derivative MASM was synthesized and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against liver fibrosis. In this study, we mainly investigated its protection against lethal total-body irradiation (TBI in rats. Administration of MASM reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of rats before or after lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that pretreatment of rats with MASM significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed that pretreatment with MASM had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by TBI. Pretreatment with MASM prevented differential expression of 53% (765 genes of 1445 differentially expressed genes induced by TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 21 pathways, such as metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Our data indicated that pretreatment of rats with MASM modulated these pathways induced by TBI, suggesting that the pretreatment with MASM might provide the protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways, such as multiple MAPK pathways. Therefore, MASM has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radioprotective agent to minimize irradiation damages and in combination with radiotherapy to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy.

  12. Studies of the effect of 0. 4-Gy and 0. 6-Gy prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal adult behavior in the Wistar rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.; Vogel, W.H.

    1987-02-01

    Thirty-four pregnant Wistar rats were X-irradiated on the 9th or 17th day of gestation at a dosage level 0.4 Gy or 0.6 Gy or were sham-irradiated. All mothers were allowed to deliver their offspring, and litters were limited to a maximum of eight on day 2. On day 30, 224 offspring were weaned and raised until 60 days of age, at which time testing began. Each rat randomly received, in random order, three of the following six behavioral tests: Water T-maze, Conditioned Avoidance Response, Forelimb Hanging, Activity Wheel, Swimming, and Open Field. There were no statistically significant differences between the irradiated and control groups for maternal weight or weight gain or mean litter size, although the litter size of the 17th day 0.6-Gy group was slightly lower. Among offspring irradiated with 0.6 Gy on the 17th day, 3-day-old neonates' weights were significantly reduced. Offspring irradiated on the 17th day with 0.6 Gy exhibited higher Conditioned Avoidance Response 5th-day and retest avoidance scores than did the controls. There were also significant sex differences in responses within the irradiated and control groups for several tests, which were unrelated to radiation exposure. The results of this study indicate that low-level X-irradiation during the fetal period of rat gestation results in neonatal growth retardation and subtle behavioral alterations that may be manifested in adult life. Growth retardation may be the most sensitive indicator of subtle effects that result from low-level prenatal exposure to X-rays.

  13. Comparative study and histomorphometric analysis of bone allografts lyophilized and sterilized by autoclaving, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare three sterilization methods (autoclave, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide over non demineralized lyophilized bone allografts. METHODS: Bone allografts were implanted on paravertebral muscles of 21 rats. After 30 days animals were sacrificed and grafts underwent comparative analysis regarding histomorphometric and macroscopic parameters. RESULTS: Allografts that underwent the three sterilization methods presents similar weight gain, cortical thickness similar to control group, and less fibrosis than the control group. Grafts that underwent sterilization in autoclave presented less presence of multinucleated giant cells, although not statistically significant. There was also no statistically significant difference regarding mineralization on the three groups. CONCLUSION: The three sterilization methods cause similar effects on bone allografts regarding macroscopic and histomorphometric parameters.

  14. Effects of x-irradiation on steroid biotransformations by testicular tissue. Final report, May 1, 1966--July 31, 1976. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.C.

    1976-08-01

    A number of parameters of testicular and body function were investigated after various dosages of x-irradiation to ascertain: what relationship they have to the radiation syndrome and testicular repression and regeneration of the rat; and how sensitive these parameters are to radiation. Changes in androgen synthesis were not well correlated with either body or gonad weights, hematocrit values or testicular histology. Lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, metabolism of testosterone, prostaglandins, cyclic nucleotides and serotonin metabolism were all related to the direct effects of radiation on the male gonad. Indirect effects on the testis appear to be mediated by serotonin and the pineal gland. The pineal gland appeared to be responsible for variations in androgen synthesis and radiosensitivity of the testis through its secretory products-melatonin and arginine vasopressin. These compounds have the capacity of inducing endocrine rhythms by affecting: the hypothalamus-pituitary axis; the liver; and/or the gonad directly.

  15. In vivo mutagenicity studies in rats mice and Chinese hamsters fed irradiated foodstuffs - chicken, fish, dates, pulses, mangoes and cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, H.W.

    1982-11-01

    Three in vivo genetic toxicity tests were performed in rats, mice and Chinese hamsters to detect possible mutagenic effects of irradiated chicken, dried dates, fish, cocoa beans, pulses and mangoes. The tests employed were the micronucleus test and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) test for irradiated and unirradiated samples of all foodstuffs listed, and the spermatogonia test, (including SCE technique) in mice for irradiated and unirradiated chicken, fish and dates only. In the case of cocoa beans, the mutagenicity tests were performed on an additional test group fed beans fumigated with ethylene oxide. The different mammalian species used for the various experiments are given below. None of the tests provided any evidence of mutagenicity induced by irradiation in any of the foodstuffs studied. Moreover, these tests are currently considered to be the most sensitive in vivo mutagenicity tests in mammals.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of alanine and aspartate transaminases in subcellular fractions of the brain and heart in white rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plenin, A.E.

    1973-01-01

    In experiments on rats, the activity of alanine (I) and aspartate transaminases (II) was studied in homogenates and subcellular fractions of the brain and myocardium under normal conditions and for 30 days after ..gamma.. irradiation at 40 rads. The activity of II in brain homogenates increased 1 hour after irradiation but decreased by 20 percent on day 3; it decreased again on days 7 and 15. The activity of brain I increased after 1 hour and 3 days but then returned to normal. The activity of I in heart homogenates increased in all the periods after irradiation. The subcellular fractions exhibited phase changes in the activity of the enzymes. These changes were different in nature from those observed after X and ..gamma.. irradiation at the same dose.

  17. Microwave irradiation decreases ATP, increases free [Mg2+], and alters in vivo intracellular reactions in rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shireesh; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D.; Pawlosky, Robert; Veech, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid inactivation of metabolism is essential for accurately determining the concentrations of metabolic intermediates in the in vivo state. We compared a broad spectrum of energetic intermediate metabolites and neurotransmitters in brains obtained by microwave irradiation to those obtained by freeze blowing, the most rapid method of extracting and freezing rat brain. The concentrations of many intermediates, cytosolic free NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H ratios, as well as neurotransmitters were not affected by the microwave procedure. However, the brain concentrations of ATP were about 30% lower, whereas those of ADP, AMP, and GDP were higher in the microwave-irradiated compared with the freeze-blown brains. In addition, the hydrolysis of approximately 1 μmol/g of ATP, a major in vivo Mg2+-binding site, was related to approximately five-fold increase in free [Mg2+] (0.53 ± 0.07 mM in freeze blown vs. 2.91 mM ± 0.48 mM in microwaved brains), as determined from the ratio [citrate]/[isocitrate]. Consequently, many intracellular properties, such as the phosphorylation potential and the ΔG’ of ATP hydrolysis were significantly altered in microwaved tissue. The determinations of some glycolytic and TCA cycle metabolites, the phosphorylation potential, and the ΔG’ of ATP hydrolysis do not represent the in vivo state when using microwave-fixed brain tissue. PMID:23013291

  18. The treatment of peripheral nerve injuries using irradiated allografts and temporary host immunosuppression (in a rat model)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, K.J.; Trumble, T.E. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Irradiation of allografts prior to transplantation and host immunosuppression with cyclosporin-A were studied separately and in combination as means of lessening the rejection of transplanted peripheral nerve tissue. Lewis and Brown Norway rats were used in the animal model, as they differ at both major and minor histocompatibility loci. Sciatic nerve grafts (2.5 cm) were used and the animals were followed for 16 weeks after nerve grafting. The outcome was studied by functional measurements (sensory testing, gait analysis, joint flexion contracture, and muscle weight), as well as by measurements of biochemical and histologic parameters (hydroxyproline concentration and axon counts, respectively). Sensory testing was not reliable because of crossover innervation by the saphenous nerve. Evaluation by standard gait-testing techniques was found to be unsatisfactory. However, the allografted animals receiving cyclosporin-A had significantly smaller flexion contractures, compared to the allografted animals without immunosuppression (17 degrees +/- 12 degrees vs. 44 degrees +/- 13 degrees and 51 degrees +/- 13 degrees, p less than 0.005). Allografted animals receiving short-term cyclosporin-A had contractures that were not significantly different from those seen in isografted control animals (17 degrees +/- 12 degrees vs. 22 degrees +/- 15 degrees, NS). Muscle hydroxyproline concentration analysis revealed a lower hydroxyproline concentration among the allografted groups that received irradiated allografts, compared to groups receiving nonirradiated allogeneic grafts. The studies of muscle hydroxyproline concentration and muscle weight both showed substantial reinnervation, even in allografted animals without pretreatment of the grafts or immunosuppression of the recipient animal.

  19. Analysis of the physical activity effects and measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines in irradiated lungs in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Renata Cristiane Gennari; Katashima, Carlos Kiyoshi [Faculty of Medical Sciences, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete [School of Applied Sciences, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Carvalheira, Jose Barreto Campello [Department of Internal Medicine, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Lopes, Luiz Roberto; Andreollo, Nelson Adami [Department of Surgery, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To study if the pre-radiotherapy physical activity has radio-protective elements, by measuring the radio-induced activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines as interleukin-6 (il-6), transforming growth factor -{beta} (tgf -{beta}), tumor necrosis factor -a (tnf-a) and protein beta kinase {beta} (ikk{beta}), through western blotting analysis. Methods: A randomized study with 28 Wistar Hannover rats, males, with a mean age of 90 days and weighing about 200 grams. The animals were divided into three groups: (GI, GII and GIII). GIII group were submitted to swimming for eight weeks (zero load, three times a week, about 30 minutes). Then, the groups (except the control group) were submitted to irradiation by cobalt therapy, single dose of 3.5 gray in the whole body. All animals were sacrificed by overdose of pentobarbital, according to the time for analysis of cytokines, and then a fragment of the lower lobe of the right lung went to western blotting analysis. Results: The cytokines IKK{beta}, TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 induced by radiation in the lung were lower in the exercised animals. However, exercise did not alter the radiation-induced increase in tgf-{beta}. Conclusion: The results show a lower response in relation to inflammatory cytokines in the group that practiced the exercise preradiotherapy, showing that exercise can protect tissues from tissue damage due to irradiation. (author)

  20. Morphometric study of injuries in the small intestine of wistar rats subjected to irradiation by cobalt 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Cristina S.C.; Oliveira, Arno H.; Reis, Renato J.; Manfrini, Francisco A.L.; Silva, Mario R.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mails: cristina_sad@yahoo.com.br; heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br; renatojulio@gmail.com; jrmanfrini@ig.com.br; mario@nuclear.ufmg.br; Mahecha, German A.B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia]. E-mail: mahecha@icb.ufmg.br

    2007-07-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of intestinal injuries due to ionizing radiation, four groups of male adult Wistar rats have been whole-body irradiated by cobalt-60 gamma-rays at three doses (2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 Gy) and one dose rate (13.82 Gyh{sup -1}). Small intestine samples of the animals were taken 48h after the irradiation and immediately prepared for light microscopy, according to classical methods for histology. A large number of morphological differences were observed within the intestinal glands between the three doses used. It was observed that some of the epithelial glands alterations increased according to the dose used. Some of the alterations that can be highlighted are: the increase of the cellular and nuclear volume, basal cytoplasmatic vacuolisation, and cellular sloughed. Similar alterations were also observed in the goblet cell. The intestinal glands presented an increase of the luminal diameter. It was also observed atypical mitosis, cellular edema, and deformed nucleus in all the irradiated animals. The mitotic, apoptotic and necrotic index were calculated from intestinal gland cells. The mitotic index decreased according to the increase of the dose, but to all doses, there was an increase in relation to the control. On the other hand, the apoptotic index increased with the dose. The necrotic index presented an increase to all the doses. This rise was only significant to 2.0 and to 6.0 Gy. All of the results were significant to 2.0 and to 6.0 Gy compared to the control. This study shows a relation between dose and cellular death. (author)

  1. Yohimbine increases human salivary secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelut, E; Rispail, Y; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L

    1989-01-01

    The effect of oral yohimbine (14 mg) on salivary secretion was evaluated in healthy volunteers. Yohimbine significantly increased salivary secretion when compared with placebo. This effect was significant from 60 min until 180 min after administration under our experimental conditions. Yohimbine (or alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocking agents) could have a potential interest in the treatment of dry mouths. PMID:2789932

  2. Ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field irradiation during pregnancy leads to an increase in erythrocytes micronuclei incidence in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Amâncio Romanelli; Knakievicz, Tanise; Pasquali, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Fernández, Claudio Enrique Rodriguez; de Salles, Alvaro Augusto de Almeida; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2006-12-03

    Mobile telephones and their base stations are an important ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field (UHF-EMF) source and their utilization is increasing all over the world. Epidemiological studies suggested that low energy UHF-EMF emitted from a cellular telephone may cause biological effects, such as DNA damage and changes on oxidative metabolism. An in vivo mammalian cytogenetic test, the micronucleus (MN) assay, was used to investigate the occurrence of chromosomal damage in erythrocytes from rat offspring exposed to a non-thermal UHF-EMF from a cellular phone during their embryogenesis; the irradiated group showed a significant increase in MN occurrence. In order to investigate if UHF-EMF could also alter oxidative parameters in the peripheral blood and in the liver - an important hematopoietic tissue in rat embryos and newborns - we also measured the activity of antioxidant enzymes, quantified total sulfhydryl content, protein carbonyl groups, thiobarbituric acid-reactive species and total non-enzymatic antioxidant defense. No significant differences were found in any oxidative parameter of offspring blood and liver. The average number of pups in each litter has also not been significantly altered. Our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, UHF-EMF is able to induce a genotoxic response in hematopoietic tissue during the embryogenesis through an unknown mechanism.

  3. Differences in claudin synthesis in primary cultures of acinar cells from rat salivary gland are correlated with the specific three-dimensional organization of the cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bing; Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko; Michikawa, Hiromi; Satoh, Keitaro; Katsumata, Osamu; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    Tight junctions are essential for the maintenance of epithelial cell polarity. We have previously established a system for the primary culture of salivary parotid acinar cells that retain their ability to generate new secretory granules and to secrete proteins in a signal-dependent manner. Because cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion are prerequisites for the formation of epithelial tissues, we have investigated the structure of the tight junctions in these cultures. We have found two types of cellular organization in the culture: monolayers and semi-spherical clusters. Electron microscopy has revealed tight junctions near the apical region of the lateral membranes between cells in the monolayers and cells at the surface of the clusters. The cells in the interior of the clusters also have tight junctions and are organized around a central lumen. These interior cells retain more secretory granules than the surface or monolayer cells, suggesting that they maintain their original character as acinar cells. The synthesis of claudin-4 increases during culture, although it is not detectable in the cells immediately after isolation from the glands. Immunofluorescence microscopy has shown that claudin-4 is synthesized in the monolayers and at the surface of the clusters, but not inside the clusters. Only claudin-3, which is present in the original acinar cells following isolation and in the intact gland, has been detected inside the clusters. These results suggest that differences in claudin expression are related to the three-dimensional structures of the cell cultures and reflect their ability to function as acinar cells.

  4. Role of marrow architecture and stromal cells in the recovery process of aplastic marrow of lethally irradiated rats parabiosed with healthy litter mates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, K.; Kagawa, K.; Awai, M.; Irino, S.

    1986-01-01

    Bone marrow aplasia was induced in rats by whole body lethal irradiation (1,000 rads by x-ray), and rats died of irradiation injury within 7 days. Correlative studies at light (LM), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated swelling of endothelial and reticular cells and hemorrhage due to detachment of sinus endothelial cells on days 1 and 2. With time, structural recovery occurred without hemopoietic recovery. Reticular cells developed small intracytoplasmic lipid droplets on days 3 and 4. This resulted in fatty aplastic marrow within 7 days. On the other hand, in the marrow of irradiated rats parabiosed with healthy mates by aortic anastomosis, hemopoiesis was initiated by adhesion of nucleated blood cells to fine cytoplasmic pseudopods of fat-stored cells on days 1 and 2 after parabiosis. On days 3 to 5, reticular cells with large lipid droplets and fine pseudopods increased, then hemopoietic foci became clear and extensive. On day 8 after parabiosis, the aplastic bone marrow recovered completely both its structure and hemopoietic activity. Thus, hemopoietic recovery in lethally irradiated marrow begins with recovery of vascular endothelial cells, re-establishment of sinusoidal structure, and morphological and functional recoveries of reticular cells from fat-storage cells by releasing intracytoplasmic lipid droplets. Marrow stromal cells, namely reticular, fat-storage and fibroblastoid cells, share a common cellular origin, and regain their structure and function when fat-storage cells and fibroid cells are placed in contact with hemopoietic precursor cells.

  5. Effect of vitamin E on the radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat submaxillary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Masahiro (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-11-01

    For protection of the salivary gland from radiation, the effect of vitamin E (V.E) in the feed on the levels of lipoperoxide in the submaxillary gland, liver and plasma was studied after local x-ray irradiation. The levels of lipoperoxide of the irradiated groups were higher than those of the non-irradiated groups, showing a peak on day 3 after irradiation in the group given V.E and on day 7 in the non-treated group. The liver showed no marked effect of irradiation. The plasma levels of all rats in the irradiated group were similar to, or higher than, those of the non-irradiated group, showing a peak in 3 days. The submaxillary gland showed no prominent histopathologic changes after irradiation, but did show nuclear atrophy of acinar cells and mild obscuration of the intranuclear structure 2 hours and 3 days after irradiation. X-ray irradiation of the submaxillary triturate elevated the lipoperoxide level of the group without V.E to a value about twice that of the treated group. The submaxillary ..cap alpha..-tochopherol level showed no marked effect of irradiation, regardless of treatment with V.E.

  6. Effect of pre-exposure to beta rays of tritium on some biochemical parameters measured in organs of rats subsequently irradiated with fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petcu, I.; Moisoi, N.; Savu, D.; Constantinescu, B. [Dept. of Health and Environmental Physics, Horia Hulubei Inst. of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2002-07-01

    The experiment examined biological responses produced by combined sequential exposure to low-level tritium contamination, followed by challenging irradiation with fast neutrons. Modifications of endogenous antioxidant potential of different organs in rats were discussed in relation to tissue radiosensitivity. Rats pre-contaminated to 7 cGy and 35 cGy have been additionally irradiated to 1 Gy with fast neutrons. Lipid peroxide level was determined in liver, kidney, small intestine, spleen, bone marrow, and plasma. Reduced glutathione (GSH) level and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity were determined in erythrocytes. An in vitro thymidine uptake assay was performed in isolated bone marrow cells. The lipid peroxide level decreased significantly only in liver and kidney from rats pre-exposed to 35 cGy. For small intestine and spleen, tissues of comparatively higher radiosensitivity, no induced radioprotection was observed, as reflected in the homeostasis of the lipid peroxides. The same behavior was observed in bone marrow, the most radiosensitive tissue studied. However, the bone marrow thymidine-incorporation assay revealed a possible adaptive-type reaction in rats pre-exposed to 35 cGy. We conclude that for radiosensitive tissues pre-exposure to chronic low doses of low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation has no protective effect on their antioxidant status, whereas a protective effect is observed in radioresistent tissues. (author)

  7. Salivary gland diseases : infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, K; Spijkervet, FK; Vissink, A.

    2014-01-01

    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary

  8. Salivary gland diseases : infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, K; Spijkervet, FK; Vissink, A.

    2014-01-01

    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary

  9. Study on the induction of thyroid tumors in rats using x irradiation in conjunction with a goitrogen. [1 methyl--2 mercaptoimidazole (methimazole)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahler, P.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of acute localized thyroid x irradiation and chronic goitrogen administration, separately or combined, on thyroid tumor formation in mature female rats was studied. In the first experiment, the radiation doses were 0, 80, 160, 320, or 640 rads, and the dosages of goitrogen were 0, 4, or 40 parts per million (ppM) of 1 methyl - 2 mercaptoimidazole (MMI). The incidence of rats with thyroid tumors in any treated group receiving 0 or 4 ppM MMI was not significantly greater than the incidence in the nontreated control group. However, the incidence in any of the 40 ppM MMI groups was significantly greater than that in the nontreated control group. At all the radiation doses other than 80 rads, the incidence was significantly greater than that in the non-irradiated group. No significant difference was seen in the incidence of rats with thyroid tumors on the basis of radiation dose. The incidence was so high at 80 rads that there was little margin for further increase by increasing the radiation dose. The mean serum thyroxine levels at 40 ppM MMI, 4 ppM MMI, and 0 ppM MMI were 1.9, 3.5, and 3.7 ..mu..g/100 ml, respectively. No markedeffect of thyroid irradiation on mean serum thyroxine levels was seen. In the second experiment, rats receiving 200 ppM MMI and thyroid irradiation were sacrificed at 7-1/2 months after treatment. Nearly all rats in the 0 and 80 rad groups and all in the 160, the 320, and the 640 rad groups had thyroid tumors. In the third experiment, serum T/sub 4/ levels were measured in treated rats. Rats receiving 640 rads + 0 ppM MMI showed a slight decrease in serum T/sub 4/, while no change in serum T/sub 4/ levels was seen in rats receiving 0 rads + 4 ppM MMI or 640 rads + 4 ppM MMI. All rats receiving 40 ppM MMI, regardless of radiation dose, showed decreased serum T/sub 4/ levels.

  10. Assessment of testicular function after acute and chronic irradiation: Further evidence for an influence of late spermatids on Sertoli cell function in the adult rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineau, C.; Velez de la Calle, J.F.; Pinon-Lataillade, G.; Jegou, B.

    1989-06-01

    To study cell to cell communications within the testis of adult Sprague-Dawley rats, we used acute whole body neutron plus gamma-irradiation over 7-121 days postirradiation and chronic whole body gamma-irradiation over 14-84 days of irradiation and 7-86 days postirradiation. Neither irradiation protocol had an effect on the body weight of the animals. Neutron plus gamma-rays induced dramatic damages to spermatogonia, preleptotene spermatocytes, spermatozoa, and, to a lesser extent, pachytene spermatocytes. In contrast, gamma-rays induced a selective destruction of spermatogonia. Subsequently, in both experiments a maturation-depletion process led to a marked decrease in all germ cell types. A complete or near complete recovery of the different germ cell types and spermatozoa took place during the two postirradiation periods. Under both irradiation protocols Sertoli cells number was unchanged. Androgen-binding protein and FSH levels were normal in spite of the disappearance of most germ cells from spermatogonia to early spermatids. However, the decline of androgen-binding protein as well as the rise of FSH and their subsequent recovery were highly correlated to the number of late spermatids and spermatozoa. Moreover, it appeared that spermatocytes may also interfere with the production of inhibin (Exp B). With neither irradiation was Leydig cell function altered, except in Exp B in which elevated LH levels were temporarily observed. Correlation analysis suggested a relationship between preleptotene spermatocytes and Leydig cell function. In conclusion, this study establishes that chronic gamma-irradiation is particularly useful in the study of intratesticular paracrine regulation in vivo and provides further support to the concept that late spermatids play a major role in controlling some aspects of Sertoli cell function in the adult rat.

  11. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Vinayachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features.

  12. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S.B.; Pedersen, A.M.L.; Vissink, A.

    2010-01-01

    met by 184 articles covering salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by conventional, 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients, cancer chemotherapy, total body irradiation/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, radioactive iodine...... treatment, and immunotherapy. Salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia are induced by radiotherapy in the head and neck region depending on the cumulative radiation dose to the gland tissue. Treatment focus should be on optimized/new approaches to further reduce the dose to the parotids, and particularly...... literature included pediatric cancer populations, cancer chemotherapy, radioactive iodine treatment, total body irradiation/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and immunotherapy...

  13. Effects of the cafeteria diet on the salivary glands of trained and sedentary Wistar rats=Efeitos da dieta de cafeteria sobre as glândulas salivares de ratos Wistar sedentários e treinados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Lucy Molinari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effect of the aerobic physical training and the cafeteria diet introduced after weaning of Wistar rats and on the morphology of the main salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, sublingual. Male rats after weaning were subjected to the cafeteria diet or the standard rodent chow, and either performed aerobic physical training in a treadmill for 100 days, or did not performed any physical activity. Analyses were done considering the response in body weight, adipose tissues and salivary glands, and the data were submitted to statistical treatment (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características morfológicas das glândulas salivares (parótida, submandibular, sublingual apresentadas por ratos submetidos a treinamento físico aeróbio e dieta de cafeteria após o período de lactação. Ratos machos após a lactação consumiram dieta de cafeteria ou ração-padrão para roedores e realizaram treinamento físico aeróbio em esteira rolante por um período de 100 dias, ou não realizaram nenhuma atividade física. Foram feitas análises sobre a resposta do peso corporal, dos tecidos adiposos e das glândulas salivares e os dados submetidos a tratamento estatístico (p < 0,05. A análise morfológica e morfométrica das glândulas salivares foi realizada a partir de cortes histológicos corados com Hematoxilina e Eosina. Apesar do comportamento normofágico, os roedores alimentados com dieta de cafeteria apresentaram maior quantidade de gordura corporal, com repercussão sobre o peso da glândula parótida. A análise morfométrica das glândulas submandibulares indicou redução na proporção dos ácinos serosos como efeito da dieta de cafeteria e do treinamento físico. No entanto, excesso de gordura corporal, dieta de cafeteria e/ou treinamento físico não influenciou a organização histológica das glândulas salivares. Concluiu-se que as glândulas parótidas e submandibulares são mais

  14. Dietary essential fatty acids and gender-specific behavioral responses in cranially irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, T David; Wollan, Michael O; Anderson, Stacy L; Gaston, Robert; Meyer, William; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Holloway, Frank A; Martin, Rex E

    2006-09-01

    Specific memory deficits, reduced intellectual processing speed, and a variety of social and behavioral problems have been implicated as long-term effects of cranial radiation therapy (CRT). These deficits are thought to be related to changes in brain cytology and structure associated with microvascular aberrations. N-3 fatty acids may serve as protectants in pediatric patients who receive CRT for brain tumors. Timed-pregnant rat dams were fed one of four diets that were identical in all respects, except for their essential fatty acid content. The dams were placed on these diets at the beginning of the third trimester of gestation and their pups remained on them throughout the study. The rats' behavioral response as judged by acoustic startle response (ASR) and neurocognitive response (performance in a radial maze, RM) were evaluated in relation to diet, gender, and CRT. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) female rats will show greater CRT-induced neurocognitive and behavioral deficits; (2) dietary n-3 fatty acids will diminish CRT-induced neurocognitive and behavioral deficits; (3) gender-specific differences would be dampened by n-3 fatty acids in the diet. All three hypotheses were partially supported. These findings are discussed in light of the potential neuroprotective effects of n-3 fatty acids.

  15. Radioprotective Role of Some Bacteria Belonging to Actinomycetales against Gamma Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham Abdel-Shafi1, Tamer M. M. Saad2 *, Abdel-Haliem M. E. F.1, Abdel-Rahman M. A. Ghonemey2, and Gamal Enan1

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: radiation protection concepts and philosophy have been evolving over the past several decades. The inadvertent exposure of human from various source of radiation causes ionization of molecules, setting off potentially damaging reactions via free radicals production. Development of radioprotectants and mitigators is the therapeutic approach to ameliorate the negative health impact of radiation exposure. The majority of substances with biological activity used in medicine are produced by actinomycetes and fungi. Aim: the aim of the present study is to evaluate the radioprotective role of the antimicrobial active metabolite of Streptomyces atrovirens Rahman as antioxidant against gamma irradiation that induced some biochemical alterations in rats. Material and Methods: animals were pretreated with antimicrobial active metabolite of Streptomyces atrovirens Ab1 using suitable stomach tube for two weeks prior to radiation exposure. The levels of malondialdhyde (MDA, glutathione content (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (ALT, glutamic aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT activities, also total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL- C were estimated. Results: the results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in the levels of MDA content, ALT, AST, ALP and GGT activities and concentration of TC, TG and LDL-C, meanwhile, showed significant depletion in GSH content and SOD, CAT and GPx activities and HDL-C concentration. Conclusion: it could be concluded that, the administration of the antimicrobial active metabolite of Streptomyces atrovirens Ab1 pre-whole body gamma irradiation resulted in sufficient amelioration against radiation effects on the biochemical aspects examined in the present

  16. Effect of whole-brain irradiation on the specific brain regions in a rat model: Metabolic and histopathological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálentová, Soňa; Hnilicová, Petra; Kalenská, Dagmar; Murín, Peter; Hajtmanová, Eva; Lehotský, Ján; Adamkov, Marian

    2017-05-01

    Effect of ionizing radiation on the brain affects neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell population and lead to significant morphological, metabolic, and functional deficits. In the present study we investigated a dose- and time-dependent correlation between radiation-induced metabolic and histopathological changes. Adult male Wistar rats received a total dose of 35Gy delivered in 7 fractions (dose 5Gy per fraction) once per week in the same weekday during 7 consecutive weeks. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to determine whether radiation-induced alteration of the brain metabolites correlates with appropriate histopathological changes of neurogenesis and glial cell response in 2 neurogenic regions: the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb axis (SVZ-OB axis). Evaluation of the brain metabolites 18-19 weeks after irradiation performed by (1)H MRS revealed a significant decrease in the total N-acetylaspartate to total creatine (tNAA/tCr) ratio in the striatum and OB. A significant decline of gamma-aminobutyric acid to tCr (GABA/tCr) ratio was seen in the OB and hippocampus. MR revealed absence of gross inflammatory or necrotic lesions in these regions. Image analysis of the brain sections 18-21 weeks after the exposure showed a radiation-induced increase of neurodegeneration, inhibition of neurogenesis and strong resemblance to the reactive astrogliosis. Results showed that fractionated whole-brain irradiation led to the changes in neurotransmission and to the loss of neuronal viability in vivo. Metabolic changes were closely associated with histopathological findings, i.e. initiation of neuronal cell death, inhibition of neurogenesis and strong response of astrocytes indicated development of late radiation-induced changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 复方血栓通胶囊对糖尿病大鼠唾液腺影响的研究%Research of the effect of Fufang Xueshuantong capsule for the salivary glands of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小姣; 肖新华; 李平; 马超; 张丁

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察不同剂量复方血栓通对糖尿病大鼠唾液腺的影响.方法 正常雄性Sprague-Dawley(SD)大鼠30只,随机分为4组:正常组、糖尿病组、小剂量血栓通组、大剂量血栓通组.分别行苏木精-伊红(HE)染色、末端脱氧核苷酸转移酶介导dUTP缺口末端标记法(TUNEL法)、血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)免疫组织化学染色,观察大鼠颌下腺及腮腺的形态学变化、细胞凋亡及VEGF表达情况,作统计学分析.结果 (1)HE染色:光镜下糖尿病组颌下腺和腮腺较正常组有明显的腺泡及导管萎缩,未见炎性细胞浸润灶.大小剂量血栓通组腺泡及导管萎缩程度较糖尿病组轻.(2)Tunel检测细胞凋亡:糖尿病组颌下腺和腮腺细胞凋亡高于其他三组.①颌下腺:正常组细胞凋亡数与大小剂量血栓通组无差组.②腮腺:血栓通组细胞凋亡数均高于正常组,且小剂量血栓通组高于大剂量血栓通组.(3)VEGF免疫组化:①颌下腺:糖尿病组VEGF表达明显高于其他三组.正常组低于大小剂量血栓通组.②腮腺:糖尿病组VEGF表达高于其他三组.大剂量血栓通组VEGF表达>正常组>小剂量血栓通组.结论 复方血栓通胶囊对糖尿病大鼠唾液腺病变有一定的缓解作用.%Objective To explore the therapeutic effect of salivary glands of diabetic rats treated by different doses of Fufang Xueshuantong capsule. Methods Thirty male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups; normal group, diabetic group, small dose Xueshuantong group, and large dose Xueshuantong group. Morphological changes, apoptotic cells and expression of VEGF were observed by HE staining, TUNEL in situ labeling and VEGF immunohistochemical staining. Statistical analyses were conducted to confirm these results. Results ( 1 ) HE staining; the atrophy of salivary glands and the significant morphological changes in acinar and duct. It was showed a certain degree of recovery that the acinar and duct atrophy

  18. Alterations in composition of sterols and in properties of erythrocyte membranes in rats with Shvetz experimental leukosis and after UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palamarchyuk, V.I.; Trikash, I.O. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Biokhimii)

    1983-05-01

    Sterol composition of erythrocyte membrane is studied in experimental Schwetz leukosis. Interconnections of alteration in sterol composition and membrane properties are investigated, as well as the effect of UV-radiation on the alteration of sterol composition of erythrocyte membrane and lifetime of animals With leukosis. The effect of UV-radiation on survival of the leukosis animals has been studied which showed that irradiation of rats in the dose of 8 mWt/min/cm/sup 2/ for 12 days increases the lifetime of animals by several days, i.e. increases resistance of animals to leukosis. In the case of short-time UV-radiation of rats the cholesterine amount in erythrocyte membranes increases by 9% as compared with the norm, simultaneously, other substances appear. Acidic resistance of erythrocytes of irradiated animals also increases. The supposition is made that alterations promote the increase of organism resistance to leukosis.

  19. Carbon Ion Irradiation of the Rat Spinal Cord: Dependence of the Relative Biological Effectiveness on Linear Energy Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saager, Maria, E-mail: m.saager@dkfz.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Glowa, Christin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Peschke, Peter [Clinical Cooperation Unit Molecular Radiooncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Brons, Stephan [Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Scholz, Michael [Department of Biophysics, Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Huber, Peter E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Clinical Cooperation Unit Molecular Radiooncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Karger, Christian P. [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ions in the rat spinal cord as a function of linear energy transfer (LET). Methods and Materials: As an extension of a previous study, the cervical spinal cord of rats was irradiated with single doses of carbon ions at 6 positions of a 6-cm spread-out Bragg peak (16-99 keV/μm). The TD{sub 50} values (dose at 50% complication probability) were determined according to dose-response curves for the development of paresis grade 2 within an observation time of 300 days. The RBEs were calculated using TD{sub 50} for photons of our previous study. Results: Minimum latency time was found to be dose-dependent, but not significantly LET-dependent. The TD{sub 50} values for the onset of paresis grade 2 within 300 days were 19.5 ± 0.4 Gy (16 keV/μm), 18.4 ± 0.4 Gy (21 keV/μm), 17.7 ± 0.3 Gy (36 keV/μm), 16.1 ± 1.2 Gy (45 keV/μm), 14.6 ± 0.5 Gy (66 keV/μm), and 14.8 ± 0.5 Gy (99 keV/μm). The corresponding RBEs increased from 1.26 ± 0.05 (16 keV/μm) up to 1.68 ± 0.08 at 66 keV/μm. Unexpectedly, the RBE at 99 keV/μm was comparable to that at 66 keV/μm. Conclusions: The data suggest a linear relation between RBE and LET at high doses for late effects in the spinal cord. Together with additional data from ongoing fractionated irradiation experiments, these data will provide an extended database to systematically benchmark RBE models for further improvements of carbon ion treatment planning.

  20. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester modifies the Th1/Th2 balance in ileal mucosa after γ-irradiation in the rat by modulating the cytokine pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olivier Grémy; Marc Benderitter; Christine Linard

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To pharmacologically modulate Th polarization in the ileum exposed to ionizing radiation by using the immuno-modulatory/apoptotic properties of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE).METHODS: Rats received CAPE (30 mg/kg) treatment ip 15 min prior to intestinal 10 Gy γ-irradiation and once a day for a 6 d period after irradiation. Expression of genes implicated in Th differentiation in ileal mucosa (IL-23/IL12Rβ2), Th cytokine responses (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-13),Th migratory behaviour (CXCR3, CCR5, CCR4), Th signailing suppressors (SOCS1, SOCS3), transcription factor (T-Bet, GATA-3) and apoptosis (FasL/Fas, TNF/TNFR,XIAP, Bax, caspase-3) was analyzed by RT-PCR 6 h and 7 d post-irradiation. CD4+ and TUNEL positive cells were visualized by immunostaining.RESULTS: The expression of Th1-related cytokine/chemokine receptors (IFN-γ, IL-2, CXCR3, CCR5) was repressed at 7 d post-irradiation while Th2 cell cytokine/chemokines (IL-4, IL-13, CCR4) were not repressed or even upregulated. The irradiation-induced Th2 profile was confirmed by the upregulation of both Th2-specific transcription factor GATA-3 and SOCS3. Although an apoptosis event occurred 6 h after 10 Gy of intestinal γ-irradiation, apoptotic mediator analysis showed a tendency to apoptotic resistance 7 d post-irradiation. CAPE amplified apoptotic events at 6h and normalized Bax/FasL expressions at 7 d.CONCLUSION: CAPE prevented the ileal Th2 immune response by modulating the irradiation-influenced cytokine environment and apoptosis.

  1. Effect of 710 nm visible light irradiation on neurite outgrowth in primary rat cortical neurons following ischemic insult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dong-Hee [Center for Neuroscience Research, SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Moon Young [Center for Neuroscience Research, SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jeong Hoon [Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rehabilitation Medicine, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, National University Health System (Singapore); Lee, Jongmin, E-mail: leej@kuh.ac.kr [Center for Neuroscience Research, SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 710 nm wavelength light (LED) has a protective effect in the stroke animal model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined the effects of LED irradiation in vitro stroke model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LED treatment promotes the neurite outgrowth through MAPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The level of synaptic markers significantly increased with LED treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LED treatment protects cell death in the in vitro stroke model. -- Abstract: Objective: We previously reported that 710 nm Light-emitting Diode (LED) has a protective effect through cellular immunity activation in the stroke animal model. However, whether LED directly protects neurons suffering from neurodegeneration was entirely unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of 710 nm visible light irradiation on neuronal protection and neuronal outgrowth in an in vitro stroke model. Materials and methods: Primary cultured rat cortical neurons were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation and normal conditions. An LED array with a peak wavelength of 710 nm was placed beneath the covered culture dishes with the room light turned off and were irradiated accordingly. LED treatments (4 min at 4 J/cm{sup 2} and 50 mW/cm{sup 2}) were given once to four times within 8 h at 2 h intervals for 7 days. Mean neurite density, mean neurite diameter, and total fiber length were also measured after microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunostaining using the Axio Vision program. Synaptic marker expression and MAPK activation were confirmed by Western blotting. Results: Images captured after MAP2 immunocytochemistry showed significant (p < 0.05) enhancement of post-ischemic neurite outgrowth with LED treatment once and twice a day. MAPK activation was enhanced by LED treatment in both OGD-exposed and normal cells. The levels of synaptic markers such as PSD 95, GAP 43, and synaptophysin significantly

  2. Functional responses of the pulmonary endothelium to thoracic irradiation in rats: differential modification by D-penicillamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Ts' ao, C.; Solliday, N.H.

    1987-10-01

    Male rats were sacrificed 2 or 6 months after a range of single doses of gamma rays (0-30 Gy) to the right hemithorax. Half of each dose group consumed control feed continuously after irradiation, and half consumed feed containing the collagen antagonist D-penicillamine (10 mg/rat/day). Four markers of pulmonary endothelial function were monitored: angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasminogen activator (PLA) activity, and prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane (TXA2) production. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid also was obtained from the right lung, and was analyzed for macrophage number, and PGI2 and TXA2 concentration. Right lung ACE and PLA activities decreased linearly with increasing dose at both 2 and 6 months postirradiation, and penicillamine had no significant effect on either response. In contrast, PGI2 and TXA2 production by the right lung increased linearly with increasing radiation dose at both autopsy times. Penicillamine significantly ameliorated the increase in PGI2 production at 2 months, and the increase in TXA2 production at both 2 and 6 months postirradiation. Penicillamine dose-reduction factors (DRF) for PGI2 and TXA2 production were 1.3-1.4, and the response curve slope ratios were 1.7-2.5 (p less than 0.05). Penicillamine also ameliorated the dose-dependent increase in TXA2 concentration in the BAL fluid at 2 months. These data indicate that the four markers of radiation-induced pulmonary endothelial dysfunction do not respond identically to penicillamine dose-modification. Of the four markers, TXA2 production exhibits the most significant and widespread penicillamine sparing. TXA2 is a potent vasoconstrictor, promoter of platelet aggregation, and mediator of inflammation, and partial prevention of the radiation-induced hyperproduction of this eicosanoid may account in part for penicillamine's therapeutic action in this model.

  3. Gamma residual radioactivity measurements on rats and mice irradiated in the thermal column of a TRIGA Mark II reactor for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Nicoletta; Manera, Sergio; Prata, Michele; Alloni, Daniele; Ballarini, Francesca; di Tigliole, Andrea Borio; Bortolussi, Silva; Bruschi, Piero; Cagnazzo, Marcella; Garioni, Maria; Postuma, Ian; Reversi, Luca; Salvini, Andrea; Altieri, Saverio

    2014-12-01

    The current Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) experiments performed at the University of Pavia, Italy, are focusing on the in vivo irradiations of small animals (rats and mice) in order to evaluate the effectiveness of BNCT in the treatment of diffused lung tumors. After the irradiation, the animals are manipulated, which requires an evaluation of the residual radioactivity induced by neutron activation and the relative radiological risk assessment to guarantee the radiation protection of the workers. The induced activity in the irradiated animals was measured by high-resolution open geometry gamma spectroscopy and compared with values obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. After an irradiation time of 15 min in a position where the in-air thermal flux is about 1.2 × 10(10) cm(-2) s(-1), the specific activity induced in the body of the animal is mainly due to 24Na, 38Cl, 42K, 56Mn, 27Mg and 49Ca; it is approximately 540 Bq g(-1) in the rat and around 2,050 Bq g(-1) in the mouse. During the irradiation, the animal body (except the lung region) is housed in a 95% enriched 6Li shield; the primary radioisotopes produced inside the shield by the neutron irradiation are 3H by the 6Li capture reaction and 18F by the reaction sequence 6Li(n,α)3H → 16O(t,n)18F. The specific activities of these products are 3.3 kBq g(-1) and 880 Bq g(-1), respectively.

  4. Large-area irradiated low-level laser effect in a biodegradable nerve guide conduit on neural regeneration of peripheral nerve injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Yang, Yi-Chin; Liu, Bai-Shuan

    2011-08-01

    This study used a biodegradable composite containing genipin-cross-linked gelatin annexed with β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic particles (genipin-gelatin-tricalcium phosphate, GGT), developed in a previous study, as a nerve guide conduit. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of a large-area irradiated aluminium-gallium-indium phosphide (AlGaInP) diode laser (660 nm) on the neural regeneration of the transected sciatic nerve after bridging the GGT nerve guide conduit in rats. The animals were divided into two groups: group 1 comprised sham-irradiated controls and group 2 rats underwent low-level laser (LLL) therapy. A compact multi-cluster laser system with 20 AlGaInP laser diodes (output power, 50mW) was applied transcutaneously to the injured peripheral nerve immediately after closing the wound, which was repeated daily for 5 min for 21 consecutive days. Eight weeks after implantation, walking track analysis showed a significantly higher sciatic function index (SFI) score (Pregenerated nerve tissue in the laser-treated group were superior to those of the sham-irradiated group. Thus, the motor functional, electrophysiologic and histomorphometric assessments demonstrate that LLL therapy can accelerate neural repair of the corresponding transected peripheral nerve after bridging the GGT nerve guide conduit in rats.

  5. Stages of Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... following stages are used for major salivary gland cancers: Enlarge Tumor sizes. The size of a tumor may be compared to the size of a pea (1 cm), peanut (2 cm), grape (3 cm), walnut (4 cm), lime (5 cm), ...

  6. TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan, E-mail: gsunav@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Schrott, Lisa [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Caldito, Gloria [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

  7. In vivo study of laser irradiation of fractionated drug administration based mechanism for effective photodynamic therapy in rat liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, A.; Firdous, S.; Ahmat, L.; Ferraria, J.; Vollet-Filho, J. D.; Kurachi, C.; Bagneto, V. S.; Nawaz, M.; Ikram, M.; Ahmad, M.

    2011-11-01

    Up-regulation of stress-activated proteins in cancer cells plays a protective role against photodynamic induced apoptosis. Post photodynamic therapy extracted normal rat liver tissue usually shows a fraction of surviving cells, the photodynamic resistant cells, residing in the necrotic region. To treat these photodynamic resistant cells a technique has been proposed based on fractionated drug administration of diluted photosensitizer, keeping the net concentration (5 mg/kg) constant, and subsequently varying drug light interval (DLI). Flourescence measurements were made for the presence of photosensitizer in a tissue. For qualitative analysis both histological and morphological studies were made. Although preliminary aim of this approach was not achieved but there were some interesting observation made i.e. for higher dilution of photosensitizer there was a sharp boundary between necrotic and normal portion of tissue. An increase in the absorption coefficient (α) from 2.7 → 2.9 was observed as photosensitizer was diluted while the corresponding threshold dose (D th) persistently decreases from (0.10 → 0.02) J/cm2 when irradiated with a 635 nm laser fluence of 150 J/cm2.

  8. Effects of dose and dose protraction on embryotoxicity of 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, D.A.; Buck, S.J. [Alfred I. duPont Institute, Wilmington, DE (United States)]|[Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Solomon, H.M. [SmithKline and Beecham Pharmaceuticals, King of Prussia, PA (United States); Gorson, R.O. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mills, R.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Brent, R.L. [Alfred I. duPont Institute, Wilmington, DE (United States)]|[Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The embryotoxic effects of neutron radiation on rodent embryos are documented, but there is disagreement about the dose-response relationship and the impact of protracting the dose. Pregnant rats were exposed to total absorbed doses of 0.15 to 1.50 Gy 14.1 MeV neutrons on day 9.5 after conception, coincident with the most sensitive stage of embryonic development for the induction of major congenital malformations. In general terms, the incidence of embryotoxic effects increased with increasing total absorbed dose. However, the dose-response relationship differed depending on the parameter of embryotoxicity chosen, namely, intrauterine death, malformations or very low body weight. In a second study, embryos were exposed to a single embryotoxic absorbed dose (0.75 Gy) administered at a range of dose rates, from 0.10 to 0.50 Gy/h. The results offer no evidence that protraction of this selected dose significantly increased or decreased the incidence or pattern of embryotoxicity of the neutron exposure used in this study. The results do not support the hypothesis of a linear dose-response relationship for the effects of prenatal neutron irradiation that contribute to embryotoxicity for total absorbed doses of 0.15 to 1.50 Gy. 23 refs., 8 tabs.

  9. Chitosan Dermal Substitute and Chitosan Skin Substitute Contribute to Accelerated Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Irradiated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%, longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm, and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm. The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm were significantly decreased (P<0.05 compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.

  10. Arti fi cial Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwana Begum Mohammed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is the fi fth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Treat- ment for most patients with head and neck cancers includes ionizing radiation. A consequence of this treatment is irreversible damage to salivary glands which is accompanied by a loss of fl uid-secreting acinar-cells and a considerable decrease of saliva output. Despite recent improvements in treating xerostomia (e.g. saliva stimulants, saliva substitutes, and gene therapy, there is a need of more scienti fi c advancements that can be clinically applied toward restoration of compromised salivary gland func- tion. Here we provide a summary of the current salivary cell models that have been used to advance restorative treatments via development of an arti fi cial salivary gland. Although these models are not fully characterized, their improvement may lead to the construction of an arti fi cial salivary gland that is in high demand for improving the quality of life of many patients suffe- ring from salivary secretory dysfunction

  11. Acute radiation effects on saliva composition in rats with different vitamin a levels in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funegard, U.; Johansson, I.; Franzen, L.; Ericson, T. (Dept. of Cardiology, Univ. Umeaa (Sweden) Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Umeaa (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation of the head and neck often causes loss of salivary gland function which may lead to severe oral discomfort. The effects of a single dose of 25 Gy given to rats with different serum levels of vitamin A were studied. The salivary secretion rate as well as concentrations of protein, hexosamine, amylase and electrolytes, and the activities of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequates of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequate level of vitamin A in the diet, irradiation significantly reduced whole saliva secretion rate, and decreased the concentration of salivary sodium, calcium and hexosamine as well as the activity of a glycoprotein agglutinating a serotype c strain of S. mutans. Peroxidase, amylase and potassium were not significantly affected. The reductions seen at an adequate level of vitamin A were not reduced by supplementation of excess dietary retinol. The damage caused by irradiation was enhanced by vitamin A deficiency as seen in the reduced protein and hexosamine concentrations. (orig.).

  12. Total body irradiation of donors can alter the course of tolerance and induce acute rejection in a spontaneous tolerance rat liver transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, YeWei; Zhao, HeWei; Bo, Lin; Yang, YinXue; Lu, Xiang; Sun, JingFeng; Wen, JianFei; He, Xia; Yin, GuoWen

    2012-09-01

    Liver transplantation is an established therapy for end-stage liver diseases. Graft rejection occurs unless the recipient receives immunosuppression after transplantation. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of acute rejection of liver allografts in rats pre-treated with total body irradiation to eliminate passenger lymphocytes and to define the role of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in the induction of immunotolerance in the recipient. Male Lewis rats were used as donors and male DA rats were recipients. Rats were randomly assigned to the following four groups: control group, homogeneity liver transplantation group, idio-immunotolerance group and acute rejection group. After transplantation, the survival time of each group, serum alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin levels, number of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, expression of glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor on T cell subgroups, histopathology of the hepatic graft and spleen cytotoxic T lymphocyte lytic activity were measured. In the acute rejection group, where donors were preconditioned with total body irradiation before liver transplantation, all recipients died between day 17 and day 21. On day 14, serum alanine aminotransferase increased significantly to (459.2±76.9) U L(-1), total bilirubin increased to (124.1±33.7) μmol L(-1) (Pliver graft, and thus affected the course of tolerance and induced acute rejection after liver transplantation.

  13. Prevention of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction utilizing a CDK inhibitor in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment of head and neck cancer with radiation often results in damage to surrounding normal tissues such as salivary glands. Permanent loss of function in the salivary glands often leads patients to discontinue treatment due to incapacitating side effects. It has previously been shown that IGF-1 suppresses radiation-induced apoptosis and enhances G2/M arrest leading to preservation of salivary gland function. In an effort to recapitulate the effects of IGF-1, as well as increase the likelihood of translating these findings to the clinic, the small molecule therapeutic Roscovitine, is being tested. Roscovitine is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that acts to transiently inhibit cell cycle progression and allow for DNA repair in damaged tissues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Treatment with Roscovitine prior to irradiation induced a significant increase in the percentage of cells in the G(2/M phase, as demonstrated by flow cytometry. In contrast, mice treated with radiation exhibit no differences in the percentage of cells in G(2/M when compared to unirradiated controls. Similar to previous studies utilizing IGF-1, pretreatment with Roscovitine leads to a significant up-regulation of p21 expression and a significant decrease in the number of PCNA positive cells. Radiation treatment leads to a significant increase in activated caspase-3 positive salivary acinar cells, which is suppressed by pretreatment with Roscovitine. Administration of Roscovitine prior to targeted head and neck irradiation preserves normal tissue function in mouse parotid salivary glands, both acutely and chronically, as measured by salivary output. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies suggest that induction of transient G(2/M cell cycle arrest by Roscovitine allows for suppression of apoptosis, thus preserving normal salivary function following targeted head and neck irradiation. This could have an important clinical impact by preventing the negative side

  14. Prevention of Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Dysfunction Utilizing a CDK Inhibitor in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katie L.; Hill, Grace A.; Klein, Rob R.; Arnett, Deborah G.; Burd, Randy; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of head and neck cancer with radiation often results in damage to surrounding normal tissues such as salivary glands. Permanent loss of function in the salivary glands often leads patients to discontinue treatment due to incapacitating side effects. It has previously been shown that IGF-1 suppresses radiation-induced apoptosis and enhances G2/M arrest leading to preservation of salivary gland function. In an effort to recapitulate the effects of IGF-1, as well as increase the likelihood of translating these findings to the clinic, the small molecule therapeutic Roscovitine, is being tested. Roscovitine is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that acts to transiently inhibit cell cycle progression and allow for DNA repair in damaged tissues. Methodology/Principal Findings Treatment with Roscovitine prior to irradiation induced a significant increase in the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase, as demonstrated by flow cytometry. In contrast, mice treated with radiation exhibit no differences in the percentage of cells in G2/M when compared to unirradiated controls. Similar to previous studies utilizing IGF-1, pretreatment with Roscovitine leads to a significant up-regulation of p21 expression and a significant decrease in the number of PCNA positive cells. Radiation treatment leads to a significant increase in activated caspase-3 positive salivary acinar cells, which is suppressed by pretreatment with Roscovitine. Administration of Roscovitine prior to targeted head and neck irradiation preserves normal tissue function in mouse parotid salivary glands, both acutely and chronically, as measured by salivary output. Conclusions/Significance These studies suggest that induction of transient G2/M cell cycle arrest by Roscovitine allows for suppression of apoptosis, thus preserving normal salivary function following targeted head and neck irradiation. This could have an important clinical impact by preventing the negative side effects of radiation

  15. Delayed effects of neutron irradiation on central nervous system microvasculature in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, J.H.; McGregor, J.M.; Clendenon, N.R.; Gordon, W.A.; Yates, A.J.; Gahbauer, R.A.; Barth, R.F.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Pathologic examination of a series of 14 patients with malignant gliomas treated with BNCT showed well demarcated zones of radiation damage characterized by coagulation necrosis. Beam attenuation was correlated with edema, loss of parenchymal elements, demyelination, leukocytosis, and peripheral gliosis. Vascular disturbances consisted of endothelial swelling, medial and adventitial proliferation, fibrin impregnation, frequent thrombosis, and perivascular inflammation. Radiation changes appeared to be acute and delayed. The outcome of the patients in this series was not significantly different from the natural course of the disease, even though two of the patients had no residual tumor detected at the time of autopsy. The intensity of the vascular changes raised a suspicion that boron may have sequestered in vessel walls, resulting in selectively high doses of radiation to these structures (Asbury et al., 1972), or that there may have been high blood concentrations of boron at the time of treatment. The potential limiting effects of a vascular ischemic reaction in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) prompted the following study to investigate the delayed response of microvascular structures in a rat model currently being used for pre-clinical investigations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Salivary flow rates in patients with head and neck cancer 0. 5 to 25 years after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, R.P.; Fleming, T.J.; Toth, B.B.; Keene, H.J. (Univ. of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA))

    1990-12-01

    In this clinical study at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were obtained from 47 patients with head and neck cancer who had received mantle, unilateral facial, or bilateral facial field radiotherapy from 0.5 to 25 years earlier. The magnitude of salivary flow rate reduction compared with a healthy control group was primarily related to the radiation dosage and the amount of salivary gland tissue included in the irradiated fields. Flow rates were lower for women in all groups, but these differences were not statistically significant.

  17. Imaging of salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: aniltahuja@cuhk.edu.hk

    2008-06-15

    Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

  18. Recombinant human MFG-E8 attenuates intestinal injury and mortality in severe whole body irradiation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ajakaiye

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI syndrome component of acute radiation syndrome (ARS results from depletion of immature parenchymal stem cells after high dose irradiation and contributes significantly to early mortality. It is associated with severe, irreparable damage in the GI tract and extremely low survival. There is a need for the development of viable mitigators of whole body irradiation (WBI due to the possibility of unexpected high level radiation exposure from nuclear accidents or attacks. We therefore examined the effect of recombinant human milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (rhMFG-E8 in mitigating damage after WBI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10 Gy WBI using Cesium-137 as the radiation source. The animals in the treatment group received rhMFG-E8 (166 µg/kg BW subcutaneously once a day with the first dose given 6 h after WBI. Blood and tissue samples from the ileum were collected after 3 days of treatment. A separate cohort of animals was treated for 7 days and the 21 day mortality rate was determined. Treatment with rhMFG-E8 significantly improved the survival from 31% to 75% over 21 days. Furthermore, rhMFG-E8 treatment resulted in a 36% reduction in the radiation injury intestinal mucosal damage score, corresponding to visible histological changes. MFG-E8 gene expression was significantly decreased in WBI-induced animals as compared to sham controls. Treatment with rhMFG-E8 increased p53 and p21 expression by 207% and 84% compared to untreated controls. This was accompanied by an 80% increase in the expression of anti-apoptotic cell regulator Bcl-2. p53 and p21 levels correlate with improved survival after radiation injury. These cell regulators arrest the cell after DNA damage and enable DNA repair as well as optimize cell survival. Taken together, these results indicate that rhMFG-E8 ameliorates the GI syndrome and improves survival after WBI by minimizing intestinal cell damage and optimizing recovery.

  19. 单次与分次剂量照射大鼠放射性肺损伤模型的建立%Establishment of Irradiation Induced Lung Injury in Rats Model Underwent Single and Fractional Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘纯国; 刘智华; 王静怡; 朱根华; 严志宏; 王小平; 黄传生

    2015-01-01

    目的建立单次与分次剂量分割模式照射的放射性肺损伤动物模型,评价两种造模方法的可行性、科学性及实用性。方法85只大鼠随机分为对照组( A组15只)、单次照射组( B组35只)、分次照射组( C组35只)。 A组洋装照射,B组(照射1次,15 Gy)及C组(3 Gy/次,每周照射2次,共6次)均采用6MV X线照射大鼠双肺,于照射后第1、3、5、8、12周随机处死大鼠留取血液3~5 ml,采用ELISA法测定血清TGF-β1含量。取右肺中叶组织,HE染色动态观察各组大鼠肺组织损伤的病理变化,行免疫组化染色,测定肺组织中TGF-β1的表达。结果照射后B组死亡7只,C组死亡1只。 B组及C组大鼠肺组织均表现有急性炎症期、增生期及纤维化期的放射性肺损伤的典型病变过程,血清TGF-β1含量依顺序时相点逐渐升高,于第12周达峰值,均显著高于A组(P<0.05),B组稍高于C组,比较无差异。 B组及C组TGF-β1阳性表达率依顺序时相点逐渐升高,于第12周达到最高表达率,与A组比较有显著差异,B组稍高于C组,比较无差异。结论两种分割照射方式均成功建立了放射性肺损伤动物模型,可行性好,分次照射适合长期试验研究。%Objective To establish irradiation induced lung injury in rats model underwent single and fractional irradia -tion,and to evaluate the feasibility ,scientificity and practicability of 2 models.Methods 85 rats were randomly divided into the control group(group A,15rats received sham irradiation ),single irradiation group(group B,35 rats received 15 Gy to their thora-xes with 6 MV X-ray) and fractional irradiation group ( group C,35 rats received 18 Gy to their thoraxes with 6 MV X-ray,3 Gy per fraction,2 fraction per week).After radiation,the rats were killed at 1,3,5,8,12 week,the TGF-β1 of serum were measured by ELISA.All middle lobes of right lungs were obtained for

  20. 毫米波辐照下大鼠脑电的长程相关性%Long-range correlations of electroencephalogram in rats irradiated by millimeter wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢涛嵘; 裴剑; 李芬; 张杰; 齐红星; 陈树德; 乔登江

    2011-01-01

    通过脑电长程相关性的分析,定量研究了35 GHz毫米波辐照大鼠时产生的应激反应.通过退趋势分析法,得到反映高频成分的标度指数.显示在辐照前该成分具有布朗噪声的特性,辐照时具有长程相关性;而反映低频成分的标度指数显示在辐照前该成分具有长程相关性,辐照时成为布朗噪声.引进应激指标参量低频成份标度指标数/高频成份标度指标数,用其值的平均变化率来衡量大鼠在35 GHz毫米波作用下应激反应的剧烈程度.通过计算得到辐照时应激指标参量增加了49.9%±13.6%,说明35 GHz毫米波辐照使得大鼠脑电的高频部分变得更加有序,而低频成分变得更加无序,表明大鼠受35 GHz毫米波辐照而产生了剧烈应激反应.%A quantitative study was conducted on stress reaction in rat induced by 35 GHz millimeter wave.Long-range correlations analysis of the rat electroencephalogram(EEG) was investigated.The scaling exponents α1 and α2 were calculated by detrended fluctuation analysis(DFA) method.The exponent α1 shows that the high frequency EEG component is characterized by Brownian noise before irradiated by 35 GHz millimeter wave while it has long-range correlations during irradiation.The exponent α2 shows that the low frequency EEG component has long-range correlations before irradiation while it is characterized by Brownian noise during irradiation.Introducing stress parameter k(k=α2/α1 ), the average change rate of k was used to evaluate the intensity of stress in rat evoked by 35 GHz millimeter wave.The k increases 49.9% ±13.6% during irradiation, which indicates that the high frequency EEG component becomes more ordered and the low frequency EEG component becomes more disordered,showing the acute stress irt rat induced by 35 GHz millimeter wave.

  1. Photothermal stress triggered by near infrared-irradiated carbon nanotubes promotes bone deposition in rat calvarial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Tsukasa; Kajiya, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Minoru; Kido, Hirofumi; Fukushima, Tadao

    2015-03-01

    The bone regenerative healing process is often prolonged, with a high risk of infection particularly in elderly and diseased patients. A reduction in healing process time usually requires mechanical stress devices, chemical cues, or laser/thermal therapies. Although these approaches have been used extensively for the reduction of bone healing time, the exact mechanisms involved in thermal stress-induced bone regeneration remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of optimal hyperthermia on rat calvarial defects in vivo and on osteogenesis in vitro. Photothermal stress stimulation was carried out using a new photothermal device, composed of an alginate gel including in carbon nanotubes and their irradiator with near-infrared light. Photothermal stress (15 min at 42℃, every day), trigged by near-infrared-induced carbon nanotube, promoted bone deposition in critical-sized calvarial defects compared with nonthermal stress controls. We recently reported that our novel DNA/protamine complex scaffold induces bone regeneration in calvarial defects. In this study, photothermal stress upregulated bone deposition in DNA/protamine-engrafted calvarial defects. Furthermore, photothermal stress significantly induced expression of osteogenic related genes in a time-dependent manner, including alkaline phosphatase, osterix, and osteocalcin. This was observed in DNA/protamine cells, which were expanded from regenerated tissue engrafted into the DNA/protamine scaffold, as well as in human MG63 preosteoblasts. In summary, this novel carbon nanotube-based photothermal stress approach upregulated expression of osteogenic-related genes in preosteoblasts, resulting in promotion of mineral deposition for enhanced bone repair.

  2. Neuronal death and synapse elimination in the olivocerebellar system: III. Cell counts in the inferior olive of developing rats X-irradiated from birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffroy, B.; Shojaeian, H.; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N.; Mariani, J.

    1988-01-08

    The change with age of cell number in the developing inferior olivary nucleus (ION) of the normal rat, compared to the time course of the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons (i.e., the climbing fibers), suggests that the involution of the redundant olivocerebellar contacts is caused by a reduction of axonal branching rather than by degeneration of the parent cells, this being also suggested by the normal size of the olivary population in adult rodents whose Purkinje cells retain polyneuronal innervation. However, the similar size of the adult ION population does not necessarily imply that the development history is the same in normal and multiply innervated adult rodents. Therefore, cell counts were performed in developing rats which had been repeatedly X-irradiated from birth until postnatal day 14 and which retained polyneuronal innervation. The results show that, although less marked than during normal development, the evolution of the ION population is also characterized by a phase of cell loss followed by a slow increase. However, the number of cells in X-irradiated rats is higher than in their controls from birth to postnatal day 15 but becomes identical at 20 days and later. These data confirm that cell death in the ION does not play a major role in the shaping of olivocerebellar connections.

  3. Neuronal death and synapse elimination in the olivocerebellar system. II. Cell counts in the inferior olive of adult x-irradiated rats and weaver and reeler mutant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaeian, H.; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N.; Mariani, J.

    1985-02-15

    Cell death in the developing rat inferior olive precedes the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons (i.e., climbing fibers), suggesting that the involution of the redundant olivocerebellar contacts is caused by a withdrawal of supernumerary axonal collaterals rather than by degeneration of the parent cell. However, a subsequent apparent increase of the olivary population occurs, which could eventually mask a residual presynaptic cell death taking place at the same time. Therefore, cell counts were performed in the inferior olive of adult rodents in which the multiple innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons is maintained, with the idea that if cell death plays a role in the regression of supernumerary climbing fibers, the number of olivary cells should be higher in these animals than in their controls. The results show that the size of the cell population in the inferior olive of weaver and reeler mutant mice and rats degranulated by early postnatal x-irradiation does not differ significantly from that of their controls. Similarly, the distribution of the cells in the four main olivary subnuclei is not modified in weaver mice and x-irradiated rats. The present data further support the assumption that the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells occurs independently of cell death in the presynaptic population.

  4. Prenatal X-irradiation increases GFAP- and calbindin D28k-immunoreactivity in the medial subdivision of the nucleus of solitary tract in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin, T D; Xie, Q; Miki, T; Satriotomo, I; Itoh, M; Takeuchi, Y

    2000-04-12

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein- (GFAP) and calbindin D28k-immunoreactivity (IR) were investigated in the medial subdivision of the nucleus of the solitary tract (mNST) of prenatally X-irradiated rats. Pregnant rats were exposed to a single whole-body X-irradiation on day 11 or 16 of gestation at a dose of 1. 3 Gy. The offspring were killed at 7-14 days of age for the immunohistochemical observations. Rat pups showed strong GFAP-IR at the level rostral to the obex when receiving X-rays on day 11 of gestation, with hypertrophy of astrocyte cell bodies and cytoplasmic processes, but weak GFAP-IR when receiving X-rays on day 16 of gestation. Calbindin D28k-IR was stronger in the animals receiving X-rays on day 11 or 16 of gestation compared to that in the control animals. In the present study, the increase of GFAP- and calbindin D28k-IR cells in the mNST might indicate that adaptative mechanisms are taking place to preserve integrated nervous system function and possibly, to provide neuroprotection.

  5. Thyroxine clearance in rats within the first month after the single whole-body {gamma} - irradiation at a dose of 10Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryadko, Kirill A. [Institute of Radiobiology, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus)

    2002-07-01

    The effects of acute whole-body {gamma} -irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy on thyroxine (T{sub 4}) plasma clearance rate (PCR) and thyroidal and blood T4 concentration ([T{sub 4}]) were examined within one month after exposure. The PCR values were measured using the bolus injection, single-compartmental approach. To eliminate the influence of radiation-induced anorexia animals were fasting for two days before the pharmacokinetic experiments. Hormone concentrations in blood and in thyroid tissue were measured by RIA. Throughout the observation period, PCR was elevated in irradiated rats with maximum at day 4 after exposure (0.56{+-}0.04 vs. 0.36{+-}0.03 ml/h100 gbw, P<0.001). [T{sub 4}] in blood was not significantly different from that in control animals. Thyroidal [T{sub 4}] was significantly decreased in irradiated animals 4 days after exposure (151.8{+-}21.7 vs. 258.8{+-}29.9 pmol/mg protein, P<0.01) and gradually increased after day 9. 10 Gy {gamma} -irradiation causes the intensification of T{sub 4} metabolism without the pronounced changes in concentration. Presumably, at early terms the rising local demand in O{sub 4} can not be compensated with the existing level of production. Alterations in the intensity of T{sub 4} metabolism are evident at least one month after exposure but they may not be detected without taking into account kinetic data.

  6. Proteomic changes in the rat brain induced by homogenous irradiation and by the bystander effect resulting from high energy synchrotron X-ray microbeams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W; Wang, Jiaxi; Schültke, Elisabeth; Seymour, Colin B; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Laissue, Jean A; Blattmann, Hans; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2013-02-01

    To further evaluate the use of microbeam irradiation (MBI) as a potential means of non-invasive brain tumor treatment by investigating the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated tissue. Adult rats were irradiated with 35 or 350 Gy at the European Synchotron Research Facility (ESRF), using homogenous (broad beam) irradiation (HI) or a high energy microbeam delivered to the right brain hemisphere only. The proteome of the frontal lobes were then analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. HI resulted in proteomic responses indicative of tumourigenesis; increased albumin, aconitase and triosphosphate isomerase (TPI), and decreased dihydrolipoyldehydrogenase (DLD). The MBI bystander effect proteomic changes were indicative of reactive oxygen species mediated apoptosis; reduced TPI, prohibitin and tubulin and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). These potentially anti-tumourigenic apoptotic proteomic changes are also associated with neurodegeneration. However the bystander effect also increased heat shock protein (HSP) 71 turnover. HSP 71 is known to protect against all of the neurological disorders characterized by the bystander effect proteome changes. These results indicate that the collective interaction of these MBI-induced bystander effect proteins and their mediation by HSP 71, may confer a protective effect which now warrants additional experimental attention.

  7. [State of the reproductive systemin in male rats of 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and exposed to electromagnetic radiation (897 MHz) during embryogenesis and postnatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchako, G G; Chueshova, N V; Gorokh, G A; Naumov, A D

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation from cellular phone (897 MHz, daily 8 h/day) in male rats of the 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and subjected to prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation of the range of mobile communications during ontogeny and postnatal development were studied. It has been found that irradiation causes a decrease in the number of births of animals, changing the sex ratio towards the increase in the number of males. It had a significant impact on the reproductive system of males, accelerating their sexual development, revealed at the age of two months. Radiation from cell phones led to significant disproportions in the cell number at different stages of spermatogenesis. It increased the number of mature spermatozoa which decreased viability.

  8. Somatoform salivary complaints. Case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votta, Timothy J; Mandel, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Patients with salivary gland complaints are seen with a large array of signs and symptoms. Usually these patients have an underlying pathophysiological process that can account for their symptoms. However, in a significant number of patients, no known biological process can be found that would account for the patient's complaint. In such cases, somatization is a possible cause. Somatization is a frequently cited feature of patients with various forms of mental illness. In this paper, we will attempt to illustrate the classic signs of a somatoform disorder in three different patients whose diverse salivary complaints fulfill the criteria for a diagnosis of somatoform disease.

  9. Alterations in rat cardiac myosin isozymes induced by whole-body irradiation are prevented by 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litten, R.Z.; Fein, H.G.; Gainey, G.T.; Walden, T.L.; Smallridge, R.C. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cardiac myosin isozymes and serum thyroid hormone levels were investigated in rats following 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The percent beta-myosin heavy chain increased from 21.3 {plus minus} 1.8 to 28.1 {plus minus} 6.8 (NS) at 3-day postirradiation, 37.7 {plus minus} 1.9 (P less than .001) at 6-day postirradiation, and 43.8 {plus minus} 3.3 (P less than .001) at 9-day postirradiation. Along with the change in myosin isozymes was a significant 53% decrease (P less than .001) in the serum thyroxine (T4) level by day 3 postirradiation, remaining depressed through day 9 postirradiation. The serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) level, however, was normal until day 9, when significant depression was also observed. In contrast, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased by fourfold at day 3, returning to near normal values by day 9 postirradiation. Daily injections of physiological doses of T3 (0.3 microgram/100 g body weight) prevented the change in the myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation. Daily pharmacological injections of T3 (3.0 micrograms/100 g body weight) to the irradiated rats produced a further decrease in the percent beta-myosin heavy chain (below control values) indicating tissue hyperthyroidism. Thus, this study suggests that the change in myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation is caused by an alteration in thyroid hormone activity.

  10. P2Y2 nucleotide receptor activation enhances the aggregation and self-organization of dispersed salivary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Farid G; Camden, Jean M; Woods, Lucas T; Khalafalla, Mahmoud G; Petris, Michael J; Erb, Laurie; Weisman, Gary A

    2014-07-01

    Hyposalivation resulting from salivary gland dysfunction leads to poor oral health and greatly reduces the quality of life of patients. Current treatments for hyposalivation are limited. However, regenerative medicine to replace dysfunctional salivary glands represents a revolutionary approach. The ability of dispersed salivary epithelial cells or salivary gland-derived progenitor cells to self-organize into acinar-like spheres or branching structures that mimic the native tissue holds promise for cell-based reconstitution of a functional salivary gland. However, the mechanisms involved in salivary epithelial cell aggregation and tissue reconstitution are not fully understood. This study investigated the role of the P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R), a G protein-coupled receptor that is upregulated following salivary gland damage and disease, in salivary gland reconstitution. In vitro results with the rat parotid acinar Par-C10 cell line indicate that P2Y2R activation with the selective agonist UTP enhances the self-organization of dispersed salivary epithelial cells into acinar-like spheres. Other results indicate that the P2Y2R-mediated response is dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor activation via the metalloproteases ADAM10/ADAM17 or the α5β1 integrin/Cdc42 signaling pathway, which leads to activation of the MAPKs JNK and ERK1/2. Ex vivo data using primary submandibular gland cells from wild-type and P2Y2R(-/-) mice confirmed that UTP-induced migratory responses required for acinar cell self-organization are mediated by the P2Y2R. Overall, this study suggests that the P2Y2R is a promising target for salivary gland reconstitution and identifies the involvement of two novel components of the P2Y2R signaling cascade in salivary epithelial cells, the α5β1 integrin and the Rho GTPase Cdc42.

  11. Localizing by autoradiography at -195 deg radioactive areas in rats exposed to a high flux of thermal neutrons, importance of phosphorus 32 in consecutive internal irradiation; Localisation par autoradiographie a -195 deg des zones radioactives chez le rat expose a un haut flux de neutrons thermiques, importance du phosphore 32 dans l'irradiation interne consecutive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanteur, J.; Pellerin, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Rats weighing 25 g were exposed for 5 mn to a flux of 6.10{sup 12} thermal neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s. Anatomical autoradiography at -195 deg. C has enabled the radioactive organs to be easily localised, to follow in course of time the decrease of radioactivity, and from it to deduce the probable nature of the numerous emitters in question. In particular, the phosphorus 32 has thus appeared to be one of those responsible for internal irradiation, general, on the one hand, by activating cellular phosphorus, local, on the other, by activating bony phosphates. Owing to this, an accidental irradiation by neutrons might have consequences that are both somatic (elective irradiation of the bone marrow) and genetic (activation of nucleic acids). The gamma spectrometry has confirmed the nature of certain other emitters. (author) [French] Des rats de 25 g ont ete exposes pendant 5 mn a un flux de 6.10{sup 12} neutrons thermiques/cm{sup 2}/s. L'autoradiographie anatomique a -195 deg. C a permis de localiser facilement les organes radioactifs, de suivre dans le temps la decroissance de la radioactivite, et d'en deduire la nature probable des nombreux emetteurs en cause. En particulier, le phosphore 32 est ainsi apparu comme l'un des responsables de l'irradiation interne, d'une part generale par activation du phosphore cellulaire, d'autre part locale par activation des phosphates osseux. Une irradiations accidentelle par neutrons aurait, de ce fait, des consequences a la fois somatiques (irradiation elective de la moelle osseuse) et genetiques (activation des acides nucleiques). La spectrometrie gamma a confirme la nature de certains autres emetteurs. (auteur)

  12. Chitosan adsorption to salivary pellicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Henderina; Engels, Eefje; de Vries, Jacob; Dijkstra, Rene JB; Busscher, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    The salivary pellicle is a negatively charged protein film, to which oral bacteria readily adhere. Chitosans are cationic biomolecules with known antimicrobial properties that can be modified in different ways to enhance its antimicrobial activity. Here, we determined the changes in surface chemical

  13. Management of salivary gland tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andry, Guy; Hamoir, Marc; Locati, Laura D.; Licitra, Lisa; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2012-01-01

    Surgery after proper imaging (MRI or CT scan) is the main stay of treatment for salivary gland tumors. Although excision margins should be >= 5 mm for malignant tumors in cases of parotid gland carcinoma, the facial nerve should be preserved whenever it is not infiltrated. Adjuvant external radiatio

  14. Chewing behavior and salivary secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaviao, MBD; Engelen, L

    We determined the salivary flow rate in 16 healthy subjects in rest and while chewing artificial and natural foods (Parafilm, Melba toast with and without margarine, and three different volumes of breakfast cake and cheese). We also determined the duration of a chewing cycle, the number of chewing

  15. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they most look like when seen under a microscope. The main types of cancers are described below. Doctors usually give salivary cancers a grade (from 1 to 3, or from low to high), based on how abnormal the cancers look under a microscope. The grade gives a rough idea of how ...

  16. Chewing behavior and salivary secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaviao, MBD; Engelen, L

    2004-01-01

    We determined the salivary flow rate in 16 healthy subjects in rest and while chewing artificial and natural foods (Parafilm, Melba toast with and without margarine, and three different volumes of breakfast cake and cheese). We also determined the duration of a chewing cycle, the number of chewing c

  17. Inhibitory Effects of 658 nm Laser Irradiation on Skin Temperature in Anesthetized Rats: Preliminary Results from a Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Litscher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red laser light stimulation can have many physiological effects. The goal of this animal experimental study was to investigate how red laser stimulation influences the temperature of anesthetized rats at different acupuncture points and nonacupoints. For that reason 12 adult male Wistar Han rats (300–380 g were investigated. Six anesthetized rats underwent red laser stimulation (wavelength 658 nm, output power 40 mW, diameter 500 µm, and duration 10 min at the Baihui (GV20 acupoint, the Zusanli acupoint (ST36, bilateral, and a control point on the forelimb. The other six rats underwent the same procedure; however, the laser remained switched off. Significant decreases in temperature were found at the acupoints Baihui, Zusanli left, and Zusanli right. In addition there was no significant temperature effect at a control point. During placebo laser irradiation (deactivated laser there were also significant temperature changes. The mechanism underlying the results is currently unknown, but brain stimulation (via laser or mechanical pressure and mainly direct central mechanisms may be responsible for the local and peripheral temperature decrease.

  18. Nerve allograft regeneration and immunological tolerance of rats with sciatic nerve transplantation after intragastric pretreatment with ultraviolet B-irradiated donor splenocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Mi; Qiang Liu; Dou Wu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nerve allograft rejection is an unavoidable problem for nerve allografts. Traumatic peripheral nerve injuries are commonly reconstructed using autogenous nerve grafts. However, this form of reconstruction is limited by insufficient autologous nerves for large gap repairs and by morbidity at the nerve donor site.OBJECTIVE: To examine sciatic nerve regeneration and immune tolerance reaction after intragastric administration of ultraviolet B-irradiated (UVB) donor splenocytes.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A complete randomized grouping design and controlled experiment. The experiments were conducted in the Department of Orthopedics, the First Affiliated Hospital to Shanxi Medical University, China, between March and October 2007.MATERIALS: Fourteen adult male SD rats and fourteen male Wistar rats, weighing 250-300g, were randomly matched as donors and acceptors. A further seven male SD rats (weight 250-300g, age 12-16 weeks) were used for nerve isografts. Immune preparations and the Epics XL flow cytometer were purchased from B-D Company, USA. A computer-assisted electromyograph machine was provided by Keypoint P, Dantel Company, Denmark.METHODS: Splenocytes from Wistar rats were isolated, purified, and cultured, and then irradiated with ultraviolet B. In the first control group (Group 1), the SD rats received a syngeneic SD nerve isograft. In the second control group (Group 2), the SD rats received a nerve allograft from Wistar rats without pretreatment. In the oral-tolerance treated group (Group 3), the SD recipient rats were inoculated with 2.5×107 Lewis UVB-irradiated donor splenocyte cells by intestinal tract administration at seven days before transplantation.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) The recent end and the middle and distal end of the transplanted nerve were cut at 8 and 12 weeks after operation. Recovery of nerve regeneration was measured with HE staining using the total number, density, and diameter of the nerve fibers. (2) The level of CD25+T

  19. Salivary Heparanase Level Is a Potential Biomarker to Diagnose and Prognose the Malignant Salivary Gland Tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbing Wu

    Full Text Available Upregulation of heparanase has been reported in an increasing number of human cancer tissues. However, the level of salivary heparanase and its clinical significance in patients with salivary gland tumors remain unclear.Salivary heparanase levels in patients with salivary gland tumors were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs and the clinical significance was evaluated by analyzing the correlations among salivary heparanase levels, clinicopathological parameters, and clinical outcomes.The levels of salivary heparanase were significantly higher in patients with malignant salivary gland tumors than in benign tumors and normal controls (P<0.0001. High salivary heparanase levels were positively correlated with increased lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0235 and poorer tumor node metastasis stage (TNM (P = 0.0183. Survival analyses revealed that high salivary heparanase levels were associated with worse overall survival (P = 0.0023 and disease-free survival (DFS (P = 0.0025.The study shows that salivary heparanase levels, as detected by the ELISAs, can be used to diagnose and provide an accurate prognosis for malignant salivary gland tumors. Salivary heparanase level was an independent predictor in patients with malignant salivary gland tumors.

  20. Repair capacity of adult rat glial progenitor cells determined by an in vitro clonogenic assay after in vitro or in vivo fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Kleiboer, B.J.; Verhagen, I.; Kogel, A.J. van der (Nijmegen Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. of Radiotherapy)

    1993-05-01

    Demyelination is one condition identified as a late response of the central nervous system (CNS) to irradiation. In the present study the repair capacity of glial stem cells was investigated and compared with the repair capacity of the CNS in vivo using functional endpoints. For this purpose, glial stem cells, derived from the adult rat optic nerve, were subjected to fractionated irradiation in vivo and in vitro and their survival was quantified with an in vitro clonogenic assay. The data were analysed by three different methods all based on the LQ-model (single dose survival curve; '[beta][sub RR]', 'F[sub e]-plot'). The resulting value of the [beta]-parameter of adult glial stem cells is consistent with values obtained for functional endpoints after irradiation of the CNS in vivo. The [alpha]/[beta]-ratio (4.9-7.3 Gy) of adult glial stem cells, however, is higher than the [alpha]/[beta]-ratio ([approx] 2 Gy) obtained for CNS in vivo and is closer to that of an acute responding tissue. (Author).

  1. Effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP low-level laser irradiation on experimental wound healing in healthy and diabetic Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, L. M. G.; Matheus, R. L.; Santos, G. M. T.; Esquisatto, M. A. M.; Amaral, M. E. C.; Mendonça, F. A. S.

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP laser irradiation on wound healing in healthy and alloxan diabetic rats. The animals were divided into eight groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy treated with microcurrent (HMC); diabetic treated with microcurrent (DMC); healthy irradiated with laser (HL); diabetic irradiated with laser (DL); healthy receiving laser and microcurrent application (HLMC) and diabetic receiving laser and microcurrent application (DLMC). Wound samples were collected on days 2, 6, 10 and 14 of treatment for structural analysis, morphometry, and Western blotting to quantify the expression of TGF-β1 and VEGF. Comparison of animals receiving laser and microcurrent therapy showed a reduction in the number of inflammatory cells in diabetic animals, as well as an increase of fibroblasts in healthy animals and of newly formed vessels in healthy and diabetic animals. Expression of TGF-β1 was increased on day 6 in all groups, especially diabetic animals. A reduction in the expression of this protein was observed on day 10 in all groups. VEGF expression was higher on day 6 in treated and control diabetic animals when compared to healthy animals. Analysis of VEGF expression in the laser- and microcurrent-treated groups on day 10 showed a decrease in diabetic animals and an increase in healthy animals. In conclusion, laser therapy and microcurrent stimulation exert beneficial effects on wound healing in both healthy and diabetic animals.

  2. Simvastatin attenuates radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Liping Xu,* Xi Yang,* Jiayan Chen, Xiaolin Ge, Qin Qin, Hongcheng Zhu, Chi Zhang, Xinchen Sun Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Statins are widely used lipid-lowering drugs, which have pleiotropic effects, such as anti-inflammation, and vascular protection. In our study, we investigated the radioprotective potential of simvastatin (SIM in a murine model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Design: Ninety-six Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly divided into four groups: solvent + sham irradiation (IR (Group I, SIM + sham IR (Group II, IR + solvent (Group III, and IR + SIM (Group IV. SIM (10 mg/kg body weight, three times per week was administered intraperitoneally 1 week prior to IR through to the end of the experiment. Saliva and submandibular gland tissues were obtained for biochemical, morphological (hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome, and Western blot analysis at 8 hours, 24 hours, and 4 weeks after head and neck IR. Results: IR caused a significant reduction of salivary secretion and amylase activity but elevation of malondialdehyde. SIM remitted the reduction of saliva secretion and restored salivary amylase activity. The protective benefits of SIM may be attributed to scavenging malondialdehyde, remitting collagen deposition, and reducing and delaying the elevation of transforming growth factor β1 expression induced by radiation. Conclusion: SIM may be clinically useful to alleviate side effects of radiotherapy on salivary gland. Keywords: simvastatin, radiation protection, submandibular gland, transforming growth factor-β1, mice

  3. Conditioned instrumental behaviour in the rat: Effects of prenatal irradiation with various low dose-rate doses. Instrumentelle Verhaltensuntersuchungen an der Ratte: Ueber die Wirkung verschiedener Dosen einer praenatalen Bestrahlung niedriger Dosisleistung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, H.

    1986-01-01

    4 groups of rats of the Wistar-strain were subjected to ..gamma..-irradiation on the 16th day of gestation. 5 rats received 0,6 Gy low dose rate irradiation, 5 animals received 0,9 Gy low dose and 6 high dose irradiation, 3 females were shamirradiated. The male offspring of these 3 irradiation groups and 1 control group were tested for locomotor coordination on parallel bars and in a water maze. The female offspring were used in an operant conditioning test. The locomotor test showed slight impairment of locomotor coordination in those animals irradiated with 0,9 Gy high dose rate. Swimming ability was significantly impaired by irradiation with 0,9 Gy high dose rate. Performance in the operant conditioning task was improved by irradiation with 0,9 Gy both low and high dose rate. The 0,9 Gy high dose rate group learned faster than all the other groups. For the dose of 0,9 Gy a significant dose rate effect could be observed. For the dose of 0,6 Gy a similar tendency was observed, differences between 0,6 Gy high and low dose rate and controls not being significant.

  4. [Therapeutic approach to post-radiation xerostomia. A reservoir prosthesis and an artificial salivary gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smatt, V; Briere, M; Cornebise-Drouhet, F; Maugey, N; Robin, M

    1989-01-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia is an incapacitating sequela of salivary gland irradiation in patients receiving tumoricidal X-ray therapeutical doses for cancer of the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. All stimulant type therapeutics available are powerless to bring back wetness into the mouth of patients with asialia. Replacement therapy constitutes the only alternative for symptomatic treatment. Artificial salivary gland sprays have a proven unsustained, short-lasting efficacy. The administration of an oral mucine-containing salivary emollient solution drip, presented either in the form of an oral or external container, constitutes an original symptomatic treatment regimen, the efficacy of which has been established. The authors here review the concept and methodology of their palliative treatment protocol against chronic asialia.

  5. Salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase, and the dental anxiety scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels.

  6. Exocytosis sensitivity to growth hormone-releasing hormone in subsets of GH cells in rats under different corticosterone conditions. Ultrastructural study using microwave irradiation for fixation and immunocytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Hitoshi; Han, Fang; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2004-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) cells in the rat anterior pituitary have been morphologically classified into three subtypes: type I (mature) containing large secretory granules about 350 nm in diameter, type II (intermediate) containing a mixture of large and small granules, and type III (immature) containing small granules about 150 nm in diameter. However, the functional implications of morphological heterogeneity, especially the different sensitivities to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) under different corticosteroid conditions have not been elucidated to date. In the present study, by application of microwave irradiation (MWI) for fixation and immunocytochemistry, new findings of the exocytotic response have been revealed among the subsets of GH cells following adrenalectomy (ADX), corticosterone treatment and/or GRH treatment. The MWI gave effective results for fixation, especially for the permeability of the fixative, and showed good results for immunoelectron microscopy using the protein-A gold method. Moreover, the use of MWI greatly shortened the fixation, processing and immunolabeling times without compromising the quality of ultrastructural preservation and the specificity of labeling. The number of exocytotic figures was low in all subtypes of GH cells in the sham-operated control rats. GRH treatment induced a significant increase in exocytosis in each subtype of GH cells, particularly in type I (mature) and type II (intermediate) GH cells in the control rats. GRH injection to rats for 4 days after ADX also showed an increase in exocytosis, but the degree was significantly less in comparison with the GRH injection in the control group. Corticosterone replacement given to ADX rats induced a clear recovery of the exocytotic response to GRH to the control level. Serum GH content measured by radioimmunoassay correlated with these morphological results. These results suggest that the secretion of GH stimulated by GRH is closely related to corticosteroids, and

  7. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in gingival inflammation. Twenty-eight systemically and orally healthy nonsmokers abstained from oral hygiene protocols for 10 days. After that, self-performed cleaning was resumed for 14 days. Plaque and gingival indexes were measured......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte......, and saliva samples were collected at days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 24. Salivary cytokines were detected with Luminex®-xMAP™. Salivary IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and VEGF levels decreased after 10 days' development of experimental gingivitis and reached baseline levels at the end of the 2-week resolution period. Salivary IL-8...

  8. Protective effects of Quercetin to 6 Gy irradiated rats%槲皮素对X射线照射后大鼠免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚利; 赵红光; 焦明秀; 林承赫

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the radioprotective effects of Quercetin (QN) on 6 Gy X-ray irradiation-induced immune dysfunction and toxicity in hepatic tissue in rats. Methods 40 adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group Ⅰ was injected intraperitoneally with saline solution for 7 consecutive day sand served as control group. Group Ⅱ was daily injected with QN (40 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. Group Ⅲ was irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy X-ray. Group Ⅳ received a daily injection of QN (40 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days, and 1 h after the last injection rats were irradiated with a single dose (6 Gy) X-ray irradiation.The animals were sacrificed after 24 h. Lymphocyte transforming rate was measured with MTT method, and CD+4 T, CD+4 T and CD+8/CD+8 T were measured with flow cytometry method. Oxidative conditions in liver were measured with malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione hormone (GSH), supernxide dismutase (SOD) andglutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities kits. HE staining was used to observe the general condition of rat's liver. Results Lymphocyte transforming rate, CD+4 T, CD+8 T and CD+8/CD+8 T in rats of Group Ⅳ were all higher than those in rats of Group Ⅲ ( F = 8.455,22.644, 18.911, P < 0.01 ). MDA content in the Group Ⅳ rat's liver was lower than that in the Group Ⅲ ( F = 10.059, P < 0.01 ) and antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSH-Px activities were higher than those in Group Ⅲ (F = 23.688,186.046,19.788, P < 0.01 ). The capillary of the hepatic lobules dilated and congested obviously in portal area, involving infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the Group Ⅲ, while QN improved this change apparendy. Conclusions Pretreatment with Quercetin improved the irradiated rat's immune functions and protected the irradiated rats from oxidative stress to some extent.%目的 探讨槲皮素(ON)对6 Gy X射线照射后大鼠免疫功能及肝脏氧化应激反应的影响.方法 40只大鼠随机分成4组,每组10只,第1

  9. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  10. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...

  11. Salivary gammagraphy in Sjogren Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, R. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima)

    1983-05-01

    Bearing in mind that the Tc-99m pertechnetate is taken up by the active glandular tissues of the salivary glands, we evaluate and objectivate the decrease of this captation in the case of chronic inflammation of distinct evolution of the parotid. Our results are encouraging in that sense that the experiment is not invasive and thus there are no risks for the patient nor for the doctor.

  12. Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) on the anterior chest wall of a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aby, Janelle L; Patel, Mayha; Sundram, Uma; Benjamin, Latanya T

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) is a rare condition typically seen in the newborn period. This developmental heterotopia is generally nonprogressive, with little risk of malignant transformation. We present the second known reported case of a salivary gland choristoma located on the anterior chest wall. Knowledge of this rare entity will allow for accurate diagnosis and management of this benign anatomic variant.

  13. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López María Elena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old and 21 control children (5-12-years-old were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

  14. Tight Junctions in Salivary Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga J. Baker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cell tight junctions (TJs consist of a narrow belt-like structure in the apical region of the lateral plasma membrane that circumferentially binds each cell to its neighbor. TJs are found in tissues that are involved in polarized secretions, absorption functions, and maintaining barriers between blood and interstitial fluids. The morphology, permeability, and ion selectivity of TJ vary among different types of tissues and species. TJs are very dynamic structures that assemble, grow, reorganize, and disassemble during physiological or pathological events. Several studies have indicated the active role of TJ in intestinal, renal, and airway epithelial function; however, the functional significance of TJ in salivary gland epithelium is poorly understood. Interactions between different combinations of the TJ family (each with their own unique regulatory proteins define tissue specificity and functions during physiopathological processes; however, these interaction patterns have not been studied in salivary glands. The purpose of this review is to analyze some of the current data regarding the regulatory components of the TJ that could potentially affect cellular functions of the salivary epithelium.

  15. The effects of ionizing radiation on the function and vascular structure of the rat submandibular gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamata, Fumio (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-06-01

    In radiotherapy for the jaw and face, the irradiation field frequently affects the salivary gland, in an aduerse way. In the present study, I assessed the functional influence of radiation on the submandibular gland by RI, with inspection of both the vascular distribution of the submandibular gland by India ink and resin molding methods, and of the histological changes by HE and PAS staining. Each experimental group consisted of 9 male Wistar strain rats aged 8 weeks. Single irradiation was performed at 10 Gy and 50 Gy doses by {sup 60}Co-{gamma} ray. The changes at 6 hours, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after irradiation were determined and compared with those in the control group. Function tests for uptake and clearance were performed using {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. Results showed the uptake and clearance value in the irradiation group was higher than that in the control group. With respect to the effect of irradiation on blood vessels, vasodilation, flexion, and destruction of the blood wall were observed. In addition, various histological changes appeared. In each examination, the irradiation effects in the 50 Gy group were greater than those in the 10 Gy group. In conclusion, the decline in submandibular function after 10 Gy and 50 Gy irradiation is related to histological changes in the vascular system and glandular tissues. (author) 63 refs.

  16. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands by Expansion of the Stem/Progenitor Pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Wierenga, Pieter K.; Kampinga, Harm H.; De Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation of salivary glands during radiotherapy treatment of patients with head and neck cancer evokes persistent hyposalivation. This results from depletion of stem cells, which renders the gland incapable of replenishing saliva to produce acinar cells. The aim of this study was to investigate w

  17. Clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients: successes and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissink, A.; Mitchell, J.B.; Baum, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    The most significant long-term complication of radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularily xerostomia. This review addresses the pathophysiology underlying irradiation damage to salivary gland tissue, the consequences of radiation injury...

  18. 脑部照射对大鼠情绪和记忆的影响%The effect of brain irradiation on mood and memory for rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范兴文; 贯士阔; 吴开良

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose:Radiotherapy is one of the main treatment methods for brain tumor patients, but neurotoxicity was observed frequently. Because of the confounding factors in clinical data, it’s hard to summarize the characteristic of neurological changes after brain irradiation. This study used the brain irradiation injury model of rats to test whether brain irradiation change the mood and memory.Methods:Whole brain of SD rats (6-8 weeks old) was exposed to 22 Gy radiation. Open ifeld and elevated plus maze was used to assess the anxiety of rats, passive avoidance was used to assess the mood memory, and novel place recognition was used to assess the spatial memory at 1 month or 10 months after brain irradiation.Results:At 1 month post irradiation, rats moved with less distance and entrance to the central zone of open ifeld with less time, explored the open and closed arms with less time and the exploration of open arms also decreased, entered the darkroom more rapidly during the test phase of passive avoidance, and lose the interest to explore the novel place during novel place recognition. At 10 months post irradiation, rats exhibited similarly with control group during open ifeld and elevated plus maze test, but still entered the darkroom more rapidly during the test phase of passive avoidance, and lose the interest to explore the novel place during novel place recognition.Conclusion:Brain irradiation could decrease the locomotor activity, increase the anxiety mood, reduce the mood and spatial memory; mood dysfunction induced by brain irradiation could restore, but memory impairments would be long-standing.%背景与目的:放射治疗是脑肿瘤的主要治疗方法之一,但会导致一定的神经毒性。为避免临床混杂因素的干扰,本研究采用大鼠放射性脑损伤模型探讨脑部照射对情绪和记忆的影响及其规律。方法:6~8周SD大鼠,用直线加速器进行脑部照射22 Gy制作放射性脑损伤

  19. Performance evaluation of salivary amylase activity monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Kanemori, Takahiro; Kanemaru, Masashi; Takai, Noriyasu; Mizuno, Yasufumi; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2004-10-15

    In order to quantify psychological stress and to distinguish eustress and distress, we have been investigating the establishment of a method that can quantify salivary amylase activity (SMA). Salivary glands not only act as amplifiers of a low level of norepinephrine, but also respond more quickly and sensitively to psychological stress than cortisol levels. Moreover, the time-course changes of the salivary amylase activity have a possibility to distinguish eustress and distress. Thus, salivary amylase activity can be utilized as an excellent index for psychological stress. However, in dry chemistry system, a method for quantification of the enzymatic activity still needs to be established that can provide with sufficient substrate in a testing tape as well as can control enzymatic reaction time. Moreover, it is necessary to develop a method that has the advantages of using saliva, such as ease of collection, rapidity of response, and able to use at any time. In order to establish an easy method to monitor the salivary amylase activity, a salivary transcription device was fabricated to control the enzymatic reaction time. A fabricated salivary amylase activity monitor consisted of three devices, the salivary transcription device, a testing-strip and an optical analyzer. By adding maltose as a competitive inhibitor to a substrate Ga1-G2-CNP, a broad-range activity testing-strip was fabricated that could measure the salivary amylase activity with a range of 0-200 kU/l within 150 s. The calibration curve of the monitor for the salivary amylase activity showed R2=0.941, indicating that it was possible to use this monitor for the analysis of the salivary amylase activity without the need to determine the salivary volume quantitatively. In order to evaluate the assay variability of the monitor, salivary amylase activity was measured using Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test as a psychological stressor. A significant difference of salivary amylase activity was recognized

  20. Dorsal skin responses to subchronic ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiation in Wistar-derived hypotrichotic WBN/ILA-Ht rats

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Dorsal skin responses to a subchronic UVBirradiation (10kJ/m2/rat /day), were examined in Wistarderived hypotrichotic WBN/ILA-Ht rats for up to 3 months. Hyperplasia of epidermal cells and hair follicle epithelial cells as well as parakeratosis developed at 1 month and progressed thereafter, resulting in a prominent epidermis thickening and formation of epidermal ingrowths projecting into the dermis. At the same time, the percentage of proliferating cell nuclea...

  1. Electrical biopsy of irradiated intestinal tissue with a simple electrical impedance spectroscopy system for radiation enteropathy in rats--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Jie; Huang, Eng-Yen; Lu, Yi-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng

    2011-09-01

    Electrical impedance is one of the most often used parameters for characterizing material properties, especially in biomedical applications. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), used for revealing both resistive and capacitive characteristics, is good for use in tissue characterization. In this study, a portable and simple EIS system based on a commercially available chip was used to assess rat intestinal tissues following irradiation. The EIS results were fitted to a resistor and capacitor electrical circuit model to solve the electrical properties of the tissue. The variation in the tissue's electrical characteristics was compared to the morphological and histological findings. From the experimental results, it was clear that the electrical properties, based on receiver operation curve analysis, demonstrated good detection performance relative to the histological changes. The electrical parameters of the tissues could be used to distinguish the tissue's status for investigation, which introduced a concept of 'electrical biopsy', and this 'electrical biopsy' approach may be used to complement histological examinations.

  2. Effect of Topical Probiotic on MMP-13 and Collagen III Expression in the Dermis Layer of Male Rats Irradiated with Ultraviolet-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita M. Tawaran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a big interest in the use of topical probiotic preparations for skin health. One of the probiotics therurapeutic benefits is used as anti-aging. During aging, there is stimulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1 which is a transcription factor that inhibits the production of collagen and AP-1 supports the breakdown of collagen by enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. As administration of oral Lactobacillus plantarum could inhibit skin aging by lowering the activity of MMP, so the collagen degradation can be derived so probably topical use of Lactobacillus plantarum may give more prominent effects. We used 24 male rats Sprague-Dawley strain as research objects. This study was divided into two groups, the treatment and control groups. The shaved dorsal skin of rats were irradiated with UVB three times a week for 4 weeks with total irradiation dose of 840 mJ/cm2. Skin cream, containing 247.27x107 CFU non-replicating Lactobacillus plantarum FNCC 0020, was smeared on the treatment group, two times daily, whereas the control group did not receive any treatment. Skin biopsies were done at the end of the study for examination of MMP-13 and collagen III expressions. Intensity, distribution, and histoscore of MMP-13 between the treatment and the control group showed no significant difference (p>0.05. The treatment group showed a significant different in the intensity of collagen III with the density distribution of 20–50% and the highest density was 80% (p<0.01. Administration of topical cream L. plantarum FNCC 0020 increased the expression of collagen III density distribution, but not the MMP-13 expression.

  3. Salivary gland hypofunction in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M

    1994-03-01

    Elderly dental patients often complain of mouth dryness. This complaint is most often caused by xerogenic medications or, less often, by systemic diseases. Aging per se has no significant clinical impact on salivary gland output. Salivary gland hypofunction, whether caused by medications or systemic disorders, have a strong negative impact on intraoral tissues, with a significant reduction in the quality of life.

  4. Evaluation on the methods for collecting saliva before and after acid stimulation by salivary flow rate and sAA activity in rats%流率及唾液淀粉酶活性用于评价大鼠酸刺激前后唾液样本采集方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林静; 杨泽民; 卢群

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解柠檬酸刺激对大鼠唾液淀粉酶( sAA)活性和唾液流率的影响,探讨味觉刺激下的唾液标本采集方法。方法随机选取正常雌性SD大鼠30只,先用微量取样器抽取刺激前的全唾液,然后用0.4 mol/L 0.50 cm×0.50 cm的柠檬酸滤纸每隔2.5 min刺激大鼠舌尖30 s,5 min采集的唾液混合为一管,连续采集15 min,共3管唾液样本,记录每管唾液采集量,用Bernfeld法测定sAA活性,计算唾液流率、酸刺激前后流率和sAA活性比值,检测流率和sAA活性的相关性。结果大鼠酸刺激后0~5 min、6~10 min、11~15 min 3个时间段的sAA活性和唾液流率以及其比值都显著增加(P0.05)。刺激前唾液流率与sAA呈显著正相关(P0.05) . A significant positive correlation was observed between sAA activity and salivary flow rate in unstimulated situation ( P<0. 05 ) , but a negative correlation was noted under stimulation( P<0.05) . Conclusion Citric acid stimulation may increase the sAA activity and salivary flow rate in rats. This convenient method is suitable for saliva collection.

  5. Influence of age on radioinduced cognitive disorders: Experimental studies with cerebral irradiation of 30 Gy in 10 sessions and 12 days in the Wistar rat at 1.5, 4 and 18 months; Influence de l'age sur les troubles cognitifs radioinduits : etudes experimentales avec irradiation cerebrale de 30 Gy en 10 seances et 12 jours chez le rat Wistar de 1 1/2, 4 et 18 mois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamproglou, I. [Lab. de Chimie et Biophysique des Traceurs, Faculte de Medecine Xavier Bichat, Paris (France); Baillet, F.; Boisserie, G.; Mazeron, J.J. [Service de Radiotherapie, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Delattre, J.Y. [Dept. of Neurology and Inst. National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of age on the learning and memory dysfunction induced by cranial radiation in the male Wistar rat. Ninety-six 45-day-old, 70 4-month-old, and 78 18-month-old male rats were divided in two equal groups: (i) irradiated and (ii) control. A course of whole-brain radiation therapy (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 12 days) was administered to the irradiated group, while the control group received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one and two-way avoidance tests were undertaken before and after the 7 months following radiation. The results suggest that radiation induced progressive and irreversible memory dysfunction in elderly (18-month-old) rats, but this effect was partial or almost reversible in the 4-month-old and 45-day-old rats, respectively. In return, the learning dysfunction was age non-dependent despite the fact that is occurs more rapidly in the young (45 days, 4 months) rats. (author)

  6. A functional and chemical study of radiation effects on rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vissink, A.; S-Gravenmade, E.J.; Ligeon, E.E.; Konings, W.T. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands))

    1990-12-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor composition and rate of secretion of rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva following local single doses of X-rays ranging from 5 to 20 Gy. Pilocarpine-stimulated samples of parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva were simultaneously collected with miniaturized Lashley cups before and 1-30 days after irradiation. The lag phase (period between injection of pilocarpine and start of the secretion) and flow rate were recorded and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, and amylase were measured. With increasing dose and time, the salivary flow rate as well as sodium concentration decreased, while potassium concentrations increased throughout the follow-up period. The lag phase and the concentration of amylase reached their maximum at 3 and 10 days after irradiation, respectively. The changes in lag phase and flow rate were most obvious after doses of 15 or 20 Gy and showed a great similarity for parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva. No dose-response relationship was observed for the changes in concentrations of calcium and phosphate. It is concluded that for radiation doses of 10 Gy and above, irreversible changes (lag phase, flow rate, potassium, sodium) were observed. A saturation of the irradiation effects (lag phase, flow rate) seems to exist at doses larger than 15 Gy. No significant differences were observed between the radiation-induced functional changes in parotid and submandibular/sublingual salivary gland tissue.

  7. Prospective study on 12 patients of salivary glands radiotherapy as treatment of salivary stasis in patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; etude prospective sur 12 patients de radiotherapie des glandes salivaires comme traitement de la stase salivaire chez des patients atteints de sclerose laterale amyotrophique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assouline, A.; Delanian, S. [Oncologie radiotherapie, centre clinique de la Porte-de-Saint-Cloud, Boulogne (France); Lenglet, T.; Bruneteau, G.; Le Forestier, N.; Salachas, F.; Lebouteux, M.; Abdelnour, M.; Meininger, V.; Pradat, P.F. [Departement des maladies du systeme nerveux, groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, AP-HP, Paris (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a study which aimed at assessing the efficiency and tolerance of salivary gland radiotherapy in patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Twelve patients have been treated by conformational irradiation after a planning scanography with support mask. Results are discussed in terms of salivary discomfort (almost immediate disappearance in 11 cases), and other minor effects. Although a greater number of patients is still needed, the treatment gives promising results. Short communication

  8. Effects of prenatal irradiation with an accelerated heavy-ion beam on postnatal development in rats: II. Further study on neurophysiologic alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Organogenesis is a highly radiosensitive period, study of prenatal exposure to high LET heavy ion beams on postnatal development is important for clarifying the radiation risk in space and promoting the evidence-based mechanism research. The effects from heavy ion irradiations are not well studied as those for low LET radiations such as X-rays in this field, even the ground-based investigations remain to be addressed. Using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring was investigated following exposure of pregnant rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on the 15th day of gestation. The age for appearance of four physiologic markers and attainment of five neonatal reflexes, and gain in body weight were monitored. Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests including open field and hole-board dipping tests. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For most of the endpoints at early age, significant neurophysiological alteration was observed even in offspring receiving 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions but not X-rays. All offspring receiving 2.0 Gy of accelerated neon ions died prior to weaning. Offspring prenatally irradiated with neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death, increased preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in physiological markers and reflexes, significantly lower body weight and reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight, and altered behavior compared to those exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.1 1.5 Gy. These findings indicate that irradiations with neon ions at 0.1 1.5 Gy on day 15 of gestation caused varied developmental alterations in offspring, and efficient dose leading to the detrimental effects seemed to be lower than that of X-rays.

  9. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raica, Nicholas; McDowell, Marion E.; Darby, William J.

    1963-01-15

    The wholesomeness of irradiated foods was evaluated in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys over a 2-year period, or 4 generations. Data are presented on the effects of a diet containing radiation-processed foods on growth, reproduction, hematology, histopathology, carcinogenicity, and life span. (86 references) (C.H.)

  10. Superoxide dismutase mimic, MnTE-2-PyP5+ ameliorates acute and chronic proctitis following focal proton irradiation of the rat rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O. Archambeau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation proctitis, an inflammation and damage to the lower part of colon, is a common adverse event of the radiotherapy of tumors in the abdominal and pelvic region (colon, prostate, cervical. Several Mn(III porphyrin-based superoxide dismutase mimics have been synthesized and successfully evaluated in preclinical models as radioprotectants. Here we report for the first time the remarkable rectal radioprotection of frequently explored Mn(III meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-ylporphyrin, MnTE-2-PyP5+. A batch prepared in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP, which has good safety/toxicity profile, was used for this study. MnTE-2-PyP5+ was given subcutaneously at 5 mg/kg, either 1 h before or 1 h after irradiation, with additional drug administered at weekly intervals thereafter. MnTE-2-PyP5+ ameliorated both acute and chronic radiation proctitis in male Sprague-Dawley rats irradiated with 20–30 Gy protons delivered to 2.5 cm span of rectum using spread-out Bragg peak of a proton treatment beam. Focal irradiation of the rectum produced acute proctitis, which healed, followed by chronic rectal dilation and symptomatic proctitis. MnTE-2-PyP5+ protected rectal mucosa from radiation-induced crypt loss measured 10 days post-irradiation. Significant effects were observed with both pre- and post-treatment regimens. However, only MnTE-2-PyP5+ pre-treatment, but not post-treatment, prevented the development of rectal dilation, indicating that proper dosing regimen is critical for radioprotection. The pre-treatment also prevented or delayed the development of chronic proctitis depending on the radiation dose. Further work aimed at developing MnTE-2-PyP5+ and similar drugs as adjunctive agents for radiotherapy of pelvic tumors is warranted. The present study substantiates the prospects of employing this and similar analogs in preserving normal tissue during cancer radiation as well as any other radiation exposure.

  11. Radio-induced neuropathology: from early effects to late sequelae. Rat behavioural and metabolic studies after sublethal total body irradiation; Neuropathologie radio-induite: des effets precoces aux sequelles tardives. Etudes comportementales et metaboliques chez le rat apres irradiation globale subletale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martigne, A.P.

    2010-05-15

    The radioresistance dogma of Central Nervous System (CNS) is now obsolete. Recent progress in neuroscience allow us to reconsider the radiation-induced cognitive dysfunctions observed after radiation therapy or after a nuclear accident, and to devise appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic means. We have developed a Rat model to study the effects of total body irradiation at a sublethal dose (4.5 Gy). This leads to impaired learning and memory of a task being acquired during the first month - which is prevented by administration of a radioprotector (amifostine) - while it does not appear to affect retrograde memory. Early, an apoptotic wave occurs in the sub-ventricular zone, 5 to 9 hours after exposure, while neuro-genesis is suppressed. Two days after irradiation, the metabolic study conducted by NMR HRMAS (High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning) suggests the presence of cerebral oedema and the study of brain lipids in liquid NMR confirms the membrane damages (elevated cholesterol and phospholipids). The lipid profile is then normalized while a gliosis appears. Finally, 1 month post-irradiation, the elevation of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in 2 separate brain structures, occurs simultaneously with a taurine decrease in the hippocampus that lasts 6 months. Our integrated model allows validating bio-markers measurable in vivo NMR spectroscopy - the next experimental stage - and testing new radiation-protective agents. (author)

  12. Primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae salivary gland cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda F Rocha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we developed a primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus salivary gland and main salivary canal cells. Cells remained viable in culture for 30 days. Three types of cells were indentified in the salivary gland cultures, with binuclear cells being the most abundant. The supernatants of salivary cultures contained mainly 16-24 kDa proteins and presented anticoagulant and apyrase activities. Secretion vesicles were observed budding from the cellular monolayer of the main salivary canal cells. These results indicate that R. prolixus salivary proteins may be produced in vitro and suggest that the main salivary canal may have a possible secretory role.

  13. Restoration of radiation therapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice by post therapy IGF-1 administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grundmann Oliver

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiotherapy for head and neck cancer results in severe and chronic salivary gland dysfunction in most individuals. This results in significant side effects including xerostomia, dysphagia, and malnutrition which are linked to significant reductions in patients' quality of life. Currently there are few xerostomia treatment approaches that provide long-term results without significant side effects. To address this problem we investigated the potential for post-therapeutic IGF-1 to reverse radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Methods FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation and significant reductions in salivary function were confirmed 3 days after treatment. On days 4-8 after radiation, one group of mice was injected intravenously with IGF-1 while a second group served as a vehicle control. Stimulated salivary flow rates were evaluated on days 30, 60, and 90 and histological analysis was performed on days 9, 30, 60, and 90. Results Irradiated animals receiving vehicle injections have 40-50% reductions in stimulated salivary flow rates throughout the entire time course. Mice receiving injections of IGF-1 have improved stimulated salivary flow rates 30 days after treatment. By days 60-90, IGF-1 injected mice have restored salivary flow rates to unirradiated control mice levels. Parotid tissue sections were stained for amylase as an indicator of functioning acinar cells and significant reductions in total amylase area are detected in irradiated animals compared to unirradiated groups on all days. Post-therapeutic injections of IGF-1 results in increased amylase-positive acinar cell area and improved amylase secretion. Irradiated mice receiving IGF-1 show similar proliferation indices as untreated mice suggesting a return to tissue homeostasis. Conclusions Post-therapeutic IGF-1 treatment restores salivary gland function potentially through normalization of cell proliferation and improved expression of

  14. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States); Boyer, Arthur [Department of Radiology, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, Texas (United States); Liu, Fei, E-mail: fliu@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  15. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-02-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts).

  16. Irradiated cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F/sub 0/ animals and growth and development of the F/sub 1/ offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment.

  17. Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

  18. The research of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into salivary gland acinar-like cells%诱导大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞分化为唾液腺腺泡样细胞的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁亮; 孙沫逸; 李建虎; 杨永勤; 申志远; 苏忠平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the possibility of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) differentiation intosalivary gland acinar-like cells induced by co-culture with salivary gland acinar cells (SGCS) in vitro. Methods SGCsof passage 1 and MSCs of passage 3 were taken as subject investigated.Following groups were allocated:co-culturewith salivary gland medium group;co-culture with 10% FBS DMEM/F12 group;salivary gland medium group;group with10% FBS DMEM/F12.MSCs of every group were identified by immunohistochemiscal analysis withα -amylase After amonth cultivation.MSCs conversion rate is attained by calculation of the number of positive cells.By the opticalmicroscope and scanning electron microscope observes the morphological changes of cells. Results Compared withnone-co-cultured groups,Most cells in co-culture groups were stained by α-amylase(P<0.05). Conclusions The cellsof success induction morphology which similar to salivary gland acinar cells at the optical microscope and scanningelectron microscope display.MSCs could differentiate into SGs at phenotype and molecule level by co-culture of SGs invitro.Changing the experimental conditions and can improve induction efficiency.%目的:探讨在共培养系统下大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞分化为唾液腺腺泡样细胞的实验.方法:以纯化1代SD大鼠颌下腺腺泡细胞和3代骨髓间充质干细胞作为共培养实验对象.实验分组:含唾液腺培养液的共培养组;含10%FBS、DMEM/F12的共培养组;含唾液腺培养液的非共培养组;含10%FBS、DMEM/F12的非共培养组.培养1个月经α-淀粉酶(α-amylase)免疫组化染色各组的MSCs,计算阳性细胞数得出MSCs的转化率,并且通过光镜和电镜鉴定细胞形态变化.结果:各组诱导的MSCs经α-amylase染色,共培养组阳性细胞数较非共培养组多(P<0.05),且诱导成功的细胞在镜下形态类似于唾液腺腺泡细胞.结论:在共培养条件下成功实现了MSCs向 SGCs的形态学转

  19. Abrogation of the immunosuppressive effect of donor spleen cells on renal allografts in the rat by irradiation or heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranston, D.; Wood, K.J.; Morris, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    In the donor-recipient strain combination Lewis (RT1l) to Dark Agouti (RT1a), indefinite renal allograft survival (MST greater than 100 days) was induced by pretreating recipient animals i.v. with 10(6) to 10(8) viable spleen lymphocytes, seven days before transplantation. Pretreatment with 10(4) or 10(5) cells was ineffective (MST 10 days). However when 10(7) live, but heat-treated (55 degrees C for 10 min) or irradiated (1000 rads) cells were used, all the animals rejected the allograft in a normal fashion (MST 10 and 11 days, respectively). Median survival time of third-party controls was 10 days. The relative amount of cell surface major histocompatibility antigens (class I and class II) expressed by the three spleen cell preparations was investigated using monoclonal antibodies and fluorescence activated cell sorter analysis and found to be similar. After 24 hr in culture, only 1% of heat-treated and 10% of irradiated cells were viable, in contrast to 75% of untreated splenocytes. Trafficking of these lymphocytes in recipient animals was investigated by 51chromium labeling of the cells: 30% of lymphocytes had localized in the liver within 3 hr with little difference in localization among the different cell preparations. But, although 20% of normal and irradiated cells localized in the spleen within 3 hr, at no stage were more than 5% of the heat-treated cells found in the spleen. It is suggested that the length of time viable donor lymphocytes remain in the recipient circulation is important in the induction of specific immunosuppression by spleen lymphocytes.

  20. Radioprotection by WR-2721 against long-term chronic damage to the rat parotid gland. [Local x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodicoff, M.; Conger, A.D.; Pratt, N.E.; Trepper, P.

    1978-10-01

    WR-2721 protected against the acute phase of radiation damage which is manifest during the first week after irradiation, though recovery occurred both in the presence and absence of such protection. The drug also protected against the chronic phase damage which appeared later (60 to 90 days postirradiation), with dose modification factors of 2.3 for gland weight, 3.2 for amylase, and 2.0 for total gland amylase, and roentgen increases ranging from 1.7 to 4.9 kR.

  1. Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Krogh; Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a national series of laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma patients and to bring a review of recent literature. METHODS: By merging The Danish Cancer Registry, The National Pathology Registry...... a review of literature from 1991 to 2010 was performed. RESULTS: Six Danish patients with a malignant salivary gland tumor in the larynx were identified resulting in an incidence of 0.001/100,000 inhabitants/year. Four had adenoid cystic carcinoma and two a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. All patients were male...

  2. The effects of exogenous glutathione on reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities of rats with different ages and gender after whole-body Γ-irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Erden Inal, Mine; Akgün, Asiye; Kahraman, Ahmet

    2003-01-01

    Age-and gender-related changes on reduced glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver of rat exposed to different dose of whole-body g-ray irradiation were determined. In addition, the effect of administration of exogenous GSH on endogenous GSH levels, GPx and GR activities was investigated. For this aim, male and female rats aged 1 and 5 moths were divided into two groups as g-ray and g-ray+GSH. Both groups were again divided i...

  3. Facilitated saliva secretion and reduced oral inflammation by a novel artificial saliva system in the treatment of salivary hypofunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minkyung; Park, Hyounggeun; Jun, Joon-Ho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2017-01-01

    Saliva substitutes and/or lubricants are commonly employed to lessen dry mouth symptoms by stimulating and/or substituting for the secretion of saliva. In this study, a novel artificial saliva containing inorganic salts, including sodium chloride and potassium chloride, and bactericidal agents, including potassium thiocyanate and lactoperoxidase, was formulated in the form of a solution (DM-sol) or gel (DM-gel). Those in vivo therapeutic efficacies were assessed in terms of saliva secretion and anti-inflammatory activity in rats and mice, respectively. Salivary secretion was promoted by mucosal application of DM-formulations in normal rats. In particular, DM-gel resulted in 2.5- and 1.9-fold greater salivary flow rates compared to normal saline and DM-sol, respectively. In an in vivo efficacy evaluation in diabetic mice with salivary hypofunction, repeated application of DM-formulations alleviated histopathological changes in the buccal mucosa in terms of atrophy and thinning of the epithelium, compared to vehicle, after 4 weeks. Moreover, the DM-sol and DM-gel were comparably effective for relieving periodontal gingivitis, reducing infiltration of inflammatory cells, and normalizing the neutrophil level in the gingival gingiva, after 4 weeks. Therefore, the novel artificial saliva is expected to facilitate salivary secretion and restore physiological conditions in the mouth of patients with salivary hypofunction. PMID:28138222

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Salivary Gland Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... following stages are used for major salivary gland cancers: Enlarge Tumor sizes. The size of a tumor may be compared to the size of a pea (1 cm), peanut (2 cm), grape (3 cm), walnut (4 cm), lime (5 cm), ...

  5. Neuroscience meets salivary bioscience: An integrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Sabrina K

    2016-04-01

    Advances in salivary bioscience enable unique opportunities to explore individual differences in biological mechanisms related to learning and memory, psychiatric disorders, and more recently neurodegenerative diseases, neurotrauma/stroke, pain, and sleep. Sampling oral fluid is not only minimally invasive, but specimens can be collected easily and quickly in clinical and field settings. Salivary analytes allow neuroscientists to index endocrine, autonomic, immune, metabolic, and inflammatory processes within close proximity of discrete behavioral, biological, and social events, which is particularly important to advancing our understanding of human neuroscience. This review provides an update on the advances in salivary bioscience for specialty fields within neuroscience, presents novel salivary analytes of interest to neuroscience and the status of their development, and outlines a procedural framework to facilitate integration of these concepts and methods into neuroscience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Salivary Gland Biopsy for Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland biopsy is a technique broadly applied for the diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome (SS), lymphoma accompanying SS, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, and other connective tissue disorders. SS has characteristic microscopic findings involving lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the excretory ducts

  7. Salivary Gland Biopsy for Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland biopsy is a technique broadly applied for the diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome (SS), lymphoma accompanying SS, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, and other connective tissue disorders. SS has characteristic microscopic findings involving lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the excretory ducts

  8. Salivary Proteins of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, WRodney; Nicholson, Scott J; Puterka, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    .... Improved knowledge of L. hesperus salivary proteins could lead to a better understanding of Lygus-host interactions, and aid in the development of crops that are resistant or tolerant to injury caused by Lygus spp...

  9. Salivary exoglycosidases as markers of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Zalewska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szulc, Agata; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Some salivary markers of alcohol abuse/dependence have been proposed so far: aminotransferases, gamma-glutamyltransferase, ethanol, ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, sialic acid, β-hexosaminidase A, oral peroxidase, methanol, diethylene/ethylene glycol, α-amylase, clusterin, haptoglobin, heavy/light chains of immunoglobulins and transferrin. To investigate the effect of chronic alcohol drinking and smoking on the activity (pKat/ml) and output (pKat/min) of salivary lysosomal exoglycosidases: α-fucosidase (FUC), α-mannosidase (MAN), β-galactosidase (GAL), and β-glucuronidase (GLU), and their applicability as markers of alcohol dependence. The activity of FUC, MAN, GAL and GLU was measured colorimetrically in the saliva of healthy social drinkers, alcohol-dependent non-smokers and alcohol-dependent smokers. We observed an increased salivary activity of FUC, GAL, GLU and MAN, as well as an increased output of GAL and GLU, in comparison with controls. The highest increase in the activity/output was found in salivary GLU and MAN (GLU, even 7- to 18-fold), and the least in GAL. We found an excellent sensitivity and specificity and a high accuracy (measured by the area under the ROC curve) for salivary FUC, GLU and MAN activities. The salivary GLU activity positively correlated with the number of days of last alcohol intoxication. Salivary activity of FUC, GAL and MAN, but not GLU, positively correlated with the periodontal parameters such as gingival index and papilla bleeding index. Although we found an excellent sensitivity and specificity as well as a high accuracy for the salivary activity of FUC, GLU and MAN, the GLU activity seems to be mostly applicable as a marker of chronic alcohol drinking (alcohol dependence). © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Saravanan; Kumar, Satish; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2011-09-01

    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are conditions that have been associated with increased prevalence of caries, periodontitis, and candidiasis. Oral health care providers must be aware of the etiologies and clinical manifestations of salivary gland hypofunction in order to identify patients with this condition and to prevent its potential complications. The various modalities available to manage this condition range from frequent sips of water to the intake of systemic medications like pilocarpine or cevimeline.

  11. Rescue Effects and Underlying Mechanisms of Intragland Shh Gene Delivery on Irradiation-Induced Hyposalivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Bo; Zhao, Qingguo; Qin, Lizheng; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Gutti, Veera R; Liu, Fei

    2016-05-01

    Irreversible hypofunction of salivary glands is common in head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy and can only be temporarily relieved with current treatments. We found in an inducible sonic hedgehog (Shh) transgenic mouse model that transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway after irradiation rescued salivary gland function in males by preserving salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation. To translate these findings into feasible clinical application, we evaluated the effects of Shh gene transfer to salivary glands of wild-type mice on irradiation-induced hyposalivation. Shh or control GFP gene was delivered by noninvasive retrograde ductal instillation of corresponding adenoviral vectors. In both male and female mice, Shh gene delivery efficiently activated Hedgehog/Gli signaling, and significantly improved stimulated saliva secretion and preserved saliva-producing acinar cells after irradiation. In addition to preserving parasympathetic innervation through induction of neurotrophic factors, Shh gene delivery also alleviated the irradiation damage of the microvasculature, likely via inducing angiogenic factors, but did not expand the progeny of cells responsive to Hedgehog/Gli signaling. These data indicate that transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway by gene delivery is promising to rescue salivary function after irradiation in both sexes, and the Hedgehog/Gli pathway may function mainly in cell nonautonomous manners to achieve the rescue effect.

  12. Activity, distribution and regulation of phosphofructokinase in salivary gland of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes Atividade, distribuição e regulação da fosfofrutoquinase em glândulas salivares de ratos com diabetes induzido por estreptozotocina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nicolau

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the influence of diabetes on salivary glands is well studied, it still presents conflicting results. In this work, the regulation of the phosphofructokinase-1 enzyme (PFK-1 was studied utilizing the salivary glands of rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/Kg of body weight in rats (180-200 g. The animals were killed 30 days after the induction of diabetes and the submandibular and parotid salivary glands were used. Hyperglycemia was evaluated by blood sugar determination. The distribution of PFK-1 between the soluble and cytoskeleton fractions, the phosphate content of PFK-1, the content of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and the activity of the PFK-2 enzyme were determined. The calculated relative glandular weight showed a higher value for the parotid gland in comparison with the control, but not for the submandibular gland. The activity of PFK-1 expressed per gland showed no variation between diabetic and control animals. However, considering the specific activity, the soluble enzyme presented a value 50% higher than that of the control and the cytoskeleton bound form increased by 84% compared to the control. For the parotid gland, no difference in the specific activity between diabetic and control animals was observed. On the other hand, the activity per gland of the soluble enzyme increased in the diabetic animals. The phosphate content of PFK-1 increased in the submandibular and parotid glands of diabetic rats. Both the content of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and the active form of PFK-2 were reduced in the diabetic glands. In conclusion, the increase in the activity of PFK-1 observed in the salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes does not seem to be due to its modulator fructose-2,6-bisphosphate.Apesar de existirem muitos estudos sobre a influência do diabetes nas glândulas salivares, esses apresentam resultados conflitantes. Neste estudo, a regulação da enzima

  13. Irradiation in adulthood as a new model of schizophrenia.

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    Yasuhide Iwata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that radiation exposure may be a potential risk factor for schizophrenia in adult humans. Here, we investigated whether adult irradiation in rats caused behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total dose of 15-Gy irradiation in six fractionations during 3 weeks was exposed to the forebrain including the subventricular zone (SVZ and subgranular zone (SGZ with male rats in the prone position. Behavioral, immunohistochemical, and neurochemical studies were performed three months after fractionated ionizing irradiation. Three months after fractionated ionizing irradiation, the total numbers of BrdU-positive cells in both the SVZ and SGZ zones of irradiated rats were significantly lower than those of control (sham-irradiated rats. Hyperactivity after administration of the dopaminergic agonist methamphetamine, but not the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine, was significantly enhanced in the irradiated rats although spontaneous locomotion in the irradiated rats was significantly lower than that of controls. Behavioral abnormalities including auditory sensory gating deficits, social interaction deficits, and working memory deficits were observed in the irradiated rats. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study suggests that irradiation in adulthood caused behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia, and that reduction of adult neurogenesis by irradiation may be associated with schizophrenia-like behaviors in rats.

  14. Relaxation along a fictitious field (RAFF and Z-spectroscopy using alternating-phase irradiation (ZAPI in permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rat.

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    Kimmo T Jokivarsi

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia alters the molecular dynamics and content of water in brain tissue, which is reflected in NMR relaxation, diffusion and magnetization transfer (MT parameters. In this study, the behavior of two new MRI contrasts, Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field (RAFF and Z-spectroscopy using Alternating-Phase Irradiation (ZAPI, were quantified together with conventional relaxation parameters (T1, T2 and T1ρ and MT ratios in acute cerebral ischemia in rat. The right middle cerebral artery was permanently occluded and quantitative MRI data was acquired sequentially for the above parameters for up to 6 hours. The following conclusions were drawn: 1 Time-dependent changes in RAFF and T1ρ relaxation are not coupled to those in MT. 2 RAFF relaxation evolves more like transverse, rather than longitudinal relaxation. 3 MT measured with ZAPI is less sensitive to ischemia than conventional MT. 4 ZAPI data suggest alterations in the T2 distribution of macromolecules in acute cerebral ischemia. It was shown that both RAFF and ZAPI provide complementary MRI information from acute ischemic brain tissue. The presented multiparametric MRI data may aid in the assessment of brain tissue status early in ischemic stroke.

  15. Photo-stimulatory effect of low energy helium-neon laser irradiation on excisional diabetic wound healing dynamics in wistar rats

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    Maiya Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generally, the significances of laser photo stimulation are now accepted, but the laser light facilitates wound healing and tissue repair remains poorly understood. Aims: We have examined the hypothesis that the laser photo stimulation can enhance the collagen production in diabetic wounds using the excision wound model in the Wistar rat model. Methods: The circular wounds were created on the dorsum of the back of the animals. The animals were divided into two groups. The study group (N = 24 wound was treated with 632.8 nm He-Ne laser at a dose of 3-9J/cm 2 for 5 days a week until the wounds healed completely. The control group was sham irradiated. Result: A significant increase in the hydroxyproline content and reduction in the wound size were observed in the study group. The pro-healing actions seem to be due to increased collagen deposition as well as better alignment and maturation. Conclusion: The biochemical analysis and clinical observation suggested that 3-6 J/cm 2 laser photo stimulation facilitates the tissue repair process by accelerating collagen production in diabetic wound healing.

  16. Relative Expression of Apoptotic and Vascular Epithelial Growth Factor Receptor Genes in Gamma-Irradiated Rat Kidney

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    Kim, Ji Hyang; Chun, Ki Jung; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic research Institute, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong Dal [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Biological process of wound healing, which occurs in three phases of revascularization (inflammatory, proliferative, and maturation) is an important essential step in regulating this process. Blood vessels serve as carriers for various cells, cytokines, and growth factors that are needed for tissue repair. The formation of new blood vessels is a necessary event during embryogenesis, but it occurs rarely in the adult with few exceptions, such as in the female reproductive system and wound healing. Angiogenesis is controlled by a variety of mitogenic, chemotactic, and inhibitory peptide and lipid factors that act on invading endothelial and smooth muscle cells. One of the most important angiogenic factors is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a glycosylated protein of 46-48 kD composed of two disulphide linked subunits. The VEGF family consists of six members, five splicing forms of VEGF and the placenta-derived growth factor (PDGF). In normal, VEGF is expressed during embryogenesis and in a limited number of sites in adults. In disease states, VEGF can be detected in various tumor cells, the synovial pannus in rheumatoid arthritis, and in keratinocytes during wound healing. Five different VEGF isoforms, with 121, 145, 165, 189, and 106 amino acids, can be generated as a result of an alternative splicing from the single VEGF gene. The VEGF molecules bind to receptors known as VEFGR- 1 (FLT-1, fms-like tyrosine kinase 1), VEGFR-2 (KDR, kinase domain region/FLK-1, fetal liver kinase 1), VEGFR-2 (FLT-4), neurophilin-1, neurophilin-2, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Ionizing radiation can affect the angiogenesis and neovascularization on normal tissues in radiotherapy or by background radiation surrounding living beings. Kidney belongs to the urinary system and classified to the radio-resistant organ according to the previous studies. Therefore, the present study tested the effect of gamma irradiation and mercury chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) to the renal region

  17. The activity of selected glycosidases in salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierc, Marcin; Minarowski, Lukasz; Woźniak, Lukasz; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Knas, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2010-09-30

    The monitoring of the patients after salivary gland tumors surgery is an important clinical issue. Still imperfect diagnostic procedures also remain a challenge for searching new sensitive and specific biomarkers of neoplastic processes in salivary glands. The aim of the presented study was an the assessment of the activity of HEX, with its isoforms HEX-A and HEX-B, GLU, GAL, MAN and FUC in salivary gland tumor tissues in comparison to a healthy salivary gland tissues taken during autopsy. A group of 42 patients with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, aged 25-65 were examined. Fragments of salivary gland tumor tissue, fragments of healthy tissue removed during autopsy, blood serum and saliva were collected from patients with salivary gland tumors and healthy volunteers. In salivary gland tumor tissue the activity of HEX, HEX-A, HEX-B, GAL, FUC was considerably higher than in comparison to healthy salivary gland tissue and ascending trend of activity of GLU, MAN was also noticed. The activity of all lysosomal exoglycosidases in blood serum in patients with salivary gland tumors was considerably higher in comparison to healthy volunteers blood serum. The considerably higher activity of HEX, HEX-A, GLU, GAL, MAN, FUC and descending trend of activity of HEX-B were noticed in saliva of patients with salivary gland tumors in comparison to healthy volunteers. The assessment of HEX in blood serum and saliva of patients with salivary gland tumor can be possibly used in diagnostics and monitoring of salivary glands tumors.

  18. Radiation-induced cell proliferation in the parotid and submandibular glands of the rat

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    Peter, B.; Van Waarde, M.A.W.H.; Konings, A.W.T. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, A. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)]|[Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); `s-Gravenmade, E.J. [Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1994-11-01

    Repopulation of tissues with cells at damaged sites is an important feature in the recovery of radiation-induced tissue injury. To obtain insight into the regenerative process in salivary gland tissue, proliferative activity was measured as a function of time in the different epithelial cell compartments of rat parotid and submandibular glands after local X irradiation with a single dose of 15 Gy. Bromodeoxyuridine-labeling indices were determined before and 10 h and 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 20 and 30 days after irradiation. In both glands, X irradiation caused cell death and cell cycle delay manifested during the first day. Three days after irradiation, cell proliferation started in the intercalated duct. Six days after irradiation, proliferation was also observed in acinar and granular convoluted tubule cells. The striated ducts showed proliferative activity starting at day 6 (parotid) and day 10 (submandibular), respectively. The results of this study suggest that after 15 Gy of X rays repopulation takes place in all cell compartments. From the present study it cannot be deduced if these cells are originating solely from progenitor cells residing in the intercalated duct or if cells of the other compartments are also stimulated. Proliferative activity was found to be higher in the intercalated duct compartment of the parotid gland than of the submandibular gland, which may be related to the suggested greater radiosensitivity and thus a greater demand for cell replenishment in the parotid gland. 41 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. SALIVARY GLYCOCONJUGATES AS BIOMARKERS OF CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS

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    Roopa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is the major cause of tooth loss and is significantly associated with an increased risk of stroke, type 2 diabetes and heart diseases. Glycoconjugates are expressed on the cell surface as components of glycoproteins, glycosphingo lipids and proteoglycans and plays a vital role in infection and disease. The objective of the study was to assess the changes in salivary glycoconjugates levels in chronic periodontitis (CP and in healthy individuals without periodontitis. This study was undertaken as a preliminary step towards the use of salivary glycoconjugates as reliable markers of CP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 150 subjects took part in the study. 75 patients with CP (aged 30-55 and 75 age and sex matched healthy controls. Salivary glycoconjugates – sialic acid both – free (FSA and protein bound (PBSA, L- Fucose (Fuc and Total protein (Tp were assessed in both cases and in controls by standard methods. RESULTS: The salivary glycoconjugate levels were significantly higher in CP compared to normal healthy controls. Salivary FSA, Fuc and Tp in CP were elevated with mean ± SD values being 25.9±4.02, 46.9±5.65 and 178.4±23.1 mg/L respectively when compared to healthy controls 19.69±4.53, 42.1±3.2, 90.62±15.8 mg/ L respectively which was found to be statistically significant (p<.001. The values of salivary PBSA were significantly lowered when compared to healthy controls. (p <.01 CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicate that salivary glycoconjugates could be sensitive biochemical markers of chronic periodontitis.

  20. Formation of salivary acinar cell spheroids in vitro above a polyvinyl alcohol-coated surface.

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    Chen, Min-Huey; Chen, Yi-Jane; Liao, Chih-Chen; Chan, Yen-Hui; Lin, Chia-Yung; Chen, Rung-Shu; Young, Tai-Hong

    2009-09-15

    Tissue engineering of salivary glands offers the potential for future use in the treatment of patients with salivary hypofunction. Biocompatible materials that promote acinar cell aggregation and function in vitro are an essential part of salivary gland tissue engineering. In this study, rat parotid acinar cells assembled into three-dimensional aggregates above the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated surface. These aggregates developed compact acinar cell spheroids resembling in vivo physiological condition, which were different from the traditional monolayered morphology in vitro. Cells remained viable and with better functional activity in response to acetylcholine in the spheroids and could form monolayered acinar cells when they were reinoculated on tissue culture polystyrene wells. To interpret the phenomenon further, we proposed that the formation of acinar cell spheroids on the PVA is mediated by a balance between two competing forces: the interactions of cell-PVA and cell-cell. This study demonstrated the formation of functional cell spheroids above a PVA-coated surface may provide an in vitro system for investigating cell behaviors for tissue engineering of artificial salivary gland.

  1. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

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    Jan Matczuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Investigation of salivary function and oral microbiota of radiation caries-free people with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

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    Jingyang Zhang

    Full Text Available Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals.

  3. Investigation of salivary function and oral microbiota of radiation caries-free people with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyang; Liu, Hongling; Liang, Xue; Zhang, Min; Wang, Renke; Peng, Guang; Li, Jiyao

    2015-01-01

    Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals.

  4. The Effect of Exercise on Salivary Viscosity

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    Antoon J. M. Ligtenberg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A common experience after exercise is the presence of a thick and sticky saliva layer on the oral surfaces, which causes a feeling of a dry mouth. Since the salivary mucin MUC5B is responsible for the visco-elastic behavior of saliva, in the present study we explored the effect of exercise on both the salivary viscosity and the secretion of MUC5B in saliva. Twenty healthy dental students performed an aerobic exercise by cycling for 15 min on cycle-ergometers at a heart rate of 130–140 beats per minute. Saliva was collected at three time points: before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 30 min recovery. Salivary flow rate, viscosity, amylase activity, total protein, carbohydrate and MUC5B concentration were determined. Salivary flow rate, protein and amylase did not change significantly. Immediately after exercise, the salivary viscosity and carbohydrate concentration were significantly higher than at baseline and after 30 min recovery. Immediately after exercise, the MUC5B concentration was significantly higher than after 30 min recovery. It is concluded that the presence of thick saliva after exercise is at least partially due to an increased secretion of MUC5B.

  5. Salivary antioxidants in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Anna; Knaś, Małgorzata; Gińdzieńska-Sieśkiewicz, Ewa; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Klimiuk, Anna; Litwin, Katarzyna; Sierakowski, Stanisław; Waszkiel, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    In spite of relatively large amount of evidence that oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis, there is no study analyzing antioxidants profile of the saliva of these patients. The aim of this study was to compare salivary antioxidants in subjects with systemic sclerosis and the healthy controls. The unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow and the specific activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 1, the total amount of uric acid, and total antioxidant status were determined in two subgroups of systemic sclerosis women and healthy controls. A significant increase in the specific activity of peroxidase, a significant decrease in the total amount of uric acid and total antioxidants status in unstimulated saliva as well as a significant increase in all antioxidants examined in stimulated saliva of group with normal salivary flow rate as compared to the healthy controls were observed. Our results showed a significant decrease in the specific activity of peroxidase in unstimulated and a significant decrease in all antioxidants examined in stimulated saliva of the group with hyposalivation as compared to the group with normal salivary flow rate. Our results prove that impairment of the salivary glands in the course of systemic sclerosis may be attributed to free radicals, and it is correlated with disease duration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

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    Mona Mlika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as "salivary duct carcinoma." The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis.

  7. Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker

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    Sharmila Baliga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Saliva contains a variety of host defense factors. It influences calculus formation and periodontal disease. Different studies have been done to find exact correlation of salivary biomarkers with periodontal disease. With a multitude of biomarkers and complexities in their determination, the salivary pH may be tried to be used as a quick chairside test. The aim of this study was to analyze the pH of saliva and determine its relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Study Design: The study population consisted of 300 patients. They were divided into three groups of 100 patients each: Group A had clinically healthy gingiva, Group B who had generalized chronic gingivitis and Group C who had generalized chronic periodontitis. The randomized unstimulated saliva from each patient was collected and pH was tested. Data was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance technique. Results: The salivary pH was more alkaline for patients with generalized chronic gingivitis as compared with the control group (P = 0.001 whereas patients with generalized chronic periodontitis had more acidic pH as compared with the control group (P = 0.001. Conclusion: These results indicate a significant change in the pH depending on the severity of the periodontal condition. The salivary pH shows significant changes and thus relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Salivary pH may thus be used as a quick chairside diagnostic biomarker.

  8. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose – A preliminary study

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    Mahesh R. Khairnar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19–21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after brushing and salivary glucose and pH levels were assessed at an interval of one week each for a period of 4 weeks starting from day 1. All the three toothpastes were effective in reducing the overall (p < 0.05 levels as well as levels of salivary glucose from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval (p < 0.05 and in increasing the overall levels as well as levels of salivary pH (p < 0.05 from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval. Herbal toothpastes were effective in reducing salivary levels of glucose and improving pH of the saliva.

  9. Distribution features of the rats’ major salivary glands cells glycoproteins during early postnatal period after antenatal antigen action

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    Syrtsov V.K.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nowadays, in the diseases’ structure, according to literature data, one of the leading place take pathological condition connecting with the salivary glands’ inflammatory and dystrophic disorders. The problem of etiology and pathogenic not enough studied and demanded intent attention of researchers. Objective. The purpose was to determine the features of glycoproteins’ distribution in the structures of rats’ major salivary glands in early postnatal period after intrauterine antigen action. Methods. The object of the research was 224 salivary glands of white laboratory rats. Due to impossible quality materials’ taking in the early periods of postnatal life parotid and sublingual salivary glands, the investigation done at the gl. submaxillaris. The histochemical exposure and differentiation of carbohydrate compounds conducted by means of PAS-staining technic. For fermentative control used diastase. The results of histochemical exposure of glycoproteins stain were done by semi-quantitative. Results. In newborn animals receiving antigen in the antenatal period, in the cells’ cytoplasm indicate the accumulation’ increase of PAS-positive compounds retained until the 14th and offset at the 45th day of postnatal life. The detected changes in the major salivary glands cells’ are the basis for the development of inflammatory and dystrophic processes and can lead to the functional violations formation’ hereinafter. Conclusion. Our findings indicate that at the background of intrauterine antigen action, the glycoproteins’ accumulation intensity in parenchymal and stromal cells’ cytoplasm of the major salivary glands is decrease, but glycogen content is increase compared with intact animals group. Furthermore, we detected cells’ secretory activity reduction from 1st to 14th day of postnatal life with increase glycogen’ accumulation in the cells’ cytoplasm. That revealed changes offset at the 45th day after birth in all

  10. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  11. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of sali

  12. Pathophysiology of myoepithelial cells in salivary glands

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    Amisha Ashok Kumar Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial cells (MECs are considered to be a key participant in most salivary gland diseases, particularly tumors. MECs structurally resemble both epithelial cells and smooth muscles. Diagnostic dilemmas caused are due to inadequacy of characterizing the wide spectrum of morphologic and immunologic features which are different for both normal and neoplastic MECs. This article discusses the development, functions and structure of both normal and neoplastic MECs, their staining properties and differences in the morphologic and immunophenotypic properties of the MEC in detail. It also describes the role of MEC in pathogenesis and morphogenesis of various nonneoplastic and neoplastic salivary gland lesions and thereby are responsible for the myriad histopathology of salivary gland tumors.

  13. Myeloid sarcoma of submandibular salivary gland

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    Federico Dagna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a rare case of a myeloid sarcoma of submandibular salivary gland. Methods: A 65-year-old woman with a history of successfully treated myelodysplastic syndrome, presenting with periodic painful swelling of her right submandibular area. Results: Physical evaluation, ultrasound and CT scan revealed the presence of a 3-cm mass contiguous to the submandibular salivary gland. A core needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Bone marrow biopsy was still showing complete remission and the submandibular gland was the only extramedullary site involved. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy. Conclusion: Myeloid sarcoma is a rare extramedullary neoplasm. It can virtually involve any anatomic site, but it usually involves lymph nodes, paranasal sinuses, skin, soft tissue and periostium. Myeloid sarcomas of salivary glands are very rare and ENTs should be aware of this disease in order to include it in the differential diagnosis of a solitary neck mass.

  14. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:  In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:  One hundred and seventy......-five patients with a primary salivary gland carcinoma diagnosed from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2005 were identified in the local pathology register, Odense University Hospital. Criteria as documented by Allred et al. were used to assess OPN immunostaining that was performed on surgical specimens. Results......:  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...

  15. Autonomous isolation, long-term culture and differentiation potential of adult salivary gland-derived stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyunjung; Noh, Yoo Hun; Lee, Joo Hee; Yeon, Soo-In; Jeong, Jaemin; Kwon, Heechung

    2014-09-01

    Salivary gland stem/progenitor cells belong to the endodermal lineage and may serve as good candidates to replace their dysfunctional counterparts. The objective of this study was to isolate large numbers of salivary gland tissue-derived stem cells (SGSCs) from adult rats in order to develop a clinically applicable method that does not involve sorting or stem cell induction by duct ligation. We analysed SGSCs isolated from normal rat salivary glands to determine whether they retained the major characteristics of stem cells, self-renewal and multipotency, especially with respect to the various endodermal cell types. SGSCs expressed high levels of integrin α6β1 and c-kit, which are surface markers of SGSCs. In particular, the integrin α6β1(+) /c-kit(+) salivary gland cells maintained the morphology, proliferation activity and multipotency of stem cells for up to 92 passages in 12 months. Furthermore, we analysed the capacity of SGSCs to differentiate into endoderm lineage cell types, such as acinar-like and insulin-secreting cells. When cultured on growth factor reduced matrigel, the morphology of progenitor cells changed to acinar-like structures and these cells expressed the acinar cell-specific marker, α-amylase, and tight junction markers. Moreover, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data showed increased expression of pancreatic cell markers, including insulin, Pdx1, pan polypeptide and neurogenin-3, when these cells formed pancreatic clusters in the presence of activin A, exendin-4 and retinoic acid. These data demonstrate that adult salivary stem/progenitor cells may serve as a potential source for cell therapy in salivary gland hypofunction and diabetes.

  16. Bioactive compound loaded stable silver nanoparticle synthesis from microwave irradiated aqueous extracellular leaf extracts of Naringi crenulata and its wound healing activity in experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, T; Thiyagarajan, M; Geetha, N; Venkatachalam, P

    2014-07-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles was developed using Naringi crenulata leaf extracts via microwave irradiation method. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by treating N. crenulata leaf extracts with 1mM of aqueous silver nitrate solution. An effective bioactive compound such as alkaloids, phenols, saponins and quinines present in the N. crenulata reduces the Ag(+) into Ag(0). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometer and further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). UV-vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 390nm due to surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. From FESEM results, an average crystal size of the synthesized nanoparticle was 72-98nm. FT-IR results showed sharp absorption peaks and they were assigned to phosphine, alkyl halides and sulfonate groups. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were generally found to be spherical and cubic shape. Topical application of ointment prepared from silver nanoparticles of N. crenulata were formulated and evaluated in vivo using the excision wound healing model on Wistar albino rats. The measurement of the wound areas was performed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th days and the percentage of wound closures was calculated accordingly. By the 15th day, the ointment base containing 5% (w/w) of silver nanoparticles showed 100% wound healing activity compared with that of the reference as well as control bases. The results strongly suggested that the batch C ointment containing silver nanaoparticles synthesized from the leaf extracts of N. crenulata was found to be very effective in wound repair and encourages harnessing the potentials of the plant biomolecules loaded silver nanoparticle in the treatment of tropical diseases including wound healing.

  17. Salivary Output in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    T. Radhika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a common but complex metabolic disorder affecting various systems in the body. Oral cavity is no exception as this chronic condition exerts a huge impact on oral health. Salivary dysfunction has been reported to be a frequent oral complication in Type 2 diabetics which in turn leads to an array of oral complications because oral health is to a greater extent dependent on the quality and quantity of saliva. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the salivary flow rate and prevalence of subjective symptoms of xerostomia in diabetics and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 50 non-diabetic subjects. Random non-fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were used to determine the diabetic status of the individuals. Unstimulated saliva was collected using “Spit technique”. Stimulated saliva was collected using 2% citric acid. Unstimulated and Stimulated Salivary Flow Rate (USFR and SSFR was calculated for every patient and expressed as ml/min. Xerostomia was evaluated using a multi-item inventory comprising 19 questions. Results: In our study, both whole unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were decreased in diabetics compared to non-diabetics and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.000. A greater percentage of diabetic patients perceived xerostomia symptoms compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics have higher prevalence of xerostomia and significantly reduced salivary flow rate compared to non-diabetics. Alterations in salivary