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Sample records for irradiated mice gamma

  1. Differential androgenesis in gamma irradiated mice

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    Kim, Jihyang; Yoon, Yongdal [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The Leydig cells of the testis account for at least 75% of the total testosterone produced in the normal adult male. Whereas the production of estrogen from androgen is catalyzed by aromatase cytochrome P450, which is found in many tissues, including gonad, brain, adipose tissue, bone, and heart. The gamma-irradiation causes the impairment of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male mice. The present study was performed to analyze changes in testosterone concentrations and expression of steroidogenic enzyme of mice after whole body gamma-irradiation. Eight-week-old male ICR mice were irradiated with 6.5 or 10 Gy. At days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 after irradiation, testes were removed and processed for paraffin sections and isolation of mRNA. We calculated the gonad index from body and testis weight, and checked the testis volume. Hormonal analysis was performed by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA) in serum and intratesticular fluid. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression kinetics of the apoptotic gene and the cytochrome P450 aromatase gene after irradiation. In gamma-irradiated mice, the body weight reduced in comparison to that of the control group. Therefore, gonad indices increased. The testosterone concentrations in serum and intratesticular fluid were significantly reduced. RT- PCR data represented that the expression of Fas, Fas ligand, and aromatase cytochrome P450 showed the specific patterns against control groups. These results indicated that gamma- irradiation of adult mice induced the alteration of androgenesis and suggested that might counteract the spermatogenesis.

  2. Phytotherapeutic effects of Echinacea purpurea in gamma-irradiated mice

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    Abouelella, Amira M. K.; Tawfik, Sameh S.; Zahran, Ahmed M.

    2007-01-01

    Echinacea (E.) purpurea herb is commonly known as the purple coneflower, red sunflower and rudbeckia. In this paper, we report the curative efficacy of an Echinacea extract in γ-irradiated mice. E. purpurea was given to male mice that were divided into five groups (control, treated, irradiated, treated before irradiation & treated after irradiation) at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight for 2 weeks before and after irradiation with 3 Gy of γ-rays. The results reflected the detrimental reduction effects of γ-rays on peripheral blood hemoglobin and the levels of red blood cells, differential white blood cells, and bone marrow cells. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) level, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSPx) activities and DNA fragmentation were also investigated. FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to explore the structural changes in liver tissues. Significant changes were observed in the microenvironment of the major constituents, including tyrosine and protein secondary structures. E. purpurea administration significantly ameliorated all estimated parameters. The radio-protection effectiveness was similar to the radio-recovery curativeness in comparison to the control group in most of the tested parameters. The radio-protection efficiency was greater than the radio-recovery in hemoglobin level during the first two weeks, in lymphoid cell count and TBARs level at the fourth week and in SOD activity during the first two weeks, as compared to the levels of these parameters in the control group. PMID:17993747

  3. Radioprotective effects of Cordyceps sinensis extracts on {gamma}-irradiated mice

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    Yoo, Beong Gyu [Wongwang Health Science College, Iri (Korea, Republic of); Kim, On Joong; Kim, Jae Young [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Effect of single intraperitoneal administration of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) extract at 24 hour before whole-body {gamma} - irradiation on the survival ratio, body weight, organ weight changes and serum metabolites in the irradiated mice were investigated. The single pre-administration of Cs extract increased the 40-day survival ration of irradiated mice from 66.7 percent to 83.4 percent. The administration of Cs extract completely prevented weight reductions of spleen and thymus produced by {gamma} - irradiation (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Similar but somewhat less radioprotective effect was also found in the testis of the Cs treated mice. The administration of Cs inhibited the serum hyperglycemia produced by irradiation on the day 7th(P < 0.01). However, it did not influence the serum cholesterol and protein levels on the days examined. The present study is the first report regarding Cs which was tested and found to be radioprotective. (Author)

  4. Mutagenicity studies on alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes. Dominant lethal test in mice

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    Shibuya, T.; Murora, T.; Iwahara, S.; Hashimoto, K. (Food and Drug Safety Center, Kanagawa (Japan). Hatano Research Inst.); Minegishi, A.

    1982-02-01

    Alcohol extracts freshly prepared from gamma-irradiated and unirradiated potatoes were tested for the ability to induce dominant lethals in BDF/sub 1/ mice. Male mice were given 0.5 ml of extract twice a day, p.o., for 7 days and then mated with untreated female mice. Female mice were sacrificed on about the 13th day of pregnancy. No significant difference was observed in the number of living inplants between the group treated with extract prepared from unirradiated potatoes and that treated with the extract from 150 Gy (15 krad) irradiated potatoes.

  5. Erythropoiesis in mice exposed to continuous whole body irradiation of gamma-rays

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    Joshima, Hisamasa; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Matsushita, Satoru; Kashima, Masatoshi

    1988-09-01

    The erythropoietic effects of continuous ..gamma..-irradiation with a daily regime of 0.029, 0.083 and 0.374 Gy were studied in mice. Irradiation was performed with /sup 137/Cs ..gamma..-rays for 22 hr/day. The length of irradiation time varied from 3 to 112 days. Erythropoiesis was investigated on the basis of clearance of /sup 59/Fe from the circulation and of incorporation of /sup 59/Fe into circulating erythrocytes and erythropoietic tissue. A chemical method for the separation of heme and nonheme iron-containing fractions was employed to examine the uptake of /sup 59/Fe into both the heme and nonheme iron fractions. Daily exposure to 0.029 and 0.083 Gy caused no significant changes in erythropoiesis. Daily exposure to 0.374 Gy caused some significant changes in erythropoiesis. On day 7 of continuous irradiation, the amount of /sup 59/Fe incorporated into erythrocytes decreased, but the values returned to normal on day 14 and 28 of continuous irradiation, indicating recovery within erythropoietic tissues at earlier time. On day 56, depressed incorporation of /sup 59/Fe into erythrocytes with normal rate of disappearance of /sup 59/Fe from the circulation and increased heme level of /sup 59/Fe in the femoral marrow were observed. Results observed on day 56 may suggest the possibility of ineffective erythropoiesis during the continuous irradiation. On day 112, some mice showed almost the same changes in erythropoiesis as those mice exposed to acute X-rays radiation.

  6. Radioprotective effect of ascorbate in the liver of {gamma}-irradiated mice

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    Kim, Dong Yun; Park, Young Soon [Sohae College, Kusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    In the present study, to determine whether the ascorbate protect against radiation damage and the possible relationship among the radioprotective effects and antioxidant actions, the effects of ascorbate(240 mg/kg, i.p) pretreatment of mice on the survival ratio, splenic weight, major antioxidant enzymes(SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) activities, glutathione contents and lipid peroxidation in the liver were examined for 2 weeks after whole-body {gamma}-irradiation(6.5 Gy). The 30-day survival ratio increased from 10% to 47% for mice treated with ascorbate. The ascorbate decreased the extent of loss in splenic weight and stimulated recovery of splenic weight in irradiated mice(p<0.01). On the day of 14 after {gamma}-irradiation, the ascorbate pretreatment produced a slight increase of antioxidant enzymes activities and significantly increased reduced glutathione(GSH) contents(p<0.05) in the liver compared with non-treated group. Pretreatment with the ascorbate significantly decreased GSSG/total GSH ratio(p<0.05) without the change of GSSG in the liver and inhibited the radiation-induced increase in the hepatic malondialdehyde levels(p<0.05). In these results, we found that its radioprotective effect by protecting antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione contents from radiation induced a decrease, and thereby suppressing lipid peroxidation which is induced by free radicals.

  7. Differential effect of melatonin on {gamma}-irradiated ovarian follicles in mice

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    Kim, J.K.; Lee, C.J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    The present study was performed to obtain evidence of the radioprotective function of melatonin on the ovarian follicles in {gamma}-irradiated immature mice. Three weeks old immature mice were i.p. injected with 10 {mu}g and 100 {mu}g of melatonin dissolved in 100 {mu}l of alcoholic saline. Two hours after the treatments, they were whole-body irradiated with a dose of LD{sub 80(30)} (8.3 Gy). The ovaries were dissected out of the animals at -2, 2, 8, and 14 h after the onset of irradiation and prepared for the histological observation using glutaraldehyde fixation. In terms of morphometry, it was observed that the number of primordial follicles of the irradiation group or the melatonin-treated group was less than that of the control. However, the number of primary, preantral, and early antral follicles was not different from that of the control group. In the group pretreated with 100 {mu}g of melatonin before irradiation, the percentage of normal primordial follicles was significantly higher than that of the irradiation group at any time after irradiation. The high concentration of melatonin also reduced radiation-induced degeneration of the primary follicles at 14 h after irradiation. The pretreatment of 10 {mu}g of melatonin had little of no effect on radiation-induced degeneration of the primordial follicles and of the primary follicles. However it gave a protective effect on the radiation-induced degeneration in the preantral and early antral follicles. From the above results, it is concluded that the exogenous melatonin has different functions depending on the follicular stages, and that the radioprotective effect of exogenous melatonin on follicular degeneration is related to its concentration. (author)

  8. Caffeine protects mice against whole-body lethal dose of {gamma}-irradiation

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    George, K.C.; Hebbar, S.A.; Kale, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C. [Biosciences Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    1999-06-01

    Administration of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a major component of coffee, to Swiss mice at doses of 80 or 100 mg/kg body weight 60 min prior to whole-body lethal dose of {gamma}-irradiation (7.5 Gy) resulted in the survival of 70 and 63% of animals, respectively, at the above doses in contrast to absolutely no survivors (LD-100/25 days) in the group exposed to radiation alone. Pre-treatment with a lower concentration of caffeine (50 mg/kg) did not confer any radioprotection. The protection exerted by caffeine (80 mg/kg), however, was reduced from 70 to 50% if administered 30 min prior to irradiation. The trend statistics reveal that a dose of 80 mg/kg administered 60 min before whole-body exposure to 7.5 Gy is optimal for maximal radioprotection. However, caffeine (80 mg/kg) administered within 3 min after irradiation offered no protection. While there is documentation in the literature that caffeine is an antioxidant and radioprotector against the toxic pathway of radiation damage in a wide range of cells and organisms, this is the first report demonstrating unequivocally its potent radioprotective action in terms of survival of lethally whole-body irradiated mice. (author)

  9. [Effect of lactobacillus and bifidobacteria preparations on the intestinal microflora of mice irradiated with gamma quanta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, V M; Kissina, E V; Ikonnikova, T B; Mal'tsev, V N; Goncharova, G I

    1980-06-01

    Lactobacilli (strain B12G) and bifidobacteria (strain 75-41), administered orally in a dose of 5 x 10 cells to CBA mice on days 1, 3, 5 and 10 after irradiation with gamma quanta in a dose of 700 rad, restored the "eubiosis" of the intestinal tract, specifically suppressing opportunistic bacteria and facilitating the normalization of the quantitative and qualitative correlation between microbial associations constituting the obligatory intestinal flora. For one thing, the preparations of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, used for treatment, restored the amount of lactobacilli in the intestinal tract of the irradiated animals to the level, characteristic of the intact animals; for another, these preparations prevented the dissemination of Escherichia, Proteus, Enterococcus in the small intestine and considerably decreased the amount of these microorganisms, as well as Clostridium, in the large intestine.

  10. Comparative nephrotoxicity of native or Co-60 gamma rays irradiated crotoxin in mice

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    Rocha, Andre Moreira; Alves, Glaucie J.; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson O.; Thomazi, Gabriela O. Coelho; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: andrerocha@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento-Rocha, Josefa M.; Magalhaes Filho, Asterio Souza, E-mail: 0304@prof.itpacporto.com.br [Instituto Tocantinense Presidente Antonio Carlos Porto (ITPAC), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and peptides with a wide spectrum of physiological targets such as the blood coagulation and cardiovascular systems and the motor end plate among others. Acute renal failure is a common complication in accidents with the South American rattlesnake. The toxin involved in this pathology is the crotoxin, a major component of the venom in terms of concentration and toxicity. Snake venoms, when irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays present a significant decrease in toxicity while the immunogenic properties of its components are preserved. The use of irradiated venom is an attractive alternative for antisera production since it might reduce the appearance of renal lesions improving the welfare and lifespan of those animals employed on antivenom production. At the present work, we have compared the effects of native and irradiated crotoxin on the mice renal function. Tubular lesions were observed in all the samples from the animal group injected with native crotoxin. Animals injected with the irradiated toxin presented alteration only after 30 minutes and 1 hour after injection. These data suggest that the onset of the renal lesions is delayed and that the severity of the lesions might be lower when using irradiated crotoxin. (author)

  11. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

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    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  12. Chromosome aberrations and micronucleus in continuously irradiated mice for a low dose rate of {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays

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    Izumi, Jun; Yanai, Takanori; Shirata, Katsutoshi; Tanaka, Kimio; Sato, Fumiaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Delayed chromosomal instability is developed by radiation after several cell divisions in cultured rodent and human cells. The genetic instability might be related to cancer development and it has been mainly found in cultured rodent and human cells irradiated at high dose rate. It has not been well studied whether the genetic instability is induced by prolonged irradiation with low dose rate in vivo or not. Mice irradiated with 20 mGy/day for 5-8 Gy were analyzed by FISH to estimate the chromosome aberration rate and micronucleus incidence in spleen and bone marrow cells. Spleen cells in mice exposed to 8 Gy have higher incidence of monosomy and trisomy than non-exposed mice. The number of cells with 2-4 micronuclei in 10,000 scored spleen cells is also higher in 5-8 Gy exposed mice. These numerical chromosome aberrations are not induced directly by radiation exposure. These results indicate that prolonged {sup 137}Cs {gamma} ray-irradiation with low dose rates of 20 mGy/day induces delayed chromosome instability in mice. (author)

  13. Protective effects of Nasturtium officinale against gamma-irradiation-induced hepatotoxicity in C57 mice

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    M. Karami

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Nasturtium officinale W.T.Aiton (Brassicaceae is used as an edible vegetable in various parts of Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective activity of the methanolic extract of Nasturtium officinale against gamma-radiation-induced hepatotoxicity in terms of histopathological changes. Methods: Male C57 mice were divided into 10 groups. Groups 1 and 2 received saline solution intra-peritoneally (IP for 15 days (subacute and 2 h (acute before whole body γ-irradiation (6 Gy. Groups 3 to 5 (subacute and 6 to 8 (acute received the extract at doses of 20 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight IP, respectively. Group 9 served as radiation group. Group 10 received nothing. Finally, sections of the liver tissue were evaluated for any histopathologic changes. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using Folin Ciocalteu andaluminium chloride methods. Results: Pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days and 2 h before γ-radiation significantly lowered incidence of inflammation (portal and periportal inflammation. Furthermore, liver cells necrosis, edema and congestion were slightly reduced. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extract were 11.3 ± 0.4 mg gallic acid equivalents and 9.4 ± 0.7 mg quercetin equivalents per gram of dried extract. Conclusion: This protection can be attributed to the presence of phenols and isothiocyanates in the extract of N. officinale which act as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents.

  14. Enact of Glutathione(GSH/GSSG) Contents of Fermented Ginseng on the {gamma}-irradiated Liver of Mice

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    Ko, In Ho [Dept. of Radiology Technology, Jeju Halla College, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The radioprotective effects of white and fermented ginseng on liver damage induced by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray were investigated. To one group of ICR male mice were given white(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) and fermented ginseng(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) before {sup 60}Co {gamma}--ray irradiation. To another group were irradiated by 5 Gy(1.01 Gy/min) dose of {sup 60}Co {gamma}--ray. Contrast group were given with saline(0.1 mL). The levels of reduced(GSH) and oxidized(GSSG) glutathione in liver tissue were measured. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group, the GSH levels were significantly increased, but the GSSG levels were significantly decreased. The ratio of GSSG/total GSH was significantly decreased in the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups the GSH levels were significantly increased. The radioprotective effects of fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups were increased.

  15. Dystrophic changes in extraocular muscles after gamma irradiation in mdx:utrophin(+/-) mice.

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    McDonald, Abby A; Kunz, Matthew D; McLoon, Linda K

    2014-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOM) have a strikingly different disease profile than limb skeletal muscles. It has long been known that they are spared in Duchenne (DMD) and other forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, the cause for this sparing is not understood. We have proposed that differences in myogenic precursor cell properties in EOM maintain normal morphology over the lifetime of individuals with DMD due to either greater proliferative potential or greater resistance to injury. This hypothesis was tested by exposing wild type and mdx:utrophin(+/-) (het) mouse EOM and limb skeletal muscles to 18 Gy gamma irradiation, a dose known to inhibit satellite cell proliferation in limb muscles. As expected, over time het limb skeletal muscles displayed reduced central nucleation mirrored by a reduction in Pax7-positive cells, demonstrating a significant loss in regenerative potential. In contrast, in the first month post-irradiation in the het EOM, myofiber cross-sectional areas first decreased, then increased, but ultimately returned to normal compared to non-irradiated het EOM. Central nucleation significantly increased in the first post-irradiation month, resembling the dystrophic limb phenotype. This correlated with decreased EECD34 stem cells and a concomitant increase and subsequent return to normalcy of both Pax7 and Pitx2-positive cell density. By two months, normal het EOM morphology returned. It appears that irradiation disrupts the normal method of EOM remodeling, which react paradoxically to produce increased numbers of myogenic precursor cells. This suggests that the EOM contain myogenic precursor cell types resistant to 18 Gy gamma irradiation, allowing return to normal morphology 2 months post-irradiation. This supports our hypothesis that ongoing proliferation of specialized regenerative populations in the het EOM actively maintains normal EOM morphology in DMD. Ongoing studies are working to define the differences in the myogenic precursor cells

  16. Microbial regulation and protective effects of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis in gamma-irradiated mice intestine

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    Sawsan M. El-Sonbaty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The small intestinal epithelium is highly sensitive to radiation and a major site of injury during radiation therapy and environmental overexposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate yerba mate extract (MT as a potential radioprotective agent in the intestine. First yerba mate was exposed to doses of gamma radiation and the extract was analyzed for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and total phenolic compounds. Male mice were divided into 4 groups: Control group: received saline, MT group: received MT, Irradiation group: exposed to 8 Gy of gamma radiation, MT+ irradiation group: pre-treated with MT then exposed to gamma radiation. The results obtained in vitro showed that, MT of gamma irradiated yerba mate showed a reduction in antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds compared to control. MT exerted antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (0.5 mg/ml for Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. In vivo, mice exposed to gamma radiation, showed significant reduction in the total microbial count and disappearance of E. coli, induction of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, advanced oxidation protein products, and a decrease in glutathione, also decrease in the activity of lysozyme, catalase and superoxide dismutase, induction in cytokine levels of TNF-α and IL-6 with DNA fragmentation in the intestine, while irradiated mice pre-treated with MT showed, normalized lactic acid bacteria count and diminished pathogenic bacteria as S. aureus and E. coli also showed ameliorative effect of MT on lipid peroxidation, glutathione, protein carbonyl, advanced oxidation protein products, also normalized the activity of lysozyme, catalase and superoxide dismutase, and ameliorated cytokine levels of TNF-α and IL-6 compared to control, with radioprotection effect on the DNA of intestinal tissue. Our data suggested that, pre-treatment with MT may protect the small intestine from

  17. [Effect of antibiotics and bifiodobacterium preparations on the intestinal microflora of mice irradiated with gamma quanta].

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    Korshunov, V M; Pinegin, B V; Mal'tsev, V N; Kissina, E V; Ikonnikova, T B

    1980-07-01

    The treatment of CBA mice, irradiated in a dose of 700 Gy with antibiotics (penicillin V, oxytetracycline, streptomycin) in combination with bacterial therapy (B. bifidum, strain 75-41) or with antibiotics alone led to the increased percentage of survivors among them in comparison with the control animals. At the same time the medical prognosis was better in cases of the combined treatment with antibiotics and bifidobacteria. This circumstance was due to the fact that the combined treatment with antibiotics and bifidobacteria, considerably facilitated the normalization of the microbial picture of the intestine; in this case the "eubiosis" of the intestinal tract was almost completely restored by the 22nd day after the irradiation, whereas in the treatment with antibiotics alone the inhibitory effect on the development of the opportunistic flora at a later period of the development of dysbacteriosis was less pronounced, while the number of lactic acid bacteria remained at the same low level as in the untreated mice.

  18. Elevation of extracellular adenosine enhances haemopoiesis-stimulating effects of G-CSF in normal and gamma-irradiated mice

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    Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.; Netikiva, J.; Hola, J. [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    1997-03-01

    Effects of combined treatment with drugs elevating extracellular adenosine (dipyridamole /DP/, inhibiting the extracellular uptake of adenosine, and adenosine monophosphate /AMP/, an adenosine pro-drug), and G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) on haemopoiesis of normal and gamma-irradiated mice were ascertained. The agents were administered alone or in combination in a 4-day regimen. In normal, unirradiated animals, the haematological endpoints were determined 24 hours after the completion of the treatment. It was shown that the effects of G-CSF, i.e., increases in peripheral blood neutrophils, granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC) and morphologically recognizable granulocyte cells in femoral marrow and a decrease in the marrow erythroid cells, can be enhanced by the combination of DP plus AMP administrated 30 minutes before G-CSF. Furthermore, it was found that the stimulatory action of DP plus AMP was expressed particularly at lower doses of G-CSF (1.5, 3, and 4.5 {mu}g/d). In experiments with irradiated mice, when the 4-day therapeutic regimen was applied on days 3 to 6 following irradiation with the dose of 4 Gy, analogical stimulation of granulopoiesis was observed in the recovery phase on days 14 and 18 after irradiation. As example, see Fig. 1 for counts of granulocyte cells in femoral bone marrow. (authors)

  19. Gamma-irradiated influenza A virus provides adjuvant activity to a co-administered poorly immunogenic SFV vaccine in mice.

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    Rachelle eBabb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many currently available inactivated vaccines require 'adjuvants' to maximise the protective immune responses generated against the antigens of interest. Recent studies in mice with gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-FLU have shown its superior efficacy compared to other forms of inactivated FLU vaccines and its ability to induce both potent type-I interferon (IFN-I responses and the IFN-I associated partial lymphocyte activation. Commonly, IFN-I responses induced by adjuvants, combined in vaccine preparations, have been shown to effectively enhance the immunogenicity of the antigens of interest. Therefore, we investigated the potential adjuvant activity of γ-FLU and the possible effect on antibody responses against co-administrated antigens, using gamma-irradiated Semliki Forest Virus (γ-SFV as the experimental vaccine in mice. Our data show that co-vaccination with γ-FLU and γ-SFV resulted in enhanced SFV-specific antibody responses in terms of increased titres by 6 fold and greater neutralisation efficacy, when compared to vaccination with γ-SFV alone. This study provides promising evidence related to the possible use of γ-FLU as an adjuvant to poorly immunogenic vaccines without compromising the vaccine efficacy of γ-FLU.

  20. Analysis of changes in intestinal microflora of irradiated mice. [Gamma radiation

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    Mal' tsev, V.N.; Pinegin, B.V.; Korshunov, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    In experiments on 3 groups of CBA mice exposed to doses of 900, 600 and 300 R ..gamma..-rays, it was demonstrated that the integral severity of post-radiation microflora in the intestine can be determined by means of information index h, which takes into consideration all changes occurring in different representatives of the intestinal microflora. Differential analysis of the mechanisms of radioinduced changes in microflora indicates that it is based on a decrease in lactobacilli and increase in enterococcus, proteus, colibacillus and yeast in the small intestine, with increase in colibacillus, clostridia, proteus and enterococcus in the large intestine.

  1. Dose-response relationship for lifetime excess mortality and temporal pattern of manifestation in mice irradiated neonatally with gamma rays

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    Sasaki, Shunsaku; Fukuda, Nobuo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The dose-response relationships for the lifetime excess mortality and temporal distribution of excess mortality were analysed using a data set from an experiment on the long-term effects of gamma irradiation in neonatal mice. The excess mortality was calculated based on an assumption that any increase in the mortality rate was attributable to radiation exposure. The dose-response relationship for the lifetime excess mortality was convex upward, whereas the shortening of the mean life span was proportional to the dose. The excess mortality at 1 Gy was estimated to be 35.6%. The relative risk decreased markedly with increasing age. However, the mortality rate in the irradiated group was persistently higher than the background rate of death, and the absolute risk increased with age. A logistic specification was used to analyze the temporal distribution of the excess mortality. The results of the analysis indicated a dose-dependent shortening of the latent period and a broadening of the distribution. (author)

  2. Gemstone dedicated gamma irradiation development

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    Omi, Nelson M.; Rela, Paulo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: nminoru@ipen.br; prela@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The gemstones gamma irradiation process to enhance the color is widely accepted for the jewelry industry. These gems are processed in conventional industrial gamma irradiation plant which are optimized for other purposes, using underwater irradiation devices with high rejection rate due to its poor dose uniformity. A new conception design, which states the working principles and manufacturing ways of the device, was developed in this work. The suggested device's design is based on the rotation of cylindrical baskets and their translation in circular paths inside and outside a cylindrical source rack as a planetary system. The device is meant to perform the irradiation in the bottom of the source storage pool, where the sources remain always shielded by the water layer. The irradiator matches the Category III IAEA classification. To verify the physical viability of the basic principle, tests with rotating cylindrical baskets were performed in the Multipurpose Irradiator constructed in the CTR, IPEN. Also, simulations using the CADGAMMA software, adapted to simulate underwater irradiations, were performed. With the definitive optimized irradiator, the irradiation quality will be enhanced with better dose control and the production costs will be significantly lower than market prices due to the intended treatment device's optimization. This work presents some optimization parameters and the expected performance of the irradiator. (author)

  3. Radiation leukemogenesis in mice: loss of PU.1 on chromosome 2 in CBA and C57BL/6 mice after irradiation with 1 GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions, X rays or gamma rays. Part I. Experimental observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuanlin; Brown, Natalie; Finnon, Rosemary; Warner, Christy L; Liu, Xianan; Genik, Paula C; Callan, Matthew A; Ray, F Andrew; Borak, Thomas B; Badie, Christophe; Bouffler, Simon D; Ullrich, Robert L; Bedford, Joel S; Weil, Michael M

    2009-04-01

    Since deletion of the PU.1 gene on chromosome 2 is a crucial acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initiating step in the mouse model, we quantified PU.1 deleted cells in the bone marrow of gamma-, X- and 56Fe-ion-irradiated mice at various times postirradiation. Although 56Fe ions were initially some two to three times more effective than X or gamma rays in inducing PU.1 deletions, by 1 month postirradiation, the proportions of cells with PU.1 deletions were similar for the HZE particles and the sparsely ionizing radiations. These results indicate that while 56Fe ions are more effective in inducing PU.1 deletions, they are also more effective in causing collateral damage that removes hit cells from the bone marrow. After X, gamma or 56Fe-ion irradiation, AML-resistant C57BL/6 mice have fewer cells with PU.1 deletions than CBA mice, and those cells do not persist in the bone marrow of the C57B6/6 mice. Our findings suggest that quantification of PU.1 deleted bone marrow cells 1 month postirradiation can be used as surrogate for the incidence of radiation-induced AML measured in large-scale mouse studies. If so, PU.1 loss could be used to systematically assess the potential leukemogenic effects of other ions and energies in the space radiation environment.

  4. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  5. Gamma residual radioactivity measurements on rats and mice irradiated in the thermal column of a TRIGA Mark II reactor for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Nicoletta; Manera, Sergio; Prata, Michele; Alloni, Daniele; Ballarini, Francesca; di Tigliole, Andrea Borio; Bortolussi, Silva; Bruschi, Piero; Cagnazzo, Marcella; Garioni, Maria; Postuma, Ian; Reversi, Luca; Salvini, Andrea; Altieri, Saverio

    2014-12-01

    The current Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) experiments performed at the University of Pavia, Italy, are focusing on the in vivo irradiations of small animals (rats and mice) in order to evaluate the effectiveness of BNCT in the treatment of diffused lung tumors. After the irradiation, the animals are manipulated, which requires an evaluation of the residual radioactivity induced by neutron activation and the relative radiological risk assessment to guarantee the radiation protection of the workers. The induced activity in the irradiated animals was measured by high-resolution open geometry gamma spectroscopy and compared with values obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. After an irradiation time of 15 min in a position where the in-air thermal flux is about 1.2 × 10(10) cm(-2) s(-1), the specific activity induced in the body of the animal is mainly due to 24Na, 38Cl, 42K, 56Mn, 27Mg and 49Ca; it is approximately 540 Bq g(-1) in the rat and around 2,050 Bq g(-1) in the mouse. During the irradiation, the animal body (except the lung region) is housed in a 95% enriched 6Li shield; the primary radioisotopes produced inside the shield by the neutron irradiation are 3H by the 6Li capture reaction and 18F by the reaction sequence 6Li(n,α)3H → 16O(t,n)18F. The specific activities of these products are 3.3 kBq g(-1) and 880 Bq g(-1), respectively.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the change of solubility and anti-inflammation activity of chrysin in macrophage cells and LPS-injected endotoxemic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Jang, Beom-Su; Byun, Eui-Hong; Sung, Nak-Yun

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the changes of solubility and anti-inflammatory properties of structurally modified gamma-irradiated chrysin. Chrysin was irradiated at various doses for a physical analysis and determining any structural changes and solubility. As shown through the physical analysis, the main peak of the chrysin was decreased as the irradiation dose increased, and it was concomitant with the appearance of several new peaks, which were highly increased in 50 kGy gamma-irradiated chrysin. The solubility was markedly increased in the gamma-irradiated groups. As shown through a physiological analysis, both gamma-irradiated- (15-50 kGy) and intact-chrysin (0 kGy) did not exert cytotoxicity to bone-marrow derived macrophages. The treatment of LPS-stimulated macrophages with 50 kGy gamma-irradiated chrysin resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in pro-inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS-mediated NO, PGE2, COX-2, and cell surface marker (CD80 and CD86), as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), when compared to the intact-chrysin treated group. Mechanically, we found that the inhibition of these pro-inflammatory mediators induced by gamma-irradiated chrysin occurred through an inhibition of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and p38) and the NF-κB signaling pathways. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity remained in the LPS-injected animal model. In this model, gamma-irradiated chrysin treatment highly increased the mouse survival, and significantly decreased the serum cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) levels. From these findings, the anti-inflammatory action by gamma-irradiated chrysin may be closely mediated with structural modification. It seems likely that gamma irradiation can be an effective tool for improvement of the physical and physiological properties of polyphenols.

  7. Protective and/or recovering effects of various kinds of chemicals and drugs to the hemopoietic injuries caused by the irradiation of /sup 60/Co. gamma. -rays in the mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagimoto, Akio

    1987-01-01

    We have injected eleven kinds of chemical substances and drugs intraperitoneally in the male ddN mice, and studied the relative protective and/or recovering effects of them to the hemopoietic injuries caused by the whole body irradiation of 600R of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays. Good radioprotective activity on bone marrow cells in the irradiated mice was found, when we administered AET (S, 2-aminoethylisothiuronium Br. HBr) before irradiation, 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophane) in low dosage before irradiation, Glutathione before irradiation, or Serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) in high dosage before irradiation. Good radioprotective or recovering activity was observed on the weight of the spleen, by Serotonin in high and low dosage before irradiation, or DBCC (5,6-dimethyl benzimidazolyl cobamide coenzyme; Vitamin B/sub 12/) after irradiation. Positive responses of reticulocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were obtained in the irradiated mice, when we administered Serotonin in high dosage before irradiation, MET (S-Methyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide) before irradiation, a cocktail of Periactin (Cyproheptadine hydrochloride) and Serotonin before irradiation, MET before and after irradiation or Nucleo (a mixture of products made by degrading yeast-RNA) after irradiation respectively. A good response in leukocyte count was observed when Serotonin in high dosage before irradiation was administered, and in granulocyte count by Serotonin in high dosage before or 5-HTP in low dosage before irradiation. Lymphocyte count was protected or recovered by Serotonin in high dosage before or Nucleo after irradiation. Thrombocyte count was protected by Serotonin in high and low dosage before, Glutathione before, or AET before irradiation.(author).

  8. Oral immunization of mice with gamma-irradiated Brucella neotomae induces protection against intraperitoneal and intranasal challenge with virulent B. abortus 2308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabral, Neha; Martha-Moreno-Lafont; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Vemulapalli, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular coccobacilli that cause one of the most frequently encountered zoonosis worldwide. Humans naturally acquire infection through consumption of contaminated dairy and meat products and through direct exposure to aborted animal tissues and fluids. No vaccine against brucellosis is available for use in humans. In this study, we tested the ability of orally inoculated gamma-irradiated B. neotomae and B. abortus RB51 in a prime-boost immunization approach to induce antigen-specific humoral and cell mediated immunity and protection against challenge with virulent B. abortus 2308. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with B. abortus RB51 and B. neotomae and homologous prime-boost vaccination of mice with B. neotomae led to the production of serum and mucosal antibodies specific to the smooth LPS. The elicited serum antibodies included the isotypes of IgM, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3. All oral vaccination regimens induced antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells capable of secreting IFN-γ and TNF-α. Upon intra-peritoneal challenge, mice vaccinated with B. neotomae showed the highest level of resistance against virulent B. abortus 2308 colonization in spleen and liver. Experiments with different doses of B. neotomae showed that all tested doses of 10(9), 10(10) and 10(11) CFU-equivalent conferred significant protection against the intra-peritoneal challenge. However, a dose of 10(11) CFU-equivalent of B. neotomae was required for affording protection against intranasal challenge as shown by the reduced bacterial colonization in spleens and lungs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using gamma-irradiated B. neotomae as an effective and safe oral vaccine to induce protection against respiratory and systemic infections with virulent Brucella.

  9. Sea Buckthorn Leaf Extract Protects Jejunum and Bone Marrow of 60Cobalt-Gamma-Irradiated Mice by Regulating Apoptosis and Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Bala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A single dose (30 mg/kg body weight of standardized sea buckthorn leaf extract (SBL-1, administered 30 min before whole body 60Co-gamma-irradiation (lethal dose, 10 Gy, protected >90% of mice population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of SBL-1 on jejunum and bone marrow, quantify key bioactive compounds, and analyze chemical composition of SBL-1. Study with 9-week-old inbred male Swiss albino Strain ‘A’ mice demonstrated that SBL-1 treatment before 60Co-gamma-irradiation (10 Gy significantly (p<0.05 countered radiation induced decreases in jejunum crypts (1.27-fold, villi number (1.41-fold, villus height (1.25-fold, villus cellularity (2.27-fold, cryptal Paneth cells (1.89-fold, and Bcl2 level (1.54-fold. It countered radiation induced increases in cryptal apoptotic cells (1.64-fold and Bax levels (1.88-fold. It also countered radiation (2 Gy and 3 Gy induced bone marrow apoptosis (1.59-fold and 1.85-fold and micronuclei frequency (1.72-fold and 2.6-fold. SBL-1 rendered radiation protection by promoting cryptal stem cells proliferation, by regulating apoptosis, and by countering radiation induced chromosomal damage. Quercetin, Ellagic acid, Gallic acid, high contents polyphenols, tannins, and thiols detected in SBL-1 may have contributed to radiation protection by neutralization of radiation induced oxidative species, supporting stem cell proliferation and tissue regeneration.

  10. Study of rice. gamma. -irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, J.J.; Chau, R.S.; Chen, S.C.; Chu, S.L.; Fu, Y.K.; Fang, C.K.; Fu, Y.H.

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether the /sup 60/Co gamma-irradiated milled rice packed in economic and practical sealed bags could be preserved in common granaries in Taiwan for more than one year rather than slightly over one month without quality deterioration. As a result of this experiment we found that during the preservation of over a period of 18 months, the contents, such as moisture, ash, protein and fiber, of Tainan-5 Bon-Lai (Japonica Type) rice irradiated with 20 and 40 krad doses were quite stable, whereas reducing sugar showed slight fluctuations but did not vary significantly either. The fat, vitamin B/sub 1/ and niacin contents were found being reduced, while the increase in fatty acid content was an inevitable phenomenon along with the proceeding of the preservation.

  11. Radioprotective effects of 2-imino-3[(chromone-2-yl)carbonyl]thiazolidines against {gamma}-irradiation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinimehr, S.J.; Shafiee, A. [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Pharmacy; Mozdarani, H. [Tarbiat Modarres Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Medical Sciences; Akhlagpour, S. [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Medicine; Froughizadeh, M. [Novin Medical Radiation Inst., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2002-09-01

    A series of 2-imino-3-[(chromone-2-yl)carbonyl]thiazolidines substituted at the C-5 and/ or C-7 positions of a chromone ring were synthesized. The in vivo toxicity and radioprotective efficacy of these agents were evaluated in male NMRI mice against cobalt-60 {gamma}-rays. The lethal dose 50% (LD{sub 50}) values as determined by a Probit analysis, were 659, 1216 and 790 mg/kg for compounds, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. For studying radioprotective effects, one half of the toxic LD{sub 50} values were used, namely 330, 605 and 395 mg/kg for compounds 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The dose reduced factor (DRF) was determined by dividing the LD{sub 50/30} values obtained from the radiation survival curve in the presence of a radioprotective agent by the LD{sub 50/30} value obtained from a control radiation survival curve. A compound with a hydroxyl group substituent at the C-5 position afforded better radioprotective activity than those without this substituent. The radioprotective effect of chromone having a hydroxyl group at only the C-7 position was similar to that of the unsubstituted chromone. The most active compound has hydroxyl groups at the C-5 and C-7 positions of the chromone ring; it had a DRF of 1.48. (author)

  12. The IRMA gamma irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, L.; Raboin, M.; Corbiere, J. [IRSN, Fontenat-aux-roses (France)

    2011-07-01

    The IRMA cobalt-60 irradiation cell has been installed at the Saclay research centre (25 km from Paris) for 40 years. IRMA is a facility with a maximum authorized capacity of 1, 700 TBq (i.e. approx. 46, 000 Ci). It is a test facility intended primarily for research and development studies on how equipment and materials respond to dose or dose rate exposure. Cobalt-60 gamma photons are the reference in this field. Irradiation is panoramic and achieved using 4, independent, cylindrical sealed sources (11 mm in diameter and 452 mm in length). When not in use, the sources are stored in a lead cask with 0.30 m thick walls to allow safe access inside the cell (uncontaminated environment). With an internal volume of 24 m{sup 3}, it can accommodate a very wide variety of geometric configurations for exposure to gamma radiation. Available dose rates range from 5 {mu}Gy/h (which is the background radiation in the cell when the sources are enclosed in their lead cask) to 25 kGy/h (value obtained 10 cm from a source holder containing all four sources). The resulting doses can be used in experiments representing relatively extreme situations (reactor accidents, dose after x years for equipment in hot cells, reprocessing plants, and so on).The IRMA facility has performed several irradiation tests on new components for EPR and LWR. The IRMA facility is also adapted to check the performance of new biological shieldings and protections for reactors and reprocessing plants. In several other fields of nuclear applications, this facility is useful to characterize and calibrate radiation detectors for the nuclear, space, and military industries

  13. Late effects of total-head gamma irradiation in mice. 2. Pathomorphological analysis of organic changes with regard to the role of the hypophysis - adrenal gland axis and of the thymolymphatic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkadlecek, L.; Viklicka, S.; Karpfel, Z.; Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav)

    1985-01-01

    Relations between late manifestations of wasting of C57BL/10 mice whose heads were irradiated with a dose of 16 Gy of /sup 60/Co gamma rays, and some pathomorphological findings in the organs of animals in the late period after irradiation were studied. A close correlation was found between the fall in body weight of animals during the period of the 6th month after irradiation and involution of the thymolymphatic system. Adenohypophysis and adrenal cortex of wasting animals revealed clear signs of structural defects, indicating failure of their hormonal functions. Morphological examination of brain, cerebellum, duodenum and liver did not exhibit signs of damage.

  14. IMMUNE TOLERANCE INDUCED BY GAMMA-RAY IRRADIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练燕; 王延江; 粟永萍; 冉新泽; 艾国平; 刘晓宏; 郭朝华; 程天民

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To detect the existence of immune tolerance induced by gamma-ray irradiation. Methods: Peritoneal cells were harvested from mice subjected to 5 Gy 60Co gamma-ray total body irradiation at 3d, 7d, 15d and 30d, then their counts, morphological changes and IL-12 gene expression were investigated. Results: After irradiation, the peritoneal cells were sharply reduced, the cell morphology shifted from round-like to polymorphic and fusiform with some processes, expression of IL-12 p35 was seriously suppressed, while that of IL-12 p40 greatly enhanced. Conclusion: Our data highly suggest that the gamma-ray irradiation could potentially induce dendritic cell (DC) commitment and immune tolerance.

  15. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  16. Regeneration of hemopoietic and lymphoid tissues following total-body irradiation and therapeutic administration of thiamin diphosphate. [Mice, gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrova, J.; Nouza, K.; Petjrek, P.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis was made of the mechanism of therapeutic application of thiamine diphosphate (TDP) in radiation sickness in mice. This agent increased the number of endogenous colonies in the spleen and incorporation of /sup 59/Fe in spleen and bone marrow with sublethal doses of radiation (500 and 600 R) and has no effect with a lethal dose (750 R). After administration of TDP to mice exposed to 500 R radiation, there is faster DNA synthesis in the spleen, thymus and bone marrow, as well as reliable increase in number of nuclear cells in femoral marrow.

  17. Presence of. gamma. G and. beta. 1C globulins in renal glomeruli of aging and neonatally x-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttman, P.H.; Wuepper, K.D.; Fudenberg, H.H.

    1967-01-01

    A renal lesion in rodents, termed progressive intercapillary glomerulosclerosis (IGS), is characterized by gradual increase in the thickness of the mesangium due to cell proliferation, clustering, and pleomorphism of the mesangial cells, accumulation of PAS-positive mesangial matrix and progressive increase in the thickness of capillary basement membranes. Electron microscopy reveals deposits of electron-dense material in kidneys with IGS suggestive of plasma proteins in the mesangial matrix and in the basement membranes. IGS appears early in life and progresses with age. Whole body irradiation or direct irradiation of the kidneys causes acceleration of the glomerular lesion. A latent period precedes the onset of demonstrable histologic changes following x-ray; this latent period is of shorter duration in animals irradiated late in life. In previous studies, the possible role of an immune mechanism in the pathogenesis of IGS was suggested by the following observations: (1) the progressive course of the disease after a latent period following a single exposure to x-ray; (2) the similarity of the lesions to those seen in experimental immune disease of the kidney in rodents; (3) the presence of electron-dense material suggesting plasma protein deposits in the basement membranes and matrix; and (4) the potentiating effect of neonatal thymectomy on the course of radiation-induced IGS.

  18. Antibiotic radioprotection of mice exposed to supralethal whole-body irradiation independent of antibacterial activity. [Gamma radiation, streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, gentamycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastromarino, A.; Wilson, R.

    1976-11-01

    Oral administration of streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, or gentamicin to specific pathogen-free C57 x Af mice in their drinking water (4 mg/ml) for 2 weeks before supralethal whole-body irradiation very significantly prolonged their mean survival times (8.2 to 8.9 days vs 6.9 for controls) to values which exceed those reported for germ-free mice (7.3 days). The total fecal concentrations of aerobes and anaerobes were reduced by kanamycin, neomycin, and gentamicin. Streptomycin reduced the anaerobes significantly, but not the aerobes. Unlike germ-free mice, these antibiotic-treated mice did excrete free bile acids, products of bacterial action. Oral antibiotic treatment was ineffective in altering the transit time of the intestinal mucosal cells. Previously reported studies had indicated a correlation between decreased transit time and increased survival after irradiation. No significant correlation between mean survival time after irradiation and mucosal transit time was observed. The data demonstrate that certain antibiotics alter the character of the intestinal bacterial flora and increase protection against supralethal doses of whole-body irradiation. It is concluded that the mechanisms of radioresistance in antibiotic-treated mice and germ-free mice are different and that in both groups radioresistance is the result of more than elimination of postirradiation infection.

  19. Noninvasive assessment of cutaneous alterations in mice exposed to whole body gamma irradiation using optical imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P; Sahu, K; Kushwaha, P K; Kumar, S; Swami, M K; Kumawat, J; Patel, H S; Kher, S; Sahani, P K; Haridas, G; Gupta, P K

    2017-07-11

    We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the potential of optical techniques such as optical coherence tomography, Mueller matrix spectroscopy, and cross-polarization imaging for noninvasive monitoring of the ionizing radiation exposure-induced alterations in cutaneous tissue of mice. Radiation dose-dependent changes were observed in tissue microvasculature and tissue optical parameters like retardance and depolarization as early as 1 h post radiation exposure. Results suggest that these optical techniques may allow early detection of radiation dose-dependent alterations which could help in screening of population exposed to radiation.

  20. Dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Navjeet [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Singh, Mohan, E-mail: mohansinghphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Singh, Lakhwant [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Awasthi, A.M. [Thermodynamics Laboratory, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452001 (India); Lochab, S.P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The present article reports the effect of gamma irradiation on the dielectric relaxation characteristics of muscovite mica. • Dielectric and electrical relaxations have been analyzed in the framework of dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and Cole–Cole formalisms. • The frequency dependent electrical conductivity has been rationalized using Johnsher’s universal power law. • The experimentally measured electric modulus and conductivity data have been fitted using Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation function. - Abstract: In the present research, the dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica was studied in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz–10 MHz and temperature range of 653–853 K, using the dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and conductivity formalisms. The dielectric constants (ϵ′ and ϵ′′) are found to be high for gamma irradiated muscovite mica as compared to the pristine sample. The frequency dependence of the imaginary part of complex electric modulus (M′′) and dc conductivity data conforms Arrhenius law with single value of activation energy for pristine sample and two values of activation energy for gamma irradiated mica sample. The experimentally assessed electric modulus and conductivity information have been interpreted by the Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation explanation. Using the Cole–Cole framework, an analysis of real and imaginary characters of the electric modulus for pristine and gamma irradiated sample was executed which reflects the non-Debye relaxation mechanism.

  1. Study of uptake and endocytosis of gamma rays-irradiated crotoxin by mice peritoneal macrophages; Avaliacao do mecanismo de captacao e endocitose de crotoxina submetida a acao da radiacao, por macrofagos peritoneais de camundongos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardi, Bruno Andrade

    1999-07-01

    The purpose was to investigate the uptake and endocytosis of 2000 Gy {sup 60}Co irradiated crotoxin through mouse peritoneal macrophages, correlating with native one and another non related protein, the ovalbumin. Native (CTXN) or 2000 Gy {sup 60} Co {gamma}-rays (dose rate 540 Gy/hour) irradiated crotoxin (CTXI) or ovalbumin processed of same manner (OVAN - OVAI) were offered to mouse peritoneal macrophages and their uptake was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative in situ ELISA. The involvement of scavenger receptors (ScvR) was evaluated by using blockers drugs (Probuco-PBC or Dextran Sulfate - SD) or with nonspecific blocking using fetal calf serum (FBS). The morphology and viability of macrophages were preserved during the experiments. CTXI showed irradiation-induced aggregates and formation of oxidative changing were observed on this protein after gamma rays treatment. By immunohistochemistry we could observe heavy stained phagocytic vacuole on macrophages incubated with CTXI, as compared with CTXN. Quantitatively by in situ ELISA, the sema pattern was observed, displaying a 2-fold CTXI incorporation. In presence of PBC or SD we could find a significant decrease of CTXI uptake but not of CTXN. However the CTXN uptake was depressed by FBS, not observed with CTXI. OVA, after gamma rays treatment, underwent a high degradation suffering a potent incorporation and metabolism by macrophages, with a major uptake of OVAI in longer incubation (120 minutes). Gamma rays ({sup 60} Co) produced oxidative changes on CTX molecule, leading to a uptake by ScvR-mice peritoneal macrophages, suggesting that the relation antigen-presenting cells and gamma rays-modified proteins are responsible for the better immune response presented by irradiated antigens. (author)

  2. Gamma irradiation effects in W films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claro, Luiz H. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil) and Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei (Brazil); Santos, Ingrid A. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Cassia F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    Using the van Der Pauw methodology, the surface resistivity of irradiated tungsten films deposited on Silicon substrate was measured. The films were exposed to {gamma} radiation using a isotopic {sup 60}Co source in three irradiation stages attaining 40.35 kGy in total dose. The obtained results for superficial resistivity display a time annealing features and their values are proportional to the total dose.

  3. Drug-induced chimerism and prevention of graft-versus-host disease in lethally irradiated mice transplanted with rat bone marrow. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierpaoli, W.; Maestroni, G.J.M.

    1978-12-01

    L-5-hydroxytryptophan, haloperidol, and phentolamine were administered subcutaneously to groups of mice. Some groups were inoculated i.p. or i.v. with bone marrow cells. The mice were given a dose of 900 rad of whole-body gamma radiation. Observations were made on survival rate, reconstitution with rat hematopoietic tissue, and capacity to reject or accept skin grafts. Results indicate that the combination of drug-induced tolerance and a newly established preconditioning regimen that eliminated postradiation damage and mortality results in reduction in incidence or delay in onset of GVHD, successful bone marrow grafting, and induction of persistent rat chimerism. (HLW)

  4. Effect of bifidobacteria implantation on the survival time of whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokura, T.; Onoue, M.; Mutai, M. (Yakult Institute for Microbiological Research)

    1980-01-01

    Letahl dose (2 KR) of gamma-ray was irradiated on the whole bodies of mice. Survival time after irradiation was significantly longer in mice with administration of both Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4008 and transgalactosyl oligosaccharide than in mice with administration of either of the two or nothing.

  5. Gamma-irradiation enhances transgene expression in leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecque, R; Saudemont, A; Wickham, T J; Gonzalez, R; Hetuin, D; Fenaux, P; Quesnel, B

    2003-02-01

    The majority of immunotherapy-based gene therapy protocols consist of ex vivo gene transfer in tumor cells. To prevent further in vivo growth, modified cells must be irradiated before reinjection into patients. The present study examines the effects of gamma-irradiation on transgene expression in transduced leukemic cells. Human and murine leukemic cells were transfected with retroviral vectors or plasmids carrying beta-galactosidase, GM-CSF or CD80 genes. Fresh leukemic cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were transfected with AdZ.F(pK7) adenoviral vector. gamma-irradiation at various lethal doses enhanced transgene expression in leukemic cell lines and fresh AML cells when the gene of interest was under CMV promoter but not when SV40 promoter was used. Oxidative stress also enhanced transgene expression and both irradiation and oxidative stress effects were inhibited by addition of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a thiol anti-oxidant, indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species. Transgene expression was also enhanced in vivo 48 and 120 h after subcutaneous injection of irradiated leukemic cells in syngeneic mice. These results show that a cell vaccine protocol using ex vivo gene transfer of transduced cells might be feasible in acute leukemia even if leukemic cells must be irradiated at lethal doses prior to reinjection to patients.

  6. Gamma irradiation or CD4+-T-cell depletion causes reactivation of latent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in C3H/HeN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Angela; van de Gevel, Joke S; Koudijs, Margaretha M; Ossendorp, Ferry; Beekhuizen, Henry; Janssen, Riny; van Dissel, Jaap T

    2005-05-01

    Upon infection with Salmonella, a host develops an immune response to limit bacterial growth and kill and eliminate the pathogen. Salmonella has evolved mechanisms to remain dormant within the body, only to reappear (reactivate) at a later time when the immune system is abated. We have developed an in vivo model for studying reactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice. Upon subcutaneous infection, C3H/HeN (Ity(r)) mice showed an increase in bacterial numbers in livers and spleens, which reached a peak on day 19. After full recovery from the infection, these mice were irradiated or depleted of CD4(+) T cells. The mice displayed a secondary infection peak in livers and spleens with a course similar to that of the primary infection. We concluded that CD4(+) T cells are involved in active suppression of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium during latency. The role of CD4(+) T cells during primary infection with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium is well established. This is the first study to describe a role of CD4(+) T cells during the latent phase of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection.

  7. ESR identification of gamma-irradiated albendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Seyda

    2010-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for sterilization of pharmaceuticals is a well-established technology. In the present work, the spectroscopic and kinetic features of the radicals induced in gamma-irradiated solid albendazole samples is investigated at different temperatures in the dose range of 3-34 kGy by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Irradiation with gamma radiation produced two different radical species in albendazole. They were fairly stable at room temperature but relatively unstable above room temperature, giving rise to an unresolved ESR spectrum consisting of three resonance peaks centered at g=2.0057. Decay activation energies of the contributing radical species were calculated to be 47.8 (±13.5) and 50.5 (±9.7) kJ/mol using the signal intensity decay data derived from annealing studies performed at high temperatures. A linear function of the applied dose was found to best describe the experimental dose-response data. Albendazole does not present the characteristics of good dosimetric materials. However, the discrimination of irradiated albendazole from its unirradiated form was possible even 6 months after storage in normal conditions. Based on these findings, it is concluded that albendazole and albendazole-containing drugs can be safely sterilized by gamma radiation and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring their radiosterilization.

  8. Stability of {gamma}-Irradiated Carmine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosentino, Helio M.; Del Mastro, Nelida L. [IPEN-CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Center of Radiation Technology; Fontenele, Rinaldo S. [Mackenzie Presbiterian Univ. Barueri, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Carmine is a dye used mainly for coloring food products and galenicals but also in inks. As food irradiation is becoming a regular treatment for food preservation, it is desirable to have a proper knowledge about the radiation sensitivity of additives that can be included in the food formula. The aim of this work was to establish the radiation stability of carmine against Co-60 gamma radiation. Samples of 50% pure carmine powder as well as 50%, 10% and 5% aqueous solutions were irradiated in a Gammacell 220, dose rate of about 5.2kGy/h, with doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32kGy. Spectrophotometric readings at 494{eta}m show a slight decrease of the absorbance as a function of dose: Samples irradiated with 4 and 32kGy retained 95% and 90% of absorbance of the unirradiated samples respectively. These results indicate a rather good stability of carmine against {gamma}-irradiation.

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on deteriorated paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicchieri, Marina; Monti, Michela; Piantanida, Giovanna; Sodo, Armida

    2016-08-01

    Even though gamma radiation application, also at the minimum dosage required for disinfection, causes depolymerization and degradation of the paper substrate, recently published papers seemed, instead, to suggest that γ-rays application could be envisaged in some conditions for Cultural Heritage original documents and books. In some of the published papers, the possible application of γ-rays was evaluated mainly by using mechanical tests that scarcely reflect the chemical modifications induced in the cellulosic support. In the present article the effect of low dosage γ-irradiation on cellulosic substrates was studied and monitored applying different techniques: colorimetry, spectroscopic measurements, carbonyl content and average viscometric degree of polymerization. Two different papers were investigated, a non-sized, non-filled cotton paper, and a commercial permanent paper. To simulate a real deteriorated document, which could need γ-rays irradiation, some samples were submitted to a hydrolysis treatment. We developed a treatment based on the exposition of paper to hydrochloric acid vapors, avoiding any contact of the samples with water. This method induces a degradation similar to that observed on original documents. The samples were then irradiated with 3 kGy γ-rays at a 5258 Gy/h rate. The aforementioned analyses were performed on the samples just irradiated and after artificial ageing. All tests showed negative effects of gamma irradiation on paper. Non-irradiated paper preserves better its appearance and chemical properties both in the short term and after ageing, while the irradiated samples show appreciable color change and higher oxidation extent. Since the Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione patrimonio archivistico e librario is responsible for the choice of all restoration treatments that could be applied on library and archival materials under the protection of the Italian State (http://www.icpal.beniculturali.it/allegati/DM-7

  10. Hybridizability of gamma-irradiated lactic dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M.

    1976-03-01

    The hybridizabilities of the gamma-irradiated chicken heart and pig muscle lactic dehydrogenases were estimated by hybridizing the irradiated enzymes with the unirradiated pig heart lactic dehydrogenase. The disc gel electrophoretic patterns of the inter- and intraspecific hybrids showed that the LDH activity of the pig heart isozyme band increased as a function of dose. This observation was analyzed upon the binomial redistribution pattern of the recombined subunits. The result shows that the hybridizabilities of both the chicken heart and pig muscle isozymes decreased along with the loss of catalytic activity and the release from substrate inhibition. The titration of free SH groups of the irradiated chicken isozyme suggested that the unfolding of the peptide chain destroyed the specific tertiary structure needed for the binding of subunits. (auth)

  11. Influence of gamma ray irradiation on metakaolin based sodium geopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambertin, D., E-mail: david.lambertin@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SPDE/LP2C, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Boher, C. [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SPDE/LP2C, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Dannoux-Papin, A. [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SPDE/LCFI, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Galliez, K.; Rooses, A.; Frizon, F. [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SPDE/LP2C, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)

    2013-11-15

    Effects of gamma irradiation on metakaolin based Na-geopolymer have been investigated by external irradiation. The experiments were carried out in a gamma irradiator with {sup 60}Co sources up to 1000 kGy. Various Na-geopolymer with three H{sub 2}O/Na{sub 2}O ratios have been studied in terms of hydrogen radiolytic yield. The results show that hydrogen production increases linearly with water content. Gamma irradiation effects on Na-geopolymer microstructure have been investigated with porosity measurements and X-ray pair distribution function analysis. A change of pore size distribution and a structural relaxation have been found after gamma ray irradiation.

  12. Influence of gamma ray irradiation on metakaolin based sodium geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertin, D.; Boher, C.; Dannoux-Papin, A.; Galliez, K.; Rooses, A.; Frizon, F.

    2013-11-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on metakaolin based Na-geopolymer have been investigated by external irradiation. The experiments were carried out in a gamma irradiator with 60Co sources up to 1000 kGy. Various Na-geopolymer with three H2O/Na2O ratios have been studied in terms of hydrogen radiolytic yield. The results show that hydrogen production increases linearly with water content. Gamma irradiation effects on Na-geopolymer microstructure have been investigated with porosity measurements and X-ray pair distribution function analysis. A change of pore size distribution and a structural relaxation have been found after gamma ray irradiation.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.P.; Dhar, D.N.

    1988-06-01

    In vitro and in vivo effects of varying levels of gamma irradiation on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin were studied. Radiation doses of 100 Gy onwards caused a decrease in the viability of protoscoleces in vitro. However, infectivity of protoscoleces was not affected at radiation doses of 300 Gy in golden hamsters and 200 Gy in mice although number and size of cysts developing from infections with irradiated protoscoleces in these animals was small in comparison to cysts developing from infections with normal protoscoleces. Four hundred E. granulosus protoscoleces, normal or 100 Gy irradiated, proved fatal for mice. A significant progressive decline in worm establishment was observed in pups given an infection of E. granulosus protoscoleces exposed to increasing levels of gamma irradiation from 100 to 600 Gy. No worms established in pups infected with protoscoleces irradiated at 400 and 600 Gy, respectively. Worms developing from irradiated infections in pups were stunted and showed developmental abnormalities.

  14. Treatment of wound sepsis in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, I.; Elliott, T.B. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-07-01

    The local and systemic effect of penicillin therapy, supplemented by immunoglobulins, and pentoxifylline on wounds infected by Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated in mice irradiated with 6.5 Gy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. Treatment with 62.5 mg/kg penicillin-G was administered for 10 days. Numbers of bacteria were significantly reduced from 7.3 (+- 0.3) to 5.3 (+- 0.4) log{sub 10} CFU/mg +- muscle in treated animals. Administration of immunoglobulin G i.v. or pentoxifylline i.p. alone, or in addition to penicillin-G, did not further reduce the number of bacteria. Increase in the dose of penicillin to 250 mg/kg decreased the number of bacteria more than 62.5 mg/kg. Bacteria were recovered from spleens and/or livers of all 13 untreated mice, and only in six of the 13 penicillin-treated mice (P<0.05). Penicillin therapy reduced the systemic spread of S. aureus. (author).

  15. Distortion of neutron field during mice irradiation at Kinki University Reactor UTR-KINKI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Satoru [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)], E-mail: endos@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Kenichi [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Fujikawa, Kazuo; Horiguchi, Tetsuo; Itoh, Tetsuo [Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Bengua, Gerard [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Nomura, Taisei [Graduate Schools of Medicine and Engineering, Osaka University, B4 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hoshi, Masaharu [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    A dosimetry study of mice irradiation at the Kinki University nuclear reactor (UTR-KINKI) has been carried out. Neutron and gamma-ray doses at the irradiation port in the presence of 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 mice were measured using the paired chamber method. The results show that neutron dose is reduced with increasing numbers of mice. In the six-mice irradiation condition, neutron dose is about 15% smaller compared to a case where no mice were placed in the irradiation port. To investigate the distortion of the neutron spectrum during mice irradiation at UTR-KINKI, a Monte Carlo calculation using the MCNP4C code has been carried out. The measured variation in dose with respect to the total mouse mass was closely reproduced by the calculation results for neutron and gamma-ray dose. Distortion of the neutron spectrum was observed to occur between 1 keV and 1 MeV.

  16. Prenatal exposure to gamma/neutron irradiation: Sensorimotor alterations and paradoxical effects on learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cicco, D.; Antal, S.; Ammassari-Teule, M. (Istituto di Psicobiologia e Psicofarmacologia del CNR, Rome (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure on gamma/neutron radiations (0.5 Gy at about the 18th day of fetal life) were studied in a hybrid strain of mice (DBA/Cne males x C57BL/Cne females). During ontogeny, measurements of sensorimotor reflexes revealed in prenatally irradiated mice (1) a delay in sensorial development, (2) deficits in tests involving body motor control, and (3) a reduction of both motility and locomotor activity scores. In adulthood, the behaviour of prenatally irradiated and control mice was examined in the open field test and in reactivity to novelty. Moreover, their learning performance was compared in several situations. The results show that, in the open field test, only rearings were more frequent in irradiated mice. In the presence of a novel object, significant sex x treatment interactions were observed since ambulation and leaning against the novel object increased in irradiated females but decreased in irradiated males. Finally, when submitted to different learning tasks, irradiated mice were impaired in the radial maze, but paradoxically exhibited higher avoidance scores than control mice, possibly because of their low pain thresholds. Taken together, these observations indicate that late prenatal gamma/neutron irradiation induces long lasting alterations at the sensorimotor level which, in turn, can influence learning abilities of adult mice.

  17. Radicals in {gamma}-irradiated wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeva, N.N.; Sadova, S.F.; Sharpatyi, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Radicals were identified in wool fiber {gamma}-irradiated at 77 K by EPR: products of reaction of an electron e and H atom with amino acid residues and a polypeptide chain, and their partial yields at 77 K and the reactivity scale of e with respect to the individual fragments of the protein molecule were determined: [RSSR]: [>C=O{sub p.b.}]:[NH{sub 3}{sup +}-R]:[aromatic ring] = 4:3: > 1:1. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Quantitative, functional and biochemical alterations in the peritoneal cells of mice exposed to whole-body gamma-irradiation. 1. Changes in cellular protein, adherence properties and enzymatic activities associated with platelet-activating factor formation and inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steel, L.K.; Hughes, H.N.; Walden, T.L. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    Changes in total number, differentials, cell protein, adherence properties, acetyl-CoA transferase and acetylhydrolase activities, prostaglandin E/sub 2/ and leukotriene C/sub 4/ production, as well as Ca/sup 2+/ ionophore A23187 stimulation were examined in resident peritoneal cells isolated from mice 2 h to 10 days postexposure to a single dose (7, 10 or 12 Gy) of gamma-radiation. Radiation dose-related reductions in macrophage and lymphocyte numbers and increases in cellular protein and capacity to adhere to plastic surfaces were evident. In vivo irradiation also elevated the activities of acetyltransferase and acetyl-CoA hydrolase (catalysing platelet-activating factor biosynthesis and inactivation, respectively) in adherent and nonadherent peritoneal cells, particularly 3-4 days postexposure. Blood plasma from irradiated animals did not reflect the increased cellular acetyl-hydrolase activity. Prostaglandin E/sub 2/ and leukotriene C/sub 4/ synthesis were elevated postexposure, suggesting increased substrate (arachidonate) availability and increased cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities. Ionophore stimulation of enzyme activities and eicosanoid release also differed in irradiated peritoneal cells.

  19. Mechanical performance of gamma irradiated surgical sutures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pino, Eddy S.; Rela, Paulo P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Surgical sutures are medical devices made of natural or synthetic polymeric materials that, due to its end-use, have to be sterilized. Historically, the sterilization by heat or using ethylene oxide had presented so numerous drawbacks that today the non-pollutant radiation sterilization has become a well established sterilization process, that brings, environmental, technical, and economical advantages. The amount of irradiation doses required for sterilization of health care products is 25 kGy in most instances to achieve the necessary sterility assurance level. As high energy radiation produces modifications in the molecular structure of organic materials with changes in its mechanical properties, the aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of surgical sutures under irradiation. Silk, polyamide and catgut sutures were gamma irradiated up to doses of 50 kGy in an industrial irradiation sterilization plant. Afterwards, these sutures were mechanical tested for tensile strength under knot following the specifications of the NBR13904 draft standard, using the CTRD-INSTRON at IPEN. The mechanical lab results show that sutures made of Silk and Polyamide do not present any change in their mechanical performance up to the dose of 50 kGy. On the other hand, Catgut present mechanical stability up to 30 kGy and afterwards, a slight decrease in its tensile strength was detected. (author)

  20. EFFECTS OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON EPDM ELASTOMERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.

    2011-09-22

    Two formulations of EPDM elastomer, one substituting a UV stabilizer for the normal antioxidant in this polymer, and the other the normal formulation, were synthesized and samples of each were exposed to gamma irradiation in initially pure deuterium gas to compare their radiation stability. Stainless steel containers having rupture disks were designed for this task. After 130 MRad dose of cobalt-60 radiation in the SRNL Gamma Irradiation Facility, a significant amount of gas was created by radiolysis; however the composition indicated by mass spectroscopy indicated an unexpected increase in the total amount deuterium in both formulations. The irradiated samples retained their ductility in a bend test. No change of sample weight, dimensions, or density was observed. No change of the glass transition temperature as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis was observed, and most of the other dynamic mechanical properties remained unchanged. There appeared to be an increase in the storage modulus of the irradiated samples containing the UV stabilizer above the glass transition, which may indicate hardening of the material by radiation damage. Polymeric materials become damaged by exposure over time to ionizing radiation. Despite the limited lifetime, polymers have unique engineering material properties and polymers continue to be used in tritium handling systems. In tritium handling systems, polymers are employed mainly in joining applications such as valve sealing surfaces (eg. Stem tips, valve packing, and O-rings). Because of the continued need to employ polymers in tritium systems, over the past several years, programs at the Savannah River National Laboratory have been studying the effect of tritium on various polymers of interest. In these studies, samples of materials of interest to the SRS Tritium Facilities (ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon{reg_sign}), Vespel{reg_sign} polyimide, and the elastomer

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on Korean traditional multicolored paintwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Kim, Dae-Woon; Choi, Jong-il; Chung, Yong-Jae; Kang, Dai-Ill; Hoon Kim, Gwang; Son, Kwang-Tae; Park, Hae-Jun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2015-10-01

    Gamma irradiation can destroy fungi and insects involved in the bio-deterioration of organic cultural heritages. However, this irradiation procedure can alter optical and structural properties of historical pigments used in wooden cultural heritage paintings. The crystal structure and color centers of these paintings must be maintained after application of the irradiation procedure. In this study, we investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on Korean traditional multicolored paintwork (Dancheong) for the preservation of wooden cultural heritages. The main pigments in Korean traditional wooden cultural heritages, Sukganju (Hematite; Fe2O3), Jangdan (Minium; Pb3O4), Whangyun (Crocoite; PbCrO4), and Jidang (Rutile; TiO2), were irradiated by gamma radiation at doses of 1, 5, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, changes in Commision Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) color values (L*, a*, b*) were measured using the color difference meter, and their structural changes were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The slightly change in less than 1 dE* unit by gamma irradiation was observed, and structural changes in the Dancheong were stable after exposure to 20 kGy gamma irradiation. In addition, gamma irradiation could be applied to painted wooden cultural properties from the Korean Temple. Based on the color values, gamma irradiation of 20 kGy did not affect the Dancheong and stability was maintained for five months. In addition, the fungicidal and insecticidal effect by less than 5 kGy gamma irradiation was conformed. Therefore, the optical and structural properties of Dancheong were maintained after gamma irradiation, which suggested that gamma irradiation can be used for the preservation of wooden cultural heritages painted with Dancheong.

  2. Effect of irradiation on the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in tissues of mice and pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, J.P.; Brake, R.J.; Murrell, K.D.; Fayer, R.

    1986-03-01

    Muscles from tongue, heart, and limbs of 14 pigs inoculated orally with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were irradiated with 10, 20, 25, and 30 krad of gamma (cesium-137 and cobalt-60) irradiation. Viability of T gondii cysts was assayed by feeding porcine muscles to T gondii-free cats and/or by inoculation of sediment from acid-pepsin digested porcine muscle into mice. Cats fed 500-g samples of muscles irradiated with up to 20 krad shed T gondii oocysts. Cats fed muscles irradiated with 25 or 30 krad did not shed oocysts. Mice were inoculated with 8 isolates of T gondii, and tissue cysts in their brains irradiated with up to 40 krad were infective to mice; however, there was a 10,000-fold reduction in the viability of organisms in tissue cysts irradiated with 40 krad, compared with that in nonirradiated cysts. At 50 krad of gamma irradiation, there were no detectable infective organisms in infected mouse brains.

  3. Luminescence from {gamma}-irradiated humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraczko, Wieslaw [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Radio- and Photochemistry Department, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)], E-mail: wieslaw.goraczko@put.poznan.pl; Slawinski, Janusz [Institute of Ecotechnology, State Higher Vocational School, ul. Ks. Kard. S.Wyszynskiego 38, 62-200 Gniezno (Poland)

    2008-07-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the ultraweak delayed radiochemiluminescence (RCL) spectra, kinetics and spectroscopic properties of humic acids (HAs) after {gamma}-radiation exposure (absorbed doses of 1-10 kGy, Co-60) in model systems. The kinetics and spectral distribution of RCL (340-650 nm) were measured using the single photon counting (SPC) method and cut-off filters. The intensity of fluorescence ({lambda}{sub ex}=390, 440, 490 and 540 nm) covering the spectral range 400-580 nm was heavily dependent on the {lambda}{sub ex} and slightly increased with the absorbed dose of {gamma}-radiation. Absorption spectra (the range 240-800 nm) and color coefficients E{sub 2.6/4} and E{sub 4/6} of irradiated solutions indicated that post-radiative degradation/polymerization processes take place in the HA, changing their macromolecule size or properties. Comparison of FTIR spectra and elemental analysis proved an increased O and decreased C atoms in irradiated samples. The data indicate on the radiolysis-induced degradation of native HA into fulvic-like acids with higher hydrophilicity and lower molecular size.

  4. 白藜芦醇对60Coγ射线照射小鼠氧化损伤的防护%Radioprotective Effect of Resveratrol on Oxidative Damage in 60Co Gamma Ray Irradiated Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冰心; 李成林; 史煜华; 谢京波; 陈阿鑫; 高娇; 任晔; 李建忠; 刘志国

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the radioprotective effect of resveratrol( RES) on gamma-irradiation-induced serum and liver oxidative damage in mice. Methods Thirty male ICR mice were randomized into 5 groups; normal control group, irradiated control group, RES 50,100 and 200 mg·kg-1 irradiated groups. RES was administered respectively to three dosage groups by gavage on 3rd day before irradiation and 7th day after irradiation. Except for normal control, all the mice were whole-body irradiated by 60Co gamma ray(a single dose of 6.0 Gy). The mice were killed on 7th day. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) ,glutathione peroxidase (GSh-Px) and the amount of malondialdehyde( MDA) of the serum and liver were measured. Results Compared with normal control group,the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were significantly decreased while the amount of MDA was significantly increased in irradiated control group mice. Compared with irradiated control, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px tended to increase while the amount of MDA tended to decrease in RES 50 mg ·kg-1' irradiated group mice. The activities of SOD and GSh-Px and the amount of MDA increased with the RES dosage. Conclusion RES has radioprotective effect against oxidative damage to the serum and liver in 60Co rays irradiated mice. This effect of RES depends on the dosage.%目的 研究白藜芦醇对60Coγ射线照射小鼠氧化损伤的防护作用.方法 30只♂ ICR小鼠随机分成5组,正常对照组、照射对照组以及白藜芦醇低、中、高剂量( 50、100、200 mg·kg-1)照射组,照射前3d至照后第7天灌服给药,每天1次,共10次.除正常对照组外,所有小鼠60Coγ射线全身6 Gy辐照1次,照射后第7天小鼠取外周血和肝组织标本,测定血清和肝组织匀浆中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱苷肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活性及丙二醛(MDA)含量.结果与正常对照组比较,照射对照组小鼠血清和肝组织匀浆中SOD和GSH-Px活性显著下降,MDA含量显

  5. Gamma-ray spectroscopy on irradiated fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear], e-mail: laaterre@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    The recording of gamma-ray spectra along an irradiated fuel rod allows the fission products to be qualitatively and quantitatively examined. Among all nondestructive examinations performed on irradiated fuel rods by gamma-ray spectroscopy, the most comprehensive one is the average burnup measurement, which is quantitative. Moreover, burnup measurements by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy are less time-consuming and waste-generating than burnup measurements by radiochemical, destructive methods. This work presents the theoretical foundations and experimental techniques necessary to measure, using nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, the average burnup of irradiated fuel rods in a laboratory equipped with hot cells. (author)

  6. Degradation of microcystin by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.B. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zheng, Z. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: zzheng@nju.edu.cn; Yang, G.J. [State Power Environmental Protection Research Institute, Nanjing 210031 (China); Zhao, Y.F. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2007-09-21

    The radiolysis of microcystins by gamma irradiation and effects of additives were studied. The degradation value of microcystin-LR was 98.8% at the dose of 8 kGy, while all microcystin-RR could be removed at 5 kGy. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as additives could enhance the degradation efficiency of microcystins. Furthermore, the increase of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} would result in the increase of the degradation efficiencies. However, the addition of Triton X-100, NaNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 2} inhibited the degradation value of microcystins. The effects of additives were more obvious when the lower doses were selected.

  7. Degradation of microcystin by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. B.; Zheng, Z.; Yang, G. J.; Zhao, Y. F.

    2007-09-01

    The radiolysis of microcystins by gamma irradiation and effects of additives were studied. The degradation value of microcystin-LR was 98.8% at the dose of 8 kGy, while all microcystin-RR could be removed at 5 kGy. Na 2CO 3 and H 2O 2 as additives could enhance the degradation efficiency of microcystins. Furthermore, the increase of Na 2CO 3 would result in the increase of the degradation efficiencies. However, the addition of Triton X-100, NaNO 3 and NaNO 2 inhibited the degradation value of microcystins. The effects of additives were more obvious when the lower doses were selected.

  8. Caffeine degradation in water by gamma irradiation, ozonation and ozonation/gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torun Murat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solutions of caffeine were treated with ozone and gamma irradiation. The amounts of remaining caffeine were determined after solid phase extraction as a function of absorbed dose and ozonation time. In addition to this, some important parameters such as inorganic ions, chemical oxygen demand (COD dissolved oxygen and total acidity changes were followed. Caffeine (50 ppm is found to be completely decomposed at 3.0 kGy and 1.2 kGy doses in the absence of H2O2 and in 1.20 mM H2O2 solutions, respectively. In the case of gamma irradiation after ozonation, 50 ppm caffeine was removed at 0.2 kGy when the solution was ozonized for 100 s at a rate of 10 g O3 h-1 in 400 mL 50 ppm paracetamol solution.

  9. Grafting of a LLDPE using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catari, E. [Centro de Quimica, Laboratorio de Polimeros Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) (Venezuela); Albano, C. [Centro de Quimica, Laboratorio de Polimeros Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) (Venezuela) and Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica (Venezuela)]. E-mail: calbano@ivic.ve; Karam, A. [Centro de Quimica, Laboratorio de Polimeros Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) (Venezuela)]. E-mail: akaram@quimica.ivic.ve; Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela); Silva, P. [Centro de Fisica, Laboratorio de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas (Venezuela); Gonzalez, J. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela)

    2005-07-01

    In this investigation, the grafting of a commercial linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) with different concentrations of diethyl maleate (DEM, 5 and 15 wt.%) was carried out at different absorbed doses from a cobalt-60 source of gamma rays (0, 15, 30, 50, 100, 200 kGy). This process was performed in a decalin solution at 10% w/v to obtain a homogeneous dispersion of the monomer into the polyethylene matrix. The grafting degree was estimated by means of FTIR using a calibration curve reported in literature. Thermal properties of the functional polymers were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Melt flow index (MFI) values were also taken. The results found indicate that the grafting degree increases as the concentration of DEM in the reaction mixture and the absorbed doses are increased upto 100 kGy, as expected. However, the behavior at higher doses is attributed to secondary reactions such as long-chain branching and/or crosslinking, which are faster than radical reactions responsible for the grafting of the DEM onto the polymeric chain. This fact was ascertained by the decrease of the MFI values as the applied irradiation was increased, irrespective of the quantity of DEM used in the grafting reaction. Therefore, in order to obtain a high grafting degree, the absorbed dose should be estimated carefully. Initial degradation temperatures of the grafted PEs decreased when the gamma irradiation dose was higher than 100 kGy. This indicates that the thermal stability decreases as higher doses are applied to the material, which is associated to branching and crosslinking. The grafting degree never exceeded 0.3 mol%, which demonstrates the low efficiency of the functionalization procedure here presented.

  10. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Young [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jsjs87@ajou.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-{gamma} cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure of fucoidan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Gu Lee, Sung; Jong Han, Se; Cho, Minho; Cheon Lee, Pyung

    2014-07-01

    The change of molecular structure of fucoidan by gamma irradiation was analyzed by spectral and chemical methods. Fucoidan samples with different molecular weights of 85, 30, 15, and 7 kDa were prepared by radiation degradation of 217 kDa fucoidan. In the molecular weight analysis, the polydispersity decreased by gamma radiation because of further degradation of higher weight molecules. Ultraviolet absorption and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses were carried out to define the changes of the functional groups in fucoidan by gamma irradiation. Carboxyl groups and carbon double bonds increased by gamma irradiation; however, sulfate content remained unchanged. The granular fissures were observed from scanning electron microscopy in gamma-irradiated fucoidan.

  12. Effects of gamma radiation on fetal development in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahere Dehghan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many cancer patients receive radiotherapy which may lead to serious damages to the ovary storage and the matrix muscle state. Some of these patients may admit to infertility clinics for having pregnancy and on the other hand hormonal administration for superovulation induction is a routine procedure in assisted reproduction technology (ART clinics. Objective: This study aimed to investigate fertility and fetuses of hormone treated super ovulated female mice who had received whole-body gamma irradiation before mating. Materials and Methods: Female mice were randomly categorized into a control group and 3 experimental groups including: Group I (Irradiation, Group II (Superovulation, and Group III (Superovulation and Irradiation. In hormone treated groups, mice were injected with different doses of 59Tpregnant mare's serum gonadotropin59T (PMSG followed with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG. Irradiation was done using a Co-60 gamma ray generator with doses of 2 and 4 Gy. Number of fetuses counted and the fetus’s weight, head circumference, birth height, the number of live healthy fetuses, the number of fetuses with detected anomalies in the body, the sum of resorption and arrested fetuses were all recorded as outcome of treatments. Results: In the group I and group II, increased radiation and hormone dose led to a decrease in the number of survived fetuses (45 in 2 Gy vs. 29 in 4 Gy for irradiated group as well as from 76 in 10 units into 48 in 15 units. In the group III, a higher dose of hormone in the presence of a 2 Gy irradiation boosted the slink rate; i.e. the number of aborted fetuses reached 21 cases while applying the dose of 15 Iu, whereas 6 cases of abortion were reported applying the hormone with a lower dose. Among different parameters studied, there was a significant difference in parameters of weight and height in the mouse fetuses (p=0.01. Conclusion: The data indicated that use of ovarian stimulating hormones in mice

  13. Wastewater treatment using gamma irradiation: Tetouan pilot station, Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahri, Loubna, E-mail: dloubna78@hotmail.co [Pole d' excellence Regional, Centre des Etudes Environnementales Mediterraneennes, Laboratoire de Biologie Appliquee et Sciences de l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, B.P. 416, Tangier (Morocco); Station d' Ionization de Boukhalef, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Tangier (Morocco); Elgarrouj, Driss; Zantar, Said; Mouhib, Mohamed [Station d' Ionization de Boukhalef, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Tangier (Morocco); Azmani, Amina; Sayah, Fouad [Pole d' excellence Regional, Centre des Etudes Environnementales Mediterraneennes, Laboratoire de Biologie Appliquee et Sciences de l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, B.P. 416, Tangier (Morocco)

    2010-04-15

    The increasing demand on limited water supplies has accelerated the wastewater reuse and reclamation. We investigated gamma irradiation effects on wastewater by measuring differences in the legislated parameters, aiming to reuse the wastewater. Effluents samples were collected at the urban wastewater treatment station of Tetouan and were irradiated at different doses ranging from 0 to 14 kGy using a Co{sup 60} gamma source. The results showed an elimination of bacterial flora, a decrease of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, and higher conservation of nutritious elements. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation might be a good choice for the reuse of wastewater for agricultural activities.

  14. Late effects of gamma irradiation: the muscular fibrosis. Irradiation gamma et effets tardifs: la fibrose musculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaix, J.L.; Daburon, F.; Martin, M.; Remy, J. (Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (FR). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire)

    1990-06-01

    This study was performed on an experimental porcine model of acute local gamma irradiation to simulate accidents which occurred among humans. It enabled us to determine the development and the physiopathological characteristics of the fibrous tissue which developed in skeletal muscle. In the first month after irradiation, the strong inflammatory reaction which initiated the radiation induced fibrosis was characterized by edema as visualized on MRI imaging and X rays computed tomography and by acute phase reactant proteins changes, associated with elevations of local and general temperatures in irradiated animals. At the margin of the irradiated tissue myofibroblasts isolated among collagen bundles or grouped in nodullary reinforcements, are seen associated with intense capillary neogenesis. Several months after irradiation normal skeletal muscle was replaced by atrophic fibrosis delimited by an inflammatory perifibrotic tissue. The muscular fibrosis was characterized by a high density of myofibroblasts and by an inflammatory distribution pattern of collagen types I, III, IV, laminin, fibronectin and fibrinogen as visualized by immunohistochemical methods. Biochemical results showed an increase in collagen content and synthesis in fibrotic tissue whereas the cells in the perifibrotic zone synthesized more non collagenous proteins as compared with the normal muscle. The contributions of granulation tissue, cellular mediators and inhibition of muscular regeneration in the persistence of the invasive character of the muscular radiation induced fibrosis are discussed.

  15. EPR study on gamma-irradiated fruits dehydrated via osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Aleksieva, K. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-06-15

    The shape and time stability of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of non- and {gamma}-irradiated papaya, melon, cherry and fig samples dehydrated via osmosis are reported. It is shown that non-irradiated samples are generally EPR silent whereas {gamma}-irradiated exhibit 'sugar-like' EPR spectra. The recorded EPR spectra are monitored for a period of 7 months after irradiation (stored at low humidity and in the dark). The results suggest longer period of unambiguous identification of the radiation processing of osmose dehydrated fruits. Therefore, the Protocol EN 13708,2001 issued by CEN is fully applicable for the studied fruit samples.

  16. Ginsan activated the antioxidant defense systems in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie Young; Son, Soo Jung; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Jung, In Sung; Yun, Yeon Sook [KIRMS Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, has hematopoietic activity and is also known as a good biological-response modifier. In this investigation, we studied the effects of ginsan on the {gamma}-radiation induced alterations of some antioxidant systems in spleen of Balb/c mice. There are many data that irradiation induces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which plays an important causative role in radiation damage of cell. The level of ROS in cells is regulated by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems. The most powerful ones among them are superoxide dismutases (SODs) catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide anion radical o{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, catalase deactivating h-2O{sub 2} and reduced glutathion (GSH) detoxifying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and other ROS> At the 5{sub th} day after sublethal whole body irradiation, splenocytes of irradiated mice expressed only marginally increased levels of Mn-SOD, however, Cu/Zn-SOD, catalase, thioredoxine reductase (TR) and thioredoxine (TRX) mRNA (135% increase compared to control), however, the combination of irradiation with ginsan increased the SODs and GPX production more effectively. In addition to the above results, we obtained the similar data of protein expression. The enzyme activities of SOD, catalase, and GPX of ginsan-treated and irradiated mice were significantly enhanced by 140, 115, 126% respectively, compared with those of irradiated mice. Based on these results, we propose that the induction of antioxidant enzymes of ginsan is at least in part due to its capacity to protect against radiation.

  17. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesla, K. E-mail: kciesla@orange.ichtj.waw.pl; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Le Tien, C

    2004-10-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and {beta}-sheets, in particular from increase of {beta}-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling.

  18. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, K.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Tien, C. Le

    2004-09-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and β-sheets, in particular from increase of β-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling.

  19. Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannipa Phianphak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

  20. Thermoluminescence and dielectric response of gamma irradiated muscovite mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Sukhnandan, E-mail: sukhnandanphy@gmail.com; Singh, Surinder, E-mail: sukhnandanphy@gmail.com; Singh, Lakhwant, E-mail: sukhnandanphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005 (India); Lochab, S. P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi-110067 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The effect of gamma radiation dose on the thermoluminescence (TL) and dielectric properties of muscovite mica was studied. TL glow curves exhibited a single peak around 141 {sup 0}C and its activation energy was estimated to be about 0.89 eV. Different dielectric parameters like dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity have been calculated in both pristine and gamma irradiated samples. These dielectric parameters have been studied as a function of irradiation dose.

  1. The alterations in high density polyethylene properties with gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M. F.; Elshaer, Y. H.; Taha, Doaa. H.

    2017-10-01

    In the present investigation, high density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer has been used to study the alterations in its properties under gamma-irradiation. Physico-chemical properties have been investigated with different spectroscopy techniques, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), biocompatibility properties, as well as, mechanical properties change. The FT-IR analysis shows the formation of new band at 1716 cm-1 that is attributed to the oxidation of irradiated polymer chains, which is due to the formation of carbonyl groups (C˭O). XRD patterns show that a decrease in the crystallite size and increase in the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). This means that the crystallinity of irradiated samples is decreased with increase in gamma dose. The contact angle measurements show an increase in the surface free energy as the gamma irradiation increases. The measurements of mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE samples were discussed.

  2. Results on Neutron and Gamma Irradiation of Electrolytic Tilmeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C. F.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Fernando, A.; Fuentes, J.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrate, J.; Valdivieso, P.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.

    2004-07-01

    We report on irradiation studies done to a sample of high precision electrolytic tiltmeters with gamma-rays, up to a maximum dose of 150 kGy, an neutrons, up to a maximum fluence 1.5x10''14 cm''2. The effect of the irradiation on their performance is discussed. (Author) 19 refs.

  3. Respiration rate of gamma irradiation carnation cut flowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Wiendl, Frederico Maximiliano [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Todoriki, Setsuko; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Haysahi, Toru [National Food Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    The present paper presents the CO{sub 2} production of the carnation cut flowers gamma-irradiated with a single dose of 750 Gy. The cut flowers were soaked in preservative solutions, containing germicides or germicides plus 2% sucrose. The irradiation did not change the CO{sub 2} production and did not cause any visible flower damage. The sucrose exogenous supply extended the vase-life of both irradiated and non-irradiated carnations. These results indicated that Nora carnation cut flower can be irradiated with 750 Gy without commercial viability loss and that it is possible to use the radiation to disinfect this fresh product. (author)

  4. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX ( Pproducts by gamma irradiation.

  5. Modelling a gamma irradiation process using the Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gabriela A.; Pereira, Marcio T., E-mail: gas@cdtn.br, E-mail: mtp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In gamma irradiation service it is of great importance the evaluation of absorbed dose in order to guarantee the service quality. When physical structure and human resources are not available for performing dosimetry in each product irradiated, the appliance of mathematic models may be a solution. Through this, the prediction of the delivered dose in a specific product, irradiated in a specific position and during a certain period of time becomes possible, if validated with dosimetry tests. At the gamma irradiation facility of CDTN, equipped with a Cobalt-60 source, the Monte Carlo method was applied to perform simulations of products irradiations and the results were compared with Fricke dosimeters irradiated under the same conditions of the simulations. The first obtained results showed applicability of this method, with a linear relation between simulation and experimental results. (author)

  6. Degradation of epoxy coatings under gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouani, F.; Zahra, Y.; Fayolle, B.; Kuntz, M.; Verdu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Epoxy networks based on Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and cured with Jeffamine® (POPA) or polyamidoamine (PAA) were gamma irradiated at 25 °C in air. Dose rates of 50, 200 or 2000 Gy h-1 for doses up 100 kGy were used. Structural changes were monitored by IR spectrophotometry, DSC and sol-gel analysis. Both networks display some common features: for I≥200 Gy h-1, reaction products grow proportionally to time and the rate is a decreasing function of dose rate. The simplest explanation is that peroxy radicals are the main precursors of these products (in the dose rate domain under study), through a unimolecular rearrangement of which an hypothetical mechanism is proposed. DGEBA-POPA are more reactive then DGEBA-PAA networks (according to IR criteria), that can be attributed to the high reactivity of tertiary CH bands in polyoxypropylene segments. The oxidation of these sites leads to methyl ketones. A simple kinetic model in which methyl ketones result from rearrangements of tertiary peroxyls and from tertiary alkoxyls was proposed. It leads to an expression of the radiochemical yield of methyl ketones (G(MK)) of the form G(MK)=a+bI where a and b are parameters depending of elementary rate constants. Experimental G(MK) values are reasonably well fitted by this equation. In DGEBA-PAA networks, a wide variety of oxidation products, among which amides predominate, can be observed. In these networks, chain scissions predominate over crosslinking, whereas a slight predominance of crosslinking was observed, at least for the lowest dose rate, in DGEBA-POPA.

  7. Raman and AFM study of gamma irradiated plastic bottle sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasir; Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2013-02-01

    In this investigation, the effects of gamma irradiation on the structural properties of plastic bottle sheet are studied. The Plastic sheets were exposed with 1.25MeV 60Co gamma rays source at various dose levels within the range from 0-670 kGy. The induced modifications were followed by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Raman spectrum shows the decrease in Raman intensity and formation of unsaturated bonds with an increase in the gamma dose. AFM image displays rough surface morphology after irradiation. The detailed Raman analysis of plastic bottle sheets is presented here, and the results are correlated with the AFM observations.

  8. Degradation of crosslinked polyethylene in water by gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsuro; Takano, Tadao; Takayama, Shigeru; Ito, Masayuki; Narisawa, Ikuo

    2002-02-01

    The degradation of crosslinked polyethylene by gamma-irradiation in water was studied. Change in the physical properties and the growth of carbonyl group after irradiation showed a good correlation. The degradation observed at 80°C is the least, and that at 60°C is the severest. The distribution of the oxidized layer in the sample was measured and was also calculated from the diffusion model using the observed parameters. Comparison of both results suggest that some products caused by gamma-irradiation of water supress the degradation of XLPE at 80°C.

  9. Systematic fabrication of chitosan nanoparticle by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasanphan, Wanvimol, E-mail: wanvimol.p@ku.ac.t [Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Rimdusit, Pakjira; Choofong, Surakarn [Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Piroonpan, Thananchai; Nilsuwankosit, Sunchai [The Department of Nuclear Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2010-10-15

    The present investigation is mainly focused on the systematic preparation of chitosan nanoparticle in the potential range 1-100 nm using {gamma}-ray irradiation. The effect of irradiation conditions in terms of physical form of chitosan, i.e. flake, colloidal and acidic solution, and {gamma}-ray dose was studied. The molecular weights of chitosan were 10, 25, and >1000 times reduced when irradiated with the {gamma}-ray dose as high as 100 kGy in Chi-flake, Chi-colloid, and Chi-acid, respectively. The particle size reduced to 70 nm after being irradiated to only 10 kGy {gamma}-rays and it showed a tendency to decrease when the {gamma}-ray doses were increased. The {gamma}-rays effectively induced the reduction of chitosan particle size to <100 nm with narrow size distribution. The effective size reduction was particularly observed in Chi-colloid. Heterogeneous chemical conjugation of deoxycholic acid onto 10 kGy irradiated Chi-colloid resulted in narrow particle size as small as 50 nm.

  10. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.C. E-mail: may@cber.fda.gov; Rey, L.; Lee, C.-J

    2002-03-01

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0 deg. C or frozen in liquid nitrogen.

  11. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen

    2002-03-01

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen.

  12. Neutron and gamma irradiation effects on power semiconductor switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, G. E.; Frasca, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    The performance characteristics of high power semiconductor switches subjected to high levels of neutron fluence and gamma dose must be known by the designer of the power conditioning, control and transmission subsystem of space nuclear power systems. Location and the allowable shielding mass budget will determine the level of radiation tolerance required by the switches to meet performance and reliability requirements. Neutron and gamma ray interactions with semiconductor materials and how these interactions affect the electrical and switching characteristics of solid state power switches is discussed. The experimental measurement system and radiation facilities are described. Experimental data showing the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on the performance characteristics are given for power-type NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), and Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). BJTs show a rapid decrease in gain, blocking voltage, and storage time for neutron irradiation, and MOSFETs show a rapid decrease in the gate threshold voltage for gamma irradiation.

  13. Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

  14. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Young

    2009-07-01

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-γ cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  15. The induction of D-aspartic acid in mouse lens protein by continuous gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamanoi, Itsuro (Chiba Univ. (Japan)); Fujii, Noriko; Muraoka, Shiro; Harada, Kaoru; Joshima, Hisamasa; Ishihara, Takaaki

    1990-08-01

    The irradiation condition to induce the increase of D-aspartic acid (D-Asp), which is detected in aged human and animals, in a short term was studied by continuous low dose irradiation. The results were compared with the effect by a single X-ray irradiation. The continuous gamma-irradiation for 12 months with 83 mGy/day or 29 mGy/day from {sup 137}Cs could induce higher D/L ratio of aspartic acid (Asp) in the lens protein of RFM/MsNrs strain of mice. But the irradiation with 10 mGy/day for 14 months did not show the much increase of D-Asp in the lens protein of mice. In 14.5 months of post-X-irradiation to whole body with 5 Gy, a little higher ratio of D/L Asp was observed in the lens protein of BALB/cA strain of mice. These results indicate that it is possible to obtain the protein containing D-Asp by continuous low dose irradiation in a relatively short period. (author).

  16. Induction and reversion process of molecular and cytological alterations after highly irradiated food ingestion in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo M, M.I. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones de los Isotopos y Radiaciones); Fernandez C, M. (Chile Univ., Santiago. Dept. de Fisica)

    1984-04-01

    The molecular and cytological alterations induced in a mammal (Mus musculus) fed ad libitum with a balanced pellet diet irradiated with 50 KGy gamma radiation from weaning, for different periods, are analyzed. The transient chromosomal changes that recall tumor-like phenomena could be the expression of the damage and repair processes induced by changed molecules present in irradiated food. The reversible alterations of DNA structure and cytoplasmatic soluble proteins observed in mice fed with irradiated pellet diet could be interpreted as a result of the enhancement of the repair processes which could also explain the significant increase of the radioresistance of DNA found at 200 days after irradiated food ingestion. Finally, our results would suggest an induction of a pseudo-neoplasia due to a prolongated and exclusive ingestion of food irradiated with sterilizing gamma dose. Moreover, the maintenance of the irradiated diet induce the reversion of the observed phenomena by an eventual activation of the repair mechanisms.

  17. Health protection and food preservation by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread.

  18. Potential effects of gamma irradiation on the stability and therapeutic activity of anticancer drug, doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmah M. Alshammari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer therapy has progressed dramatically in recent years. In order to decrease the dose and side effects of the anticancer drug, the therapeutic options for patients with cancer include increasingly complex combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This combination may cause overlapping interaction between the two types of treatment and affect the stability of the anticancer drug. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the stability and therapeutic activity of one anticancer drug (Doxorubicin was studied. For this purpose, doxorubicin drug characterized by two methods, at first, in-vitro study, before and after drug irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (2, 5, 20, 100 GY which achieved through measuring the dielectric relaxation and absorption spectrum of drug solution. Secondly, in-vivo studies, where the unirradiated and the drug, which later exposed to gamma rays, were injected respectively into 6 groups of mice (3 mice in each group. The dielectric relaxation and absorption spectrum were studded for hemoglobin of the injected mice. The results for the in-vitro study indicate that the values of dielectric parameters show unnoticeable change for drug molecules before and after irradiation as compared with the control. The results for in-vivo study indicated an increase in the values of relaxation time and Cole- Cole parameter, that may as a result of changes in the conformational structure in hemoglobin molecules which may affect their properties and hence RBC's physiological functions. The absorption spectra of hemoglobin molecules show an increase in the amplitude of the characteristic bands with irradiation dose indicate an increase of the oxygen binding capacity with hemoglobin. It was concluded that combination between the drugs and gamma irradiation can be used as a powerful conjunction that may give us the benefit chemo and radiotherapy treatment.

  19. Investigation on the effects of gamma irradiation on bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, M.S.; Braz, D.; Motta, L.M.G., E-mail: Laura@coc.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Leite, L.F.M., E-mail: leniml@petrobras.com.br [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/RJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil has more than 218,000 km of asphalt-paved highways. Bitumen is a generic term for natural or manufactured black or dark-colored solid, semisolid, or viscous cementitious materials that are composed mainly of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (90-95%). Several papers have shown that the irradiation process has changed the mechanical behavior in some polymers. This work aims to analyze the behavior of Brazilian irradiated Bitumen (CAP 50-70). In order to provide a preliminary evaluation, bitumen samples and cylindrical specimens of asphaltic mixture were tested. The bitumen samples were irradiated 0.1 to 300 kGy, and asphaltic mixture specimen was irradiated 5 to 300 kGy. The cylindrical asphaltic mixture specimen of 10.16 cm diameter used in this study was molded using an asphalt-aggregate mixture. The specimens were irradiated in LIN/UFRJ/Brazil using a Gamma cell Co{sup 60} source of gamma irradiation with an applied dose rate of 29.7 Gy/min. After irradiated, the bitumen samples were subjected to penetration test and the asphaltic mixtures were subjected to indirect tensile strength test (diametral compression) for determination of the resilient modulus, according to ASTM method D 4123. The results of these experiments for each dose were compared with the control (nonirradiated). As expected, the penetration results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) decreases with increasing of irradiation dose for bitumen samples and the resilient modulus results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) increases with increasing of irradiation dose for asphaltic mixture. (author)

  20. EFFECTS OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON EPDM ELASTOMERS (REVISION 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.

    2013-09-13

    Two formulations of EPDM elastomer, one substituting a UV stabilizer for the normal antioxidant in this polymer, and the other the normal formulation, were synthesized and samples of each were exposed to gamma irradiation in initially pure deuterium gas to compare their radiation stability. Stainless steel containers having rupture disks were designed for this task. After 130 MRad dose of cobalt-60 radiation in the SRNL Gamma Irradiation Facility, a significant amount of gas was created by radiolysis; however the composition indicated by mass spectroscopy indicated an unexpected increase in the total amount deuterium in both formulations. The irradiated samples retained their ductility in a bend test. No change of sample weight, dimensions, or density was observed. No change of the glass transition temperature as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis was observed, and most of the other dynamic mechanical properties remained unchanged. There appeared to be an increase in the storage modulus of the irradiated samples containing the UV stabilizer above the glass transition, which may indicate hardening of the material by radiation damage. Revision 1 adds a comparison with results of a study of tritium exposed EPDM. The amount of gas produced by the gamma irradiation was found to be equivalent to about 280 days exposure to initially pure tritium gas at one atmosphere. The glass transition temperature of the tritium exposed EPDM rose about 10°C. over 280 days, while no glass transition temperature change was observed for gamma irradiated EPDM. This means that gamma irradiation in deuterium cannot be used as a surrogate for tritium exposure.

  1. Performance evaluation of gamma irradiated SiR-EPDM blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deepalaxmi, R., E-mail: deepalaxmivaithi@gmail.com; Rajini, V.

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The effects of gamma irradiation on SiR-EPDM blend are examined. • Cross-linking reaction is dominant in blends C, D and E, due to higher EPDM content. • The tensile strength and hardness of blend E is improved by gamma irradiation. • The blend C and EPDM rich blends (D, E) are found to have superior performance. • Among C, D and E, suitable blend can be selected for a particular NPP application. - Abstract: Cable insulation materials (CIM) should perform their safety functions throughout their installed life in nuclear power plants (NPP). The CIM will be exposed to gamma irradiation at the installed locations. In order to forecast long-term performance of CIM, the short time accelerated testing was carried out. Due to its good mechanical strength, ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) is widely used as CIM. Silicone rubber (SiR) is used in high temperature environments, due to its good di-electric properties/hydrophobicity. The blending of these two polymers may result in the improvement in their specific properties. This paper analyses the effects of gamma irradiation on the five different compositions (90-10; 70-30; 50-50; 30-70; 10-90) of SiR-EPDM blends. The blends were exposed to four different doses (25 Mrad, 100 Mrad, 200 Mrad and 250 Mrad) of gamma irradiation. The electrical and mechanical parameters like volume resistivity (VRY), surface resistivity (SRY), tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EB), hardness (H) of the virgin and gamma irradiated blends were determined as per ASTM/IEC standards. The nature of degradation was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The simultaneous occurrence of cross-linking and chain scission is found to be the mechanism for ageing in SiR-EPDM blends. The electrical parameters such as volume resistivity and surface resistivity of all the blends are found to improve for all doses of gamma irradiation. To validate the influence of cross-linking reaction of the Si

  2. Technical Safety Requirements for the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF)

    CERN Document Server

    Mahn, J A E M J G

    2003-01-01

    This document provides the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Sandia National Laboratories Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF). The TSR is a compilation of requirements that define the conditions, the safe boundaries, and the administrative controls necessary to ensure the safe operation of a nuclear facility and to reduce the potential risk to the public and facility workers from uncontrolled releases of radioactive or other hazardous materials. These requirements constitute an agreement between DOE and Sandia National Laboratories management regarding the safe operation of the Gamma Irradiation Facility.

  3. Induction and selection of citrus mutant by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Jung; Oh, Seung Kyu; Lee, Hyo Yeon [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    We have subjected to gamma-irradiation to citrus buds and then grafted onto mature citrus tree. Mutant citrus branch lines have been induced. As a result of first selection, we found the several mutant lines showing interesting phenotypes such as higher sugar content. We have selected several branches showing good qualities such as higher sweetness and/or lower acidity. Some branch lines showed over 13 .deg. Brix sugar content and below 0.9% acidity. Other mutant branch lines showed the changes of shape, size, peel thickness, and fiber contents or distribution of fruits. The results suggest that gamma-irradiation is an effective tool for induction of citrus mutant lines.

  4. The Feasibility of Gamma Irradiation for Developing Malaria Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syaifudin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, a plasmodial disease, causes more than one million deaths per year and has a significant public health impact. Improved access to prompt treatment with effective antimalarial drugs need to be conducted for prevention of infection in high risk groups. However, the parasite as causal agent has exhibited a potential danger of wide-spread resistances. This warning has directed attention to the study of alternative methods of protection against the disease, among them is to do the immunization. A deeper understanding of the nature and regulation of protective immune mechanisms against this parasite will facilitate the development of much needed vaccines. Developing a malaria vaccine remains an enormous scientific, technical, and financial challenge. Currently a vaccine is not fully available. Among the practical applications of radiobiological techniques that may be of considerable interest for public health is the use of ionizing radiation in the preparation of vaccines. Convincing data were reported that sporozoites of Plasmodium berghei irradiated with X- or gamma-rays, provide an antigenic stimulus effective to induce a protective immune response in mice and rats against subsequent sporozoite infection. Irradiated parasites are better immunogens than killed ones and although non-infective they are still metabolically active, as shown by continued protein and nucleic acid synthesis. There is a substantial number of data from human studies demonstrating that sporozoites attenuated by radiation are potent inducers of protective immunity and that they are safe and do not give rise to the asexual erythrocytic infections that cause malaria. This vaccine is relatively inexpensive to produce, easy to store, and transportable without refrigeration. A long-term effort and commitment to providing resources must be maintained and increased to achieve the goal of a malaria vaccine candidate where ionizing radiation as a tool to prepare is seemingly

  5. Immobilization of cobalt in collapsed non-irradiated and {gamma}-irradiated X zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico) and Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186 Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: lima@xanum.uam.mx; Bosch, Pedro [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bulbulian, Silvia [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-02-15

    Cobalt exchanged X zeolites were gamma irradiated and heated until the zeolite structure collapsed. Heating destroys the zeolite network as found by X-ray-diffraction and {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectroscopy. Gamma irradiation treatment diminished the collapsing temperature of zeolite. Cobalt leaching from crystalline and amorphized zeolites was verified by ion exchange with NaCl solution. Results show that cobalt is not released from the amorphous materials. Furthermore adsorption of xenon and {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy reveal that cobalt ions are heterogeneously distributed in the non irradiated amorphous materials. Gamma irradiation causes the mobility of cobalt in the amorphous materials resulting then in a more homogeneous distribution. Cobalt is, thus, retained safely in the amorphous materials.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on cefotaxime in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegota, H.; Koprowski, M.; Zegota, A. [Technical Univ., Lodz (Poland). Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry

    1995-02-01

    The effect of {gamma}-irradiation on cefotaxime, a member of the third generation of cephalosporins, has been investigated by using different spectroscopic, chromatographic and microbiological analytical methods. Cefotaxime sodium salt was irradiated in dry state in the range of sterilization doses from 5.85 to 46.8 kGy. According to the results obtained, the degree of cefotaxime alterations was lower than 1%, even for the higher radiation dose used. Trace amounts of antibiotic radiolysis products have been found by HPLC. The microbiological assay carried out using E. coli test strain reveal that the activity of irradiated cefotaxime did not decrease. (author).

  7. Thermoluminescence response of gamma-irradiated sesame with mineral dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez L, Y. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Calle Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia G, J. [CSIC, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Calle Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Cruz Z, E., E-mail: y.r.l@csic.es [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    The thermoluminescence (Tl) emission of minerals isolated from Mexican and Indian sesame seeds appear as a good tool to discern between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. According to the X-ray diffraction and environmental scanning microscope, the adhered dust in both samples is mainly composed by different amounts of quartz and feldspars. These mineral phases exhibit (i) enough sensitivity to ionizing radiation inducing good Tl intensity, (ii) high stability of the Tl signal during the storage of the material (i.e. low fading) and (iii) are thermally and chemically stable. Blind tests performed under laboratory conditions, but simulating industrial preservation processes (similar temperature and moisture, and presence of white light), allows to distinguish between 1 KGy gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated samples even 11000 hours (15 months) after the irradiation proceeding. (Author)

  8. Conservation of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. ) by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5 krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting.

  9. Radappertization of pancreatin preparations by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quehl, A.; Leuchtenberger, A.; Schalinatus, E. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Bergholz-Rehbruecke. Zentralinstitut fuer Ernaehrung)

    1985-01-01

    The lipase preparation pancreatin was irradiated with doses from 5 to 15 kGy for radappertization. There was a dose-response relationship concerning the number of germs as well as the enzyme activity. As to the germ content a one year storage at 4/sup 0/ C proved to be favorable.

  10. Effect of adiponectin deficiency on intestinal damage and hematopoietic responses of mice exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponemone, Venkatesh; Fayad, Raja; Gove, Melissa E.; Pini, Maria [Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Fantuzzi, Giamila, E-mail: giamila@uic.edu [Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2010-08-07

    Adiponectin (APN) is an adipose tissue-derived cytokine that regulates insulin sensitivity and inflammation. It is also involved in modulation of cell proliferation by binding to various growth factors. Based on its known effects in modulating cell proliferation and oxidative stress, APN may potentially be involved in regulating tissue damage and repair following irradiation. Adiponectin KO mice and their WT littermates were exposed to a single whole-body dose of 3 or 6 Gy gamma radiation. Radiation-induced alterations were studied in jejunum, blood, bone marrow and thymus at days 1 and 5 post-irradiation and compared with sham-irradiated groups. In WT mice, irradiation did not significantly alter serum APN levels while inducing a significant decrease in serum leptin. Irradiation caused a significant reduction in thymocyte cellularity, with concomitant decrease in CD4{sup +}, CD8{sup +} and CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cell populations, with no significant differences between WT and APN KO mice. Irradiation resulted in a significantly higher increase in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes in the blood of APN KO compared with WT mice, whereas frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow at day 5 was significantly higher in WT compared with APN KO mice. Finally, irradiation induced similar alterations in villus height and crypt cell proliferation in the jejunum of WT and APN KO mice. Jejunum explants from sham-irradiated APN KO mice produced higher levels of IL-6 compared with tissue from WT animals, but the difference was no longer apparent following irradiation. Our data indicate that APN deficiency does not play a significant role in modulating radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury in mice, while it may participate in regulation of damage to the hematopoietic system.

  11. The response characteristics of tetrazolium violet solutions to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emi-Reynolds, G. [Radiation Protection Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana)]. E-mail: gemi-reynolds@idngh.com; Kovacs, Andras [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 77, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary); Fletcher, J.J. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)

    2007-08-15

    The dosimetry characteristics of various solutions of tetrazolium violet, TV, (2,5-diphenyl-3-(1-naphthyl)-2H-tetrazolium chloride) to gamma irradiation are reported. The optical absorption spectra of these solutions show peaks between 400 and 600 nm with a shoulder at around 550 nm. The dose response of the optical absorbance values of aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic solutions containing different concentrations of TV was measured in the 250 Gy up to 75 kGy dose range. The formation of formazan product was observed due to radiolytic reduction in both solutions. Its formation was found more pronounced in N{sub 2}-saturated as well as in alkaline solutions. The results indicate that the 1 mM TV solution can be used for food irradiation and medical sterilization dosimetry at gamma irradiation facilities.

  12. The response characteristics of tetrazolium violet solutions to gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emi-Reynolds, G.; Kovács, András; Fletcher, J. J.

    2007-08-01

    The dosimetry characteristics of various solutions of tetrazolium violet, TV, (2,5-diphenyl-3-(1-naphthyl)-2H-tetrazolium chloride) to gamma irradiation are reported. The optical absorption spectra of these solutions show peaks between 400 and 600 nm with a shoulder at around 550 nm. The dose response of the optical absorbance values of aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic solutions containing different concentrations of TV was measured in the 250 Gy up to 75 kGy dose range. The formation of formazan product was observed due to radiolytic reduction in both solutions. Its formation was found more pronounced in N 2-saturated as well as in alkaline solutions. The results indicate that the 1 mM TV solution can be used for food irradiation and medical sterilization dosimetry at gamma irradiation facilities.

  13. Application of gamma irradiation for the enhanced physiological properties of polysaccharides from seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580185 (Korea, Republic of); Soo Chun, Byeong; Hyun Ahn, Dong [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan 608737 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young-Jeong [Division of Food Science, Jinju International University, Jinju 660759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duk-Jin [Division of Food Engineering and Nutrition, Daegu University, Daegu 712714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gwang Hoon [Department of Biology, Kongju National University, Chungnam 314701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Polysaccharides from seaweeds, fucoidan and laminarin, were irradiated with gamma rays, and their structural changes and anti-oxidative activities were investigated. The gamma irradiation decreased the average molecular weights of polysaccharides, and UV spectra of irradiated polysaccharides showed increases in the numbers of carboxyl and carbonyl groups and double bonds. DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of the gamma irradiated polysaccharides were significantly higher than those non-irradiated.

  14. Gamma irradiation service in Mexico; Servicio de Irradiacion Gamma en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liceaga C, G.; Martinez A, L.; Mendez T, D.; Ortiz A, G.; Olvera G, R. [Departamento del Irradiador Gamma. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In 1980 it was installed in Mexico, on the National Institute of Nuclear Research, an irradiator model J S-6500 of a canadian manufacture. Actually, this is the greatest plant in the Mexican Republic that offers a gamma irradiation process at commercial level to diverse industries. However, seeing that the demand for sterilize those products were not so much as the irradiation capacity it was opted by the incursion in other types of products. During 17 years had been irradiated a great variety of products grouped of the following form: dehydrated foods, disposable products for medical use, cosmetics, medicaments, various. Nowadays the capacity of the irradiator is saturated virtue of it is operated the 24 hours during the 365 days of the year and only its operation is suspended by the preventive and corrective maintenance. However, the fresh food market does not be attended since this irradiator was designed for doses greater than 10 kGy (1.0 Mrad)

  15. Analysis of hydrogenated zirconium alloys irradiated with gamma - rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askhatov Askar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the investigations concerning the geometrical size effect of hydrogenated zirconium alloys (Zr-1Ni-H during gamma-ray irradiation on the amount of energy absorbed. The results have shown that the less the cross-sectional dimensions of the sample or product is, the less energy is absorbed. The paper provides theoretical calculations. The zirconium sample with a cross-section of 2.8х2.8 cm absorbs 30-35% of the energy of the incident gamma-ray flow. The increase in the cross-section of a product up to 28 cm leads to the increase in the absorbed energy by more than 2 times. At the same time, the thickness of the product is constant. This effect is explained by the multiple scattering of gamma-rays. It leads to the nonuniform distribution of defects which can accumulate hydrogen and should be considered when developing the analysis methods. These edge effects are confirmed by the measurement of the thermal electromotive force for the samples of zirconium alloys before hydrogenation and gamma-ray irradiation, and after irradiation.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on antinutritional factors in broad bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kaisey, M.T. E-mail: istd@uruklink.net; Alwan, A.-K.H.; Mohammad, M.H.; Saeed, A.H

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the level of antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor (TI), phytic acid and oligosaccharides) of broad bean was investigated. The seeds were subjected to gamma irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively using cobalt-60 gamma radiation with a dose rate 2.37 kGy/h. TI activity was reduced by 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.2% at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiation at 10.2, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.2 kGy reduced the phytic acid content. The flatulence causing oligosaccharides were decreased as the radiation dose increased. The chemical composition (protein, oil, ash and total carbohydrates) of the tested seeds was determined. Gamma radiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the quality of broad bean from the nutritional point of view.

  17. Protection of irradiated mice by dipyridamole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritani, Toshio (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-08-01

    Dipyridamole (Persantin), a vasodilatory drug with antiplatelet activity, has been recently reported to inhibit lipid peroxidation and scavenge oxygen radicals. The radioprotective effects of dipyridamole were studied in ddy mice. When the mice were irradiated to 8.0 Gy, 30 days-lethality was reduced from 89% (control group) to 56% (0.5 mg/mouse and 1.0 mg/mouse i.p. injection of dipyridamole), and to 33% (2.0 mg/mouse and 4.0 mg/mouse i.p. injection). The dose required to kill 50% of the dipyridamole-tested mice within 30 days (LD{sub 50/30}) was 7.56 Gy compared to 6.63 Gy for the control mice. The results suggested that dipyridamole has significant radioprotective effect, so we clinically studied on its radioprotective effects using white-cell counts and platelet counts of 12 patients with breast cancer. Dipyridamole (150 mg/day) was administered to 6 of patients during radiation therapy. There was no statistically significant difference between these two groups. These results suggest the other factor than radioprotective effects on bone marrow. (author).

  18. Production of high melt strength polypropylene by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugão, A. B.; Artel, B. W. H.; Yoshiga, A.; Lima, L. F. C. P.; Parra, D. F.; Bueno, J. R.; Liberman, S.; Farrah, M.; Terçariol, W. R.; Otaguro, H.

    2007-11-01

    High melt strength polypropylene (HMS-PP) has been recently developed and introduced in the market by the major international producers of polypropylene. Therefore, BRASKEM, the leading Brazilian PP producer, together with EMBRARAD, the leading Brazilian gamma irradiator, and the IPEN (Institute of Nuclear Energy and Research) worked to develop a national technology for the production of HMS-PP. One of the effective approaches to improve melt strength and extensibility is to add chain branches onto polypropylene backbone using gamma radiation. Branching and grafting result from the radical combinations during irradiation process. Crosslinking and main chain scission in the polymer structure are also obtained during this process. In this work, gamma irradiation technique was used to induce chemical changes in commercial polypropylene with two different monomers, Tri-allyl-isocyanurate (TAIC) and Tri-methylolpropane-trimethacrylate (TMPTMA), with concentration ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 mmol/100 g of polypropylene. These samples were irradiated with a 60Co source at dose of 20 kGy. It used two different methods of HMS-PP processing. The crosslinking of modified polymers was studied by measuring gel content melt flow rate and rheological properties like melt strength and drawability. It was observed that the reaction method and the monomer type have influenced the properties. However, the concentration variation of monomer has no effect.

  19. Variation in electrical properties of gamma irradiated cadmium selenate nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, R.P., E-mail: chauhanrpc@gmail.com; Rana, Pallavi, E-mail: prana.phy@gmail.com; Narula, Chetna; Panchal, Suresh; Choudhary, Ritika

    2016-07-15

    Preparation of low-dimensional materials attracts more and more interest in the last few years, mainly due to the wide field of potential commercial applications ranging from life sciences, medicine and biotechnology to communication and electronics. One-dimensional systems are the smallest dimension structures that can be used for efficient transport of electrons and thus expected to be critical to the function and integration of nanoscale devices. Nanowires with well controlled morphology and extremely high aspect ratio can be obtained by replicating a nanoporous polymer ion-track membrane with cylindrical pores of controlled dimensions. With this technique, materials can be deposited within the pores of the membrane by electrochemical reduction of the desired ion. In the present study, cadmium selenate nanowires were synthesized potentiostatically via template method. These synthesized nanowires were then exposed to gamma rays by using a {sup 60}Co source at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. Structural, morphological, electrical and elemental characterizations were made in order to analyze the effect of gamma irradiation on the synthesized nanowires. I–V measurements of cadmium selenate nanowires, before and after irradiation were made with the help of Keithley 2400 source meter and Ecopia probe station. A significant change in the electrical conductivity of cadmium selenate nanowires was found after gamma irradiation. The crystallography of the synthesized nanowires was also studied using a Rigaku X-ray diffractrometer equipped with Cu-Kα radiation. XRD patterns of irradiated samples showed no variation in the peak positions or phase change.

  20. Variation in electrical properties of gamma irradiated cadmium selenate nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, R. P.; Rana, Pallavi; Narula, Chetna; Panchal, Suresh; Choudhary, Ritika

    2016-07-01

    Preparation of low-dimensional materials attracts more and more interest in the last few years, mainly due to the wide field of potential commercial applications ranging from life sciences, medicine and biotechnology to communication and electronics. One-dimensional systems are the smallest dimension structures that can be used for efficient transport of electrons and thus expected to be critical to the function and integration of nanoscale devices. Nanowires with well controlled morphology and extremely high aspect ratio can be obtained by replicating a nanoporous polymer ion-track membrane with cylindrical pores of controlled dimensions. With this technique, materials can be deposited within the pores of the membrane by electrochemical reduction of the desired ion. In the present study, cadmium selenate nanowires were synthesized potentiostatically via template method. These synthesized nanowires were then exposed to gamma rays by using a 60Co source at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. Structural, morphological, electrical and elemental characterizations were made in order to analyze the effect of gamma irradiation on the synthesized nanowires. I-V measurements of cadmium selenate nanowires, before and after irradiation were made with the help of Keithley 2400 source meter and Ecopia probe station. A significant change in the electrical conductivity of cadmium selenate nanowires was found after gamma irradiation. The crystallography of the synthesized nanowires was also studied using a Rigaku X-ray diffractrometer equipped with Cu-Kα radiation. XRD patterns of irradiated samples showed no variation in the peak positions or phase change.

  1. Structure alteration and immunological properties of {sup 60}Co gamma rays irradiated bothropstoxin-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Janaina A.; Yonamine, Camila Myiagui; Caproni, Priscila; Casare, Murilo; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: janabap@gmail.com; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de; Vieira, Daniel Perez; Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia

    2007-07-01

    About 20000 ophidic accidents are registered every year in Brazil. Serum therapy with equine antisera is the only efficient treatment. The venoms employed for immunization are fairly toxic and some venoms present low immunogenicity. Thus, the obtention of modified antigens with lower toxicity and preserved or improved immunogenicity would be useful. These toxins, when submitted to gamma radiation, in aqueous solution, present structural modifications. This occurs due to reactions with the radiolysis products of water. Some scavenger substances, such as NaNO{sub 3} and t-butanol, remove selectively the water radiolysis products. Ionizing radiation has proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venoms toxicity without affecting and even increasing their immunogenic properties. However, the immune mechanisms involved in recognition, processing and presentation of irradiated antigens are yet unclear. In the present work, we investigated the immunological behavior of bothropstoxin-I (Bthx-1), before and after irradiation, in the presence of selective scavengers. Isogenic mice were immunized with either the native or the irradiated toxin, either with or without scavengers. After three immunizations, serum samples were collected and the antibody titers and isotypes were determined by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay. The antigenic characterization of native and irradiated bothropstoxin-I was performed by Western blot. The detection of expression of murine cytokines (IFN-{gamma} and IL-10) was analyzed by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction). According to our data, irradiation process has promoted structural modifications in the toxin, characterized by higher molecular weight forms of the protein (aggregates and oligomers). Our data also indicate that irradiated toxins, alone or in the presence of NaNO{sub 3}, an aqueous electron scavenger, were immunogenic and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native toxin. On the other

  2. EPR study on tomatoes before and after gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksieva, K. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgieva, L.; Tzvetkova, E. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technology, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg

    2009-09-15

    The results from the EPR studies on fresh, air-dried and lyophilized tomato samples before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation fresh and air-dried tomatoes exhibit one singlet EPR line characterized with common g-factor of 2.0048{+-}0.0005, whereas freeze-dried tomato does not show any EPR spectrum. After irradiation, a typical 'cellulose-like' triplet EPR spectrum appears in all samples, attributed to cellulose free radicals, generated by gamma-irradiation. It consists of intense central line with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 and two weak satellite lines separated ca. 3 mT left and right of it. In air-dried and lyophilized tomatoes the 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum is superimposed by an additional partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum. Fading measurements of the radiation-induced EPR signals indicate that the intensity of the EPR spectra of air-dried and freeze-dried tomato are reduced to about 50% after 50 days, whereas those of fresh irradiated tomatoes kept at 4 {sup o}C fade completely in 15 days. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of two satellite lines in the EPR 'cellulose-like' spectra of tomato samples can be used for identification of radiation processing.

  3. X-ray versus gamma irradiation effects on polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croonenborghs, B. [Sterigenics EMEAA, Remylaan 4c box 4, 3018 Leuven (Belgium); Smith, M.A. [Sterigenics International, 10811 Withers Cove Park Drive, Charlotte, NC 28278 (United States); Strain, P. [Sterigenics EMEAA, Remylaan 4c box 4, 3018 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: pstrain@eu.sterigenics.com

    2007-11-15

    Today, the most common methods used for medical device sterilisation are by gaseous ethylene oxide and by electron beam or gamma irradiation. With X-ray sterilisation about to enter the market, its material compatibility needs to be assessed at doses typically encountered during a sterilisation process. This paper reports on a study that compares the effects of exposing different types of plastics that are commonly used in medical devices to {sup 60}Co or to 5 MeV X-rays. The dose rate for both irradiation modalities was of the same order of magnitude. Under these conditions, both types of radiation are found to have similar effects on polymer properties.

  4. Electron paramagnetic resonance of some {gamma}-irradiated drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeseoglu, R.; Koeseoglu, E.; Koeksal, F. E-mail: koksalf@ttnet.net.tr

    2003-01-01

    Some drugs, used mainly in treatment of some neurological diseases and hypertension were exposed to {gamma}-irradiation, and the samples were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The observed spectra were interpreted in terms of some type of alkyl and amine radical fragments. The spectra were computer simulated and the g values of the radicals and the hyperfine structure constants of the free electron with nearby protons were determined. The species were found to be stable at room temperature for more than a year. The samples were found to display no EPR signal without irradiation.

  5. Reduction of allergenicity of irradiated ovalbumin in ovalbumin-allergic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Baek [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Yeongi 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Young [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il-Jun [Division of Life Sciences, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2007-11-15

    Egg allergy is one of the most serious of the immediate hypersensitivity reactions to foods. Such an allergic disorder is mediated by IgE antibodies stimulated by T-helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocytes. This study was undertaken to evaluate changes of allergenicity and cytokine profiles by exposure of irradiated ovalbumin (OVA), a major allergen of egg white, in the OVA-allergic mice model. OVA solutions (2 mg/ml in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were gamma-irradiated to 50 and 100 kGy. The allergenicity in the OVA-allergy-induced mice model was remarkably reduced when challenged with irradiated OVA. Cultures of spleen cells harvested from OVA-sensitized mice showed a significant decrease in Th2 cytokine levels of ILs-4 and -5 with a concomitant increase in Th1 cytokine levels of IL-12 when co-cultured with irradiated OVA. However, IFN-{gamma} level decreased dependant on the radiation dose of co-cultured OVA. The levels of IgEs and Th2-cytokine were reduced dependant on the radiation dose. These data show that the irradiated OVA could downregulate the activity of Th2 lymphocytes in OVA-sensitized mice.

  6. Enhancement of Antioxidant and Isoflavones Concentration in Gamma Irradiated Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris M. Popović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbian soybean genotype Ana was gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 2, 4, and 10 kGy in order to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation on isoflavone (genistein, daidzein, and their glycosides genistin and daidzin contents and hydroxyl radical scavenging effect (HRSE. The increase in genistin and daidzin contents as well as antioxidant activities was observed especially at doses of 4 and 10 kGy. Results were also compared with our previous results relating to total phenol content (TPC, DPPH radical scavenger capacity (DPPH RSC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Our results indicated that doses up to 10 kGy improve the antioxidant activities of soybean and also nutritional quality with respect to isoflavone content. All results were analyzed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and autoscaling transformation of data. Significant positive correlations were observed between genistin, daidzin, DPPH RSC, and HRSE.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on electric characteristics of power diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Renata F.; Santos, Thais C. dos; Pascoalino, Kelly C.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Tobias, Carmen C.B., E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work we presented the preliminary results of a systematic study of direct voltage and cut-off frequency variations of power diodes under different gamma irradiation doses. The samples were irradiated at a gamma facility, {sup 60}Co-Gammacell 220 (dose rate of 2.31 kGy/h), in the Radiation Technology Center (CTR) at IPEN/CNEN-SP. The temperature during exposure was typically 25 deg C. The values of direct voltage and the temporal response of the devices were studied for an accumulated dose of 1350 kGy. The results have shown an improvement of the reverse recovery behavior of this type of diode, as well as a 10% decrease in its direct voltage. (author)

  8. Improvement of microbiological qualities of namphrik by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahorm, K.; Neramitmansook, N.; Kongsang, N.; Ko, J.

    2017-06-01

    Twenty samples of Namphrik from commercial markets were evaluated the microbiological qualities. It was found that 15 samples did not meet Thai Community Product Standard. The total plate count (TPC) in 15 samples were higher than the maximum limits (1.60x104 - 4.4x105 CFU/g). In addition, the other pathogens were higher than the maximum limits such as B. cereus in 11 samples (2.10x103 - 6.10x104 CFU/g) S. aureus in 2 samples (15 - 40 CFU/g) Clostridium perfringens in 4 samples (1.00x102 - 8.8x103 CFU/g) and yeast&mold in 9 samples (3.00 x102 - 9.00x103 CFU/g). To reduce TPC and pathogenic bacteria, the gamma irradiation were applied at 3.28- 4.43 kGy. The results indicated that the irradiation can reduce the TPC around 1.2 - 3.9 log cycles and eliminate pathogens bacteria in the product to make all of 15 samples qualified to the standard. The sensory evaluation was conducted in Namphrik Narok by using difference from control test to determine whether the consumers can differentiate between the non-irradiated and irradiated. The result showed that the consumers can significantly differentiate the color, odor and flavor (p0.05. Both non-irradiated and irradiated were scored at 6.4 (slightly to moderately preference). Thus the gamma irradiation can be used as a tool to improve the microbiological qualities of the Namphrik Narok product without effecting the consumer preference.

  9. Enhanced biological activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Nchang Che, Denis; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-05-16

    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (GPLE) with those of non-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (PLE). Ethanolic extract of persimmon leaf was exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the extract changed from dark brown to light brown. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GPLE and PLE were assessed from: total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The total polyphenol contents of GPLE and PLE were determined to be 224.44 ± 1.54 and 197.33 ± 5.81 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, respectively, and the total flavonoid contents of GPLE and PLE were 206.27 ± 1.15 and 167.60 ± 2.00 mg quercetin equivalents (QUE)/g, respectively. The anti-oxidant activities of GPLE and PLE as measured by DPPH assays were 338.33 ± 30.19 μg/ml (IC50) and 388.68 ± 8.45 μg/ml (IC50), respectively, and those measured by ABTS assays were 510.49 ± 15.12 μg/ml (IC50) and 731.30 ± 10.63 μg/ml (IC50), respectively. IC50 is the inhibitor concentration that reduces the response by 50%. GPLE strongly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 and IL-6 compared with PLE in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GPLE significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines compared with PLE in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-stimulated HMC-1 human mast cells. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of PLE can enhance its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities through elevation of the phenolic contents. Therefore, gamma-irradiated PLE has potential for use in the food and cosmetic

  10. Thermoluminescence glow curve of {gamma}-irradiated calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.D.; Ingotombi, S. [Manipur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics

    1995-07-14

    The trapping parameters, namely the activation energy E, frequency factor s and b order of kinetics of the thermoluminescence (TL) peaks of calcites (brown and colourless varieties) irradiated with 4.08 kGy of {gamma}-rays, are determined using the least-squares curve-fitting technique. The electron lifetime {tau} of the peaks of calcite are calculated in order to estimate the upper limit of their utility in TL dating. (author).

  11. Semiconductor quantum dot scintillation under gamma-ray irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létant, S E; Wang, T-F

    2006-12-01

    We recently demonstrated the ability of semiconductor quantum dots to convert alpha radiation into visible photons. In this letter, we report on the scintillation of quantum dots under gamma irradiation and compare the energy resolution of the 59 keV line of americium-241 obtained with our quantum dot-glass nanocomposite to that of a standard sodium iodide scintillator. A factor 2 improvement is demonstrated experimentally and interpreted theoretically using a combination of energy-loss and photon-transport models.

  12. Evaluation of myotoxic activity of Bothropstoxin-1 irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirco, Jessica; Baptista, Janaina A.; Caproni, Priscila; Yoshito, Daniele; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: jessica.mirco@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: janabap@gmail.com, e-mail: pricaproni@hotmail.com, e-mail: daniyoshito@uol.com.br, e-mail: nnascime@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to modify the immunological properties of biomolecules and has been proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venoms toxicity without affecting their immunogenic properties. Snake venoms and their isolated toxins showed structural modifications after gamma radiation process, in aqueous solution, mainly by water radiolysis sub products. Free radical scavengers, such as NaNO{sub 3} and t-butanol, present selective effects on specific radical from water radiolysis. The NaNO{sub 3} has affinity by aqueous electron, while the t-butanol has affinity by hydroxyl radical. At the present work, we have investigated the myotoxic activity of Bothropstoxin-1 (BTHX-1), a K49 phospholipase, present in Bothrops jararacussu crude venom, before and after irradiation process, with or without scavenger substances presence. BTHX-1 was irradiated with 2 kGy of {sup 60}Co gamma rays, in aqueous solution and in the presence of oxygen. BALB/c mice were inoculated with either native or irradiated toxin, with or without scavenger substances. After 3 hours, blood samples were collected and the myotoxic activity was evaluated by LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) release. The muscular tissue damage was directly related to the LDH amounts released. Irradiated Bothropstoxin-1, with or without NaNO{sub 3} substance, caused less damage than their native counterpart. But irradiated toxin, in the presence of t-butanol, was so myotoxic as the native BTHX-1. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant modifications on their structures, but still retaining many of the original biological properties of their native counterparts. Additionally, some scavengers substances can change these gamma radiation effects. (author)

  13. Regeneration of Murine Hair Follicles is Inhibited by Low-Dose-Rate Gamma Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Kimihiko; Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ishihara, Yoshie; Inoue, Sonoe

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether the effects of low-dose-rate gamma (γ) irradiation are identifiable in the regeneration of murine hair follicles, we irradiated whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the first telogen phase of the hair cycle with (137)Cs γ-rays. The mice were examined for effects on hair follicles, including number, morphology, and pigmentation in the second anagen phase. Effects of γ-radiation on melanocyte stem cells were also investigated by the indirect immunolabeling of tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2). Irradiated skin showed a decrease in hair follicle density and the induction of curved hair follicles along with the presence of white hairs and hypopigmented hair bulbs. There was a small, but not significant, change in the number of TRP2-positive melanocyte stem cells in the hair bulge region of the irradiated skin. These results suggest that low-dose rate γ-irradiation does not deplete melanocyte stem cells, but can damage stem cells and progenitors for both keratinocytes and melanocytes, thereby affecting the structure and pigmentation of regenerated hair follicles in the 2(nd) anagen phase.

  14. Using of AFLP to evaluate gamma-irradiated amaranth mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labajová Mária

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine which of several gamma-irradiated mutants of amaranth Ficha cultivar and K-433 hybrid are most genetically similar to their non-irradiated control genotypes, we performed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP based analysis. A total of 40 selective primer combinations were used in reported analyses. First analyses of gamma-irradiated amaranth mutant lines were done used the AFLP. In the study, primers with the differentiation ability for all analysed mutant lines are reported. The very specific changes in the mutant lines´ non-coding regions based on AFLP length polymorphism were analysed. Mutant lines of the Ficha cultivar (C15, C26, C27, C82, C236 shared a genetic dissimilarity of 0,11 and their ISSR profiles are more similar to the Ficha than those of K-433 hybrid mutant lines. The K-433 mutant lines (D54, D279, D282 shared genetic dissimilarity of 0,534 but are more distinct to their control plant as a whole, as those of the Ficha mutant lines. Different AFLP fingerprints patters of the mutant lines when compared to the Ficha cultivar and K-433 hybrid AFLP profiles may be a consequence of the complex response of the intergenic space of mutant lines to the gamma-radiance. Although a genetic polymorphism was detected within accessions, the AFLP markers successfully identified all the accessions. The AFLP results are discussed by a combination of biochemical characteristics of mutant lines and their control genotypes.

  15. Regeneration of sulfamethoxazole-saturated activated carbon using gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has been widely used for reclamation and reuse of the effluent of wastewater treatment plant to further remove the emerging contaminants, such as PPCPs in recent years. How to regenerate the exhausted AC effectively and economically is still a challenge. In the present study, the regeneration of AC exhausted with SMX was performed by gamma irradiation to simultaneously recover the spent AC and degrade the pollutants. The results showed that the adsorption of SMX onto AC can be described by the Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption capacity was about 417 mg/g. SMX can be removed rapidly when exposed to gamma irradiation, with the initial concentration of 100 mg/L, more than 99% of SMX was removed at 5.0 kGy, while an extremely high dose (150 kGy) was needed to reach 80% mineralization ratio. The regeneration efficiency was about 21-30% at 50-200 kGy. The absorbed SMX and the intermediates formed during gamma irradiation were released into aqueous solution from AC and mineralized, leading to the partial regeneration of the adsorption capacity of AC. Further studies are needed to optimize the experimental conditions to increase the regeneration efficiency.

  16. Biosensors based on polymer networks formed by gamma irradiation crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, W R

    1993-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers immobilized by gamma irradiation have been investigated as a means of developing electrochemical sensors. Enzyme-based sensors for glucose and lactate have been made by immobilizing glucose oxidase and lactate oxidase, respectively, on platinized graphite electrodes. The enzyme is entrapped in a polymeric network of poly(vinyl alcohol) that is formed by gamma radiation crosslinking. Electrodes coated with poly (N-vinylpyrrolidone) and its corresponding monomer and then crosslinked with gamma radiation show an extraction of catecholamines into the polymer film that enhances the analytical signal for their detection by electrochemical oxidation. Poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) spin-coated on a screen-printed electrochemical cell provides sufficient ionic conductivity for the cell to function as a gas sensor for oxygen, which is detected by reduction at a platinum working electrode.

  17. Radiation resistivity of polyacenaphthylene-grafted polyethylene. [Gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.; Kawase, K.; Yamakita, H. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Nagoya (Japan))

    1983-01-01

    Thin poly(ethylene-g-acenaphthylene) films prepared by the vapor-phase grafting method were subjected to the ..gamma..-irradiation in air, and various changes in tensile and structural properties of the film were investigated by comparing with those of the untreated or crosslinked polyethylene film. Polyethylene got to lose its inherent necking property by oxidative degradation and to be brittle-fractured by the irradiation dose less than 100 Mrad in air. The polyacenaphthylene-grafted polyethylenes, however, kept their ductility up to 200 Mrad or more, and the rate of increase in elastic modulus as well as yield strength with the increasing irradiation dose was considerably lower than that of untreated or crosslinked polyethylene. The effect of the grafting extent, and that of the irradiation dose-rate on the fracture energy were also examined. The weight increase of polyethylene due to the oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of carbonyl group which proceeded proportionally with the irradiation dose were remarkably suppressed by the grafting, whereas the double bond formation seemed to be unaffected by it. The grafted film held the original content of gel fraction unchanged during the irradiation in air, but the average molecular weight of the sol fraction decreased gradually.

  18. Chemical investigation of gamma-irradiated saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareena, A V; Variyar, P S; Gholap, A S; Bongirwar, D R

    2001-02-01

    Changes in aroma and coloring properties of saffron (Crocus sativus) after gamma-irradiation at doses of 2.5 and 5 kGy (necessary for microbial decontamination) were investigated. The volatile essential oil constituents responsible for aroma of the spice were isolated by steam distillation and then subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). No significant qualitative changes were observed in these constituents upon irradiation, although a trained sensory panel could detect slight quality deterioration at a dose of 5 kGy. Carotene glucosides that impart color to the spice were isolated by solvent extraction and then subjected to thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fractionation of the above pigments into aglycon and glucosides was achieved by using ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively. Analysis of these fractions by HPLC revealed a decrease in glucosides and an increase in aglycon content in irradiated samples. The possibility of degradation of pigments during gamma irradiation is discussed.

  19. White spot syndrome virus inactivation study by using gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidareh, Marzieh; Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Soltani, Mehdi; Rajabifar, Saeed; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Dashtiannasab, Aghil

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). White spot syndrome virus is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp industries. White spot disease can cause mortalities reaching 100% within 3-10 days of gross signs appearing. During the period of culture, immunostimulant agents and vaccines may provide potential methods to protect shrimps from opportunistic and pathogenic microrganisms. In this study, firstly, WSSV was isolated from infected shrimp and then multiplied in crayfish. WSSV was purified from the infected crayfish haemolymph by sucrose gradient and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo virus titration was performed in shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. The LD50 of live virus stock was calculated 10 5.4/mL. Shrimp post-larvae (1-2 g) were treated with gamma-irradiated (different doses) WSSV (100 to 10-4 dilutions) for a period of 10 days. The dose/survival curve for irradiated and un-irradiated WSSV was drawn; the optimum dose range for inactivation of WSSV and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 14-15 kGy. This preliminary information suggests that shrimp appear to benefit from treatment with gammairradiated WSSV especially at 14-15 KGy.

  20. Effects of Altered Levels of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase and Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Female Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yani [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Leu, David [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Palo Alto Institute of Research and Education, Palo Alto, California (United States); Chui, Jennifer [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Fike, John R. [Departments of Neurosurgery and Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Huang, Ting-Ting, E-mail: tthuang@stanford.edu [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Altered levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and cranial irradiation have been shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis. However, previous studies were only conducted in male mice, and it was not clear if there was a difference between males and females. Therefore, female mice were studied and the results compared with those generated in male mice from an earlier study. Methods and Materials: Female wild-type, EC-SOD-null (KO), and EC-SOD bigenic mice with neuronal-specific expression of EC-SOD (OE) were subjected to a single dose of 5-Gy gamma rays to the head at 8 weeks of age. Progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and long-term survival of newborn neurons were determined. Results: Similar to results from male mice, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation both resulted in significant reductions in mature newborn neurons in female mice. EC-SOD deficiency reduced long-term survival of newborn neurons whereas irradiation reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Overexpression of EC-SOD corrected the negative impacts from EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation and normalized the production of newborn neurons in OE mice. Expression of neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 were significantly reduced by irradiation in wild-type mice, but the levels were not changed in KO and OE mice even though both cohorts started out with a lower baseline level. Conclusion: In terms of hippocampal neurogenesis, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation have the same overall effects in males and females at the age the studies were conducted.

  1. Treatment of mice with sepsis following irradiation and trauma with antibiotics and synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM). (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madonna, G.S.; Ledney, G.D.; Moore, M.M.; Elliott, T.B.; Brook, I.

    1991-12-31

    Compromise of antimicrobial defenses by irradiation can result in sepsis and death. Additional trauma can further predispose patients to infection and thus increase mortality. The authors recently showed that injection of synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) significantly augments resistance to infection and increases survival of mice compromised either by whole-body irradiation with gamma radiation or equal mixtures of fission neutron and gamma radiation. In this study, C3H/HeN mice were given a lethal dose of gamma radiation (8.0 Gy) and an open wound (15% total body surface area TBSA) 1 hr later while anesthetized. Irradiated/wounded mice became more severely leukopenic and thrombocytopenic than mice exposed to radiation alone. However, this treatment did not increase survival of the irradiated/wounded mice.

  2. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. α-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  3. Improvement of saccharification process for bioethanol production from Undaria sp. by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Don-Hee

    2012-08-01

    Recently, many research works have reported on improvements to the saccharification process that increase bioethanol production from cellulosic materials. Gamma irradiation has been studied as an effective method for the depolymerization of complex polysaccharides. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on saccharification of Undaria biomass for bioethanol production was investigated. The Undaria biomass was irradiated at doses of 0, 10, 50, 100, 200 and 500 kGy and then hydrolyzed using sulfuric acid. The effects of gamma irradiation were measured through microscopic analysis to determine morphological changes and concentration of the reducing sugar of hydrolysates. Microscopic images show that gamma irradiation causes structure breakage of the Undaria cell wall. The concentration of reducing sugar of hydrolysates significantly increased as a result of gamma irradiation, with or without acid hydrolysis. These results indicate that the combined method of gamma irradiation with acid hydrolysis can significantly improve the saccharification process for bioethanol production from marine algae materials.

  4. Behavioural consequences of an 8 Gy total body irradiation in mice: Regulation by interleukin-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de la sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, Section Autonome de Radiobiologie Appliquee a la Medecine, IPSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2001-02-01

    The effects of an 8 Gy {gamma} total body irradiation (TBI) on exploration and locomotion activities as well as temperature were studied in C57BL6/J mice. Survival, body weight, and blood cell counts were also assessed in irradiated mice treated with placebo or interleukin (IL)-4. The efficacy of IL-4 treatment on improvement in exploration activity was evaluated. The study was carried out from 3 h to 30 days following exposure. Our results showed a biphasic response to irradiation concerning the exploration activity of mice. Irradiated mice had reduced activity as early as 3 h after exposure, with recovery of activity within 24 h. The exploration activity again decreased 4 days after irradiation and the recovery occurred slowly after day 17. IL-4 ameliorated the exploration status in mice in both phases. The locomotion activity was studied using a telemetry apparatus. A similar pattern to that of the exploration data was observed, with a minimal activity observed between days 13 and 17. A radiation-induced hypothermia was also noticed over the same time period. (author)

  5. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE2, and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods.

  6. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  7. Residual voltage of. gamma. -irradiated polyethylene containing antioxidant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Sanshiro; Fukuda, Tadashi; Sawa, Goro; Ieda, Masayuki

    1987-03-01

    Various cables used for nuclear power plants, especially those used for safety protection system must keep their functions even if a LOCA occurred at the end of 40 year plant life. When cross-linked polyethylene is exposed to radiation in the atmosphere, the tensile strength and elongation begin to decrease by the irradiation above 1.5 x 10/sup 8/ rad. In order to improve the reliability of cross-linked polyethylene, the method of increasing the radiation resistance by mixing additives has been examined. Moreover, it is necessary to diagnose the deterioration of cables by nondestructive method, but such field test is difficult now. For the purpose of detecting the radiation deterioration of polyethylene power cables nondestructively using residual voltage, the authors examined the effect of gamma ray irradiation exerted on the residual voltage of low density polyethylene to which phenol compound (Irganox 1010) or amine compound (Antage F) was added, subsequently to the study on the polyethylene without additives. The specimens, experimental method and results are reported. In the specimens without irradiation, the addition of Antage F increased the residual voltage and current. The residual voltage of the specimens with a large amount of addition showed the same value after irradiation as that in the case without irradiation. (Kako, I.).

  8. Improvement of colour strength and colourfastness properties of gamma irradiated cotton using reactive black-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Adeel, Shahid; Nadeem, Raziya; Asghar, Toheed

    2012-03-01

    The dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Reactive Black-5 dye powder has been investigated. The mercerized, bleached and plain weaved cotton fabric was irradiated to different absorbed doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy using Co-60 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature of dyeing, time of dyeing and pH of dyeing solutions were optimised. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organisation (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It is found that gamma irradiated cotton dyed with Reactive Black-5 has not only improved the colour strength but also enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the behavioral properties of crotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Moreira

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Crotoxin has been detoxified with gamma radiation in order to improve crotalic antiserum production. Nevertheless, present knowledge of the biological characteristics of irradiated crotoxin is insufficient to propose it as an immunizing agent. Crotoxin is known to increase the emotional state of rats and to decrease their exploratory behavior (Moreira EG, Nascimento N, Rosa GJM, Rogero JR and Vassilieff VS (1996 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 29: 629-632. Therefore, we decided 1 to evaluate the effects of crotoxin in the social interaction test, which has been widely used for the evaluation of anxiogenic drugs, and 2 to determine if irradiated crotoxin induces behavioral alterations similar to those of crotoxin in the social interaction, open-field and hole-board tests. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g were used. Crotoxin (100, 250, and 500 µg/kg was injected intraperitoneally 2 h before the social interaction test. Similarly, irradiated crotoxin (2000 Gy gamma radiation from a 60Co source was administered at the doses of 100, 250, and 500 µg/kg for the hole-board test, and at the doses of 1000 and 2500 µg/kg for the open-field and social interaction tests. ANOVA complemented with the Dunnett test was used for statistical analysis (P<0.05. Crotoxin decreased the social interaction time (s at the doses of 100, 250 and 500 µg/kg (means ± SEM from 51.6 ± 4.4 to 32.6 ± 3.7, 28.0 ± 3.6 and 31.6 ± 4.4, respectively. Irradiated crotoxin did not induce behavioral alterations. These results indicate that 1 crotoxin may be an anxiogenic compound, and 2 in contrast to crotoxin, irradiated crotoxin was unable to induce behavioral alterations, which makes it a promising compound for the production of crotalic antiserum

  10. Inactivation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Tsutsumi, Takamasa (Animal Quarantine Service, Yokohama (Japan)); Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1990-10-01

    Radiation inactivation of Infectious Boivne Rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus was investigated by suspending in a commercial preparation medium (c.p.m.) or IBR antibody free serum and irradiated at room temperature or dry ice frozen condition. Normal pooled serum was also analysed by electrophoresis with cellulose acetate membrane after irradiation at frozen and non-frozen condition. The virus inactivation was determined by MDBK cell line which 50 % tissue culture infectious dose (TCID{sub 50}) was calculated by Behrens Kaerber method. D{sub 10} value at non-frozen condition in serum was obtained as 1.1-1.2 kGy and that in c.p.m. was 1.3-1.4 kGy. On the other hand, D{sub 10} value was increased to 3.4-3.6 kGy in serum and 3.9 kGy in c.p.m. at frozen condition. On the irradiation effect of bovine serum, four peaks of albumin, {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}-globulin fraction were obtained from non-irradiation and irradiated serum up to 2 kGy at non-frozen condition by electrophoresis. More than 4 kGy irradiation, the peaks of globulin fractions became not clear and at more than 8 kGy, changed to one large peak. On the other hand, these changes of electrophoretic patterns were not observed even at 30 kGy irradiation in frozen condition. From these results, necessary dose was decided as 20-25 kGy at frozen condition for inactivation of IBR virus in serum. (author).

  11. Views of TAGSI on the effects of gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of irradiated ferritic steel reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, J.F. [School of Engineering, Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); English, C.A. [Materials and Chemistry Consultancy, Nexia Solutions, 168 Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QJ (United Kingdom); Weaver, D.R. [School of Physics, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lidbury, D.P.G. [Serco Assurance, Walton House, 404 The Quadrant, Birchwood Park, Warrington, Cheshire WA3 6AT (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    The paper reviews and analyses the effects of gamma irradiation dose on the properties of ferritic steels used in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). It explains factors that affect the embrittlement of a RPV steel induced by combinations of fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and gamma irradiation. TAGSI were asked to consider the effects of gamma irradiation dose on the properties of steels used in reactor pressure vessels. TAGSI endorsed the use of the MCBEND code to calculate gamma fluxes and energetic gamma ray displacement cross-sections calculated using either Baumann or Alexander methods. TAGSI endorsed the calculation of the materials property changes due to an additional gamma dose using trend curves based on empirical correlation to neutron-induced damage (where k {sub {gamma}}{approx}1{+-}0.25)

  12. Rb and p53 gene deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from irradiated and control mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

    1997-08-01

    This study was conducted on mouse lung adenocarcinoma tissues that were formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded 25 years ago to investigate the large gene deletions of mRb and p53 in B6CF{sub 1} male mice. A total of 80 lung tissue samples from irradiated mice and 40 lung samples from nonirradiated controls were randomly selected and examined in the mRb portion of this study. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of mRb deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to 60 once-weekly {gamma}-ray doses than those from mice receiving 24 once-weekly {gamma}-ray doses at low doses and low dose rates; however, the percentage was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that for spontaneous lung adenocarcinomas or lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to single-dose {gamma} irradiation at a similar total dose. mRb fragments 3 (71%) and 5 (67%), the parts of the gene that encoded the pocket binding region of Rb protein to adenovirus E1A and SV40 T-antigen, were the most frequently deleted fragments. p53 gene deletion analysis was carried out on normal lungs and lung adenocarcinomas that were initially found to bear mRb deletions. Exons 1,4,5,6, and 9 were chosen to be analyzed.

  13. Optical fiber sensor for low dose gamma irradiation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés, Ana I.; Esteban, Ã.`scar; Embid, Miguel

    2016-05-01

    An optical fiber gamma ray detector is presented in this work. It is based on a Terbium doped Gadolinium Oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb) scintillating powder which cover a chemically etched polymer fiber tip. This etching improves the fluorescence gathering by the optical fiber. The final diameter has been selected to fulfill the trade-off between light gathering and mechanical strength. Powder has been encapsulated inside a microtube where the fiber tip is immersed. The sensor has been irradiated with different air Kerma doses up to 2 Gy/h with a 137Cs source, and the spectral distribution of the fluorescence intensity has been recorded in a commercial grade CCD spectrometer. The obtained signal-to-noise ratio is good enough even for low doses, which has allowed to reduce the integration time in the spectrometer. The presented results show the feasibility for using low cost equipment to detect/measure ionizing radiation as gamma rays are.

  14. Influence of irradiation upon few-layered graphene using electron-beams and gamma-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqing; Feng, Yi; Mo, Fei; Qian, Gang; Chen, Yangming; Yu, Dongbo; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xuebin

    2014-07-01

    Few-layered graphene (FLG) is irradiated by electron beams and gamma rays. After 100 keV electron irradiation, the edges of FLG start bending, shrinking, and finally generate gaps and carbon onions due to sputtering and knock-on damage mechanism. When the electron beam energy is increased further to 200 keV, FLG suffers rapid and catastrophic destruction. Unlike electron irradiation, Compton effect is the dominant damage mechanism in gamma irradiation. The irradiation results indicate the crystallinity of FLG decreases first, then restores as increasing irradiation doses, additionally, the ratio (O/C) of FLG surface and the relative content of oxygen groups increases after irradiation.

  15. Chemical constituents of Panax ginseng exposed to. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joongho; Belanger, J.M.R.; Sigouin, M.; Lanthier, J.; Willemot, C.; Pare, J.R.J. (Agriculture Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-03-01

    Chemical constituents were monitored to assess the biochemical and nutritional safety of Panax ginseng powders that were irradiated at doses of 1-10 kGy. Quantitative analysis has shown that the main effective components - saponins - are not altered by {sup 60}Co {gamma} irradiation. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was not affected by the treatment. Negligible changes were observed in the free carbohydrate contents. Doses of more than 5 kGy caused significant decreases in sulfur-containing amino acids and in tyrosine. At doses of 10 kGy, free amino acids, such as proline and lysine, showed an appreciable increase. The composition in minerals was not altered irrespective of the applied doses.

  16. Modification of ethylene-norbornene copolymer by Gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kačarević-Popović Zorica M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of modifying polyethylene and many other polymers with high energy radiation has led to many useful applications. Due to their new combination of properties and the shortage of experimental data, the radiolysis of a new class of materials, cyclo-olefin copolymers (COC, polymerised from norbornene and ethylene using metallocene catalysts, is of great interest to the study of radiation chemistry and the physics of polymeric systems. Ethylenenorbornene copolymer, pristine and containing an antioxidant were subjected to gamma irradiation in the presence of air and in water. The irradiated copolymer was studied using IR and UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis. The radiation-induced changes in the molecular structure were correlated to changes in the glass transition temperature measured by the DSC method.

  17. Physicochemical, thermal and functional properties of gamma irradiated chickpea starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Khalid; Aggarwal, Manjeet

    2017-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10kGy) on physicochemical, functional and thermal properties of chickpea starch. Results revealed that the pasting properties showed a significant (p≤0.05) decrease in peak viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity, trough viscosity and pasting temperature in dose dependent manner. Swelling, solubility index, oil absorption capacity and water absorption capacity increased significantly with dose, while as syneresis decreased with dose. Gelatinization temperatures To, Tp and Tc decreased significantly with dose. X-ray diffraction showed a characteristic C type pattern of the starches and the crystallinity decreased with dose. Scanning electron microscopy revealed small oval shaped starch granules and slight surface fissures were seen in the irradiated starch treated with 5 and 10kGy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Polymer nanocomposite of laponite RD prepared by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Maria J.A.; Silva, Estefania O.; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes, E-mail: mariajhho@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amato, Valdir S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Divisao de Doencas Infecciosas e Parasitarias

    2012-07-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVAl) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) containing 0-5 wt % of the synthetic laponite RD clay were prepared by gamma irradiation process. The morphology of the nanocomposite hydrogel was observed by characterizations techniques using: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The structural properties crosslinking was determined by measuring the crosslink gel content extraction on mesh 500 sizes and swelling kinetics at 22 °C. The results showed that crosslinks have inverse dependence on the clay level in the nanocomposite hydrogels, while swelling shows direct dependence. (author)

  19. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulut, A. E-mail: abulut@samsun.omu.edu.tr; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F

    2000-04-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C{sub 2}H{sub 7}NO{sub 3}S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of {sup 32}SO{sup -}{sub 2} and {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radicals. The hyperfine values of {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites.

  20. Dosimetry commissioning of the gamma irradiation facility ``ROBO''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, A.; Moussa, A.; Othman, I.; Alnaal, K.

    1998-06-01

    A product-overlap type gamma irradiation facility with wet storage was put into operation recently in Damascus, Syria and its technical specifications were controlled by dosimetry commissioning experiments and compared to the data specified by the supplier. In the course of this procedure detailed dose mapping using different density products was carried out, and thus the minimum and maximum dose locations within the product boxes were determined. Using these data the plant efficiency and the dose uniformity ratio have been calculated. The dose distribution was also determined vertically along the product carrier. The results were then analyzed with respect to the construction of the facility.

  1. Immune response against bothropstoxin-I irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, J.A.; Spencer, P.J.; Higa, O.Z.; Casare, M.S.; Campos, L.A.; Nascimento, N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail: janabap@gmail.com; Andrade Junior, H.F de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo. Lab. de Protozoologia]. E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to modify the immunological properties of biomolecules. Very promising results were obtained when crude animal venoms, as well as isolated toxins, were treated with gamma rays, yielding toxoids with good immunogenicity. Ionizing radiation has proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venoms toxicity without affecting and even increasing their immunogenic properties. However, little is known about the modifications that irradiated molecules undergo and even less about the immunological response that such antigens elicit. In the present work, we investigated the immunological behavior of bothropstoxin-I, a K49 phospholipase, before and after irradiation. Structural modifications of the toxin were investigated by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Aiming to compare the toxicity between native and irradiated forms of the toxin, an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, using CHO cells, was performed. Isogenic mice were immunized with either the native or the irradiated toxin. The circulating antibodies were isotyped and titrated by ELISA. According to our data, irradiation promoted structural modifications in the toxin, characterized by higher molecular weight forms of the protein (aggregates and oligomers). When analyzed by mass spectrometry, the irradiated bothropstoxin appeared in several oxidized forms. The cytotoxicity assay showed that the modified toxin was 5 folds less toxic than its native counterpart. Irradiated toxins were immunogenic and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native toxin in ELISA. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant modifications in their structures, but still retain many of the original immunological properties. (author)

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on the development and reproduction of the greasy cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three substerilizing doses 50, 100 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation were tested against full – grown male and female pupae or against full-grown male or female pupae of Agrotis ipsilon. The results showed that fecundity of irradiated females crossed with irradiated males was decreased by increasing irradiation dose. The decrease in egg – hatchability % and increase in sterility % induced by gamma radiation were found to be positively correlated with the dose level. The parentage of larval and pupal mortality increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05 with the increase of used doses. In addition, larval and pupal durations were found to be significantly prolonged as a result of gamma- irradiation treatment. In general, the results obtained indicated that the biological action of gamma irradiation against A. ipsilon larvae was more remarkable when both crossed females and males were irradiated followed by irradiated females crossed with non-irradiated males.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on toxicity and immunogenicity of Androctonus australis hector venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abib, L. [Univ. des Sciences et de la Technologie, Lab. de Biologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Faculte des Sciences Biologiques, Houari Boumedienne, Bab Ezzouar (Algeria); Laraba-Djebari, F. [Univ. des Sciences et de la Technologie, Lab. de Biologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Faculte des Sciences Biologiques, Houari Boumedienne, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Institut Pasteur d' Algerie, Lab. de Recherche et de Developpement sur les Venins, Alger (Algeria); E-mail: flaraba@ibnsina.ands.dz

    2003-12-01

    An investigation was made of the radiosensitivity of the toxic and immunological properties of Androctonus australis hector venom. This venom was irradiated with two doses of gamma rays (1 and 2 kGy) from a {sup 60}Co source. The results showed that venom toxicity was abolished for the two radiation doses (1 and 2 kGy) with, respectively, 10 and 25 times its initial LD50 value. However, irradiated venoms were immunogenic, and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native venom by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antisera raised against these toxoids (1 and 2 kGy) had a higher neutralizing capacity and immunoreactivity against all components of native venom than did the antiserum produced against the native venom. The antiserum of rabbits immunized with 2-kGy-irradiated venom was more efficient than 1-kGy-irradiated toxoid antiserum. Indeed, in vivo protection assays showed that the mice immunized with 2-kGy-irradiated venom resisted lethal doses (i.p.) of A. australis hector venom. (author)

  4. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksieva, K., E-mail: katerina_bas@abv.b [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Lagunov, O. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimov, K. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yordanov, N.D. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-06-15

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048{+-}0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  5. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  6. New gamma irradiation source at the research reactor Muenchen FRM II; Neue Gamma-Bestrahlungsanlage am Forschungsreaktor Muenchen FRM II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Gerstenberg, H.; Lichtenstein, K.; Tralmer, F.L.; Zill, V.; Neuhaus, I. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (DE). Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II)

    2009-07-01

    The new research reactor FRM II is a high-performance neutron source. A new gamma irradiation line for high-intensity gamma radiation is planned in spent fuel elements including a heating system that will allow irradiation at temperatures up to 150 C. The design concept considers the experimental boundary conditions, i.e. irradiation inhomogeneity and sample temperatures, but also the spent fuel element safety. The neutron flux was measured in two spent fuel elements with decay times of 90 and 450 days, respectively. A significant neutron activation of the irradiation samples can be excluded. The dose rate profile in the spent fuel element was measured with a special measuring device. The irradiation facility will be started in 2009. An first research program concerning microstructure investigations of gamma irradiated rock salt is described.

  7. Quantitative, functional, and biochemical alterations in the peritoneal cells of mice exposed to whole-body gamma irradiation. 1. Changes in cellular protein, adherence properties, and enzymatic activities associated with platelet-activating factor formation and inactivation, and arachidonate metabolism. Scientific report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steel, L.K.; Hughes, H.N.; Walden, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in total number, differentials, cell protein, adherence properties, acetyltransferase and acetylhydrolase activities, prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene C4 production, as well as calcium (2+) ionophore A23187 stimulation were examined in resident peritoneal cells isolated from mice 2h to 10 days postexposure to a single dose (7,10 or 12 Gy) of gamma radiation. Radiation dose-related reductions in macrophage and lymphocyte numbers and increases in cellular protein and capacity to adhere to plastic surfaces were evident. In-vitro irradiation also elevated the activities of acetyltransferase and acetylhydrolase (catalyzing platelet-activating factor biosynthesis and inactivation, respectively) in adherent and nonadherent peritoneal cells, particularly 3-4 days postexposure. Blood plasma from irradiated animals did not reflect the increased cellular acetylhydrolase activity. Prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene C4 synthesis were elevated postexposure, suggesting increased substrate (arachidonate) availability and increased cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities. Ionospheric stimulation of enzyme activities and eicosanoid release also differed in irradiated peritoneal cells. While the properties of adherence, platelet-activating factor synthesis/inactivation-associated enzyme activities, and eicosanoid production are generally characterized as those of macrophages, lymphocytes or their products may influence or contribute to the observed radiation-induced changes.

  8. Treatment of mice with sepsis following irradiation and trauma with antibiotics and synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madonna, G.S.; Ledney, G.D.; Moore, M.M.; Elliott, T.B.; Brook, I. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Compromise of antimicrobial defenses by irradiation can result in sepsis and death. Additional trauma can further predispose patients to infection and thus increase mortality. We recently showed that injection of synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) significantly augments resistance to infection and increases survival of mice compromised either by whole-body irradiation with gamma radiation or equal mixtures of fission neutron and gamma radiation. In this study, C3H/HeN mice were given a lethal dose of gamma radiation (8.0 Gy) and an open wound (15% total body surface area (TBSA)) 1 hr later while anesthetized. Irradiated/wounded mice became more severely leukopenic and thrombocytopenic than mice exposed to radiation alone, and died from natural wound infection and sepsis within 7 days. S-TDCM given 1 hr postirradiation increased survival of mice exposed to radiation alone. However, this treatment did not increase survival of the irradiated/wounded mice. Systemic antibiotic therapy with gentamicin or ofloxacin for 10 days significantly increased survival time compared with untreated irradiated/wounded mice (p less than 0.01). Combination therapy with topical gentamicin cream and systemic oxacillin increased survival from 0% to 100%. Treatment with S-TDCM combined with the suboptimal treatment of topical and systemic gentamicin increased survival compared with antibiotic treatment alone. These studies demonstrate that post-trauma therapy with S-TDCM and antibiotics augments resistance to infection in immunocompromised mice. The data suggest that therapies which combine stimulation of nonspecific host defense mechanisms with antibiotics may increase survival of irradiated patients inflicted with accidental or surgical trauma.

  9. Stability of vitamin E content of {gamma}-irradiated biscuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br; magtaipina@ig.com.br; Lamardo, Leda C.A. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Quimica Biologica]. E-mail: llamardo@ial.sp.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The technology of food irradiation is seen by the industry as a means of ensuring food safety, since it exposes foods to ionizing radiation that kills insects, moulds and bacteria. The need to eliminate bacterial pathogens from read-to-eat food products must always be balanced with the maintenance of product quality. In addition to determining the effective ionizing radiation doses required for pathogen elimination the effects of irradiation on product chemistry, nutritional value and quality must also been determined. Vitamin E ({alpha}-tocopherol) is one of the most potent natural lipophilic antioxidants commonly present in the human diet. As it is considered a free radical scavenger there is a growing concern that irradiation might reduce the vitamin E content of food products prepared with ingredients rich in any of the dietary source of the vitamin. This work describes the effects of ionizing radiation on the vitamin E content of some biscuits commercially found in the market. Three lots of biscuits were used. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 source, dose rate of about 3.5 kGy/h at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy. For vitamin E determination samples were saponified with ethanolic potassium hydroxide in the presence of pyrogallol, and the tocopherols were extracted with petroleum ether. The absorbance was measured at 520 nm. From the obtained results it is possible to conclude that there was a notorious stability of the vitamin content of the biscuits submitted to gamma-irradiation at the assayed doses. (author)

  10. Polyclonal antibody to ovomucoid determination in gamma irradiated laying eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Lopes, Tatiana G.G. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP, Piracicaba, SP. Dept. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente) (Brazil)], e-mail: mnharder@cena.usp.br, e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, e-mail: tgglopes@cena.usp.br; Duarte, Keila M.R. [Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ . Nova Odessa), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: keila@iz.sp.gov.br; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G.; Savino, Vicente J.M.; Coelho, Antonio A.D. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: vjmsavin@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: aadcoelh@esalq.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovomucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in female rabbits immunized with bioconjugated ovomucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA-ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of Co{sup 60}, type Multipurpose, under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8 Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10 KGy; 20 KGy and 30 KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA.s test we can find the egg allergen ovomucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovomucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such rates does not shows changes in that protein, therefore showed some changes in the color and visual viscosity of the egg samples. (author)

  11. Study of irradiated bothropstoxin-1 with {sup 60}Co gamma rays: immune system behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caproni, P.; Baptista, J.A.; Almeida, T.L. de; Nascimento, N. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil). Biotechnology Center; Passos, L.A.C. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. of Genetics and Embryo Cryopreservation

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to modify the immunological properties of biomolecules. Very promising results were obtained when crude animal venoms, as well as isolated toxins, were treated with 60Co gamma rays, yielding toxoids with good immunogenicity. The achievement of modified antigens with lower toxicity and preserved or improved immunogenicity can be very useful. Ionizing radiation has already been proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venom toxicity without affecting, and even increasing, their immunogenic properties. However, little is known about the modifications that irradiated molecules undergo and even less about the immunological response that such antigens elicit. In the present work, we investigated the immunological behavior of bothropstoxin-1, a K49 phospholipase, before and after irradiation. Structural modifications of the toxin were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Isogenic mice were immunized with either the native or the irradiated toxin. The circulating antibodies were isotyped and titrated by ELISA. According to our data, irradiation promoted structural modifications in the toxin characterized by higher molecular weight forms of proteins (aggregates and oligomers). The results also indicated that irradiated toxins were immunogenic and antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native toxin in ELISA. These findings suggest that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant modifications in their structures; however they still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native proteins. Also, our data indicate that irradiated proteins induce higher titers of IgG2a and IgG2b, suggesting that Th1 cells are predominantly involved in the immune response. (author)

  12. Study of irradiated toxins with {sup 60}Co gamma rays: immune system behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caproni, Priscila; Baptista, Janaina A.; Almeida, Tiago Luiz de; Passos, Luiz A.C.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: pricaproni@hotmail.com

    2007-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to modify the immunological properties of biomolecules. Very promising results were obtained when crude animal venoms, as well as isolated toxins, were treated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays, yielding toxoids with good immunogenicity. The achievement of modified antigens with lower toxicity and preserved or improved immunogenicity can be useful. Ionizing radiation has been proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venoms toxicity without affecting and even increasing their immunogenic properties. However, little is known about the modifications that irradiated molecules undergo and even less about the immunological response that such antigens elicit. In the present work, we have investigated the immunological behavior of bothropstoxin-I, a K49 phospholipase, before and after irradiation. Structural modifications of the toxin were investigated by SDS-PAGE. Isogenic mice were immunized with either the native or the irradiated toxin. The circulating antibodies were isotyped and titrated by ELISA. According to our data, irradiation promoted structural modifications in the toxin, characterized by higher molecular weight forms of the protein (aggregates and oligomers). Our data indicate that irradiated toxins were immunogenic and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native toxin in ELISA. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant modifications in their structures, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native proteins. Also, our data indicate that the irradiated protein induced higher titers of IgG2a and IgG2b, suggesting that Th1 cells were predominantly involved in the immune response. (author)

  13. [The radiation-increased synthesis of phytochelatins in roots of gamma-irradiated barley seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilin, I A; Dikarev, V G; Geras'kin, S A

    2004-01-01

    It was shown that gamma-irradiation and cadmium nitrate increased synthesis of phytochelatins in roots of barley seedlings. The stimulation of synthesis of phytochelatins in gamma-irradiated plants was shown for the first time. The results obtained indicate more important role of phytochelatins in intercellular metabolism than heavy-metal-binding.

  14. Schistosoma mansoni: aspectos quantitativos da evolução de cercarias irradiadas a nível da pele, pulmões e sistema porta, em camundongos Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the evolution of gamma-irradiated cercariae at the skin, lungs, and portal system, in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gileno de Sá Cardoso

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a migração do Schistosoma mansoni (cepas LE e SJ em oito grupos de camundongos albinos (Mus musculus não isogênicos, infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 450 cercarias não irradiadas (grupos controles e irradiadas com 3 Krad, 20 Krad e 40 Krad de radiação gama proveniente de cobalto-60, Na pele, observou-se uma diminuição progressiva das taxas de recuperação em função do tempo e, nos pulmões e sistema porta, verificou-se uma relação inversa significativa entre as taxas de recuperação total e as doses de irradiação. A dose de 20 Krad praticamente impede a migração dos parasites, de ambas as cepas, dos pulmões até o sistema porta, enquanto a de 40 Krad praticamente impede a migração dos mesmos da pele para os pulmões.The migration of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains has been studied in eight groups of outbred Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus, which were previously infected with ca 450 cercariae, transcutaneously. The infection of mice was performed with non irradiated cercariae (control groups, or with gamma-irradiated cercariae, at the schedule of 3, 20 and 40 Krad. Regarding the skin, a progressive decrease was detected for the recovery rates, related to the time of infection. As far as the lungs and portal system are concerned, a significant inverse correlation was observed between the total recovery rate and the irradiation dosages. The dose of 20 Krad practically hinders the migration of the parasites (in both strains from the lungs to the portal system, whereas the dose of 40 Krad prevents the migration of most of the parasites from the skin to the lungs.

  15. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Sung Kee; Kand, Il Joon; Yook, Hong Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicochemical properties (saponin, amino acids, sugars, proximate composition, color, pH, acidity, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids and minerals) were not changed by gamma irradiation upto 10 kGy. Based upon the results, it is concluded that gamma irradiation can effectively improve the microbiological quality of red ginseng powders without significant unfavorable changes. Therefore, it is suggested that irradiation technology is a viable alternative method to other sanitary process containing chemical fumigant and will be useful for the improvement of the quality of red ginseng powders and their products. 5 figs, 18 tabs, 92 refs. (Author).

  16. Differential effects of whole-body {gamma}-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-05-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a {mu}-opioid receptor agonist) and {beta}-endorphin (an {epsilon}-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, {gamma}-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a {delta}-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and {beta}-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or {beta}-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by {beta}-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of {mu}- and {epsilon}-opioid receptors to {gamma}-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  17. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the whitening activity of {beta}-glucan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Sung, Nak Yun; Jung, Pil Moon; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui Hong [Chungnam Naitonal University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    This study evaluated the change in whitening activity of {beta}-glucan by gamma-irradiation. Tyrosinase inhibition was significantly increased in the samples with 30, 50, 10 kGy irradiated {beta}-glucan. Melanin synthesis of irradiated {beta}-glucan was measured from B16BL6 melanoma cell line treated with {alpha}-melanin stimulating hormone. Melanin synthesis was increased in the {alpha}-melanin stimulating hormone added group. However, it was decreased in the groups of 30, 50 and 100 kGy gamma-irradiated {beta}-glucan treated with {alpha}-melanin stimulating hormone. These results indicate that gamma irradiated {beta}-glucan may elevate the whitening activity. Therefore, gamma-irradiated {beta}-glucan could be used for nutraceutical foods in cosmetic industry.

  18. Inactivation of fungal contaminants on Korean traditional cashbox by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Lim, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, gamma irradiation was applied to decontaminate a Korean cultural artifact, a wooden cashbox stored in local museum. Fungi isolated from the wooden cashbox were identified by 18S rDNA sequencing methods. It was observed that the isolated fungi exhibited high similarity to Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verruculosum, and Trichoderma viride. Each strain was tested for sensitivity to gamma irradiation, and was inactivated by the irradiation at a dose of 5 kGy. The wooden cashbox was thus gamma-irradiated at this dose (5 kGy), and consequently decontaminated. Two months after the irradiation, when the wooden cashbox was retested to detect biological contamination, no fungi were found. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation at a low dose of 5 kGy can be applied for successful decontamination of wooden artifacts.

  19. Differential effect of gamma-radiation-induced heme oxygenase-1 activity in female and male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Youngsoo; Platonov, Alexander; Akhalaia, Medea; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young

    2005-08-01

    Ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species, which exert diverse biological effects on cells and animals. We investigated alterations of heme oxygenase (HO) and non-protein thiols (NPSH), which are known as two major anti-oxidant enzymes, in female and male C57BL/6 mice in the lung, liver, and brain after whole-body gamma-irradiation with 10 Gy (1-7 days) as well as in the lung after whole-thorax gamma-irradiation (WTI) with 12.5 Gy (1-26 weeks). Most significant alteration of HO activity was observed in the liver, which elevated 250% in males. NPSH level in female liver was increased on the 5th-7th days but decreased in males on the 3rd day. In the lung, the elevation of HO activity in both sexes and the pattern of NPSH change were similar to that of the liver. On the other hand, the increase of HO activity on the 16th week and the decrease of NPSH level on the 2nd week were observed only in male lung after WTI. This study shows that the liver is the most sensitive tissue to gamma-irradiation-induced alterations of HO activity in both female and male mice. In addition, there exists significant differential effect of gamma-irradiation on anti-oxidant system in female and male mice.

  20. Optical properties of T-centers under gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Polosan, S; Dragusin, M; Topa, V

    2003-01-01

    Electrolytic coloring of KCl:Pb crystals, leads to formation of negative metal ions with intense emission in the infrared region. These new color centers were named T centers; their most probable configuration could be Pb sub 2 sup 2 sup - , due to the lack of EPR or DCM signals. In order to destroy these structures, the crystals were irradiated with gamma-rays at high doses. The results were the detachment of the electrons from T centers and the appearance of Pb sup 2 sup + - ions. The possibility cannot be excluded of the existence of Pb sup + and Pb sup 0 centers in the samples, because these centers do not exhibit any optical properties on this spectral region. (authors)

  1. PtRu/C electrocatalysts prepared using {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F.; Neto, Almir Oliveira; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-10

    PtRu/C electrocatalysts (carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles) were prepared submitting water/ethylene glycol solutions containing Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions and the carbon support to {gamma}-irradiation. The water/ethylene glycol ratio (v/v) and the total dose (kGy) were evaluated as synthesis parameters. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electro-oxidation aiming fuel cell application. The obtained PtRu/C electrocatalysts were more active for methanol electro-oxidation than the commercial PtRu/C electrocatalyst at ambient temperature and the electrocatalytic activity depends on the water/ethylene glycol ratio used in the preparation. (author)

  2. The gamma irradiation effects on structural and optical properties of silk fibroin/HPMC blend films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, G. Rajesha [Department of Physics, Govt. First Grade College, Hiriadka, Udupi - 576 113 (India); Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Gowda, Mahadeva; Shivananda, C. S.; Asha, S.; Byrappa, K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore - 574 199 (India); Sangappa, Y., E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore - 574 199 (India); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2016-05-23

    In this paper the structural, chemical and optical properties of gamma irradiated silk fibroin/Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (SF-HPMC) blend films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The results indicate that the gamma radiation did not affect significantly the primary structure of polypeptide arrangement in the blend films. But the optical properties of the blends changed with gamma irradiation dosage.

  3. The gamma irradiation effects on structural and optical properties of silk fibroin/HPMC blend films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, G. Rajesha; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Gowda, Mahadeva; Shivananda, C. S.; Asha, S.; Byrappa, K.; Sangappa, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the structural, chemical and optical properties of gamma irradiated silk fibroin/Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (SF-HPMC) blend films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The results indicate that the gamma radiation did not affect significantly the primary structure of polypeptide arrangement in the blend films. But the optical properties of the blends changed with gamma irradiation dosage.

  4. High irradiation and ageing properties of resistive Micromegas detectors at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Andreou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Resistive Micromegas have been developed in recent years with the aim of making this technology usable in HEP experiments where the high sparking rate of classical Micromegas is not tolerable. A resistive Micromegas with four layers and an active surface of 0.5 m2 each, has been designed and built at CERN as prototype of the detectors to be used for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment. The detector has been exposed to an intense gamma source of 16 TBq in order to study the effects of ageing and evaluate the detector behavior under high irradiation.

  5. The influence of low temperature on gamma-ray irradiated permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young Chul; Cha, Hyun Gil; Kim, Chang Woo; Ji, Eun Sun; Kim, Young Hwan; Kang, Dong In; Kang, Young Soo

    2009-12-01

    The temperature effect on the magnetic property of gamma-ray irradiated Nd-Fe-B and Sr-Ferrite magnets has been investigated. When the permanent magnets are exposed to gamma-ray, it's magnetic and other related properties are declined with degree of dose. The decreased magnetic property by gamma-ray irradiation at low temperature is similar with the result of magnet at high temperature. The temperature effect on the gamma-ray irradiation at exposed moment is also regarded as one of the important parameters for the reduced magnetic properties. The gamma-irradiation at low temperature was carried out at 195 K, and the changed properties of two kinds of magnets before and after gamma-irradiation were comparatively studied. The increased demagnetization of the magnets were studied by Hall probe. And changed Curie temperature and micro-crystal structure of each permanent magnet by gamma-ray irradiation has been also studied. Moreover the strong and broad single line shape of ESR signal in the resonance magnetic field is attributed to unpaired electron of Fe2+ in the sample by the effect of gamma-ray irradiation.

  6. Bystander responses in low dose irradiated cells treated with plasma from gamma irradiated blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acheva, A; Georgieva, R; Rupova, I; Boteva, R [Laboratory Molecular Radiobiology and Epidemiology, National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, 132 Kliment Ohridski blvd, Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Lyng, F [Radiation and Environmental Science Center, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin st, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: anjin_a@mail.bg

    2008-02-01

    There are two specific low-dose radiation-induced responses that have been the focus of radiobiologists' interest in recent years. These are the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells and the adaptive response to a challenge dose after prior low dose irradiation. In the present study we have investigated if plasma from irradiated blood can act as a 'challenge dose' on low dose irradiated reporter epithelial cells (HaCaT cell line). The main aim was to evaluate the overall effect of low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy) of reporter cells and the influence of bystander factors in plasma from 0.5 Gy gamma irradiated blood on these cells. The effects were estimated by clonogenic survival of the reporter cells. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as potential factors involved in the bystander signaling. Calcium fluxes and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization were also examined as a marker for initiation of apoptosis in the reporter cells. The results show that there are large individual differences in the production of bystander effects and adaptive responses between different donors. These may be due to the specific composition of the donor plasma. The observed effects generally could be divided into two groups: adaptive responses and additive effects. ROS appeared to be involved in the responses of the low dose pretreated reporter cells. In all cases there was a significant decrease in MMP which may be an early event in the apoptotic process. Calcium signaling also appeared to be involved in triggering apoptosis in the low dose pretreated reporter cells. The heterogeneity of the bystander responses makes them difficult to be modulated for medical uses. Specific plasma characteristics that cause these large differences in the responses would need to be identified to make them useful for radiotherapy.

  7. Bystander responses in low dose irradiated cells treated with plasma from gamma irradiated blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheva, A.; Georgieva, R.; Rupova, I.; Boteva, R.; Lyng, F.

    2008-02-01

    There are two specific low-dose radiation-induced responses that have been the focus of radiobiologists' interest in recent years. These are the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells and the adaptive response to a challenge dose after prior low dose irradiation. In the present study we have investigated if plasma from irradiated blood can act as a 'challenge dose' on low dose irradiated reporter epithelial cells (HaCaT cell line). The main aim was to evaluate the overall effect of low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy) of reporter cells and the influence of bystander factors in plasma from 0.5 Gy gamma irradiated blood on these cells. The effects were estimated by clonogenic survival of the reporter cells. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as potential factors involved in the bystander signaling. Calcium fluxes and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization were also examined as a marker for initiation of apoptosis in the reporter cells. The results show that there are large individual differences in the production of bystander effects and adaptive responses between different donors. These may be due to the specific composition of the donor plasma. The observed effects generally could be divided into two groups: adaptive responses and additive effects. ROS appeared to be involved in the responses of the low dose pretreated reporter cells. In all cases there was a significant decrease in MMP which may be an early event in the apoptotic process. Calcium signaling also appeared to be involved in triggering apoptosis in the low dose pretreated reporter cells. The heterogeneity of the bystander responses makes them difficult to be modulated for medical uses. Specific plasma characteristics that cause these large differences in the responses would need to be identified to make them useful for radiotherapy.

  8. Irradiation with low-dose gamma ray enhances tolerance to heat stress in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zheng, Fengxia; Qi, Wencai; Wang, Tianqi; Ma, Lingyu; Qiu, Zongbo; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-06-01

    Gamma irradiation at low doses can stimulate the tolerance to environmental stress in plants. However, the knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying the enhanced tolerance induced by low-dose gamma irradiation is far from fully understood. In this study, to investigate the physiological and molecular mechanisms of heat stress alleviated by low-dose gamma irradiation, the Arabidopsis seeds were exposed to a range of doses before subjected to heat treatment. Our results showed that 50-Gy gamma irradiation maximally promoted seedling growth in response to heat stress. The production rate of superoxide radical and contents of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in the seedlings irradiated with 50-Gy dose under heat stress were significantly lower than those of controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione (GSH) content and proline level in the gamma-irradiated seedlings were significantly increased compared with the controls. Furthermore, transcriptional expression analysis of selected genes revealed that some components related to heat tolerance were stimulated by low-dose gamma irradiation under heat shock. Our results suggest that low-dose gamma irradiation can modulate the physiological responses as well as gene expression related to heat tolerance, thus alleviating the stress damage in Arabidopsis seedlings.

  9. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Biological Properties of a PLGA-PEG-Hydroxyapatite Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Shahabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation is able to affect various structural and biological properties of biomaterials In this study, a composite of Hap/PLGA-PEG and their ingredients were submitted to gamma irradiation doses of 25 and 50 KGy. Various properties such as molecular weight (GPC, thermal behavior (DSC, wettability (contact angle, cell viability (MTT assay, and alkaline phosphatase activity were studied for the composites and each of their ingredients. The results showed a decrease in molecular weight of copolymer with no change in the glass transition and melting temperatures after gamma irradiation. In general gamma irradiation can increase the activation energy ΔH of the composites and their ingredients. While gamma irradiation had no effect on the wettability of copolymer samples, there was a significant decrease in contact angle of hydroxyapatite and composites with increase in gamma irradiation dose. This study showed an increase in biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite with gamma irradiation with no significant effect on cell viability in copolymer and composite samples. In spite of the fact that no change occurred in alkaline phosphatase activity of composite samples, results indicated a decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity in irradiated hydroxyapatites. These effects on the properties of PLGA-PEG-hydroxyapatite can enhance the composite application as a biomaterial.

  10. Investigation of solid phase upon {gamma}-irradiation of ferrihydrite-ethanol suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkin, Tanja [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Zadro, Kreso [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Gotic, Marijan, E-mail: gotic@irb.h [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Music, Svetozar [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-07-15

    Ferrihydrite (FH) nanoparticles were synthesised and subjected to {gamma}-irradiation in the form of FH-ethanol suspension. The dose rate of {gamma}-radiation was {approx}16 kGy/h and the samples were irradiated to doses of up to 2590 kGy. {gamma}-irradiation of FH-ethanol suspensions did not cause the transformation of FH to any of the other iron oxide phases. Likewise, neither the Moessbauer and FT-IR spectroscopy nor the quantitative analysis using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy gave any evidence of structural changes of FH upon {gamma}-irradiation. C, H analysis showed that the C concentration in FH gradually increased with dose and was higher in {gamma}-irradiated FH samples than in non-irradiated FH sample. This finding suggested that carbon in FH originated from ethanol degradation. The H concentration in FH gradually increased to the dose of up to 340 kGy and then slightly decreased. Magnetic measurements showed a progressive decrease in magnetisation with an increase in {gamma}-irradiation. The results of magnetic measurements and C, H analysis suggested the carbonisation of FH surface. It was supposed that {gamma}-irradiation of FH-ethanol suspension reductively decomposed ethanol thus generating unsaturated hydrocarbons and acetylides, which in turn formed a conjugate iron complex, thus carbonating the FH surface. The carbonisation of the FH surface prevented FH transformation to other iron oxide phases.

  11. Increasing genetic variability in black oats using gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, G; Moliterno, E; Ribeiro, G; Costa, P M A; Woyann, L G; Tessmann, E W; Oliveira, A C; Cruz, C D

    2014-12-04

    The black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb) is commonly used for forage, soil cover, and green manure. Despite its importance, little improvement has been made to this species, leading to high levels of genotypic disuniformity within commercial cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different doses of gamma rays [(60)Co] applied to black oat seeds on the increase of genetic variability of agronomic traits. We applied doses of 0, 10, 50, 100, and 200 Gy to the genotype ALPHA 94087 through exposure to [(60)Co]. Two experiments were conducted in the winter of 2008. The first aimed to test forage trait measurements such as plant height, dry matter yield, number of surviving tillers, and seedling stand. The second test assessed seed traits, such as yield and dormancy levels. Gamma irradiation seems not to increase seed yield in black oats, but it was effective in generating variability for the other traits. Tiller number and plant height are important selection traits to increase dry matter yield. Selection in advanced generations of mutant populations can increase the probability of identifying superior genotypes.

  12. Gamma-ray spectroscopy on irradiated MTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, L.A.A. E-mail: laaterre@net.ipen.br; Zeituni, C.A.; Perrotta, J.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da

    2000-08-11

    The availability of burnup data is an important requirement in any systematic approach to the enhancement of safety, economics and performance of a nuclear research reactor. This work presents the theory and experimental techniques applied to determine, by means of nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, the burnup of Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements irradiated in the IEA-R1 research reactor. Burnup measurements, based on analysis of spectra that result from collimation and detection of gamma-rays emitted in the decay of radioactive fission products, were performed at the reactor pool area. The measuring system consists of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector together with suitable fast electronics and an on-line microcomputer data acquisition module. In order to achieve absolute burnup values, the detection set (collimator tube+HPGe detector) was previously calibrated in efficiency. The obtained burnup values are compared with ones provided by reactor physics calculations, for three kinds of MTR fuel elements with different cooling times, initial enrichment grades and total number of fuel plates. Both values show good agreement within the experimental error limits.

  13. Some microbial, chemical and sensorial properties of gamma irradiated sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2016-04-15

    The effect on microbial, chemical and sensorial properties of sesame seeds was determined after irradiation and storage. The sesame seeds were analyzed before and after irradiation with 3, 6 and 9 kGy of gamma irradiation, and after 6 and 12 months of storage. The results showed that gamma irradiation had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the moisture, ash and fat content on sesame seeds. While, small differences, but sometimes significant (pTVBN) increased significantly (pTVBN decreased (p0.05) than those of non-irradiated samples.

  14. Gamma irradiation inhibits wound induced browning in shredded cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Suprasanna, Penna; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2015-04-15

    Gamma-radiation induced browning inhibition in minimally processed shredded cabbage stored (10 °C) for up to 8 days was investigated. γ-irradiation (2 kGy) resulted in inhibition of browning as a result of down-regulation (1.4-fold) in phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. Activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, total and individual phenolic content as well as o-quinone concentration were, however, unaffected. In the non-irradiated samples, PAL activity increased as a consequence of up-regulation of PAL gene expression after 24 and 48 h by 1.2 and 7.7-fold, respectively, during storage that could be linearly correlated with enhanced quinone formation and browning. Browning inhibition in radiation processed shredded cabbage as a result of inhibition of PAL activity was thus clearly demonstrated. The present work provides an insight for the first time on the mechanism of browning inhibition at both biochemical and genetic level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of gamma-irradiation on some pure aroma compounds of spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjövall, O; Honkanen, E; Kallio, H; Latva-Kala, K; Sjöberg, A M

    1990-09-01

    Chemical changes due to gamma-irradiation were investigated in 11 pure aroma compounds typically found in spices. Samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 10, and 50 kGy. The irradiation source was 60Co. Irradiated samples and unirradiated controls were analyzed by gas chromatography alone and coupled with mass spectrometry. Significant changes due to the irradiation occurred only in (+/-)-linalool and alpha-terpineol, which are typical components of, for example, coriander and bay leaf. Their total amounts decreased by about 4-13% and some minor peaks increased as a result of irradiation. However, different results may be obtained when the spices themselves are irradiated.

  16. [Comparison of different G-CSF treatment effectiveness in experiments on irradiated mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhdestvenskiĭ, L M; Shchegoleva, R A; Deshevoĭ, Iu B; Lisina, N I; Titov, B A

    2012-01-01

    In the experiments on F1 (CBA x C57BL) and BALB mice irradiated by 137Cs gamma-rays, preparations of unglycosilated G-SCF such as Neupogen and their domestic analogs Leucostim and Neupomax were investigated. The tests such as 9-day bone marrow cellularity (BMC) and endogenous CFUs, the neutrophile number restoration, the 30-day survival index have shown that all three preparations have an approximately equal effectiveness relating to acute radiation disease treatment and granulopoiesis stimulation after a 5-10 day consecutive administration following irradiation of mice at lethal and sublethal doses. We have come to the conclusion that Leucostim and Neupomax can be regarded as adequate substitutes for Neupogen.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality characteristics of red color egg powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Nam; Park, Jin Gyu; Han, In Jun; Song, Beom Seok; KIm, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Mi Jung [Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, Anyang Unversity, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-15

    This study was carried out to investigate effects of gamma irradiation on microbiological and quality characteristics of the red color egg powder (RCEP). The control sample was contaminated by microbial levels of 3.16 log CFUg{sup -1} in total aerobic bacteria, but microorganisms in gamma-irradiated samples at above 3.0 kGy were not found at detection limit less than 10{sup 2} CFUg{sup -1}. However, sensory scores and Hunter’s color value of the gamma-irradiated RCEP were decreased depending upon the irradiation dose. The RCEP treated by a combination of the vacuum packaging with gamma irradiation at 3.0 kGy was considered having a microbiological safety and maintaining the sensory quality.

  18. RBE values for colo-rectal injury after caesium 137 gamma-ray and neutron irradiation. 1. Single doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, N.H.A.; Denekamp, J.; Maughan, R.L. (Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (UK). Gray Lab.)

    1983-04-01

    Colo-rectal damage in mice has been assessed after caesium ..gamma.. irradiation and 3 MeV neutrons given as single doses. Several assays were used, including body weight changes, faecal deformity and lethality. Dose response curves were constructed for each assay at times ranging from 10 days to 16 months after irradiation. An initial loss of weight at 10-20 days was presumably related to epithelial denudation, but a dose-dependent weight reduction (compared with controls) persisted over the animals' life span. Mice died progressively after localised pelvic ..gamma.. irradiation; there was no sharp demarcation between an early and late phase of lethal injury. Death resulted from intestinal stricture or stenosis. The time course for lethality was qualitatively different after neutron irradiation, with little progression of damage between 5 and 11 months. Faecal deformity was detectable as a higher proportion of small pellets when the rectum became constricted by fibrosis. No significant faecal deformity was observed before 6 months after which time dose response curves could be obtained. The RBE for early damage (assessed at 1-3 months) was 2.2-2.7, falling to 1.7-1.9 for late damage (determined at 10-15 months) over the range of neutron doses of 7.5-12 Gy.

  19. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 °C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  20. Study on shelf life extension of papayas irradiated by /sup 60/Co gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, M.S.; Chen, M.D.; Lin, C.T.; Fu, Y.K.

    1984-11-01

    Papayas are one of the main fresh fruits in Taiwan area. Papaya fruits were treated with hot water to pasteurize peels followed by /sup 60/Co gamma-ray irradiation to extend the ripening time. The purpose of synergetic methods is to extend the shelf life of papaya fruits. This experiment was carried out by seven treatments, which were: (1) control group, (2) hot water treatment only, (3) hot water treatment with a 25 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (4) hot water treatment with a 50 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (5) hot water treatment with a 75 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (6) 75 krad ..gamma..-irradiation only, and (7) hot water treatment with a 100 krad ..gamma..-irradiation. The items of observation were: surface yellowing, surface decaying, quality of texture, and length of period lasted after irradiation for 50% marketable papayas. The results of this study showed that a shelf-life extension of six days could be obtained for papayas subjected to hot water (50 to 55/sup 0/C) treatment and a 100 krad irradiation. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)], E-mail: setsuko@affrc.go.jp; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Kanamori, Norihito [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio [School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara-city, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Kawamoto, Shinichi [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a {sup 60}Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of {beta}-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  2. Gamma irradiation improves the antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi Lee, Eun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Sik Lee, Seung; Hyun Hong, Sung; Cho, Jae-Young; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2012-08-01

    Aloe has been widely used in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics because of its aromatic and therapeutic properties. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel were gamma-irradiated from 10 to 100 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel changed to red; this color persisted up to 40 kGy but disappeared above 50 kGy. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the production of a new, unknown compound (m/z=132) after gamma irradiation of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel. The amount of this unknown compound increased with increasing irradiation up to 80 kGy, and it was degraded at 100 kGy. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of aloe extract was dramatically increased from 53.9% in the non-irradiated sample to 92.8% in the sample irradiated at 40 kGy. This strong antioxidant activity was retained even at 100 kGy. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of aloe extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of aloe extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physicochemical properties of alkali-extracted rice starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Shah, Asima; Gani, Asir; Rather, Sajad Ahmad; Wani, Sajad Mohd.; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Gani, Adil

    2014-06-01

    Starches isolated from two newly released rice varieties (K-322 and K-448) were subject to irradiation at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy doses. Comparative study between native (not irradiated) and irradiated starch samples was carried out to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties due to gamma irradiation. Significant decrease was found in apparent amylose content, pH, swelling power, syneresis, and pasting properties, whereas carboxyl content, water absorption capacity, and transmittance were found to increase with the increase in irradiation dose. Granule morphology of native and irradiated starches under scanning electron microscope revealed that granules were polygonal or irregular in shape. The starch granules were somewhat deformed by gamma irradiation. X-ray diffraction pattern showed A type of pattern in native as well as irradiated starches.

  4. Change of the Serum Composition in Irradiated Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong Kwan [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    This study is aimed to investigate the change of serum compositions of mice caused by the irradiation. The 3 Gy radiation with 10 MeV Linac was once irradiated to whole body of mice and their serum was collected to conduct 14 biochemical analyses. With the collected data, t-test was performed. As the result, the significant change was confirmed in the following 3 compositions. First, the glucose level of the normal control group was 185.43{+-}14.93, but the irradiation group was found to be 220.00{+-}17.58, which shows significant difference(p<0.001). Second, the BUN(blood urea nitrogen) measurement showed lower value(15.70{+-}1.48) in the irradiation group than the normal control group(19.61{+-}1.65), which indicates the significant difference in mean value (p<0.01). Third, the measurement of albumin resulted in lower value of 2.89{+-}0.25 in irradiation group than 3.19{+-}0.25 of the normal control group, which shows the significant difference in mean value(p<0.05). In consequence, the serum of the mice irradiated with 3 Gy radiation caused significant change in 3 compositions; glucose, Blood urea nitrogen(BUN) and albumin.

  5. Evaluation of the potential of hexamethylenetetramine, compared with tirapazamine, as a combined agent with {gamma}-irradiation and cisplatin treatment in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, S; Tano, K; Watanabe, M; Kashino, G; Suzuki, M; Kinashi, Y; Ono, K; Nakamura, J

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effect on intratumour quiescent (Q) cells in vivo of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) or tirapazamine (TPZ) in combination with gamma-irradiation and cisplatin treatment. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) VII tumour-bearing mice were administered 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously to label all intratumour proliferating (P) cells. The mice then received HMTA or TPZ intraperitoneally or continuously with or without gamma-irradiation or cisplatin treatment. Other tumour-bearing mice received HMTA or TPZ intraperitoneally immediately after gamma-irradiation. Immediately after gamma-irradiation or cisplatin treatment following HMTA or TPZ, or 24 h after gamma-irradiation followed by HMTA or TPZ, the response of Q cells was assessed in terms of the micronucleus frequency using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The response of all tumour cells (P + Q) was determined from the BrdU-non-treated tumours. HMTA was more toxic to the subset of Q cells than to the population of tumour cells as a whole, similar to the findings for TPZ. The radiosensitising effect of HMTA was similar to that of TPZ in both all cells and Q cells. The recovery-inhibiting effect of HMTA was reliable, but not as great as that of TPZ. The cisplatin sensitivity-enhancing effect of HMTA was similar to or slightly greater than that of TPZ. Continuous administration of both HMTA and TPZ resulted in higher radiosensitivity- and cisplatin sensitivity-enhancing effects than did a single i.p. administration. We concluded that, in terms of the total tumour cell killing effect, including killing of Q cells, gamma-irradiation and cisplatin treatment combined with continuous HMTA administration is a promising strategy given that HMTA is used in clinics.

  6. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash -SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree; Kim, Kwan-Soo; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2008-03-01

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwan-Soo [Research and Development Department, Greenpia Technology, Yeoju 469-811 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-03-15

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal and rheological properties of grain amaranth starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong Xiangli [School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Kasapis, Stefan [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, City Campus, Melbourne, Vic 3001 (Australia); Bao Jinsong [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province and Chinese Ministry of Agriculture for Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Huajiachi Campus, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Corke, Harold [School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: hcorke@yahoo.com

    2009-11-15

    Physical properties of starch from two cultivars of gamma-irradiated grain amaranth with different amylose content were investigated. Pasting viscosities decreased continuously with the increase in dosages of irradiation. Furthermore, different irradiation dosages resulted in modification of the thermal properties and crystallinity of starch. Dynamic oscillation on shear was also employed, temperature and frequency sweeps showed that changes in storage modulus and loss modulus were significant, with Tibet Yellow producing more elastic gels as compared to Hy030 at different irradiation dosages.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal and rheological properties of grain amaranth starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangli; Kasapis, Stefan; Bao, Jinsong; Corke, Harold

    2009-11-01

    Physical properties of starch from two cultivars of gamma-irradiated grain amaranth with different amylose content were investigated. Pasting viscosities decreased continuously with the increase in dosages of irradiation. Furthermore, different irradiation dosages resulted in modification of the thermal properties and crystallinity of starch. Dynamic oscillation on shear was also employed, temperature and frequency sweeps showed that changes in storage modulus and loss modulus were significant, with Tibet Yellow producing more elastic gels as compared to Hy030 at different irradiation dosages.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.

    2011-11-01

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  12. Wastewater treatment using gamma irradiation: Tétouan pilot station, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahri, Loubna; Elgarrouj, Driss; Zantar, Said; Mouhib, Mohamed; Azmani, Amina; Sayah, Fouad

    2010-04-01

    The increasing demand on limited water supplies has accelerated the wastewater reuse and reclamation. We investigated gamma irradiation effects on wastewater by measuring differences in the legislated parameters, aiming to reuse the wastewater. Effluents samples were collected at the urban wastewater treatment station of Tetouan and were irradiated at different doses ranging from 0 to 14 kGy using a Co 60 gamma source. The results showed an elimination of bacterial flora, a decrease of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, and higher conservation of nutritious elements. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation might be a good choice for the reuse of wastewater for agricultural activities.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on DC electrical conductivity of ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaroop, K.; Somashekarappa, H. M., E-mail: carrtmu@gmail.com [Centre for Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation Technology (CARRT), USIC, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574199, Karnataka (India); Naveen, C. S.; Jayanna, H. S. [Department of PG Studies and Research in Physics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta-577451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India)

    2015-06-24

    The temperature dependent dc electrical conductivity of gamma irradiated Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles is presented in this paper. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirms Zn-O stretching vibrations. UV-Visible spectroscopy studies show that the energy band gap (E{sub g}) of the prepared ZnO nanoparticles increases with respect to gamma irradiation dose, which can be related to room temperature dc electrical conductivity. The result shows significant variation in the high temperature dc electrical conductivity of ZnO nanoparticles due to gamma irradiation.

  14. Application of positron annihilation lifetime technique for {gamma}-irradiation stresses study in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Golovchak, R.; Kovalskiy, A. [Scientific Research Company ' ' Carat' ' , Stryjska str. 20279031 Lviv (Ukraine); Filipecki, J.; Hyla, M. [Physics Institute, Pedagogical University, Al. Armii Krajowej 13/1542201 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2002-08-01

    The influence of {gamma}-irradiation on the positron annihilation lifetime spectra in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of As-Ge-S system has been analysed. The correlations between lifetime data, structural features and chemical compositions of glasses have been discussed. The observed lifetime components are connected with bulk positron annihilation and positron annihilation on various native and {gamma}-induced open volume defects. It is concluded that after {gamma}-irradiation of investigated materials the {gamma}-induced microvoids based on S{sub 1}{sup -}, As{sub 2}{sup -}, and Ge{sub 3}{sup -} coordination defects play the major role in positron annihilation processes. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. DNA damage response signaling in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells following gamma and carbon beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Somnath [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Narang, Himanshi, E-mail: himinarang@gmail.com [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sarma, Asitikantha [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Krishna, Malini [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-11-01

    Carbon beams (5.16 MeV/u, LET = 290 keV/{mu}m) are high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation characterized by higher relative biological effectiveness than low LET radiation. The aim of the current study was to determine the signaling differences between {gamma}-rays and carbon ion-irradiation. A549 cells were irradiated with 1 Gy carbon or {gamma}-rays. Carbon beam was found to be three times more cytotoxic than {gamma}-rays despite the fact that the numbers of {gamma}-H2AX foci were same. Percentage of cells showing ATM/ATR foci were more with {gamma}-rays however number of foci per cell were more in case of carbon irradiation. Large BRCA1 foci were found in all carbon irradiated cells unlike {gamma}-rays irradiated cells and prosurvival ERK pathway was activated after {gamma}-rays irradiation but not carbon. The noteworthy finding of this study is the early phase apoptosis induction by carbon ions. In the present study in A549 lung adenocarcinoma, authors conclude that despite activation of same repair molecules such as ATM and BRCA1, differences in low and high LET damage responses might be due to their distinct macromolecular complexes rather than their individual activation and the activation of cytoplasmic pathways such as ERK, whether it applies to all the cell lines need to be further explored.

  16. Use of gamma irradiation to prevent aflatoxin B 1 production in smoked dried fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbadu, G. H.

    Smoked dried fish bought from the Nigerian market was inoculated with spores of barAspergillus flavus (U.I. 81) and irradiated with doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 KGy gamma irradiation. The effect of aflatoxin B 1 production on subsequent incubation for 8 days as stationary cultures was measured. The amount of aflatoxin B 1 produced was found to decrease with increased gamma irradiation dose levels. While the non-irradiated control produced significantly (at 1% level) greater amounts of aflatoxin B 1 as compared to the treated cultures.

  17. Detection of gamma-irradiation effect on DNA and protein using magnetic sensor and cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duck-Gun; Song, Hoon; Kishore, M B; Vértesy, G; Lee, Duk-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a magnetic sensor utilizing Planar Hall Resistance (PHR) and cyclic Voltammetry (CV) for detecting the radiation effect was fabricated. Specifically, we applied in parallel a PHR sensor and CV device to monitor the irradiation effect on DNA and protein respectively. Through parallel measurements, we demonstrated that the PHR sensor and CV are sensitive enough to measure irradiation effect. The PHR voltage decreased by magnetic nanobead labeled DNA was slightly recovered after gamma ray irradiation. The behavior of cdk inhibitor protein p21 having a sandwich structure of Au/protein G/Ab/Ag/Ab was checked by monitoring the cyclic Voltammetry signal in analyzing the gamma ray irradiation effect.

  18. Variation in viscosity and ion conductivity of a polymer–salt complex exposed to gamma irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujata Tarafdar; S K De; Sujit Manna; Udayan De; Pradyot Nanda

    2010-02-01

    We study changes in microstructure and resulting changes in the properties of PEO(1 − )–NH4 ClO4 () samples where = 0.18, when irradiated with gamma doses varying up to 50 kGy. Viscosities of aqueous solutions of the irradiated samples give an idea of the change in molecular weight and show correlation with ion conductivity. On the whole, there is a chain scission on irradiation, though there is evidence of some cross-linking at higher doses. The ion conductivity shows a strong increase for an irradiation of 35 kGy. DSC studies indicate a decrease in crystallinity with gamma dose.

  19. Effect of 1.25 MeV gamma irradiation in alpha-phased PVDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarya, Suveda; Siddhartha [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Department of Applied Science, Ideal Institute of Technology, Govindpuram, Ghaziabad 201003, UP (India); Saha, A. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Center, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Wahab, M.A., E-mail: mawahab.physics@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2009-11-15

    The radiation induced changes taking place in alpha-phased poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films exposed to gamma rays were investigated in correlation with the applied doses. Samples were irradiated in vacuum at room temperature by a 1.25 MeV Co{sup 60} source with the doses in the range of 0-300 kGy. Optical and chemical properties of the irradiated as well as un-irradiated PVDF films were studied using UV-visible and FTIR techniques. Gamma irradiation was found to induce changes vary depending on the radiation dose.

  20. Control of Postharvest Bacterial Soft Rot by Gamma Irradiation and its Potential Modes of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rae-Dong Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity against a postharvest bacterial pathogen, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc. Gamma irradiation in a bacteria cell suspension resulted in a dramatic reduction of the viable counts as well as an increase in the amounts of DNA and protein released from the cells. Gamma irradiation showed complete inactivation of Ecc, especially at a dose of 0.6 kGy. In addition, scanning electron microscopy of irradiated cells revealed severe damage on the surface of most bacterial cells. Along with the morphological changes of cells by gamma irradiation, it also affected the membrane integrity in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanisms by which the gamma irradiation decreased the bacterial soft rot can be directly associated with the disruption of the cell membrane of the bacterial pathogen, along with DNA fragmentation, results in dose-dependent cell inactivation. These findings suggest that gamma irradiation has potential as an antibacterial approach to reduce the severity of the soft rot of paprika.

  1. Semiconductor quantum dot scintillation under gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letant, S E; Wang, T

    2006-08-23

    We recently demonstrated the ability of semiconductor quantum dots to convert alpha radiation into visible photons. In this letter, we report on the scintillation of quantum dots under gamma-ray irradiation, and compare the energy resolution of the 59 keV line of Americium 241 obtained with our quantum dot-glass nanocomposite material to that of a standard sodium iodide scintillator. A factor 2 improvement is demonstrated experimentally and interpreted theoretically using a combination of energy-loss and photon transport models. These results demonstrate the potential of quantum dots for room-temperature gamma-ray detection, which has applications in medical imaging, environmental monitoring, as well as security and defense. Present technology in gamma radiation detection suffers from flexibility and scalability issues. For example, bulk Germanium provides fine energy resolution (0.2% energy resolution at 1.33 MeV) but requires operation at liquid nitrogen temperature. On the other hand, Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride is a good room temperature detector ( 1% at 662 keV) but the size of the crystals that can be grown is limited to a few centimeters in each direction. Finally, the most commonly used scintillator, Sodium Iodide (NaI), can be grown as large crystals but suffers from a lack of energy resolution (7% energy resolution at 662 keV). Recent advancements in nanotechnology6-10 have provided the possibility of controlling materials synthesis at the molecular level. Both morphology and chemical composition can now be manipulated, leading to radically new material properties due to a combination of quantum confinement and surface to volume ratio effects. One of the main consequences of reducing the size of semiconductors down to nanometer dimensions is to increase the energy band gap, leading to visible luminescence, which suggests that these materials could be used as scintillators. The visible band gap of quantum dots would also ensure both efficient photon counting

  2. Development of a Stereotactic Device for Gamma Knife Irradiation of Small Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Tai; Kim, Dong Gyu; Paek, Sun Ha; Cho, Keun-Tae

    2008-01-01

    Objective The authors developed a stereotactic device for irradiation of small animals with Leksell Gamma Knife® Model C. Development and verification procedures were described in this article. Methods The device was designed to satisfy three requirements. The mechanical accuracy in positioning was to be managed within 0.5 mm. The strength of the device and structure were to be compromised to provide enough strength to hold a small animal during irradiation and to interfere the gamma ray beam as little as possible. The device was to be used in combination with the Leksell G-frame® and KOPF® rat adaptor. The irradiation point was determined by separate imaging sequences such as plain X-ray images. Results The absolute dose rate with the device in a Leksell Gamma Knife was 3.7% less than the value calculated from Leksell Gamma Plan®. The dose distributions measured with GAFCHROMIC® MD-55 film corresponded to those of Leksell Gamma Plan® within acceptable range. The device was used in a series of rat experiments with a 4 mm helmet of Leksell Gamma Knife. Conclusion A stereotactic device for irradiation of small animals with Leksell Gamma Knife Model C has been developed so that it fulfilled above requirements. Absorbed dose and dose distribution at the center of a Gamma Knife helmet are in acceptable ranges. The device provides enough accuracy for stereotactic irradiation with acceptable practicality. PMID:19096541

  3. A Comparison of Molecular and Histopathological Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton- or Gamma-Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgason, Ashley; Mangala, Lingegowda; Zhang, Ye; Hamilton, Stanley; Wu, Honglu

    2010-01-01

    There are many consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment which can adversely affect the health of a crew member. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) involving nausea and vomiting, damage to radio-sensitive tissue such as the blood forming organs and gastrointestinal tract, and cancer are some of these negative effects. The space radiation environment is ample with protons and contains gamma rays as well. Little knowledge exists to this point, however, regarding the effects of protons on mammalian systems; conversely several studies have been performed observing the effects of gamma rays on different animal models. For the research presented here, we wish to compare our previous work looking at whole-body exposure to protons using a mouse model to our studies of mice experiencing whole-body exposure to gamma rays as part of the radio-adaptive response. Radio-adaptation is a well-documented phenomenon in which cells exposed to a priming low dose of radiation prior to a higher dose display a reduction in endpoints like chromosomal aberrations, cell death, micronucleus formation, and more when compared to their counterparts receiving high dose-irradiation only. Our group has recently completed a radio-adaptive experiment with C57BL/6 mice. For both this study and the preceding proton research, the gastrointestinal tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation and the isolated small intestinal tissue was fixed in formalin for histopathological examination or snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen for RNA isolation. Histopathologic observation of the tissue using standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest doses of 0.1 Gy of protons and 0.05 Gy of gamma rays, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. A smaller percentage of crypts showed 3 or more apoptotic lesions in animals that received 6 Gy of gamma-irradiation compared to mice

  4. Effect of. gamma. -irradiation in the keeping quality of Nigerian onion cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbaji, A.S.; Ogbadu, G.H.; van Amstel, H. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1981-01-01

    Onion of variety Ds x Ws'78 and Ds'79 harvested 14 days prior to the experiment were treated with 5, 8 and 15 krad doses of ..gamma..-irradiation from a /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-irradiator and stored. Onions were weekly investigated for sprouting and rotting. Chemical analyses were carried out monthly for dry matter, flavour, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and protein. In comparison, a local method of storage was carried out. Irradiation dose of 5-15 krad completely inhibited sprouting throughout the whole storage period. Irradiated bulbs however, showed a higher tendency to rot. In comparison with the control, irradiation did not have any significant effect on dry matter, flavour component and ascorbic acid but the protein content was significantly lower in the irradiated bulbs. The compositional differences found between irradiated and untreated onions seem to be of no nutritional or organoleptic significance. Almost 100% loss was recorded for local storage trial.

  5. Role of gamma irradiation on the natural antioxidants in cumin seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hun [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advance Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Mee-Hye [School of Food Science, Eulji University, Seongnam 461-703 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young-Jeong [Division of Food Science, International University of Korea, Jinju 660-759 (Korea, Republic of); Srinivasan, Periasamy [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advance Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyung [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); Park, Hyun Jin [Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung Woo [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advance Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Woon [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advance Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-02-15

    Antioxidants quench oxidation by transferring hydrogen atoms to free radicals. In the present investigation, the effect of gamma irradiation on the natural antioxidants of irradiated cumin was studied. Cumin samples were purchased from retailers and then irradiated in a cobalt-60 irradiator to 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy at ambient temperature. The effect of irradiation on the antioxidant properties of the cumin seed were investigated by evaluating the radical-scavenging effect on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, determination of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total polyphenol content (TPC) and the antioxidant index by {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) was performed to assess ionization of cumin seeds by gamma irradiation. Irradiation was found to nonsignificantly increase and/or maintain all antioxidant parameters, TPC and the ESR signal intensity was found to be increased in cumin seeds.

  6. Virus inactivation studies using ion beams, electron and gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolko, Eduardo E. [Laboratorio de Polimeros, Grupo Aplicaciones Industriales, Unidad de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Pbro. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon 15, C.P. B1802AYA Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: smolko@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Lombardo, Jorge H. [Biotech S.A., C.P. 1754 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    Known methods of virus inactivation are based on the chemical action of some substances such as acetylethylenimine, betapropiolactone, glycidalaldehyde, formaldehyde, etc. In such a process, the viral suspension should be kept at room or higher temperatures for 24-48 h. Under these conditions, physical and chemical agents act to degrade the virus antigenic proteins. On the contrary with ionizing radiations at low temperatures, the treatment does not cause such degradation allowing the study of different viral functions. In this work, particle ({alpha}, d and ss) and {gamma} irradiations were used for partial and total inactivation of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Rauscher Leukemia Virus (RLV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). Obtention of the D{sub 37} dose from survival curves and the application of the target theory, permitted the determination of molecular weight of the nucleic acid genomes, EBR values and useful information for vaccine preparation. For RLV virus, a two target model of the RNA genome was deduced in accordance with biological information while from data from the literature and our own work on the structure of the scrapie prion, considering the molecular weight obtained by application of the theory, a new model for prion replication is presented, based on a trimer molecule.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on HPMC/ZnO nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Asha, S.; Madhukumar, R.; Latha, S.; Gowda, Mahadeva; Shivananda, C. S.; Harish, K. V.; Sangappa, E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore – 574199 (India); Shetty, G. Rajesha [Department of Physics, Government First Grade College, Hiriadka, Udupi – 576113 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The present work looks into the structural and mechanical properties modification in ZnO nanoparticle incorporated Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer films, induced by gamma irradiation. The irradiation process was performed in gamma chamber at room temperature by use of Cobalt-60 source (Average energy of 1.25MeV) at different doses: 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy respectively. The changes in structural parameters and mechanical properties in pure and gamma irradiated HPMC/ZnO nanocomposite films have been studied using X-ray scattering (XRD) data and universal testing machine (UTM). It is found that gamma irradiation decreases the structural parameters and improves the mechanical properties of nanocomposite films.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility in SPF mini-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun-Yeob [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Back [Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Cheonan, Chungcheongnam-do 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo-Yong [College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ohh, Sang-Jip, E-mail: sjohh@kangwon.ac.k [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility of either soy-based or milk-based diet for specific pathogen-free (SPF) mini-pigs. Gamma irradiation of the diets was done at dosage of 10 kGy with {sup 60}Co whereas autoclaving was executed at 121 {sup o}C for 20 min. Apparent crude protein digestibilities of gamma irradiated diets were higher (p<0.05) than those of autoclaved diets regardless of diet type. Digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and total carbohydrate in the irradiated diet were higher than those of the autoclaved diet. From the results of nutrient digestibility of mini-pig diets in this study, 10 kGy gamma radiation was suggested as a convenient diet radicidation method that can minimize the decrease in nutrient digestibility on feeding to SPF mini-pigs.

  9. Application of gamma irradiation for the microbiological safety of sliced cheddar cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Song, Beom Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Ill; Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo [Radiation Research Center for Innovative Technology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheo Run [Dept. of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    This study was conducted to establish the microbiological safety of sliced cheddar cheese with gamma irradiation. Total aerobic bacteria was 2.50 Log CFUg-1 in non-irradiated sample. No viable cells were observed in the gamma-irradiated at 1 kGy and over. D10 value for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in sliced cheddar cheese were 0.64 and 0.54 kGy, respectively. TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values were increased as irradiation dose was increased, but there was no significant difference between nonirradiated and irradiated samples at 1 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed there was no significant difference between samples irradiated at 1 kGy and non-irradiated in respect of color, odor, overall acceptability. Theses results indicated that gamma irradiation at 1 kGy was considered to be an effective treatment to ensure the microbiological safety of sliced cheddar cheese with minimal change of sensory, even though further studies should be investigated to reduce the deterioration of sensory quality induced by gamma irradiation.

  10. Postharvest Control of Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructigena in Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Wonsu; Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-08-01

    To extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea, we evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation alone or gamma irradiation combined with fumigation on the control of postharvest decay caused by Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructigena. An irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy caused the maximal inhibition of B. cinerea and M. fructigena spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.76 and 0.78 kGy for B. cinerea and M. fructigena, respectively. Inhibition of conidial germination of both fungal pathogens occurred at a greater level at the doses of 0.2 to 1.0 kGy compared with the nontreated control; 0.2 kGy caused 90.5 and 73.9% inhibition of B. cinerea and M. fructigena, respectively. Treatment in vitro with the ecofriendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater effect compared with the nontreated control. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments. Interestingly, when irradiation was combined with fumigation, the percentage of disease inhibition increased more at lower (<0.4 kGy) than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that the combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions.

  11. Development of hardened PVF : PMMA polyblend: effect of gamma and electron irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Bajpai; N B Dhagat; R Katare; Pragyesh Agrawal; S C Datt

    2003-06-01

    Specimens of poly(vinyl formal) (PVF) : poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polyblends with different weight percentage ratios were subjected to gamma irradiation (1 to 50 Mrad) and electron irradiation (1 to 20 Mrad). The effect of irradiation on the strength of the blend specimens was studied by measuring the surface microhardness using a Vickers microhardness tester attached to a Carl Zeiss NU 2 Universal research microscope. Significant changes were observed in the Vickers microhardness number, $H_v$. The $H_v$ values of gamma irradiated specimens are found to be higher than the unirradiated specimens indicating an occurrence of radiational crosslinking. The maximum value of $H_v$ is obtained at the gamma radiation dose of 15 Mrad. In case of electron irradiation the radiational crosslinking is found to take place for the blend specimens having lower wt% content of PMMA (0 and 1 wt%) in PVF matrix. On the other hand degradation of polymeric system is observed for the blends having PMMA content more than 1 wt%. The maximum value of $H_v$ is obtained for all the blend specimens at the electron irradiation dose of 8 Mrad. The degree of crosslinking in polyblends due to gamma irradiation is found to be more than electron irradiation. The scissioning mechanism is found to predominate in the polyblend system in case of electron irradiation.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on biopolymer composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol) and bacterial cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jipa, Iuliana Mihaela; Stroescu, Marta [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta, E-mail: stoica.anicuta@gmail.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Dobre, Tanase; Jinga, Sorin [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Zaharescu, Traian [Advanced Research Institute for Electrical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Unirii, 030138 Bucharest (Romania)

    2012-05-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper reports the obtaining of composite materials between PVA and BC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite films were {gamma}-irradiated at doses up to 50 kGy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films have a good resistance, being suitable as food packaging materials. - Abstract: Composite materials containing in different ratios poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), bacterial cellulose (BC) and glycerol (G) as plasticizer were obtained and exposed to different {gamma} radiation doses using an irradiator GAMMATOR provided with {sup 137}Cs source. These films successively received up to 50 kGy absorbed doses at a dose rate of 0.4 kGy/h at room temperature. In order to study the chemical and structural changes during {gamma} irradiation, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used. Water vapour permeability (WVP), Hunter colour parameters and hardness were also measured for the irradiated samples. Investigation revealed that WVP was not significantly affected by the irradiation. Colour measurements indicated a slight decrease of pure PVA films transparency and it made clear that all samples became more reddish and yellowish after irradiation. The samples hardness was not affected by the irradiation doses used. However, the results showed no drastic structural or chemical changes of the irradiated samples, which prove, in consequence, a good durability. These composite materials could be used as packaging materials for {gamma} irradiated products.

  13. Immunological network activation by low-dose rate irradiation. Analysis of cell populations and cell surface molecules in whole body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ina, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Kazuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Low Dose Radiation Research Center, Komae, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The effects of low-dose rate whole body irradiation on biodefense and immunological systems were investigated using female C57BL/6 (B6) mice. These B6 mice were exposed continuously to {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source in the long-term low-dose rate irradiation facility at CRIEPI for 0 - 12 weeks at a dose rate of 0.95 mGy/hr. In the bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood of the irradiated mice, changes in cell populations and cell surface molecules were examined. The cell surface functional molecules (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD45R/B220, ICAM-1, Fas, NK-1.1, CXCR4, and CCR5), and activation molecules (THAM, CD28, CD40, CD44H, CD70, B7-1, B7-2, OX-40 antigen, CTLA-4, CD30 ligand, and CD40 ligand) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells and cell surface CD8 molecule expressions on the CD8{sup +} T cells increased significantly to 120-130% after 3 weeks of the irradiation, compared to non-irradiated control mice. On the other hand, the percentage of CD45R/B220{sup +} CD40{sup +} B cells, which is one of the immunological markers of inflammation, infection, tumor, and autoimmune disease, decreased significantly to 80-90% between the 3rd to 5th week of irradiation. There was no significant difference in other cell population rates and cell surface molecule expression. Furthermore, abnormal T cells bearing mutated T cell receptors induced by high-dose rate irradiation were not observed throughout this study. These results suggest that low-dose rate irradiation activates the immunological status of the whole body. (author)

  14. Induction of a Radio-Adaptive Response by Low-dose Gamma Irradiation in Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Christian M.; Seawright, John W.; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    One of the most significant occupational hazards to an astronaut is the frequent exposure to radiation. Commonly associated with increased risk for cancer related morbidity and mortality, radiation is also known to increase the risk for cardiovascular related disorders including: pericarditis, hypertension, and heart failure. It is believed that these radiation-induced disorders are a result of abnormal tissue remodeling. It is unknown whether radiation exposure promotes remodeling through fibrotic changes alone or in combination with programmed cell death. Furthermore, it is not known whether it is possible to mitigate the hazardous effects of radiation exposure. As such, we assessed the expression and mechanisms of radiation-induced tissue remodeling and potential radio-adaptive responses of p53-mediated apoptosis and fibrosis pathways along with markers for oxidative stress and inflammation in mice myocardium. 7 week old, male, C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to 6Gy (H) or 5cGy followed 24hr later with 6Gy (LH) 137Cs gamma radiation. Mice were sacrificed and their hearts extirpated 4, 24, or 72hr after final irradiation. Real Time - Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to evaluate target genes. Apoptotic genes Bad and Bax, pro-cell survival genes Bcl2 and Bcl2l2, fibrosis gene Vegfa, and oxidative stress genes Sod2 and GPx4 showed a reduced fold regulation change (Bad,-6.18; Bax,-6.94; Bcl2,-5.09; Bcl2l2,-4.03; Vegfa, -11.84; Sod2,-5.97; GPx4*,-28.72; * = Bonferroni adjusted p-value p53-mediated apoptosis genes Casp3, Casp9, Trp53, and Myc exhibited down-regulation but did not achieve a notable level of significance 4hr after H. 24hr after H, genetic down-regulation was no longer present compared to 24hr control. These data suggest a general reduction in genetic expression 4hrs after a high dose of gamma radiation. However, pre-exposure to 5cGy gamma radiation appears to facilitate a radio-adaptive response that mitigates the reduction in genetic expression associated

  15. Inactivation of RNA Viruses by Gamma Irradiation: A Study on Mitigating Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Effective inactivation of biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) pathogens is vital in order to study these agents safely. Gamma irradiation is a commonly used method for the inactivation of BSL-4 viruses, which among other advantages, facilitates the study of inactivated yet morphologically intact virions. The reported values for susceptibility of viruses to inactivation by gamma irradiation are sometimes inconsistent, likely due to differences in experimental protocols. We analyzed the effects of common...

  16. Evaluating the Effects of Gamma-Irradiation for Decontamination of Medicinal Cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiati...

  17. Evaluating the effects of gamma-irradiation for decontamination of medicinal cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Arno eHazekamp

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiati...

  18. [Transformation of free radicals of gamma-irradiated enzymes during long-term storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryl'tsev, V V; Virnik, R B; Dovbiĭ, E V; Filatov, V N

    1988-01-01

    The ESR method was used to study free radical processes occurring in gamma-irradiated enzymes upon their long-term storage (up to 4 years) both at room temperature and at 4 degrees C. Simultaneously, studied was the biological activity of gamma-irradiated enzymes subjected to a long-term storage. The immobilization of enzymes on dialdehyde cellulose or polycaproamine was shown to preserve their biological activity during the postirradiation storage.

  19. Modulation of Enzymatic Activities of Dual Functional Peroxiredoxin by Gamma Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seung Sik; Park, Chul Hong; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Recently, enzymes have frequently been used as catalysts in various bio-industrial, commercial, and pharmaceutical applications, because they are more stable, more efficient, and less toxic than the synthetic catalysts. However, one of their major disadvantages is their low thermostability, which leads the researchers to develop new forms of industrially important enzymes with increased resistance to inactivation and aggregation. This study describes a strategy for modifying the molecular chaperone activity of peroxiredoxin (Prx) by using gamma irradiation. Prxs are a ubiquitous family of antioxidant enzymes. Upon oxidation of their peroxidatic Cys, the molecules undergo a structural conversion from a low-molecular-weight (LMW) species acting as a peroxidase to a high-molecular-weight (HMW) complex functioning as a chaperone. In the present study, we examined the effect of gamma irradiation on PP1084 with respect to its protein structure and enzymatic function. The use of gamma irradiation as a physical treatment can increase the cohesive strength of the protein by forming cross-links. The aims of the present work were (1) to improve the chaperone activity of PP1084 by gamma irradiation, (2) to identify the 'optimal' intensity of gamma irradiation, and (3) to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on protein hydrophobicity as related to chaperone function. Following PP1084 treatment with 30 kGy gamma irradiation, the PP1084 chaperone activity enhanced by about 3-4-fold compared with nonirradiated PP1084, while the peroxidase activity decreased. Ongoing research efforts are addressing the physical modifications of PP1084 protein by gamma irradiation

  20. PtRu/C Electrocatalysts Prepared Using Gamma and Electron Beam Irradiation for Methanol Electrooxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PtRu/C electrocatalysts (carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles were prepared in a single step submitting water/2-propanol mixtures containing Pt(IV and Ru(III ions and the carbon support to gamma and electron beam irradiation. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electrooxidation. PtRu/C electrocatalyst can be prepared in few minutes using high dose rate electron beam irradiation while using low dose rate gamma irradiation some hours were necessary to prepare it. The obtained materials showed the face-centered cubic (fcc structure of Pt and Pt alloys with average nanoparticle sizes of around 3 nm. The material prepared using electron beam irradiation was more active for methanol electrooxidation than the material prepared using gamma irradiation.

  1. Improvement of shelf stability and processing properties of meat products by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Lee, K.-H.; Kim, H.-Y

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the processing properties of meat products, emulsion-type sausage, beef patties and pork loin ham were manufactured. Most contaminated bacteria were killed by 3 kGy-irradiation to raw ground beef, and sausage can be manufactured with desirable flavor, a reduction of NaCl and phosphate, and extension of shelf life using gamma irradiation on the raw meat. The beef patties were manufactured with the addition of antioxidants (200 ppm), BHA, ascorbyl palmitate, {alpha}-tocopherol, or {beta}-carotene, and gamma-irradiation. Retardation of lipid oxidation appeared at the patties with an antioxidant. A dose of 5 kGy was observed to be as effective as the use of 200 ppm NaNO{sub 2} to provide and maintain the desired color of the product during storage. After curing, irradiation, heating and smoking could extensively prolong the shelf life of the hams.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanya, R. [P.G. Department of Botany and Research Centre, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India); Mishra, B.B. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khaleel, K.M., E-mail: khaleelchovva@yahoo.co.in [P.G. Department of Botany and Research Centre, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India)

    2011-11-15

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents. - Highlights: > Effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa) was studied. > Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. > Curcuminoid content and the volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. > Curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. > No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  3. Bone marrow transplantation. [Mice, gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storb, R.; Santos, G.W.

    1979-03-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has been increasingly used to treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diseases, severe aplastic anemia, and malignant hematologic diseases, especially leukemia. At the Workshop a number of problems were discussed, e.g., conditioning regimens aimed at overcoming the problem of marrow graft rejection and reducing the incidence of recurrent leukemia, prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), possible mechanisms involved in stable graft-host tolerance, graft-versus-leukemia effect in mice, and finally, the possible use of autologous marrow transplantation.

  4. Immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight {beta}-glucan depolymerized by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Nak-Yun [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Hong [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Division of Applied Biological Chemistry, Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8581 (Japan); Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young-Choon [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mee-Ree [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    {beta}-glucans are structural cell wall polymers of many microorganisms and cereals which possess immunomodulatory properties and have been used in the food, cosmetic and medical industry. In our previous study, {beta}-glucan was depolymerized by gamma irradiation and leads to improve the solubility and viscosity. This study was carried out to evaluate the functional properties, mainly immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight {beta}-glucan fragmented by gamma irradiation. The results showed that RAW 264.7 macrophage cell stimulation activities of irradiated {beta}-glucan were higher than that of non-irradiated {beta}-glucan. In addition, the oral administration of gamma-irradiated {beta}-glucan significantly increased the proliferation and cytokine (IFN-{gamma} and IL-2) release of spleen and Peyer's patch cells compared with non-irradiated {beta}-glucan. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be used as an effective method for the production of depolymerized {beta}-glucan improved functional property such as immunomodulatory activity.

  5. Characterization of blends of PP and SBS vulcanized with gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: jjgonza@usb.ve; Albano, C. [Centro de Quimica, Laboratorio de Polimeros, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas (Venezuela) and Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Caracas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: calbano@ivic.ve; Candal, M.V. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela); Ichazo, M.N. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela); Hernandez, M. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2005-07-01

    The present work has the objective of analyzing blends of PP with 30 wt% SBS vulcanized with gamma irradiation. In order to do so, SBS was irradiated at 10, 25 and 50 kGy with gamma rays. Results indicate that the gel fraction increases with irradiation dose, varying from 0.3% to 13.0% for the doses employed. Concerning tensile properties, it can be seen that the incorporation of SBS non-irradiated or irradiated decreases Young's modulus, while increasing elongation at break. Respect to thermal studies, it was detected that SBS decreases melting enthalpy of blends, fact that implies a decrease on crystallinity degree, being this effect more noticeable when SBS is irradiated at doses higher than 10 kGy. On the other hand, melting temperature diminishes slightly when adding SBS to PP, but does not show significant variations when SBS is irradiated. PPs MFI decreased with the addition of SBS, being the effect more notorious with irradiation dose. Finally, it can be concluded that SBS can be vulcanized by gamma irradiation, and that the crosslinking degree increases with irradiation dose.

  6. Investigating the embryo/larval toxic and genotoxic effects of {gamma} irradiation on zebrafish eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, O., E-mail: olivier.simon@irsn.fr [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Massarin, S. [Laboratoire de Modelisation Environnementale, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 159, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Coppin, F. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Hinton, T.G. [Service d' Etude du Comportement des Radionucleides dans les Ecosystemes, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 159, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gilbin, R. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Eggs/larval of freshwater fish (Danio rerio) were exposed to low dose rates of external gamma radiation (from 1 to 1000 mGy d{sup -1}) over a 20-day period, with the objective of testing the appropriateness of the 10 mGy d{sup -1} guideline suggested by the IAEA. The present study examines different endpoints, mortality and hatching time and success of embryos as well as the genotoxicity of {gamma}-irradiations (after 48 h). The 20-day embryo-larval bioassay showed an enhanced larval resistance to starvation after chronic exposure to {gamma} irradiation (from low 1 mGy d{sup -1} to high dose rate 1000 mGy d{sup -1}) and an acceleration in hatching time. Gamma irradiation led to increased genotoxic damage Ito zebrafish egg (40-50% DNA in tail in Comet assay) from the lowest dose rate (1 mGy d{sup -1}). Possible mechanisms of {gamma} radiotoxicity and implications for radioprotection are discussed. - Highlights: > Relevant information on the {gamma} radiation impact on early life stage biota is scarce. > The eggs of zebrafish Danio rerio were selected as biological model. > We test the appropriateness of the 10 mGy d{sup -1} guideline (IAEA). > We observed effects measured at individual levels (starvation, hatching time). > Chronic gamma irradiation led to increased genotoxic damage to zebrafish egg. > {gamma} radiotoxicity mechanisms and implications for radioprotection are discussed.

  7. The Use of Gamma Irradiation in the Sterilization of Streptomyces Colonizing the Tempra Paintings in Ancient Egyptian Tombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Ali SAKR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight out of forty six Streptomyces strains from mural paintings at the Tell Basta and Tanis tombs were exposed to increasing doses (5, 10, 15, 20, 25kGy of gamma irradiation. These strains varied in their resistance profile. S. canarius was the most resistant to gamma irradiation doses, as it was totally eliminated at 25kGy, whereas S. chibaensis and S. albidofuscus resisted to 20kGy and S. ambofaciens resisted 15kGy. The other strains under investigation showed a lower resistance to gamma irradiation. Tricyclazole (5, 7, 10 µg/mL inhibited melanin production after gamma irradiation at doses lower than lethal dose. Gamma irradiation with the previous doses enhanced the chitinease activity of irradiated Streptomyces strains, but S. canarius was the exception. No color change was observed either for pigments or for binding media, after gamma irradiation at the same doses.

  8. Improved calculation of displacements per atom cross section in solids by gamma and electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piñera, Ibrahin, E-mail: ipinera@ceaden.edu.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, CEADEN, 30 St. 502, Playa 11300, Havana (Cuba); Cruz, Carlos M.; Leyva, Antonio; Abreu, Yamiel; Cabal, Ana E. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, CEADEN, 30 St. 502, Playa 11300, Havana (Cuba); Espen, Piet Van; Remortel, Nick Van [University of Antwerp, CGB, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We present a calculation procedure for dpa cross section in solids under irradiation. • Improvement about 10–90% for the gamma irradiation induced dpa cross section. • Improvement about 5–50% for the electron irradiation induced dpa cross section. • More precise results (20–70%) for thin samples irradiated with electrons. - Abstract: Several authors had estimated the displacements per atom cross sections under different approximations and models, including most of the main gamma- and electron-material interaction processes. These previous works used numerical approximation formulas which are applicable for limited energy ranges. We proposed the Monte Carlo assisted Classical Method (MCCM), which relates the established theories about atom displacements to the electron and positron secondary fluence distributions calculated from the Monte Carlo simulation. In this study the MCCM procedure is adapted in order to estimate the displacements per atom cross sections for gamma and electron irradiation. The results obtained through this procedure are compared with previous theoretical calculations. An improvement in about 10–90% for the gamma irradiation induced dpa cross section is observed in our results on regard to the previous evaluations for the studied incident energies. On the other hand, the dpa cross section values produced by irradiation with electrons are improved by our calculations in about 5–50% when compared with the theoretical approximations. When thin samples are irradiated with electrons, more precise results are obtained through the MCCM (in about 20–70%) with respect to the previous studies.

  9. Application of gamma irradiation in ginseng for both photodegradation of pesticide pentachloronitrobenzene and microbial decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Fa [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Ting; Chung, Hsiao-Ping [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Po-Chow; Lin, I-Hsin [Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China); Chou, Fong-In, E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    This study investigates the feasibility of using gamma irradiation for photodegradation of a common residual fungicide, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), in ginseng, and for microbial decontamination. American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, was subjected to gamma irradiation. PCNB residues were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and mass spectrometry. Eighty percent of PCNB (100 ppm) in a methanol aqueous solution was degraded by 5 kGy irradiation, and the primary degradation product was pentachloroaniline. Furthermore, contaminated PCNB (3.7 ppm) in ginseng were reduced to 0.2 ppm after 20 kGy irradiation. The IC{sub 50} for treatment of Sclerotium rolfsii with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 2.7 times higher than that for treatment with unirradiated PCNB. The survival rate of mouse fibroblast L929 cells treated with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 12.9% higher than that of L929 cells treated with unirradiated PCNB. Additionally, after 20 kGy irradiation, less than 5% reduction of contents of ginsenoside Rb1 and Re were observed, and amounts of ginsenosides Rc, Rd, and Rg1 were not reduced significantly. The minimal gamma dose for microbial decontamination was 10 kGy. Therefore, gamma irradiation can be used for both PCNB photodegradation and microbial decontamination of ginseng without obvious loses of ginsenoside contents.

  10. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the microbial quality of steamed tofu rolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qian; Gao, Meixu; Li, Shurong; Wang, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of two kinds of radiation processing, gamma and electron beam (ebeam) irradiation, for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria innocua which were inoculated in pre-sterilised steamed tofu rolls was studied. The corresponding effects of both irradiation types on total bacterial counts (TBCs) in commercial steamed tofu rolls available in the market were also examined. The microbiological results demonstrated that gamma irradiation yielded D10 values of 0.20, 0.24 and 0.22 kGy for S. aureus, S. enteritidis and L. innocua, respectively. The respective D10 values for ebeam irradiation were 0.31, 0.35 and 0.27 kGy. Gamma and ebeam irradiation yielded D10 values of 0.48 and 0.43 kGy for total bacterial counts in commercial steamed tofu rolls, respectively. The results suggest that ebeam irradiation has similar effect on decreasing TBCs in steamed tofu rolls, and gamma irradiation is slightly more effective than ebeam irradiation in reducing the populations of pathogenic bacteria. The observed differences in D10-values between them might be due to the significant differences in dose rate applied, and radiation processing of soybean products to improve their microbial quality could be available for other sources of protein.

  11. Application of gamma irradiation in ginseng for both photodegradation of pesticide pentachloronitrobenzene and microbial decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Wang, Ya-Ting; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Hsieh, Po-Chow; Lin, I-Hsin; Chou, Fong-In

    2010-04-15

    This study investigates the feasibility of using gamma irradiation for photodegradation of a common residual fungicide, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), in ginseng, and for microbial decontamination. American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, was subjected to gamma irradiation. PCNB residues were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and mass spectrometry. Eighty percent of PCNB (100 ppm) in a methanol aqueous solution was degraded by 5 kGy irradiation, and the primary degradation product was pentachloroaniline. Furthermore, contaminated PCNB (3.7 ppm) in ginseng were reduced to 0.2 ppm after 20 kGy irradiation. The IC(50) for treatment of Sclerotium rolfsii with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 2.7 times higher than that for treatment with unirradiated PCNB. The survival rate of mouse fibroblast L929 cells treated with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 12.9% higher than that of L929 cells treated with unirradiated PCNB. Additionally, after 20 kGy irradiation, less than 5% reduction of contents of ginsenoside Rb1 and Re were observed, and amounts of ginsenosides Rc, Rd, and Rg1 were not reduced significantly. The minimal gamma dose for microbial decontamination was 10 kGy. Therefore, gamma irradiation can be used for both PCNB photodegradation and microbial decontamination of ginseng without obvious loses of ginsenoside contents. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Using gamma irradiation for the recovery of anthocyanins from grape pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayed, N.; Yu, H.-L.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: Monique_Lacroix@iaf.uquebec.ca

    2000-03-01

    This research investigated the effect of gamma irradiation from 0 to 9 kGy, packaging in air or under vacuum, or in combination with other treatments for enhancing anthocyanin extraction from grape pomace. Results indicate that the irradiation at 6 kGy and packaging in the presence of a low concentration of sodium metabisulfite yielded the highest value of anthocyanin extraction. (author)

  13. Detection of gamma-irradiated peanuts by ESR spectroscopy and GC analysis of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Li, Wei; Li, An; Ming Ha, Yi; Wang, Feng; Li Zhang, Yan

    2011-03-01

    Peanuts were analyzed by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC) before and after gamma irradiation. Using European protocols, the validity and effectiveness of these two techniques were compared with regard to sample preparation, sample and solvent consumption and dose-response curves after irradiation. The results showed the possibility of using ESR and GC for distinguishing between irradiated and unirradiated peanuts. A radiation dose of 0.1 kGy could be detected by ESR but not by GC. The results also indicated that GC is an effective method for qualitative analysis of irradiated peanut, while ESR is suitable for the rapid detection of irradiated peanuts.

  14. Preparation of poly (Vinyl Alcohol) nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles by gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Hye [AMOTECH Co., Ltd., Kimpo (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jun Wha; An, Sung Jun; Youn, Min Ho; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Nho, Young Chang [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    PVA nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles were prepared by two methods. The first method was electrospinning of irradiated solution. The prepared PVA/AgNO{sub 3} solution was irradiated by gamma-rays. And then the irradiated solution was electrospun. The second method was irradiation of electrospun nanofibers. Nanofibers prepared by electrospinning of unirradiated PVA/AgNO{sub 3} solution. The morphology of the nanofibers was observed with a SEM, TEM. When the irradiated PVA/AgNO{sub 3} solution were electrospun, the average size of the Ag nanoparticles was increased, but their number was decreased.

  15. Lipid composition of liver microsomes and mitochondria after acute and chronic {gamma}-irradiation of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markevich, L.N.; Kolomiitseva, I.K. [Institute of Cell Biophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    Acute {gamma}-irradiation of rats at doses of 100 and 270 Gy stimulates lipid synthesis and changes the lipid composition of liver cell organelles. The content of cholesterol and cholesterol esters in microsomes increased at 100 Gy and decreased at 270 Gy, with total phospholipid content remaining unchanged. The lipid content in mitochondria decreased considerably 1 h after irradiation at 270 Gy. This change was significantly less pronounced 47 h later. Under chronic {gamma}-irradiation (0.129 Gy/day), cholesterol and cardiolipin in mitochondria increased. The changes in lipid content caused by acute irradiation are presumed to be related to activated synthesis of lipids in the liver. The modification of the lipid content of mitochondria observed in chronically irradiated rats may indicate that energy-metabolizing liver cell systems are involved in the adaptation to irradiation.

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation and storage time on ostrich meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jouki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study effects of gamma irradiation and storage time on the Appearance and Texture changes of fresh ostrich meat stored at 4˚C were evaluated. Ostrich meat irradiated at 0.0, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Analysis of variance showed that aging of meat affected SF in all treatments. There were significant differences among radiation doses at any of the times. Sensory panel results were in general agreement with the mechanical changes, suggesting that the gamma irradiation at 1.0 kGy had a significant impact on the quality of refrigerated ostrich meat. Air-packaged samples irradiated at 1.0 kGy were acceptable under refrigerated storage for 9 days, compared to 7 and 5 days for non irradiated and samples irradiated at 3.0 kGy, respectively.

  17. Effects of gamma-irradiation on the infective larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum (Rud. , 1808) in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Singh, K.S. (Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Izatnagar. Div. of Parasitology)

    1985-03-01

    Infective larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum exposed to gamma-irradiation at 60 kr failed to develop in the lamb. At levels of 20 and 40 kr, the infectivity of the larvae was reduced and fewer worms developed with a predominating female population. The worms developing from the irradiated larvae were smaller and the sex organs were ill developed. The females developing from larvae irradiated at 40 kr were functionally sterile with atrophied uterus devoid of eggs.

  18. The Reproducing Capacity of Gamma Irradiated Adults of Trogoderma Versicolor (Creutz)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Kawy, F. K. [فايزكمال عبد القوي; Hasaballa, Z. A.

    1993-01-01

    Male and female, Trogoderma versicolor (Creutz.) were irradiated by gamma radiation as newly emerged adults (12-24 hrs. after emergence). Males required higher doses than females to be sterilized and the reproductive inability increased with increasing dose. Doses of 210 and 80 Gray were sufficient to induce almost complete sterility for males and females, respectively. Egg production per female was highest in crosses involving irradiated males as compared with eggs produced from irradiated f...

  19. Toxicological safety evaluation of biomolecules and materials transformed by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Jeon, Young Eun; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yun, Sung Bok

    2010-01-15

    In the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not induce a significant increase in the number of revertant colonies in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHO cells, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not result in an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In vivo mouse micronucleus assay, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not show an increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. These results indicate that hyaluronic acids irradiated at 10 and 50 kGy did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions. In order to evaluate their possible subacute toxicity, the male and female of ICR mouse were given to methanol extract of 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe for three months. During the experimental periods, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of rats fed the 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe were not affected compared to the non-irradiated control. Although minor changes in biochemical parameters were observed, they were not dose dependent and not affected by gamma irradiation. These results indicate that 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe did not show any toxic effects under these experimental conditions

  20. Gelam Honey Protects against Gamma-Irradiation Damage to Antioxidant Enzymes in Human Diploid Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Makpol; Tengku Ahbrizal Farizal Tengku Ahmad; Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof; Nor Fadilah Rajab; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Zakiah Jubri

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the radioprotective effects of Malaysian Gelam honey on gene expression and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) subjected to gamma-irradiation. Six groups of HDFs were studied: untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/mL of sterilized Gelam ...

  1. Photorecovery of gamma irradiated cultures of blue-green alga, Anacystis nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asato, Y.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence is given for photorecovery of Anacystis nidulans after exposures to Co 60 gamma radiation. After irradiation the levels of viable cells were higher in cultures kept in white light than in cultures kept dark for 24 hr. The post-irradiation survival rate increase after 30-min exposures to visible light is demonstrated in cultures irradiated with 35 krad. An increase in survival rates was not observed after exposures to ?red' light.

  2. Concentration of metallothionein in mice livers after a small dose of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitou, Mikio; Yanai, Takanori; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Otsu, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumiaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Akata, Naofumi; Kanaiwa-Kudo, Shouko; Matsumoto, Tsuneya; Noda, Yuko

    1998-12-01

    This study was made to determine whether metallothionein (MT) is induced by a small dose (0.5 Gy) irradiation. One hundred B6C3F1/Nrs mice of each sex, 8-10 weeks old, were used in the sham study (unirradiated controls) and experimental (irradiated) groups. Eighty mice of each sex were given acute whole body irradiation with {sup 197}Cs{gamma}-rays under SPF conditions; two doses of 0.5 and 5.0 Gy at 30 cm distance from the source at the rate of 0.563 Gy/min. Twenty mice of each sex were used in the sham study. Every ten male and female mouse was killed by cervical dislocation on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 after irradiation. The same numbers of male and female control mice were killed on days 0 and 21. Livers were removed immediately after death, and concentration of MT was examined. In both the males and females, the MT concentration of the 5 Gy-group peaked on the first day after irradiation, and there was no difference in comparison with the control values between the 7th and 21st days. In contrast, on no day did the MT concentration for the 0.5 Gy-group showed a significant difference from the control group. The time dependency patterns of the female and male mice also showed no significant differences for 5 Gy- and 0.5 Gy-groups, but the mean values of the MT concentration was lower in the males than in the females on the 1st day. Results of the direct quantitation of MT by the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) also showed peak MT accumulation on the 1st day for both male and female mice. These were also shown by the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses. But peak heights for the males and females showed a tendency inverse to that of the AAS and ICP-MS analyses. This discrepancy is attributable to the technical problem encountered in the experiment. On the basis of our findings, MT does not seem to be related to acquired radioresistance in mice. (K.H.)

  3. Isodose distributions and dose uniformity in the Portuguese gamma irradiation facility calculated using the MCNP code

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, C

    2001-01-01

    A systematic study of isodose distributions and dose uniformity in sample carriers of the Portuguese Gamma Irradiation Facility was carried out using the MCNP code. The absorbed dose rate, gamma flux per energy interval and average gamma energy were calculated. For comparison purposes, boxes filled with air and 'dummy' boxes loaded with layers of folded and crumpled newspapers to achieve a given value of density were used. The magnitude of various contributions to the total photon spectra, including source-dependent factors, irradiator structures, sample material and other origins were also calculated.

  4. Prevention Effect of Poly-Gamma-Glutamic Acid on Tissue Damage Induced by Gamma Irradiation as a Natural Cross-Linker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaehun; Sung, Nakyun; Kim, Jeongsoo; Jo, Euri; Choi, Jongil; Park, Jongheum; Lee, Juwoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwangwon [Eulji Univ. Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jungkee [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taewoon [Jeonbuk Technopark, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study was to determine the prevention effect of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (PGA) on tissue damage induced by gamma irradiation for development of xenograft. PGA (MW 2000 kDa) extracted from permeated soy bean (natto) was used in this study as natural compound, and glutaraldehyde (GA) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) were used as a control, chemical based cross-linking agents. GA, EDC and PGA treated porcine tendons were gamma-irradiated at the dose of 30 kGy. Prevention effects against tissue damage were measured as the result of tensile strength, hydroxyproline contents and tissue morphological analysis. Tensile of porcine tendon was remarkably decreased by gamma irradiation, but increased in PGA treated group. Morphological analysis showed that collagen structure was broken by gamma irradiation, but attenuated by PGA treatment. Base on the results, it demonstrated that gamma irradiation can induce severe alteration of porcine tendon, but PGA can effectively improve the tissue damage.

  5. Combined effects of gamma-irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on quality of some spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkin, Celale; Mitrevski, Blagoj; Gunes, Gurbuz; Marriott, Philip J

    2014-07-01

    Thyme (Thymus vidgaris L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) in ground form were packaged in either air or 100% N2 and γ-irradiated at 3 different irradiation levels (7kGy, 12kGy, 17kGy). Total viable bacterial count, yeast and mould count, colour, essential oil yield and essential oil composition were determined. Microbial load was not detectable after 12kGy irradiation of all samples. Irradiation resulted in significant changes in colour values of rosemary and black pepper. The discolouration of the irradiated black pepper was lower in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) compared to air packaging. Essential oil yield of irradiated black pepper and cumin was lower in air packaging compared to MAP. Gamma-irradiation generally decreased monoterpenes and increased oxygenated compounds, but the effect was lower in MAP. Overall, spices should be irradiated under an O2-free atmosphere to minimise quality deterioration.

  6. Gamma irradiation of municipal sludge for safe disposal and agricultural use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Satyendra; Shah, Mahesh R; Sabharwal, Sunil; Sharma, Arun

    2005-01-01

    Gamma radiation was found to be an effective tool for hygienization of municipal wastewater sludge. The sludge received from the primary settling tank of a municipal wastewater treatment plant was gamma irradiated using a cobalt-60 source in a sludge hygienization research irradiator. The process parameters were adjusted to effectively eliminate coliform bacteria in the sludge and to prevent their regrowth. Irradiated sludge was found to be free of fecal coliform and could be directly disposed after drying in a landfill or used as manure. It could also be used as a medium for growth of Rhizobium sp for obtaining a bio-fertilizer.

  7. Gamma irradiation processing of hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide composite biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suljovrujic, E. E-mail: esuljovrujic@chem.ucsb.edu; Ignjatovic, N.; Uskokovic, D

    2003-06-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on structure and physicochemical properties of the hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide (HAp/PLLA) composite were studied in this paper. Since the morphology of HAp/PLLA is very sensitive to gamma irradiation, surface microstructure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Structural changes occurring in the material, mostly changes in PLLA which is more sensitive to irradiation than HAp, were studied by wide angle X-ray structural analyses and infrared spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were used to study the changes in thermal behavior and crystallinity. Conclusions derived according to different methods were compared.

  8. Dosimetry computer module of the gamma irradiator of ININ; Modulo informatico de dosimetria del irradiador gamma del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledezma F, L. E.; Baldomero J, R. [ININ, Gerencia de Sistemas Informaticos, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Agis E, K. A., E-mail: luis.ledezma@inin.gob.mx [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Ingenieria, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 50100 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    This work present the technical specifications for the upgrade of the dosimetry module of the computer system of the gamma irradiator of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) whose result allows the integration and consultation of information in industrial dosimetry subject under an outline client-server. (Author)

  9. Des-Aspartate-Angiotensin I Attenuates Mortality of Mice Exposed to Gamma Radiation via a Novel Mechanism of Action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available ACE inhibitors and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers have been shown to attenuate radiation injuries in animal models of lethal gamma irradiation. These two classes of drug act by curtailing the actions of angiotensin II-linked inflammatory pathways that are up-regulated during gamma radiation in organ systems such as the brain, lung, kidney, and bone marrow. ACE inhibitors inhibit ACE and attenuate the formation of angiotensin II from angiotensin I; ARBs block the angiotensin AT1 receptor and attenuate the actions of angiotensin II that are elicited through the receptor. DAA-I (des-aspartate-angiotensin I, an orally active angiotensin peptide, also attenuates the deleterious actions of angiotensin II. It acts as an agonist on the angiotensin AT1 receptor and elicits responses that oppose those of angiotensn II. Thus, DAA-I was investigated for its anticipated radioprotection in gamma irradiated mice. DAA-I administered orally at 800 nmole/kg/day for 30 days post exposure (6.4 Gy attenuated the death of mice during the 30-day period. The attenuation was blocked by losartan (50 nmole/kg/day, i.p. that was administered sequential to DAA-I administration. This shows that the radioprotection was mediated via the angiotensin AT1 receptor. Furthermore, the radioprotection correlated to an increase in circulating PGE2 of surviving animals, and this suggests that PGE2 is involved in the radioprotection in DAA-I-treated mice. At the hematopoietic level, DAA-I significantly improved two syndromes of myelosuppression (leucopenia and lymphocytopenia, and mice pre-treated with DAA-I prior to gamma irradiation showed significant improvement in the four myelodysplastic syndromes that were investigated, namely leucopenia, lymphocytopenia, monocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Based on the known ability of PGE2 to attenuate the loss of functional hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in radiation injury, we hypothesize that PGE2 mediated the action of DAA

  10. Modified the optical and electrical properties of CR-39 by gamma ray irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Abdul-Kader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The radiation technique is a useful technology technique to induce suitable modifications of the polymeric materials. In the present work, poly allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector samples were irradiated using different doses (150–950 kGy of gamma ray irradiations. The effect of gamma ray irradiations on the optical and electrical, properties of CR-39 was investigated. The obtained results showed a decrease in the optical energy gap with increasing the gamma dose. Increase in the numbers of carbon atoms (N in a formed cluster with increasing the irradiation dose was observed. Meanwhile, an increase in the Ac conductivity was obtained with increasing the gamma dose. Also, the variation in the dielectric constant and loss with irradiation dose was studied at the room temperature. The results indicate that the gamma ray irradiations in the dose range 150–950 kGy enhance the optical and electrical properties of the CR-39 polymer samples.

  11. Molecular structure and physicochemical properties of potato and bean starches as affected by gamma-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Liu, Qiang

    2010-08-01

    In this study, potato and bean starches were treated by gamma-irradiation up to 50kGy. Molecular structure and physicochemical properties of irradiated potato and bean starches were investigated. Microscopic observation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and polarized microscope showed that some of potato and bean starch granules were destroyed by gamma-irradiation and the breakage was much greater at a higher dose (50 kGy). Carboxyl content and amylose leaching increased, whereas the swelling factor and apparent amylose content decreased after irradiation in both potato and bean starches. The proportions of short (DP 6-12) and long (DP > or = 37) amylopectin chains as well as average chain length increased with increasing irradiation dose. However, the proportion of DP 13-24 decreased by irradiation. The relative crystallinity, the degree of granule surface order, and gelatinization enthalpy decreased with an increase in irradiation dose. The extent of decrease in potato starch was greater than that in bean starch. The exothermic peak around 90-110 degrees C was observed in DSC thermogram when the potato starch was irradiated at 50 kGy. The pasting viscosity significantly decreased with an increase in irradiation dose. The proportion of slowly digestible starch (SDS) decreased and resistant starch (RS) content increased by irradiation in both potato and bean starches. However, the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) of potato starch increased with increasing irradiation dose, whereas the bean starch showed the opposite trend to potato starch in RDS content.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and sensory characteristics of aniseed (Pimpinella anisum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, M

    2007-07-01

    Seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum) were exposed to doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20kGy in a (60)Co package irradiator. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored at room temperature. Microbial populations on seeds, total and inorganic soluble solids in water extract and sensory properties of the latter were evaluated after 0, 6 and 12 months of storage. Results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the aerobic plate counts of aniseed. Immediately after irradiation, the total soluble solids in an extract of irradiated seeds were greater than those of unirradiated ones. The total soluble solids in an extract of irradiated and un-irradiated seeds increased after 6 and 12 months of storage. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in inorganic soluble solids between the water extract of irradiated and unirradiated aniseeds. Sensory evaluation indicated that gamma irradiation improved sensory characteristics of aniseed water extract tested immediately after irradiation; however, after 12 months of storage, no significant differences (p>0.05) were found in color, taste or flavor between extract of irradiated and unirradiated seeds.

  13. Characterization on the microstructure of gamma-ray irradiated Nd2Fe14B magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young Chul; Kim, Young Hwan; Cha, Hyun Gil; Kim, Chang Woo; Ji, Eun Sun; Heo, Jin Kook; Kwon, Hae Woong; Kang, Young Soo

    2009-02-01

    The effect of 60Co gamma-ray irradiation on the microstructure of Nd2Fe14B magnets was investigated with electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermal mechanical analyzer (TMA). When the 60Co gamma-ray with dose from 0 Mrad to 100 Mrad was exposed to Nd2Fel,4B magnet having different sizes at room temperature, the increased demagnetization properties of the Nd2Fe14B magnets were studied by Hall probe. For all samples, changed Curie temperature and micro-crystal structure of Nd2Fe14B magnet by gamma-ray irradiation has been also studied. Moreover the strong and broad single line shaped ESR signal in the resonance magnetic field is attributed to unpaired electron of iron ions in the sample by the effect of gamma-ray irradiation.

  14. Preliminary investigations into the bioconversion of gamma irradiated agricultural waste by Pleurotus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbedemah, C. M.; Obodai, M.; Sawyerr, L. C.

    1998-06-01

    The application of gamma irradiation for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase their digestibility for rumen animal have been reported in the literature. Gamma irradiation of corn stover in combination with sodium hydroxide for bioconversion of polysaccharide into protein by Pleurotus spp has also been reported. In this study experiments were designed to find out whether gamma radiation could serve both as a decontaminating agent as well as hydrolytic agent of sawdust for the bioconversion of four varieties of Pleurotus spp. Preliminary results indicate that a dose of 20kGy of gamma irradiation increase the yield of Pleurotus eous var ET-8 whilst decreasing the yield of other varieties.

  15. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide produced under irradiation as the most important factor in the lethality of gamma-irradiated Paramecium tetraurelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croute, F.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Vidal, S.; Dupouy, D.; Planel, H. (Laboratoire de Biologie Medicale, 31 - Toulouse (France))

    1982-02-01

    It has been shown that the surviving fraction of ..gamma..-irradiated paramecia is correlated with the residual H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentration in the extracellular medium which is strongly dependent on the bacterial concentration, that is, on the enzyme content in the culture medium.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of paederus beetle extract and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Samani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Cervical cancer is a malignancy that is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women throughout the world. Paederus beetle (Paederus fuscipes extract (PBE, contains bioactive compounds such as pederine which has cytotoxic properties and blocks DNA and protein synthesis at very low concentrations. In this investigation we tried to determine the effects co-treatment with PBE and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells. Materials and Methods: The viability of the cells was measured by two methods: MTT and Colony assay. Results: We found that supplementing gamma irradiation therapy with PBE does not increase cell death and it might even interfere with its cytotoxicty at the concentrations below 0.1 ng/ml and the viability for irradiation vs irradiation + PBE was 37%: 60%.   Conclusion: This finding might be due to radioprotective effects of the very low doses of PBE against gamma radiation.

  17. Effect of low dose gamma irradiation on plant and grain nutrition of wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupinder, E-mail: bhupindersinghiari@yahoo.co [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Datta, Partha Sarathi [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2010-08-15

    We recently reported the use of low dose gamma irradiation to improve plant vigor, grain development and yield attributes of wheat (). Further, we report here the results of a field experiment conducted to assess the effect of gamma irradiation at 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 kGy on flag leaf area, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthetic rate and plant and grain nutritional quality. Gamma irradiation improved plant nutrition but did not improve the nutritional quality of grains particularly relating to micronutrients. Grain carotene, a precursor for vitamin A, was higher in irradiated grains. Low grain micronutrients seem to be caused by a limitation in the source to sink nutrient translocation rather than in the nutrient uptake capacity of the plant root.

  18. Evaluation of the effects of paederus beetle extract and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Fariba; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Khafri, Soraya; Karimi, Maesoumeh; Akhavan Niaki, Haleh

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Cervical cancer is a malignancy that is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women throughout the world. Paederus beetle (Paederus fuscipes) extract (PBE), contains bioactive compounds such as pederine which has cytotoxic properties and blocks DNA and protein synthesis at very low concentrations. In this investigation we tried to determine the effects co-treatment with PBE and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells. Materials and Methods: The viability of the cells was measured by two methods: MTT and Colony assay. Results: We found that supplementing gamma irradiation therapy with PBE does not increase cell death and it might even interfere with its cytotoxicty at the concentrations below 0.1 ng/ml and the viability for irradiation vs irradiation + PBE was 37%: 60%. Conclusion: This finding might be due to radioprotective effects of the very low doses of PBE against gamma radiation. PMID:24904724

  19. Determination the lethal dose of ascaris lumbricoides ova by gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shamma, M A; Sharabi, N

    2002-01-01

    The lethal gamma irradiation dose of ascaris lumbricoides which collected from Damascus Sewage water Plant was determined. Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated with several gamma irradiation doses with (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4,...and 1.5 KGy). No morphological changes were observed on the eggs when directly examined microscopically after irradiation. However after two weeks of incubation at 37 degree centigrade the cell contents of the eggs which irradiated with 0.5 KGy and beyond were fragmented and scattered in the whole eggs and no larvae were observed after eight weeks of incubation. It is concluded that the dose 0.5 my be considered as the dose of choice if sewage water is to be treated by gamma rays.

  20. Genotoxicological safety of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Hee Sub; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Byung Soo; Ahn, Dong Hyun [Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee Hyuk [Dept. of Food Nutrion and Food Science, Woosong University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Although seafood cooking drips were the byproducts from the fishery industry it was known that the cooking drips had many nutrients and could be used as functional materials. Previously, the physiological properties of cooking drips were shown to be increased by a gamma irradiation. But, there was no report on the safe for the genotoxicity on the irradiation. In this study, the genotoxicity of the cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleni and Thunnus thynnus was evaluated by the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay) and the SOS chromotest. The results from all samples were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay, both with and without metabolic activation. The SOS chromotest also indicated that the gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips did not show any mutagenicity. Therefore, this study indicated that gamma irradiation could be used for the hygiene, functional properties and processibility of seafood cooking drips.

  1. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  2. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  3. Comparison of the efficacy of gamma and UV irradiation in sanitization of fresh carrot juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Kyung Haeng

    2012-08-01

    As there is no pasteurization procedure for the manufacture of fresh vegetable juice, both industry and consumers have sought a method for improving the storage stability and shelf-life of this category of products. In this study, the effects of commercially available, non-thermal pasteurization processes, such as gamma and UV irradiation, were compared for their efficacy in sanitizing fresh carrot juice (FCJ). FCJ was manufactured, packaged, and gamma irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 3, and 5 kGy. The manufactured FCJ was also passed through 4 UV light lamps at doses of 3.67, 4.69, and 6.50 kGy. The total aerobic bacterial count of the FCJ approached the legal limit (105 CFU/mL) after manufacturing. Both treatments were effective in reducing the number of total aerobic bacteria, and the reduced number was maintained during storage for 7 days. Gamma irradiation was more effective in suppressing microbial growth during storage. When the doses for UV treatment and gamma irradiation were higher, the inactivation effects were higher. The reduction of ascorbic acid content was greater upon gamma irradiation than UV treatment. No difference was found in the contents of flavonoids and polyphenols in FCJ after either treatment. After 3 days of refrigerated storage, the sensory scores of gamma- or UV-irradiated FCJ were superior to those of the control. The results indicate that both non-thermal treatments were effective in improving storage stability and extending shelf-life, but gamma irradiation was slightly better in suppressing microbial growth after treatment.

  4. Mathematical modeling of drug release from bioerodible microparticles: effect of gamma-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisant, N; Siepmann, J; Richard, J; Benoit, J P

    2003-09-01

    Bioerodible polymers used in controlled drug delivery systems, such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) undergo radiolytic degradation during gamma-irradiation. In spite of the considerable practical importance, yet only little knowledge is available on the consequences of this sterilization method on the resulting drug release patterns in a quantitative way. The major objectives of the present study were: (i) to monitor the effects of different gamma-irradiation doses on the physicochemical properties of drug-free and drug-loaded, PLGA-based microparticles; (ii) to analyze the obtained experimental results using adequate mathematical models; (iii) to get further insight into the occurring physical and chemical phenomena; and (iv) to relate the applied gamma-irradiation dose in a quantitative way to the resulting drug release rate. 5-Fluorouracil-loaded, PLGA-based microparticles were prepared with an oil-in-water solvent extraction method and exposed to gamma-irradiation doses ranging from 0 to 33 kGy. Size exclusion chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis, determination of the actual drug loading and in vitro drug release kinetics were used to study the effects of the gamma-irradiation dose on the physicochemical properties of the microparticles. Two mathematical models-a simplified and a more comprehensive one-were used to analyze the experimental results. The simplified model considers drug diffusion based on Fick's second law for spherical geometry and a Higuchi-like pseudo-steady-state approach. The complex model combines Monte Carlo simulations (describing polymer erosion) with partial differential equations quantifying drug diffusion with time-, position- and direction-dependent diffusivities. Interestingly, exponential relationships between the gamma-irradiation dose and the initial drug diffusivity within the microparticles could be established. Based on this knowledge both models were

  5. Developmental toxicity and oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Miao; Hu, Nan; Ding, Dexin; Zhao, Weichao; Feng, Yongfu; Zhang, Hui; Li, Guangyue; Wang, Yongdong [University of South China, Key Discipline Laboratory for National Defense for Biotechnology in Uranium Mining and Hydrometallurgy, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China)

    2016-11-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the biological effects of gamma irradiation on zebrafish embryos. Different doses of gamma rays (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 Gy) were used to irradiate zebrafish embryos at three developmental stages (stage 1, 6 h post-fertilization (hpf); stage 2, 12 hpf; stage three, 24 hpf), respectively. The survival, malformation and hatching rates of the zebrafish embryos were measured at the morphological endpoint of 96 hpf. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed. Morphology analysis showed that gamma irradiation inhibited hatching and induced developmental toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, after irradiation the malformation rate changed not only in a dose-dependent manner but also in a developmental stage-dependent manner, indicating that the zebrafish embryos at stage 1 were more sensitive to gamma rays than those at other stages. Biochemical analysis showed that gamma irradiation modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. A linear relationship was found between GPx activity and irradiation dose in 0.1-1 Gy group, and GPx was a suitable biomarker for gamma irradiation in the dose range from 0.1 to 1 Gy. Furthermore, the activities of SOD, CAT, GR and GPx of the zebrafish embryos at stage 3 were found to be much higher than those at other stages, indicating that the zebrafish embryos at stage 3 had a greater ability to protect against gamma rays than those at other stages, and thus the activities of antioxidant enzymes changed in a developmental stage-dependent manner. (orig.)

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of resin dental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti de; Fucio, Suzana Beatriz Portugal de; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Dental Materials; Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Pedriatric Dentistry], e-mail: rmpuppin@fop.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of FluroShield (FS) and Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB). Four groups were formed: G1-FS + gamma; G2-FS without gamma; G3-CPB + gamma; G4-CPB without gamma. For fluoride release analysis, 12 disks of each material were prepared and covered with nail polish, except for one side (50.4 mm{sup 2} area). G1 and G3 were sterilized with a 14.5 KGy dose at 27 deg C for 24 h, while G2 and G4 (controls) were not sterilized and were maintained under the same time and temperature conditions. Fluoride release measurements were made in duplicate (n=6) by an ion specific electrode. The antibacterial activity of the CPB and FS against Streptococcus mutans after gamma sterilization was evaluated by the agar-disc diffusion method. The diameter of the zones of microbial growth inhibition was recorded after 48 h. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=5%). Gamma sterilization decreased the fluoride release of FS by approximately 50%, while CPB was not affected. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the antibacterial effect of CPB between gamma and non-gamma sterilization groups. FS presented no antibacterial activity. Gamma irradiation decreased the fluoride release of FS, but did not affect the antibacterial activity of the studied materials. (author)

  7. Effects of high dose gamma irradiation on ITO thin film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alyamani, A. [National Nanotechnology Center, King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mustapha, N., E-mail: nazirmustapha@hotmail.com [Dept. of Physics, College of Sciences, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, P.O. Box 90950, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-07-29

    Transparent thin-film Indium Tin Oxides (ITO) were prepared on 0.7 mm thick glass substrates using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process with average thickness of 150 nm. The samples were then exposed to high gamma γ radiation doses by {sup 60}Co radioisotope. The films have been irradiated by performing exposure cycles up to 250 kGy total doses at room temperature. The surface structures before and after irradiation were analysed by x-ray diffraction. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was performed on all samples before and after irradiation to investigate any change in the grain sizes, and also in the roughness of the ITO surface. We investigated the influence of γ irradiation on the spectra of transmittance T, in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectrum using spectrophotometer measurements. Energy band gap E{sub g} was then calculated from the optical spectra for all ITO films. It was found that the optical band gap values decreased as the radiation dose was increased. To compare the effect of the irradiation on refractive index n and extinction coefficient k properties, additional measurements were done on the ITO samples before and after gamma irradiation using an ellipsometer. The optical constants n and k increased by increasing the irradiation doses. Electrical properties such as resistivity and sheet resistance were measured using the four-point probe method. The good optical, electrical and morphological properties maintained by the ITO films even after being exposed to high gamma irradiation doses, made them very favourable to be used as anodes for solar cells and as protective coatings in space windows. - Highlights: • Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition. • Effects of Gamma irradiation were investigated. • Changes of optical transmission and electrical properties of ITO films were studied. • Intensity of the diffraction peaks and the film's structure changed with increasing irradiation doses.

  8. Some genetic profiles in liver of Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice under the stress of irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal I. Hassan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy aims to kill cancer cells with a minimum of normal tissue exposure. In an attempt to define the molecular and biochemical changes associated with exposure to radiotherapy, the objective of the present study is to explore the effect of gamma (γ irradiation on nuclear factor, erythroid 2 (NFE2, P53, stromelysin-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3, BCL-2 and BAX genes expression in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC bearing mice. Various biochemical parameters such as liver function, H2O2, B% and T% lymphocytes, total antioxidants and MDA were investigated to evaluate their usefulness as possible during cancer treatment with radiotherapy. Rats were irradiated with a single whole body Cobalt 60-gamma radiation dose of 0.5 Gy. Sixty-four female mice, weighing 20–25 g were used in this study and divided into three main groups. The first group served as control group, while the second were injected intraperitoneally with EAC then was subdivided into two groups, II A and II B. The latter one (group II B, the animals were exposed to a single dose of 0.5 Gy whole body γ irradiation. The third main group, were irradiated with a single dose of 0.5 Gy whole body γ irradiation. Blood and liver tissue samples were collected at 4, 24 and 96 h post-irradiation. The gene expression levels in the livers of animals from each exposure group were compared individually with that of pooled sham-irradiated animals. MMP3 and NFE2 were overexpressed in liver samples of EAC group post 4, 24 and 96 h of γ irradiation (IIB. On the other hand, P53 and BCL-2 genes were downregulated by using RT-PCR analysis post 4, 24 and 96 h of γ irradiation (IIB. As well as, liver function and MDA were increased significantly in the γ - irradiation group (3rd group when compared to control mice (1st group. Gamma irradiation 3rd group revealed increase in the level of T% and B% lymphocytes. According to the obtained results, both γ rays and time period alter

  9. Effects of feeding lactobacillus GG on lethal irradiation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, M.Y.; Chang, T.W.; Gorbach, S.L.

    1987-05-01

    Mice exposed to 1400 rads of total body irradiation experienced 80%-100% mortality in 2 wk. Bacteremia was demonstrated in all dead animals. Feeding Lactobacillus GG strain reduced Pseudomonas bacteremia and prolonged survival time in animals colonized with this organism. In animals not colonized with Pseudomonas, feeding Lactobacillus GG also produced some reduction in early deaths, and there was less Gram-negative bacteremia in these animals compared with controls.

  10. High Levels of Dietary Supplement Vitamins A, C and E are Absorbed in the Small Intestine and Protect Nutrient Transport Against Chronic Gamma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Edouard I.; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.; Howell, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrient transport in the intestines of mice exposed to chronic low-LET 137Cs gamma rays. The mice were whole-body irradiated for 3 days at dose rates of 0, 0.13 and 0.20 Gy/h, for total dose delivery of 0, 9.6 or 14.4 Gy, respectively. The mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E. Our results showed that nutrient transport was perturbed by the chronic irradiation conditions. However, no apparent alteration of the macroscopic intestinal structures of the small intestine were observed up to day 10 after initiating irradiation. Jejunal fructose uptake measured in vitro was strongly affected by the chronic irradiation, whereas uptake of proline, carnosine and the bile acid taurocholate in the ileum was less affected. D-glucose transport did not appear to be inhibited significantly by either 9.6 or 14.4 Gy exposure. In the 14.4 Gy irradiated groups, the diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E increased intestinal transport of fructose compared to the control diet (day 10; t test, P = 0.032), which correlated with elevated levels of vitamins A, C and E in the plasma and jejunal enterocytes. Our earlier studies with mice exposed acutely to 137Cs gamma rays demonstrated significant protection for transport of fructose, glucose, proline and carnosine. Taken together, these results suggest that high levels of vitamins A, C and E dietary supplements help preserve intestinal nutrient transport when intestines are irradiated chronically or acutely with low-LET gamma rays. PMID:26484399

  11. High Levels of Dietary Supplement Vitamins A, C and E are Absorbed in the Small Intestine and Protect Nutrient Transport Against Chronic Gamma Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Marjolaine; Neti, Prasad V S V; Kemp, Francis W; Azzam, Edouard I; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Howell, Roger W

    2015-11-01

    We examined nutrient transport in the intestines of mice exposed to chronic low-LET 137Cs gamma rays. The mice were whole-body irradiated for 3 days at dose rates of 0, 0.13 and 0.20 Gy/h, for total dose delivery of 0, 9.6 or 14.4 Gy, respectively. The mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E. Our results showed that nutrient transport was perturbed by the chronic irradiation conditions. However, no apparent alteration of the macroscopic intestinal structures of the small intestine were observed up to day 10 after initiating irradiation. Jejunal fructose uptake measured in vitro was strongly affected by the chronic irradiation, whereas uptake of proline, carnosine and the bile acid taurocholate in the ileum was less affected. D-glucose transport did not appear to be inhibited significantly by either 9.6 or 14.4 Gy exposure. In the 14.4 Gy irradiated groups, the diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E increased intestinal transport of fructose compared to the control diet (day 10; t test, P = 0.032), which correlated with elevated levels of vitamins A, C and E in the plasma and jejunal enterocytes. Our earlier studies with mice exposed acutely to 137Cs gamma rays demonstrated significant protection for transport of fructose, glucose, proline and carnosine. Taken together, these results suggest that high levels of vitamins A, C and E dietary supplements help preserve intestinal nutrient transport when intestines are irradiated chronically or acutely with low-LET gamma rays.

  12. Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated pistachio (Pistacia vera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2015-01-15

    The present study evaluated the quality of pistachio oil, as a function of irradiation, to determine the dose level causing undesirable changes to pistachio oil. Physicochemical fatty acid composition, acidity value, peroxide value, iodine value specification number, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and colour of pistachio oil extracted from samples treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation were determined. Gamma irradiation caused the alteration of fatty acids of pistachio oil which showed a decrease in oleic acid (C18:1) and an increase in linoleic acid (C18:2). All other fatty acids remained unaffected after irradiation. The higher used doses (2 and 3 kGy) decreased acidity value, peroxide value and iodine value, and increased specification number, with no effect on TBA value. Irradiation had a significant effect on colour values of pistachio oil. Parameters L, a and b increased at doses of 1 and 2 kGy.

  13. Hepatoprotective effects of {gamma}-irradiated caraway essential oils in experimental sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatemi, F. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box, 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allameh, A. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box, 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: allameha@modares.ac.ir; Khalafi, H. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashrafihelan, J. [Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Irradiation is an important method of processing herbal drugs, while our understanding of the effects of {gamma}-irradiation on pharmacological properties of seed products such as caraway essential oils is however still very limited. In this study, caraway seeds were irradiated at dose levels of 0, 10 and 25 kGy. After extracting the essential oils, the effects of fresh and {gamma}-irradiated caraway oils (100 mg/kg b.w) on preventing septic-related oxidative liver injury induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model were investigated by measuring oxidative stress parameters in the liver. CLP operation caused a marked increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity which was readily reversed in rats treated with fresh and irradiated caraway oils. Likewise, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level in the liver was compensated in rats treated with the fresh and irradiated caraway oils. Moreover, liver GSH which was initially depleted due to CLP was recovered by essential oil treatments. The protective role of oils was further confirmed by showing that liver function tests (ALT/AST) as well as histopathological changes following CLP operation were recovered in rats treated with oils from either fresh or irradiated caraway seeds. These data may suggest that {gamma}-irradiation to caraway seeds at 10 and 25 kGy has no influence on the antioxidative properties of caraway essential oils.

  14. Gamma irradiation effects on cyanate ester/epoxy insulation materials for superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jingwen [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Zhixiong, E-mail: zxwu@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Huang, Chuanjun [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Laifeng, E-mail: laifengli@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Irradiation resistance of glass fiber reinforced cyanate ester/epoxy composite was investigated. • The cyanate ester/epoxy resin system has a low viscosity and long pot life. • The T{sub g} of the matrix resin decreased slightly with the increase of irradiation dose. • The ILSS of GFRP composite increased slightly when exposed to 10 MGy of gamma irradiation. - Abstract: Cyanate ester/epoxy resin was used as a cryogenic-grade polymer matrix and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite was manufactured. The processing properties of matrix resin in terms of the isothermal viscosity at 45 °C were investigated. The specimens were exposed with gamma irradiation of 1 MGy, 5 MGy and 10 MGy, respectively. The effect of gamma irradiation on thermal properties and structure of cyanate ester/epoxy matrix was investigated. The interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of the composites before and after irradiation were investigated at room temperature, 77 K and 4.2 K. Results showed that cyanate ester/epoxy system had a low viscosity and a long pot life at 45 °C. The glass transition temperature of the matrix resin decreased with the increasing irradiation dose. Moreover, the ILSS of GFRP composite slightly increases after irradiation and toughening mechanism was also discussed.

  15. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the hemocyte-mediated immune response of Aedes aegypti against microfilariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, B.M.; Huff, B.M.; Li, J. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the melanotic encapsulation response of Aedes aegypti black eye Liverpool strain against inoculated Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae (mff) was assessed at 1, 2, 3, and 6 days postinoculation (PI). Mosquitoes received 6000 rad from a 137Cs source (Shepard Mark I irradiator) at 3 days postemergence and were inoculated with 15-20 mff 24 hr later. These mosquitoes were compared to nonirradiated controls that also were inoculated with 15-20 mff at 3 days postemergence. The immune response was significantly reduced in irradiated mosquitoes as compared with controls at all days PI. Although the response was significantly inhibited compared with controls, irradiated mosquitoes were still capable of eliciting a response against 69% of recovered mff at 6 days PI. External gamma irradiation did not significantly affect the proliferation of hemocytes associated with the melanotic encapsulation response of A. aegypti. The number of circulating hemocytes increased in irradiated mosquitoes in response to inoculated mff in a manner similar to nonirradiated, inoculated controls. Hemocyte monophenol oxidase activity, however, was significantly reduced in gamma-irradiated mosquitoes at 12 hr PI as compared with controls. The reduced immunological capacity of irradiated mosquitoes might be related to an interference with gene activity required for the synthesis or activation of enzymes that are directly or indirectly involved in the biochemical processes associated with the production of melanotic substances that sequester mff.

  17. Treatment with anti-interferon-gamma monoclonal antibodies modifies experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in interferon-gamma receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C; Penkowa, M; Sáez-Torres, I;

    2001-01-01

    antibodies (mAb) on day 8 postimmunization. Clinical scoring and both histological and immunohistochemical studies were undertaken for all groups. We hereby show that treatment with anti-IFN-gamma mAb worsened the disease course of 129Sv wild-type mice. However, it decreased the mean daily score in IFN......-gamma R(-/-) 129Sv and the incidence of the disease down to 50% in C57Bl/6x129Sv IFN-gamma R(-/-) mice. Moreover, after anti-IFN-gamma mAb treatment, oxidative stress levels, metallothionein I and II antioxidant protein expression, and apoptoticneuronal death were increased in wild-type mice while...... decreased in IFN-gamma R(-/-) mice. These results suggest a putative alternative mechanism of action of this cytokine that works independent of its receptor....

  18. Gene expression of hematoregulatory cytokines is elevated endogenously after sublethal gamma irradiation and is differentially enhanced by therapeutic administration of biologic response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, V.M. [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States); Adamovicz, J.J.; Madonna, G.S.; Gause, W.C. [Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Elliott, T.B.; Moore, M.M.; Ledney, G.D.; Jackson, W.E. III [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Prompt, cytokine-mediated restoration of hematopoiesis is a prerequisite for survival after irradiation. Therapy with biologic response modifiers (BRMs), such as LPS, 3D monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), and synthetic trehalose dicrynomycolate (S-TDCM) presumably accelerates hematopoietic recovery after irradiation are poorly defined. One hour after sublethal (7.0 Gy) {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation, B6D2F1/J female mice received a single i.p. injection of LPS, MPL, S-TDCM, an extract from Serratia marcescens (Sm-BRM), or Tween 80 in saline (TS). Five hours later, a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay demonstrated marked splenic gene expression for IL-1{beta}, IL-3, IL-6, and granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF). Enhanced gene expression for TNF-{alpha}, macrophage-CSF (M-CSF), and stem cell factor (SCF) was not detected. Injection of any BRM further enhanced cytokine gene expression and plasma levels of CSF activity within 24 h after irradiation and hastened bone marrow recovery. Mice injected with S-TDCM or Sm-BRM sustained expression of the IL-6 gene for at least 24 h after irradiation. Sm-BRM-treated mice exhibited greater gene expression for IL-1{beta}, IL-3, TNF-{alpha}, and G-CSF at day 1 than any other BRM. When challenged with 2 LD{sub 50/30} of Klebsiella pneumoniae 4 days after irradiation, 100% of Sm-BRM-treated mice and 70% of S-TDCM-treated mice survived, whereas {le}30% of mice treated with LPS, MPL, or TS survived. Thus, sublethal irradiation induces transient, splenic cytokine gene expression that can be differentially amplified and prolonged by BRMs. BRMs that sustained and/or enhanced irradiation-induced expression of specific cytokine genes improved survival after experimental infection. 67 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.I.; Cooke, A.W. (Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly (Australia)); Boag, T.S. (Riverina-Murray Inst. of Higher Education, Wagga Wagga (Australia). School of Agriculture); Izard, M. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia)); Panitz, M. (Committee of Direction of Fruit Marketing, Brisbane Markets (Australia)); Sangchote, S. (Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand))

    1990-04-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author).

  20. Strain-specific renal toxicity of heterologous antilymphocyte [gamma]-globulin in mice7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, B.J.; Vries, M.J. de; Noord, M.J. van; Lubbe, F.H.

    1970-01-01

    Severe glomerulonephritis followed one to five weekly i.p. injections in TLFM mice of rabbit antimouse lymphocyte [gamma]-globulin (ALG). Glomerulonephritis did not occur in C57BL mice subjected to the same regimen. Administration of normal rabbit [gamma]-globulin (NRG) to RFM mice also caused renal

  1. Strain-specific renal toxicity of heterologous antilymphocyte [gamma]-globulin in mice7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, B.J.; Vries, M.J. de; Noord, M.J. van; Lubbe, F.H.

    1970-01-01

    Severe glomerulonephritis followed one to five weekly i.p. injections in TLFM mice of rabbit antimouse lymphocyte [gamma]-globulin (ALG). Glomerulonephritis did not occur in C57BL mice subjected to the same regimen. Administration of normal rabbit [gamma]-globulin (NRG) to RFM mice also caused renal

  2. Studies on irradiation effects on rat salivary glands; Morphological and functional changes after sup 60 Co. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saotome, Hitoshi (Meikai Univ., Sakado, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-07-01

    Following {sup 60}Co {gamma} irradiation (17.82 Gy) given as a single dose, time, dose and fractionation factor (TDF) 100, to the head and neck area of rats, the major salivary glands were examined at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 49 days for evidence of microscopic and ultrastructural damage as well as for changes in various enzymes. In addition, parotid salivary function assessed in terms of flow rate, total salivary protein, and secretion of {alpha}-amylase activity was also determined. In the early stage after {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiation 17.82 Gy (TDF 100), systemic effects, body weight loss, and dehydration were observed, and the animals tended to recover from these effects within 1 or 2 weeks. Regarding the irradiation effect on the salivary glands, the parotid gland was showed severe damage; the submandibular, moderate; and the sublingual, slight. Also the effects remained longer in the parotid. Proliferation of granular convoluted tubule cells was retarded by irradiation. The total protein in the parotid gland was decreased after irradiation, whereas the submandibular and sublingual were showed slight or no change. The amount of activity of {alpha}-amylase and of alkaline phosphatase activity in the parotid gland, and that of acid phosphatase and {beta}-D-glucuronidase in all glands, was dependent on the degree of morphological damage observed following irradiation. The salivary flow rate in the parotid gland was depressed 7 days after irradiation to approximately 1/7 of normal, and recovery was noted by 49 days post irradiation. The total protein and {alpha}-amylase activity in the parotid saliva were decreased within several days after irradiation, but had recovered to normal levels. (author).

  3. On the structural and physicochemical properties of gamma irradiated UHMWPE/silane hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiq, Muhammad [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan); Mehmood, Malik Sajjad [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Basic Sciences and Humanities, University of Engineering and Technology, 47050 Taxila (Pakistan); Yasin, Tariq, E-mail: yasintariq@yahoo.com [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-12-16

    This study has been carried to investigate the influence of gamma rays on the structural and physicochemical properties of UHMWPE/silane hybrid. UHMWPE was mixed with vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) and compression molded sheets were irradiated at different doses of gamma rays. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of siloxane linkages in hybrids, which were found to be shifted towards lower wave number upon irradiation. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed significant increase in the percentage crystallinity of hybrid upon gamma irradiation, especially at 65 kGy absorbed dose. Scanning electron micrographs showed good consolidation and compaction with no surface defects. Moreover, the rough topography was changed to smooth ripple-like appearance upon γ-irradiation. Thermal analysis revealed that irradiated hybrids exhibited higher onset thermal degradation temperature, peak melting temperature, and crystalline lamellae thickness compared with the water treated hybrid. In addition, the tensile testing confirmed an increase of 41% and 133% in yield strength and Young's modulus in 100 kGy irradiated hybrid respectively than that of water treated hybrid. We hope that the irradiated UHMWPE/silane hybrids can be used in various high-strength applications such as total joint replacements, pickers for textile machinery, lining for coal chutes and dump trucks. - Highlights: • UHMWPE/silane hybrids have been prepared and irradiated using gamma rays. • The structural analysis revealed the formation siloxane linkages in the hybrid. • The crystallinity, thermal stability and mechanical properties of hybrids were improved with irradiation. • The irradiated hybrids can be used in various high-strength applications.

  4. High gamma irradiation doses and long storage times reduce soybean seed quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúbia Aparecida Costa Nobre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High quality seeds are required for soybean production. This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation and storage time on seed quality in soybean lines VX04-6828 and VX04-5692. Seeds were gamma irradiated (60Co with 0, 50, 150, and 250 Gy. After the first seed production cycle (M1, the harvested seeds were stored in the laboratory for 0, 2, 4, and 6 months. Moisture content, seed quality (germination rate, dead seeds, and normal and abnormal seedlings, and seed vigor (first germination count, germination index, and seedling length were determined. Data were submitted to analysis of variance for each soybean line using a 4 x 4 factorial design (four storage times x four gamma irradiation doses. Response surfaces were constructed based on the F test significance (p ? 0.05. VX04-5692 seeds were more sensitive to gamma radiation than were VX04-6828 seeds. Soybean seed quality was highest in M2 seeds derived from seeds irradiated with less than 100 Gy and stored for up to two months. High gamma irradiation doses and long storage times reduced soybean seed quality.

  5. External gamma irradiation-induced effects in early-life stages of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnaire, B., E-mail: beatrice.gagnaire@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Cavalié, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Pereira, S. [Neolys Diagnostics, Lyon 69373 (France); Floriani, M.; Dubourg, N.; Camilleri, V.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma rays on zebrafish larvae. • Different techniques were used: gene expression, biochemistry, microscopy and macroscopical observations. • The results showed that gamma irradiation can alter embryo-larval development at several levels of organization. - Abstract: In the general context of validation of tools useful for the characterization of ecological risk linked to ionizing radiation, the effects of an external gamma irradiation were studied in zebrafish larvae irradiated for 96 h with two dose rates: 0.8 mGy/d, which is close to the level recommended to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of ionizing radiation (0.24 mGy/d) and a higher dose rate of 570 mGy/d. Several endpoints were investigated, such as mortality, hatching, and some parameters of embryo-larval development, immunotoxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and histological alterations. Results showed that an exposure to gamma rays induced an acceleration of hatching for both doses and a decrease of yolk bag diameter for the highest dose, which could indicate an increase of global metabolism. AChE activity decreased with the low dose rate of gamma irradiation and alterations were also shown in muscles of irradiated larvae. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can induce damages on larval neurotransmission, which could have repercussions on locomotion. DNA damages, basal ROS production and apoptosis were also induced by irradiation, while ROS stimulation index and EROD biotransformation activity were decreased and gene expression of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, cytochrome p450 and myeloperoxidase increased. These results showed that ionizing radiation induced an oxidative stress conducting to DNA damages. This study characterized further the modes of action of ionizing radiation in fish.

  6. Optical and rheological study of gamma irradiated rare-earth nanoparticle based ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Nibedita [Nanoscience and Soft Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, PO Napaam, Tezpur 784 028, Assam (India); Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in [Nanoscience and Soft Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, PO Napaam, Tezpur 784 028, Assam (India); Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, MA 02138 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 098 (India)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle based ferrofluids have been produced with ethanol as carrier medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL emission show improvement in defect related emission with {gamma}-irradiation dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ferrofluids show shear thinning behavior with bi-exponential decay characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fast and slow components are found to increase with irradiation dose. - Abstract: The present work reports on the optical and rheological properties of unexposed and gamma irradiated rare-earth (RE) oxide nanoparticle-based ferrofluids (FF). The ferrofluids were prepared by dispersing surfactant coated gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles in ethanol medium and later on subjected to energetic gamma irradiation (1.25 MeV) at select doses. As predicted from transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, the synthesized nanoparticles are of {approx}7 nm size which crystallize into cubic crystal structure. The photoluminescence response reveals creation of defect states on nanoparticle surfaces when FFs are subjected to gamma irradiation. Whereas, rheology measurements showed unusual shear thinning behavior of the ferrofluids. The flow behavior of all the samples can be correlated to the bi-exponential decay curve fitting which reveals that decay phenomenon is governed by two independent mechanism: fast and slow events. The variation of the decay parameter with irradiation dose is attributed to the creation of point defects and weakening of inter nanoparticle bonding.

  7. Hepatocyte growth factor protects endothelial cells against gamma ray irradiation-induced damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-ying HU; Hai-feng DUAN; Qing-fang LI; Yue-feng YANG; Jin-long CHEN; Li-sheng WANG; Hua WANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effect of HGF on proliferation, apoptosis and migratory ability of human vascular endothelial cells against gamma ray irradiation.Methods: ECV304 cells derived from adult human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were irradiated with a single gamma ray dose of 20 Gy. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to detect c-Met protein expression and HGF/c-Met signal pathway. In the HGF-treated groups, ECV304 cells were incubated with HGF (20 or 40 ng/mL) 3 h prior to irradiation. At 48 h post-irradiation, the proliferation of ECV304 cells was measured by MTT assay, the apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry, and the migratory ability of ECV304 cells was measured by transwell chamber assay.Results: c-Met protein is expressed in ECV304 cells and can be activated by HGF. Gamma ray irradiation inhibits proliferation and migration of ECV304 cells in a dose-dependent manner. HGF significantly promoted the proliferation of ECV304 cells, and flow cytom-etry revealed that HGF can inhibit apoptosis of ECV304 cells. Transwell chamber assay also showed that HGF increases migration activity of endothelial cells.Conclusion: HGF may afford protection to vascular endothelial cells against gamma ray irradiation-induced damage.

  8. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, D., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Halide, H., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Kurniawan, D. [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia); Wahab, A. W. [Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  9. Gamma irradiation effects on the properties of indium zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciun, Doina; Socol, Gabriel [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, RO-077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Le Caër, Sophie [CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/NIMBE UMR 3685/LIONS, Bâtiment 546, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Trinca, Liliana M. [National Institute for Materials Physics, RO-077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, RO-077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Galca, Aurelian C. [National Institute for Materials Physics, RO-077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Pantelica, Dan; Ionescu, Paul [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Craciun, Valentin, E-mail: valentin.craciun@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, RO-077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

    2016-09-01

    Thin films of amorphous and polycrystalline indium zinc oxide (IZO) having various In/(In + Zn) nominal compositions from 0.3 to 0.9 were grown by the pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature or at 400 °C on oxidized Si and quartz substrates. After deposition, the films were gamma irradiated at doses of 10, 20 and 30 kGy under Ar atmosphere. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction investigations could not find measurable changes of the structure after irradiation. Simulations of the X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and diffuse scattering curves acquired from the films showed a small density decrease after irradiation, accompanied by an increase of the thickness and surface roughness. Spectroscopic ellipsometry investigations confirmed the increase of the IZO films' thickness after irradiation, being in agreement with the XRR results. Small changes in the refractive index, most probably caused by changes in the film density were also observed. Four point probe measurements showed very small resistivity increases after irradiation, with the films containing higher In concentration presenting negligible changes. - Highlights: • Amorphous and polycrystalline indium zinc oxide (IZO) films were gamma irradiated. • The gamma radiation does not change the structure of IZO films. • Gamma radiation induces small increases in thickness and roughness of IZO films. • Radiation induced decrease in density was correlated to refractive index decrease.

  10. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, D.; Halide, H.; Wahab, A. W.; Kurniawan, D.

    2014-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  11. Gelam Honey Protects against Gamma-Irradiation Damage to Antioxidant Enzymes in Human Diploid Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the radioprotective effects of Malaysian Gelam honey on gene expression and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs subjected to gamma-irradiation. Six groups of HDFs were studied: untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/mL of sterilized Gelam honey (w/v for 24 h and exposed to 1 Gray (Gy of gamma rays at the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Gamma-irradiation was shown to down-regulate SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPx1 gene expressions (p < 0.05. Conversely, HDFs treated with Gelam honey alone showed up-regulation of all genes studied. Similarly, SOD, CAT and GPx enzyme activities in HDFs decreased with gamma-irradiation and increased when cells were treated with Gelam honey (p < 0.05. Furthermore, of the three different stages of study treatment, pre-treatment with Gelam honey caused up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT genes expression and increased the activity of SOD and CAT. As a conclusion, Gelam honey modulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes at gene and protein levels in irradiated HDFs indicating its potential as a radioprotectant agent.

  12. Evaluating the Effects of Gamma-Irradiation for Decontamination of Medicinal Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative UPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles. In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied. The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated.

  13. Evaluating the effects of gamma-irradiation for decontamination of medicinal cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eHazekamp

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative HPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles. In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied. The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated.

  14. Identification of. gamma. -irradiated spices by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Sadao; Kawamura, Yoko; Saito, Yukio (National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry spectra of white (WP), black (BP) and red (Capsicum annuum L. var. frutescerns L., RP) peppers each had a principal signal with a g-value of 2.0043, and the intensities of the principal signals were increased not only by {gamma}-irradiation but also by heating. Irradiated RP also showed a minor signal -30G from the principal one, and the intensity of the minor signal increased linearly with increasing dose from 10 to 50 kGy. Since the minor signal was observed in RP irradiated at 10 kGy and stored for one year, but did not appear either after heating or after exposure to this signal is unique to {gamma}-irradiated RP and should therefore be useful for the identification of {gamma}-irradiated spices of Capsicum genus, such as paprika and chili pepper. The computer simulation of the ESR spectra suggested that the minor signal should be assigned to methyl radical and the principal signal mainly to a combination of phenoxyl and peroxyl radicals. Such minor signals were found in {gamma}-irradiated allspice and cinnamon among 10 kinds of other spices. (author).

  15. Effectiveness of thermoluminescence analysis to detect low quantity of gamma-irradiated component in non-irradiated mushroom powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Kashif [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 (Pakistan); Ahn, Jae-Jun [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 (Pakistan); Jo, Deokjo [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho, E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Gamma-irradiated (0–10 kGy) dried mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) powders were mixed at different ratios (1–10%) in the non-irradiated samples and investigated using photostimulated-luminescence (PSL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. The PSL results were negative for all samples at 1% mixing ratio, whereas intermediate results were observed for the samples containing 5% or 10% irradiated component with the exception (positive) of 10% mixing of 10 kGy-irradiated sample. The ESR analysis showed the presence of crystalline sugar radicals in the irradiated samples but the radiation-specific spectral features were absent in the mixed samples. TL analysis showed the radiation-specific TL glow curves; however, the complicated results were observed at 1% mixing of 2 and 5 kGy-irradiated samples, which required careful evaluations to draw the final conclusion about the irradiation status of the samples. TL ratios could only confirm the results of samples with 5% and 10% mixing of 10 kGy, and 10% mixing of 5 kGy-irradiated components. SEM-EDX analysis showed that feldspar and quartz were major contaminating minerals, responsible for the radiation-specific luminescence characteristics. -- Highlights: ► Detection of irradiated food is important to enforce the applied regulations. ► The effectiveness of TL analysis was investigated to detect irradiated component. ► The TL results were compared with those from PSL and ESR analysis. ► TL analysis was most effective to characterize the irradiation status of samples. ► SEM-EDX analysis showed feldspar and quartz as the main source of TL properties.

  16. Detection of garlic gamma-irradiated by assay comet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Miranda, Enrique F. Prieto; Carro, Sandra; Iglesias Enrique, Isora; Matos, Wilberto [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)], e-mail: damaris@ceaden.edu.cu

    2009-07-01

    The garlic samples were irradiated in a facility with {sup 60}Co sources, at absorbed dose values of 0-0,15 kGy. The detection method utilized for the identification of the irradiated garlic was biological comet assay. The samples were classified post-irradiation several times. The irradiated samples showed high strand breaks of DNA exhibiting comets of several forms, while the not irradiated and lower dose samples showed a behavior like round shape and light comets. Significant differences were found for higher absorbed dose values at 0.06 kGy, this absorbed dose value is corresponding with the applied dose value at this food in order to avoid the germination. (author)

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on commercial eggs experimentally inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, I. G.; Trejo, R. M.; Sanchez, R. E.; Ceniceros, R. M.; Luna, Q. P.; Zazua, P.; Hargis, B. M.

    1995-02-01

    Using intact, fresh shell eggs, inoculated with 10 8 colony-forming units (cfu) of S. enteritidis, the effect of three doses of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic population and physical characteristics (Haugh units and yolk color) of the eggs was determinated. Penetration test area was picked at random just off the air cell of each egg. Aluminum cylinders were attached to the egg surface with a rim of molten paraffin, and 10 8S. enteritidis was then applied to inoculate the egg. Eggs were then irradiated within 2 hours using a Cobalt-60 gamma source at either 1, 2, or 3 kGy. A second set of inoculated, non-irradiated was used as controls. Following irradiation, eggs were maintained at 4°C for 42 hours prior culture. Irradiation with 1 kGy resulted in a significant (P < .05), 3.9 log reduction in detectable S. enteritidis in the shell and a higly significant (P < .025) 95% reduction in detectable S. enteritidis in the internal shell membranes. Irradiation of eggs with either 2 or 3 kGy reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels in both the shell and internal membranes. However, irradiation at either 1, 2 or 3 kGy resulted in a significant (P <- .05) decrease (approximately 50%) in Haugh units. Additionally, irradiation of intact shell eggs at 2 or 3 Kgy significantly (P ≤ .05) reduced yolk color regardless of the level of irradiation exposure implemented. This data indicates that gamma irradiation of intact raw eggs is effective in reducing (1 kGy) or eliminating (2 or more kGy) S. enteritidis contamination. However, each of the levels of irradiation used in the present experiments caused marked reduction of selected measures of egg quality.

  18. Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis by gamma irradiation; Atenuacao da forma leveduriforme do Paraccocidioides Brasiliensis por irradicao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demicheli, Marina Cortez

    2006-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0 kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L {sup 35}S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C{sub 57}Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5 kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L- {sup 35}S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5 kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5 kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeast cells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile. (author)

  19. Gemstone enhancing dedicated gamma irradiator development; Desenvolvimento de irradiador gama dedicado ao beneficiamento de pedras preciosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omi, Nelson Minoru

    2006-07-01

    The gemstones gamma irradiation process to enhance the color is widely accepted for the jewelry industry. These gems are processed in conventional industrial gamma irradiation plant which are optimized for other purposes, using underwater irradiation devices with high rejection rate due to it's poor dose uniformity. A new conception design, which states the working principles and manufacturing ways of the device, was developed in this work. The suggested device's design is based on the rotation of cylindrical baskets and their translation in circular paths inside and outside a cylindrical source rack as a planetary system. The device is meant to perform the irradiation in the bottom of the source storage pool, where the sources remain always shielded by the water layer. The irradiator matches the Category III IAEA classification. To verify the physical viability of the basic principle, tests with rotating cylindrical baskets were performed in the Multipurpose Irradiator raised in the CTR, IPEN. Also, simulations using the CADGAMMA software, adapted to simulate underwater irradiations were performed. With the definitive irradiator, the irradiation quality will be enhanced with better dose control and the production costs will be significantly lower than market prices due to the intended treatment device's optimization. (author)

  20. Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Salles Vasconcelos Henriques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control; irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradiating facility was perfomed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  2. Effect of mercerization and gamma irradiation on the dyeing behaviour of cotton using stilbene based direct dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Adeel, Shahid; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Irshad, Misbah; Abbas, Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    The dyeing behaviour of mercerized and gamma irradiated cotton fabric using stilbene based direct dye has been investigated. The fabric was treated with different concentrations of alkali to optimize the mercerization. The optimum mercerized cotton fabric was irradiated to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature, time of dyeing, pH of dyeing solutions and salt concentration were optimized. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It was found that mercerized and irradiated cotton have not only improved the colour strength but enhanced the rating of fastness properties also.

  3. Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the microbial load, chemical and sensory quality of chicken kabab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.; Othman, Y.

    2010-08-01

    Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the microbial load, chemical and sensory quality of chicken kabab was investigated. Chicken kabab was treated with 0, 2, 4 or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. Treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 °C). Microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken kabab were evaluated at 0-5 months of storage. Gamma irradiation decreased the microbial load and increased the shelf-life of chicken kabab. Irradiation did not influence the major constituents of chicken kabab (moisture, protein and fats). No significant differences ( p>0.05) were observed for total acidity between non-irradiated (control) and irradiated chicken kabab. Thiobarbitric acid (TBA) values (expressed as mg malonaldehyde (MDA)/kg chicken kabab) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) in chicken kabab were not affected by the irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples.

  4. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the properties of calendered cord fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytaç, Ayşe; Deniz, Veli; Şen, Murat; Hegazy, El-Sayed; Güven, Olgun

    2010-03-01

    The effects of gamma and e-beam irradiation on mechanical and structural properties of nylon 66 (Ny 66), nylon 6 (Ny 6) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics used in tyres were investigated. The untreated (greige), treated cords and calendered fabrics were irradiated at different doses. It is found that the effects of high energy irradiation on greige, treated cords and calendered fabrics are similar. No protective effect of compounds used in calendering was observed against radiation-induced oxidative degradation. The deterioration effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties is much higher than that of e-beam irradiation for all types of samples. Limiting viscosity numbers of both gamma and e-beam irradiated nylon 6 and nylon 66 cords were found to decrease with increasing dose. It is concluded that PET calendered fabric has higher resistance to ionizing radiation. Ny 6 and Ny 66 calendered fabrics are more sensitive even at low doses. Therefore, the effects of high energy irradiation on tyre cords have to be taken into consideration during tyre design reinforced with particularly Ny fabrics if pre-vulcanization with high energy radiation is to be applied.

  5. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the properties of calendered cord fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytac, Ayse [Kocaeli University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 41040 Kocaeli (Turkey); Deniz, Veli, E-mail: vdeniz@kocaeli.edu.t [Kocaeli University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 41040 Kocaeli (Turkey); Sen, Murat [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey); Hegazy, El-Sayed [The National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Cairo (Egypt); Gueven, Olgun [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    The effects of gamma and e-beam irradiation on mechanical and structural properties of nylon 66 (Ny 66), nylon 6 (Ny 6) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics used in tyres were investigated. The untreated (greige), treated cords and calendered fabrics were irradiated at different doses. It is found that the effects of high energy irradiation on greige, treated cords and calendered fabrics are similar. No protective effect of compounds used in calendering was observed against radiation-induced oxidative degradation. The deterioration effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties is much higher than that of e-beam irradiation for all types of samples. Limiting viscosity numbers of both gamma and e-beam irradiated nylon 6 and nylon 66 cords were found to decrease with increasing dose. It is concluded that PET calendered fabric has higher resistance to ionizing radiation. Ny 6 and Ny 66 calendered fabrics are more sensitive even at low doses. Therefore, the effects of high energy irradiation on tyre cords have to be taken into consideration during tyre design reinforced with particularly Ny fabrics if pre-vulcanization with high energy radiation is to be applied.

  6. Developmental inhibition of gamma irradiation on the peach fruit moth Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jihoon; Ahn, Jun-Young; Sik Lee, Seung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing irradiation is a useful technique for disinfestation under plant quarantine as well as post-harvest management. Effects of gamma irradiation treatment were tested on different developmental events of Carposina sasakii, which is a serious pest of various orchard crops. Apple fruits infested by C. sasakii were irradiated by gamma rays ranging from 0 to 300 Gy. Inhibition rates were determined on behavioral events related to development, including larval exit from apples, cocoon formation, adult eclosion, and oviposition. Failure rates of all these developmental events increased with increasing doses of irradiation. Rates of larval exit from apples and cocoon formation decreased to 13.2% and 1.7%, respectively, at 300 Gy. However, the adult eclosion rate decreased to 5.4% at 100 Gy and was completely inhibited at doses greater than 150 Gy. LD99 values for the inhibition of cocoon formation and adult emergence was estimated into 313.4 and 191.0 Gy. Furthermore, adults developed from irradiated larvae completely failed to lay eggs. Thus, irradiation of infested apples at doses of 200 Gy and higher completely inhibited the next generation of C. sasakii. Our results suggest that gamma irradiation treatment would be a promising technique for the control of C. sasakii.

  7. Chlorogenic acid was specifically induced among phenolic compounds in centipedegrass by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Byung Chul; Barampuram, Shyamkumar; Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Centipedegrass is a warm season turfgrass in the world. Chlorogenic acid (CA) is one of the important compounds present in the leaf of centipedegrass and already known as an antioxidant, CA has become a key resistance against insect pests and bacteria pathogens of agricultural and horticultural plants during seedlling stage. Furthermore, CA is accumulated by abiotic stress such as an UV irradiation. In present study, we investigated enhancement of the level of CA upon gamma irradiation in centipedegrass. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data analysis showed an approximately increasing of the CA levels from among the irradiated samples. However, plants irradiated at 50 Gy showed a constant increase in the CA level (0.0066 to 0.114 mg ml{sup -1} and 0.0258 to 0.2211 mg ml{sup -1}, respectively) from 3{sup rd} to 15{sup th} day among one and three month irradiated plants compared to control. The present study, indicates an increase in the CA level upon gamma irradiation, suggests strategy for conferment of strong resistance on seedling stage plants by gamma irradiation as simplicity and cheaply method.

  8. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Potentiates Secondary Exposure to Gamma Rays or Protons in Thyroid Tissue Analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Lora M

    2006-05-25

    We have utilized our unique bioreactor model to produce three-dimensional thyroid tissue analogs that we believe better represent the effects of radiation in vivo than two-dimensional cultures. Our thyroid model has been characterized at multiple levels, including: cell-cell exchanges (bystander), signal transduction, functional changes and modulation of gene expression. We have significant preliminary data on structural, functional, signal transduction and gene expression responses from acute exposures at high doses (50-1000 rads) of gamma, protons and iron (Green et al., 2001a; 2001b; 2002a; 2002b; 2005). More recently, we used our DOE funding (ending Feb 06) to characterize the pattern of radiation modulated gene expression in rat thyroid tissue analogs using low-dose/low-dose rate radiation, plus/minus acute challenge exposures. Findings from these studies show that the low-dose/low-dose rate “priming” exposures to radiation invoked changes in gene expression profiles that varied with dose and time. The thyrocytes transitioned to a “primed” state, so that when the tissue analogs were challenged with an acute exposure to radiation they had a muted response (or an increased resistance) to cytopathological changes relative to “un-primed” cells. We measured dramatic differences in the primed tissue analogs, showing that our original hypothesis was correct: that low dose gamma irradiation will potentiate the repair/adaptation response to a secondary exposure. Implications from these findings are that risk assessments based on classical in vitro tissue culture assays will overestimate risk, and that low dose rate priming results in a reduced response in gene expression to a secondary challenge exposure, which implies that a priming dose provides enhanced protection to thyroid cells grown as tissue analogs. If we can determine that the effects of radiation on our tissue analogs more closely resemble the effects of radiation in vivo, then we can better

  9. Growth of Theileria annulata and Theileria parva macroschizont-infected bovine cells in immunodeficient mice: effect of irradiation and tumour load on lymphocyte subsets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, A.H.; Preston, P.M. (Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    Bovine cells infected with macroschizonts of the protozoan parasites Theileria annulata and Theileria parva formed solid tumours when injected into irradiated Balb/c and irradiated Balb/c nude mice. T. annulata tumours grew more vigorously than T. parva tumours, when initiated with similar doses of infected cells in mice exposed to the same doses of gamma-irradiation. In irradiated Balb/c mice, tumours of both species of parasites began to regress 2-3 weeks after injection of cells but grew without regression in irradiated Balb/c nude mice. Haemorrhage and necrosis of tumours, induced by macrophages and neutrophils, were seen in both mouse strains but were insufficient to cause regression in Balb/c nude mice. Theileria-infected bovine cells failed to establish in C57 beige mice, which lack functional natural killer (NK) cells. Flow cytometry, using monoclonal antibodies to murine leukocyte/lymphocyte antigens, showed that the radiation dose required to allow establishment of T. annulata tumours in Balb/c mice caused a severe depletion of splenic lymphocytes. B cells, helper T and cytotoxic T cells showed differing levels of susceptibility to irradiation. (Author).

  10. The effects of gamma irradiation on neutron displacement sensitivity of lateral PNP bipolar transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chenhui, E-mail: wangchenhui@nint.ac.cn; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yan; Jin, Xiaoming; Yang, Shanchao; Qi, Chao

    2016-09-21

    The effects of gamma irradiation on neutron displacement sensitivity of four types of lateral PNP bipolar transistors (LPNPs) with different neutral base widths, emitter widths and the doping concentrations of the epitaxial base region are studied. The physical mechanisms of the effects are explored by defect analysis using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) techniques and numerical simulations of recombination process in the base region of the lateral PNP bipolar transistors, and are verified by the experiments on gate-controlled lateral PNP bipolar transistors (GCLPNPs) manufactured in the identical commercial bipolar process with different gate bias voltage. The results indicate that gamma irradiation increases neutron displacement damage sensitivity of lateral PNP bipolar transistors and the mechanism of this phenomenon is that positive charge induced by gamma irradiation enhances the recombination process in the defects induced by neutrons in the base region, leading to larger recombination component of base current and greater gain degradation.

  11. Functionalization and magnetization of carbon nanotubes using Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Fu, M. J.; Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, F. H.; Chen, K. Y.

    2014-10-01

    Functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used in the biological and biomedical fields as biosensors, drug delivery systems, etc., which makes research into processes for manufacturing modified CNTs quite important. In this paper, Co-60 gamma irradiation is shown to be an effective tool for fabricating functionalized and magnetized CNTs. After the Co-60 gamma irradiation, the presence of carboxylic functional groups on the CNT walls was confirmed by their Fourier transform infrared spectra, and the presence of Fe3O4 was verified by the X-ray diffraction patterns. The functionalized and magnetized CNTs produced using Co-60 gamma irradiation have excellent dispersion properties. The techniques for functionalizing and magnetizing CNTs are introduced in this paper, and applications of the modified CNTs will be reported after more data are gathered.

  12. Livestock wastewater treatment by zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Ryul; Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Myun Joo [Radiation Research Center for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Livestock wastewater containing high concentrations of organic matters and ammonia-nitrogen has been known as one of the recalcitrant wastewater. It is difficult to treat by conventional wastewater treatment techniques. This study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation treatment of livestock wastewater. The removal efficiencies of SCOD{sub Cr} and NH3-N were significantly enhanced by gamma-ray irradiation after zeolite ion exchange as a pre-treatment. However, the effects of zeolite particle size on the SCOD{sub Cr} and NH{sub 3}-N removal efficiencies were insignificant. These results indicate that the combined process of zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation has potential for the treatment of livestock wastewater.

  13. Influence of {gamma}-irradiation on the optical properties of nanocrystalline tin phthalocyanine thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Nahass, M.M., E-mail: prof_nahhas@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Atta, A.A.; El-Shazly, E.A.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Faidah, A.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Hendi, A.A. [Department of Physics, Girl' s College of Education, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-10-15

    SnPc in powder and thin film forms were found to be polycrystalline with monoclinic lattice. The morphological and structural properties of the obtained SnPc films were characterized from electron scanning micrographs and X-ray diffraction patterns. In the {gamma}-irradiated film the formed agglomeration increased the crystallite size. The refractive index, n, and the absorption index, k, were obtained from spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range 200-2500 nm. {gamma}-Irradiation films shifted the transmission edge toward lower wavelength and increase the optical energy gap value. According to the analysis of dispersion curves, the dielectric constants and dispersion parameters were obtained. The absorption analysis performed indicated indirect allowed electronic transitions and the optical energy band gap 2.84 and 2.63 eV for the as-deposited and the {gamma}-irradiated films, respectively.

  14. Protection by S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid against radiation-induced leg contractures in mice. [Gamma Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, N.; Milas, L.

    1983-04-01

    S-2-(3-Aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) was shown to provide marked protection against development of radiation-induced leg contractures in C3Hf/Kam mice whose legs were exposed to single doses of gamma-radiation. The radiation doses ranged from 3300 to 6200 rads delivered to the right hind thighs from two parallelly opposed 137Cs sources. WR-2721 was given i.p. 30 min before irradiation. The severity of radiation-induced leg contractures in untreated and WR-2721-treated mice was followed for 342 days after irradiation. The degree of leg contractures in both control and WR-2721-treated mice increased up to 100 days after radiation, when the change stabilized, remaining more or less at the same level to the end of the observation period. During this entire period, the severity of contractures was less in WR-2721-treated mice. The dose-modifying factor for the level of 5 mm reduction in leg extension was 1.5 at 182 days after irradiation. Since WR-2721 did not prevent the radiocurability of 8-mm fibrosarcomas growing in the same legs, these data imply that WR-2721 has a high potential for increasing therapeutic gain when combined with irradiation in the treatment of tumors of an appreciable size.

  15. Metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis selection using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetti, Franco C.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail: fbonetti@usp.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia

    2005-07-01

    Leishmania spp. causes a spectrum of human diseases, ranging from self-healing skin lesions to severe and lethal visceral disease. In previous work we demonstrated that the protein and nucleic acid metabolism and oxidative respiration were severely affected by irradiation, in a dose response way, but a small but representative fractions are relatively radio resistant, surviving after 800 Gy of {sup 60}Co irradiation. The best explanation could be a selection of metacyclic promastigotes. In these forms, the G0 state allows the adequate correction of DNA repair after the irradiation insult. In this work, we are looking for the ideal radiation dose to select the higher proportion of metacyclic forms of L.. (L.) amazonensis in culture. Parasites were grown in RPMI 1640 medium, plus 20% fetal calf serum, than they were irradiated with different doses ranging between 25 and 400 Gy. Parasites irradiated at 400 Gy infected, proportionally, more cells than parasites irradiated at other doses. To confirm this metacyclogenesis, a complement lysis assay was performed with 5, 10 and 20% of male guinea pig blood serum at 20 deg C for 3 hours, and parasites counted. Guinea pig serum a 10% promotes more lysis, with 200 Gy irradiated parasites being less affected, probably due to metacyclic selection. These preliminary results suggests that the ionizing radiation, specially between 200 and 400 Gy, could be a alternative tool for the selection of metacyclic forms of Leishmania amazonensis in culture. (a0011uth.

  16. Physico-chemical characterization of gamma rays irradiated crotamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: kcorleto@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. It has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine, a toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed the characterization of irradiated crotamine using Circular Dichroism (CD), Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques. We used size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography to purify it from Cdt crude venom. The pure crotamine was irradiated with 2.0 kGy from a {sup 60}Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were analyzed in a fluorescence spectrophotometer (Hitachi F-4500), under excitation wavelength at 275 nm and the emission was scanned from 300 to 500 nm. The analysis of fluorescence quenching showed that the irradiated form displayed a lower quantum yield when compared to the native form. CD spectra, obtained from a Jasco, J-180 spectropolarimeter, of native and irradiated crotamine solutions, showed a discrete change between the samples, from apparently ordered conformation to a random coil. Finally, the thermodynamics analysis, realized in a calorimeter METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e, showed that irradiation promoted changes in the calorimetric profile. Our results indicate that irradiation leads to progressive changes in the structure of the toxin, which could explain the decrease in myotoxic activity. (author)

  17. Development of system for product tracking and data acquisition of data irradiation process in large gamma irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Jose R., E-mail: joseroberto.soares@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie. Escola de Engenharia. Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rela, Paulo R.; Costa, Fabio E., E-mail: prela@ipen.br, E-mail: fecosta@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The sterilization of medical care products using ionizing radiation is a consolidated technique. In Brazil there are in operation gamma irradiators with capacity between 0.37 PBq (10kCi) 185 PBq (5 MCi) using radioisotopes {sup 60}Co as radiation source. The developed work provides an accurate control and data acquisition for the application of good manufacturing practices during all phases of an irradiation process, required by the standards of ANVISA, technical ISO and IAEA recommendations for the treatment of foods and medical products. All the steps involved in the irradiation treatment are mapped into process flow (work flow), where each agent (participant) has its systematized tasks. The automatic data process acquisition using wireless ZigBee technology, monitoring and control, are based on a set of tools (free software licenses) integrated by a network of efficient communication, including the use of Web resources. Using the Gamma Irradiator Multipurpose IPEN/CNEN-SP all the development was performed to be applied in irradiators' facilities operating in industrial scale. The system enables a complete traceability of the process, in real time, for any participant and also the storage of the corresponding records to be audited. (author)

  18. Monte Carlo Calculations for Neutron and Gamma Radiation Fields on a Fast Neutron Irradiation Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A.; Ramalho, A.; Gonçalves, I. C.; Fernandes, A.; Barradas, N.; Marques, J. G.; Prata, J.; Chaussy, Ch.

    We used the Monte Carlo program MCNP to calculate the neutron and gamma fluxes on a fast neutron irradiation facility being installed on the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI). The purpose of this facility is to provide a fast neutron beam for irradiation of electronic circuits. The gamma dose should be minimized. This is achieved by placing a lead shield preceded by a thin layer of boral. A fast neutron flux of the order of 109 n/cm2s is expected at the exit of the tube, while the gamma radiation is kept below 20 Gy/h. We will present results of the neutron and gamma doses for several locations along the tube and different thickness of the lead shield. We found that the neutron beam is very collimated at the end of the tube with a dominant component on the fast region.

  19. A comparative study of the hydrolysis of gamma irradiated lignocelluloses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Betiku

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high-dose irradiation as a pretreatment method on two common lignocellulosic materials; hardwood (Khaya senegalensis and softwood (Triplochiton scleroxylon were investigated by assessing the potential of cellulase enzyme derived from Aspergillus flavus Linn isolate NSPR 101 to hydrolyse the materials. The irradiation strongly affected the materials, causing the enzymatic hydrolysis to increase by more than 3 fold. Maximum digestibility occurred in softwood at 40kGy dosage of irradiation, while in hardwood it was at 90kGy dosage. The results also showed that, at the same dosage levels (p < 0.05, hardwood was hydrolysed significantly better compared to the softwood.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on cefotaxime in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żegota, Henryk; Koprowski, Marek; Zegota, Alicja

    1995-02-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation on cefotaxime, a member of the third generation of cephalosporins, has been investigated by using different spectroscopic, chromatographic and microbiological analytical methods. Cefotaxime sodium salt was irradiated in dry state in the range of sterilization doses from 5.85 to 46.8 kGy. According to the results obtained, the degree of cefotaxime alteration was lower than 1%, even for the higher radiation dose used. Trace amounts of antibiotic radiolysis products have been found by HPLC. The microbiological assay carried out using E. coli test strain reveal that the activity of irradiated cefotaxime did not decrease.

  1. Utilization of {gamma}-irradiation technique on plant mutation breeding and plant growth regulation in Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Hirokatsu [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    During about 30-years, we have developed {gamma}-irradiation technique and breeding back pruning method for the study of mutation breeding of ornamental plants. As a result, we have made a wide variety of new mutant lines in chrysanthemum, narcissus, begonia rex, begonia iron cross, winter daphne, zelkova, sweet-scented oleander, abelia, kobus, and have obtained 7 plant patents. By the use of {gamma}-irradiation to plant mutation breeding, we often observed that plants irradiated by low dose of {gamma}-rays showed superior or inferior growth than the of non-irradiated plants. Now, we established the irradiation conditions of {gamma}-rays for mutation breeding and growth of regulation in narcissus, tulip, Enkianthus perulatus Schneid., komatsuna, moyashi, african violet. In most cases, irradiation dose rate is suggested to be a more important factor to induce plant growth regulators than irradiation dose. (author)

  2. Sensory acceptability of squid rings gamma irradiated for shelf-life extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of extending the shelf-life of a squid product by gamma irradiation was analyzed. Illex argentinus rings were irradiated at 4 and 8 kGy; and stored at 4±1 °C during 77 days. No mesophilic bacteria, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were detected in irradiated rings during storage. Psychrotrophic bacteria were significantly reduced by irradiation; their counts were fitted to a growth model which was further used for shelf-life estimations: 3 and 27 days for 0 and 4 kGy, respectively. Initially, non-irradiated as well as irradiated rings had very good sensory scores. The overall acceptability of 4 and 8 kGy rings did not decrease during 27 and 64 days, respectively, while control samples spoiled after 3 days. A radiation dose range for squid rings preservation was defined, which attained the technological shelf-life extension objective, without impairing sensory quality.

  3. Macroarray analysis of gene expression in hematopoietic tissues from mice continuously irradiated by low dose-rate ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitou, Mikio; Nakamura, Shingo; Shirata, Katsutoshi; Yanai, Takanori; Izumi, Jun; Sugihara, Takashi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kimio; Otsu, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumiaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    We found that the number of hematopoietic progenitor cells in bone marrow and spleen from 4 - 8 Gy-irradiated mice decreased about 50%, in spite of no change in the number of peripheral blood cells. To evaluate the effects of chronic irradiation by low dose-rate ionizing radiation on the gene expression in mice hematopoietic cells from bone marrow and spleen, the RNA expressions of more than 500 genes such as cytokine genes and oncogenes were measured on the membranes by the RNA macroarray analysis method at accumulated doses at 4.7 and 8 Gy in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) C3H/HeN female mice irradiated by {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays with the dose rate of 20 mGy/day. The RNA macroarray analysis in spleens from 8 Gy-irradiated mice showed that the expressions in 16 genes including noggin were more than 1.5 times larger than that of control, while those in 64 genes including shh (sonic hedgehog) and BMP-4 (bone morphogenesis protein 4) were more than 1.5 times smaller than that of control. (author)

  4. Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun [Hallym University, Kangwon (Korea); Lee, Cherl Ho [Korea University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Jung Hee [Seoul Women' s University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to beefs (0-5 kGy) and porks (0-30 kGy) for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity and four-week oral toxicity. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. In the study of rat hepatocarcinogenesis, the consumption of gamma irradiated beef and pork not only does not affect the formation of lipid peroxide and membrane stability but also has a possibility to inhibit hepatocarcinogenesis. Also, the consumption of {gamma} - irradiated beef and pork does not affect antioxidative defense system. In the study of the biological safety of korean red pepper, no difference was found on microbial growth between pepper extract alone or irradiated pepper extract. In the preservation study of korean traditional rice-cake(garedok), irradiation dose below 10kGy had no influence on typical sensory characteristics. The shelf-life in rice-cakes with different conditions was the longest on 10kGy treatment than 5kGy. In investigation of the consumer attitude toward irradiated foods, the main reason for the concern about irradiated foods is that compounds in the products formed by irradiation. Therefore, regulatory authorities must be encouraged to permit the sale of irradiated items when wholesomeness is established. (author). 94 refs.,31 figs., 62 tabs.

  5. Sterilization of ready-to-cook Bibimbap by combined treatment with gamma irradiation for space food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Nam; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Han, In-Jun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Bibimbap, Korean traditional cooked rice mixed with various kinds of vegetables, together with mushrooms and a ground meat, and seasoned with red pepper paste, was developed as a ready-to-cook food by combined treatment with irradiation for the use in space. By gamma irradiation of 25 kGy, the total aerobic bacteria of Bibimbap that was initial by 6.3 log CFU/g decreased to below detection limit, but its sensory qualities were drastically decreased. To enhance the sensory quality, the effects of antioxidant in Bibimbap were evaluated. A treatment with 0.1% of vitamin C, vacuum packaging and gamma-irradiated at 25 kGy and -70 °C showed higher sensory scores than only the irradiation process. This result indicates that the radiation technology may be useful to produce a variety of space foods with high quality of taste and flavor, when combined with other methods.

  6. Determination of fatty acid composition of {gamma}-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gecgel, Umit, E-mail: ugecgel@nku.edu.t [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey); Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  7. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by gamma irradiation-alkaline pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-06-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma irradiation and NaOH was performed to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw for production of reducing sugar. The results showed that the irradiation of wheat straw at 50 kGy decreased the yield of reducing sugar, however, the reducing sugar yield increased with increasing dose from 50 kGy to 400 kGy. The irradiation of wheat straw at 100 kGy can significantly decrease NaOH consumption and treatment time. The reducing sugar yield could reach 72.67% after irradiation at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h. The combined pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH immersion can increase the solubilization of hemicellulose and lignin as well as the accessible surface area for enzyme molecules.

  8. Characterization of LWRS Hybrid SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Fuel Cladding after Gamma Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabella J van Rooyen

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the gamma irradiation tests conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was to obtain a better understanding of chemical interactions and potential changes in microstructural properties of a mock-up hybrid nuclear fuel cladding rodlet design (unfueled) in a simulated PWR water environment under irradiation conditions. The hybrid fuel rodlet design is being investigated under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program for further development and testing of one of the possible advanced LWR nuclear fuel cladding designs. The gamma irradiation tests were performed in preparation for neutron irradiation tests planned for a silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic matrix composite (CMC) zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) hybrid fuel rodlet that may be tested in the INL Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) if the design is selected for further development and testing

  9. Effect of Gamma and electron beam irradiation on PAN-carbon fiber composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, R.; Kasaei, H.; Hajihashemi, M.; Daneshvari, V.; Emamalizadeh, M.; Kasaei, M.H., E-mail: rvzreza@gmail.com [Materials Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Isfahan, I. R. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irradiation on structural, mechanical and thermal properties of PAN- carbon fiber composite. The overall applied doses were 250, 500, 750, and 1000 kGy. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Tensile strength test was conducted in order to measure mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate microstructural behavior. Thermal behavior of the samples was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The results showed that by increasing gamma and electron doses the thermal behavior of the composite indicated higher decomposition degree as a function of the temperature. Electron irradiated carbon fiber surfaces are relatively smoothed than that virgin fibers. Bulges after gamma treatment were decreased and surface was unrough. (author)

  10. Spectroscopy of a Gamma Irradiated Poly(Acrylic Acid)-Clotrimazole System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Todica; C.V.Pop; Luciana Udrescu; Traian Stefan

    2011-01-01

    A poly(acrylic acid)-clotrimazole system,gamma irradiated at different doses,is investigated by Raman spectroscopy.Modifications of the spectrum of the polymeric matrix appear for doses of radiation greater than 333 Gy,whereas the spectrum of clotrimazole remains unaffected at these doses of radiation.These changes correlate with modification of the vibration modes of COOH and CH2 groups of a polymeric matrix after irradiation.%A poly(acrylic acid)-clotrimazole system, gamma irradiated at different doses, is investigated by Raman spec-troscopy. Modifications of the spectrum of the polymeric matrix appear for doses of radiation greater than 333 Gy, whereas the spectrum of clotrimazole remains unaffected at these doses of radiation. These changes correlate with modification of the vibration modes of COOH and CH2 groups of a polymeric matrix after irradiation.

  11. Effectiveness of ethylene oxide and gamma irradiation on the microbiological population of three types of paprika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, S.L.; Gimenez, J.L.; Sanchez, F.M.; Romojaro, F.

    The effectiveness of ethylene oxide and the gamma irradiation sterilizing treatments on the microbiological population was studied in three types of Spanish paprika, stored in a cold chamber (4/sup 0/C) and at room temperature (16-38.8/sup 0/C) over an experimental period of 285 days. The controlled microorganisms were: mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, sulfite reducing anaerobes, yeasts, molds, and Salmonella. The presence of aflatoxins was also studied. The results showed that both sterilizing treatments reduced the microbiological population to below the permissible levels recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Food. Nevertheless, it was interesting that the gamma irradiation treatment was more effective.

  12. Determination of dosimetric and kinetic features of gamma irradiated solid calcium ascorbate dihydrate using ESR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, H.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on solid calcium ascorbate dihydrate were studied using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Irradiated samples were found to present two specific ESR lines with shoulder at low and high magnetic field sides. Structural and kinetic features of the radicalic species responsible for experimental ESR spectrum were explored through the variations of the signal intensities with applied microwave power, variable temperature, high-temperature annealing and room temperature storage time studies. Dosimetric potential of the sample was also determined using spectrum area and measured signal intensity measurements. It was concluded that three radicals with different spectroscopic and kinetic features were produced upon gamma irradiation.

  13. Retrieval of gamma cell 220 irradiator isodose curves with MCNP simulations and experimental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.R.; Grynberg, S.E.; Ferreira, A.V.; Belo, L.C.M.; Squair, P.L.; Ribeiro, M.A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sousa, R.V.; Sebastiao, R.C.O. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-03-15

    Gamma irradiator facilities can be used in a wide range of applications such as biological and chemical researches, sterilization of medical devices and products. Dose mapping must be performed in these equipment in order to establish plant operational parameters, as dose uniformity, source utilization efficiency and maximum and minimum dose positions. The isodoses curves are measured using dosimeters or computer simulations. This work evaluates the absorbed dose in the CDTN/CNEN Gamma Cell Irradiation Facility, using the Monte Carlo N-Particles (MCNP) code. (author)

  14. Cesium leaching from {gamma}-irradiated CsA and CsX zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Enrique [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, A. P. 55-532, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186 Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: lima@xanum.uam.mx; Ibarra, Ilich A.; Lara, Victor [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, A. P. 55-532, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186 Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bosch, Pedro [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, A. P. 70-360, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bulbulian, Silvia [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, 11801 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-30

    The present study discusses the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on Cs{sup +}-exchanged X and A zeolites. The incorporation of Cs{sup +} ions into A and X zeolites was performed using three different cesium salts (chloride, nitrate or acetate). Cs{sup +} ions immobilized into the vitrified zeolites by thermal treatment are located in different sites of the zeolite networks. It is found that {gamma}-irradiation favors cesium retention depending on the cesium precursor salt used in the cationic exchange step.

  15. Use of Lead (II) Sulfide Nanoparticles as Stabilizer for PMMA Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia,Olga Pinheiro; Albuquerque,Marília Cordeiro Carneiro de; Aquino, Kátia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo,Patricia Lopes Barros; Araujo,Elmo Silvano de

    2015-01-01

    Lead (II) sulfide (PbS) were synthesized by sonochemical method and crystals with cubic structure exhibit aggregated nanoparticles with size in the range of 50-100 nm. Commercial Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing the PbS nanoparticles (PbS-NP) exposed to gamma irradiation were investigated and both the viscosity-average molar mass (Mv) and degradation index (DI) values were measured. Ours results showed decreases in molar mass when the systems were gamma irradiated, i. e., random sc...

  16. Investigation on the effects of beta and gamma irradiation on conducting polymers for sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Marie C., E-mail: mkane@sandia.go [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lascola, Robert J.; Clark, Elliot A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Two conductive polymers were evaluated to be the active materials in a sensor device for the detection of beta radiation. This was accomplished by characterizing the changes in conductivity of electrically conducting polymer films caused by exposure to tritium gas for varying lengths of time. The behavior of these materials when exposed to gamma radiation was also studied to gain further insight into the mechanism of conductivity degradation by ionizing radiation. Two types of conductive polymer, polyaniline (PANi) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), were chosen as candidate materials for their widespread commercial use. The change of surface resistance (conductivity) of PANi and PEDOT films when exposed to gamma radiation in both air and deuterium environments was evaluated as well as tritium exposures in 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 5} Pa gas. Raman and absorbance spectra of gamma irradiated samples were obtained to determine the mechanism of conductivity degradation in both polymers. Post-irradiation gas analysis of the samples contained in deuterium revealed very little (or no) hydrogen in the containment vessel, indicating that hydrogen-deuterium isotopic exchange was not responsible for the decrease in surface conductivity due to gamma exposure. The effects of irradiation-induced oxidation were also studied for both conductive polymers during gamma irradiation. It was concluded that chain scission via free radical formation and chain cross-linking are most likely the two dominant mechanisms for conductivity change and not de-protonation of the polymer.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on physical characteristics of Jordanian durum wheat and quality of semolina and lasagna products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzeh, F.S. [Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Queen-Rania, Amman (Jordan)], E-mail: firasazzeh@yahoo.com; Amr, A.S. [Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Queen-Rania, Amman (Jordan)

    2009-09-15

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of using varying gamma irradiation doses on the physiochemical and rheological properties of semolina and its products. Ash, protein and water content were not influenced with gamma irradiation, while falling number and fungi counts decreased with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation adversely affected wet gluten at 5 kGy dose. Dough stability was deteriorated vigorously with increasing irradiation dose. Sensory evaluation showed that lasagna produced from 0.25- and 1 kGy-irradiated semolina did not show any significant differences as compared with the control sample.

  18. Detection of gamma irradiated pepper and papain by chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Abdus; Delincée, H.; Diehl, J. F.

    Chemiluminescence (CL) measurements of black pepper and of papain using luminol and lucigenin reactions were studied. Effects of grinding, irradiation (5-20 kGy) and particle size (750-140 μm) on CL of pepper, and of irradiation (10-30 kGy) on CL of papain, were investigated. All the tested treatments affected the luminescence response in both the luminol and lucigenin reactions; however, the pattern of changes in each case, was inconsistent. Optimum pepper size for maximum luminescence was 560 μm, and optimum irradiation doses were >15 kGy for pepper and >20 kGy for papain. Chemiluminescence may possibly be used as an indicator or irradiation treatment for pepper and papain at a dose of 10 kGy or higher, but further research is needed to establish the reliability of this method.

  19. The use of gamma-irradiation and ultraviolet-irradiation in the preparation of human melanoma cells for use in autologous whole-cell vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denlinger Chadrick E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cancer vaccines incorporating autologous tumor cells carry a risk of implantation and subsequent metastasis of viable tumor cells into the patient who is being treated. Despite the fact that the melanoma cell preparations used in a recent vaccine trial (Mel37 were gamma-irradiated (200 Gy, approximately 25% of the preparations failed quality control release criteria which required that the irradiated cells incorporate 3H-thymidine at no more than 5% the level seen in the non-irradiated cells. We have, therefore, investigated ultraviolet (UV-irradiation as a possible adjunct to, or replacement for gamma-irradiation. Methods Melanoma cells were gamma- and/or UV-irradiated. 3H-thymidine uptake was used to assess proliferation of the treated and untreated cells. Caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation were measured as indicators of apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis was used to assess antigen expression. Results UV-irradiation, either alone or in combination with gamma-irradiation, proved to be extremely effective in controlling the proliferation of melanoma cells. In contrast to gamma-irradiation, UV-irradiation was also capable of inducing significant levels of apoptosis. UV-irradiation, but not gamma-irradiation, was associated with the loss of tyrosinase expression. Neither form of radiation affected the expression of gp100, MART-1/MelanA, or S100. Conclusion These results indicate that UV-irradiation may increase the safety of autologous melanoma vaccines, although it may do so at the expense of altering the antigenic profile of the irradiated tumor cells.

  20. Study of the effect of gamma irradiation on a commercial polycyclooctene I. Thermal and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Huete, N.; Laza, J. M.; Cuevas, J. M.; Vilas, J. L.; Bilbao, E.; León, L. M.

    2014-09-01

    A gamma radiation process for modification of commercial polymers is a widely applied technique to promote new physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Gamma irradiation originates free radicals able to induce chain scission or recombination of radicals, which induces annihilation, branching or crosslinking processes. The aim of this work is to research the structural, thermal and mechanical changes induced on a commercial polycyclooctene (PCO) when it is irradiated with a gamma source of 60Co at different doses (25-200 kGy). After gamma irradiation, gel content was determined by Soxhlet extraction in cyclohexane. Furthermore, thermal properties were evaluated before and after Soxhlet extraction by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), as well as mechanical properties were measured by Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). The results showed the variations of the properties depending on the irradiation dose. Finally, a first approach to evaluate qualitatively the shape memory behaviour of all irradiated PCO samples was performed by a visually monitoring shape recovery process.

  1. Chemical composition and lipoxygenase activity in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) submitted to gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Érica Amanda de; Broetto, Fernando; Bressan, Dayanne F.; Sartori, Maria M. P.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2014-05-01

    Soybeans are an important food due to their functional and nutritional characteristics. However, consumption by western populations is limited by the astringent taste of soybeans and their derivatives which results from the action of lipoxygenase, an enzyme activated during product processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and specific activity of lipoxygenase in different soybean cultivars. Soybeans were stored in plastic bags and irradiated with doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The chemical composition (moisture, protein, lipids, ashes, crude fiber, and carbohydrates) and lipoxygenase specific activity were determined for each sample. Gamma irradiation induced a small increase of protein and lipid content in some soybean cultivars, which did not exceed the highest content of 5% and 26%, respectively, when compared to control. Lipoxygenase specific activity decreased in the three cultivars with increasing gamma irradiation dose. In conclusion, the gamma irradiation doses used are suitable to inactivate part of lipoxygenase while not causing expressive changes in the chemical composition of the cultivars studied.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of plastic bottle sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Ali, Yasir; Sonkawade, R. G.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2012-09-01

    In this article, the effects of gamma irradiation on the optical and structural properties of plastic bottle sheets have been studied. Bottle sheets were exposed with 1.25 MeV 60Co γ-ray's source at various dose levels within the range from 0 to 670 kGy. The changes so induced were analyzed by using UV-Vis and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. UV-Vis spectra show the peaks, their shifting and broadening as a result of gamma irradiation. With increasing γ-dose, the values of the direct and indirect band gap are found to be decreased. These results are in good agreement with the corresponding results published previously for polyethylene terephthalate polymer. We also calculated numbers of carbon atoms per conjugation length. The X-ray diffraction spectra exhibited an increase in peak intensity after gamma irradiation. Furthermore, the percentage crystallinity and crystallite size for pristine and irradiated sample have been calculated. It has been found that both crystallinity and crystallite size increase due to irradiation. In addition, interchain distances, micro strain, inter planar distance, dislocation density and distortion parameters were calculated. The analysis revealed there is the significant decrease in micro strain, dislocation density and distortion parameters with an increase of gamma dose, which is in line with the crystallinity calculation. Moreover, Interchain and Interplanar distances were marginally changed. These results demonstrated the applicability of sheets as a cost-effective dosimeter.

  3. Gamma-ray irradiation tests of CMOS sensors used in imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappello Salvatore G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologically-enhanced electronic image sensors are used in various fields as diagnostic techniques in medicine or space applications. In the latter case the devices can be exposed to intense radiation fluxes over time which may impair the functioning of the same equipment. In this paper we report the results of gamma-ray irradiation tests on CMOS image sensors simulating the space radiation over a long time period. Gamma-ray irradiation tests were carried out by means of IGS-3 gamma irradiation facility of Palermo University, based on 60Co sources with different activities. To reduce the dose rate and realize a narrow gamma-ray beam, a lead-collimation system was purposely built. It permits to have dose rate values less than 10 mGy/s and to irradiate CMOS Image Sensors during operation. The total ionizing dose to CMOS image sensors was monitored in-situ, during irradiation, up to 1000 Gy and images were acquired every 25 Gy. At the end of the tests, the sensors continued to operate despite a background noise and some pixels were completely saturated. These effects, however, involve isolated pixels and therefore, should not affect the image quality.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity and physicochemical properties of different rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Dianxing E-mail: dianxingwu@hotmail.com; Shu Qingyao; Wang Zhonghua; Xia Yingwu

    2002-08-01

    Three types of rice cultivars (indica, japonica and hybrid rice) with similar intermediate apparent amylose content (AAC) as well as early indica rice cultivars with different amounts of AAC were selected for studying the effects of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity, physicochemical properties and starch granule structure. Four major parameters of RVA profile, that was determined by a rapid visco analyser (RVA, Model-3D), peak viscosity, hot pasting viscosity, cool pasting viscosity, and setback viscosity, were considerably decreased with increasing dose levels. Gamma irradiation reduced the amylose contents in the cultivars with low AAC, intermediate AAC, and glutinous rice, but had no effects on the high AAC cultivar. No visible changes in gelatinization temperature were detected after irradiation, but the peak time was reduced with the dose levels. Gel consistency was significantly increased in the tested cultivars, especially in the high AAC indica rice. The starch granules were somewhat deformed by gamma irradiation. These results suggested that it is promising to use gamma irradiation to improve rice eating or cooking quality.

  5. Recovery and radio-resistance in mice after external irradiation; Restauration et radio-resistance chez la souris apres irradiation externe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guillou, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The author presents a literature study concerning recovery from external irradiation and an analysis of experimental data (which appear to suggest the idea of a radio-resistance in animals), as well as the hypotheses put forward for explaining this phenomenon. The author then describes an experiment carried out on mice whose LD 50/30 days increased from 1005 to 1380 rads and for which it was shown that an increase occurs in the number of certain anti-bodies circulating after a low dose of {gamma} irradiation. (author) [French] L'auteur presente une etude bibliographique de la restauration apres irradiation externe et une analyse des donnees experimentales qui paraissent suggerer la notion de radioresistance chez les animaux ainsi que les hypotheses cherchant a expliquer ce phenomene. Il relate ensuite une experience realisee sur des souris dont la DL 50/30 jours est passee de 1005 a 1380 rads et dans laquelle est montree l'augmentation de certains anticorps circulant apres une faible dose d'irradiation gamma. (auteur)

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber blends

    OpenAIRE

    A.B. Moustafa; Rania Mounir; A.A. El Miligy; Maysa A. Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Blends of natural rubber (NR) with styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) with varying ratios have been prepared. Vulcanization of the prepared blends has been induced by irradiation of gamma rays with varying doses up to 250 kGy. Mechanical properties, namely tensile strength, tensile modulus at 100% elongation, elongation at break have been followed up as a function of irradiation dose as well as blend composition. Physical properties, namely gel fraction and swelling number have been followed up u...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of azo acrylates grafted onto polyethylene terephthalate by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucio, Emilio [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail: ebucio@nucelares.unam.mx; Skewes, Phill [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Burillo, Guillermina [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films were grafted with acryloyl chloride by gamma irradiation, and the grafted films were reacted with Disperse Red 1 or 4-phenylazophenol. The films where characterized by atomic force microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, FTIR-ATR, light polarized microscopy, elemental analysis and UV spectroscopy. The surface of the films was homogeneous, and the dye underwent trans to cis photoreaction, whereby the red films became colorless by the irradiation of UV light at room temperature.

  8. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae "inside the eggs" were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  9. Polymerization of vinyl acetate in bulk and emulsion by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Andrea C.; Mori, Manoel N.; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo G.

    2004-09-01

    The vinyl acetate polymerization to produce poly(vinyl acetate) was carried out in bulk and emulsion using a 60Co gamma irradiator Gammacell-220 type. The irradiation was carried out in a dose rate of 5.25 and 5.30 kGy/h, respectively. The polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Tests of density, hardness and Vicat softening temperature were carried out.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on commercial eggs experimentally inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, I.G.; Trejo, R.M.; Sanchez, R.E.; Ceniceros, R.M. [D.P.A. Aves, F.M.V.Z. (Mexico); Luna, Q.P.; Zazua, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Hargis, B.M. [Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Using intact, fresh shell eggs, inoculated with 10{sup 8} colony-forming units (cfu) of S. enteritidis, the effect of three doses of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic population and physical characteristics (Haugh units and yolk color) of the eggs was determined. Irradiation with 1 kGy resulted in a significant (P {<=} .05), 3.9 log reduction in detectable S. enteritidis in the shell and highly significant (P {<=} .025) 95% reduction in detectable S. enteritidis in the internal shell membranes. Irradiation of eggs with either 2 or 3 kGy reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels in both the shell and internal membranes. However, irradiation at either 1, 2 or 3 kGy resulted in a significant (P {<=} .05) decrease (approximately 50%) in Haugh units. Additionally, irradiation of intact shell eggs at 2 or 3 kGy significantly (P {<=} .05) reduced yolk color regardless of the level of irradiation exposure implemented. This data indicates that gamma irradiation of intact raw eggs is effective in reducing (1 kGy) or eliminating (2 or more kGy) S. enteritidis contamination. However, each of the levels of irradiation used in the present experiments caused marked reduction of selected measures of egg quality. (Author).

  11. Restricting the ageing degradation of the mechanical properties of gamma irradiated UHMWPE using MWCNTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Sreekanth, P S; Kanagaraj, S

    2013-05-01

    Property degradation of the medical grade polymers after gamma irradiation is the primary concern that limits longevity of them. Though the conventional antioxidant material helps to reduce the degradation but it limits the degree of crosslinking of the polymer. The objective of the present work is to study the influence of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on restricting the degradation of mechanical properties of medical grade ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) after its irradiation. UHMWPE was reinforced by chemically treated MWCNTs at different concentrations such as 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt%. The test samples were then subjected to Co⁶⁰ gamma irradiation with an integral dose of 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy in air. The mechanical properties of irradiated samples were evaluated within 10 days, 60 and 120 days after irradiation. It was observed that the mechanical properties of virgin UHMWPE and nanocomposites were enhanced immediately after irradiation but they were found to be reduced at later stages. It was also observed that the presence of MWCNTs limited the ageing degradation of the mechanical properties of UHMWPE. Raman spectroscopic and TEM studies confirmed the formation of irradiation induced defects on the MWCNTs. Electron spin resonance studies showed that the relative radical intensity of virgin UHWMPE was reduced significantly with an increase of MWCNTs concentration confirming the radical scavenging ability of them. It is concluded that MWCNTs restricted the ageing degradation of irradiated UHMWPE.

  12. Transcriptome profiling of mice testes following low dose irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belling, Kirstine C.; Tanaka, Masami; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner;

    2013-01-01

    cell types of the adult testis. We observed large expression changes in the somatic cell profile, which mainly could be attributed to changes in cellularity, but hyperplasia of Leydig cells may also play a role. We speculate that the possible hyperplasia may be caused by lower testosterone production......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is used routinely to treat testicular cancer. Testicular cells vary in radio-sensitivity and the aim of this study was to investigate cellular and molecular changes caused by low dose irradiation of mice testis and to identify transcripts from different cell types...... in the adult testis. METHODS: Transcriptome profiling was performed on total RNA from testes sampled at various time points (n = 17) after 1 Gy of irradiation. Transcripts displaying large overall expression changes during the time series, but small expression changes between neighbouring time points were...

  13. Effect of ATM heterozygosity on heritable DNA damage in mice following paternal F{sub 0} germline irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulch, Janet E. [University of Maryland, Baltimore, Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, BRB 7-002, 655 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)]. E-mail: jbaulch@som.umaryland.edu; Li, M.-W. [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Raabe, Otto G. [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-03-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene product maintains genome integrity and initiates cellular DNA repair pathways following exposures to genotoxic agents. ATM also plays a significant role in meiotic recombination during spermatogenesis. Fertilization with sperm carrying damaged DNA could lead to adverse effects in offspring including developmental defects or increased cancer susceptibility. Currently, there is little information regarding the effect of ATM heterozygosity on germline DNA repair and heritable effects of paternal germline-ionizing irradiation. We used neutral pH comet assays to evaluate spermatozoa 45 days after acute whole-body irradiation of male mice (0.1 Gy, attenuated {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays) to determine the effect of ATM heterozygosity on delayed DNA damage effects of Type A/B spermatogonial irradiation. Using the neutral pH sperm comet assay, significant irradiation-related differences were found in comet tail length, percent tail DNA and tail extent moment, but there were no observed differences in effect between wild-type and ATM +/- mice. However, evaluation of spermatozoa from third generation descendants of irradiated male mice for heritable chromatin effects revealed significant differences in DNA electrophoretic mobility in the F{sub 3} descendants that were based upon the irradiated F{sub 0} sire's genotype. In this study, radiation-induced chromatin alterations to Type A/B spermatogonia, detected in mature sperm 45 days post-irradiation, led to chromatin effects in mature sperm three generations later. The early cellular response to and repair of DNA damage is critical and appears to be affected by ATM zygosity. Our results indicate that there is potential for heritable genetic or epigenetic changes following Type A/B spermatogonial irradiation and that ATM heterozygosity increases this effect00.

  14. Microbiological, sensorial and chemical quality of gamma irradiated pistachio nut (Pistacia vera l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation and storage period on quality retention of raw pistachio nut. Var. Halebi. Kernel of the pistachio nuts were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated nuts were kept at room temperature for 12 months. Used doses of irradiation significantly reduced the total bacterial plate counts (TBPCs and total fungal counts up to undetectable level (less than 10 CFU g-1. Irradiation doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation seem to be suitable for post-harvest sanitation and decontamination treatment, without significant changes in the sensorial properties (texture, odor, color and taste, chemical quality (free fatty acids and pH value or in contents of moisture, proteins, sugars, lipid, and ash, with respect to the control samples. The highest used dose (3kGy slightly decreased the fatty acid content and pH value, and treatment with higher doses (2 and 3 kGy significantly increased the total volatile nitrogen TVN.

  15. Biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in response to gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Effat Fahmy; Gabr, Mahmoud Ali; Moussa, Helal Ragab; El-Shaer, Enas Ali; Ismaiel, Mostafa M S

    2017-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a blue-green alga, rich with bioactive components and nutrients. To evaluate effect of gamma irradiation, A. platensis was exposed to different doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5kGy. The data showed that the phenolic and proline contents significantly increased with the increase of gamma irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy, above which a reduction was observed. The soluble proteins and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were stimulated by all tested irradiation doses. Furthermore, the vitamins (A, K and B group) and mineral contents (N, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) were stimulated by the irradiation doses compared with the control. The activities of some N-assimilating and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased with the irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy. This study suggests the possible use of gamma irradiation as a stimulatory agent to raise the nutritive value and antioxidant activity of A. platensis.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii gamma irradiation using Co-60; Irradiacao do Toxoplasma gondii com gama do {sup 60} Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia Animal; Maliska, Carmelindo [Hospital Central do Exercito, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear; Norberg, Antonio Neres [Instituto de Biologia do Exercito (IBEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    The use of nuclear power through radiation for the destruction of microorganisms which cause food deterioration, infections and toxicosis, is specifically for peaceful purposes. Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa responsible for illnesses in humans and animals. One of the most common ways of transmission is through raw or poorly cooked meat. There is little information on the resistance of T. gondii to radiation. The objective of this research is to determine the Minimum Lethal Dose (MLD) of gamma radiation for those microorganisms. Suspensions of T. gondii containing approximately one million taquizoites/ml were irradiated with doses between up 0,01 up to 0,15 kGy (Kilogray) and inoculated to mice. The surviving T. gondii were re-irradiated with 0,01 up to 0,16 kGy. The irradiated protozoa were totally destroyed with a 0,15 kGy dose (MLD). Taquizoites issued from live protozoa of 0,14 kGy also were completely destroyed with dose of 0,15 kGy. No increase in resistance was observed regarding the non irradiated protozoa. (author)

  17. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in black pepper and red pepper by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Sung, Hye-Jung; Kim, Sung-Youn; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-17

    This study evaluated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens in black pepper (Piper nigrum) and red pepper (dried Capsicum annuum). Black pepper and red pepper inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation in the range of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy, and color change was evaluated after treatment. Pathogen populations decreased with increasing treatment doses. A gamma irradiation dose of 5 kGy decreased E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium populations >4.4 to >5.2 log CFU/g in black pepper without causing color change. Similarly, 5 kGy of gamma irradiation yielded reduction of 3.8 to >5.2 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in red pepper. During gamma irradiation treatment, L*, a* and b* values of red pepper were not significantly changed except for 297 μm to 420 μm size red pepper treated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Based on the D-value of pathogens in black pepper and red pepper, S. Typhimurium showed more resistant to gamma irradiation than did E. coli O157:H7. These results show that gamma irradiation has potential as a non-thermal process for inactivating foodborne pathogens in spices with minimal color changes.

  18. Mice deficient in interferon-gamma or interferon-gamma receptor 1 have distinct inflammatory responses to acute viral encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Lee

    Full Text Available Interferon (IFN-gamma is an important component of the immune response to viral infections that can have a role both in controlling virus replication and inducing inflammatory damage. To determine the role of IFN-gamma in fatal alphavirus encephalitis, we have compared the responses of wild type C57BL/6 (WTB6 mice with mice deficient in either IFN-gamma (GKO or the alpha-chain of the IFN-gamma receptor (GRKO after intranasal infection with a neuroadapted strain of sindbis virus. Mortalities of GKO and GRKO mice were similar to WTB6 mice. Both GKO and GRKO mice had delayed virus clearance from the brain and spinal cord, more infiltrating perforin(+ cells and lower levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL-6 mRNAs than WTB6 mice. However, inflammation was more intense in GRKO mice than WTB6 or GKO mice with more infiltrating CD3(+ T cells, greater expression of major histocompatibility complex-II and higher levels of interleukin-17A mRNA. Fibroblasts from GRKO embryos did not develop an antiviral response after treatment with IFN-gamma, but showed increases in TNF-alpha, IL-6, CXCL9 and CXCL10 mRNAs although these increases developed more slowly and were less intense than those of WTB6 fibroblasts. These data indicate that both GKO and GRKO mice fail to develop an IFN-gamma-mediated antiviral response, but differ in regulation of the inflammatory response to infection. Therefore, GKO and GRKO cannot be considered equivalent when assessing the role of IFN-gamma in CNS viral infections.

  19. Armor: An {alpha}{beta}{gamma} assembly for irradiated fuel analysis; Armor: Chaine {alpha}{beta}{gamma} pour l'analyse des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraud, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-04-15

    The assembly ARMOR which was built with a view to carrying out research on irradiated fuels consists of an {alpha}{beta}{gamma} enclosure made up of 11 cells in line. After a general description of the assembly in its present form, the various functions are reviewed: introduction of the samples, chemical de-canning, dissolution of the irradiated uranium pellets, preparation of solutions for mass spectrometric analyses, disposal of the effluents and of the solid waste. The assembly-has been working since 1961. During the 5 to 6 years operation, various improvements have been made and a certain number of observations have been collected concerning the work. (author) [French] Construite en vue de repondre a un programme d'etudes de combustibles Irradies, la chaine Armor est une enceinte {alpha}{beta}{gamma} composee de 11 cellules en ligne. Apres une description generale de la chaine dans son etat actuel, les differentes fonctions sont passees en revue: entree des echantillons, degainage chimique, dissolution des pastilles d'uranium irradie, preparation des solutions pour les analyses par spectrometrie de masse, rejet des effluents et des dechets solides. La chaine est en service depuis 1961. Au cours des cinq a six annees d'exploitation, differentes ameliorations ont ete apportees et un ensemble d'observations sur le travail a ete recueilli. (auteur)

  20. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 4. Analysis of piperine and its isomers by reversed phase HPLC and effect of gamma irradiation on isomerization of piperine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Ochiai, Junko; Okuyama, Tsuneo

    1988-11-01

    A separation method for piperine and its isomers (isopiperine, isochavicine and chavicine) was investigated. These isomers were produced from piperine with irradiation. This reaction is photochemical isomerization. Piperine and its isomers were separated on a reversed phase C/sub 8/ (LiChrospher 300 RP-8 10 um 0.4 I.D. x 0.4 cm and LiChrosorb RP-8 SelectB 0.4 I.D. x 25 cm) column with a mixture of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water and 75% acetonitrile-0.1% TFA in water (92 : 8) and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. By this method, four peaks derivded from piperine and its isomers were recognized. Piperine was identified by addition of piperine as a internal standard. Unknown peaks were fractionated by chromatography on the column for NMR structural identification. Isochavicine was identified by NMR. And the other peaks were presumed by the fact that chavicine dose not produce from piperine with mild irradiation condition. In contrast of photochemical isomerization, the effect of gamma irradiation on isomerization of piperine was investigated by HPLC analysis. Gamma irradiation had no effect on the isomerization of piperine.

  1. Systematic fabrication of chitosan nanoparticle by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanphan, Wanvimol; Rimdusit, Pakjira; Choofong, Surakarn; Piroonpan, Thananchai; Nilsuwankosit, Sunchai

    2010-10-01

    The present investigation is mainly focused on the systematic preparation of chitosan nanoparticle in the potential range 1-100 nm using γ-ray irradiation. The effect of irradiation conditions in terms of physical form of chitosan, i.e. flake, colloidal and acidic solution, and γ-ray dose was studied. The molecular weights of chitosan were 10, 25, and >1000 times reduced when irradiated with the γ-ray dose as high as 100 kGy in Chi-flake, Chi-colloid, and Chi-acid, respectively. The particle size reduced to 70 nm after being irradiated to only 10 kGy γ-rays and it showed a tendency to decrease when the γ-ray doses were increased. The γ-rays effectively induced the reduction of chitosan particle size to <100 nm with narrow size distribution. The effective size reduction was particularly observed in Chi-colloid. Heterogeneous chemical conjugation of deoxycholic acid onto 10 kGy irradiated Chi-colloid resulted in narrow particle size as small as 50 nm.

  2. DSC studies of retrogradation and amylose lipid complex transition taking place in gamma irradiated wheat starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, K.; Eliasson, A. C.

    2007-12-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation ( 60Co) with doses of 5-30 kGy on the amylose-lipid complex transition and retrogradation occurring in gels containing ca. 50% and ca. 20% wheat starch was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) during heating-cooling-heating cycles (up to three cycles). Transition of the amylose-lipid complex occurs in all the irradiated samples at a lower temperature as compared to the non-irradiated starch. That effect was larger when the radiation dose was higher. A further thermal treatment causes a decrease of the transition temperature in the irradiated samples, with no effect or increase of that temperature observed for the non-irradiated ones. Irradiation hinders retrogradation taking place in 50% gels but facilitates the process occurring in 20% gels. The differences between the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples are more evident in the every next heating or cooling cycle as well as after storage and in the case of ca. 50% suspensions as compared to ca. 20% suspensions. The results point out to the deterioration of the structure of the complexes formed in the irradiated starch as compared to the non-irradiated one.

  3. Beneficial effect of gamma irradiation on the N-deacetylation of chitin to form chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtat, Djamel; Uzun, Cengiz; Mahlous, Mohamed; Güven, Olgun

    2007-12-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the N-deacetylation of chitin to form chitosan was studied. Chitin from crab shells was irradiated up to 20 kGy and N-deacetylated in aqueous NaOH solution (40% and 60% w/w) at 60 and 100 °C for 60 min. The degree of N-deacetylation (DD) of non-irradiated and irradiated samples was determined by IR-band ratio method. It was found that higher extent of N-deacetylation was achieved for the chitin samples irradiated up to 20 kGy doses as compared to non-irradiated chitin. The DD values of chitin, prepared from non-irradiated and 20 kGy irradiated chitins by N-deacetylation at 60 °C with 40% NaOH for 60 min, were found to be 38% and 60%, respectively. The increase in DD by irradiation was interpreted as a result of reduction in molecular weight of chitin. Low dose irradiation of chitin has provided the possibility of its N-deacetylation into chitosan at much milder reaction conditions.

  4. Beneficial effect of gamma irradiation on the N-deacetylation of chitin to form chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahtat, Djamel [Algiers Nuclear Research Center, 2 Bd, Frantz Fanon BP 399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Uzun, Cengiz [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: uzun@hacettepe.edu.tr; Mahlous, Mohamed [Algiers Nuclear Research Center, 2 Bd, Frantz Fanon BP 399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Gueven, Olgun [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-12-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the N-deacetylation of chitin to form chitosan was studied. Chitin from crab shells was irradiated up to 20 kGy and N-deacetylated in aqueous NaOH solution (40% and 60% w/w) at 60 and 100 deg. C for 60 min. The degree of N-deacetylation (DD) of non-irradiated and irradiated samples was determined by IR-band ratio method. It was found that higher extent of N-deacetylation was achieved for the chitin samples irradiated up to 20 kGy doses as compared to non-irradiated chitin. The DD values of chitin, prepared from non-irradiated and 20 kGy irradiated chitins by N-deacetylation at 60 deg. C with 40% NaOH for 60 min, were found to be 38% and 60%, respectively. The increase in DD by irradiation was interpreted as a result of reduction in molecular weight of chitin. Low dose irradiation of chitin has provided the possibility of its N-deacetylation into chitosan at much milder reaction conditions.

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joog-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-11-15

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, {alpha}-pinene, camphene, {alpha}-limonene, {beta}-eudesmol, {alpha}-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as {beta}-eudesmol, {alpha}-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  6. Electron beam and gamma ray irradiated polymer electrolyte films: Dielectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raghu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, polymer electrolyte films were irradiated with electron beam (EB and Gamma ray (GR at 50 and 150 kGy. The induced chemical changes in films due to irradiations have been confirmed from the Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR spectra. The X-ray Diffractometry (XRD results show that crystallinity decreases by ∼20% in EB and ∼10% in GR irradiated films respectively compared to non-irradiated film. The micro structural arrangement was investigated by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM and the images reveal that there is a substantial improvement in the surface morphology in irradiated films. The real (ε′ and imaginary (ε″ dielectric constant and AC conductivity are found to increase with increase in irradiation dose. Improved dielectric properties and conductivity (1.74 x 10−4 & 1.15 x 10−4 S/cm, respectively, for EB and GR irradiated films at room temperature after irradiation and it confirm that EB and GR irradiation can be simple and effective route to obtaining highly conductive polymer electrolytes. From this study it is confirm that EB is more effectiveness than GR irradiation.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joog-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2007-11-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, α-pinene, camphene, α-limonene, β-eudesmol, α-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as β-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  8. Gamma and electron beam irradiation effects on SiR-EPDM blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deepalaxmi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM is widely used as Cable Insulation Material (CIM due to its good mechanical strength. Silicone Rubber (SiR is used in high temperature environments due to its good di-electric properties/hydrophobicity. The blending of SiR-EPDM may result in the improvement in their specific properties. The SiR-EPDM blend of equal composition (50:50 was prepared. When such blends are used as Cable Insulation Materials (CIM, they should perform their safety functions throughout their installed life in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP. The CIM will be exposed to Gamma irradiation at the installed locations. The short time accelerated testing was carried out, in order to forecast long-term performance of CIM. Electron beam irradiation is widely used in cable manufacturing industries to improve the performance of the polymeric materials. In the current study, on the purpose to investigate the effect of gamma/electron beam irradiation on the 50–50 composition of SiR-EPDM blend, blend was exposed to 25 Mrad dose of gamma/electron beam irradiation. The electrical and mechanical parameters like Volume Resistivity (VRY, Surface Resistivity (SRY, Tensile Strength (TS, Elongation at Break (EB, Hardness (H of the virgin, gamma/electron beam irradiated blends were determined as per ASTM/IEC standards. The nature of degradation was investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. To determine the elemental composition of the materials at the surface, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX has been done. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis has been done to study the morphological changes. The occurrence of cross-linking is found to be the mechanism for ageing in gamma/electron beam irradiated SiR-EPDM blends.

  9. Gamma knife irradiation increases cerebral endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and E-selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Christopher D; Jawahar, Ajay; Warren, April C; Elrod, John W; Nanda, Anil; Alexander, J Steven

    2003-07-01

    Alterations in multiple functions of the microvasculature occur in response to gamma irradiation and are thought to contribute to radiation-induced end organ damage by inducing inflammatory responses, particularly leukocyte infiltration into the affected area. Endothelial cell adhesion molecules (ECAMs) mediate leukocyte adhesion and migration. Here, we validate a method to study the effect of Leksell gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery on the expression of ECAMs on human cerebral endothelium at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after irradiation. A human brain endothelial cell line (IHEC) was cultured on 12-mm coverslips and subjected to 50 Gy of collimated gamma irradiation with the Leksell gamma knife (Elekta Instruments, Inc., Atlanta, GA). Lactate dehydrogenase release was measured at 24, 48, and 72 hours after irradiation and caspase-3 at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. ECAM expression was measured at postirradiation intervals of 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours by cell enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. We used a cell irradiator composed of two chambers. The upper chamber holds the coverslips firmly in place while they are immersed in media. The lower chamber is connected to a peristaltic pump, which pumps water into the chamber and maintains the media in the upper chamber at 37 degrees C through convection. None of the ECAMs tested was significantly elevated compared with the control basally. Twenty-four hours after irradiation, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 was significantly elevated on brain endothelial cells but there was no significant elevation of E-selectin. Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 was increased slightly but not significantly and decreased at 48 hours. At 72 hours, E-selectin expression was significantly increased; intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 were not altered relative to sham controls. Increased ECAM expression and lactate dehydrogenase release support the idea that the cerebral microvasculature undergoes an

  10. Evaluation of gamma and neutron irradiation effects on the properties of mica film capacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh Roy; Arun Pandya

    2005-12-01

    We present an investigation of gamma and neutron radiation effects on mica film capacitors from an electrical point of view. We have studied quantitatively the effects of gamma and neutron irradiation on mica film capacitors of thickness, 20 and 40 m (0.7874 and 1.5748 mil) with two different areas, 01 and 04 cm2. The capacitance has been measured at room temperature in the frequency range 100 Hz–10 MHz. Negligible change in the capacitance due to high gamma dose of 60Co, 15 kGy at dose rate 0.25 kGy/h, has been observed. However, appreciable change in the capacitance has been observed due to low doses of fast neutrons (cumulative dose, 115 cGy) with flux ∼ 9.925 × 107 neutrons/cm2 h from 252Cf neutron source of fluence, 2.5 × 107 neutrons/s. We have also observed that the impact of gamma and neutron irradiation is more at frequencies higher than 10 kHz. These results show that the mica capacitors do not show any radiation response below 10 kHz. The study shows the radiation response of mica film capacitors to gamma and fast neutron radiations. Mica capacitors show low gamma radiation response in comparison to fast neutron radiation, because a total dose of kGy order has been given by gamma source and only few cGy dose has been given by fast neutron source.

  11. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  12. Dental management of patients irradiated for oral cancer. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regezi, J.A.; Courtney, R.M.; Kerr, D.A.

    1976-08-01

    Management of patients irradiated for oral cancer should include consideration of their oral health prior to, and after, radiation therapy. Data from 130 patients, followed for a period of 1 to 10 years, are presented and evaluated. The philosophy of retention and maintenance of as many teeth as possible is supported by this data. Extraction of teeth with severe periodontal disease after irradiation also proves to be a relatively safe operation. Osteoradionecrosis tends to be limited in extent and is generally well tolerated by the patient when treated conservatively. A treatment regimen is presented that significantly reduces the morbidity from therapeutic irradiation of the jaws. A comprehensive dental evaluation and follow-up plan coupled with patient cooperation are instrumental to the success of this program.

  13. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  14. Employment of whole-body. gamma. -irradiation in chronic lymphoid leukemia and malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilova, N.B.; Baranov, A.E.; Khrushchev, V.G.; Grammatikati, V.S.; Murav' eva, L.I.; Strashnenko, E.S.

    1982-11-01

    There are presented data showing that whole-body therapeutic ..gamma..-irradiation is an effective method of treatment of chronic lymphoid leukosis and lymphomas. Rapid lymphopenic effect, satisfactory diminution of lymph nodes and spleen sizes testify to the effect. The necessity of further investigation of the treatment method is underlined. It is of interest to trace the fate of lymphocyte subpopulations in the course and after treatment. The urgency of working out a most rational scheme for whole-body therapeutic irradiation and for investigating indications for local irradiation of various groups of lymphatic nodes is indicated.

  15. Crosslinking of metallocenic α-olefin propylene copolymers by vacuum gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, A. J.; Andreucetti, N. A.; Quijada, R.; Vallés, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Metallocenic polypropylene and copolymers with 3.7, and 9.2 mol% of hexene and 3.0 mol% of octadecene comonomer content were synthesized without the presence of additives and irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation under vacuum at room temperature. Size Exclusion Cromatography and gel extraction data showed that scission reactions predominate over crosslinking in the homopolymer and that there is a dose from where crosslinking started to increase considerably, in the irradiated copolymers. Rheology also showed evidence of chain-enlargements on the copolymers by means of an increase in the viscoelastic properties of the irradiated material.

  16. Performance studies under high irradiation of resistive bulk-micromegas chambers at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Bortfeldt, J; Farina, E; Iengo, P; Longo, L; Sidiropoulou, O; Wotschack, J

    2017-01-01

    Radiation studies on several resistive bulk-Micromegas chambers produced at CERN will be viewed in this document. Two resistive bulk-Micromegas chambers have been installed at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) exposed to an intense gamma irradiation with the aim of evaluating the detector behaviour under high irradiation and carrying out a long-term age- ing study. The chambers under study have an active area of 10 x 10 cm 2 , a strip pitch of 400 m m , an ampli- fication gap of 128 m m , and a drift gap of 5 mm. The results on the detector performance as a function of the photon flux up to 44 MHz/cm 2 will be shown as well as the ageing properties as function of the integrated charge and the current intensity and its stability with time. In addition, the results of the efficiency measurements before, during, and after the irradiation will also be presented as a function of the amplification voltage at which the chambers are operated.

  17. Chloroquine Engages the Immune System to Eradicate Irradiated Breast Tumors in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratikan, Josephine Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Sayre, James William [Public Health Biostatistics/Radiology at UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Schaue, Dörthe, E-mail: dschaue@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: This study used chloroquine to direct radiation-induced tumor cell death pathways to harness the antitumor activity of the immune system. Methods and Materials: Chloroquine given immediately after tumor irradiation increased the cure rate of MCaK breast cancer in C3H mice. Chloroquine blocked radiation-induced autophagy and drove MCaK cells into a more rapid apoptotic and more immunogenic form of cell death. Results: Chloroquine treatment made irradiated tumor vaccines superior at inducing strong interferon gamma-associated immune responses in vivo and protecting mice from further tumor challenge. In vitro, chloroquine slowed antigen uptake and degradation by dendritic cells, although T-cell stimulation was unaffected. Conclusions: This study illustrates a novel approach to improve the efficacy of breast cancer radiation therapy by blocking endosomal pathways, which enhances radiation-induced cell death within the field and drives antitumor immunity to assist therapeutic cure. The study illuminates and merges seemingly disparate concepts regarding the importance of autophagy in cancer therapy.

  18. Gamma irradiation of Fabry-Perot interband cascade lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Kim, Chul Soo; Kim, Mijin; Merritt, Charles D.; Bewley, William W.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Meyer, Jerry R.

    2017-09-20

    Two Fabry-Perot interband cascade lasers (ICLs) were exposed to Cobalt-60 gamma rays for a dosage of 500 krad(Si) each, which is higher than is typically encountered in space applications. The ICLs do not show any significant changes in threshold current or slope efficiency, suggesting the suitability of ICLs for use in radiation environments.

  19. [Effects of mesenchymal stem cells on cell cycle and apoptosis of hematopoietic tissue cells in irradiated mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-Xun; Zhao, Shi-Fu; Guo, Mei; Ai, Hui-Sheng

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on cell cycle and apoptosis of thymus, spleen and bone marrow cells in mice totally irradiated with sublethal dose, and to explore its mechanisms. BALB/c mice irradiated with 5.5 Gy 60Co gamma-ray were randomly divided into control group and MSC group. Mice in MSC group were infused with 0.4 ml containing 2.5x10(7)/kg of MSCs through tail vein at 1 hour after irradiation. Mice in control group were infused with 0.4 ml normal saline. The cell apoptosis and cell cycle of thymus, spleen and bone marrow cells were detected by flow cytometry at 6, 12, 24 and 72 hours after irradiation and the P53 protein expressions in thymus and bone marrow cells were assayed by immunohistochemistry at 12 hours after irradiation. The results showed that the arrest of cells in G0/G1 and G2/M phase, and decrease of cells in S phase appeared at 6 hours after irradiation, those reached peak respectively at 12 hours in thymus cells, 6 hours in spleen and 24 hours in bone marrow, then the cell counts in G0/G1 phase decreased and the cell counts in S and G2/M phases increased. At 72 hours the cell counts in G0/G1 phase were less than the normal level and the cell counts in S phase were more than the normal level. The above changes of cell cycle in thymus and spleen were more rapid in spleen and more obvious in amplitude than that in bone marrow, the change of cell cycle in MSC group was more rapid and obvious than those in control group. After irradiation the apoptosis cells increased from 6 hours, reached the highest level at 12 hours and decreased to the normal level gradually after 24 hours in two groups; the apoptosis rates in spleen and thymus cells were higher than that in bone marrow cells. In comparison with the control group, the apoptosis rate in thymus cells at 12 hours, in spleen cells at 12 and 24 hours, and in bone marrow cells at 24 hours were fewer in MSC group. The cells expressing P53

  20. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chosdu, R.E.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Center for Applications of Isotopes and Radiation

    1995-10-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated. (Author).

  1. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chosdu, R.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N.

    1995-02-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and Curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated.

  2. Optical properties (uv-vis and ftir) of gamma irradiated polymethyl methacrylate (pmma)

    CERN Document Server

    Rai, V N; Jain, Beena

    2016-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) foils has been studied. A new absorption band is observed in the visible spectral range due to color centers induced in the gamma irradiated PMMA. This band shows maximum absorption (low transmission) for 10 kGy irradiation, which decreases and saturates after 50 kGy followed by a further increase at 500 kGy. The FTIR peaks show an increased absorption up to ~100 kGy irradiation, which reverses for higher doses. Broad band absorption is observed in FTIR spectra around 1600 and 3600 cm-1 due to absorption of moisture in the irradiated samples. The reduction in the absorption intensity at 1718 cm-1 in the irradiated PMMA (> 100 kGy) is found associated with the demerization of the carbonyl groups. An initial increase in the absorption of FTIR peaks with increase in the doses of irradiation is due to increased cross linking in the PMMA structure that is induced by the absorption of moisture. The demerization of ...

  3. Laboratory longevity and competitiveness of Dacus ciliatus Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) following sub-sterilizing gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemny-Lavy, E; Nestel, D; Rempoulakis, P

    2016-06-01

    The effect of a sub-sterilizing gamma radiation dose on Dacus ciliatus adults was investigated to assess the suitability of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as an alternative method to control this pest. Late pupae (48 h prior to adult emergence) from a laboratory strain were irradiated with 120 Gy of gamma rays emitted by a 60Co source. Following adult emergence, the mortality of irradiated and non-irradiated cohorts was recorded. Over a period of 50 days after emergence, no significant negative effects of irradiation upon the longevity of male or female laboratory flies were observed. A laboratory competitiveness study (Fried test), using irradiated laboratory and wild males at a ratio of 3:1 was conducted to assess the ability of irradiated males to reduce the egg hatch rates of a wild population. The overall competitiveness was found to be ca. 0.32, suggesting a reduced, but satisfactory, quality of irradiated laboratory as compared with wild males. Based on the above findings, we calculated and proposed effective male release ratios for field application of SIT against D. ciliatus.

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The, Doan Thi, E-mail: doanthithe@yahoo.com [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh [Agriculture and Forestry University, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2012-01-15

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instarsirradiation, predicted doses for 100% mortality of each different development stage in the above mentioned pattern were 224.6, 241.3, 330.9 and 581.5 Gy, respectively. No survived female adult produced offspring at 200 and 250 Gy. Dose range between 200 and 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of this mealybug. - Highlights: > Gamma Co-60 irradiation as a potential phytosanitary for quarantine treatments. > Reproduction ability of D. neobrevipes has been efficiently inhibited at low dose. > Pattern of tolerance to irradiation was 1st<2nd<3rd instars Doses from 200 to 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of mealybug.

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial load and quality characteristics of veal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Veal is a rich nutrient medium that provides a suitable environment for proliferation of veal spoiling microorganisms and common food-borne pathogens. In this study, the effects of irradiation on the veal microbiological quality and half life of minced beef during chilled storage was investigated. Materials and Methods: Twenty samples of minced veal were irradiated with doses of 2, 5, 7, and 10 kGy (Cobalt-60, gamma cell 220 and evaluated for their microbiological quality up to 10 days. Results: The results showed that gamma irradiation reduced the number of microorganisms in all the irradiated minced veal samples, with 2, 5, 7, and 10 kGy (P < 0.01. Moreover, the half life of the samples were increased considerably (P < 0.01. In addition, the results indicated that there was a significant difference in the number of coliformes between untreated and irradiated samples (P < 0.05. While, Staphylococcus aureus could not be detected in the irradiated samples with doses of 7 and 10 kGy. Conclusion: These results indicated that irradiation could be employed as an effective mean to inactivate common food-borne pathogens namely S. aureus and increases the half life of veal.

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial load and quality characteristics of veal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Faghihi, Reza; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Alavaian-Ghavanini, Ali; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Hamid Reza; Siavashpour, Zahra; Farshadi, Afrouz; Rafie, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Veal is a rich nutrient medium that provides a suitable environment for proliferation of veal spoiling microorganisms and common food-borne pathogens. In this study, the effects of irradiation on the veal microbiological quality and half life of minced beef during chilled storage was investigated. Twenty samples of minced veal were irradiated with doses of 2, 5, 7, and 10 kGy (Cobalt-60, gamma cell 220) and evaluated for their microbiological quality up to 10 days. The results showed that gamma irradiation reduced the number of microorganisms in all the irradiated minced veal samples, with 2, 5, 7, and 10 kGy (P coliformes between untreated and irradiated samples (P < 0.05). While, Staphylococcus aureus could not be detected in the irradiated samples with doses of 7 and 10 kGy. These results indicated that irradiation could be employed as an effective mean to inactivate common food-borne pathogens namely S. aureus and increases the half life of veal.

  7. Gamma ray irradiation to roots of tea-plants and induced mutant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yoshiyuki; Nekaku, Koji; Wada, Mitsumasa (National Research Inst. of Vegetables, Ornamental Plants and Tea, Ano, Mie (Japan))

    1990-11-01

    In order to utilize the useful mutation which is induced by irradiation for the breeding of tea-plants, the gamma-ray irradiation to the roots of tea-plants was carried out. The samples were the roots of tea-plants of four varieties dug up in February, 1984, and were adjusted to about 20 cm, then, put in the cold storage at 5degC for 9 months till the time of irradiation in November, 1984. However, a part of them was taken out in August, and planted in a field for 76 days to germinate, thereafter, used as the samples. The gamma-ray from a Co-60 source was irradiated in the radiation breeding laboratory of Agriculture Bioresources Research Institute at the total dose of 1, 2 and 3 kR and the dose rate of 500 R/h. The irradiated roots were planted as they are or in the state of being cut, and the rate of germination, the number of buds and the induced mutation were examined. Clear difference was not observed in the rate of germination and the number of buds between the irradiated samples and those without irradiation. The long roots were superior to the short roots regarding these items. The types of the induced mutation were mostly thin leaves, and also yellowing, mottling, fascination and so on occurred. The mutant system lacking trichomes on the back of new leaves is considered to be strong against tea anthracnose, and is valuable. (K.I.).

  8. Latent and persistent lethal injury in mouse salivary gland cells following gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, T.

    1976-07-01

    Newly synthesized DNA in previously irradiated and isoproterenol-stimulated mouse salivary gland cells was found to be quickly degraded when the stimulation for DNA synthesis was given 10 days after a dose of 1000 rad ..gamma.. radiation. The degradation of the DNA was due to degeneration of acinar cells prior to mitosis. When the stimulation with isoproterenol was given 1 or 3 months after irradiation, DNA degradation in parotids was not detectable. An autoradiographic analysis revealed, however, that about half of the acinar cells labeled with tritiated thymidine were eliminated from irradiated parotids in a few days, even when the stimulation with isoproterenol was given 3 months after irradiation. This indicates that irradiation of mouse salivary gland cells produced latent lethal damage and that this damage is unmasked by the stimulation for DNA synthesis and cell division.

  9. The effect of cryogenic freezing and gamma irradiation on the survival of Salmonella on frozen shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unfortunately, contraction of foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood, including shrimp, is an occasional occurrence. Cryogenic freezing and gamma irradiation are safe and effective technologies that can be used to control and inactivate pathogenic bacteria in foods. In this stu...

  10. Formation of biologically relevant carboxylic acids during the gamma irradiation of acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of aqueous solutions of acetic acid with gamma rays produced several carboxylic acids in small yield. Their identification was based on the technique of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Some of these acids are Krebs Cycle intermediates. Their simultaneous formation in experiments simulating the primitive conditions on the earth suggests that metabolic pathways may have had their origin in prebiotic chemical processes.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on thermophysical properties of plasticized starch and starch surfactant films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Krystyna; Watzeels, Nick; Rahier, Hubert

    2014-06-01

    In this work the influence of gamma irradiation on the thermomechanical properties of the films formed in potato starch-glycerol and potato starch-glycerol-surfactant systems were examined by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, DMA, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, and the results were correlated to the amount of the volatile fraction in the films.

  12. Acid base balance in the rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassant, M.H.; Touchard, F.; Court, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee)

    1981-07-06

    2 hrs. after whole-body gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 and 4.5 Gy) a metabolic acidosis developed in curarised rabbits placed under artificial respiration in order to eliminate radiation-induced respiratory effect. The metabolic acidosis was evaluated by measurement of the negative base excess. The results were compared to others obtained under different experimental procedures.

  13. Enhanced mass transfer during solid-liquid extraction of gamma-irradiated red beetroot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Chetan A. [Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020 (India); Chethana, S. [Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020 (India); Rastogi, N.K. [Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020 (India)]. E-mail: nkrastogi@cftri.com; Raghavarao, K.S.M.S. [Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020 (India)

    2006-01-15

    The exposure to gamma-irradiation pretreatment increases cell wall permeabilization, resulting in loss of turgor pressure, which led to the increase of extractability of betanin from red beetroot. The degree of extraction of betanin was investigated using gamma irradiation as a pretreatment prior to the solid-liquid extraction process and compared with control beetroot samples. The beetroot subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kGy) and control was dipped in an acetic acid medium (1% v/v) to extract the betanin. The diffusion coefficients for betanin as well as ionic component were estimated considering Fickian diffusion. The results indicated an increase in the diffusion coefficient of betanin (0.302x10{sup -9}-0.463x10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s) and ionic component (0.248x10{sup -9}-0.453x10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s) as the dose rate increased (from 2.5 to 10.0 kGy). The degradation constant was found to increase (0.050-0.079 min{sup -1}) with an increase gamma-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy), indicating lower stability of the betanin as compared to control sample at 65 deg. C.

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation and moist heat for sterilization on sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingzhang; Yang, Yongwei; Tan, Lili; Yin, Tieying; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Guixue

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides, such as alginates, are already being used as carriers for drug delivery. The physicochemical and biological properties of alginates may be affected via irradiation and thermal treatments. To explore and compare effects of two kinds of sterilization methods, gamma irradiation and moist heat, on sodium alginate (SA), physicochemical and biological properties of SA powder and solutions were investigated after sterilization. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the SA after sterilization. The research showed that 25 kGy gamma ray can effectively sterilize microorganism. Both gamma irradiation and moist heat hardly affect the native pH of SA. Compared to irradiation sterilization, moist heat sterilization showed smaller changes in intrinsic viscosity for all SA samples and lead to less glycosidic bond breaking of SA powders. The moist heat sterilization can cause the main chain scission and double bonds formation of the SA solutions. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that sterilized SA powers and SA solutions treated by gamma ray sterilization can increase the viability of HUVEC. However, SA solutions treated by moist heat sterilization were found to present severe cytotoxicity. The research results may provide interesting future advancements toward the development of SA-based products for biomedical applications.

  15. Gamma spectrometry of irradiated fuel plates; Espectrometria gama em elementos combustiveis tipo placa irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Perrotta, Jose A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia do Nucleo

    1997-10-01

    This work describes the fundamental aspects of a method which uses gamma-ray spectroscopy in order to perform non-destructive burnup measurements in irradiated MTR fuel elements. Experiments based on such method will be conducted at the storage pool area of the IEA-R1 research reactor. Some preliminary results are presented. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Formation of biologically relevant carboxylic acids during the gamma irradiation of acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of aqueous solutions of acetic acid with gamma rays produced several carboxylic acids in small yield. Their identification was based on the technique of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Some of these acids are Krebs Cycle intermediates. Their simultaneous formation in experiments simulating the primitive conditions on the earth suggests that metabolic pathways may have had their origin in prebiotic chemical processes.

  17. Influence of gamma irradiation on pollen viability, germination ability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... cannot fertilize the egg-cell and the polar nuclei. These .... irradiated pollens by sitting drop culture method (Zaman, 2006). The medium was ... and 24 h for germination ability tests of setting the experiment. (Şensoy et al.

  18. Antibody response in cattle, sheep and rats to infection with. gamma. -irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, D.L.; Doy, T.G. (Agricultural Research Council, Compton (UK). Inst. for Research on Animal Diseases); Hanna, R.E.B. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK))

    1982-05-01

    Cattle, sheep and rats were infected orally with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica, or with normal metacercariae. The antibody response was monitored in each host to metacercarial tegument (T0), juvenile tegument (T1), adult tegument (T2) and gut antigens. The response was examined at weekly intervals for cattle and sheep throughout 15 weeks of infection and four weeks after infection in rats, using an indirect fluorescent antibody labelling technique. It was found that the irradiated metacercariae engendered a normal humoral response to T0, T1 and gut antigens in all three hosts although the antibody levels were somewhat reduced due to early death or stunting of the flukes. T0 and T1 appeared to be antigenically similar. Antibodies against T2 appeared late in the animals infected with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae and the titres attained were considerably lower than in the controls. The T2 antigen stimulus in the animals given ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae was probably provided by flukes which 'broke through' the developmental barrier imposed by irradiation and which were found alive at autopsy.

  19. Environmental application of gamma technology: Update on the Canadian sludge irradiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Fraser, Frank M.

    1993-10-01

    Waste treatment and disposal technologies have recently been subjected to increasing public and regulatory scrutiny. Concern for the environment and a heightened awareness of potential health hazards that could result from insufficient or inappropriate waste handling methods have combined to push waste generators in their search for new treatment alternatives. Gamma technology can offer a new option for the treatment of potentially infectious wastes, including municipal sewage sludge. Sewage sludge contains beneficial plant nutrients and a high organic component that make it ideal as a soil conditioning agent or fertilizer bulking material. It also carries potentially infectious microorganisms which limit opportunities for beneficial recycling of sludges. Gamma irradiation-disinfection of these sludges offers a reliable, fast and efficient method for safe sludge recycling. Nordion International's Market Development Division was created in 1987 as part of a broad corporate reorganization. It was given an exclusive mandate to develop new applications of gamma irradiation technology and markets for these new applications. Nordion has since explored and developed opportunities in food irradiation, pharmaceutical/cosmetic products irradiation, biomedical waste sterilization, airline waste disinfection, and sludge disinfection for recycling. This paper focuses on the last of these -a proposed sludge recycling facility that incorporates a cobalt 60 sludge irradiator.

  20. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on leaching of simulated 133Cs+ radionuclides from geopolymer wasteforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ning; An, Hao; Cui, Hao; Pan, Yang; Wang, Bing; Mao, Linqiang; Zhai, Jianping

    2015-04-01

    Leaching of simulated 133Cs+ radionuclides from geopolymer wasteforms was examined with regard to effects from gamma-ray irradiation. Specifically, the compressive strengths, microstructures, pore structures, and leaching resistance of geopolymer wasteforms before and after irradiation were characterized. The leaching experiments were performed by immersion of wasteforms in deionized water, ground water, and seawater. It was found that gamma rays did not produce significant morphological changes, except for changes in the pore size distribution. The cumulative leaching fraction of all the leachants from the irradiated samples increased relative to the non-radiated samples, particularly during long leaching periods (11-42 days). These results, and those from a mercury intrusion porosimeter analysis, can be attributed to irradiation-induced changes in pore structure. All the leaching indexes were greater than the minimum acceptable value of 6.0 set by the American Nuclear Society Standards committee, which indicated that the fly-ash geopolymers are suitable for radionuclide immobilization. However, the effects of gamma-ray irradiation on the immobilization of radionuclides cannot be ignored.

  1. Thermoluminescent response of aluminium oxide thin films subject to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, A.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Villagran, E.; Gonzalez, P.R

    2006-07-01

    The thermoluminescent (TL) properties of amorphous aluminium oxide thin films (thicknesses as low as 0.3 {mu}m) subjected to gamma (Co-60) irradiation are reported. Aluminium oxide thin films were prepared by laser ablation from an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} target using a Nd: YAG laser with emission at the fundamental line. The films were exposed to gamma radiation (Co-60) in order to study their TL response. Thermoluminescence glow curves exhibited two peaks at 110 and 176 C. The high temperature peak shows good stability and 30% fading in the first 5 days after irradiation. A linear relationship between absorbed dose and the thermoluminescent response for doses span from 150 mGy to 100 Gy was observed. These results suggest that aluminium oxide thin films are suitable for detection and monitoring of gamma radiation. (Author)

  2. High-energy {gamma}-irradiation effect on physical ageing in Ge-Se glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska Str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine); Kozdras, A. [Department of Physics of Opole University of Technology, 75 Ozimska Str., Opole, PL-45370 (Poland); Department of Economy of Academy of Management and Administration in Opole, 18 Niedzialkowski Str., Opole, PL-45085 (Poland); Kozyukhin, S. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of RAS, Leninsky Pr. 31, Moscow 199991 (Russian Federation); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska Str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine); Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15 al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa, PL-42201 (Poland)], E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua

    2009-09-01

    Effect of Co{sup 60} {gamma}-irradiation on physical ageing in binary Ge{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} glasses (5 {<=} x {<=} 27) is studied using conventional differential scanning calorimetry method. It is shown, that high-energy irradiation leads to additional increase in the glass transition temperature and endothermic peak area near the glass transition region over the one induced by isochronal storage of these glasses at normal conditions. This {gamma}-induced physical ageing is shown to be well-pronounced in Se-rich glasses (x < 20), while only negligible changes are recorded for glasses of 20 {<=} x {<=} 27 compositions. The effect under consideration is supposed to be associated with {gamma}-activated structural relaxation of the glass network towards thermodynamic equilibrium of supercooled liquid.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of zinc chloride containing poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Seok; Kuang, Jia; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung-In; Shin, Young-Min; Seob Khil, Myung; Nho, Young-Chang

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the characterization of zinc chloride incorporated into a poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel prepared by gamma-ray irradiation was investigated. Zinc chloride powder with different concentrations was dissolved in the PAAc solution, and it was crosslinked with gamma-ray irradiation. The effects of various parameters such as zinc ion concentration and irradiation doses on characteristics of the hydrogel formed were investigated in detail for obtaining an antibacterial wound dressing. In addition, the gel content, pH-sensitive (pH 4 or 7) swelling ratio, and UV-vis absorption spectra of the zinc particles in the hydrogels were characterized. Moreover, antibacterial properties of these new materials against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains were observed on solid growth media. The antibacterial tests indicated that the zinc chloride containing PAAc hydrogels have good antibacterial activity.

  4. Expression of the lacZ gene in Escherichia coli irradiated with gamma rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Kato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of bacterial cells to ionizing radiation damages cellular components and causes cell death. We examined the induction of the plasmid-encoded lacZ gene in Escherichia coli JM109 harboring pUC19 after irradiation with gamma rays. The data demonstrated that cells irradiated with 6 or 8 kGy gamma rays lost their ability to grow on nutrient agar plates, but retained the ability to induce lacZ gene expression by IPTG at about 10% the level of the nonirradiated control. Thus, inactivation of cells by irradiation may provide another option for establishing a vehicle of protein and DNA, as nonpropagating protein-producing apparatus, albeit with lower capacity than intact cells.

  5. Disordering and dissolution of [gamma][prime] precipitates under ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdeau, F.; Camus, E.; Abromeit, C.; Wollenberger, H. (Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH, Glienicker Stragese 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany))

    1994-12-01

    The stability of the [gamma][prime] phase of the nickel-base alloy Nimonic PE16 under irradiation with Ni[sup +] ions of 300-keV energy is studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The disordering of the [gamma][prime] phase could be followed as a function of fluence. The main finding is the observation of weak but measurable superlattice reflections between 0.1 and 1 dpa after irradiation at room temperature. The superlattice reflections disappear in two steps. Their intensities decrease considerably within a fluence of 0.1 dpa, while weak intensities are observed up to a fluence of 1 dpa. These reflections disappear completely after a fluence of 2 dpa. The results are discussed within a model which considers both disordering and dissolution of precipitates under cascade producing irradiation.

  6. Sensitivity of P-Channel MOSFET to X- and Gamma-Ray Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Pejović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of Al-gate p-channel MOSFETs sensitivity following irradiation using 200 and 280 kV X-ray beams as well as gamma-ray irradiation of 60Co in the dose range from 1 to 5 Gy was performed in this paper. The response followed on the basis of threshold voltage shift and was studied as a function of absorbed dose. It was shown that the most significant change in threshold voltage was in the case of MOSFET irradiation in X-ray fields of 200 kV and when the gate voltage was +5 V. For practical applications in dosimetry, the sensitivity of the investigated MOSFETs was also satisfactory for X-ray tube voltage of 280 kV and for gamma rays. Possible processes in gate oxide caused by radiation and its impact on the response of MOSFETs were also analyzed in this paper.

  7. Disinfection and regrowth potential of bacillus subtilis spores by ozone, ultraviolet rays and gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Yeon; Lee, O Mi; Kim, Tae Hun; Lee, Myun Joo; Yu, Seung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Chlorination has been the most commonly adopted disinfection process for the treatment of drinking water. However, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts were not treated effectively by the common chlorine-based disinfectants. Additionally the regrowth of pathogenic microorganisms is associated with hygienic and aesthetic problems for the consumers of drinking water. Study on alternative disinfection processes such as ozone, UV-C, VUV and gamma irradiation were conducted. Bacillus subtilis spores have been used as a surrogate microorganism for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cyst. Inactivation efficiency by ozone was from 30% to 96% within the range of 5 min to 120 min exposures. Inactivation efficiencies by UV-C and VUV were 95.18%, 95.07% at 30 sec, respectively. Inactivation efficiency at gamma irradiation dose of 2 kGy was 99.4%. Microbial regrowths after ozone, UV-C, VUV and gamma irradiation disinfections were also evaluated for 4 days. Bacillus subtilis spores after ozone treatment for 120 min exposure at the rate of 1.68 mg {center_dot} min{sup -1} showed 96.02% disinfection efficiency and significant microbial regrowth. Bacillus subtilis spores after UV-C (99.25% disinfection efficiency) and VUV (99.67% disinfection efficiency) treatments for 5 min showed gradual regrowth. However, inactivation efficiency of gamma irradiation at dose of 1 kGy was 98.8% and the disinfected sample showed no microbial regrowth for 4 days. Therefore, gamma irradiation is the most effective process for the disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms such as oocysts of protozoan parasites among four disinfection process.

  8. Immunohistochemical study on effects of [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation on salivary gland ducts of rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Kazuhiko (Meikai Univ., Sakato, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1992-09-01

    Cytokeratin distribution in salivary glands was detected by use of polyclonal antikeratin antiserum (TK) and monoclonal antibodies (KL 1, RGE 53, and RPN 1164). The salivary glands of male rats received either 17.82 Gy or 27.97 Gy [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation in a single exposure and were then compared immunohistochemically with those of normal rats. Polyclonal anti-keratin antiserum (TK), which reacts with 41-65 KD keratins, stained almost all ducts in normal glands. RPN 1164 (no. 8 keratin) staining was negative in intercalated ducts of normal parotid and submandibular glands, but strongly positive in both striated and excretory ducts of these glands. Monoclonal antibody KL 1 (55-57 KD keratins) and RGE 53 (no. 18 keratin) did not bind to any ductal or acinar epithelia. Only in the sublingual gland were acini positive for TK staining, possibly indicating myoepithelial cells. No effects of [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation were apparent regarding keratin distribution in the intercalated in apical cytoplasm by [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation. Also, in the excretory duct, the basal side of the cells exhibited weakened staining following [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation were the most significant in the parotid and the least in the sublingual gland. Also this reaction depended upon the doses of [sup 60]Co used. The present findings suggested that negative or weakened staining at the basal and perinuclear portions of striated duct cells specifically reflects the primary or secondary cell damage produced by [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation. Since the distribution of cytoskeletal proteins in the cytoplasm reflects certain pathological conditions, immunohistochemical detection of these proteins seem to have a diagnostic value with respect to cellular injury. (J.P.N.) 77 refs.

  9. Radiosensitivity of lentil beam (Lens culinaris L.) to gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Kyu; Ryu, Jaihyunk; Jeong, Sang Wook; Kim, Jin Baek; Kang, Si Young; Kwon, Soon Jae [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    We examined damages from gamma-irradiation and determined the optimal gamma ray dose for mutation breeding in lentil (Lens culinaris L.) bean. Four individual lines (L-C, L-2, L-8 and L-9), that have remarkable adaptability in South Korea were gamma-irradiated at doses of 50, 70, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 Gy. The germination rate of seed decreased as the dose increased over 50 Gy in all lines. However, LD{sub 50} and RD{sub 50} were different among lines. The median lethal doses (LD50) were approximately 127 (L-C), 74 (L-2), 95 (L-8), and 144 (L-9) Gy. The median reduction doses (RD{sub 50}) for plant height, number of leaves, root length, and flash weight were 156, 176, 150, and 180 Gy for L-C, 253, 198, 127, and 142 Gy for L-2, 188, 175, 200, and 190 Gy for L-8, and 162, 210, 224, and 184 for L-9, respectively. The growth characteristics of the M1 generation decreased as the dose increased over 70 Gy. The optimal doses of gamma irradiation for mutation breeding of lentil were determined to be 70 Gy (L-2, L-8) and 100 Gy (L-C, L-9). We performed the comet assay to observe nuclear DNA damage induced by gamma-irradiation. In comet assay, a clear difference was identified over 100 Gy treatments. With increasing doses of gamma-ray in the range of 50 to 500 Gy, the rate of head DNA was decreased significantly from 97.5% to 81.6%. Tail length was consecutively increased from 1.9 μm to 17.4 μm. Our result provides basic information for construction of mutant pools in lentils.

  10. Vacancy Migration and Void Formation in gamma-irradiated Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1976-01-01

    are ascribed to Ps inhibition and conversion by radiation created OH radicals. Heating above −165°C makes both effects disappear in agreement with radiation chemistry results on OH. Heating also increases the longest lifetime up to 11 nsec at −130°C. This is explained as vacancy migration leading to void......Positron annihilation techniques (PAT) have been used to study the effects in ice of γ irradiation at −196°C and of subsequent heating, both in poly‐ and monocrystalline samples. The main effects of irradiation are (1) the appearance in positron lifetime spectra of two long‐lived components (1...... formation. A vacancy migration energy is obtained, Em=0.34±0.07 eV, around three times higher than the previously assumed value. The advantage in this kind of study of using PAT, which are specifically sensitive to vacancy type defects, is pointed out....

  11. Comparison of different skin preservation methods with gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Linda; Camacho, Bernardo

    2017-06-01

    Allografts are in constant demand, not only for burn victims, but also for all open wounds as "biological dressings". Tissue quality and security are two of the major concerns of Tissue Banks. There are limited studies published. There has been extensive discussion on the subject of preservation methods for cadaver skin. Most literature available comes from clinical reports. In this research, the authors compared 85% glycerolized non irradiated skin allografts with three glycerolized irradiated skin allografts (using different glycerol concentrations 50%, 70% and 85%). The evaluation of allograft quality was done by measuring physical and biological properties of such prepared human tissue grafts. In the histological structure evaluation changes were minimal and did not alter the skin structure. The clinical function of their behavior as temporal dressings was tested. They proved to have similar capabilities for improving granulating tissue and contributing to wound beds closure (Hickerson et al. (1994) [1]). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of dark current images of a CMOS camera during gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Náfrádi, Gábor, E-mail: nafradi@reak.bme.hu [INT, BME, EURATOM Association, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Czifrus, Szabolcs, E-mail: czifrus@reak.bme.hu [INT, BME, EURATOM Association, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Kocsis, Gábor, E-mail: kocsis.gabor@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP, RMI, EURATOM Association, POB 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Pór, Gábor, E-mail: por@reak.bme.hu [INT, BME, EURATOM Association, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Szepesi, Tamás, E-mail: szepesi.tamas@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP, RMI, EURATOM Association, POB 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Zoletnik, Sándor, E-mail: zoletnik.sandor@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP, RMI, EURATOM Association, POB 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Radiation tolerance of a fast framing CMOS camera EDICAM examined. • We estimate the expected gamma dose and spectrum of EDICAM with MCNP. • We irradiate EDICAM by 23.5 Gy in 70 min in a fission rector. • Dose rate normalised average brightness of frames grows linearly with the dose. • Dose normalised average brightness of frames follows the dose rate time evolution. -- Abstract: We report on the behaviour of the dark current images of the Event Detection Intelligent Camera (EDICAM) when placed into an irradiation field of gamma rays. EDICAM is an intelligent fast framing CMOS camera operating in the visible spectral range, which is designed for the video diagnostic system of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator. Monte Carlo calculations were carried out in order to estimate the expected gamma spectrum and dose for an entire year of operation in W7-X. EDICAM was irradiated in a pure gamma field in the Training Reactor of BME with a dose of approximately 23.5 Gy in 1.16 h. During the irradiation, numerous frame series were taken with the camera with exposure times 20 μs, 50 μs, 100 μs, 1 ms, 10 ms, 100 ms. EDICAM withstood the irradiation, but suffered some dynamic range degradation. The behaviour of the dark current images during irradiation is described in detail. We found that the average brightness of dark current images depends on the total ionising dose that the camera is exposed to and the dose rate as well as on the applied exposure times.

  13. Glasses, Coatings, Glues and Gamma-ray Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcala, J.M.; Fernandez, M. G.; Ferrando, A.; Fuentes, J.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Oller, J. C. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Arce, P.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C. F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L. [Universidad de Cantabria. Santander (Spain); Beigveder, J. M.; Genova, I.; Perez, G.; Ruiz, J. A. [CIDA. Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Most of the alignment systems for LHC experiments use optomechanical elements confirming a network of points that are monitored by laser beams. LHC experiments, working at the expected nominal luminosity, will induce an extremely high irradiation. basic components such as glasses, coatings and glues may change and their performance may degrade significantly. We have tested various components and identified some of them that can stand 10 years of LHC operation. (Author) 11 refs.

  14. Modifications in structural, cation distribution and magnetic properties of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated Li-ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, Maheshkumar L. [Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S.) 431 004 (India); Shirsath, Sagar E., E-mail: shirsathsagar@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S.) 431 004 (India); Dhage, Vinod N.; Jadhav, K.M. [Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S.) 431 004 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Gamma irradiation induced defects in lithium ferrite. {yields} Modifications in structural and magnetic properties. {yields} Fe{sup 3+} changes to Fe{sup 2+} after gamma irradiation. - Abstract: Polycrystalline samples of Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} ferrite precursor were prepared by conventional standard double sintering ceramic technique and then irradiated with three different doses of {sup 60}Co gamma rays. The crystal structure and phase orientation of the irradiated and unirradiated samples of Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} ferrite was done by using X-ray diffraction technique at room temperature. The lattice parameter of the studied samples increased due to the formation of Fe{sup 2+} ions under the ionizing effect of gamma radiation. The strain in the materials due to the irradiation was calculated from XRD data. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies indicate that the irradiation causes amorphization, especially at the grain boundaries. The cation distribution was calculated from XRD data analysis. By using cation distribution structural parameters such as theoretical lattice constant, ionic radii of available sites and the oxygen parameter 'u' have been calculated. The estimated cation distribution and other structural parameters shows strong influence of gamma rays on polycrystalline Li-ferrite. The magnetic properties of irradiated and unirradiated lithium ferrite were performed by using pulse field hysteresis loop technique at room temperature. Electrical properties such as diffusion coefficient and dielectric properties were carried out with the influence of gamma irradiation. Activation energy of diffusion process decreased after irradiation. The increase of diffusion coefficient with increasing dose rate of gamma irradiation was reinforced by the increase of Fe{sup 2+} ions and the displacement of metal ions from its original sites under the effect of gamma irradiation.

  15. Immunomodulatory intervention with Gamma interferon in mice with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Kong, Bing-Bing; Yang, Wen-Ping; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Rong

    2017-09-15

    Sepsis-triggered immune paralysis including T-cell dysfunction increase susceptibility to infection. Gamma interferon (IFNg) exert beneficial effects in patients with sepsis. Herein, we speculated that IFNg may attenuate T-cell dysfunction induced by sepsis, although the mechanisms remain elusive. To test this hypothesis, we used a model based on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce sepsis in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with recombinant human IFNg (0.01μg/g of body weight) before CLP. The immunophenotyping of cell surface receptor expression, and regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+) were quantified by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the loss of immune effector cells. Formation of IFNg and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in the spleen and plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IFNg markedly inhibited the reduction in cytokine secretion from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated splenocytes. IFNg-treated mices had significantly decreased percentages of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptors, increased the percentages of positive costimulatory receptor CD28 on CD4 T cells expressing. IFNg markedly reduced T-cell apoptosis through upregulating the expression of Bcl-2. CLP-induced formation of regulatory T cells in the spleen was abolished in IFNg -treated mices. Moreover, IFNg treatment reduced plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, HMGB1. IFNg can be a powerful regulator of immune function under sepsis conditions. Therefore, targeted immune-enhancement with IFNg may be a valid therapeutic approach in sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on essential oils and lipids in spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Nobutada; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1991-11-01

    Seven kinds of spices were irradiated with gamma-rays at the dose of 5 to 80 kGy. Studies of radiation effect on lipids in each spice were carried out by measuring peroxide value (POV), iodine value (IV), acid value (AV) and analysis of gas-chromatography (GC). POV in each spice was gradually increased with increasing absorbed doses. The increase of POV in nutmeg was higher than those of other spices, and it was suggested that those increase of POV values were related to lipid contents in spices. A little increase of IV and AV were also observed as same amount of POV by the irradiation up to 80 kGy. From the GC analysis of lipids in each spice, components were not changed even irradiated up to 50 kGy of gamma-rays. Radiation effect on components of essential oils in each spice were also analyzed by headspace-GC (HS-GC), and any degradation of components were not observed up to 50 kGy of irradiation even analyzed by GC after separation to hydrocarbon and oxygen compounds. On the contrary, essential oils of cloves sterilized by heat treatment were apparently decreased as compared with irradiated and non-irradiated cloves. (author).

  17. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Regeneration Capacity of Mangosteen Nodular Callus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WARID ALI QOSIM

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on regeneration capacity of mangosteed nodular callus. Nodular calli derived from a leaf as explants and cultured on MS medium containing combination of 2.2 µM benzilaminopurin (BAP and 2.27 µM tidiazuron (TDZ. Nodular calli were irradiated with 0 (control 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 Gy doses of gamma irradiation. After the irradiation, the calli were generated on woody plant medium (WPM, supplemented with 1.39 µM polyvinilpirolidon (PVP, 8 g.l-1 agar, 30 g.l-1 sucrose and 2.2 µM BAP concentration. Results showed that the irradiation influence the plant regeneration. Response dose of 50% (RD that could promote the nodular calli of shoot formation was the 25 Gy while that of the shoot number per nodular calli was the 21 Gy. The shoot number irradiated with total dose 5 Gy (9.1 shoot was higher than that of 0 Gy (8.6 shoot.

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation dose rate on microbiological and physical quality of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, M.; Lacroix, M.; Charbonneau, R.; Laberge, I.; Gagnon, M. (Canadian Irradiation Centre, Laval, PQ (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (2 kGy) and dose rate of irradiation (4.5 and 32.0 kGy/h) on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated during storage at 15 deg C and 90% R.H. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by reduction of gamma irradiation dose rate (4.5 kGy) was observed by measurements of the cap opening, the stipe increase, the cap diameter, the weight loss and the color of the caps. The color was measured in order to evaluate the lightness with the L value measurement and the color changes were measured in terms of lightness, hue and chroma. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases were also evaluated. The irradiation of mushrooms at both dose rates of irradiation was found to be effective in lowering microorganism counts initially and throughout storage and increased the shelf-life by four days. This study also showed that mushrooms exposed to a lower dose rate (4.5 kGy/h) of irradiation preserve the whiteness and reduce the stripe increase of mushrooms during storage.

  19. Effect of irradiation (gamma rays) on the biology of Eimeria tenella oocysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajwa, R.S.; Gill, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    Effect of gamma rays on the biology of the progeny of the irradiated Eimeria tenella oocysts was investigated. The parent inoculum of sporulated oocysts was exposed to 5 to 60 kR (gamma rays). These oocysts were fed to chicks. The oocysts voided by the chicks were collected and sporulated. The sporulation rate, pathogenicity, immunogenicity and reproduction potential of these oocysts--the progeny of the irradiated oocysts--were compared with those of the unirradiated oocysts. It was observed that increase of irradiation dose caused progressive decrease in the pathogenicity of the oocyst suspension. The oocysts exposed to 30 and 40 kR produced only mild infections whereas those exposed to 50 kR and above were noninfective. No difference in pathogenicity, immunogenicity and reproduction potential of unirradiated oocysts and the oocysts progeny of the irradiated oocysts was seen. It was concluded, therefore, that the effect of irradiation was limited to the inoculum exposed to it, and was not transmissible to the progeny of the irradiated oocysts.

  20. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  1. Avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats irradiated with a sublethal dose of gamma-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomášová, Lenka; Smajda, B; Bona, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, whether a sublethal dose of gamma-rays will influence the avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats and whether the response to radiation depends on time of day of its application. Adult male Wistar rats were tested in elevated plus-maze, in hot plate test and in the light/dark box in 4 regular intervals during a day. After two weeks the animals were irradiated with a whole-body dose 6 Gy of gamma-rays. One day after irradiation the animals were repeatedly tested in the same way, as before irradiation. In the plus-maze test an increased level of anxiety was established. The irradiation significantly decreased the locomotor activity of rats, but the extent of exploratory and comfortable behaviour were not altered. After irradiation, an elevated aversion to the thermal stimulus was observed in the hot plate test. The effects of radiation were more pronounced in the light period of the day, than in the dark one. No significant differences in aversion to light were detected after irradiation. The obtained results indicate, that sublethal doses of ionizing radiation can markedly influence the reactivity of animals to adverse stimuli, their motoric activity and emotional status, as well.

  2. Gamma irradiator dose mapping: a Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Rogerio R.; Ribeiro, Mariana A.; Grynberg, Suely E.; Ferreira, Andrea V.; Meira-Belo, Luiz Claudio, E-mail: rrr@cdtn.b, E-mail: marianaalmeida@ufmg.b, E-mail: seg@cdtn.b, E-mail: avf@cdtn.b, E-mail: lcmb@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sousa, Romulo V.; Sebastiao, Rita de C.O., E-mail: romuloverdolin@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: ritacos@ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Gamma irradiator facilities can be used in a wide range of applications such as biological and chemical researches, food treatment and sterilization of medical devices and products. Dose mapping must be performed in these equipment in order to establish plant operational parameters, as dose uniformity, source utilization efficiency and maximum and minimum dose positions. The isodoses curves are generally measured using dosimeters distributed throughout the device, and this procedure often consume a large amount of dosimeters, irradiation time and manpower. However, a detailed curve doses identification of the irradiation facility can be performed using Monte Carlo simulation, which reduces significantly the monitoring with dosimeters. The present work evaluates the absorbed dose in the CDTN/CNEN Gammacell Irradiation Facility, using the Monte Carlo N-particles (MCNP) code. The Gammacell 220, serial number 39, was produced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and was loaded with sources of {sup 60}Co. Dose measurements using TLD and Fricke dosimeters were also performed to validate the calculations. The good agreement of the results shows that Monte Carlo simulations can be used as a predictive tool of irradiation planning for the CDTN/CNEN Gamma Cell Irradiator. (author)

  3. Rejection of normal and neoplastic hemopoietic cells by lethally irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifi, M.S.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of rejection of normal and neoplastic hemopoietic cells by lethally irradiated mice, in part by investigating the hypothesis that two or more cell types are involved in recognition and rejection of hemopoietic cells. Interferon (IFN) was used as a tool for investigating such mechanisms. IFN alpha/beta stimulated the rejection of normal hemopoietic marrow cell grafts in Fl hybrid and in allogeneic host mice but did not affect the growth of cells in syngeneic mice. IFN alpha/beta was effective in hosts pretreated with silica but not in hosts pretreated with cyclophosphamide (Cy) or with anti-asialoGMI serum. Rabbit anti-IFN alpha/beta, but not anti-IFN gamma, serum inhibited genetic resistance to bone marrow cells. These results indicated that IFN alpha/beta was acting indirectly during the rejection of normal hemopoietic cells. It is proposed that four events occur in succession: a host cell recognizes the hemopoietic histocompatibility (Hh) antigens expressed on the surface of incompatible stem cells; this recognition leads to secretion of IFN; IFN activates natural killer (NK) cells; NK cells lyse donor stem cells. Silica interrupts one or both of the first two events. i.e., recognition and/or interrupts one or both of the first two events, i.e. recognition and/or IGN secretion.

  4. Photodynamic therapy improves the ultraviolet-irradiated hairless mice skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Ana Elisa S.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Parizotto, Nivaldo A.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-03-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) sunlight causes premature skin aging. In light of this fact, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging modality for treating cancer and other skin conditions, however its response on photoaged skin has not been fully illustrated by means of histopathology. For this reason, the aim of this study was analyze whether PDT can play a role on a mouse model of photoaging. Hence, SKH-1 hairless mice were randomly allocated in two groups, UV and UV/PDT. The mice were daily exposed to an UV light source (280-400 nm: peak at 350 nm) for 8 weeks followed by a single PDT session using 20% 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) topically. After the proper photosensitizer accumulation within the tissue, a non-coherent red (635 nm) light was performed and, after 14 days, skin samples were excised and processed for light microscopy, and their sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's Trichrome. As a result, we observed a substantial epidermal thickening and an improvement in dermal collagen density by deposition of new collagen fibers on UV/PDT group. These findings strongly indicate epidermal and dermal restoration, and consequently skin restoration. In conclusion, this study provides suitable evidences that PDT improves the UV-irradiated hairless mice skin, supporting this technique as an efficient treatment for photoaged skin.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on linear low density polyethylene/magnesium hydroxide/sepiolite composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiq, Muhammad [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, PO Box 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Yasin, Tariq, E-mail: yasintariq@yahoo.com [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, PO Box 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-01-15

    Radiation crosslinking is generally used to improve the thermo-mechanical properties of the composites. A study has been carried out to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the thermo-mechanical properties of linear low density polyethylene containing magnesium hydroxide (MH) and sepiolite (SP) as non-halogenated flame retardant additives. The developed composites are irradiated at different doses upto maximum of 150 kGy. Infrared spectra of the irradiated composites reveal the reduction in the intensity of O-H band with increase in the absorbed doses, thus indicates a distinct structural change in MH at higher doses. The thermogravimetric analysis results of unirradiated and composites irradiated at low doses ({<=}75 kGy) show two steps weight loss, which is changed to single step at higher doses with lower thermal stability. The melting temperature (T{sub m}) and crystallization temperature (T{sub c}) of irradiated composites are lowered with irradiation whereas Vicat softening temperature (VST) is increased. The increasing trend in gel content with increase in the absorbed dose confirms the presence of crosslinked network. The mechanical properties, results show significant improvement in the modulus of irradiated composites. The results also confirm that MH gradually loses its OH functionality with irradiation. - Highlights: > We have studied the effect of {gamma} radiation on LLDPE containing Mg(OH){sub 2} and sepiolite. > IR spectra of the irradiated composites show reduction in the intensity of O-H band. > Reduction in OH band show a distinct structural change in Mg(OH){sub 2} at higher doses. > TGA results show two steps weight loss at low doses and one step at higher doses. > These results confirm that MH gradually loses its OH functionality with irradiation.

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L* and b* values and a decrease in a* values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  7. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun In; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4'-glucoside (Q4'G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4'G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1-256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on Anaplasma marginale in bovines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, H.Q.; de Fernandez, M.V.G. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Centro de Estudios Nucleares); Meza, B.R.; Rodriguez, E. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City)

    1981-01-01

    Because the costs of treatment of anaplasmosis are very high, it was considered of great usefulness to obtain the modification of the pathogenecity and the antigenicity of A. marginale by means of gamma radiation (/sup 60/Co) to obtain a vaccine. This would be reflected favorably in saving lives as well as to obviate losses of meat and dairy production and the elimination of the risks derived from the introduction of selected cattle into the tropics. The main purpose of this study was to determine the optimal modification of the pathogenecity of A. marginale in splenectomized calves and adult cows, among 4 different radiation doses.

  9. The contract facilities for gamma irradiation at Dagneux, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, D.; Kavanagh, M. T.

    CONSERVATOME SA have operated a facility at DAGNEUX near LYON, France since 1961. This operation is among the very first of its kind in the entire world. The process is based on gamma rays from Cobalt 60 of which there are three separate units. In addition there is a small experimental unit using Cesium 137. At present CONSERVATOME is owned by TRANSNUCLEAIRE and EPICEA as principal shareholders and so has the support of the French Atomic Energy Commission. This paper describes the larger D3 unit and reviews some of the products treated at DAGNEUX.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima, E-mail: khattakkf@yahoo.co [Food Science Division, Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Peshawar (Pakistan); School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom); James Simpson, Thomas [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    The efficacy of gamma irradiation as a method of decontamination for food and herbal materials is well established. In the present study, Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were irradiated at doses 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. The irradiated and un-irradiated control samples were evaluated for phenolic contents, antimicrobial activities and DPPH scavenging properties. The result of the present study showed that radiation treatment up to 20 kGy does not affect the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the plant. While sample irradiated at 25 kGy does showed changes in the antibacterial activity against some selected pathogens. No significant differences in the phenolic contents were observed for control and samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kGy radiation doses. However, phenolic contents increased in samples treated with 20 and 25 kGy doses. The DPPH scavenging activity significantly (p<0.05) increased in all irradiated samples of the plant.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima Khattak, Khanzadi; James Simpson, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The efficacy of gamma irradiation as a method of decontamination for food and herbal materials is well established. In the present study, Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were irradiated at doses 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. The irradiated and un-irradiated control samples were evaluated for phenolic contents, antimicrobial activities and DPPH scavenging properties. The result of the present study showed that radiation treatment up to 20 kGy does not affect the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the plant. While sample irradiated at 25 kGy does showed changes in the antibacterial activity against some selected pathogens. No significant differences in the phenolic contents were observed for control and samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kGy radiation doses. However, phenolic contents increased in samples treated with 20 and 25 kGy doses. The DPPH scavenging activity significantly ( p<0.05) increased in all irradiated samples of the plant.

  12. Changes in volatile compounds of gamma-irradiated fresh cilantro leaves during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B

    2002-12-18

    Consumption of salsas and dishes containing cilantro has been linked to several recent outbreaks of food-borne illness due to contamination with human pathogens. Ionizing irradiation can effectively eliminate food-borne pathogens from various vegetables including cilantro. However, the effect of irradiation on aroma of fresh cilantro is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of irradiation on volatile compounds of fresh cilantro leaves. Fresh cilantro leaves (Coriandrum sativum L) were irradiated with 0, 1, 2, or 3 kGy gamma radiation and then stored at 3 degrees C up to 14 days. Volatile compounds were extracted using solid-phase microextraction (SPME), followed by gas chromatographic separation and mass spectra detection at 0, 3, 7, and 14 days after irradiation. Most of the volatile compounds identified were aldehydes. Decanal and (E)-2-decenal were the most abundant compounds, accounting for more than 80% of the total amount of identified compounds. The amounts of linalool, dodecanal, and (E)-2-dodecenal in irradiated samples were significantly lower than those in nonirradiated samples at day 14. However, the most abundant compounds [decanal and (E)-2-decenal] were not consistently affected by irradiation. During storage at 3 degrees C, the amount of most aldehydes peaked at 3 days and then decreased afterward. Our results suggest irradiation of fresh cilantro for safety enhancement at doses up to 3 kGy had minimal effect on volatile compounds compared with the losses that occurred during storage.

  13. Gamma irradiation of peanut kernel to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.-Y. Chiou, R.

    1996-09-01

    Peanut kernel inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia were gamma irradiated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy using Co60. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of these molds was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 wk incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 μ/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. After storage, at each irradiation level, peroxide content in peanuts stored at -14°C was lower than that in peanuts stored at an ambient temperature. TBA values and CDHP contents of the oil increased with increased irradiation dosage and changed slightly after storage. However, fatty acid contents of the peanut oil varied in a limited range as affected by the irradiation dosage and storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage.

  14. Identification of a gamma-irradiated ingredient (garlic powder) in Korean barbeque sauce by thermoluminescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Jun; Akram, Kashif; Lee, Jeongeun; Kim, Kyong-Su; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2012-04-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was applied to identify gamma-irradiated garlic powder in Korean barbeque sauce before and after pasteurization (85 °C, 30 min), when blended in different ratios (1%, 3%, and 5%). The sauce sample with nonirradiated garlic powder gave a background glow curve. However, the sample blended with irradiated ingredient (1 and 10 kGy) showed typical TL glow curves at temperatures of 150 to 200 °C. The identification properties of sauce samples were more influenced by blending ratios than by irradiation doses, showing that 3% and 5% added samples produced glow curves at 150 to 250 °C. After pasteurization of the samples containing the irradiated ingredient, TL glow intensity decreased but did not change its shape or temperature range. As a result, the pasteurization of Barbeque sauces containing irradiated ingredients had reduced TL glow intensity, but the shape and temperature range of glow curve were still able to provide information required for confirming irradiation treatment. To monitor the irradiated food in international market, thermoluminescence (TL) analysis is considered most promising identification technique because of its sensitivity and long-term stability. In this study the applicability of TL analysis to detect an irradiated ingredient (garlic powder) added in low quantity to a food matrix (sauce) was investigated. The effect of processing (pasteurization) on TL results was also evaluated. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Application of Gamma Irradiation and Its Convergent Treatments on Several Varieties of Oriental Hybrid Lily to Control Leaf Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hoon Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to seek more eco-friend, economic and safer quarantine method than current methyl bromide fumigation, the convergent treatment with 200 Gy of gamma irradiation and several chemicals such as nano-siver particles (NSS, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC was tried on the cuttings of lily in the packing of catonnage box for export. With 6 independent experiments of gamma irradiation on the three lily cultivars, cvs. Siberia, Le reve and Sorbonne, incidence and severity of lily leaf blight was investigated on leaves and petals at 8-d after infection. 200 Gy of gamma irradiation decreased at 13-25% of severity on the leaf of Sorbonne, but it increased at 2-5% of severity on the leaf of Siberia and Le reve. Chemical substitutes such as NSS and NaDCC were not effective to control of lily blight on cuttings. By 200 Gy of gamma irradiation treatment, chlorophyll contents were statistically significantly decreased at 12-d after irradiation and the longevities vaselife of fully open flower of Siberia and Sorbonne were increased at 0.4 to 1.2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the gamma irradiated cuttings were severely dried compared to the non-irradiated control. On the other hands, the symptoms of phyto-toxicity of high dose gamma irradiation at 1 or 2 kGy on cv. Siberia were to be blight at the tip of bloom, bent necks of flower, and delayed the process of flowering.

  16. RBE values and repair characteristics for colo-rectal injury after caesium 137 gamma-ray and neutron irradiation. II. Fractionation up to ten doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, N H; Denekamp, J

    1984-07-01

    Early and late colo-rectal damage in mice have been assessed after 137Cs gamma irradiation and 3 MeV neutrons given as 1,2,5 or 10 fractions. Damage was measured by early changes in body weight, the late production of short faecal pellets and the pattern of lethality after irradiation. The data have been analysed in terms of the time course of expression of damage, fractionation effects and the RBE for neutrons over a wide range of doses per fraction (0.5-12.5 Gy neutrons, 3.5-33.5 Gy gamma rays). An initial epithelial denudation led to an early loss of weight, maximal at 11-17 days after irradiation. A dose-dependent weight reduction persisted over the animals' life-time. Deaths after localised pelvic gamma irradiation were progressive with no sharp demarcation between early or late phases of injury. The time course for lethality was qualitatively similar after neutrons. Beyond six months the rectum became constricted by fibrosis and a higher proportion of small faecal pellets was observed. At 6-15 months relatively shallow dose-response curves were obtained for this change. The sparing effect of fractionation was marked for the gamma-irradiated mice and almost absent after neutrons. A very high repair increment (11 Gy) was seen with two gamma-ray fractions of 20 Gy. At lower doses per fraction the proportion of each gamma-ray fraction recovered was 50-69% for all assays, i.e., similar to that for other normal tissues. There was a slight enhancement in the sparing effect for the late compared with the early assays over the lower dose range. The RBE was strongly dependent on dose per fraction because of the lack of reparable damage after neutrons. The RBE for both early and late effects was 5.0 at a neutron dose per fraction of 1 Gy. Extrapolation of the RBE data to lower doses, using the linear quadratic model, predicts a higher RBE for late (7.4-12.7) than for early damage (5.7-8.5) if gamma-ray doses below 5 Gy are used.

  17. Protection of negative gravitaxis in Euglena gracilis Z against gamma-ray irradiation by Trolox C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya; Doi, Masahiro; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Fuma, Shoichi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Research Center for Radiation Safety; Hader, D.P. [Biologie der Friedrich-Alexander Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie

    2002-12-01

    The protective effects of Trolox on the inhibition of negative gravitaxis in Euglena gracilis exposed to 200 Gy {sup 60}Co gamma-rays were examined using different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 {mu}M). The orientation precision of the negative gravitaxis was quantified using the r-value. A significant decrease in the r-value was observed in gamma-irradiated samples (0.18+/-0.03) compared to those of non-irradiated samples (0.47+/-0.03). There were no significant changes in the r-value of cells exposed to 200 Gy gamma-rays by the addition of 1 or 10 {mu}M of Trolox. A significant increase (0.19) in the r-value of cells exposed to 200 Gy with 100 {mu}M Trolox was observed. The results indicates that Trolox at a concentration of 100 {mu}M protects negative gravitaxis against {sup 60}Co gamma-ray irradiation at a dose of 200 Gy. It also suggests that the negative gravitaxis of Euglena gracilis is affected by free radicals.(author)

  18. Protease-mediated enhancement of lymphocyte-induced angiogenesis in X-ray irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, M.J.; Majewski, S.; Kaminska, G.; Bem, W.; Szmurlo, A. (Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw (Poland). Zaklad Histologii i Embriologii)

    1983-02-01

    Angiogenesis was induced in mice by intradermal injection of semi-syngeneic splenocytes, and after three days the number of newly formed blood vessels at the injection site was counted. When recipients were total-body irradiated with 700 R 2 hours before the lymphocyte injection, the angiogenesis was significantly higher than in non-irradiated mice. The angiogenesis enhancement was of a systemic (not local) character as revealed in experiments with shielding of irradiated animals. This enhancement was not due to X-ray dependent immunosuppression, as shown in experiments with non-irradiated, pharmacologically immunosuppressed mice. Decreased angiogenesis was observed in irradiated mice after treatment with cortisone acetate, aprotinin, and EACA. The results suggest that proteases might be involved in mediating the angiogenesis enhancement after X-irradiation.

  19. Loss of a major idiotype (CRIA) after repopulation of irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, F.; Vansanten-Urbain, G.; De Wit, D.; Slaoui, M.; Urbain, J. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium))

    1990-02-15

    The normal immune response of A/J mice against arsonate coupled to hemocyanin is characterized by a major recurrent cross-reactive Id, the CRIA. This Id is encoded by a single gene segment combination: VHidcr11-DFL16.1e-JH2 for the H chain and Vkidcr-Jk1 for the L chain. In this report, we show that lethal irradiation of A/J mice followed by reconstitution with autologous or syngeneic lymphoid cells results in loss of major CRIA Id expression in the response to arsonate. Different protocols were performed to repopulate the irradiated mice. First, lethally irradiated A/J mice were reconstituted by the transfer of syngeneic bone marrow cells. Second, A/J mice were lethally irradiated while their hind limbs were partially shielded. Third, lethally irradiated A/J mice received a transfer of syngeneic spleen cells. The three groups of mice produce high titers of antiarsonate antibodies completely devoid of CRIA DH-JH related idiotopes expression. Moreover, a lack of affinity maturation is observed in the secondary antiarsonate response of all irradiated and reconstituted mice. A transfer of syngeneic peritoneal cells or a transfer of primed T cells in irradiated and reconstituted A/J mice do not restore in a significant manner either the recurrent CRIA expression or the affinity maturation of the antiarsonate response. Our data suggest that the choice of this Id is not solely dictated by the Igh locus.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on hyperthermal composting microorganisms for feasible application in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Choi, Jong-il; Yamashita, Masamichi

    2013-05-01

    The composting system is the most efficient method for processing organic waste in space; however, the composting activity of microorganisms can be altered by cosmic rays. In this study, the effect of ionizing irradiation on composting bacteria was investigated. Sequence analyses of amplified 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and amoA genes were used to identify hyperthermal composting microorganisms. The viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly determined using LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera were Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp., and the fungal genera were Metschnikowia bicuspidata and Pichia guilliermondii. Gamma irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy did not significantly alter the microbial population. Furthermore, amylase and cellulase activities were maintained after high-dose gamma irradiation. Our results show that hyperthermal microorganisms can be used to recycle agricultural and fermented material in space stations and other human-inhabiting facilities on the Moon, Mars, and other planets.

  1. EPR investigation of gamma irradiated single crystal guaifenesin: A combined experimental and computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Halil Ugur; Sayin, Ulku; Türkkan, Ercan; Ozmen, Ayhan

    2016-04-01

    Gamma irradiated single crystal of Guaifenesin (Glyceryl Guaiacolate), an important expectorant drug, were investigated with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy between 123 and 333 K temperature at different orientations in the magnetic field. Considering the chemical structure and the experimental spectra of the gamma irradiated single crystal of guaifenesin sample, we assumed that alkoxy or alkyl-type paramagnetic species may be produced by irradiation. Depending on this assumption, eight possible alkoxy and alkyl-type radicals were modeled and EPR parameters of these modeled radicals were calculated using the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)-level of density functional theory (DFT). Theoretically calculated values of alkyl-type modeled radical(R3) are in good agreement with experimentally determined EPR parameters of single crystal. Furthermore, simulation spectra which are obtained by using the theoretical initial values are well matched with the experimental spectra. It was determined that a stable Cα •H2αCβHβCγH2γ (R3) alkyl radical was produced in the host crystal as a result of gamma irradiation.

  2. Accumulation efficiency of cancer stem-like cells post {gamma}-ray and proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan Yi; WangWeikang; Fu Qibin; Mei Tao; Wu Jingwen; Li Jia [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yang, Gen, E-mail: gen.yang@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Yugang [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) has been proven to be a powerful medical treatment in cancer therapy. Rational and effective use of its killing power depends on understanding IR-mediated responses at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Increasing evidence supports that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) play an important role in tumor regrowth and spread post radiotherapy, for they are resistant to various therapy methods including radiation. Presently, SW620 colon carcinoma monolayer culture cells were irradiated with {gamma}-rays and protons of 2 Gy. Then apoptosis, clonogenic survival and the expression of CD133{sup +} protein were examined. The results showed that there was no significantly difference either on long-term clonogenic survival or on short-term apoptosis ratio. However, compared with {gamma}-rays, irradiation with protons was less efficient to accumulate CSCs at the same dose, although both protons and {gamma}-rays can significantly accumulate the CD133{sup +} CSCs subpopulation. In addition, the results of sphere formation assay also confirmed that proton irradiation is less efficient in CSCs accumulation, suggesting proton irradiation might have higher efficiency in CSCs elimination for cancer radiotherapy.

  3. Effects of. gamma. -ray irradiation on residual voltage in polyethylene containing antioxidant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Sanshiro; Fukuda, Tadashi; Sawa, Goro; Ieda, Masayuki

    1986-12-01

    For providing a non-destructive technique for determining the degree of deterioration in insulating material, an attempt is made to examine the effect of ..gamma..-ray irradiation on the residual voltage in low-density polyethylene containing an antioxidant. A phenol compound (Irganox 1010) or an amine compound (Antage F) is used as antioxidant. It is shown that for non-irradiated material, addition of Antage F increases both the residual voltage (V) and current (I) while the increase in V and I is less at Irganox 1010 concentrations up to about 5 percent. Irradiation of ..gamma..-rays has little influence on the properties of material containing a large concentration of an antioxidant, indicating that the addition of an antioxidant can increase resistance to radiation. Antioxidant has little effect, however, if its content is low. For a sample containing 5% Irganox 1010, an exposure of 41.5 Mrad increases the residual voltage but the increase is linear with time. For a sample containing 5% Antage F, on the other hand, the residual voltage is largely increased above an exposure of 7.3 Mrad, but the time dependence of residual voltage shows a maximum. Analysis is made of the discharge current from material containing a large content of an antioxidant, showing that addition of such an additive has favorable effects. Dependence of residual voltage on applied voltage is analyzed. Results obtained suggest that insulation deterioration due to ..gamma..-ray irradiation can be estimated from measurements of residual voltage. (Nogami, K.).

  4. Free radicals properties of gamma-irradiated penicillin-derived antibiotics: piperacillin, ampicillin, and crystalline penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Pilawa, Barbara; Koprowski, Robert; Wróbel, Zygmunt; Ptaszkiewicz, Marta; Swakoń, Jan; Olko, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations and properties of free radicals in piperacillin, ampicillin, and crystalline penicillin after gamma irradiation. The radicals were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using an X-band spectrometer (9.3 GHz). Gamma irradiation was performed at a dose of 25 kGy. One- and two-exponential functions were fitted to the experimental data, in order to assess the influence of the antibiotics' storage time on the measured EPR lines. After gamma irradiation, complex EPR lines were recorded confirming the presence of a large number of free radicals formed during the irradiation. For all tested antibiotics, concentrations of free radicals and parameters of EPR spectra changed with storage time. The results obtained demonstrate that concentration of free radicals and other spectroscopic parameters can be used to select the optimal parameters of radiation sterilization of β-lactam antibiotics. The most important parameters are the constants τ (τ (1(A),(I)) and τ (2(A),(I))) and K (K (0(A),(I)), K (1(A),(I)), K (2(A),(I))) of the exponential functions that describe free radicals decay during samples storage.

  5. The effect of gamma radiation on the lipid profile of irradiated red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Grazielle Aparecida Silva; Renó, Cristiane de Oliveira; Medina, Jorge Mansur; Silveira, Alan Barbosa da; Mignaco, Julio Alberto; Atella, Georgia Correa; Cortes, Vanessa Faria; Barbosa, Leandro Augusto; Santos, Hérica de Lima

    2014-05-01

    An investigation into the effects of irradiation and of the storage time on aging and quality are a relevant issue to ensure the safety and the efficiency of irradiation in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). In this work, the biochemical properties and alterations presented by erythrocyte membranes, up to 28-days post-irradiation, with a dose of 25 Gy, were studied as a function of storage and post-irradiation time. There was a considerable variation in the total of phospholipid content, when comparing the control and irradiated samples, mostly from the third day onwards; and at the same time, the effect occurred as a function on the storage time of blood bags. The levels of total cholesterol decreased 3-9 days after irradiation. TBARS levels were increased after irradiation and 7 days of storage, but no increment of catalase activity was observed after the irradiation. Furthermore, the protein profile was maintained throughout the irradiation and storage time, until the 21st day, with the presence of a protein fragmentation band of around 28 kDa on the 28th day. In conclusion, although gamma irradiation is the main agent for the prevention of TA-GVHD, a better understanding of the physical and biochemical properties of erythrocytes are necessary to better assess their viability, and to be able to issue more secure recommendations on the shelf life of blood bags, and the safe use of the irradiated red cells therein.

  6. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and phosphine fumigation on the quality of white ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J.-H. J.-H.; Byun, M.-W. M.-W.; Kim, K.-S. K.-S.; Kang, I.-J. I.-J.

    2000-03-01

    The hygienic, physicochemical, and organoleptic qualities of white ginseng were monitored during 6 months under accelerated conditions (40°C, 90% r.h.) by observing its microbial populations, disinfestation, and some quality attributes following either gamma irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy or commercial phosphine (PH 3) fumigation. In a comparative study, both treatments were found to be effective for disinfecting the stored samples. Phosphine showed no appreciable decontaminating effects on microorganisms contaminated including coliforms, while 5 kGy irradiation was sufficient to control all microorganisms related to the quality of the packed samples. Irradiation at 5 kGy caused negligible changes in physicochemical attributes of the samples, such as ginsenosides, amino acids, fatty acids, and organoleptic properties, whereas phosphine fumigation was found detrimental to sensory flavor ( Pphosphine-, and 2.5-5 kGy-treated samples. Accordingly, irradiation at phosphine f