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Sample records for irradiated lung field

  1. Two cases with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer

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    Ikeda, Takeshi; Inui, Hiroyuki; Yukawa, Susumu; Nomoto, Hiroshi (Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)); Minakata, Yoshiaki; Yamagata, Toshiyuki

    1992-05-01

    Two patients with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field are reported. Lung abscesses occurred during the term of leukopenia following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer. Both patients were diagnosed as small cell lung cancer, and were treated concurrently with chemotherapy (Cisplatin + Etoposide) and radiotherapy (total 40-50 Gy). Case 1 was a 59 years old male. Seven weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originated in the lung field with radiation pneumonitis, and giant bronchial fistula was formed, that showed the specific bronchofiberscopic findings. Case 2 was a 67 years old male. Twelve weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa originated in the irradiated lung field following the formation of a pneumatocele. MRSA and pseudomonas aeruginosa are important as cause of hospital infection, and both can cause lung abscess. However, in our cases, lung abscess were formed just in the irradiated lung field and rapidly enlarged. These clinical findings suggested that myelosuppression and radiation injury of lung tissue might cause such giant lung abscess. (author).

  2. Two cases with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Inui, Hiroyuki; Yukawa, Susumu; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Minakata, Yoshiaki; Yamagata, Toshiyuki.

    1992-01-01

    Two patients with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field are reported. Lung abscesses occurred during the term of leukopenia following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer. Both patients were diagnosed as small cell lung cancer, and were treated concurrently with chemotherapy (Cisplatin + Etoposide) and radiotherapy (total 40-50 Gy). Case 1 was a 59 years old male. Seven weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originated in the lung field with radiation pneumonitis, and giant bronchial fistula was formed, that showed the specific bronchofiberscopic findings. Case 2 was a 67 years old male. Twelve weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa originated in the irradiated lung field following the formation of a pneumatocele. MRSA and pseudomonas aeruginosa are important as cause of hospital infection, and both can cause lung abscess. However, in our cases, lung abscess were formed just in the irradiated lung field and rapidly enlarged. These clinical findings suggested that myelosuppression and radiation injury of lung tissue might cause such giant lung abscess. (author)

  3. The irradiation lung volume in tangential fields for the treatment of a breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y. T.; Kim, J. R.; Kang, H. J.; Sohn, J. H.; Kang, S. H.; Chun, M. S.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis is one of the complications caused by radiation therapy that includes a portion of the lung tissue. The severity of radiation induced pulmonary dysfunction depends on the irradiated lung volume, total dose, dose rate and underlying pulmonary function. The lung volume was measured for 25 patients with breast cancer irradiated with tangential field from Jan. 1995 to Aug. 1996. Parameters that can predict the irradiated lung volume included; (1) the perpendicular distance from the posterior tangential edge to the posterior part of the anterior chest wall at the center of the field (CLD); (2) the maximum perpendicular distance from the posterior tangential field edge to the posterior part of the anterior chest wall (MLD); (3) the greatest perpendicular distance from the posterior tangential edge to the posterior part of anterior chest wall on CT image at the center of the longitudinal field (GPD); (4) the length of the longitudinal field (L). The irradiated lung volume(RV), the entire both lung volume(EV) and the ipsilateral lung volume(IV) were measured using dose volume histogram. The RV is 61-279cc, the RV/EV is 2.9-13.0% and the RV/EN is 4.9-29.6%. The CLD, the MLD and the GPD are 1.9-3.3cm and 1.4-3.1cm respectively. The significant relations between the irradiated lung volume such as RV, RV/EV, RV/IV and parameters such as CLD, MLD, GPD, L, CLD x L, MLD x L and GPD x L are not found with little variances in parameters. The RV/IV of the left breast irradiation is significances. The significant relationship between the irradiated lung volume and predictors is not found with little variation on parameters. The irradiated lung volume in the tangential field is less than 10% of entire lung volume when CLD is less than 3cm. The RV/IV of the left tangential field is larger than that of the right but there was no significant differences in RV/EVs. Symptomatic radiation pneumonitis has not occurred during minimum 6 months follow up. (author)

  4. Lung and heart dose volume analyses with CT simulator in tangential field irradiation of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Indra J.; Cheng, Elizabeth C.; Fowble, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Radiation pneumonitis and cardiac effects are directly related to the irradiated lung and heart volumes in the treatment fields. The central lung distance (CLD) from a tangential breast radiograph is shown to be a significant indicator of ipsilateral irradiated lung volume based on empirically derived functions which accuracy depends on the actual measured volume in treatment position. A simple and accurate linear relationship with CLD and retrospective analysis of the pattern of dose volume of lung and heart is presented with actual volume data from a CT simulator in the treatment of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: The heart and lung volumes in the tangential treatment fields were analyzed in 45 consecutive (22 left and 23 right breast) patients referred for CT simulation of the cone down treatment. All patients in this study were immobilized and placed on an inclined breast board in actual treatment setup. Both arms were stretched over head uniformly to avoid collision with the scanner aperture. Radiopaque marks were placed on the medial and lateral borders of the tangential fields. All patients were scanned in spiral mode with slice width and thickness of 3 mm each, respectively. The lung and heart structures as well as irradiated areas were delineated on each slice and respective volumes were accurately measured. The treatment beam parameters were recorded and the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated for the CLD and analysis. Results: Table 1 shows the volume statistics of patients in this study. There is a large variation in the lung and heart volumes among patients. Due to differences in the shape of right and left lungs the percent irradiated volume (PIV) are different. The PIV data have shown to correlate with CLD with 2nd and 3rd degree polynomials; however, in this study a simple straight line regression is used to provide better confidence than the higher order polynomial. The regression lines for the left and right

  5. Volume-Dependent Expression of In-Field and Out-of-Field Effects in the Proton-Irradiated Rat Lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, Robert P.; Muijs, Christina T.; Faber, Hette; Gross, Sascha; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; van Luijk, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether occurance of early radiation effects in lung tissue depends on local close only. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five percent. 50%, 66%, 88%, or 100% of the rat lung was irradiated using single fractions of 150-MeV protons. For all volumes, in-field and out-of-field

  6. Quantitative assessment of irradiated lung volume and lung mass in breast cancer patients treated with tangential fields in combination with deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, Karin Sigrid; Zurl, Brigitte; Stranzl, Heidi; Winkler, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Comparison of the amount of irradiated lung tissue volume and mass in patients with breast cancer treated with an optimized tangential-field technique with and without a deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique and its impact on the normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP). Material and Methods: Computed tomography datasets of 60 patients in normal breathing (NB) and subsequently in DIBH were compared. With a Real-Time Position Management Respiratory Gating System (RPM), anteroposterior movement of the chest wall was monitored and a lower and upper threshold were defined. Ipsilateral lung and a restricted tangential region of the lung were delineated and the mean and maximum doses calculated. Irradiated lung tissue mass was computed based on density values. NTCP for lung was calculated using a modified Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. Results: Mean dose to the ipsilateral lung in DIBH versus NB was significantly reduced by 15%. Mean lung mass calculation in the restricted area receiving ≤ 20 Gy (M 20 ) was reduced by 17% in DIBH but associated with an increase in volume. NTCP showed an improvement in DIBH of 20%. The correlation of individual breathing amplitude with NTCP proved to be independent. Conclusion: The delineation of a restricted area provides the lung mass calculation in patients treated with tangential fields. DIBH reduces ipsilateral lung dose by inflation so that less tissue remains in the irradiated region and its efficiency is supported by a decrease of NTCP. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of treatment outcomes between involved-field and elective nodal irradiation in limited-stage small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae-Jin; Kim, Hak-Jae; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Heo, Dae-Seog; Kim, Young-Whan; Lee, Se-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the usefulness of involved-field irradiation and the impact of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-based staging on treatment outcomes in limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Eighty patients who received definitive chemoradiotherapy for limited-stage small cell lung cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Fifty patients were treated with involved-field irradiation, which means that the radiotherapy portal includes only clinically identifiable tumors. The other 30 patients were irradiated with a comprehensive portal, including uninvolved mediastinal and/or supraclavicular lymph nodes, so-called elective nodal irradiation. No significant difference was seen in clinical factors between the two groups. At a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 5-75 months), no significant differences were observed in 3 year overall survival (44.6 vs. 54.1%, P=0.220) and 3 year progression-free survival (24.4 vs. 42.8%, P=0.133) between the involved-field irradiation group and the elective nodal irradiation group, respectively. For patients who did not undergo positron emission tomography scans, 3 year overall survival (29.3 vs. 56.3%, P=0.022) and 3 year progression-free survival (11.0 vs. 50.0%, P=0.040) were significantly longer in the elective nodal irradiation group. Crude incidences of isolated nodal failure were 6.0% in the involved-field irradiation group and 0% in the elective nodal irradiation group, respectively. All isolated nodal failures were developed in patients who had not undergone positron emission tomography scans in their initial work-ups. If patients did not undergo positron emission tomography-based staging, the omission of elective nodal irradiation resulted in impaired survival outcomes and raised the risk of isolated nodal failure. Therefore, involved-field irradiation for limited-stage small cell lung cancer might be reasonable only with positron emission tomography scan implementation. (author)

  8. Measuring irradiated lung and heart area in breast tangential fields using a simulator-based computerized tomography device

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    Mallik, Raj; Fowler, Allan; Hunt, Peter

    1995-01-15

    Purpose: To illustrate the use of a simulator based computerized tomography system (SIMCT) in the simulation and planning of tangential breast fields. Methods and Materials: Forty-five consecutive patients underwent treatment planning using a radiotherapy simulator with computerized tomography attachment. One to three scans were obtained for each patient, calculations were made on the central axis scan. Due to the wide aperture of this system all patients were able to be scanned in the desired treatment position with arm abducted 90 deg. . Using available software tools the area of lung and/or heart included within the tangential fields was calculated. The greatest perpendicular distance (GPD) from the chest wall to posterior field edge was also measured. Results: The mean GPD for the group was 25.40 mm with 71% of patients having GPDs of {<=} 30 mm. The mean area of irradiated lung was 1780 sq mm which represented 18.0% of the total ipsilateral lung area seen in the central axis. Seven of the patients with left sided tumors had an average 1314 sq mm heart irradiated in the central axis. This represented 11.9% of total heart area in these patients. Conclusion: Measurements of irradiated lung and heart area can be easily and accurately made using a SIMCT device. Such measurements may help identify those patients potentially at risk for lung or heart toxicity as a consequence of their treatment. A major advantage of this device is the ability to scan patients in the actual treatment position.

  9. Measuring irradiated lung and heart area in breast tangential fields using a simulator-based computerized tomography device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, Raj; Fowler, Allan; Hunt, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the use of a simulator based computerized tomography system (SIMCT) in the simulation and planning of tangential breast fields. Methods and Materials: Forty-five consecutive patients underwent treatment planning using a radiotherapy simulator with computerized tomography attachment. One to three scans were obtained for each patient, calculations were made on the central axis scan. Due to the wide aperture of this system all patients were able to be scanned in the desired treatment position with arm abducted 90 deg. . Using available software tools the area of lung and/or heart included within the tangential fields was calculated. The greatest perpendicular distance (GPD) from the chest wall to posterior field edge was also measured. Results: The mean GPD for the group was 25.40 mm with 71% of patients having GPDs of ≤ 30 mm. The mean area of irradiated lung was 1780 sq mm which represented 18.0% of the total ipsilateral lung area seen in the central axis. Seven of the patients with left sided tumors had an average 1314 sq mm heart irradiated in the central axis. This represented 11.9% of total heart area in these patients. Conclusion: Measurements of irradiated lung and heart area can be easily and accurately made using a SIMCT device. Such measurements may help identify those patients potentially at risk for lung or heart toxicity as a consequence of their treatment. A major advantage of this device is the ability to scan patients in the actual treatment position

  10. Can simulation measurements be used to predict the irradiated lung volume in the tangential fields in patients treated for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornstein, B.A.; Cheng, C.W.; Rhodes, L.M.; Rashid, H.; Stomper, P.C.; Siddon, R.L.; Harris, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    A simple method of estimating the amount of lung irradiated in patients with breast cancer would be of use in minimizing lung complications. To determine whether simple measurements taken at the time of simulation can be used to predict the lung volume in the radiation field, we performed CT scans as part of treatment planning in 40 cases undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer. Parameters measured from simulator films included: (a) the perpendicular distance from the posterior tangential field edge to the posterior part of the anterior chest wall at the center of the field (CLD); (b) the maximum perpendicular distance from the posterior tangential field edge to the posterior part of the anterior chest wall (MLD); and (c) the length of lung (L) as measured at the posterior tangential field edge on the simulator film. CT scans of the chest were performed with the patient in the treatment position with 1 cm slice intervals, covering lung apex to base. The ipsilateral total lung area and the lung area included within the treatment port were calculated for each CT scan slice, multiplied by the slice thickness, and then integrated over all CT scan slices to give the volumes. The best predictor of the percent of ipsilateral lung volume treated by the tangential fields was the CLD. Employing linear regression analysis, a coefficient of determination r2 = 0.799 was calculated between CLD and percent treated ipsilateral lung volume on CT scan. In comparison, the coefficients for the other parameters were r2 = 0.784 for the MLD, r2 = 0.071 for L, and r2 = 0.690 for CLD x L. A CLD of 1.5 cm predicted that about 6% of the ipsilateral lung would be included in the tangential field, a CLD of 2.5 cm about 16%, and a CLD of 3.5 cm about 26% of the ipsilateral lung, with a mean 90% prediction interval of +/- 7.1% of ipsilateral lung volume

  11. Involved-Field Radiotherapy versus Elective Nodal Irradiation in Combination with Concurrent Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Study

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    Chen, Ming; Bao, Yong; Ma, Hong-Lian; Wang, Jin; Wang, Yan; Peng, Fang; Zhou, Qi-Chao; Xie, Cong-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This prospective randomized study is to evaluate the locoregional failure and its impact on survival by comparing involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) with elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. It appears that higher dose could be delivered in IFRT arm than that in ENI arm, and IFRT did not increase the risk of initially uninvolved or isolated nodal failures. Both a tendency of improved locoregional progression-free survival and a significant increased overall survival rate are in favor of IFRT arm in this study. PMID:23762840

  12. Lymphopenia after mediastinal irradiation in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Park, Hee Chul; Lee, Seung Il; Ryu, So Yeon; Kee, Keun Hong; Jeon, Ho Jong; Ha, Chul Soo

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to retrospectively evaluate white blood cell kinetics, especially lymphocyte depression after different treatment, and to find the correlation between immunosuppression and large blood volume and dynamic blood flow within the mediastinal radiotherapy (RT) field in lung cancer. Thirty-four patients with lung cancer were retrospectively evaluated: 10 patients had only radiotherapy (RT group), 8 had chemotherapy (CT group) and 16 had chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT/CT group). The mean follow-up periods of the RT-including groups (RT group and RT/CT group) and the RT-excluding group (CT group) were 6 and 8 months, respectively. Complete blood cell count including lymphocyte percentage (%) were checked weekly during RT but less frequently during CT and after RT. Changes in total white blood cell counts were not significantly different among the three groups. The lymphocyte count and lymphocyte % were much lower in the RT-including groups than in the RT-excluding group. The difference between pre-treatment and final lymphocyte count and the difference between pre-treatment and final lymphocyte % were significant (ρ = 0.044 and ρ = 0.037) between the RT-including groups and the RT-excluding group. Lymphopenia was more marked after treatment containing RT than CT only. Lymphopenia may be one cause of a compromised immune system after mediastinal irradiation in lung cancer. We suggest cautiously that previous studies showing evidence of lymphocyte apoptosis after low-dose irradiation and large blood volume and dynamic blood flow within the RT fields could be somewhat related to lymphopenia after mediastinal irradiation

  13. Irradiation damage to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennessy, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    While some degree of injury to normal, non-tumor-bearing, intrathoracic structures always occurs following irradiation for cure or palliation of neoplastic disease, clinical expression of this injury is uncommon. However, under certain circumstances, clinical manifestations may be severe and life threatening. Acute radiographic manifestations of pulmonary injury usually appear either synchronous with or, more typically, seven to ten days after the onset of the clinical syndrome. The acute signs of edema and slight volume loss within the irradiated zone are nonspecific except for their temporal and spatial relationship to the irradiation of the patient. Resolution of the acute changes is followed by pulmonary cicatrization, which is almost always stable within one year after completion of therapy. Change in postirradiation scarring following stabilization of the reaction must always be assumed to be due to some other process. While the radiograph primarily reveals pulmonary injury, all tissues, including the heart and major vessels, are susceptible, and the radiologist must recognize that any change within the thorax of a patient who has undergone thoracic irradiation may be a complication of that treatment. Differentiation of irradiation injury from residual or recurrent tumor, drug reaction, or opportunistic infection may be difficult and at times impossible

  14. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) vs. involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): A comparative analysis of toxicities and clinical outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Annemarie T.; Shen, Jason; Finlay, Jarod; Mitra, Nandita; Evans, Tracey; Stevenson, James; Langer, Corey; Lin, Lilie; Hahn, Stephen; Glatstein, Eli; Rengan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) and involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) are definitive radiotherapeutic approaches used to treat patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ENI delivers prophylactic radiation to clinically uninvolved lymph nodes, while IFRT only targets identifiable gross nodal disease. Because clinically uninvolved nodal stations may harbor microscopic disease, IFRT raises concerns for increased nodal failures. This retrospective cohort analysis evaluates failure rates and treatment-related toxicities in patients treated at a single institution with ENI and IFRT. Methods: We assessed all patients with stage III locally advanced or stage IV oligometastatic NSCLC treated with definitive radiotherapy from 2003 to 2008. Each physician consistently treated with either ENI or IFRT, based on their treatment philosophy. Results: Of the 108 consecutive patients assessed (60 ENI vs. 48 IFRT), 10 patients had stage IV disease and 95 patients received chemotherapy. The median follow-up time for survivors was 18.9 months. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, patients treated with IFRT demonstrated a significantly lower risk of high grade esophagitis (Odds ratio: 0.31, p = 0.036). The differences in 2-year local control (39.2% vs. 59.6%), elective nodal control (84.3% vs. 84.3%), distant control (47.7% vs. 52.7%) and overall survival (40.1% vs. 43.7%) rates were not statistically significant between ENI vs. IFRT. Conclusions: Nodal failure rates in clinically uninvolved nodal stations were not increased with IFRT when compared to ENI. IFRT also resulted in significantly decreased esophageal toxicity, suggesting that IFRT may allow for integration of concurrent systemic chemotherapy in a greater proportion of patients.

  15. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) vs. involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): A comparative analysis of toxicities and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Annemarie T; Shen, Jason; Finlay, Jarod; Mitra, Nandita; Evans, Tracey; Stevenson, James; Langer, Corey; Lin, Lilie; Hahn, Stephen; Glatstein, Eli; Rengan, Ramesh

    2010-05-01

    Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) and involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) are definitive radiotherapeutic approaches used to treat patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ENI delivers prophylactic radiation to clinically uninvolved lymph nodes, while IFRT only targets identifiable gross nodal disease. Because clinically uninvolved nodal stations may harbor microscopic disease, IFRT raises concerns for increased nodal failures. This retrospective cohort analysis evaluates failure rates and treatment-related toxicities in patients treated at a single institution with ENI and IFRT. We assessed all patients with stage III locally advanced or stage IV oligometastatic NSCLC treated with definitive radiotherapy from 2003 to 2008. Each physician consistently treated with either ENI or IFRT, based on their treatment philosophy. Of the 108 consecutive patients assessed (60 ENI vs. 48 IFRT), 10 patients had stage IV disease and 95 patients received chemotherapy. The median follow-up time for survivors was 18.9 months. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, patients treated with IFRT demonstrated a significantly lower risk of high grade esophagitis (Odds ratio: 0.31, p = 0.036). The differences in 2-year local control (39.2% vs. 59.6%), elective nodal control (84.3% vs. 84.3%), distant control (47.7% vs. 52.7%) and overall survival (40.1% vs. 43.7%) rates were not statistically significant between ENI vs. IFRT. Nodal failure rates in clinically uninvolved nodal stations were not increased with IFRT when compared to ENI. IFRT also resulted in significantly decreased esophageal toxicity, suggesting that IFRT may allow for integration of concurrent systemic chemotherapy in a greater proportion of patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Magna-field irradiation: physical considerations

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    Van Dyk, J.

    1983-12-01

    Magna-field radiotherapy in the form of total body, half body and total nodal irradiation is becoming increasingly prominent and involves dosimetric problems that are much more pronounced than they are for conventional field sizes. In this review of the physical considerations of magna-field irradiation, a number of possible alternate methods of producing large radiation fields are outlined, the basic beam dosimetry is reviewed and the factors producing dose variation in the patient are considered. Since the lung contains large regions of low density tissues and has a lower tolerance to radiaiton than most other tissues, special consideration is given to methods of dose determination and dose reduction to this organ. The question of accuracy in dose delivery is briefly discussed and the concept of delivering a radiation dose 'as precisely as readily achievable (APARA), technological and biological factors being taken into account' is introduced.

  17. Induction of Lipocalin2 in a Rat Model of Lung Irradiation

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    Sadaf Sultan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we showed that lipocalin2 (LCN2 serum levels increased after liver irradiation and during acute-phase conditions. Here, we evaluate LCN2 expression and serum levels after single-dose lung irradiation with 25 Gy, percutaneously administered to the lung of randomly-paired male Wistar rats. Due to the concave anatomy of the lung recesses, the irradiation field included the upper part of the liver. No rat died due to irradiation. In control tissue, lung immunohistochemistry showed a high constitutive expression of LCN2+ granulocytes. LCN2 mRNA levels in lung tissue increased up to 24 h (9 ± 2.3-fold after irradiation. However, serum LCN2 levels remained undetectable after lung irradiation. LCN2 expression in the upper part of the liver increased up to 4.2-fold after lung irradiation, but the lower liver showed an early decrease. Acute-phase cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α showed a significant increase on transcript level in both lung and upper liver, whilst the lower liver did not show any considerable increase. In conclusion, constitutive expression of LCN2 in local immune cells demonstrates its local role during stress conditions in the lung. The absence of LCN2 in the serum strengthens our previous findings that the liver is the key player in secreting LCN2 during stress conditions with liver involvement.

  18. Effects of irradiation on the vascularity of lung

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    Fujiwara, K; Takegawa, Y; Nagase, M; Akiyama, H [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-06-01

    Effects of irradiation on the intravascular volume of the lung were studied with respect to changes in intravascular volume over a period of time after irradiation, the effect of fractionation of the dose and the influence of the irradiation dose rate. After a single irradiation with 1000 rad or 3000 rad, applied locally to the lung, the intravascular volume decreased significantly in 1 to 3 months after irradiation. The changes in the intravascular volumes of lungs could be lessened by fractionation of the dose or by low dose rate irradiation.

  19. Pathological changes in the rabbit lungs after irradiation and after combined irradiation and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinner, M.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of combined irradiation and hyperthermia and of irradiation alone on normal lung tissue was investigated in rabbits. The animals of both therapy groups were irradiated with 2 Gy five times a week for a 6-week period. The animals of group 1 were additionally exposed to hyperthermia 3 times a week after irradiation. The method applied was the condenser field method (25 to 35 Watt/min). Only the right lung was treated in all animals. The animals were sacrificed 3 months after termination of the therapy, and large-surface lung sections were prepared. The following results were obtained: There is a quantifiable difference in the severeness of fibrosis between groups 1 and 2. Fibrosis was more pronounced in group 1 but the difference was not statistically significant. In both groups, fibrosis was unevenly distributed in the different lung areas. Fibrosis was highest in the ventral and apical regions. These were the regions where the highest local temperature rise was recorded during hyperthermia and where the highest local radiation dose was applied. Histologically, signs of acute inflammatory processes were observed in both groups in parallel to regeneration and repair processes involving neogenesis. (orig./MG) [de

  20. The method of estimating the irradiated lung volume in primary breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Miguel Torres Teixeira; Marques, Iara Silva; Geraldo, Jony Marques

    1999-01-01

    Tangential breast fields irradiation usually includes some volume of lung and it is occasionally associated with pneumonitis. The estimation of the amount of lung irradiated can be determined measuring the central lung distance (CLD) by the port films, and it must be inferior to 2.5 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine through a linear regression analysis the relationship between CLD and the geometrical parameters of the treatment, and to develop an equation to predict this volume. The studied population consisted of 100 patients who received definitive radiation for clinical stage I and II breast cancer between January, 1996 and June, 1997. According to the contour of the breast and thorax was determined the angle of the tangential fields. In 71% of the patients the CLD measured by the portal films were superior to 2.5 cm, requiring a new beam arrangement. We develop a simple and convenient quantitative model to predict the irradiated lung volume based on portal films. We need further analysis in order to include variables and antomical variations. (author)

  1. Bilateral lung irradiation as adjuvant therapy in osteogenic sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatucci, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Bilateral lung irradiation as well as chemotherapy are still controversial in the ''prevention'' of pulmonary metastases from osteosarcomas. This paper presents theoretical and experimental evidence in support of such an irradiation. Doses which can be tolerated by the normal lung are recalled. Data from clinical experience is analyzed and the optimal modalities of irradiation are described. Confirmation of the presumptive effectiveness of radiation therapy can be obtained only through controlled trials such as the one which is ongoing at the EORTC [fr

  2. Inflammatory response and abscopal effects in the lungs after abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Meeren, A.; Monti, P.; Squiban, C.; Wysocki, J.; Vandamme, M.; Griffiths, N.

    2003-01-01

    Abscopal effects can be defined as biological effects observed in a tissue outside of the field of irradiation. Elucidating such mechanisms might help in the understanding of the radiation-induced multi organ failure. However, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In the present study, C57BL6/J mice were irradiated in the abdominal region using an ORION accelerator, at the dose of 15 Gy. Inflammatory response was evaluated by measuring with ELISA, TNF-α, IL-6 and KC in the plasma of irradiated mice as well as in the jejunum and in the lungs. In addition, immunohistochemistry was used to determine PECAM-1 expression in the lungs. Results show the radiation-induced increase in the concentrations of IL-6 and KC measured in the plasma 3 and 6 days after exposure, although TNF-α remained undetectable. In the jejunum, KC content was greatly enhanced in irradiated animals, but IL-6 and TNF-α enhancements were only moderate. KC was also increased in the lungs of irradiated animals as compared to sham irradiated mice. In addition, PECAM-1 expression on lung endothelial cells was enhanced 3 and 6 days post-exposure. Our results show that the lungs, outside of the field of irradiation, show an inflammatory response with enhanced chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells. This effect could be mediated through the release and circulation of inflammatory mediators in the blood and possibly in the lymphatic system

  3. Inflammatory response and abscopal effects in the lungs after abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Meeren, A.; Monti, P.; Squiban, C.; Wysocki, J.; Vandamme, M.; Griffiths, N.

    2003-01-01

    Abscopal effects can be defined as biological effects observed in a tissue outside of the field of irradiation. Elucidating such mechanisms might help in the understanding of the radiation-induced multi organ failure. However, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In the present study, C57BL6/J mice were irradiated in the abdominal region using an ORION accelerator, at the dose of 15 Gy. Inflammatory response was evaluated by measuring with ELISA TNF-α , IL-6 and KC in the plasma of irradiated mice as well as in the jejunum and in the lungs. In addition, immunohistochemistry was used to determine PECAM-1 expression in the lungs. Results show the radiation-induced increase Three and 6 days after exposure in the concentrations of IL-6 and KC measured in the plasma, although TNF-α remained undetectable. In the jejunum, KC content was greatly enhanced in irradiated animals, but IL-6 and TNF-α enhancements were only moderate. KC was also increased in the lungs of irradiated animals as compared to sham irradiated mice. In addition, PECAM-1 expression on lung endothelial cells was enhanced 3 and 6 days post-exposure. Our results show that the lungs, outside of the field of irradiation, show an inflammatory response with enhanced chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells. This effect could be mediated through the release and circulation of inflammatory mediators in the blood and possibly in the lymphatic fluid

  4. Impact of setup variability on incidental lung irradiation during tangential breast treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Dennis L.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Bentel, Gunilla C.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the variability in treatment setup during a 5-week course of tangential breast treatment for patients immobilized in a customized hemibody cradle, to assess the relationship between the height of the lung shadow on the tangential port film and the percentage of lung volume irradiated, and to estimate the impact of setup variabilities on irradiated lung volume. Methods: One hundred seventy-two port films were reviewed from 20 patients who received tangential beam treatment for breast cancer. The height of the lung shadow at the central axis (CLD) on each port film was compared to the corresponding simulator film as an assessment of setup variability. A three-dimensional dose calculation was performed, and the percentage of total lung volume within the field was correlated with the CLD. The three-dimensional dose calculation was repeated for selected patients with the location of the treatment beams modified to reflect typical setup variations. Results: The CLD measured on the port films was within 3 mm of that prescribed on the simulator film in 43% (74 of 172) of the port films. The variation was 3-5 mm in 26%, 5-10 mm in 25%, and >10 mm in 6%. The height of the lung shadow correlated with the percentage of lung volume included in the radiation field (r 2 = 0.6). Typical variations in treatment setup resulted in ≤5% fluctuation in the absolute volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated. Conclusion: The current immobilization system used in our clinic provides a clinically acceptable reproducibility of patient setup. The height of the lung shadow is reasonably well correlated with the percentage of irradiated lung volume. During a typical 5-week course of radiotherapy, the ipsilateral irradiated lung volume fluctuates <5%

  5. Three-Dimensional Volumetric Analysis of Irradiated Lung With Adjuvant Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Amy Yuen Meei; Park, Eileen J.H.; Shen Liang; Chung, Hans T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the dose-volume histogram data of irradiated lung in adjuvant breast radiotherapy (ABR) using a three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT)-guided planning technique; and to investigate the relationship between lung dose-volume data and traditionally used two-dimensional (2D) parameters, as well as their correlation with the incidence of steroid-requiring radiation pneumonitis (SRRP). Methods and Materials: Patients beginning ABR between January 2005 and February 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included were women aged ≥18 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-III invasive carcinoma, who received radiotherapy using a 3D-CT technique to the breast or chest wall (two-field radiotherapy [2FRT]) with or without supraclavicular irradiation (three-field radiotherapy [3FRT]), to 50 Gy in 25 fractions. A 10-Gy tumor-bed boost was allowed. Lung dose-volume histogram parameters (V 10 , V 20 , V 30 , V 40 ), 2D parameters (central lung depth [CLD], maximum lung depth [MLD], and lung length [LL]), and incidence of SRRP were reported. Results: A total of 89 patients met the inclusion criteria: 51 had 2FRT, and 38 had 3FRT. With 2FRT, mean ipsilateral V 10 , V 20 , V 30 , V 40 and CLD, MLD, LL were 20%, 14%, 11%, and 8% and 2.0 cm, 2.1 cm, and 14.6 cm, respectively, with strong correlation between CLD and ipsilateral V 10-V40 (R 2 = 0.73-0.83, p 10 , V 20 , V 30 , and V 40 were 30%, 22%, 17%, and 11%, but its correlation with 2D parameters was poor. With a median follow-up of 14.5 months, 1 case of SRRP was identified. Conclusions: With only 1 case of SRRP observed, our study is limited in its ability to provide definitive guidance, but it does provide a starting point for acceptable lung irradiation during ABR. Further prospective studies are warranted.

  6. Legislations the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An outline is given of the national legislation in 39 countries in the field of food irradiation. Where available the following information is given for each country: form of legislation, object of legislation including information on the irradiation treatment, the import and export trade of irradiated food, the package labelling and the authorization and control of the irradiation procedures

  7. Physiological Interaction of Heart and Lung in Thoracic Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Veen, Sonja van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bartelds, Beatrijs [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Boer, Rudolf A. de [Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dickinson, Michael G. [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Faber, Hette; Niemantsverdriet, Maarten [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Berger, Rolf M.F. [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijk, Peter van, E-mail: p.van.luijk@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: The risk of early radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) limits the dose and efficacy of radiation therapy of thoracic tumors. In addition to lung dose, coirradiation of the heart is a known risk factor in the development RILT. The aim of this study was to identify the underlying physiology of the interaction between lung and heart in thoracic irradiation. Methods and Materials: Rat hearts, lungs, or both were irradiated to 20 Gy using high-precision proton beams. Cardiopulmonary performance was assessed using breathing rate measurements and F{sup 18}-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) scans biweekly and left- and right-sided cardiac hemodynamic measurements and histopathology analysis at 8 weeks postirradiation. Results: Two to 12 weeks after heart irradiation, a pronounced defect in the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in the left ventricle (LV) was observed. At 8 weeks postirradiation, this coincided with LV perivascular fibrosis, an increase in LV end-diastolic pressure, and pulmonary edema in the shielded lungs. Lung irradiation alone not only increased pulmonary artery pressure and perivascular edema but also induced an increased LV relaxation time. Combined irradiation of lung and heart induced pronounced increases in LV end-diastolic pressure and relaxation time, in addition to an increase in right ventricle end-diastolic pressure, indicative of biventricular diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, enhanced pulmonary edema, inflammation and fibrosis were also observed. Conclusions: Both lung and heart irradiation cause cardiac and pulmonary toxicity via different mechanisms. Thus, when combined, the loss of cardiopulmonary performance is intensified further, explaining the deleterious effects of heart and lung coirradiation. Our findings show for the first time the physiological mechanism underlying the development of a multiorgan complication, RILT. Reduction of dose to either of these organs offers new opportunities to

  8. Early structural changes in sheep lung following thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerry-Force, M.L.; Perkett, E.A.; Brigham, K.L.; Meyrick, B.

    1988-01-01

    Using a large animal model of radiation lung injury--the sheep exposed to bilateral thoracic irradiation--we have recently shown the development of sustained pulmonary hypertension during the first 4 weeks following radiation. This is the period prior to the onset of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we have examined biopsy and autopsy lung tissue from these same sheep and assessed the sequential changes in lung morphology. Six unanesthetized sheep received bilateral thoracic irradiation (a total of 15 Gy); control sheep were sham irradiated. Lung biopsy tissue was taken prior to and at weekly or biweekly intervals during the 4 weeks immediately following radiation. The lungs were also removed at autopsy for light and electron microscopic examination. Our results show early (Week 1) interstitial and progressive intraalveolar edema accompanied by endothelial and epithelial injury. A gradual increase in number of interstitial mononuclear cells was evident from Week 1, both in the lung tissue and in perivascular cuffs. The number of peripheral lung interstitial mononuclear cells was twice baseline from Week 3 and included accumulation of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and intravascular macrophages. The increased numbers of mononuclear cells paralleled the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension, perhaps suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. Alternatively, it may be that increased mononuclear cell number represents a stage of lung repair

  9. Impact of setup variability on incidental lung irradiation during tangential breast treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.C.; Marks, L.B.; Bentel, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: 1) To determine the variability in treatment setup during a 5 week course of tangential breast treatment. 2) To assess the relationship between the height of the lung shadow at the central axis (Central Lung Distance: CLD) on the tangential port film and the percent of total lung volume included within the tangential fields (to verify the previously reported result from Bornstein, et al, IJROBP 18:181, 90). 3) To determine the impact of the variabilities in treatment setup on the volume of lung that is incidentally included within the radiation fields. Methods: 1) 172 port films of tangential breast/chest wall fields were reviewed from 20 patients who received tangential beam treatment for breast cancer. All patients were immobilized in customized hemibody foam cradles during simulation and treatment. The CLD (height of the lung shadow at the central axis) seen on each of the port films was compared to the corresponding simulator film (correcting for differences in magnification) as an assessment of setup variability. Both inter and intrapatient differences were considered. 2) A three-dimensional dose calculation (reflecting lung density) was performed, and the percent of total lung volume within the field was compared to the CLD. 3) The three-dimensional dose calculation was repeated for selected patients with the location of the treatment beams modified to reflect typical setup variations, in order to assess the impact of this variability on the volume of lung irradiated. Results: 1) The CLD measured on the port films was within 3 mm of that prescribed on the simulator film in 43% ((74(172))) of the port films. The variation was 3-5 mm in 26 %, 5-10 mm in 25 % and > 10 mm in 6 %. The data are shown in Figure 1. 2) There was an excellent correlation found between the height of the lung shadow and the percent of total lung volume seen within the radiation field, (Figure 2), thus verifying the concept previously reported by Bornstein. 3) A 1 cm setup

  10. Multigene deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from irradiated and control mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    K-ras codon 12 point mutations mRb and p53 gene deletions were examined in tissues from 120 normal lungs and lung adenocarcinomas that were Formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded 25 years ago. The results showed that 12 of 60 (20%) lung adenocarcinomas had mRb deletions. All lung adenocarcinomas that were initially found bearing deleted mRb had p53 deletions (15 of 15; 100%). A significantly higher mutation frequency for K-ras codon 12 point mutations was also found in the lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to 24 once-weekly neutron irradiation (10 of 10; 100%) compared with those exposed to 24 or 60 once-weekly γ-ray doses (5 of 10; 50%). The data suggested that p53 and K-ras gene alterations were two contributory factors responsible for the increased incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in B6CF 1 male mice exposed to protracted neutron radiation

  11. Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for Elective Nodal Irradiation and Involved-Field Radiation in the Definitive Treatment of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Dosimetric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesarwala, Aparna H.; Ko, Christine J.; Ning, Holly; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Haglund, Karl E.; O’Meara, William P.; Simone, Charles B.; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Photon involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT), the standard for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), results in favorable outcomes without increased isolated nodal failures, perhaps from scattered dose to elective nodal stations. Given the high conformality of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), proton IFRT could increase nodal failures. We investigated the feasibility of IMPT for elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in LA-NSCLC. Materials and Methods IMPT IFRT plans were generated to the same total dose of 66.6–72 Gy received by 20 LA-NSCLC patients treated with photon IFRT. IMPT ENI plans were generated to 46 CGE to elective nodal (EN) planning treatment volumes (PTV) plus 24 CGE to involved field (IF)-PTVs. Results Proton IFRT and ENI both improved D95 involved field (IF)-PTV coverage by 4% (pENI. Mean esophagus dose decreased 16% with IFRT and 12% with ENI; heart V25 decreased 63% with both (all pENI. Potential decreased toxicity indicates IMPT could allow ENI while maintaining a favorable therapeutic ratio compared to photon IFRT. PMID:25604729

  12. The effect of irradiation on lung function and perfusion in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abratt, Raymond P.; Willcox, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively study the changes in lung function in patients with lung carcinoma treated with relatively high doses of irradiation. Methods and Materials: Lung function was assessed prior to and at 6 and 12 months following radiation therapy by a clinical dyspnea score, formal pulmonary function tests (lung volume spirometry and diffusion capacity) as well as an ipsilateral hemithorax lung perfusion scan. Changes in dyspnea score were evaluated by the chi-square and the Fishers exact test. Changes in formal lung function tests were compared with the t-test for dependent data and correlations with the t-test for independent data. Fifty-one patients were entered into the study. There were 42 evaluable patients at 6 months after irradiation and 22 evaluable patients at 12 months after irradiation. Results: A worsening of dyspnea score from 1 to 2, which is clinically acceptable, occurred in 50% or more of patients. However, a dyspnea score of 3, which is a serious complication, developed in only 5% of patients. The diffusion capacity (DLCO) decreased by 14% at 6 months and 12% at 12 months) (p < 0.0001). The forced vital capacity and total lung capacity decreased between 6% and 8% at 6 month and 12 months, which was statistically significant. The forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased between 2 and 3% at 6 month and 12 months, which was not statistically significant. The ipsilateral hemithorax perfusion decreased by 17 and 20% at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). There was no correlation between the initial hemithorax perfusion, or its decrease at follow up and the decrease in DLCO. Conclusion: Lung irradiation results in some loss of lung function in patients with lung cancer with a projected survival of 6 months or more. The pretreatment DLCO assessment should be useful in predicting clinical tolerance to irradiation

  13. Experimental studies of the reimplantation of irradiated lung in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, T; Fujimura, S; Sohara, Y; Kawakami, M; Okaniwa, G [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer

    1978-02-01

    In order to treat the patients with lung cancer who have impaired cardiopulmonary function, a new method is designed, which includes the following steps; 1) pneumonectomy, 2) resection of tumor-bearing lobe, 3) /sup 60/Co irradiation to the remaining lobe, and 4) orthotopic reimplantation of the irradiated lung. The purpose of present study is to clarify the feasibility to use this method clinically. Using adult mongreal dogs, left lung was excised, irradiated and reimplanted. Radiation was carried out from 2,000 rad to 4,000 rad. Viability and function of reimplanted lungs were evaluated by their survival time, serial chest x-ray films, sup(99m)Tc-MAA perfusion scanning, unilateral pulmonary artery occlusion test and histologic examinations. Of 17 animals, 12 survived postoperative period and following results were obtained; 1) no dogs developed pulmonary edema, 2) only one dog was considered to die from acute radiation pneumonitis, 3) serial perfusion scanning showed a gradual decrease in flow distribution to the transplanted lung, 4) the right pulmonary occlusion test done in the dog irradiated with 2,000 rad revealed well reserved pulmonary function 2 months after the operation, and 5) histologically, most irradiated lungs revealed so-called ''late reaction'' of lung fibrosis, but there was the case with nearly normal findings after 6 months from the operation. Although many reports concerning to the radiation pneumonitis are published, there have not been any such reports as the present study. From our experiment, it may be indicated that there is a feasibility to use this new method clinically.

  14. Effects of genistein following fractionated lung irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Para, Andrea E.; Bezjak, Andrea; Yeung, Ivan W.T.; Van Dyk, Jake; Hill, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study investigated protection of lung injury by genistein following fractionated doses of radiation and its effect on tumor response. Material and methods: C3H/HeJ mice were irradiated (100 kVp X-rays) with 9 fractions of 3.1 Gy over 30 days (approximately equivalent to 10 Gy single dose) and were maintained on a genistein diet (∼10 mg/kg). Damage was assessed over 28 weeks in lung cells by a cytokinesis block micronucleus (MN) assay and by changes in breathing rate and histology. Tumor protection was assessed using a colony assay to determine cell survival following in situ irradiation of small lung nodules (KHT fibrosarcoma). Results: Genistein caused about a 50% reduction in the MN damage observed during the fractionated radiation treatment and this damage continued to decrease at later times to background levels by 16 weeks. In mice not receiving Genistein MN levels remained well above background out to 28 weeks after irradiation. Genistein reduced macrophage accumulation by 22% and reduced collagen deposition by 28%. There was minimal protection against increases in breathing rate or severe morbidity during pneumonitis. No tumor protection by genistein treatment was observed. Conclusions: Genistein at the dose levels used in this study partially reduced the extent of fibrosis developing in mouse lung caused by irradiation but gave minimal protection against pneumonitis. There was no evidence that genistein caused protection of small tumors growing in the lung.

  15. Deterioration in lung function following hemithorax irradiation for pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maasilta, P.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-four patients receiving high-dose hemithorax irradiation as part of the treatment for pleural mesothelioma were studied with regard to changes in lung function following irradiation, and these changes were correlated with the radiologically-assessed lung injury. The latter was scored from 0 to 500 and found to be severe by 6 months (mean score 360), very severe by 9 months (mean score 430), and nearly total by 12 months (mean score 480) after treatment. Forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity both showed a significant decline at 1.5-2 months following the end of radiotherapy and thereafter up to the end of the 1 year follow-up period. Neither of these variables could be correlated consistently with the radiologically-assessed changes. Hypoxemia and pathological physiological shunting increased transiently 1-2 months after irradiation in 2 of the 6 patients monitored. The observed radiologically-assessed final effects of high-dose hemithorax irradiation are compatible with a total loss of lung function on the irradiated side. Before this form of treatment is used, lung function should be evaluated as for pneumonectomy

  16. Serial histopathological changes in irradiated guinea pig lung receiving conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Inomata, Taisuke; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shoji; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine serial histopathological differences in guinea pig lungs receiving the same total dose as clinically used between conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation. The guinea pigs received 80 Gy in 40 daily fractions of 2 Gy each (conventional fractionation), 80 Gy in 80 fractions of 1 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation), 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (conventional fractionation), or 81 Gy in 54 fractions of 1.5 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation). We evaluated the histopathological changes of irradiated guinea pig lungs at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after irradiation. The guinea pig lungs that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions showed histopathological changes of inflammation including formation of lymph follicles after 6 months. The lungs which received 81 Gy in 54 fractions showed similar but slightly less pronounced changes than those that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions. The guinea pig lungs of other groups showed no histopathological changes during the observation period. In hyperfractionated irradiation the damage to the guinea pig lung is quantitatively less than that occurring as a result of conventional fractionated irradiation of the same total dose. (author)

  17. Serial histopathological changes in irradiated guinea pig lung receiving conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Inomata, Taisuke; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shoji; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Yuji [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine serial histopathological differences in guinea pig lungs receiving the same total dose as clinically used between conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation. The guinea pigs received 80 Gy in 40 daily fractions of 2 Gy each (conventional fractionation), 80 Gy in 80 fractions of 1 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation), 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (conventional fractionation), or 81 Gy in 54 fractions of 1.5 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation). We evaluated the histopathological changes of irradiated guinea pig lungs at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after irradiation. The guinea pig lungs that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions showed histopathological changes of inflammation including formation of lymph follicles after 6 months. The lungs which received 81 Gy in 54 fractions showed similar but slightly less pronounced changes than those that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions. The guinea pig lungs of other groups showed no histopathological changes during the observation period. In hyperfractionated irradiation the damage to the guinea pig lung is quantitatively less than that occurring as a result of conventional fractionated irradiation of the same total dose. (author)

  18. Radiographic changes following radiotherapy in the patients with lung cancer. Is the irradiated area of the mediastinum in the simulation film a significant factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Tang, J.T.; Inoue, T.; Teshima, T.; Ohtani, M.; Itou, M.; Takeuchi, E.; Inoue, T.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of the irradiated area of the mediastinum in the simulation film for radiation induced lung injury. A total of 208 patients with primary lung cancer treated with radiation therapy were analyzed for incidence of radiation induced lung injury. Lung injury was defined as the appearance of an abnormal shadow on the chest radiograph. CT images were used to differentiate recurrence or other conditions. Age, sex, irradition dose, irradiated lung area, T and N factors of the tumor, irradiated mediastinum area, performance status of patients, location of irradiated fields and use of chemotherapy were analyzed with Cox's multivariate regression model. The cumulative rate of radiation induced lung injury at 12 months was 85%. Significant factor of radiation induced lung injury was irradiated area of the mediastinum (p=0.03). Irradiated area of the lung (p=0.18, n.s.), total tumor dose (p=0.1, n.s.), use of chemotherapy (p=0.08, n.s.) and location of irradiated field (p=0.08, n.s.) may also have an effect on radiation induced lung injury. The irradiated area of the mediastinum is one of the significant factors in radiation induced lung injury. (orig.) [de

  19. Intensity-modulated proton therapy for elective nodal irradiation and involved-field radiation in the definitive treatment of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a dosimetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesarwala, Aparna H; Ko, Christine J; Ning, Holly; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Haglund, Karl E; O'Meara, William P; Simone, Charles B; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-05-01

    Photon involved-field (IF) radiation therapy (IFRT), the standard for locally advanced (LA) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), results in favorable outcomes without increased isolated nodal failures, perhaps from scattered dose to elective nodal stations. Because of the high conformality of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), proton IFRT could increase nodal failures. We investigated the feasibility of IMPT for elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in LA-NSCLC. IMPT IFRT plans were generated to the same total dose of 66.6-72 Gy received by 20 LA-NSCLC patients treated with photon IFRT. IMPT ENI plans were generated to 46 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE) to elective nodal planning treatment volumes (PTV) plus 24 CGE to IF-PTVs. Proton IFRT and ENI improved the IF-PTV percentage of volume receiving 95% of the prescribed dose (D95) by 4% (P ENI. The mean esophagus dose decreased 16% with IFRT and 12% with ENI; heart V25 decreased 63% with both (all P ENI. Potential decreased toxicity indicates that IMPT could allow ENI while maintaining a favorable therapeutic ratio compared with photon IFRT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) versus elective nodal irradiation (ENI) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of incidence of elective nodal failure (ENF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijian; Yu, Liang; Lin, Sixiang; Wang, Lina; Dong, Xin; Yu, Lingxia; Li, Weiyi; Li, Baosheng

    2016-09-21

    The use of involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) has generated concern about the increasing incidence of elective nodal failure (ENF) in contrast to elective nodal irradiation (ENI). This meta-analysis aimed to provide more reliable and up-to-date evidence on the incidence of ENF between IFRT and ENI. We searched three databases for eligible studies where locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients received IFRT or ENI. Outcome of interest was the incidence of ENF. The fixed-effects model was used to pool outcomes across the studies. There were 3 RCTs and 3 cohort studies included with low risk of bias. There was no significant difference in incidence of ENF between IFRT and ENI either among RCTs (RR = 1.38, 95 % CI: 0.59-3.25, p = 0.46) or among cohort studies (RR = 0.99, 95 % CI: 0.46-2.10, p = 0.97). There was also no significant difference in incidence of ENF between IFRT and ENI when RCTs and cohort studies were combined (RR = 1.15, 95 % CI: 0.65-2.01, p = 0.64). I 2 of test for heterogeneity was 0 %. This meta-analysis provides more reliable and stable evidence that there is no significant difference in incidence of ENF between IFRT and ENI.

  1. The Impact of Heart Irradiation on Dose-Volume Effects in the Rat Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luijk, Peter van; Faber, Hette; Meertens, Harm; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Robert P. Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that heart irradiation increases the risk of a symptomatic radiation-induced loss of lung function (SRILF) and that this can be well-described as a modulation of the functional reserve of the lung. Methods and Materials: Rats were irradiated with 150-MeV protons. Dose-response curves were obtained for a significant increase in breathing frequency after irradiation of 100%, 75%, 50%, or 25% of the total lung volume, either including or excluding the heart from the irradiation field. A significant increase in the mean respiratory rate after 6-12 weeks compared with 0-4 weeks was defined as SRILF, based on biweekly measurements of the respiratory rate. The critical volume (CV) model was used to describe the risk of SRILF. Fits were done using a maximum likelihood method. Consistency between model and data was tested using a previously developed goodness-of-fit test. Results: The CV model could be fitted consistently to the data for lung irradiation only. However, this fitted model failed to predict the data that also included heart irradiation. Even refitting the model to all data resulted in a significant difference between model and data. These results imply that, although the CV model describes the risk of SRILF when the heart is spared, the model needs to be modified to account for the impact of dose to the heart on the risk of SRILF. Finally, a modified CV model is described that is consistent to all data. Conclusions: The detrimental effect of dose to the heart on the incidence of SRILF can be described by a dose dependent decrease in functional reserve of the lung

  2. Breast radiotherapy in the lateral decubitus position: A technique to prevent lung and heart irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Francois; Kirova, Youlia M.; Rosenwald, Jean-Claude; Dendale, Remi; Vilcoq, Jacques R.; Dreyfus, Helene; Fourquet, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present an original technique for breast radiotherapy, with the aim of limiting lung and heart irradiation, satisfying quality assurance criteria. Methods and Material: An original radiotherapy technique for breast irradiation has been developed at the Institute Curie in January 1996. It consists of isocentric breast irradiation in the lateral decubitus position (isocentric lateral decubitus [ILD]). This technique is indicated for voluminous or pendulous breasts needing breast irradiation only. Thin carbon fiber supports and special patient positioning devices have been developed especially for this technique. In vivo measurements were performed to check the dose distribution before the routine use of the technique. Results: ILD has been successfully implemented in routine practice, and 500 patients have been already treated. Breast radiotherapy is performed using a dose of 50 Gy at ICRU point in 25 fractions. ILD shows good homogeneity of the dose in breast treatment volume, treatment fields are perpendicular to the skin ensuring its protection, and extremely low dose is delivered to the underlying lung and heart. Conclusion: In cases of voluminous breasts or patients with a history of lung and heart disease, our technique provides several advantages over the conventional technique with opposing tangential fields. This technique improves the dose homogeneity according to the ICRU recommendations

  3. Protective, elective lung irradiation in non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, L; Hristozova, I; Mihaylova, I; Perenovska, P

    2015-07-01

    Ewing's sarcoma in childhood is a disease from family of the peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours. For a period of 16 y (1984-2000), 34 children with Ewing's sarcoma were treated and followed in our department. Twenty-seven of these patients were without distant metastases. Complex treatment was applied to all these patients-chemotherapy VACA (vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin), local radiotherapy to a total dose of 50-56 Gy +/- surgery. After, a local tumour control was achieved in 11 children with non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, elective whole lung irradiation to a total dose of 12-15 Gy was applied. Our experience in these 11 patients with non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, in whom elective lung irradiation was applied, showed significant reduction in the lung metastases, improved free of disease survival and overall survival. The achieved good treatment results necessitate extending this treatment approach through defining the risk groups of patients, suitable for elective lung radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy in non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Study of late effects of lung irradiation with telecobalt on lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkewitz, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two groups of patients, one with malignant chest tumors before radiation and one more than nine months after radiation treatment of their tumors, are examined by assessment of different lung function parameters. In addition, four patients can be examined both before and more than nine months after radiation treatment for chest tumors. It is seen that the patients whose X-rays show signs of localized radiation fibrosis do not have the typical lung function problems noted in diffuse radiation fibroses. In patients with radiographic signs of localized radiation fibrosis, combined ventilation disturbances of obstruction and restriction type are more frequent and accompanied by a slight increase in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure. These modifications of the lung function cannot solely be attributed to the radiation treatment, as the lung function is also influenced by concomitant pulmonary affections such as chronic bronchitis or renewed growth of the irradiated tumor. (orig.) [de

  5. Peculiarities of hemodynamic pulmonary oedema formation in the irradiated body. [Lung oedema, whole-body irradiation, time dependence, survival curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurygin, G V; Kopylov, V N; Girs, E F; Chizhov, P A [Yaroslavskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR)

    1978-09-01

    233 white rats have been tested to establish that large doses of ionizing radiation, which cause pronounced leukopenia, increase resistance of animals to lung oedema under the effect of adrenaline. It is most pronounced on the fourth day after irradiation. Relatively small doses (lower than 100r), as well as separate irradiation of the head, chest and abdomen, in reverse, contribute to lung oedema.

  6. Positioning variations of the lungs shields during total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.; Marcie, S.; Boulabeiz, A.; Lagrange, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    During total body irradiation, the patient is entirely exposed to radiation and the dose to lungs have to be limited. Personalized shields are make and set between the source and the patient, in front of lungs. The patient and the shields set up are checked before the treatment session with radiographs. Verification films are performed during the treatment sessions with anterior and posterior beams. During the treatment session, the patient may move and his relative positioning can change. Also, for each daily session treatment, his positioning could be different. One way to determine position discrepancies of the shields lungs is to analyse verification films. A study has been achieved comparing positions of lungs and shields edges in digitised simulator and digitised verification images. Discrepancies on distance and angle between similar anatomical landmarks in both images are determined by applying a least squares minimisation approach. In this study, which concerns 29 patients, distance discrepancies are founded from 1,5 to 12,6 mm for the anterior beams and from 1,8 to 15,3 mm for the posterior beams. Angle discrepancies are founded from 0 to 2 degrees

  7. Radiobiological considerations in magna-field irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Radiobiological considerations are described for total body irradiation (TBI) as given to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Although much progress has been made in the use of BMT for refractory leukemias, many patients still die from interstitial pneumonia and relapse. Fractionated TBI has been introduced in order to improve leukemic cell kill, while increasing the degree of normal tissue tolerance. Traditionally, bone marrow stem cells, leukemic cells and immunocytes have been considered as having a limited ability to repair radiation damage while cells of lung tissue and intestinal epithelial cells have a greater capacity. During fractionated radiation therapy or continuous low-dose rate exposure, repair of sublethal damage between fractions allows greater recovery in the cells of lung tissue to those in the bone marrow. Clinically, the potential benefit of six fractions over one fraction or low dose-rate TBI has yet to be proved, although there is suggestive evidence for a reduced incidence of interstitial pneumonitis. However, other extraneous factors such as doses to the lung, differences in conditioning regimens, effect of increased delay in BMT for patients receiving fractionated TBI, and the unmeasurable differences between institutions make definite conclusions impossible. Despite this, a consensus for dose fractionation has developed and most centers are moving away from the use of large single dose TBI

  8. Prostatic carcinoma: limited field irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rounsaville, M.C.; Green, J.P.; Vaeth, J.M.; Purdon, R.P.; Heltzel, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 251 patients with histologically proven adenocarcinoma treated primarily with limited field radiotherapy techniques, under the principle direction of authors JMV and JPG, between 1968 and 1981 in San Francisco, California. All patients are followed for a minimum of 3 years; mean follow-up is 7.3 years. Routine clinical staging procedures included: HandP, digital prostate exam, cystoscopy, biopsy, blood studies including serum acid phosphatase, and imaging studies including chest X ray, IVP, bone survey or radionucleotide bone scan, and in recent years, pelvic CT scans. Twelve patients are Stage A1, 37-Stage A2, 50-Stage B, 140-Stage C1 and 12-Stage C2. Ninety percent of all cases and 85% of Stage C patients were treated with limited fields to the prostate and periprostatic volume only. Total doses were prescribed at midplane or isocenter and were generally 6500-7000 cGy, daily doses of 180-200 cGy, 5 days per week. Actuarial 5- and 10-year survival rates are: entire population-69% and 47%; Stage A1-74% and 50%; Stage A2-81% and 67%; Stage B-84% and 53%; Stage C1-63% and 42%; Stage C2-32% and 11%. The 5- and 10-year disease-free actuarial survivals are: entire population-71% and 50%; Stage A1-89% and 74%; Stage A2-82% and 69%; Stage B-71% and 52%; Stage C1-67% and 44%; Stage C2-0%. Sites of recurrence, alone or as a component of the failure pattern are: 37 (15%) local, 11 (4%) symptomatic regional recurrence (lower extremity edema, pelvic pain/sciatica, hydroureteronephrosis), and 87 (35%) distant metastasis. Seven (3%) had unknown sites of failure. Local-regional failure occurred in 42% of Stage C2 patients

  9. Relation between radiation-induced whole lung functional loss and regional structural changes in partial irradiated rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luijk, Peter van; Novakova-Jiresova, Alena; Faber, Hette; Steneker, Marloes N.J.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Meertens, Haarm; Coppes, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity is characterized by dose, region, and time-dependent severe changes in lung morphology and function. This study sought to determine the relation between the structural and functional changes in the irradiated rat lung at three different phases after irradiation. Materials and Methods: Six groups of animals were irradiated to 16-22 Gy to six different lung regions, each containing 50% of the total lung volume. Before and every 2 weeks after irradiation, the breathing rate (BR) was measured, and at Weeks 8, 26, and 38 CT was performed. From the computed tomography scans, the irradiated lung tissue was delineated using a computerized algorithm. A single quantitative measure for structural change was derived from changes of the mean and standard deviation of the density within the delineated lung. Subsequently, this was correlated with the BR in the corresponding phase. Results: In the mediastinal and apex region, the BR and computed tomography density changes did not correlate in any phase. After lateral irradiation, the density changes always correlated with the BR; however, in all other regions, the density changes only correlated significantly (r 2 = 0.46-0.85, p < 0.05) with the BR in Week 26. Conclusion: Changes in pulmonary function correlated with the structural changes in the absence of confounding heart irradiation

  10. Decreased Lung Perfusion After Breast/Chest Wall Irradiation: Quantitative Results From a Prospective Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, Adam L., E-mail: adamliss68@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Marsh, Robin B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kapadia, Nirav S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); McShan, Daniel L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Rogers, Virginia E. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Balter, James M.; Moran, Jean M.; Brock, Kristy K.; Schipper, Matt J.; Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Flaherty, Kevin R. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Frey, Kirk A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: To quantify lung perfusion changes after breast/chest wall radiation therapy (RT) using pre- and post-RT single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) attenuation-corrected perfusion scans; and correlate decreased perfusion with adjuvant RT dose for breast cancer in a prospective clinical trial. Methods and Materials: As part of an institutional review board–approved trial studying the impact of RT technique on lung function in node-positive breast cancer, patients received breast/chest wall and regional nodal irradiation including superior internal mammary node RT to 50 to 52.2 Gy with a boost to the tumor bed/mastectomy scar. All patients underwent quantitative SPECT/CT lung perfusion scanning before RT and 1 year after RT. The SPECT/CT scans were co-registered, and the ratio of decreased perfusion after RT relative to the pre-RT perfusion scan was calculated to allow for direct comparison of SPECT/CT perfusion changes with delivered RT dose. The average ratio of decreased perfusion was calculated in 10-Gy dose increments from 0 to 60 Gy. Results: Fifty patients had complete lung SPECT/CT perfusion data available. No patient developed symptoms consistent with pulmonary toxicity. Nearly all patients demonstrated decreased perfusion in the left lung according to voxel-based analyses. The average ratio of lung perfusion deficits increased for each 10-Gy increment in radiation dose to the lung, with the largest changes in regions of lung that received 50 to 60 Gy (ratio 0.72 [95% confidence interval 0.64-0.79], P<.001) compared with the 0- to 10-Gy region. For each increase in 10 Gy to the left lung, the lung perfusion ratio decreased by 0.06 (P<.001). Conclusions: In the assessment of 50 patients with node-positive breast cancer treated with RT in a prospective clinical trial, decreased lung perfusion by SPECT/CT was demonstrated. Our study allowed for quantification of lung perfusion defects in a prospective cohort of

  11. Results of total lung irradiation and chemotherapy in comparison with partial lung irradiation in metastatic undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboglou, N.; Fuerst, G.; Pape, H.; Bannach, B.; Schmitt, G.; Molls, M.

    1988-07-01

    The poor prognosis of patients with unresectable pulmonary metastases of soft tissue sarcoma is well known. In order to evaluate the beneficial effect of radiotherapy, we have treated 44 patients with pulmonary metastases of grade 3 soft tissue sarcoma from 1980 to 1986. In 36 patients the treatment volume was restricted to the single metastases up to a dose of 50 to 60 (9 to 10 Gy/week). The survival rate at one year was 18% and at two years 6%. Eight patients were treated with a combined regimen, consisting of cisplatin and ifosfamide with simultaneous whole lung irradiation. Irradiation was performed with 8 or 16 MV photons at a hyperfractionation of 2x0,8 Gy/day (8 Gy/week). After a dose of 12 Gy, the single metastases were boosted up to 50 to 60 Gy, with a second course of chemotherapy. In six of eight patients complete remissions were achieved, one patient showed a partial remission. The survival rate at 27 months was 50%. The patients with partial remission died from pulmonary progression at 23 months. One patient died after twelve months from a loco-regional recurrence in the tonsillar fossa without evidence of pulmonary disease. Side effects included alopecia and moderate bone marrow suppression approximately twelve days after each chemotherapy cycle. Pulmonary fibrosis was observed only at the high dose volume without impairment of respiratory function. From these observations the conclusion is drawn that whole lung irradiation simultaneously with cisplatin and ifosfamide chemotherapy provides good palliative results without relevant morbidity in patients with high grade unresectable pulmonary metastases of soft tissue sarcomas.

  12. Effects of therapeutic irradiation delivered in early childhood upon subsequent lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, M.E.B.; Griscom, N.T.; Graggis, D.G.; Jaffe, N.

    1975-01-01

    To determine the long-term effects of therapeutic pulmonary irradiation and treatment with actinomycin D during a period of lung growth, 12 patients treated for Wilms' tumor metastatic to the lung and 8 patients treated for Wilms' tumor with no evidence of pulmonary metastases were studied 7 to 14 years after their initial tumor therapy. All patients had received irradiation to the tumor bed and treatment with actinomycin D. Group 1 had received a single course of bilateral pulmonary irradiation; group 2 had received additional pulmonary irradiation and/or thoracic surgery; group 3 had received no therapeutic irradiation directed primarily to the chest. Total lung capacity (TLC) averaged 71 percent of predicted value in group 1, 58 percent in group 2, and 94 percent in group 3. Diffusing capacity in groups 1 and 2 was reduced to the same extent as lung volume. Quasi-static pressure-volume relationships, studied in three of six patients in group 1, were within the normal range when lung volume was expressed as percentage of observed TLC. Airway resistance, evaluated by spirometry, maximum expiratory flow-volume curves, and resistance of the total respiratory system, was normal or reduced. The data support the hypothesis that therapeutic irradiation during a period of lung growth primarily affects the lung parenchyma and produces a decrease in subsequent size of both the lung and chest wall. No effect of actinomycin D alone upon the lung could be demonstrated

  13. Increased expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in lung following 12 Gy local irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Kunyu; Liu Li; Zhang Tao; Wu Gang; Hu Yu; Ruebe, C.; Ruebe, C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure expressions of metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in the lung following thoracic irradiation of 12 Gy, and explore its possible role in the development of radiation-induced lung damage. Methods: C57BL/6J mice at age of 8 weeks were thoracically irradiated with 12 Gy X-rays (10 MV, 2.4 Gy/min, single exposure), and the control mice were sham-irradiated. The mice were sacrificed at 4 or 8 weeks after thoracic irradiation by decapitation. Lung tissues samples were collected. Expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-3, MMP-13, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and TIMP-3 in lung samples were measured. Results: There was no significant difference in expressions of MMP-3, MMP-13, TIMP-1 TIMP-2, and TIMP-3 in the lung between the two groups at 4 and 8 weeks after thoracic irradiation (or sham-irradiation). However, the expressions of MMP-2 were enhanced by 1.7 and 1.9 folds, and MMP-9 by 2.7 and 2.6 folds at 4 and 8 weeks after thoracic irradiation, respectively. Conclusion: Enhanced expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the lung were involved in the development of acute lung injury after thoracic irradiation, leading to a disruption of the structure and fibrosis. (authors)

  14. Histomorphologic change of radiation pneumonitis in rat lungs: captopril reduces rat lung injury induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee

    1999-01-01

    To assess the histomorphologic changes in the rat lung injury induced by radiation, to determine whether captopril reduces the rat lung injury and to evaluate change in TNF-α and TGF β and rat lung damage by radiation and captopril. Right lungs in male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided irradiation alone (10, 20, 30 Gy) or radiation (same dose with radiation alone group) with captopril (500 mg/L). Radiation alone group were sacrificed at twelve hours and eleven weeks after radiation and radiation with captopril group (captopril group) were sacrificed at eleven weeks after radiation with captopril. We examined the light microscope and electron microscopic features in the groups. In radiation alone group, there were patch parenchymal collapse and consolidation at twelve hours after radiation. The increase of radiation dose shows more prominent the severity and broader the affected areas. Eleven weeks after radiation, the severity and areas of fibrosis had increased in proportion to radiation dose given in the radiation alone group. There was notable decrease of lung fibrosis in captopril group than in radiation alone group. The number of mast cells rapidly increased with increase of radiation dose in radiation alone group and the degree of increase of mast cell number and severity of collagen accumulation more decreased in captopril group than in radiation alone group. In radiation alone group expression of TNF-α and TGF-β] increased according to increase of radiation dose at twelve hours after radiation in both group. At eleven weeks after radiation, expression of TGF- P increased according to increase of radiation dose in radiation group but somewhat decreased in captopril group. In the captopril group the collagen deposition increased but less dense than those of radiation alone group. The severity of perivascular thickening, capillary change, the number and degranulation of mast cells more decreased in the captopril group than in the radiation alone group. It

  15. Field in field technique in two-dimensional planning for whole brain irradiation; Tecnica field in field em planejamentos bidimensionais para irradiacao de cerebro total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A.L.S.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: radioterapia.andre@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2016-11-01

    Radiotherapy is the most used clinical method used for brain metastases treatment, the most frequent secondary tumors provided by breast, lung and melanomas as primary origin. The protocols often use high daily doses and, depending on the irradiation technique there is high probability of complications in health tissues. In order to minimize adverse effects, it is important the dosimetric analysis of three-dimensional radiotherapy planning through tomographic images or, concerning to the 2D simulations, by the application of techniques that optimize dose distribution by increasing the homogeneity. The study aimed to compare the 2D and 3D conformal planning for total brain irradiation in a individual equivalent situation and evaluate the progress of these planning applying the field in field technique. The methodology consisted of simulating a two-dimensional planning, reproduce it on a set of tomographic images and compare it with the conformal plan for two fields and four fields (field in field). The results showed no significant difference between 2D and 3D planning for whole brain irradiation, and the field in field technique significantly improved the dose distribution in brain volume compared with two fields for the proposal situation. As conclusion, the two-dimensional plane for the four fields described was viable for whole brain irradiation in the treatment of brain metastases at the proposal situation. (author)

  16. Trial study on design of irradiated fields of radiotherapy in cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hui; Zeng Zhifan; Cui Nianji; He Zhichun; Huang Shaomin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare three kinds of irradiation treatment plans for cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer, in order to arrived at proper decision for the patient. Methods: From February 2001 to June 2004, 43 such patients were studied with three different simulated treatment plans made including conformal plan, conventional four-field plan and conventional two-field plan for every one. All plans were evaluated with iso- dose curve and dose-volume histogram. Results: GTV on 95% isodose curve was 99.5%, 98.2% and 87.4% in conformal plan, conventional four-field plan and conventional two-field plan, respectively; PTV 1 and PTV 2 on 95% isodose with 97.8%, 97.2%, 94.8% and 95.8%, 86.6%, 73.7%. The volume of > 20 Gy dose of left lung accepted was 18.6%, 17.2% and 32.3%, in conformal plan, conventional four-field plan and conventional two-field plan, respectively; the right lung received 20.5% ,19.9% and 35.5%. Conclusions: Conformal plan is the best in radiotherapy, as it can provide ideal dose distribution of irradiated target with adequate protection of the normal tissues. Conventional four-field plan, being easy to carry, out, can replace the conformal plan in most situations. Conventional two-field has the most uneven dose distribution and largest lung volume irradiated. (authors)

  17. Different imaging methods in the assessment of radiation-induced lung injury following hemithorax irradiation for pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maasilta, P.; Kivisaari, L.; Mattson, K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have characterized the radiation-induced lung-injury on serial chest X-rays, CTs and ultralow field MRs and evaluated the clinical value and cost/benefit ratio of the different imaging methods in 30 patients receiving high-dose hemithorax irradiation for pleural mesothelioma. Lung injury was severe in all patients, but non-specific and essentially as described in text-books. CT provided no clinically relevant, cost effective diagnostic advantage over conventional X-rays in the detection of early or late radiation-induced lung injury, but it was necessary for the evaluation of the disease status of the mesothelioma. The possible advantage of MR over CT could not be evaluated and needs further studies. Optimal time-points for imaging CTs or MRs to detect early radiation-induced lung injury following high dose hemithorax irradiation were during the latter part of the treatment or very shortly after the end of the irradiation. Late injury or irreversible fibrosis develop rapidly after 6 months and was clearly documented by chest X-rays. The authors recommend serial chest X-rays at 1-2, 6 and 12 months following radiotherapy as a cost-effective method for the detection of radiation-induced lung injury with additional CTs to document the stage of mesothelioma, when needed. (author). 31 refs.; 4 figs

  18. Dosimetric verification of small fields in the lung using lung-equivalent polymer gel and Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehaghaji, Nahideh; Dadgar, Habib Alah

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was evaluate a polymer-gel-dosimeter (PGD) for three-dimensional verification of dose distributions in the lung that is called lung-equivalent gel (LEG) and then to compare its result with Monte Carlo (MC) method. In the present study, to achieve a lung density for PGD, gel is beaten until foam is obtained, and then sodium dodecyl sulfate is added as a surfactant to increase the surface tension of the gel. The foam gel was irradiated with 1 cm × 1 cm field size in the 6 MV photon beams of ONCOR SIEMENS LINAC, along the central axis of the gel. The LEG was then scanned on a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner after irradiation using a multiple-spin echo sequence. Least-square fitting the pixel values from 32 consecutive images using a single exponential decay function derived the R2 relaxation rates. Moreover, 6 and 18 MV photon beams of ONCOR SIEMENS LINAC are simulated using MCNPX MC Code. The MC model is used to calculate the depth dose water and low-density water resembling the soft tissue and lung, respectively. Percentages of dose reduction in the lung region relative to homogeneous phantom for 6 MV photon beam were 44.6%, 39%, 13%, and 7% for 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm, 1 cm × 1 cm, 2 cm × 2 cm, and 3 cm × 3 cm fields, respectively. For 18 MV photon beam, the results were found to be 82%, 69%, 46%, and 25.8% for the same field sizes, respectively. Preliminary results show good agreement between depth dose measured with the LEG and the depth dose calculated using MCNP code. Our study showed that the dose reduction with small fields in the lung was very high. Thus, inaccurate prediction of absorbed dose inside the lung and also lung/soft-tissue interfaces with small photon beams may lead to critical consequences for treatment outcome.

  19. Identification of radiation response genes and proteins from mouse pulmonary tissues after high-dose per fraction irradiation of limited lung volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hee; Jeon, Seulgi; Kang, Ga-Young; Lee, Hae-June; Cho, Jaeho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2017-02-01

    The molecular effects of focal exposure of limited lung volumes to high-dose per fraction irradiation (HDFR) such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) have not been fully characterized. In this study, we used such an irradiation system and identified the genes and proteins after HDFR to mouse lung, similar to those associated with human therapy. High focal radiation (90 Gy) was applied to a 3-mm volume of the left lung of C57BL6 mice using a small-animal stereotactic irradiator. As well as histological examination for lungs, a cDNA micro array using irradiated lung tissues and a protein array of sera were performed until 4 weeks after irradiation, and radiation-responsive genes and proteins were identified. For comparison, the long-term effects (12 months) of 20 Gy radiation wide-field dose to the left lung were also investigated. The genes ermap, epb4.2, cd200r3 (up regulation) and krt15, hoxc4, gdf2, cst9, cidec, and bnc1 (down-regulation) and the proteins of AIF, laminin, bNOS, HSP27, β-amyloid (upregulation), and calponin (downregulation) were identified as being responsive to 90 Gy HDFR. The gdf2, cst9, and cidec genes also responded to 20 Gy, suggesting that they are universal responsive genes in irradiated lungs. No universal proteins were identified in both 90 Gy and 20 Gy. Calponin, which was downregulated in protein antibody array analysis, showed a similar pattern in microarray data, suggesting a possible HDFR responsive serum biomarker that reflects gene alteration of irradiated lung tissue. These genes and proteins also responded to the lower doses of 20 Gy and 50 Gy HDFR. These results suggest that identified candidate genes and proteins are HDFR-specifically expressed in lung damage induced by HDFR relevant to SBRT in humans.

  20. Does Three-Dimensional External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation Spare Lung Tissue Compared With Standard Whole Breast Irradiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Anudh K.; Vallow, Laura A.; Gale, Ashley A.; Buskirk, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether three-dimensional conformal partial breast irradiation (3D-PBI) spares lung tissue compared with whole breast irradiation (WBI) and to include the biologically equivalent dose (BED) to account for differences in fractionation. Methods and Materials: Radiotherapy treatment plans were devised for WBI and 3D-PBI for 25 consecutive patients randomized on the NSABP B-39/RTOG 0413 protocol at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida. WBI plans were for 50 Gy in 25 fractions, and 3D-PBI plans were for 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. Volume of ipsilateral lung receiving 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 Gy was recorded for each plan. The linear quadratic equation was used to calculate the corresponding dose delivered in 10 fractions and volume of ipsilateral lung receiving these doses was recorded for PBI plans. Ipsilateral mean lung dose was recorded for each plan and converted to BED. Results: There was a significant decrease in volume of lung receiving 20 Gy with PBI (median, 4.4% vs. 7.5%; p 3 vs 4.85 Gy 3 , p = 0.07). PBI plans exposed more lung to 2.5 and 5 Gy. Conclusions: 3D-PBI exposes greater volumes of lung tissue to low doses of radiation and spares the amount of lung receiving higher doses when compared with WBI.

  1. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Tietze, Anna; Khalil, Azza Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cerebral irradiation (PCI) is a standard treatment for all small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients with response to chemotherapy. The aims of this study were: to evaluate patients undergoing PCI with regard to cerebral recurrence rate, site of recurrence, and overall...... retrospectively with regard to disease stage, treatment, date of PCI, steroid dose during PCI, toxicity, time to recurrence, site of recurrence and time of death. The median follow up time was 16.6months (range 3-54months). RESULTS: Of the 118 patients undergoing PCI, 74 had limited disease (LD-SCLC) and 44 had...... extensive disease (ED-SCLC). The median age was 65years (range 46-80years). The median overall survival of all patients from the time of diagnosis was 16.0months (CI 95% 13.0-19.0), in LD-SCLC it was 24.0months (CI 95% 19.6-28.3), and in ED-SCLC it was 12.0months (CI 95% 9.6-14.4). Twenty-one patients (17...

  2. The protective effect of Sambucus ebulus against lung toxicity induced by gamma irradiation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the potential antioxidant and lung protective activities of Sambucus ebulus (SE against toxicity induced by gamma irradiation. Hydroalcoholic extract of SE (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg was studied for its lung protective activity. Phenol and flavonoid contents of SE were determined. Male C57 mice were divided into ten groups with five mice per group. Only the first and second groups (as negative control received intraperitoneally normal saline fluid. Groups 3 to 5 received only SE extract at doses of 20 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally; three groups were repeatedly injected for 15 days as chronic group. Groups 6 to 8 received a single-dose of gamma irradiation just 2 hours before irradiation as acute group. The ninth and tenth groups (as positive control received only gamma rays. Animal was exposed whole-body to 6 Gy gamma radiation. After irradiation, tissue sections of lung parenchyma were examined by light microscope for any histopathologic changes. SE at doses 50 and 100 mg/kg improved markedly histopathological changes induced by gamma irradiation in lung. Lung protective effect of SE could be due to attention of lipid peroxidation. Our study demonstrated that SE as a natural product has a protective effect against lung toxicity induced by   gamma irradiation in animal.

  3. Lung Irradiation Increases Mortality After Influenza A Virus Challenge Occurring Late After Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Casey M. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Johnston, Carl J. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Reed, Christina K. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Lawrence, B. Paige [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Williams, Jacqueline P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Finkelstein, Jacob N., E-mail: Jacob_Finkelstein@urmc.rochester.edu [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To address whether irradiation-induced changes in the lung environment alter responses to a viral challenge delivered late after exposure but before the appearance of late lung radiation injury. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6J mice received either lung alone or combined lung and whole-body irradiation (0-15 Gy). At 10 weeks after irradiation, animals were infected with 120 HAU influenza virus strain A/HKx31. Innate and adaptive immune cell recruitment was determined using flow cytometry. Cytokine and chemokine production and protein leakage into the lung after infection were assessed. Results: Prior irradiation led to a dose-dependent failure to regain body weight after infection and exacerbated mortality, but it did not affect virus-specific immune responses or virus clearance. Surviving irradiated animals displayed a persistent increase in total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and edema. Conclusions: Lung irradiation increased susceptibility to death after infection with influenza virus and impaired the ability to complete recovery. This altered response does not seem to be due to a radiation effect on the immune response, but it may possibly be an effect on epithelial repair.

  4. Segmented abutting fields irradiation using multileaf collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tetsuo

    1998-01-01

    The object of this study is to evaluate the clinical feasibility of segmented abutting fields irradiation (SAFI) using multileaf collimators (MLCs), in which the target volume is divided into several segments to create complex irregular field without use of alloy blocks. A linear accelerator with 26 pairs of roundly ended MLCs of 1 cm in width was tested in this study. In SAFI, radiation leakage occurs at the abutment sites with these MLCs. Film dosimetry was used to determine the optimal length of the MLC overlap to minimize dose profile variation in abutting fields. A mantle field was investigated as a clinical application. Without overlapping the MLCs, radiation leakage at the abutments appeared as a peak of the dose profile. With more overlapping, the profile exhibited a minimized variation with a two-peak pattern. With excessive overlapping, the peak was reversed due to decreased dose. Variation of the profile was minimized with an overlap of 2.0-2.2 mm. The level of variation and the optimal length of overlap were found to be independent of the sites of measurement. Reproducibility was confirmed by repeated measurements. With the mantle field, SAFI using MLCs revealed an profile equivalent to use of alloy blocking fields in all respects other than the variations at the abutting sites. If the length of the MLC abutment overlap differs by site, clinical application of SAFI using MLCs would be quite complicated. The optimal length of the overlap was found to be 2.0 mm and to be independent of the sites of abutment. Therefore, we conclude that SAFI using MLCs of 1 cm in width is feasible for clinical use. (author)

  5. Gigantocellular macrophagal reaction in epidermoid cancer of the lung in patients exposed to preoperative irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galil-Ogly, G.A.; Kharchenko, V.P.; Poroshin, K.K.; Pereslegin, O.I.; Krylov, L.M.; Ivanov, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    The histologic and electron microscopic study of frequently occurring gigantocellular macrophagal reaction in the stroma of 83 irradiated epidermoid carcinomas of the lung is carried out. It is found that gigantic multinuclear macrophages take part in the resorption of necrotic and corneous masses as well as in the absorption of viable tumour cells. The presence of gigantocellular macrophagal reaction in the stroma of irradiated tumoUr evidences a more favourable prognosis in patients after the combined treatment of epidermoid lung cancer. Gigantocellular macrophagal reaction should be considered as the manifestation of cell antitumour immunity which makes stronger the tumour irradiation damage

  6. Attenuated lung fibrosis in interleukin 6 knock-out mice after C-ion irradiation to lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito-Fujita, Tomoko; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Nakamura, Etsuko; Nakawatari, Miyako; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Moritake, Takashi; Imai, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    There is a great deal of evidence that a cyclic cascade of inflammatory cytokines, together with the activation of macrophages, is initiated very early after irradiation to develop lung fibrosis in a late phase. To understand the persistent effects of cytokines, the cytokine gene of knock out or transgenic mouse is one of the useful tools. In this study, we evaluated a role of a key molecule, interleukin-6 (IL-6), in the late-phase inflammatory response and subsequent fibrotic changes after irradiation using wild-type (WT) and IL-6 knock out (IL-6 KO) mice. The mice underwent thoracic irradiation with 10 Gy of C-ion beam or sham-irradiation and were examined by histology. Immunoreactivity for IL-6 was induced at the site of bronchiolar epithelium, in pneumocytes and in monocytes by C-ion irradiation. At 24 weeks after irradiation, the infiltration of macrophages, detected by positive immunohistological staining with Mac3 antibody, was observed in alveolar spaces both in WT and IL-6 KO mice. The thickening of bronchiolar and alveolar walls exhibited in WT mice, but not KO mice, and fibrotic changes detected by Masson-Trichrome staining, were observed only in the lungs of WT mice, while it was attenuated in IL-6 KO mice. These results indicated that IL-6 might not be essential for activating macrophages in the late phase, but plays an important role for fibrotic changes of the alveolar wall after irradiation. (author)

  7. Effects on pulmonary function of whole lung irradiation for Wilm's tumour in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, M.R.; Lemerle, J.; Jean, R.; Rufin, P.; Scheinmann, P.; Paupe, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of whole lung irradiation on lung function was investigated in 48 children treated for Wilm's tumour with pulmonary metastases. Lung function tests were performed before irradiation and were repeated annually for as long as possible, the length of follow-up varying from two to 17 years. A reduction in both lung volume and in dynamic compliance was clearly observed. In some patients these changes occurred in the early post-irradiation months, but in most the decrease observed progressed over longer periods of time. Static pressure volume curves, bloodgases, and carbon monoxide transfer were normal. These findings make it unlikely that post-irradiation pulmonary fibrosis was involved. Another explanation for the decreased lung volume and dynamic compliance might be failure of alveolar multiplication. Muscular injury is unlikely as the patients were able to produce normal transthoracic pressures. A failure of chest wall growth is also possible and would explain the progressive restrictive impairment but not the early lung function changes. It is suggested that the early effects detected in some patients were the result of lung injury and that later effects resulted from impaired chest wall growth. (author)

  8. Significance of bacterial flora in abdominal irradiation-induced inhibition of lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Ando, K.; Koike, S.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously reported that abdominal irradiation prior to i.v. injection of syngeneic tumor cells reduced metastases in lung. Our report described an investigation of the significance of intestinal organisms in the radiation effect. We found that eliminating intestinal organisms with antibiotics totally abolished the radiation effect. Monoassociation of germ-free mice revealed that the radiation effect was observable only for Enterobacter cloacae, never for Streptococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium adlesentis, or Escherichia coli. After abdominal irradiation of regular mice, E. cloacae multiplied in cecal contents, adhered to mucous membranes, invaded the cecal wall, and translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes. Intravenous administration of E. cloacae in place of abdominal irradiation inhibited metastases. E. cloacae-monoassociated mice developed fewer metastases than germ-free mice, and the reduction was further enhanced by abdominal irradiation. We concluded that abdominal irradiation caused the invasion of E. cloacae from the mucous membrane of the intestine and inhibited formation of lung metastases

  9. Efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation for chronic allograft rejection following double lung transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, David A.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Trulock, Elbert M.; Lynch, John P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation in a series of patients experiencing chronic rejection following bilateral lung transplantation. Patients and Materials: Eleven patients (10 males, 1 female) received total lymphoid irradiation for chronic allograft rejection (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome) refractory to conventional treatment modalities. Treatment was delivered between March, 1995, and September, 1996. Mean patient age was 33 years (range 15-51). Indications for transplantation included cystic fibrosis (7 patients), alpha 1 anti-trypsin deficiency (2 patients), primary pulmonary hypertension (1 patient), and emphysema (1 patient). Radiation therapy was prescribed as 800 cGy delivered in ten 80 cGy fractions, 2 fractions per week, via AP/PA mantle and inverted-Y fields. Radiation was withheld for total wbc count 3 , absolute neutrophil count 3 , or platelets 3 . Serial pre- and post-radiation therapy pulmonary function values, complete blood counts, and immunosuppressive augmentation requirements (use of methylprednisolone, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, OKT3, and FK506) were monitored. Results: In the 3 months preceding total lymphoid irradiation, the average decrease in FEV 1 was 34% (range 0-75%) and the median number of immunosuppression augmentations was 3 (range 0-5). At initiation of radiation therapy, the average FEV 1 was 1.4 liters (range 0.77-2.28). Only (4(11)) patients completed all 10 treatment fractions. Reasons for discontinuation included unabated rejection (4 patients), worsening pulmonary infection (2 patients), and persistent thrombocytopenia (1 patient). No treatment course was discontinued because of persistent neutropenia or leukopenia. Seven of the 11 patients failed within 8 weeks of treatment cessation. One patient had unabated rejection and received bilateral living related donor transplants. He is alive and well. Six patients died. Two of these deaths were due

  10. Designing Targets for Elective Nodal Irradiation in Lung Cancer Radiotherapy: A Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, Lucyna; Tatro, Daniel; Moran, Jean M.; Quint, Leslie E.; Hayman, James A.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Kong Fengming

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess doses received by mediastinal and hilar lymph node stations (LNS) delineated according to published recommendations when 'standard' two-dimensional (2D) elective fields are applied and to assess doses to critical structures when fields are designed using 2D and three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning for elective irradiation. Methods and Materials: LNS were delineated on axial CT scans according to existing recommendations. For each case and tumor location, 2D anteroposterior-posteroanterior (AP-PA) elective fields were applied using the AP-PA CT topograms. From the 2D portal fields, 3D dose distributions were then calculated to particular LNS. Next, 3D plans were prepared for elective nodal irradiation for tumors of different lobes. Doses for critical structures were compared for 2D and 3D plans. Results: LNS 1/2R, 1/2L, 3A, 3P, 5, 6, and 8 were not adequately covered in a substantial part of plans by standard 2D portals when guidelines for delineation were strictly followed. The magnitude of the lack of coverage increased with margin application. There was a trend for a higher yet probably still safe dose delivered to lung for 3D plans compared with 2D plans with a prescription dose of 45 Gy. Conclusions: 2D fields did not entirely cover LNS delineated according to the recommendations for 3D techniques. A strict adherence to these guidelines may lead to larger portals than traditionally constructed using 2D methods. Some modifications for clinical implementation are discussed.

  11. Irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Wilfert, F.; Palm, J.; Burdak-Rothkamm, S.; Ruebe, C.; Koenig, J.; Liu Li; Schuck, A.; Willich, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: the precise pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation-induced lung injury are poorly understood, but have been shown to correlate with dysregulation of different cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-)α, interleukin-(IL)-1α and IL-6 after whole-lung irradiation. Material and methods: the thoraces of C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 12 Gy. Treated and control mice were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks post irradiation (p.i.). Real-time multiplex RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polmyerase chain reaction) was established to evaluate the expression of TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-6 in the lung tissue of the mice. For histological analysis, lung tissue sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Results: multiplex RT-PCR analysis revealed a biphasic expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung tissue after irradiation. After an initial increase at 1 h p.i. for TNF-α and at 6 h p.i. for IL-1α and IL-6, the mRNA expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines returned to basal levels (48 h, 72 h, 1 week, 2 weeks p.i.). During the pneumonic phase, TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-6 were significantly elevated and revealed their maximum at 8 weeks p.i. Histopathologic evaluation of the lung sections obtained within 4 weeks p.i. revealed only minor lung damage in 5-30% of the lung tissue. By contrast, at 8, 16, and 24 weeks p.i., 70-90% of the lung tissue revealed histopathologically detectable organizing alveolitis. Conclusion: irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. The initial transitory cytokine response occurred within the first hours after lung irradiation with no detectable histopathologic alterations. The second, more persistent cytokine elevation coincided with the onset of histologically discernible organizing acute pneumonitis. (orig.)

  12. Irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Wilfert, F.; Palm, J.; Burdak-Rothkamm, S.; Ruebe, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Koenig, J. [Inst. of Medical Biometrics, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Liu Li [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Cancer Center, Union Hospital Tongji Medical Coll., Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Schuck, A.; Willich, N. [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Univ. of Muenster (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background and purpose: the precise pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation-induced lung injury are poorly understood, but have been shown to correlate with dysregulation of different cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-){alpha}, interleukin-(IL)-1{alpha} and IL-6 after whole-lung irradiation. Material and methods: the thoraces of C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 12 Gy. Treated and control mice were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks post irradiation (p.i.). Real-time multiplex RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polmyerase chain reaction) was established to evaluate the expression of TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 in the lung tissue of the mice. For histological analysis, lung tissue sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Results: multiplex RT-PCR analysis revealed a biphasic expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung tissue after irradiation. After an initial increase at 1 h p.i. for TNF-{alpha} and at 6 h p.i. for IL-1{alpha} and IL-6, the mRNA expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines returned to basal levels (48 h, 72 h, 1 week, 2 weeks p.i.). During the pneumonic phase, TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 were significantly elevated and revealed their maximum at 8 weeks p.i. Histopathologic evaluation of the lung sections obtained within 4 weeks p.i. revealed only minor lung damage in 5-30% of the lung tissue. By contrast, at 8, 16, and 24 weeks p.i., 70-90% of the lung tissue revealed histopathologically detectable organizing alveolitis. Conclusion: irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. The initial transitory cytokine response occurred within the first hours after lung irradiation with no detectable histopathologic alterations. The second, more persistent cytokine elevation coincided with the onset of histologically discernible organizing acute

  13. Morphological changes connected with irradiation of large fields in dogs and with the effect of automyelotransplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klestova, O.V.; Sil'chenko, N.N.; Stanzhevskaya, T.I.; Strelin, G.S.; Vishnyakov, Yu.S.; Gubareva, A.V.; Skripkina, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Dogs have been used to study the effect of automyelotransplantation on processes of post-radiation recovery of hemopoietic organs in large-field fractionated irradiation and morphological changes in some internal organs irradiated with different doses. Dogs of both sexes were irradiated in the gamma device twice a week alternately from the back and from the stomach with fractions of 8 Gy for the radiation field. The integral dose for all irradiated sections is 48 Gy. Automyelotransplantation of bone marrow is done after irradiation of the upper part of the body of the animal. Morphological changes in bone marrow, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, liver, heart and lungs, are found. It is shown that automyelotransplantation from non-irradiated section in the case of large-field radiation promotes the recovery of bone marrow and other homopoietic organs which is expressed in the intensification of repopulation of bone marrow of breast bone and lymphoid hemopoiesis in spleen. It is noted that such reparation of bone marrow can play a positive role in the recovery of bone marrow syndrome of radiation disease

  14. Decreasing Irradiated Rat Lung Volume Changes Dose-Limiting Toxicity From Early to Late Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veen, Sonja J. van der; Faber, Hette; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [KVI Center for Advanced Radiation Research, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijk, Peter van, E-mail: p.van.luijk@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Technological developments in radiation therapy result in smaller irradiated volumes of normal tissue. Because the risk of radiation therapy-induced toxicity generally depends on irradiated volume, changing volume could change the dose-limiting toxicity of a treatment. Recently, in our rat model, we found that early radiation-induced lung dysfunction (RILD) was closely related to irradiated volume dependent vascular remodeling besides inflammation. The exact relationship between early and late RILD is still unknown. Therefore, in this preclinical study we investigated the dose-volume relationship of late RILD, assessed its dependence on early and late pathologies and studied if decreasing irradiated volume changed the dose-limiting toxicity. Methods and Materials: A volume of 25%, 32%, 50%, 63%, 88%, or 100% of the rat lung was irradiated using protons. Until 26 weeks after irradiation, respiratory rates were measured. Macrovascular remodeling, pulmonary inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed at 26 weeks after irradiation. For all endpoints dose-volume response curves were made. These results were compared to our previously published early lung effects. Results: Early vascular remodeling and inflammation correlated significantly with early RILD. Late RILD correlated with inflammation and fibrosis, but not with vascular remodeling. In contrast to the early effects, late vascular remodeling, inflammation and fibrosis showed a primarily dose but not volume dependence. Comparison of respiratory rate increases early and late after irradiation for the different dose-distributions indicated that with decreasing irradiated volumes, the dose-limiting toxicity changed from early to late RILD. Conclusions: In our rat model, different pathologies underlie early and late RILD with different dose-volume dependencies. Consequently, the dose-limiting toxicity changed from early to late dysfunction when the irradiated volume was reduced. In patients, early and late

  15. Elective brain irradiation in patients with small-cell carcinoma of the lung: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsenis, A.T.; Karpasitis, N.; Giannakakis, D.; Maragoudakis, N.; Kiparissiadis, P.

    1982-01-01

    The brain is a common site of metastases in small-cell carcinoma of the lung. Prophylactic brain irradiation with doses of 4000-4500 rads in 3-4 weeks appears to decrease the occurrence of brain metastases although it does not prevent this completely. In a group of patients with small-cell carcinoma of the lung and without evidence of brain metastases, the authors review the site and extent of the primary, the methods of treatment, the techniques of brain irradiation, and the relapses rate in relation to the status of the primary and the rate of brain metastases in another group without prophylactic brain irradiation. They further attempt to investigate combined modalities of treatment which would prolong life and prevent neurological complications in the small number of long survivors with small-cell carcinoma of the lung. (Auth.)

  16. Regulations in the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The material available for this review, as well as the Guidelines for Preparing Regulations for the Control of Food Irradiation Facilities adopted by ICGFI, the international Conference Document on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food, the draft European Economic Community Directive and the Codex General Standard and Code of Practice on food irradiation suggest that the following aspects may be subject to regulation: Food irradiation licensing, radiation safety, food hygiene, package labelling, inspection, certification for commercial purposes. The purpose of this review is to provide Member States with the information necessary for and special to the control of food processing by irradiation, so as to enable them to ensure that they have or they can adopt effective regulations governing all aspects of trade in irradiated food. Three countries have introduced in their food laws special provisions to regulate the processing of food by radiation. Twenty-three countries have issued such special regulations under the existing statutory authority of one of the executive branches: Seven countries either by reference or by incorporation in whole or in part in their regulations, gave recognition to the Codex Standard and Code of Practice. The absence of such specific recognition should not be interpreted, however, to mean that those countries have not accepted the Codex recommendations. Many provisions seem to have taken the Codex recommendations as a guide. 16 refs

  17. Irradiation of the lung with static plutonium microemboli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.M.; Prine, J.R.; Smith, D.M.; Anderson, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Syrian hamsters are exposed to selected lung burdens of plutonium-239 contained in 10-μm diameter microspheres of ZrO 2 ceramic. After injection into the jugular vein, the microspheres lodge in the lung capillaries and remain immobile throughout the lifetime of the animal. The specific activity of the microspheres is varied from 0.22 to 59 pCi/sphere, and the lung burdens achieved vary from 0.44 to 354 nCi. The distribution in the lung is essentially random except in the groups receiving high numbers of spheres. Since entrapment in the lung approaches 100 percent, there is essentially none of the involvement of other organs seen with inhalation methods. Hamsters are also exposed intratracheally to 210 Po to compare the results from an experiment in which other organs are involved and in which a high tumor yield may be anticipated. Tumor production in the microemboli experiment has been quite low, and the overall damage to the lung has been minimal in comparison to the intratracheal experiments with 210 Po or with published data from aerosol experiments. (auth)

  18. Whole Lung Irradiation for Adults With Pulmonary Metastases From Ewing Sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Dana L.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Gerber, Naamit K.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate feasibility and patterns of failure in adult patients with Ewing sarcoma (ES) treated with whole lung irradiation (WLI) for pulmonary metastases. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of all ES patients treated at age 18 or older with 12-15 Gy WLI for pulmonary metastases at a single institution between 1990 and 2014. Twenty-six patients met the study criteria. Results: The median age at WLI was 23 years (range, 18-40). The median follow-up time of the surviving patients was 3.8 years (range, 1.0-9.6). The 3-year cumulative incidence of pulmonary relapse (PR) was 55%, with a 3-year cumulative incidence of PR as the site of first relapse of 42%. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 38 and 45%, respectively. Patients with exclusively pulmonary metastases had better outcomes than did those with extrapulmonary metastases: the 3-year PR was 45% in those with exclusively lung metastases versus 76% in those with extrapulmonary metastases (P=.01); the 3-year EFS was 49% versus 14% (P=.003); and the 3-year OS was 61% versus 13% (P=.009). Smoking status was a significant prognostic factor for EFS: the 3-year EFS was 61% in nonsmokers versus 11% in smokers (P=.04). Two patients experienced herpes zoster in the radiation field 6 and 12 weeks after radiation. No patients experienced pneumonitis or cardiac toxicity, and no significant acute or late sequelae were observed among the survivors. Conclusion: WLI in adult patients with ES and lung metastases is well tolerated and is associated with freedom from PR of 45% at 3 years. Given its acceptable toxicity and potential therapeutic effect, WLI for pulmonary metastases in ES should be considered for adults, as it is in pediatric patients. All patients should be advised to quit smoking before receiving WLI

  19. Whole Lung Irradiation for Adults With Pulmonary Metastases From Ewing Sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Dana L.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Gerber, Naamit K.; Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate feasibility and patterns of failure in adult patients with Ewing sarcoma (ES) treated with whole lung irradiation (WLI) for pulmonary metastases. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of all ES patients treated at age 18 or older with 12-15 Gy WLI for pulmonary metastases at a single institution between 1990 and 2014. Twenty-six patients met the study criteria. Results: The median age at WLI was 23 years (range, 18-40). The median follow-up time of the surviving patients was 3.8 years (range, 1.0-9.6). The 3-year cumulative incidence of pulmonary relapse (PR) was 55%, with a 3-year cumulative incidence of PR as the site of first relapse of 42%. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 38 and 45%, respectively. Patients with exclusively pulmonary metastases had better outcomes than did those with extrapulmonary metastases: the 3-year PR was 45% in those with exclusively lung metastases versus 76% in those with extrapulmonary metastases (P=.01); the 3-year EFS was 49% versus 14% (P=.003); and the 3-year OS was 61% versus 13% (P=.009). Smoking status was a significant prognostic factor for EFS: the 3-year EFS was 61% in nonsmokers versus 11% in smokers (P=.04). Two patients experienced herpes zoster in the radiation field 6 and 12 weeks after radiation. No patients experienced pneumonitis or cardiac toxicity, and no significant acute or late sequelae were observed among the survivors. Conclusion: WLI in adult patients with ES and lung metastases is well tolerated and is associated with freedom from PR of 45% at 3 years. Given its acceptable toxicity and potential therapeutic effect, WLI for pulmonary metastases in ES should be considered for adults, as it is in pediatric patients. All patients should be advised to quit smoking before receiving WLI.

  20. Peculiarities of the acute lung edema prophylaxis in the irradiated organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurygin, G V; Kopylov, V N [Yaroslavskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR)

    1977-09-01

    During experiments with rats it has been established that preparations with a pronounced prophylactic effect on lung edema development in nonirradiated animals in some cases do not effect in such a way (or even aggravate the edema development) the irradiated animals (at 650 R dose). On the contrary ineffective or negatively effecting preparations in nonirradiated animals may exhibit a noticeable prophylactic effect on irradiated animals.

  1. Rb and p53 gene deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from irradiated and control mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted on mouse lung adenocarcinoma tissues that were formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded 25 years ago to investigate the large gene deletions of mRb and p53 in B6CF 1 male mice. A total of 80 lung tissue samples from irradiated mice and 40 lung samples from nonirradiated controls were randomly selected and examined in the mRb portion of this study. The results showed a significant (P 0.05) from that for spontaneous lung adenocarcinomas or lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to single-dose γ irradiation at a similar total dose. mRb fragments 3 (71%) and 5 (67%), the parts of the gene that encoded the pocket binding region of Rb protein to adenovirus E1A and SV40 T-antigen, were the most frequently deleted fragments. p53 gene deletion analysis was carried out on normal lungs and lung adenocarcinomas that were initially found to bear mRb deletions. Exons 1,4,5,6, and 9 were chosen to be analyzed

  2. Influence of thorax irradiation on the survival of mice with spontaneous or artificial lung metastases from a transplantable mammary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, J.; Haveman, J.; van der Schueren, E.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of thorax irradiation on lung metastases, either occurring spontaneously from a primary mammary adenocarcinoma (M8013X) transplanted on the leg or artificially induced by intravenous injection of tumor cells was studied. Increasing the interval between the moment at which lung metastases are supposed to originate and the thorax irradiation resulted in a rapid decrease of the effectiveness of this treatment in preventing the development of lung metastases. Increasing the radiation dose led to an increased number of cures; however, an increased number of mice dying of lethal lung damage was also observed. Irradiation of the lungs of mice with 5 or 10 Gy, 24 hours, 7 days or 14 days prior to i.v. injection with tumor cells, did not significantly increase the number of mice with lung metastases. Immunological resistance against the tumor played a role in our experiments with both spontaneous and artificial lung metastases

  3. Clinical dosimetry of large shaped 60Co irradiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.

    1979-01-01

    The determination is described of absorbed doses in the Alderson-Rando phantom by thermoluminescent dosemeters in patients irradiated with irregularly shaped large-surface fields of Co 60 . In a range of 3 to 5% the measured values correspond to the values calculated with the aid of relations presented by Bukowitz. Non-homogeneity of irradiation when two supradiaphragmatic fields are used and its improvement are discussed. (author)

  4. Strain-dependent Damage in Mouse Lung After Carbon Ion Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritake, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Fujita, Hidetoshi; Yanagisawa, Mitsuru; Nakawatari, Miyako; Imadome, Kaori; Nakamura, Etsuko; Iwakawa, Mayumi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Imai, Takashi, E-mail: imait@nirs.go.jp [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To examine whether inherent factors produce differences in lung morbidity in response to carbon ion (C-ion) irradiation, and to identify the molecules that have a key role in strain-dependent adverse effects in the lung. Methods and Materials: Three strains of female mice (C3H/He Slc, C57BL/6J Jms Slc, and A/J Jms Slc) were locally irradiated in the thorax with either C-ion beams (290 MeV/n, in 6 cm spread-out Bragg peak) or with {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays as a reference beam. We performed survival assays and histologic examination of the lung with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. In addition, we performed immunohistochemical staining for hyaluronic acid (HA), CD44, and Mac3 and assayed for gene expression. Results: The survival data in mice showed a between-strain variance after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. The median survival time of C3H/He was significantly shortened after C-ion irradiation at the higher dose of 12.5 Gy. Histologic examination revealed early-phase hemorrhagic pneumonitis in C3H/He and late-phase focal fibrotic lesions in C57BL/6J after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. Pleural effusion was apparent in C57BL/6J and A/J mice, 168 days after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. Microarray analysis of irradiated lung tissue in the three mouse strains identified differential expression changes in growth differentiation factor 15 (Gdf15), which regulates macrophage function, and hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1), which plays a role in HA metabolism. Immunohistochemistry showed that the number of CD44-positive cells, a surrogate marker for HA accumulation, and Mac3-positive cells, a marker for macrophage infiltration in irradiated lung, varied significantly among the three mouse strains during the early phase. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a strain-dependent differential response in mice to C-ion thoracic irradiation. Our findings identified candidate molecules that could be implicated in the between-strain variance to early

  5. Quantitative study of late injury in the irradiated mouse lung using computer graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Masahiro; Furuse, Takeshi; Rapachietta, D.R.; Kallman, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    It is reported that quantitative histological analysis using current imaging technology and computer graphics is useful in studying late injury in the irradiated lung (with and without added chemotherapy), and that it correlated closely with results of the functional breathing rate test. (author). 7 refs.; 1 fig

  6. Time course of development of metastasis in irradiated Lewis lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohizumi, Yukio; Maezawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Tomoyuki

    1988-01-01

    The influence of local irradiation on the development of metastases and primary tumor volume was studied in Lewis lung carcinoma growing intramuscularly in the hind leg of C57BL/6 mice. The time course of development of metastases was determined from the size of the lung colonies at autopsy by determining the growth rate of the colonies. Irradiation within five days after tumor cell injection inhibited the incidence of metastases in accordance with irradiation dose. For irradiation more than seven days after the injection, promotion of metastases was observed around the time of the experiment as a function of irradiation dose and tumor volume. After the irradiation phase, the development of metastases was inhibited in accordance with radiation dose. When delay in metastasis was defined as additional days needed to develop two or ten colonies compared with controls, the relationship between delay and dose was linear. At the regrowth phase of the primary tumor, the incidence of metastases from the irradiated tumor was reduced in comparison with that from unirradiated tumors of the same size. Inhibition of metastases was observed only at 5 Gy and showed slight dose-dependency. Mechanisms in the development of metastases as they related to these findings are also discussed. (autho)

  7. Validity of PRV margins around lung and heart during left breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovski, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Planning organ at risk volumes (PRV) has a minor use in radiotherapy treatment planning. During left breast irradiation two critical volumes are of special importance the lung and the heart. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in volume doses after adding appropriate margins around these organs at risk and compare them with the effect that the systematic positioning error has on the volume doses. Methods: Treatment plans for 44 patients with left breast cancer were analyzed. Two changes for each plan were made, and dose-volume histogram values for hearts and lungs volumes were recorded. In the first case margins of 5 mm to hearts and lungs were added. Volumes that were enclosed by 30% isodose for hearts and volumes that were enclosed by 20% isodose of lungs were recorded. In the second case plans were made with a systematic error of 5 mm employed, depicting a translation of isocenter posterior and to the right. In this second case, monitor units were taken from the original plan. The critical volumes for hearts and lungs were recorded as in the first case. Results: Our policy for breast cancer irradiation demands that the lung volume receiving 20 Gy should be kept under 25% of the whole left-lung volume, and no more than 10% of the heart volume should receive more than 30 Gy. The first case simulation showed that 23% of the patients have a heart overdose while 11% of them have a lung overdose according to the criteria above. Simulation of the second kind showed that the systematic error in isocenter positioning of 5 mm gives bigger a volume of the heart (in average 0.69% of heart volume) to be enclosed in critical isodose than in PRV case. For the lung the situation was opposite; namely in PRV case the lung volume that is encompassed with critical isodose is greater (in average 1.47% of lung volume) than in a case of displaced isocenter. Conclusions: Adding PRV margins around the heart and the lung does not give straightforward and unambiguous result

  8. Acute effects of thoracic irradiation on lung function and structure in awake sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyd, J.E.; Bolds, J.M.; Sheller, J.R.; Duke, S.S.; Gillette, A.W.; Malcolm, A.W.; Meyrick, B.O.; Brigham, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the acute physiological and structural changes after lung irradiation, the effects of whole-lung irradiation were investigated in fourteen sheep. Ten sheep were prepared with vascular and chronic lung lymph catheters, then a week later were given 1,500 rad whole-lung radiation and monitored for 2 days. Four sheep were given the same dose of radiation and were killed 4 h later for structural studies. Lung lymph flow increased at 3 h after radiation (14.6 +/- 2.1 ml/h) to twice the base-line flow rate (7.5 +/- 1.3), with a high lymph-to-plasma protein concentration. Pulmonary arterial pressure increased twofold from base line (18 +/- 1.6 cmH2O) at 2 h after radiation (33 +/- 3.8). Cardiac output and systemic pressure in the aorta did not change after lung radiation. Arterial O 2 tension decreased from 85 +/- 3 to 59 +/- 4 Torr at 1 day after radiation. Lymphocyte counts in both blood and lung lymph decreased to a nadir by 4 h and remained low. Thromboxane B2 concentration in lung lymph increased from base line (0.07 +/- 0.03 ng/ml) to peak at 3 h after radiation (8.2 +/- 3.7 ng/ml). The structural studies showed numerous damaged lymphocytes in the peripheral lung and bronchial associated lymphoid tissue. Quantitative analysis of the number of granulocytes in peripheral lung showed no significant change (base line 6.2 +/- 0.8 granulocytes/100 alveoli, 4 h = 10.3 +/- 2.3). The most striking change involved lung airways. The epithelial lining of the majority of airways from intrapulmonary bronchus to respiratory bronchiolus revealed damage with the appearance of intracellular and intercellular cell fragments and granules. This new large animal model of acute radiation lung injury can be used to monitor physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes after lung radiation. It is relevant to the investigation of diffuse oxidant lung injury as well as to radiobiology per se

  9. Borosilicate glass for gamma irradiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydogan, N.; Tugrul, A. B.

    2012-11-01

    Four different types of silicate glass specimens were irradiated with gamma radiation using a Co-60 radioisotope. Glass specimens, with four different chemical compositions, were exposed to neutron and mixed neutron/gamma doses in the central thimble and tangential beam tube of the nuclear research reactor. Optical variations were determined in accordance with standardisation concept. Changes in the direct solar absorbance (αe) of borosilicate glass were examined using the increase in gamma absorbed dose, and results were compared with the changes in the direct solar absorbance of the three different type silicate glass specimens. Solar absorption decreased due to decrease of penetration with absorbed dose. αe of borosilicate increased considerably when compared with other glass types. Changes in optical density were evaluated as an approach to create dose estimation. Mixed/thermal neutron irradiation on glass caused to increse αe.

  10. Radiation pneumonitis: generalised lung changes detected by radionuclide imaging following focal lung irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Sephton, R.; Irving, L.; Crennan, E.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of a nuclear imaging technique as a means of detecting radiation-induced lung injury is examined. The technique involves the patient inhaling modified technegas TM , a gas-like radiotracer which is an ultra fine particulate dispersion. This crosses the alveolar-capillary membrane and the clearance rate of the tracer from the lungs is presumed to reflect membrane permeability. A case of a patient who, after receiving localised radiotherapy and chemotherapy for lung cancer, developed symptoms and signs of radiation pneumonitis is reported. Pre- and post-radiotherapy investigations using the nuclear technique showed acceleration of rates of tracer clearance from both lungs, consistent with generalised changes in alveolar-capillary membrane permeability. It is suggested that the symptoms of radiation pneumonitis may in part result from pathophysiologic changes in nonirradiated lung which may appear radiologically normal. 4 refs., 2 figs

  11. Alpha-methyl-homocysteine thiolactone protects lung of BALB/c mice irradiated with 6 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubec, G.; Tichatschek, E.; Foltinova, J.; Leplawy, T.; Mallinger, R.; Getoff, N.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation protective activity of intaperitoneally administered alpha-methyl-homocysteine thiolactone (α-MHCTL); 100 mg/kg body weight) in female BALB/c mice and such treated with cysteine treated (100 mg/kg body weight), using unirradiated and placebo treated irradiated mice were tested as controls. 6Gy whole body irradiated was applied and after a period of three weeks the animals were sacrificed and lungs were taken for morphometry and the determination of o-tyrosine. Septal areas were highest in the irradiated, placebo treated mice (68.67 + 9.82% septal area to total area) and lowest in the α-MHCTL treated irradiated mice (55.67 + 11.29%), significant at the p < 0.05 level. Morphometric data were accompanied by highest levels of o-tyrosine, a reliable parameter for OH-attack, in the irradiated, placebo treated group with 1.87 + 0.40 μM/g lung tissue and 0.32 + 0.13 μM/g lung tissue in the αMHCTL treated group; the statistical difference was significant. Significant radiation protection in the mammalian system at the morphological and biochemical level were found. The potent effect could be explained by the influence of alpha-alkylation in homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL) which renders amino acids unmetabolizeable, nontoxic, increases lipophilicity and therefore improving permeability through membranes. The present report confirms morphological data on the radiation protective activity of this interesting thiol compound. (Author)

  12. Development of irradiation techniques and assessment of tumor response carbon ion radiotherapy in ultra-short fraction and time for a small lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tadaaki; Sugawara, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    For planning safety carbon therapy for lung cancer, the minimum (threshold) dose to generate lung reaction on CT image was investigated at each fraction regimen. From 1995 January to 2003 December, 44 patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer who were treated with carbon ion beams of various fractions (1-12 fractions a port) and total doses (28-90 GyE). The 78 irradiated fields for the early reaction (within 6 months) and 67 for the late (1 year after) were divided into the two groups: the positive (+) and the negative (-) after the reactions on CT image were graded according to Libshits's criteria. The α/βvalue of biological effective dose (BED) responsive curve was determined by assuming the biserial correlation coefficient between positive rate of lung reaction and BED dose. From the BED responsive curve, in turn, the dose responsive curve for lung reaction rate at each fraction regimen was obtained. Based on the curve, D10 (to generate the lung reaction at 10% of the patients) in single fraction regimen was determined to be 10.6 GyE for the late reaction and 9.96 GyE for the early reaction, respectively. These doses seem to be very useful to estimate lung injuries in singe-dose irradiation. (author)

  13. Nicaraven reduces cancer metastasis to irradiated lungs by decreasing CCL8 and macrophage recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chen; Luo, Lan; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Radiotherapy for cancer patients damages normal tissues, thereby inducing an inflammatory response and promoting cancer metastasis. We investigated whether nicaraven, a compound with radioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties, could attenuate radiation-induced cancer metastasis to the lungs of mice. Nicaraven and amifostine, another commercial radioprotective agent, had limited effects on both the radiosensitivity of Lewis lung carcinoma cells in vitro and radiation-induced tumor growth inhibition in vivo. Using experimental and spontaneous metastasis models, we confirmed that thorax irradiation with 5 Gy X-rays dramatically increased the number of tumors in the lungs. Interestingly, the number of tumors in the lungs was significantly reduced by administering nicaraven but not by administering amifostine daily after radiation exposure. Furthermore, nicaraven administration effectively inhibited CCL8 expression and macrophage recruitment in the lungs 1 day after thorax irradiation. Our data suggest that nicaraven attenuates radiation-induced lung metastasis, likely by regulating the inflammatory response after radiation exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dosimetric verification of small fields in the lung using lung-equivalent polymer gel and Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahideh Gharehaghaji

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that the dose reduction with small fields in the lung was very high. Thus, inaccurate prediction of absorbed dose inside the lung and also lung/soft-tissue interfaces with small photon beams may lead to critical consequences for treatment outcome.

  15. The kinetics of repair in mouse lung after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, E.L.; Thames, H.D.; Watkins, T.L.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of repair of sublethal damage in mouse lung was studied after fractionated doses of 137 Cs γ-rays. A wide range of doses per fraction (1.7-12 Gy) was given with interfraction intervals ranging from 0.5 to 24 h. Data were analysed by a direct method of analysis using the incomplete repair model. The half-time of repair (Tsub(1/2)) was 0.76 h for the pneumonitis phase of damage (up to 8 months) and 0.65 h for the later phase of damage up to 12 months. Rate of repair was dependent on fraction size for both phases of lung damage and was faster after large dose fractions than after small fractions. Tsub(1/2) was 0.6 h (95% c.1. 0.53, 0.69) for doses per fraction greater than 5 Gy and 0.83 h (95% c.1. 0.76, 0.92) for doses per fraction of 2 Gy. Repair was nearly complete by 6 h at least for the pneumonitis phase of damage. If extrapolated to humans, these results imply that treatments with multiple fractions per day involving the lung will not be limited by the necessity for interfraction intervals much longer than 6 h. (author)

  16. Simulation analysis of radiation fields inside phantoms for neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Daiki; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Akira; Ohmachi, Y.; Miyahara, N.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation fields inside phantoms have been calculated for neutron irradiation. Particle and heavy-ion transport code system PHITS was employed for the calculation. Energy and size dependences of neutron dose were analyzed using tissue equivalent spheres of different size. A voxel phantom of mouse was developed based on CT images of an 8-week-old male C3H/HeNs mouse. Deposition energy inside the mouse was calculated for 2- and 10-MeV neutron irradiation. (author)

  17. Treating locally advanced lung cancer with a 1.5T MR-Linac - Effects of the magnetic field and irradiation geometry on conventionally fractionated and isotoxic dose-escalated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Hannah E; Menten, Martin J; Fast, Martin F; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe; McDonald, Fiona

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the feasibility and potential benefits of radiotherapy with a 1.5T MR-Linac for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA NSCLC) patients. Ten patients with LA NSCLC were retrospectively re-planned six times: three treatment plans were created according to a protocol for conventionally fractionated radiotherapy and three treatment plans following guidelines for isotoxic target dose escalation. In each case, two plans were designed for the MR-Linac, either with standard (∼7mm) or reduced (∼3mm) planning target volume (PTV) margins, while one conventional linac plan was created with standard margins. Treatment plan quality was evaluated using dose-volume metrics or by quantifying dose escalation potential. All generated treatment plans fulfilled their respective planning constraints. For conventionally fractionated treatments, MR-Linac plans with standard margins had slightly increased skin dose when compared to conventional linac plans. Using reduced margins alleviated this issue and decreased exposure of several other organs-at-risk (OAR). Reduced margins also enabled increased isotoxic target dose escalation. It is feasible to generate treatment plans for LA NSCLC patients on a 1.5T MR-Linac. Margin reduction, facilitated by an envisioned MRI-guided workflow, enables increased OAR sparing and isotoxic target dose escalation for the respective treatment approaches. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The bronchiolar epithelium as a prominent source of pro-inflammatory cytokines after lung irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebe, Claudia E.; Uthe, Daniela; Wilfert, Falk; Ludwig, Daniela; Yang Kunyu; Koenig, Jochem; Palm, Jan; Schuck, Andreas; Willich, Normann; Remberger, Klaus; Ruebe, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study in detail the temporal and spatial release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-1α, and IL-6 in the lung tissue of C57BL/6 mice after thoracic irradiation with 12 Gy. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either sham irradiation or a single fraction of 12 Gy delivered to the thorax. Treated and sham-irradiated control mice were killed at 0.5 h, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 16 weeks, and 24 weeks post-irradiation (p.i.). Real-time multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was established to evaluate the relative messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6 in the lung tissue of the mice (compared with nonirradiated lung tissue). Immunohistochemical detection methods (alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase, avidin-biotin-complex [ABC]) and automated image analysis were used to quantify the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6 in the lung tissue (percentage of the positively stained area). Results: Radiation-induced release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6 in the lung tissue was detectable within the first hours after thoracic irradiation. We observed statistically significant up-regulations for TNF-α at 1 h p.i. on mRNA (4.99 ± 1.60) and at 6 h p.i. on protein level (7.23% ± 1.67%), for IL-1α at 6 h p.i. on mRNA (11.03 ± 0.77) and at 12 h p.i. on protein level (27.58% ± 11.06%), for IL-6 at 6 h p.i. on mRNA (6.0 ± 3.76) and at 12 h p.i. on protein level (7.12% ± 1.93%). With immunohistochemistry, we could clearly demonstrate that the bronchiolar epithelium is the most prominent source of these inflammatory cytokines in the first hours after lung irradiation. During the stage of acute pneumonitis, the bronchiolar epithelium, as well as inflammatory cells in the lung interstitium, produced high amounts of TNF-α (with the maximal value at 4 weeks p.i.: 9.47% ± 1

  19. Prevention of lung metastases by irradiation alone or combined with chemotherapy in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, J.; Haveman, J.

    1986-01-01

    Clinical observations indicate that the results of elective radiotherapy are disappointing when the subclinical metastases supposedly contain a large number of tumor cells. Experimental data confirm this indication: a rapid decrease in the effectiveness of radiation treatment of experimental metastases was observed with increasing number of tumor cells in the lung. Apart from the increase in cell number also the development of hypoxia during growth of subclinical metastases might explain part of the decrease in the effectiveness of elective radiation treatment. Experiments with the hypoxic cell sensitizer misonidazole in transplantable tumors in rodents indicate that this latter possibility might be relevant too for the clinical situation. Improvement of the results of an elective treatment might either be obtained by a reduction of the cell number to be treated with radiation, by prior treatment with a cytostatic drug or be dealing with the problem of hypoxia. Therefore in the present study the authors investigate the effectiveness of thorax irradiation combined with the treatment with cytostatic drugs (Actinomycin-D or 5-Fluorouracil) or the hypoxic cell sensitizer misonidazole in a mouse model with artificial lung metastases. The artificial lung metastases were obtained by intravenous injection of tumor cells in the tail vein of mice. The influence of thorax irradiation on the development of lung metastases was evaluated not only by recording the number of mice dying from lung metastases as parameter but also registered the pattern of lung metastases found at autopsy of animals which died from their disease. The response of lung tissue following combined therapy was also investigated

  20. A randomized trial of chest irradiation alone versus chest irradiation plus Lentinan in squamous cell lung cancer in limited stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Ikuro; Ohnoshi, Taisuke; Konno, Kiyoshi

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the effect of Lentinan, polysaccharides from Lentinusedodes, in combination with chest irradiation for limited-stage squamous cell lung cancer, we conducted a randomized trial between January 1987 and July 1989. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either a definitive chest irradiation of 60 Gy alone (RT) or the chest irradiation plus Lentinan (RT+L). Patients allocated to the RT+L group received iv infusion of Lentinan, 1 mg twice a week or 2 mg once a week, as long as possible. Of 201 patients enrolled, 183 (94 for RT, and 89 for RT+L) were eligible for analysis of survival time, and 169 (86 for RT, and 83 for RT+L) were evaluated for tumor response, survival time and quality of life. The response rate to the treatments showed a trend favoring the RT+L group (65% vs. 51%, p=0.142). The median survival time was 455 days for the RT+L group and 371 days for the RT group. The difference was not statistically significant. In the subset of patients with cancer of hilar origin, however, RT+L group patients lived significantly longer than RT group patients: Progression-free interval from symptoms and quality of life were evaluated for the both groups based on manual records of an individual patient. RT+L group patients had a significantly longer progression-free interval from dyspneic feeling than the RT group patients. The RT+L group tended to have a feeling of well-being. We conclude that Lentinan in combination with chest irradiation is useful for patients with limited-stage squamous cell lung cancer in terms of prolongation of life and maintenance of a favorable quality of life as well. (author)

  1. An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis due to small doses of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tano, Yoshihiko; Adachi, Michifumi; Kimura, Makoto; Matsushima, Toshiharu; Torii, Takashi

    1990-01-01

    An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis is reported. A 68 year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of an abnormal shadow in his chest x-ray. Lung cancer was diagnosed and treated with radiotherapy. The radiotherapy (1,200 cGy) was discontinued, however because his general condition deteriorated. Chest x-rays then showed a pneumonia-like shadow in the projected field of irradiation. The same shadow was observed in the contralateral lung field one month later. Gynecomastia and an elevated level of serum HCG were noticed during hospitalization. The patient died and an autopsy was performed. Histopathological examination upon autopsy confirmed a large cell carcinoma of the lung which stained positively for HCG with an immunoenzyme labelling technique using the PAP method. Marked fibrosis and thickening of the alveolar septae were histologically demonstrated in the projected field of irradiation and the contralateral field where chest x-rays showed the pneumonia-like shadow. (author)

  2. An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis due to small doses of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, Yoshihiko; Adachi, Michifumi; Kimura, Makoto; Matsushima, Toshiharu; Torii, Takashi (Kawasaki Medical School, Kawasaki Hospital, Okayama (Japan))

    1990-07-01

    An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis is reported. A 68 year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of an abnormal shadow in his chest x-ray. Lung cancer was diagnosed and treated with radiotherapy. The radiotherapy (1,200 cGy) was discontinued, however because his general condition deteriorated. Chest x-rays then showed a pneumonia-like shadow in the projected field of irradiation. The same shadow was observed in the contralateral lung field one month later. Gynecomastia and an elevated level of serum HCG were noticed during hospitalization. The patient died and an autopsy was performed. Histopathological examination upon autopsy confirmed a large cell carcinoma of the lung which stained positively for HCG with an immunoenzyme labelling technique using the PAP method. Marked fibrosis and thickening of the alveolar septae were histologically demonstrated in the projected field of irradiation and the contralateral field where chest x-rays showed the pneumonia-like shadow. (author).

  3. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiricuta, I.C.; Bohndorf, W.

    1996-01-01

    To analyse if prophylactic cranial irradiation is small cell lung cancer for improved survival is indicated; if adjuvant irradiation could cure the microscopic disease; if and how late effects could be minimized. Data from randomized trials and retrospective studies are critically analysed related to the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) metastases in limited disease patients in complete remission with or without prophylactic cranial irradiation. The mechanisms of late effects on CNS of prophylactic cranial irradiation and combined treatment are presented. Prophylactic cranial irradiation could decrease the incidence of CNS metastases but could not improve survival. A subgroup of patients (9 to 14%) most likely to benefit from prophylactic cranial irradiation includes patients who are likely to have an isolated CNS failure. The actual used total dose in the range 30 to 40 Gy could only conditionally decrease the CNS failure. Higher total and/or daily doses and combined treatment are related with potentially devastating neurologic and intellectual disabilities. No prospective randomized trial has demonstrated a significant survival advantage for patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation. Prophylactic cranial irradiation is capable of reducing the incidence of cerebral metastases and delays CNS failure. A subgroup of patients most likely to benefit from prophylactic cranial irradiation (9 to 14%) includes patients who are likely to have an isolated CNS failure, but this had yet to be demonstrated. The toxicity of treatment is difficult to be influenced. Prophylactic cranial irradiation should not be given concurrently with chemotherapy, a larger interval after chemotherapy is indicated. The total dose should be in the range 30 to 36 Gy and the daily fraction size not larger than 2 Gy. (orig.) [de

  4. Irradiation of graphene field effect transistors with highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, P.; Kozubek, R.; Madauß, L.; Sonntag, J.; Lorke, A.; Schleberger, M., E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de

    2016-09-01

    In this work, graphene field-effect transistors are used to detect defects due to irradiation with slow, highly charged ions. In order to avoid contamination effects, a dedicated ultra-high vacuum set up has been designed and installed for the in situ cleaning and electrical characterization of graphene field-effect transistors during irradiation. To investigate the electrical and structural modifications of irradiated graphene field-effect transistors, their transfer characteristics as well as the corresponding Raman spectra are analyzed as a function of ion fluence for two different charge states. The irradiation experiments show a decreasing mobility with increasing fluences. The mobility reduction scales with the potential energy of the ions. In comparison to Raman spectroscopy, the transport properties of graphene show an extremely high sensitivity with respect to ion irradiation: a significant drop of the mobility is observed already at fluences below 15 ions/μm{sup 2}, which is more than one order of magnitude lower than what is required for Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation for chronic allograft rejection following bilateral lung transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, David A.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Lynch, John P.; Trulock, Elbert P.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in patients experiencing chronic rejection following bilateral lung transplantation (BLT). Patients and Materials: Eleven patients received TLI for chronic allograft rejection (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome) refractory to conventional treatment modalities. Radiation therapy (RT) was prescribed as 8 Gy delivered in 10 0.8-Gy fractions, 2 fractions/week, via mantle, paraaortic, and inverted-Y fields. Serial pre- and post-RT pulmonary function values, complete blood counts, and immunosuppressive augmentation requirements [use of methylprednisolone, murine anti-human mature T-cell monoclonal antibody (OKT3), polyclonal antithymocyte globulin (ATG), and tacrolimus] were monitored. Results: In the 3 months preceding TLI, the average decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) was 34% (range 0-75%) and the median number of immunosuppression augmentations was 3 (range 0-5). Only 4 of 11 patients completed all 10 TLI treatment fractions. Reasons for discontinuation included progressive pulmonary decline (four patients), worsening pulmonary infection (two patients), and persistent thrombocytopenia (one patient). Seven of the 11 patients failed within 8 weeks of treatment cessation. One patient had unabated rejection and received bilateral living related-donor transplants; he is alive and well. Six patients died. Two of these deaths were due to pulmonary infection from organisms isolated prior to the start of RT; the other four deaths were from progressive pulmonary decline. The four remaining patients had durable positive responses to TLI (mean follow-up of 47 weeks; range 24-72). Comparing the 3 months preceding RT to the 3 months following treatment, these four patients had improvements in average FEV 1 (40% decline vs. 1% improvement) and fewer median number of immunosuppressive augmentations (3.5 vs. 0). None of these patients has developed lymphoproliferative disease or has died

  6. The influence of x-ray energy on lung dose uniformity in total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrand, Kenneth; Greven, Kathryn; Wu Qingrong

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examine the influence of x-ray energy on the uniformity of the dose within the lung in total-body irradiation treatments in which partial transmission blocks are used to control the lung dose. Methods and Materials: A solid water phantom with a cork insert to simulate a lung was irradiated by x-rays with energies of either 6, 10, or 18 MV. The source to phantom distance was 3.9 meters. The cork insert was either 10 cm wide or 6 cm wide. Partial transmission blocks with transmission factors of 50% were placed anterior to the cork insert. The blocks were either 8 or 4 cm in width. Kodak XV-2 film was placed in the midline of the phantom to record the dose. Midplane dose profiles were measured with a densitometer. Results: For the 10 cm wide cork insert the uniformity of the dose over 80% of the block width varied from 6.6% for the 6 MV x-rays to 12.2% for the 18 MV x-rays. For the 6 cm wide cork insert the uniformity was comparable for all three x-ray energies, but for 18 MV the central dose increased by 9.4% compared to the 10 cm wide insert. Conclusion: Many factors must be considered in optimizing the dose for total-body irradiation. This study suggests that for AP/PA techniques lung dose uniformity is superior with 6 MV irradiation. The blanket recommendation that the highest x-ray energy be used in TBI is not valid for all situations

  7. Protein Oxidation in the Lungs of C57BL/6J Mice Following X-Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshishat-Kupper, Michal; McCart, Elizabeth A.; Freedy, James G.; Tipton, Ashlee J.; Nagy, Vitaly; Kim, Sung-Yop; Landauer, Michael R.; Mueller, Gregory P.; Day, Regina M.

    2015-01-01

    Damage to normal lung tissue is a limiting factor when ionizing radiation is used in clinical applications. In addition, radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis are a major cause of mortality following accidental radiation exposure in humans. Although clinical symptoms may not develop for months after radiation exposure, immediate events induced by radiation are believed to generate molecular and cellular cascades that proceed during a clinical latent period. Oxidative damage to DNA is considered a primary cause of radiation injury to cells. DNA can be repaired by highly efficient mechanisms while repair of oxidized proteins is limited. Oxidized proteins are often destined for degradation. We examined protein oxidation following 17 Gy (0.6 Gy/min) thoracic X-irradiation in C57BL/6J mice. Seventeen Gy thoracic irradiation resulted in 100% mortality of mice within 127–189 days postirradiation. Necropsy findings indicated that pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis were the leading cause of mortality. We investigated the oxidation of lung proteins at 24 h postirradiation following 17 Gy thoracic irradiation using 2-D gel electrophoresis and OxyBlot for the detection of protein carbonylation. Seven carbonylated proteins were identified using mass spectrometry: serum albumin, selenium binding protein-1, alpha antitrypsin, cytoplasmic actin-1, carbonic anhydrase-2, peroxiredoxin-6, and apolipoprotein A1. The carbonylation status of carbonic anhydrase-2, selenium binding protein, and peroxiredoxin-6 was higher in control lung tissue. Apolipoprotein A1 and serum albumin carbonylation were increased following X-irradiation, as confirmed by OxyBlot immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Our findings indicate that the profile of specific protein oxidation in the lung is altered following radiation exposure. PMID:28248270

  8. Evolution of the respiratory function after irradiation of the two lungs (about 50 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulier, Alain.

    1976-01-01

    Whole chest irradiation to a dose of 870 rets, i.e. 1500 rads in 4 sessions over 7 days, causes only minimal functional reduction in patients whose pulmonary function was normal prior to radiation therapy. This reduction is the result of combination of a mild restrictive syndrome (decreased vital capacity and residual volume) and a slight impairment in gas transfer. The changes in the gas transfer do not seem to be related to the restrictive syndrome. They would appear to be due to changes in the gas exchange zone other than a restriction of the gas exchange surface. A comparison of the results with those in the literature shows that there is a distinct relationship between the dose delivered to the lung and the functional reduction in the gas transfer zone. The reduction (DT) increases exponentially with the biologically active dose (in rets). The lungs tolerance dose calculated from the results of lung function studies corresponds to that evaluated by Abbatucci et al. on the basis of clinical and radiological criteria; it is very close to 900 rets. An increase in this dose would inevitably result in a deterioration in function that would rapidly become too severe: a 20% reduction in alveolararterial 'ductance' would be too great even for patients whose lung function was normal prior to radiation therapy. The recommended total dose of 870 rets already exposes the patient to a risk of a 5% (+-10%) reduction in gas exchange. Function studies prior to radiation therapy are indispensible: the radiotherapist remains, of course, the sole judge of the advisability of lung irradiation, but it is imperative that the physiologist participate in the post-irradiation follow-up [fr

  9. [Application of microwave irradiation technology to the field of pharmaceutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Bing; Shi, Nian-Qiu; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Xing-Lin

    2014-03-01

    Microwaves can be directly transformed into heat inside materials because of their ability of penetrating into any substance. The degree that materials are heated depends on their dielectric properties. Materials with high dielectric loss are more easily to reach a resonant state by microwaves field, then microwaves can be absorbed efficiently. Microwave irradiation technique with the unique heating mechanisms could induce drug-polymer interaction and change the properties of dissolution. Many benefits such as improving product quality, increasing energy efficiency and reducing times can be obtained by microwaves. This paper summarized characteristics of the microwave irradiation technique, new preparation techniques and formulation process in pharmaceutical industry by microwave irradiation technology. The microwave technology provides a new clue for heating and drying in the field of pharmaceutics.

  10. Intraoperative plus external beam irradiation in nonresectable lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arian-Schad, K.S.; Juettner, F.M.; Ratzenhofer, B.; Leitner, H.; Porsch, G.; Pinter, H.; Ebner, F.; Hackl, A.G.; Friehs, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1987, 24 patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), stage T 1-3 N 0-2 M 0 , have undergone lymph node dissection and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) to the primary with 10-20 Gy. Patient selection criteria were nonresectability based on severe cardiorespiratory impairment, no radiological evidence of distant metastases and a Karnofsky performance status of >80. In 18 patients the IORT procedure was followed by an external beam radiation series (EBR) including the tumor with 46 Gy and the regional lymph nodes with 45/56 Gy. The tumor response was assessed by CAT-scan volumetry before the institution of IORT, 4 weeks later, before the onset of EBR, 8 weeks after the combined treatment course and on a 3 months basis thereafter. Prospectively, MRI of the thorax with/without Gadolinium-DTPA was performed to examine contrast enhancement and signal behavior of the tumor, in an attempt to differentiate residual disease compared to therapy-related collateral damage. So far, 18 patients have completed the combined treatment course with a median follow-up of 11 months (range 4.5 to 25 months). The overall local response rate (CR and PR) was 88.2 per cent. In detail, 11 complete responses, 6 partial responses and one minimal response were observed. The overall and recurrent-free survival at 25 months was 49.6 per cent and 83.3 per cent, respectively. (author). 31 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Protective, elective lung irradiation in non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, L.; Hristozova, I.; Mihaylova, I.; Perenovska, P.

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma in childhood is a disease from family of the peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours. For a period of 16 y (1984-2000), 34 children with Ewing's sarcoma were treated and followed in our department. Twenty-seven of these patients were without distant metastases. Complex treatment was applied to all these patients-chemotherapy VACA (vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin), local radiotherapy to a total dose of 50-56 Gy ± surgery. After, a local tumour control was achieved in 11 children with non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, elective whole lung irradiation to a total dose of 12-15 Gy was applied. Our experience in these 11 patients with non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, in whom elective lung irradiation was applied, showed significant reduction in the lung metastases, improved free of disease survival and overall survival. The achieved good treatment results necessitate extending this treatment approach through defining the risk groups of patients, suitable for elective lung radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy in non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma. (authors)

  12. The effect of patient position and field configuration on lung volume in the treatment of advanced carcinoma of the breast or lung volumes in breast techniques - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The position of the patient together with the configuration of the treatment fields play an important role in the volume of lung irradiated in breast techniques. These factors are even more important when the staging of the disease is advanced. A comparison of lung volumes is made with the patient in three treatment positions, and the effect of beam angling is demonstrated. A method of calculating the approximated lung volume from port films is proposed, together with a comparative analysis of the data obtained. Clinical decisions affecting technical considerations are examined. 6 refs., 5 figs

  13. Varied effects of thoracic irradiation on peripheral lymphocyte subsets in lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Makino, Shigeki; Fukuda, Yasuki; Min, Kyong-Yob; Ikemoto, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Akira; Ohsawa, Nakaaki

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the influence of thoracic irradiation on immunological competence in patients with lung cancer, we examined the changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 15 patients before and after radiation therapy by two-color flow cytometry techniques. After radiation therapy, the percentage and the absolute number of CD4+CD45RA+ cells (naive T cells) and CD56+and/orCD16+ cells (NK cells) decreased. The percentage of CD4+ human leukocyte antigen-DR(HLA-DR)+ cells (activated CD4T cells) and CD8+HLA-DR+ cells (activated CD8T cells) increased, although the absolute number did not change significantly. Naive T cells may be more selectively damaged than memory T cells by thoracic irradiation, through their recirculation behavior. The reduction of natural killer (NK) cells is disadvantageous for anti-tumor immunity. The percentage of HLA-DR positive T lymphocytes was significantly increased, and thus the possibility of HLA-DR enhancement by irradiation cannot be excluded. Therefore, thoracic irradiation has numerous varied effects on the immunological system of lung cancer patients. (author)

  14. Improvement of neutron irradiation field of research reactors for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Otohiko

    1992-01-01

    The modification of research reactors for an improvement of the irradiation field for BNCT has been investigated in comparison with the field characteristics of the 'old' configuration at the Musashi reactor. The new point of this study is that the evaluation has been done by using an arrangement including both the facility structure and a whole-body phantom, and also by considering the whole-body absorbed dose. (author)

  15. Influence on dose calculation by difference of dose calculation algorithms in stereotactic lung irradiation. Comparison of pencil beam convolution (inhomogeneity correction: batho power law) and analytical anisotropic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Masayuki; Noguchi, Yoshitaka; Fukunaga, Jyunichi; Hirano, Naomi; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Hirose, Takaaki

    2009-01-01

    The monitor unit (MU) was calculated by pencil beam convolution (inhomogeneity correction algorithm: batho power law) [PBC (BPL)] which is the dose calculation algorithm based on measurement in the past in the stereotactic lung irradiation study. The recalculation was done by analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA), which is the dose calculation algorithm based on theory data. The MU calculated by PBC (BPL) and AAA was compared for each field. In the result of the comparison of 1031 fields in 136 cases, the MU calculated by PBC (BPL) was about 2% smaller than that calculated by AAA. This depends on whether one does the calculation concerning the extension of the second electrons. In particular, the difference in the MU is influenced by the X-ray energy. With the same X-ray energy, when the irradiation field size is small, the lung pass length is long, the lung pass length percentage is large, and the CT value of the lung is low, and the difference of MU is increased. (author)

  16. Design experiences for medical irradiation field at the musashi reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Otohiko

    1994-01-01

    The design of the medical irradiation field at the Musashi reactor was carried out from 1974 to 1975, about 20 years ago. Various numerical analyses have been carried out recently, and it is astonishing to find out that the performance close to the optimum as a 100 kW reactor has been obtained. The reason for this is that the design was carried out by dividing into the stationary part and the moving part, and as for the moving part, the structure was determined by repeating trial and error and experiments. In this paper, the comparison of the analysis carried out later with the experimental data and the change of the absorbed dose at the time of medical irradiation accompanying the change of neutron energy spectra are reported. As the characteristics of the medical irradiation field at the Musashi reactor, the neutron energy spectra and the absorbed dose and mean medical irradiation time are shown. As the problems in boron neutron capture therapy, the neutron fluence required for the therapy, the way of thinking on background dose, and the problem of determining the irradiation time are discussed. The features of epithermal neutron beam are explained. (K.I.)

  17. Performance degradation of ferrofluidic feedthroughs in a mixed irradiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Nikolaos; Fernandes, S.; Mittig, Wolfgang; Pellemoine, Frederique; Avilov, M.; Kostin, M.; Mausner, L.; Ronningen, R.; Schein, M.; Bollen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Ferrofluidic feedthrough (FF) rotary seals containing either NdFeB or SmCo-type permanent magnets have been considered for use in the target and beam dump systems of the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). To evaluate their performance under irradiation three FF seals were irradiated in a mixed field consisting of fast neutrons, protons and γ-rays to an average absorbed dose of 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 MGy at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer facility (BLIP). The radiation types and energy profiles mimic those expected at the FRIB facility. Degradation of the operational performance of these devices due to irradiation is expected to be the result of the de-magnetization of the permanent magnets contained within the seal and the changes in the ferrofluid properties. Post-irradiation performance was evaluated by determining the ferrofluidic seal vacuum tightness and torque under static and dynamic conditions. The study revealed that the ferrofluidic feedthrough seal irradiated to a dose of 0.2 MGy maintained its vacuum tightness under both static and rotational condition while the one irradiated to a dose of 2.0 MGy exhibited signs of ferrofluid damage but no overall performance loss. At 20 MGy dose the effects of irradiation on the ferrofluid properties (viscosity and particle agglomeration) were shown to be severe. Furthermore, limited de-magnetization of the annular shaped Nd2Fe14B and Sm2Co17 magnets located within the irradiated FFs was observed for doses of 0.2 MGy and 20 MGy respectively.

  18. Optimation of patient positioning and irradiation field documentation when irradiating in oto-rhino-laryngological area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proske, H.

    1992-01-01

    The large mobility of head and neck requires, when irradiating in this area, positioning and fastening aids, which go beyond simple head bolsters or head moulds. This paper presented describes a positioning system developed by us for irradiating the neck-nose-throat area, which, due to its construction, consists of a non-slipping positioning ground plate and an individually adjustable masking system, which is physiological safe, can be proceeded quickly and exactly, is relatively inexpensive, and is accepted by patients without objections, furthermore since skin markings by drawing field limits onto the face mask are no longer necessary. Various technical aids allow the placement of satellites to spare those body parts which are not irradiated and to installed compensators for the direction of radiation. An integrated cartridge mount enables in a simple way easy production of field control documentation photos. (orig.) [de

  19. DNA damage response signaling in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells following gamma and carbon beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Narang, Himanshi; Sarma, Asitikantha; Krishna, Malini

    2011-11-01

    Carbon beams (5.16MeV/u, LET=290keV/μm) are high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation characterized by higher relative biological effectiveness than low LET radiation. The aim of the current study was to determine the signaling differences between γ-rays and carbon ion-irradiation. A549 cells were irradiated with 1Gy carbon or γ-rays. Carbon beam was found to be three times more cytotoxic than γ-rays despite the fact that the numbers of γ-H2AX foci were same. Percentage of cells showing ATM/ATR foci were more with γ-rays however number of foci per cell were more in case of carbon irradiation. Large BRCA1 foci were found in all carbon irradiated cells unlike γ-rays irradiated cells and prosurvival ERK pathway was activated after γ-rays irradiation but not carbon. The noteworthy finding of this study is the early phase apoptosis induction by carbon ions. In the present study in A549 lung adenocarcinoma, authors conclude that despite activation of same repair molecules such as ATM and BRCA1, differences in low and high LET damage responses might be due to their distinct macromolecular complexes rather than their individual activation and the activation of cytoplasmic pathways such as ERK, whether it applies to all the cell lines need to be further explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cell shedding from X-irradiated multicellular spheroids of human lung carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, K.; Okada, S.; Suzuki, N.; Majima, H.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the effect of radiation on cell shedding from the surface of multicellular spheroids. Spheroids were produced from two human lung cell lines, one adenocarcinoma (LCT1) and the other small cell carcinoma (LCT2), by using a liquid overlay culture technique. The number of cells shed from both kinds of spheroids did not change significantly when they were irradiated. The number of clonogenic cells shed from both kinds of irradiated spheroids decreased sharply as the dose of irradiation increases. There were no significant differences in clonogenic cell shedding per spheroid between LCT1 and LCT2 spheroids. 400 μm spheroids were more radioresistant to inhibition of clonogenic cell shedding than 250 μm spheroids. Shed cells were more radiosensitive than speroid cells. In these experiments, we did not obtain any results indicating that radiation enchances metastasis. (orig.) [de

  1. Can involved-field irradiation replace elective nodal irradiation in chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Miao, Chuanwang; Chen, Zhen; Li, Wanhu; Yuan, Shuanghu; Yu, Jinming; Hu, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    Chemoradiotherapy is the most common treatment for inoperable esophageal cancer. However, there is no consensus on the delineation of the clinical target volume. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) is recommended for inoperable esophageal cancer. A few studies have reported a decrease in the incidence of radiation-related toxicity of involved-field irradiation (IFI) for esophageal cancer. A systematic review and pooled analysis were performed to determine whether IFI in definitive chemoradiotherapy was more beneficial than ENI for esophageal cancer. The results showed no significant differences in the overall survival and local control rates between the IFI and ENI arms. Meanwhile, the incidences of esophageal and lung toxicities were significantly decreased in the IFI arm. These results suggest that IFI is a feasible treatment option for locally advanced esophageal cancer, especially to minimize irradiation-related toxicity.

  2. Lung autophagic response following exposure of mice to whole body irradiation, with and without amifostine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zois, Christos E.; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Kainulainen, Heikki; Botaitis, Sotirios; Torvinen, Sira; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Sivridis, Efthimios; Koukourakis, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We investigated the effect 6 Gy of WBI on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. → Irradiation induces dysfunction of the autophagic machinery in normal lung, characterized by decreased transcription of the LC3A/Beclin-1 mRNA and accumulation of the LC3A, and p62 proteins. → The membrane bound LC3A-II protein levels increased in the cytosolic fraction (not in the pellet), contrasting the patterns noted after starvation-induced autophagy. → Administration of amifostine, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings, suggesting protection of the normal autophagic function. -- Abstract: Purpose: The effect of ionizing irradiation on the autophagic response of normal tissues is largely unexplored. Abnormal autophagic function may interfere the protein quality control leading to cell degeneration and dysfunction. This study investigates its effect on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. Methods and materials: Mice were exposed to 6 Gy of whole body γ-radiation and sacrificed at various time points. The expression of MAP1LC3A/LC3A/Atg8, beclin-1, p62/sequestosome-1 and of the Bnip3 proteins was analyzed. Results: Following irradiation, the LC3A-I and LC3A-II protein levels increased significantly at 72 h and 7 days. Strikingly, LC3A-II protein was increased (5.6-fold at 7 days; p < 0.001) only in the cytosolic fraction, but remained unchanged in the membrane fraction. The p62 protein, was significantly increased in both supernatant and pellet fraction (p < 0.001), suggesting an autophagosome turnover deregulation. These findings contrast the patterns of starvation-induced autophagy up-regulation. Beclin-1 levels remained unchanged. The Bnip3 protein was significantly increased at 8 h, but it sharply decreased at 72 h (p < 0.05). Administration of amifostine (200 mg/kg), 30 min before irradiation, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings on blots, suggesting restoration of the normal autophagic function. The LC3A and Beclin1 m

  3. Pathological studies on carcinoma of the lung in rats induced by external x-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Tetsuro

    1978-01-01

    Lung tumors in Wistar rats were induced by administration of various doses of external irradiation through the anterior chest wall. Pulmonary fibrosis following external irradiation was observed in 13 of 17 rats (76.4%) in Group I (800R/day for 5 days), in 26 of 36 rats (78.8%) in Group II (800R/WK for 5 WKs), and in 6 of 18 rats (35.3%) in Group III (500R/WK for 4 WKs). The degree of pulmonary fibrosis was greater each time in the rats given 4,000R than in the rats given 2,000R. In Groups I and II 5 pulmonary tumors (2 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 adenocarcinoma, and 2 adenomas) were observed in 3 of 16 rats (17.6%), and 10 pulmonary tumors (4 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 adenocarcinoma, 4 adenomas, and 1 fibrosarcoma) were observed in 9 of 33 rats (24.2%), respectively. In Group III only 1 case of pulmonary adenoma was observed among 17 rats (6.8%). The first case of epithelial tumor of the lung was found in a rat in Group I. Histological findings during the course of the experiment revealed that the earliest changes following irradiation were those of radiation pneuminitis, characterized by engorged capillaries and edema in collapsed alveoli, with lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltrations. In addition, the nuclei of the lining cells of the alveoli and bronchioles were enlarged and atypical. From the 10th through the 20th experimental week, fibrosis of the alveolar septum and adenomatous hyperplasia of the alveolar lining became extensive, particularly in the bronchiolo-alveolar areas of the periphery of the lung. Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia occurred within the fibrotic lesion or in proximity to it. It was frequently followed by carcinoma, suggesting that carcinoma in the present experiment arose in atypical epithelium, induced by irradiation of the bronchiolo-alveolar epithelial lining

  4. Pathological studies on carcinoma of the lung in rats induced by external x-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, T [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1978-08-01

    Lung tumors in Wistar rats were induced by administration of various doses of external irradiation through the anterior chest wall. Pulmonary fibrosis following external irradiation was observed in 13 of 17 rats (76.4%) in Group I (800R/day for 5 days), in 26 of 36 rats (78.8%) in Group II (800R/WK for 5 WKs), and in 6 of 18 rats (35.3%) in Group III (500R/WK for 4 WKs). The degree of pulmonary fibrosis was greater each time in the rats given 4,000R than in the rats given 2,000R. In Groups I and II 5 pulmonary tumors (2 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 adenocarcinoma, and 2 adenomas) were observed in 3 of 16 rats (17.6%), and 10 pulmonary tumors (4 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 adenocarcinoma, 4 adenomas, and 1 fibrosarcoma) were observed in 9 of 33 rats (24.2%), respectively. In Group III only 1 case of pulmonary adenoma was observed among 17 rats (6.8%). The first case of epithelial tumor of the lung was found in a rat in Group I. Histological findings during the course of the experiment revealed that the earliest changes following irradiation were those of radiation pneuminitis, characterized by engorged capillaries and edema in collapsed alveoli, with lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltrations. In addition, the nuclei of the lining cells of the alveoli and bronchioles were enlarged and atypical. From the 10th through the 20th experimental week, fibrosis of the alveolar septum and adenomatous hyperplasia of the alveolar lining became extensive, particularly in the bronchiolo-alveolar areas of the periphery of the lung. Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia occurred within the fibrotic lesion or in proximity to it. It was frequently followed by carcinoma, suggesting that carcinoma in the present experiment arose in atypical epithelium, induced by irradiation of the bronchiolo-alveolar epithelial lining.

  5. Summary of ionizing and displacive irradiation fields in various facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Greenwood, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations have been performed to estimate the ionizing and displacive irradiation fields that will occur in ceramics during irradiation in accelerators and fission and fusion reactors. A useful measure of the relative strength of ionizing vs. displasive radiation is the ratio of the absorbed ionizing dose to the displacement damage dose, which in the case of ion irradiation is equal to the ratio of the electronic stopping power to the nuclear stopping power. In ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , this ratio is about 20 at a fusion reactor first wall, and has a typical value of about 100 in a fusion reactor blanket region and in mixed spectrum reactors such as HFIR. Particle accelerator sources typically have much higher ionizing to displacive radiation ratios, ranging from about 2000 for 1 MeV protons to >10,000 for 1 MeV electrons

  6. Correlation between atopic manifestation and lung toxicity following chest irradiation for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Saeko; Shimizu, Tadafumi; Kubota, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of atopic manifestations on the occurrence of the lung toxicity following chest irradiation for breast cancer. Collection of 1,173 patients who had undergone radiotherapy on their 1,177 chest walls or postsurgical mammary glands at 9 institutions including ours. They received treatment consecutively from December 1980 through October 2005, with which we formed the basis of this analysis. Patients with any of the following medical history were defined as having atopic manifestations (n=111): asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, and allergy to food or drug. Of them, patients who were observed for at least 6 months or who suffered from lung toxicity at any time, were classified as Group A (n=85). On the other hand, patients in our institute who were observed for at least 6 months or who suffered from lung toxicity at any time regardless of atopic manifestations, were classified as Group B (n=113), and patients without any atopic manifestation were classified as Group C (n=92). Grade 3 or higher lung toxicity in National Cancer Institute, Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE) (v 3.0), occurred in 8.2%, id est (i.e.) 7 cases, of Group A, 2.7% of Group B, and 1.1% of Group C (p=0.0293 Group C against Group A). Three cases were classified as classical pneumonitis, and the other 4 sporadic pneumonitis such as Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia and Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia. Both of the histologically proven COP and CEP patients showed atopic manifestations in our institute. The detail clinical features are described in the main text. Having atopic manifestations suggests that there may be risk of lung toxicity following chest irradiation for breast cancer. (author)

  7. Improvement of dose distribution of esophageal irradiation using the field-within-a-field technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Tsugunori; Okabe, Keigo; Yamato, Hidetada; Murakami, Jyunji; Nakazawa, Yasuo; Kato, Mitsuyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The wide radiation field for mediastinal dose distribution should be inhomogeneous with the usual simple opposed beam irradiation. The purpose of this study was to improve the dose distribution of the mediastinum using a conventional planning system with a dose-volume histogram (DVH) and the field-in-field technique. Three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution is obtained in bilateral opposed-field irradiation. An overdose area obtained from the 3D dose distribution is defined and reprojected into the irradiation field. A new reduced field is created by removing the reprojected overdose area. A 3D dose distribution is again obtained and compared with the results from first one. Procedures were repeated until each of the target volumes was within ±5% of the prescribed dose and the irradiation volume within 107% or less of the prescribed dose. From the DVH analysis, our field-within-a-field technique resulted in a more uniform dose distribution within the conventional planning. The field-within-a-field technique involves many parameters, and an inverse planning algorithm is suitable for computation. However, with our method, the forward planning system is adequate for planning, at least in a relatively straightforward planning system such as bilateral opposed fields therapy. (author)

  8. Post-irradiation dietary vitamin E does not affect the development of radiation-induced lung damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Gameren, Mieke M. van; Kampinga, Harm H.; Szabo, Ben G.; Coppes, Rob P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether application of post-irradiation vitamin E, an anti-oxidant, could prevent the development of radiation induced lung damage. Wistar rats were given vitamin E enriched or vitamin E deprived food starting from 4 weeks after 18 Gy single dose irradiation of the right thorax. Neither breathing frequencies nor CT density measurements revealed differences between the groups. It is concluded that post-irradiation vitamin E does not influence radiation-induced fibrosis to the lung

  9. Pathologic changes in the lung following single and multi-fraction irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, E.L.; Harley, R.A.; Fenn, J.O.; Klobukowski, C.J.; Hargrove, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    The limiting factor in the treatment of malignant disease with irradiation is the tolerance of normal tissue irradiated. In the present study the right lungs of rats were exposed to single doses of 2000 rad of x-radiation, to 10 x 200 rad, or to 5 x 400 rad. Animals from each group were sacrificed monthly for 6 months post exposure. Sections of lung were examined by light microscopy (LM) and by scanning or transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). A focal exudative lesion was seen at 2 months after the single dose; it progressed to a proliferative and then reparative, fibrotic lesion by 6 months. Changes in epithelial lung components, particularly the presence of Type II pneumocytes, were found with both LM and TM. Vascular changes were less pronounced. A striking finding was the presence of mast cells in the alveolar walls. Neither of the multi-fraction schedules produced any of these changes, except hyperplasia of Type II cells following 5 x 400 rad. The possible implication of Type II and mast cells in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis is discussed

  10. Late response to whole-lung irradiation alone and with whole-body hyperthermia in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, S.M.; Gillette, E.L.; Dawson, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The late effects of whole-lung irradiation with and without whole-body hyperthermia were studied in beagle dogs. The reference doses ranged from 18 to 49.5 Gy given in 1.5-Gy fractions over 6 weeks. Whole-body hyperthermia was given in three 2-h treatments to a deep rectal temperature of 42.0 degrees C. Radiation was given simultaneously with hyperthermia on those days. Physiological and histopathological responses were evaluated. Physiological changes included decreases in cardiac output, systemic blood pressure, dynamic compliance and serotonin uptake. Early changes included an increase in extravascular water and total protein in the lavage. These changes were considered mild, were compensated for and occurred only in dogs receiving doses of 40.5 Gy or greater given in 1.5-Gy fractions over 6 weeks. Histopathological change were typical of irradiated lung and included pleural fibrosis, interstitial fibrosis, fibrotic foci, and peribronchial and perivascular fibrosis. There was no enhancement of late injury to lung by hyperthermia seen in this study. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. The clinical results of stereotactic irradiation for stage IA non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Kanji; Kodama, Hisayuki; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Kaneyasu, Yuko; Wadasaki, Koichi; Ito, Katsuhide; Kimura, Tomoki; Akagi, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    Discussed are the results in the title in authors' hospital. Subjects are 15 patients with the stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (10 males and 5 females; median age, 77 y; 11 cases of adenocarcinoma and 4 of squamous cell carcinoma), whose progress could be followed for 6 months or longer after the stereotactic irradiation during the period of July 1999 to 2006. The 8-9-gated irradiation therapy on the primary cancer alone was conducted with Varian Clinac 2300 (6MV-Xray) with the 3D planning equipment of PHILIPS Pinnacle. For some patients, the spirometer was used to monitor the voluntary breath-hold and body was fixed by vacuum fixer. Doses were 56 (4 Gy x 14) Gy in 3 cases, 60 (7.5 Gy x 8) Gy in 2, 50 (10 Gy x 5) Gy in 1 and 48 (12 Gy x 4) Gy in 9. Kaplan-Meier method was used for calculating the local control and survival rates. The former was 93% and the latter, 86% (1 year), 78% (2 y) and 39% (3 y). Three-year survival rate was 100% in 5 cases without other cancer and 18% in 10 with the cancers. Recurrence was seen in 3 cases and remote metastases, 7. Pneumonitis less than Grade 2 was in 11 cases. The stereotactic irradiation was thus found safe and effective in the stage IA non-small cell lung cancer. (T.I.)

  12. Chemosensitivity of irradiated resistant cells of multicellular spheroids in A549 lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Degang; Shi Genming; Huang Gang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the chemosensitivity of irradiated resistant cells of multicellular spheroids in A549 lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: The A549 irradiated resistant cells were the 10th regrowth generations after irradiated with 2.5 Gy of 6 MV X-ray, the control groups were A549 parent cells and MCFY/VCR resistant cells. The 6 kinds of chemotherapeutic drugs were DDP, VDS, 5-FU, HCP, MMC and ADM respectively, with verapamil (VPL) as reverse agent. The treatment effect was compared with MTT assay, and the multidrug resistant gene expressions of mdrl and MRP were measured with RT-PCR method. Results: A549 cells and irradiated resistant cells were resistant to DDP, but sensitivity to VDS,5-FU, HCP, MMC and ADM. The inhibitory rates of VPL to the above two cells were 98% and 25% respectively(P 2 -MG and MRP/β 2 -MG of all A549 cells were about 0 and 0.7 respectively, and those of MCFT/VCR cells were 35 and 4.36. Conclusion: The chemosensitivity of A549 irradiated resistant cells had not changed markedly, the decreased sensitivity to VPL could not be explained by the gene expression of mdrl and MRP. It is conferred that some kinds of changes in the cell membrane and decreased regrowth ability to result in resistance. Unlike multidrug resistance induced by chemotherapy, VPL may be not an ideal reverser to irradiated resistant cells. The new kinds of biological preparation should be sought to combine chemotherapy to treat recurring tumor with irradiated resistance. (authors)

  13. Relapsing pattern of brain metastasis after brain irradiation in small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Masao; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Kono, Koichi; Yoden, Eisaku; Mori, Takeki

    1997-01-01

    Many reports concerning radiation therapy for brain metastasis have been published, and which of the various methods urged by these reports provide optional control is still controversial. According to developing diagnosis of metastasis in CNS, therapeutic problems should be referred. We reviewed 67 patients with small cell lung cancer and brain metastasis who underwent brain irradiation (Ave. 47 Gy/5W), and all 15 patients with brain relapse after the irradiation. Relapsing patterns in this clinical setting were divided into local regrowth in the same lesions and re-metastasis (reseeding) in other regions, by reviewing follow up CT and MRI studies. Total survival among 15 patients with brain relapse and 52 without relapse was longer in the former cases than the later: 1-, and 2-year survival (47/19%, 13/8%) and MST (10.8/5.7 months), from the initial brain irradiation. The concerned significant factors limited in younger age, low value of LDH and improvement of NF. Of the 15 patients with brain relapse, 4 developed local regrowth and 11 did re-metastasis. The period of remission since brain irradiation were 172±94.4 and 393±281 days, respectively. Lower number of brain metastasis and lower value of LDH were shown in re-metastasis patients. At the time of brain relapse, 11 patients had recurrence of carcinomatous meningitis. 4 patients were treated with whole brain re-irradiation. All patients died of cancer, including 12 of relapsing CNS diseases and 3 of primary lesion and hepatic metastasis. Leukoencephalopathy developed in 2 patients. Survival since the brain relapse was 2 to 238 days without significant difference in cases of local regrowth and re-metastasis. According to our data on relapsing pattern of brain metastasis after conventional fractionated brain irradiation with an objective dose of 50 Gy, 75% of brain relapse were re-metastasis, we appreciate this irradiation for initial brain metastasis if limited to the brain. (author)

  14. Multiple fields may offer better esophagus sparing without increased probability of lung toxicity in optimized IMRT of lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Fraass, Benedick A.; Haken, Randall K. ten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether increasing numbers of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields enhance lung-tumor dose without additional predicted toxicity for difficult planning geometries. Methods and Materials: Data from 8 previous three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) patients with tumors located in various regions of each lung, but with planning target volumes (PTVs) overlapping part of the esophagus, were used as input. Four optimized-beamlet IMRT plans (1 plan that used the 3D-CRT beam arrangement and 3 plans with 3, 5, or 7 axial, but predominantly one-sided, fields) were compared. For IMRT, the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) in the whole PTV was optimized simultaneously with that in a reduced PTV exclusive of the esophagus. Normal-tissue complication probability-based costlets were used for the esophagus, heart, and lung. Results: Overall, IMRT plans (optimized by use of EUD to judiciously allow relaxed PTV dose homogeneity) result in better minimum PTV isodose surface coverage and better average EUD values than does conformal planning; dose generally increases with the number of fields. Even 7-field plans do not significantly alter normal-lung mean-dose values or lung volumes that receive more than 13, 20, or 30 Gy. Conclusion: Optimized many-field IMRT plans can lead to escalated lung-tumor dose in the special case of esophagus overlapping PTV, without unacceptable alteration in the dose distribution to normal lung

  15. Uptake of carbon monoxide by C3H mice following X irradiation of lung only or total-body irradiation with 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, D.S.; Niewoehner, D.E.; Kim, T.H.; Song, C.W.; Levitt, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide uptake (V/sub co/) and ventilation rate (VR) of C3H mice were determined at 14 weeks following either X irradiation of lungs only or total-body irradiation with 60 Co at different dose rates. Following localized X irradiation of lung at 97 /sub c/Gy/min there was a reduction in V/sub co/, which was inversely related to radiation dose, with a small reduction below control levels being detected at 7 Gy, the lowest dose tested. An increase in VR could be detected only at doses of 11 Gy, or more. Another group of animals received 11.5 Gy total-body irradiation at either 26.2 or 4.85 /sub c/Gy/min fllowed by transplantation with syngeneic bone marrow. Following total-body irradiation, V/sub co/ was significantly reduced by about 37% at the higher dose rate and 23% at the lower dose rate. In contrast, a trend toward elevated VR was detected only at the higher dose rate.The results indicate that V/sub co/ is a sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury and that under the experimental conditions used V/sub co/ is a more sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury in C3H mice than VR

  16. Absorbed dose distribution analyses in irradiation with adjacent fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudalbu, C.; Onuc, C.; Andrada, S.

    2002-01-01

    Because the special irradiation technique with adjacent fields is the most used in the case of medulloblastoma treatment, we consider very important to specify some general information about medulloblastoma. This malignant disease has a large incidence in children with age between 5-7 years. This tumor usually originates in the cerebellum and is referred to as primitive undifferentiated tumor. It may spread contiguously to the cerebellar peduncle, floor of the fourth ventricle, into the cervical spine. In addition, it may spread via the cerebrospinal fluid intracranially and/or to the spinal cord. For this purpose it is necessary to perform a treatment technique with cranial tangential fields combined with adjacent fields for the entire spinal cord to achieve a perfect coverage of the zones with malignant cells. The treatment in this case is an association between surgery-radio-chemotherapy, where the radiotherapy has a very important roll and a curative purpose. This is due to the fact that the migration of malignant cells in the body can't be controlled by surgery. Because of this special irradiation technique used in medulloblastoma treatment, we chase to describe in this paper this complex type of irradiation where the implications of the beams divergence in doses distribution are essentials

  17. Single-dose and fractionated irradiation of four human lung cancer cell lines in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, O.; Lennartsson, L.; Nilsson, S.

    1991-01-01

    Four established human lung cancer cell lines were exposed to single-dose irradiation. The survival curves of 2 small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC) were characterized by a limited capacity for repair with small and moderate shoulders with extrapolation numbers (n) of 1.05 and 1.60 respectively. Two non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines, one squamous cell (SQCLC) and one large cell (LCLC) had large shoulders with n-values of 73 and 15 respectively. The radiosensitivity when measured as D 0 did not, however, differ as much from cell line to cell line, with values from 1.22 to 1.65. The surviving fraction after 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.24 and 0.42 respectively in the SCLC cell lines and 0.90 and 0.88 respectively in the NSCLC cell lines. Fractionated irradiation delivered according to 3 different schedules was also investigated. All the schedules delivered a total dose of 10 Gy in 5 days and were applied in 1, 2 and 5 Gy dose fractions respectively. Survival followed the pattern found after single-dose irradiation; it was lowest in the SCLC cell line with the lowest SF and highest in the two NSCLC cell lines. In the SCLC cell lines all schedules were approximately equally efficient. In the LCLC and in the SQCLC cell lines, the 5 Gy schedule killed more cells than the 1 and 2 Gy schedules. The results indicate that the size of the shoulder of the survival curve is essential when choosing the most tumoricidal fractionation schedule. (orig.)

  18. Captopril reduces collagen and mast cell accumulation in irradiated rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Ts'ao, C.H.; Hinz, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril ameliorates radiation-induced pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in rats. The present study determined whether captopril also reduces collagen (hydroxyproline) accumulation in the lungs of rats sacrificed 2 months after a range of single doses (0-30 Gy) of 60Co gamma rays to the right hemithorax. Captopril was administered in the feed at a regimen of 0, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day continuously after irradiation. Mast cell counts also were obtained from lungs of all animals exposed to 30 Gy. In rats receiving no captopril, there was a radiation dose-dependent increase in right lung hydroxyproline (HP) content and in HP concentration per g wet weight. Captopril produced a drug dose-dependent suppression in this radiation-induced HP accumulation. At a dose of 50 mg/kg/d, captopril reduced the slope of the radiation dose response curve for lung HP content by a factor of 1.7, and completely prevented the increase in HP concentration. At an isoeffect level of 550 micrograms HP per right superior lobe, this dose of captopril exhibited a DRF of 1.7 +/- 0.2. In rats exposed to 30 Gy, moreover, the number of mast cells per mm2 of alveolar cross-sectional surface area decreased from 105 +/- 8 to 100 +/- 7 and 59 +/- 5 in the groups given 0, 25 or 50 mg/kg/d of captopril, respectively, (vs none in sham-irradiated rats). These data are the first to demonstrate that the ACE inhibitor captopril might provide a novel intervention in the pathogenesis of radiation fibrosis

  19. Effects of insulin on the survival of irradiated chinese hamster lung cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, P S; Kwock, L; Hefter, K; Wallach, D F.H.; Brotman, R [Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, Mass. (USA)

    1977-01-01

    Insulin treatment (10/sup -7/-10/sup -9/ M) before ..gamma.. irradiation (50 to 500 rads) increases the long term survival of Chinese hamster lung cells (DON). Our data indicates that the radioprotective effect of insulin is not due to a modulation of cyclic-adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate levels within these cells. The results suggest that the radiosensitive plasma membrane component postulated to be involved in the interphase death of thymocytes and protected by insulin may have a counterpart in DON cells.

  20. Electric field and temperature effects in irradiated MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, M. A. G., E-mail: marcilei@fei.edu.br; Santos, R. B. B.; Leite, F. G.; Araújo, N. E.; Cirne, K. H.; Melo, M. A. A.; Rallo, A. [Centro Universitário da FEI, São Bernardo do Campo, S.P. (Brazil); Aguiar, Vitor A. P.; Aguirre, F.; Macchione, E. L. A.; Added, N.; Medina, N. H. [Instituto de Física da USP, São Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

    2016-07-07

    Electronic devices exposed to ionizing radiation exhibit degradation on their electrical characteristics, which may compromise the functionality of the device. Understanding the physical phenomena responsible for radiation damage, which may be specific to a particular technology, it is of extreme importance to develop methods for testing and recovering the devices. The aim of this work is to check the influence of thermal annealing processes and electric field applied during irradiation of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) in total ionizing dose experiments analyzing the changes in the electrical parameters in these devices.

  1. Repair capacity of mouse lung after total body irradiation alone or combined with cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwat, Akmal; Bentzen, Soeren M.; Nielsen, Ole S.; Mahmoud, Hossam K.; Overgaard, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Purpose. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) combined with fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) is frequently used in the conditioning of patients prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). This study was performed to investigate the effect of CTX on the repair capacity of lung tissue after TBI in a mouse model for BMT. Materials and methods. TBI was given as a single fraction, 3 fractions in 3 days (Fx 3) or 9 fractions in 3 days (Fx 9) either alone or 24 h after a single dose of CTX. The single fraction TBI was given at either high dose rate (HDR) of 0.71 Gy/min or low dose rate (LDR) of 0.08 Gy/min. All mice were transplanted 4-6 h after the last TBI fraction. Lung damage was assessed using ventilation rate (VR) and lethality between 28 and 180 days. The repair capacity of lung tissue was estimated using the direct analysis method with the probability of reaching the end point described by a logistic formulation of the linear quadratic model. Results. The VR data confirmed the high repair capacity of lung tissue with an α/β ratio of 4.4 Gy though with a wide 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.03-10.5). Giving CTX before fractionated TBI marked reduced the doses needed to cause response in 50% of the animals. The sparing effect of using fractionated TBI was still evident in the combined CTX-TBI schedules. The estimated α/β ratio was 1.6 Gy (CI = 0.01-4.7) which is within the range of values reported after thoracic radiation only. On the other hand, the sparing effect seen in going from single fraction HDR to LDR was completely abolished when CTX was given 24 h before TBI. The same pattern was repeated when lethality between 28-180 days was used. Yet, the use of lethality to estimate lung damage in a TBI model, markedly underestimated the repair capacity. Conclusions. These results confirm the high repair capacity of lung tissue after TBI and emphasize the value of using a specific end point in testing lung damage after TBI. It also shows that there can be a negative

  2. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jiawen [Molecular Radiobiology Laboratory, Division of Cellular and Molecular Research (Singapore); Itahana, Koji, E-mail: koji.itahana@duke-nus.edu.sg [Cancer and Stem Cell Biology Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Singapore); Baskar, Rajamanickam, E-mail: r.baskar@nccs.com.sg [Molecular Radiobiology Laboratory, Division of Cellular and Molecular Research (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre (Singapore)

    2015-02-27

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G{sub 1}/S or G{sub 2}/M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G{sub 0}, therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its

  3. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jiawen; Itahana, Koji; Baskar, Rajamanickam

    2015-01-01

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G 1 /S or G 2 /M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G 0 , therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its known role in

  4. Response of mouse lung to irradiation at different dose-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Groups of LAF1 mice were given thoracic irradiation using 60 Co γ-rays at dose-rates of 0.05 Gy/min (LDR) or 1.1 Gy/min (HDR) and the death of the animals was monitored as a function of time. It was found that the time pattern of animal deaths was similar for the two different dose-rates. Dose response curves for animals dying at various times up to 500 days after irradiation were calculated and the LD 50 values determined. The curves for the LD 50 values, plotted as a function of the time at analysis for treatment at HDR or LDR, were essentially parallel to each other but separated by a factor (LDR/HDR) of about 1.8. This indicates that the sparing effect of LDR treatment is the same for deaths occurring during the early pneumonitis phase or during the late fibrotic phase of lung damage. The available information on the response of patients to whole thoracic irradiation, given for either palliation or piror to bone marrow transplantation, suggests that for similar dose-rates to those studied here the ratio (LDR/HDR) is only 1.2 to 1.3. This difference between the animal and human data may reflect the modifying effect of the large doses of cytotoxic drugs used in combination with the irradiation of bone marrow transplant patients

  5. CT analysis of lung density changes in patients undergoing total body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Shank, B.; Bonfiglio, P.; Reid, A.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential changes in lung density measured by CT are potentially sensitive and convenient monitors of lung abnormalities following total body irradiation (TBI). Methods have been developed to compare pre- and post-TBI CT of lung. The average local features of a cross-sectional lung slice are extracted from three peripheral regions of interest in the anterior, posterior, and lateral portions of the CT image. Also, density profiles across a specific region may be obtained. These may be compared first for verification of patient position and breathing status and then for changes between pre- and post-TBI. These may also be compared with radiation dose profiles through the lung. A preliminary study on 21 leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation indicates the following: (a) Density gradients of patients' lungs in the antero-posterior direction show a marked heterogeneity before and after transplantation compared with normal lungs. The patients with departures from normal density gradients pre-TBI correlate with later pulmonary complications. (b) Measurements of average peripheral lung densities have demonstrated that the average lung density in the younger age group is substantially higher: pre-TBI, the average CT number (1,000 scale) is -638 +/- 39 Hounsfield unit (HU) for 0-10 years old and -739 +/- 53 HU for 21-40 years old. (c) Density profiles showed no post-TBI regional changes in lung density corresponding to the dose profile across the lung, so no differentiation of a radiation-specific effect has yet been possible. Computed tomographic density profiles in the antero-posterior direction are successfully used to verify positioning of the CT slice and the breathing level of the lung

  6. Hyper-thermal neutron irradiation field for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru; Kanda, Keiji

    1994-01-01

    The utilization of hyper-thermal neutrons, which have an energy spectrum of a Maxwell distribution higher than the room temperature of 300 K, has been studied in order to improve the thermal neutron flux distribution in a living body for a deep-seated tumor in neutron capture therapy (NCT). Simulation calculations using MCNP-V3 were carried out in order to investigate the characteristics of the hyper-thermal neutron irradiation field. From the results of simulation calculations, the following were confirmed: (i) The irradiation field of the hyper-thermal neutrons is feasible by using some scattering materials with high temperature, such as Be, BeO, C, SiC and ZrH 1.7 . Especially, ZrH 1.7 is thought to be the best material because of good characteristics of up-scattering for thermal neutrons. (ii) The ZrH 1.7 of 1200 K yields the hyper-thermal neutrons of a Maxwell-like distribution at about 2000 K and the treatable depth is about 1.5 cm larger comparing with the irradiation of the thermal neutrons of 300 K. (iii) The contamination by the secondary gamma-rays from the scattering materials can be sufficiently eliminated to the tolerance level for NCT through the bismuth layer, without the larger change of the energy spectrum of hyper-thermal neutrons. ((orig.))

  7. Radiotherapy of lung cancer: Any room left for elective mediastinal irradiation in 2011?; Radiotherapie des cancers bronchiques: place de l'irradiation mediastinale prophylactique en 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Houtte, P.; Roelandts, M. [Departement de radiotherapie-oncologie, institut Jules-Bordet, 121, boulevard de Waterloo, 1000 Bruxelles (Belgium); Faculte de medecine, universite libre de Bruxelles, campus erasme, route de Lennik 808, 1070 Bruxelles (Belgium); Mornex, F. [Departement de radiotherapie-oncologie, centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud, chemin du Grand-Revoyet, 69310 Pierre-Benite (France); EA3738, universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, domaine Rockefeller, 8, avenue Rockefeller, 69373 Lyon cedex 08 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Traditionally, the target volumes of curative-intent radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer include all uninvolved mediastinal nodes. However, an improvement in tumour control requires an increase of the total dose to the macroscopic target volume. This is only achievable if the irradiation of the organs at risk is reduced, i.e. elective irradiation of the mediastinum is omitted. The available data suggest that elective mediastinal irradiation may be safely omitted, provided that an adequate staging procedure, including FDG PET-CT, has been performed. (authors)

  8. The change of transforming growth factor {beta} 1 (TGF- {beta} 1) expression by melatonin in irradiated lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seong Soon; Choi, Ihl Bohng [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    The changed expressions of TGF- {beta} 1, as a key cytokine in the fibrotic process, due to melatonin with potent antioxidative effects, were investigated in the irradiated lung using fibrosis-sensitive C57BL/6 mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were divided into control irradiation-only, and melatonin (300 mg/kg i.p. 1 hr before irradiation) pretreatment groups. The thoraces of the mice were irradiated with a single dose of 12 Gy. The mRNA expressions of TGF-{beta} 1 in the lung tissue 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were quantified using semiquantitive RT-PCR, and the cellular origin and expression levels of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were identified using immunohistochemical staining. The relative mRNA expression levels in the irradiation-only and melatonin pretreatment group 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were 1.92- and 1.80-fold ({rho} = 0.064) and 2.38- and 1.94-fold ({rho} = 0.004) increased, respectively compared to those in the control group. Increased expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were prominently detected in regions of histopathological radiation injury, with alveolar macrophages and septal epithelial cells serving as important sources of TGF- {beta} 1 expression. At 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation, the expression levels of protein were 15.8% vs. 16.9% ({rho} = 0.565) and 36.1% vs. 25.7% ({rho} = 0.009), respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 in the lung tissue following thoracic irradiation with 12 Gy were significantly decreased by melatonin pretreatment at 4 weeks. These results indicate that melatonin may have a possible application as an antifibrotic agent in radiation-induced lung injury.

  9. Investigation of field emission properties of laser irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Mahreen; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid

    2018-01-01

    Nd:YAG laser irradiation of Tungsten (W) has been performed in air at atmospheric pressure for four laser fluences ranging from 130 to 500 J/cm 2 . Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the formation of micro and nanoscale surface features including cones, grains, mounds and pores. Field emission (FE) studies have been performed in a planar diode configuration under ultra-high vacuum conditions by recording I-V characteristics and plotting corresponding electric field (E) versus emission current density (J). The Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plots are found to be linear confirming the quantum mechanical tunneling phenomena for the structured targets. The irradiated samples at different fluences exhibit a turn-on field, field enhancement factor β and a maximum current density ranging from 5 to 8.5 V/μm, 1300 to 3490 and 107 to 350 μA/cm 2 , respectively. The difference in the FE properties is attributed to the variation in the nature and density of the grown structures at different fluences. (orig.)

  10. Electron beam irradiation: laboratory and field studies of cowpea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, K.; Chauhan, S.K.; Prasad, T.V.; Pramod, R.; Verma, V.P.; Petwal, V.; Dwivedi, J.; Bhalla, S.

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) rich in protein and vitamins is emerging as one of the most important food legumes to tackle malnutrition. Pulse beetles (Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus) are the pests of economic importance causing enormous losses during storage. Although various pest management strategies exist for the control of these pests, environmental concerns necessitate developing ecofriendly strategies. Electron beam (EB) irradiation has the potential to be a viable, non-chemical, residue-free strategy for management of pulse beetles during storage, but higher doses affect seed germination and viability. Hence, the present investigation was taken up to analyse the dosage effect of the irradiation on seed attributes of cowpea. Healthy cowpea seeds were irradiated with low energy electrons at different doses viz., 180, 360, 540, 720, 900, 1080, 1260, 1440 and 1620 Gy at 500 keV using the EB Accelerator facility at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. EB irradiated seeds were tested for physiological viz., germination, seedling vigour and vigour index and biochemical parameters viz., electrical conductivity of seed leachate, seed viability/tetrazolium test and dehydrogenase activity. Germination and vigour of the irradiated seeds were evaluated as per the ISTA Rules (ISTA, 1996). Vigour index was calculated as the product of germination percentage and seedling vigour. About 3,000 irradiated seeds from each dose were grown in the field at the Experimental farm, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. Seeds harvested from 1500 individual plants of M 1 generation from each dose (50 seeds from each plant individually) were sown in next season and observed for chlorophyll mutations, if any. Results revealed that doses upto 1080 Gy (88%) did not affect the germination of cowpea seeds drastically as compared to untreated seeds (98%). Lower doses viz., 180 and 360 Gy had no impact on vigour components while higher doses (1080 Gy

  11. Effect of repeated irradiation on biological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma cell line Anip973 in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qingyong; Xu Xiangying; Yang Zhiwei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of repeated irradiation on biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line Anip973 in vitro. Methods: Anip973 cells were treated with high energy X-ray to a total dose of 60 Gy at 4 Gy fractions. The radiosensitivity of Anip973R and its parental cell were measured by clonogenic assay. The biological parameters were fitted to the single hit multitarget formula. Furthermore, the population double time(PDT) and cell cycle distribution were measured by cell growth curve and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: Comparing with its parental cell, Anip973 R acquired radioresistance showing increased D 0 , D q and SF 2 and a broader shoulder. PDT of Anip973R extended 3 h more than that of Anip973. The Anip973R also showed higher and lower percentage of cells in G 1 and S phase (P 2 /M distribution (P>0.05). Conclusions: A radioresistant lung adenocarcinoma cell line Anip973R is established by repeatedly irradiation. Its radioresistance displays obviously in lower dose area. However, its characteristic of cell cycle is not completely coincident with the classical radiobiological theory. (authors)

  12. Lung damage following bone marrow transplantation after hyperfractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latini, Paolo; Aristei, Cynthia; Checcaglini, Franco; Maranzano, Ernesto; Panizza, B.M.; Perrucci, Elisabetta (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Radiation Oncology Service); Aversa, Franco; Martelli, M.F. (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Department of Haematology); Raymondi, Carlo (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Radiation Physics Service)

    1991-10-01

    From July 1985 to December 1989, 72 evaluable patients aged 6-51 (median age 27) suffering from hematological malignancies received allo-geneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) depleted of T-lymphocytes to reduce risks of graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD); 57 were matched and 15 mis-matched. Three different conditioning regiments were used in an effort to enhance cytoreduction without increase extramedullary toxicity. Mis-matched patients were treated with more immunosuppressive regimens. Total body irradiation (TBI) was given in 3 doses/day, 5 h apart over 4 days for a total of 12 fractions. The dose to the lungs was 14.4, 15.6 and 9 Gy according to the conditioning regimen. The incidence of inter-stitial pneumonia (IP) was 12.3 percent in matched and 46.7 in mis-matched patients. The results seem to indicate that lung toxicity is correlated with the intensity of the conditioning regimen, the stage of disease and, in mismatched patients, with the degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) disparity and the poor post-BMT reconstitution, rather than the radiotherapy dose delivered to the lungs. On the contrary, the hyperfractionated scheme adopted, the absence of GvHD and, perhaps, the post-TBI administration of cyclophosphamide all seem to have contributed to the low incidence of IP in the matched patients. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab.

  13. Lung damage following bone marrow transplantation after hyperfractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latini, Paolo; Aristei, Cynthia; Checcaglini, Franco; Maranzano, Ernesto; Panizza, B.M.; Perrucci, Elisabetta; Aversa, Franco; Martelli, M.F.; Raymondi, Carlo

    1991-01-01

    From July 1985 to December 1989, 72 evaluable patients aged 6-51 (median age 27) suffering from hematological malignancies received allo-geneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) depleted of T-lymphocytes to reduce risks of graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD); 57 were matched and 15 mis-matched. Three different conditioning regiments were used in an effort to enhance cytoreduction without increase extramedullary toxicity. Mis-matched patients were treated with more immunosuppressive regimens. Total body irradiation (TBI) was given in 3 doses/day, 5 h apart over 4 days for a total of 12 fractions. The dose to the lungs was 14.4, 15.6 and 9 Gy according to the conditioning regimen. The incidence of inter-stitial pneumonia (IP) was 12.3 percent in matched and 46.7 in mis-matched patients. The results seem to indicate that lung toxicity is correlated with the intensity of the conditioning regimen, the stage of disease and, in mismatched patients, with the degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) disparity and the poor post-BMT reconstitution, rather than the radiotherapy dose delivered to the lungs. On the contrary, the hyperfractionated scheme adopted, the absence of GvHD and, perhaps, the post-TBI administration of cyclophosphamide all seem to have contributed to the low incidence of IP in the matched patients. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  14. A mast cell secretagogue, compound 48/80, prevents the accumulation of hyaluronan in lung tissue injured by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.; Bjermer, L.; Hellstroem, S.H.; Henriksson, R.; Haellgren, R.

    1990-01-01

    Irradiation with a single dose of 30 Grey on the basal regions of the lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats induced a peribronchial and alveolar inflammation. Infiltration of mast cells in the edematous alveolar interstitial tissue and also in the peribronchial tissue were characteristic features of the lesion. The appearance of mast cells was already seen 4 wk after irradiation and by weeks 6 to 8 there was a heavy infiltration. The staining properties suggested that they were connective tissue-type mast cells. The infiltration of mast cells was paralleled by an accumulation of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) in the alveolar interstitial tissue 6 and 8 wk after irradiation. The recovery of hyaluronan (HA) during bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of the lungs also increased at this time. Treatment with a mast cell secretagogue, compound 48/80, induced a distinct reduction of granulated mast cells in the alveolar tissue. Regular treatment with compound 48/80 from the time of irradiation considerably reduced the HA recovery during BAL and the HA accumulation in the interstitial tissue but did not affect the interstitial infiltration of mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. By contrast, an accumulation of HA in the alveolar interstitial space was induced when compound 48/80 was given not until mast cell infiltration of the lung had started. The effects of compound 48/80 indicate that the connective tissue response after lung irradiation is dependent on whether or not mast cell degranulation is induced before or after the mast cell infiltration of the alveolar tissue

  15. Effects of smoking and irradiated volume on inflammatory response in the lung of irradiated breast cancer patients evaluated with bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjermer, L.; Franzen, L.; Littbrand, B.; Nilsson, K.; Angstroem, T.H.; Henriksson, R.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the effects of irradiation on normal tissues in humans have been hard to obtain because most tissues are inaccessible and/or direct responses are difficult to quantify in a nondestructive manner. Pneumonitis and fibrotic lung disease are adverse effects seen in varying intensity in patients treated with radiotherapy for carcinomas of the thorax, e.g., breast cancer. In the present study the aim was to evaluate the inflammatory reaction in the underlying parenchyma following postoperative irradiation with bronchoalveolar lavage technique. Twenty-one patients with breast cancer stage T1N0M0 received radiotherapy with photons to a target dose of 56 Gy following breast conservative surgery. Nineteen healthy controls were also included. The results showed a clear elevation of neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes in the total irradiated groups, compared to controls. When subclassifying the material according to smoking habit, it was obvious that the smokers displayed a significantly decreased inflammatory reaction, i.e., reduced levels of mast cells and lymphocytes, compared to both nonsmoking controls and patients. Eosinophils were seen in an elevated number in all irradiated patients. Radiological signs of pneumonitis were observed in three patients, all in the nonsmoking group. No correlation was found between the volume of lung irradiated and the inflammatory response. It is concluded that bronchoalveolar lavage is a suitable and sensitive method for investigating radiotherapy-induced reactions in the human lung. Furthermore, ongoing smoking during the treatment depressed the inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma induced by irradiation. The present study as well as earlier observations justify further studies concerning the possibility of interaction of smoking with cancer treatment

  16. Shrubs of the Field Irradiator - Gamma area in eastern Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugle, J.R.; Mayoh, K.R.; Barclay, P.J.

    1979-11-01

    Detailed descriptions and line drawings are given of over 100 shrub taxa (including semi-woody shrubs and vines) which are common in Manitoba; most of them are found within the Field Irradiator - Gamma (FIG) area or its immediate surroundings. Ecological and morphological notes are included along with a few general remarks on the effects of exposure to long-term gamma radiation. Keys are given for certain genera, small family groups or other critical species groups. This document is intended to facilitate identification of shrubs for experimental purposes in the FIG projects, and it should also be useful to those who are generally interested in the shrubs of Manitoba. (auth)

  17. Construction of recombinant plasmid pIRESEgr-IFN γ and its expression in Lewis lung carcinoma induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wei; Li Xiuyi; Gong Shouliang; Sun Ting; Gong Pingsheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To construct the recombinant plasmid pIRESEgr-IFN γ and detect its expression in Lewis lung carcinoma induced by irradiation in vitro. Methods: The recombinant plasmid pIRESEgr-IFN γ containing Egr-1 promoter and IFN γ gene was constructed with gene recombinant technique. The plasmid was transferred into Lewis lung carcinoma by liposome in vitro. The correlations of dose- and time-effects in the expression of IFN γ gene induced by X-ray were detected by ELISA. Results: The identification with enzymes proved that Egr-1 promoter and IFN γ gene were inserted into vector pIRESlneo correctly. After X-ray irradiation with different doses, the expression of IFN γ in the supernatant of Lewis lung carcinoma transfected by pIRESEgr-IFN γ was significantly higher than that in 0 Gy group (P<0.001). After 5 Gy X-ray irradiation, the expression of IFN γ was the highest, being 4.39 times as much as that in 0 Gy group. The expression of IFN γ in the supernatant increased after 5 Gy X-ray irradiation, being 6.27 times as much as that in 0 h group 36 h after irradiation. Conclusion: The recombinant plasmid pIRESEgr-IFN γ is constructed successfully, and it has the property of enhancing the expression of IFN γ gene induced by irradiation. (authors)

  18. Feasibility of carbon-ion radiotherapy for re-irradiation of locoregionally recurrent, metastatic, or secondary lung tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Karube, Masataka; Nakajima, Mio; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Kamada, Tadashi

    2018-03-02

    Intrathoracic recurrence after carbon-ion radiotherapy for primary or metastatic lung tumors remains a major cause of cancer-related deaths. However, treatment options are limited. Herein, we report on the toxicity and efficacy of re-irradiation with carbon-ion radiotherapy for locoregionally recurrent, metastatic, or secondary lung tumors. Data of 95 patients with prior intrathoracic carbon-ion radiotherapy who were treated with re-irradiation with carbon-ion radiotherapy at our institution between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Seventy-three patients (76.8%) had primary lung tumors and 22 patients (23.2%) had metastatic lung tumors. The median dose of initial carbon-ion radiotherapy was 52.8 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) and the median dose of re-irradiation was 66.0 Gy (relative biological effectiveness). None of the patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The median follow-up period after re-irradiation was 18 months. In terms of grade ≥3 toxicities, one patient experienced each of the following: grade 5 bronchopleural fistula, grade 4 radiation pneumonitis, grade 3 chest pain, and grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. The 2-year local control and overall survival rates were 54.0% and 61.9%, respectively. In conclusion, re-irradiation with carbon-ion radiotherapy was associated with relatively low toxicity and moderate efficacy. Re-irradiation with carbon-ion radiotherapy might be an effective treatment option for patients with locoregionally recurrent, metastatic, or secondary lung tumors. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. The field-irradiator gamma study: Fourteen years of irradiation of the boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Hawkins, J.L.; Laverock, M.J.; Sheppard, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Field-Irradiator Gamma (FIG) project is a long-term experiment on the response of boreal forest vegetation to chronic ionizing radiation. The forest was irradiated from 1973 to 1986 by a 370 TBq point source of 137 Cs placed at a height of 20 m. The forest is now in the recovery phase. The irradiated forest included several different community types, and each of these was affected differently by the radiation stress. New vegetation zones have now been created because of the selective tolerance to radiation along a gradient from background dose rates to a maximum of 65 mGy h -1 . One of the easiest measured indicators of the radiation stress has been photographic documentation of changes in forest communities over time. Measured changes in species composition and the decrease in tree canopy cover at dose rates >2 Gy h -1 have also helped quantify radiation effects. Indicators such as trends in annual growth rings have been less satisfactory. Our experiment suggests that there are no visible impacts at chronic dose rates less than 0.1 mGy h -1 and the threshold for effects likely is between 0.1 and 1 mGy h -1 . The experimental area has been preserved to allow measurements of long-term recovery of the site

  20. Field-In-Field Technique With Intrafractionally Modulated Junction Shifts for Craniospinal Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yom, Sue S.; Frija, Erik K. C.; Mahajan, Anita; Chang, Eric; Klein, Kelli C.; Shiu, Almon; Ohrt, Jared; Woo, Shiao

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To plan craniospinal irradiation with 'field-in-field' (FIF) homogenization in combination with daily, intrafractional modulation of the field junctions, to minimize the possibility of spinal cord overdose. Methods and Materials: Lateral cranial fields and posterior spinal fields were planned using a forward-planned, step-and-shoot FIF technique. Field junctions were automatically modulated and custom-weighted for maximal homogeneity within each treatment fraction. Dose-volume histogram analyses and film dosimetry were used to assess results. Results: Plan inhomogeneity improved with FIF. Planning with daily modulated junction shifts provided consistent dose delivery during each fraction of treatment across the junctions. Modulation minimized the impact of a 5-mm setup error at the junction. Film dosimetry confirmed that no point in the junction exceeded the anticipated dose. Conclusions: Field-in-field planning and modulated junction shifts improve the homogeneity and consistency of daily dose delivery, simplify treatment, and reduce the impact of setup errors

  1. Phase II clinical trial of whole-brain irradiation plus three-dimensional conformal boost with concurrent topotecan for brain metastases from lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Xiao-hui; Liu, Miao-ling; Lin, Qiang; Ren, Xiao-cang; Liu, Yue-e; Chen, Xue-ji; Wang, Dong-ying; Wang, Yong-qiang; Cao, Bin; Li, Zhi-gang

    2013-01-01

    Patients with brain metastases from lung cancer have poor prognoses and short survival time, and they are often excluded from clinical trials. Whole-cranial irradiation is considered to be the standard treatment, but its efficacy is not satisfactory. The purpose of this phase II clinical trial was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and safety of the treatment of whole-brain irradiation plus three-dimensional conformal boost combined with concurrent topotecan for the patients with brain metastases from lung cancer. Patients with brain metastasis from lung cancer received concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy: conventional fractionated whole-brain irradiation, 2 fields/time, 1 fraction/day, 2 Gy/fraction, 5 times/week, and DT 40 Gy/20 fractions; for the patients with ≤ 3 lesions with diameter ≥ 2 cm, a three-dimensional (3-D) conformal localised boost was given to increase the dosage to 56–60 Gy; and during radiotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy with topotecan was given (the chemoradiotherapy group, CRT). The patients with brain metastasis from lung cancer during the same period who received radiotherapy only were selected as the controls (the radiotherapy-alone group, RT). From March 2009 to March 2012, both 38 patients were enrolled into two groups. The median progression-free survival(PFS) time , the 1- and 2-year PFS rates of CRT group and RT group were 6 months, 42.8%, 21.6% and 3 months, 11.6%, 8.7% (χ 2 = 6.02, p = 0.014), respectively. The 1- and 2-year intracranial lesion control rates of CRT and RT were 75.9% , 65.2% and 41.6% , 31.2% (χ 2 = 3.892, p = 0.049), respectively. The 1- and 2-year overall survival rates (OS) of CRT and RT were 50.8% , 37.9% and 40.4% , 16.5% (χ 2 = 1.811, p = 0.178), respectively. The major side effects were myelosuppression and digestive toxicities, but no differences were observed between the two groups. Compared with radiotherapy alone, whole-brain irradiation plus 3-D conformal boost irradiation and concurrent

  2. Post-irradiation dietary vitamin E does not affect the development of radiation-induced lung damage in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, EA; van Gameren, MA; Kampinga, HH; Szabo, BG; Coppes, RP

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether application of post-irradiation vitamin E, an anti-oxidant, could prevent the development of radiation induced lung damage. Wistar rats were given vitamin E enriched or vitamin E deprived food starting from 4 weeks after 18 Gy single dose

  3. Practice guideline on prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotalik, Jaro; Yu, Edward; Markman, Barbara R.; Evans, William K.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline that would address the following questions: (a) What is the role of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with limited or extensive stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) who have achieved complete remission in response to induction therapy (chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy)? (b) What dose and fractionation schedules of PCI are optimal? (c) Does the use of PCI in patients with SCLC in complete remission affect quality of life? Survival, disease-free survival, quality of life, and adverse effects were the outcomes of interest. Methods and Materials: A systematic review of the published literature was undertaken to provide the data for an evidence-based practice guideline. Results: Six randomized controlled trials and one fully published individual patient data meta-analysis were included in the systematic review of the evidence. For patients who have achieved complete response after induction therapy, there is evidence of a disease-free survival benefit (4 of 6 trials) and an overall survival benefit (meta-analysis). There is insufficient evidence to make a definitive recommendation with respect to dose. There is some indication that 30-36 Gy in 2-3 Gy per fraction, or a biologically equivalent dose, may produce a better outcome than a lower dose or less aggressive fractionation regimen. The schedule commonly used in Canada is 25 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. Data from further research, including a trial currently ongoing that compares 25 Gy in 10 fractions with 36 Gy in 18 fractions, will be required to determine optimal dose of PCI. There is insufficient evidence to make recommendations concerning the optimal timing of PCI in relation to the administration of chemotherapy. Lung DSG members generally felt that it should be given as soon as possible after completion of chemotherapy. There is evidence from trials with data for up to 2 years of follow-up that prophylactic cranial

  4. Marginal Shape Deep Learning: Applications to Pediatric Lung Field Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Awais; Cerrolaza, Juan J; Perez, Geovanny; Biggs, Elijah; Nino, Gustavo; Linguraru, Marius George

    2017-02-11

    Representation learning through deep learning (DL) architecture has shown tremendous potential for identification, localization, and texture classification in various medical imaging modalities. However, DL applications to segmentation of objects especially to deformable objects are rather limited and mostly restricted to pixel classification. In this work, we propose marginal shape deep learning (MaShDL), a framework that extends the application of DL to deformable shape segmentation by using deep classifiers to estimate the shape parameters. MaShDL combines the strength of statistical shape models with the automated feature learning architecture of DL. Unlike the iterative shape parameters estimation approach of classical shape models that often leads to a local minima, the proposed framework is robust to local minima optimization and illumination changes. Furthermore, since the direct application of DL framework to a multi-parameter estimation problem results in a very high complexity, our framework provides an excellent run-time performance solution by independently learning shape parameter classifiers in marginal eigenspaces in the decreasing order of variation. We evaluated MaShDL for segmenting the lung field from 314 normal and abnormal pediatric chest radiographs and obtained a mean Dice similarity coefficient of 0.927 using only the four highest modes of variation (compared to 0.888 with classical ASM 1 (p-value=0.01) using same configuration). To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of using DL framework for parametrized shape learning for the delineation of deformable objects.

  5. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, J; Kehoe, M; Sasiadek, W; Hacking, D; Calvert, P

    2014-03-01

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is used to prevent the development of brain metastases in small cell lung carcinoma. PCI confers an overall survival (OS) benefit in both limited and extensive stage disease. We analyze the incidence of symptomatic brain metastases, progression-free survival (PFS) and OS in a cohort of patients who received PCI, in a 5-year period. A retrospective review of all patients who had received PCI between 2006 and 2011 at the Whitfield Clinic was completed. Patient- and disease-related characteristics, the number of patients who developed brain metastases, PFS and OS data were collected. 24 patients were identified. 14 (58.3 %) patients were male, 10 (41.7 %) were female, with a mean age of 62.5 years (range 31-78). All patients were smokers. 12 (50 %) patients had limited stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 12 (50 %) had extensive stage disease. 2 (8.2 %) patients developed brain metastases post PCI (p = 0.478.) The median PFS for limited stage SCLC was 13 months (range 3-20) and 10 months (range 5-18) for extensive stage SCLC. Median OS was 15 months (range 4-29) in limited stage SCLC, and 11 months (range 5-29) in extensive stage SCLC. Our study demonstrated a low incidence of symptomatic brain metastases and favourable median PFS and OS in the patients that received PCI, when compared to published phase III data.

  6. Time-dependent cell disintegration kinetics in lung tumors after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, Alexei V; Palta, Jatinder J; Nagata, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    We study the time-dependent disintegration kinetics of tumor cells that did not survive radiotherapy treatment. To evaluate the cell disintegration rate after irradiation, we studied the volume changes of solitary lung tumors after stereotactic radiotherapy. The analysis is performed using two approximations: (1) tumor volume is a linear function of the total cell number in the tumor and (2) the cell disintegration rate is governed by the exponential decay with constant risk, which is defined by the initial cell number and a half-life T 1/2 . The half-life T 1/2 is determined using the least-squares fit to the clinical data on lung tumor size variation with time after stereotactic radiotherapy. We show that the tumor volume variation after stereotactic radiotherapy of solitary lung tumors can be approximated by an exponential function. A small constant component in the volume variation does not change with time; however, this component may be the residual irregular density due to radiation fibrosis and was, therefore, subtracted from the total volume variation in our computations. Using computerized fitting of the exponent function to the clinical data for selected patients, we have determined that the average half-life T 1/2 of cell disintegration is 28.2 days for squamous cell carcinoma and 72.4 days for adenocarcinoma. This model is needed for simulating the tumor volume variation during radiotherapy, which may be important for time-dependent treatment planning of proton therapy that is sensitive to density variations

  7. Time-dependent cell disintegration kinetics in lung tumors after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvetsov, Alexei V; Palta, Jatinder J [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)], E-mail: chvetsov@ufl.edu

    2008-05-07

    We study the time-dependent disintegration kinetics of tumor cells that did not survive radiotherapy treatment. To evaluate the cell disintegration rate after irradiation, we studied the volume changes of solitary lung tumors after stereotactic radiotherapy. The analysis is performed using two approximations: (1) tumor volume is a linear function of the total cell number in the tumor and (2) the cell disintegration rate is governed by the exponential decay with constant risk, which is defined by the initial cell number and a half-life T{sub 1/2}. The half-life T{sub 1/2} is determined using the least-squares fit to the clinical data on lung tumor size variation with time after stereotactic radiotherapy. We show that the tumor volume variation after stereotactic radiotherapy of solitary lung tumors can be approximated by an exponential function. A small constant component in the volume variation does not change with time; however, this component may be the residual irregular density due to radiation fibrosis and was, therefore, subtracted from the total volume variation in our computations. Using computerized fitting of the exponent function to the clinical data for selected patients, we have determined that the average half-life T{sub 1/2} of cell disintegration is 28.2 days for squamous cell carcinoma and 72.4 days for adenocarcinoma. This model is needed for simulating the tumor volume variation during radiotherapy, which may be important for time-dependent treatment planning of proton therapy that is sensitive to density variations.

  8. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  9. Variation of ATM protein expression in response to irradiation of lymphocytes in lung cancer patients and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jianlin; He Jiliang; Jin Lifen; Zheng Wei; Chen Zhijian; Chen Shijie; Xu Shijie

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research work was to study the cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR) and its relationship with the ATM protein expression levels in lung cancer patients. Heparinized blood samples were collected from 22 controls and 22 lung cancer patients. Each sample was divided into two parts: non-irradiated sample and irradiated sample, which was exposed to 3 Gy X-ray. The spontaneous and IR-induced genetic damage in both lung cancer patients and controls was measured with comet assay and micronucleus (MN) assay, and the ATM protein expression levels of non-irradiated samples in lung cancer patients and controls were detected by Western blotting. The results indicated that the baseline values of average mean tail moment (MTM) and micronucleus rate (MNR) in lung cancer patients were 0.86 and 11.41 per mille , respectively, which was significantly higher than those (0.64 and 6.77 per mille ) of controls (P < 0.05 for MTM, P < 0.01 for MNR). The IR-induced average MTM and MNR in lung cancer patients were 1.23 and 77.64 per mille , respectively, which was also significantly higher than those (0.71 and 66.05 per mille ) of controls (P < 0.05 for MTM, P < 0.01 for MNR). The results of Western blotting showed that the ATM protein expression levels in lung cancer patients and controls were 0.64 and 1.71, respectively, and there was significant (P < 0.01) difference between lung cancer patients and controls. In present investigation, it was found that the genetic instability measured with comet assay and MN assay in lung cancer patients were significantly higher than those in controls, on the contrary, ATM protein expression level in lung cancer patients were significantly lower than that in controls. However, no good correlation was found either between ATM protein expression and IR-induced MTM or between ATM protein expression and IR-induced MNR in lung cancer patients

  10. Single fraction prophylactic cranial irradiation for small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, A.E.; Hopwood, P.; Stout, R.; Burt, P.A.; Thatcher, N.

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of a single 8-Gy fraction prophylactic cranial irradiation regime was assessed in 106 patients with small-cell carcinoma of the lung. All patients had limited stage disease and received combination chemotherapy consisting of either cisplatin or carboplatin with ifosfamide, etoposide, and vincristine (VICE). Cranial irradiation was administered 48 h after the first cycle of chemotherapy and was well tolerated. Actual 2-year survival was 35% and cranial relapse occurred in 22% of those patients who achieved complete remission. This compares favourably with a cranial relapse rate of 45% incomplete remitters previously reported with the same chemotherapy regime after a minimum follow-up of 2 years where PCI was not used. Formal psychometric testing was performed retrospectively on a series of 25 long-term survivors of whom 14 were taken from this reported series. Whilst 75% of patients were impaired on at least one test with 68% performing badly in the most complex task, this was not associated with clinically detectable neurological damage and the patients did not complain of memory or concentration difficulties. In conclusion, single fraction PCI, when used with platinum based combination chemotherapy, appears to be equally effective but may be less neurotoxic than the more standard fractionated regimes

  11. The investigation of fetal doses in mantle field irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karacam, S. C; Gueralp, O. S; Oeksuez, D. C; Koca, A.; Cepni, I.; Cepni, K.; Bese, N.

    2009-01-01

    To determine clinically the fetal dose from irradiation of Hodgkin's disease during pregnancy and to quantify the components of fetal dose using phantom measurements. The fetal dose was measured with phantom measurements using thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs). Phantom measurements were performed by simulating the treatment conditions on an anthropomorphic phantom. TLDs were placed on the phantom 41, 44, 46.5 and 49.5 cm from the centre of the treatment field. Two TLDs were placed on the surface of the phantom. The estimated total dose to all the TLDs ranged from 8.8 to 13.2 cGy for treatment with 60 Co and from 8.2 to 11.8 cGy for 4 MV photons. It was concluded that the doses in different sections were evaluated to investigate dose changes in different points and depths of fetal tissues in phantom. Precise planning and the use of supplemental fetal shielding may help reduce fetal exposure. (authors)

  12. Induction of highly immunogenic variants of Lewis lung carcinoma tumor by ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peppoloni, S.; Herberman, R.B.; Gorelik, E.

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether in vitro treatment of Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) cells with ultraviolet (UV) radiation could increase their immunogenicity. Tumor cells were irradiated with UV light from a germicidal lamp (254 nm; UV-C) at a dose of 720 J/sq m. After 2 weeks of culture, the surviving cell population was cloned by limiting dilution. Cell suspensions of each clone were injected intrafootpad in C57BL/6 mice at a dose of 2.5 X 10(5) cells per mouse. Eighty independent clones were tested. Fifty-one clones showed decreased tumorigenicity and failed to grow in 20 to 95% of immunocompetent mice, whereas they produced tumors in 100% of irradiated (550 R) and athymic nude mice. These clones were designated tum- (nontumorigenic) clones. In contrast, all 25 clones selected from the untreated parental 3LL induced progressively growing tumors in 100% of the mice. After two courses of UV treatment, the uncloned 3LL population was rejected in 45% of inoculated mice. Mice rejecting an inoculum of a tum- clone were completely resistant to subsequent challenge with higher doses of the same or unrelated tum- clones. This resistance was fully expressed even after irradiation of immune mice with 550 R. Mice immune to a tum- clone also were able to prevent the growth of various tum+ clones or untreated 3LL tumor cells. When tum- and tum+ clone cells were simultaneously inoculated intrafootpad in opposite legs, rejection of tum- clone resulted also in the prevention of the growth of tum+ clone. Spleen cells of immune mice caused rapid elimination of radiolabeled 3LL tumor cells from the place of their inoculation (intrafootpad) and prevented tumor growth

  13. Investigation of the electric field in irradiated diamond sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassel, Florian; Barvich, Tobias; Boer, Wim de; Dierlamm, Alexander; Eber, Robert; Nuernberg, Andreas; Steck, Pia [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany); Dabrowski, Anne; Guthoff, Moritz [CERN (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The Beam Condition Monitoring Leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the CMS experiment at the LHC. As detectors 32 poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors are positioned in a ring around the beam pipe at a distance of +/-1.8 m and +/-14.4 m from the interaction point. The radiation hardness of the diamond sensors in terms of measured signal during operation was significantly lower than expected based on laboratory measurements. At high particle rates, like they occur during the operation of the LHC, charge carriers can be trapped in defects created by radiation. This space charge is expected to modify the electrical field in the sensor bulk and hence to reduce the charge collection efficiency. This modified electrical field has been indirectly measured in the laboratory using the Transient Current Technique (TCT) method in irradiated single crystal CVD diamond. This rate dependent effect was simulated with the software 'SILVACO ATLAS' and the obtained electrical field was used to calculate a TCT measurement pulse. The results of the TCT measurements will be compared to the simulation.

  14. Digital portal radiography in mantle-field irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheck, R.J.; Wendt, T.; Panzer, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the potential of digital luminescence radiography to improve image quality of portal films in mantle-field irradiation. Conventional and digital verification films of an anthropomorphic phantom and 20 patients treated for Hodgkin disease with mantle radiation therapy were obtained with high-energy photon beams. Both conventional films and storage phosphor screens were placed into a cassette with steel intensifier screens. Exposed storage phosphor screens were processed in a semiautomatic mode, with an optimized contrast curve with moderate edge enhancement, and printed as hard copies in a double-image output format. Images were evaluated according to contrast resolution, delineation of anatomic structures, and accuracy of field alignment. Digital portal radiographs were superior to conventional ones with regard to contrast resolution. Thus, they allowed quick and easy detection of relevant structures, although delineation of anatomic structures and field alignments were judged to be equivalent with both techniques. Shorter exposure times for digital images resulted in a reduction in motion artifacts

  15. Protective role of lycopene against damage induced in liver, lung and vertebrae of gamma irradiated rat fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, N.H.; Ramadan, F.L.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of lycopene (0.9 mg/100 g/day) orally given pre and post gamma irradiation on the histological changes in the liver, lung and vertebrae of fetuses. Four groups of pregnant female rats were irradiated as follows: first group represented control (C), second group treated with lycopene (L), third group exposed to radiation (R) and fourth group exposed to radiation and treated with lycopene (R+L). Pregnant female rats of group 3 and 4 were exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose level of 1.5 Gy at day 5 and 1.5 Gy at day 10 of gestation. All groups were sacrificed on day 20 of gestation. Histological results showed serious injury in the liver after exposure to gamma irradiation, where hemo siderosis was noted surrounding the dilated central vein and hepatocytes were atrophied with depression in the hemopoiesis process. Lung sections of fetuses maternally subjected to 1.5 Gy at day 5 and at day 10 of gestation and inspected on day 20 of gestation exhibited dilated and atrophied air alveoli with flattened lining epithelium. Vertebrae of these fetuses showed reductions in number of mitoses and disorderly maturation followed by the asymptomatic degeneration and necrosis of less mature element and bleeding in the periosteum of vertebra. Oral administration of lycopene pre and post gamma irradiation markedly reduced the radiation injury and showed marked protection against the liver and lung damaging effects of irradiation. On the other hand, the vertebrae sections showed no protective role of lycopene from the irradiation damage. Therefore, it may be suggested that lycopene, a potent antioxidant, can attenuate radiation injuries in certain organ

  16. Field emission characteristics of ZnO nanoneedle array cell under ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woong; Jeong, Min-Chang; Kim, Min Jun; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2007-01-01

    Field emission (FE) behaviours of ZnO nanoneedle array under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation have been investigated. UV irradiation noticeably stabilized the FE behaviours. Modifications in the tunnelling barrier height and effective aspect ratio due to the oxygen-related surface species, which can be desorbed by UV irradiation, are supposed to be responsible for these observations

  17. Radioopacity of the right paracardiac lung field due to pectus excavatum (funnel chest)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffel, J.C.; Winants, D.; Marcon, F.; Worms, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Increased density of the right paracardiac lung field is frequently visible in patients with pectus excavatum. This sign is due to compression of the lungs by the bent costal cartilages of the pectus and should not be interpreted as evidence of pulmonary infiltrate. (orig.) [de

  18. Field irradiator gamma: pre-irradiation occurrence of breeding birds in three boreal habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabloom, R.W.

    1975-10-01

    A trail census was conducted of the breeding birds found in three major habitats in the Field Irradiator Gamma area at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba. The area sampled was about 10.50 ha in size, and included 4.25 ha of upland forest, 4.75 ha of lowland conifers, and 1.50 ha of black spruce-tamarack bog. Forty-four species of birds were identified, of which 24 were considered to be resident in the study area. The highest population density was observed in the bog, followed by upland forest and lowland conifer respectively. In contrast, species diversity was greatest in the upland forest, while it decreased markedly in the relatively monotypic lowland conifer and bog habitats. (author)

  19. Treatment of small cell carcinoma of lung with combined high dose mediastinal irradiation, whole brain prophylaxis and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, B.; Natale, R.B.; Hilaris, B.S.; Wittes, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Survival of patients with small cell carcinoma of lung, treated on a new combined radiotherapy-chemotherapy protocol, compares favorably with other regimens in the literature and our own previous combined approaches. Radiation, given after induction chemotherapy, consisted of whole brain prophylaxis in all 44 evaluable patients. Patients with limited disease were also treated to the primary and mediastinum to a high dose (5000 rad equivalent) using multiple fields. The new chemotherapy regimen consisted of induction with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine alternated with cis-platinum and VP-16 (an epipodophyllotoxin) for two cycles, followed by consolidation with low dose cyclophosphamide and vincristine concurrent with irradiation. Patients with limited disease who achieved less than complete response, and all patients with extensive disease were not continued on maintenance chemotherapy. Out of 24 evaluable patients with limited disease, there was 73% survival at 1 year by life-table analysis, measured from treatment initiation. After induction, 16/24 of these limited disease patients were CR (complete responders): 20/24 were CR at completion of their irradiation. Out of 20 evaluable patients with extensive disease, there was 59% survival at 1 year by life-table analysis. Only 4/44 (9%) brain parenchymal relapses occurred, one at 3 months and one at 6 months after local failure and two in patients who did not become CRs, implicating a possible re-seeding mechanism. Five patients had central nervous system relapses outside of brain parenchyma (spinal epidural and leptomeningeal); in three patients this was the initial site of failure. Significant complications included leukopenia (50%) and thrombocytopenia (24%) primarily during induction, and chronic pulmonary fibrosis (25%), possibly contributing to two deaths

  20. Genistein protects against biomarkers of delayed lung sequelae in mice surviving high-dose total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.M.; Barshishat-Kupper, M.; Mog, S.R.; Mccart, E.A.; Prasanna, P.G.S.; Landauer, M.R.; Davis, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genistein on 30-day survival and delayed lung injury were examined in C57BL/6J female mice. A single subcutaneous injection of vehicle (PEG-400) or genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered 24 h before total body irradiation (7.75 Gy 60 Co, 0.6 Gy/min). Experimental groups were: No treatment+Sham (NC), Vehicle+Sham (VC), Genistein+Sham (GC), Radiation only (NR), Vehicle+Radiation (VR), Genistein+Radiation (GR). Thirty-day survivals after 7.75 Gy were: NR 23%, VR 53%, and GR 92%, indicating significant protection from acute radiation injury by genistein. Genistein also mitigated radiation-induced weight loss on days 13-28 postirradiation. First generation lung fibroblasts were analyzed for micronuclei 24 h postirradiation. Fibroblasts from the lungs of GR-treated mice had significantly reduced micronuclei compared with NR mice. Collagen deposition was examined by histochemical staining. At 90 days postirradiation one half of the untreated and vehicle irradiated mice had focal distributions of small collagen-rich plaques in the lungs, whereas all of the genistein-treated animals had morphologically normal lungs. Radiation reduced the expression of COX-2, transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) I and II at 90 days after irradiation. Genistein prevented the reduction in TGFβRI. However, by 180 days postirradiation, these proteins normalized in all groups. These results demonstrate that genistein protects against acute radiation-induced mortality in female mice and that GR-treated mice have reduced lung damage compared to NR or VR. These data suggest that genistein is protective against a range of radiation injuries. (author)

  1. Genistein Protects Against Biomarkers of Delayed Lung Sequelae in Mice Surviving High-Dose Total Body Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAY, Regina M.; BARSHISHAT-KUPPER, Michal; MOG, Steven R.; MCCART, Elizabeth A.; PRASANNA, P. G. S.; DAVIS, Thomas A.; LANDAUER, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genistein on 30-day survival and delayed lung injury were examined in C57BL/6J female mice. A single subcutaneous injection of vehicle (PEG-400) or genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered 24 h before total body irradiation (7.75 Gy 60Co, 0.6 Gy/min). Experimental groups were: No treatment + Sham (NC), Vehicle + Sham (VC), Genistein + Sham (GC), Radiation only (NR), Vehicle + Radiation (VR), Genistein + Radiation (GR). Thirty-day survivals after 7.75 Gy were: NR 23%, VR 53%, and GR 92%, indicating significant protection from acute radiation injury by genistein. Genistein also mitigated radiation-induced weight loss on days 13–28 postirradiation. First generation lung fibroblasts were analyzed for micronuclei 24 h postirradiation. Fibroblasts from the lungs of GR-treated mice had significantly reduced micronuclei compared with NR mice. Collagen deposition was examined by histochemical staining. At 90 days postirradiation one half of the untreated and vehicle irradiated mice had focal distributions of small collagen-rich plaques in the lungs, whereas all of the genistein-treated animals had morphologically normal lungs. Radiation reduced the expression of COX-2, transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) I and II at 90 days after irradiation. Genistein prevented the reduction in TGFβRI. However, by 180 days postirradiation, these proteins normalized in all groups. These results demonstrate that genistein protects against acute radiation-induced mortality in female mice and that GR-treated mice have reduced lung damage compared to NR or VR. These data suggest that genistein is protective against a range of radiation injuries. PMID:18434686

  2. Exclusion of elective nodal irradiation is associated with minimal elective nodal failure in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox James D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controversy still exists regarding the long-term outcome of patients whose uninvolved lymph node stations are not prophylactically irradiated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC treated with definitive radiotherapy. To determine the frequency of elective nodal failure (ENF and in-field failure (IFF, we examined a large cohort of patients with NSCLC staged with positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT and treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT that excluded uninvolved lymph node stations. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 115 patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated at our institution with definitive radiation therapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy (CHT. All patients were treated with 3D-CRT, including nodal regions determined by CT or PET to be disease involved. Concurrent platinum-based CHT was administered for locally advanced disease. Patients were analyzed in follow-up for survival, local regional recurrence, and distant metastases (DM. Results The median follow-up time was 18 months (3 to 44 months among all patients and 27 months (6 to 44 months among survivors. The median overall survival, 2-year actuarial overall survival and disease-free survival were 19 months, 38%, and 28%, respectively. The majority of patients died from DM, the overall rate of which was 36%. Of the 31 patients with local regional failure, 26 (22.6% had IFF, 5 (4.3% had ENF and 2 (1.7% had isolated ENF. For 88 patients with stage IIIA/B, the frequencies of IFF, any ENF, isolated ENF, and DM were 23 (26%, 3 (9%, 1 (1.1% and 36 (40.9%, respectively. The comparable rates for the 22 patients with early stage node-negative disease (stage IA/IB were 3 (13.6%, 1(4.5%, 0 (0%, and 5 (22.7%, respectively. Conclusion We observed only a 4.3% recurrence of any ENF and a 1.7% recurrence of isolated ENF in patients with NSCLC treated with definitive 3D-CRT without prophylactic irradiation of

  3. Exclusion of elective nodal irradiation is associated with minimal elective nodal failure in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulman, Erik P; Komaki, Ritsuko; Klopp, Ann H; Cox, James D; Chang, Joe Y

    2009-01-01

    Controversy still exists regarding the long-term outcome of patients whose uninvolved lymph node stations are not prophylactically irradiated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy. To determine the frequency of elective nodal failure (ENF) and in-field failure (IFF), we examined a large cohort of patients with NSCLC staged with positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) that excluded uninvolved lymph node stations. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 115 patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated at our institution with definitive radiation therapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy (CHT). All patients were treated with 3D-CRT, including nodal regions determined by CT or PET to be disease involved. Concurrent platinum-based CHT was administered for locally advanced disease. Patients were analyzed in follow-up for survival, local regional recurrence, and distant metastases (DM). The median follow-up time was 18 months (3 to 44 months) among all patients and 27 months (6 to 44 months) among survivors. The median overall survival, 2-year actuarial overall survival and disease-free survival were 19 months, 38%, and 28%, respectively. The majority of patients died from DM, the overall rate of which was 36%. Of the 31 patients with local regional failure, 26 (22.6%) had IFF, 5 (4.3%) had ENF and 2 (1.7%) had isolated ENF. For 88 patients with stage IIIA/B, the frequencies of IFF, any ENF, isolated ENF, and DM were 23 (26%), 3 (9%), 1 (1.1%) and 36 (40.9%), respectively. The comparable rates for the 22 patients with early stage node-negative disease (stage IA/IB) were 3 (13.6%), 1(4.5%), 0 (0%), and 5 (22.7%), respectively. We observed only a 4.3% recurrence of any ENF and a 1.7% recurrence of isolated ENF in patients with NSCLC treated with definitive 3D-CRT without prophylactic irradiation of uninvolved lymph node stations. Thus

  4. Low doses of prophylactic cranial irradiation effective in limited stage small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenstein, James H.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J.; Blitzer, Peter H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; Floody, Patrick A.; Harwin, William N.; Teufel, Thomas E.; Raymond, Michael G.; Reeves, James A.; Hart, Lowell L.; McCleod, Michael J.; Pizarro, Alejandro; Gabarda, Antonio L.; Rana, Van G.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for the prevention of brain metastasis in small cell lung cancer remains controversial, both in terms of efficacy and the optimal dose-fractionation scheme. We performed this study to evaluate the efficacy of PCI at low doses. Methods and Materials: One hundred and ninety-seven patients were referred to our institution for treatment of limited stage small cell carcinoma of the lung between June 1986 and December 1992. Follow-up ranged from 1.1 to 89.8 months, with a mean of 19 months. Eighty-five patients received PCI. Results: Patients receiving PCI exhibited brain failure in 15%, while 38% of untreated patients developed metastases. This degree of prophylaxis was achieved with a median total dose of 25.20 Gy and a median fraction size of 1.80 Gy. At these doses, acute and late complications were minimal. Patients receiving PCI had significantly better 1-year and 2-year overall survivals (68% and 46% vs. 33% and 13%). However, patients with a complete response (CR) to chemotherapy and better Karnofsky performance status (KPS) were overrepresented in the PCI group. In an attempt to compare similar patients in both groups (PCI vs. no PCI), only patients with KPS ≥ 80, CR or near-CR to chemotherapy, and treatment with attempt to cure, were compared. In this good prognostic group, survival was still better in the PCI group (p = 0.0018). Conclusion: In this patient population, relatively low doses of PCI have accomplished a significant reduction in the incidence of brain metastasis with little toxicity. Whether such treatment truly improves survival awaits the results of additional prospective randomized trials

  5. Damaging and protective bystander cross-talk between human lung cancer and normal cells after proton microbeam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Sejal; Kobayashi, Alisa; Konishi, Teruaki; Oikawa, Masakazu; Pandey, Badri N.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton-microbeam irradiated A549 cells send damaging signals to bystander A549 cells. • Irradiated A549–A549 bystander response is through gap junctional communication. • Bystander WI38 cells exert protective signalling in irradiated A549 cells. • Rescue of irradiated A549 cells by WI38 cells is independent of gap junctions. - Abstract: Most of the studies of radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been focused on understanding the radiobiological changes observed in bystander cells in response to the signals from irradiated cells in a normal cell population with implications to radiation risk assessment. However, reports on RIBE with relevance to cancer radiotherapy especially investigating the bidirectional and criss-cross bystander communications between cancer and normal cells are limited. Hence, in present study employing co-culture approach, we have investigated the bystander cross-talk between lung cancer (A549) and normal (WI38) cells after proton-microbeam irradiation using γ-H2AX foci fluorescence as a measure of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We observed that in A549–A549 co-cultures, irradiated A549 cells exert damaging effects in bystander A549 cells, which were found to be mediated through gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). However, in A549–WI38 co-cultures, irradiated A549 did not affect bystander WI38 cells. Rather, bystander WI38 cells induced inverse protective signalling (rescue effect) in irradiated A549 cells, which was independent of GJIC. On the other hand, in response to irradiated WI38 cells neither of the bystander cells (A549 or WI38) showed significant increase in γ-H2AX foci. The observed bystander signalling between tumour and normal cells may have potential implications in therapeutic outcome of cancer radiotherapy

  6. Damaging and protective bystander cross-talk between human lung cancer and normal cells after proton microbeam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Sejal [Radiation Signalling and Cancer Biology Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kobayashi, Alisa; Konishi, Teruaki; Oikawa, Masakazu [Radiation System and Engineering Section, Department of Technical Support and Development, Research, Development and Support Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Pandey, Badri N., E-mail: badrinarain@yahoo.co.in [Radiation Signalling and Cancer Biology Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton-microbeam irradiated A549 cells send damaging signals to bystander A549 cells. • Irradiated A549–A549 bystander response is through gap junctional communication. • Bystander WI38 cells exert protective signalling in irradiated A549 cells. • Rescue of irradiated A549 cells by WI38 cells is independent of gap junctions. - Abstract: Most of the studies of radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been focused on understanding the radiobiological changes observed in bystander cells in response to the signals from irradiated cells in a normal cell population with implications to radiation risk assessment. However, reports on RIBE with relevance to cancer radiotherapy especially investigating the bidirectional and criss-cross bystander communications between cancer and normal cells are limited. Hence, in present study employing co-culture approach, we have investigated the bystander cross-talk between lung cancer (A549) and normal (WI38) cells after proton-microbeam irradiation using γ-H2AX foci fluorescence as a measure of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We observed that in A549–A549 co-cultures, irradiated A549 cells exert damaging effects in bystander A549 cells, which were found to be mediated through gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). However, in A549–WI38 co-cultures, irradiated A549 did not affect bystander WI38 cells. Rather, bystander WI38 cells induced inverse protective signalling (rescue effect) in irradiated A549 cells, which was independent of GJIC. On the other hand, in response to irradiated WI38 cells neither of the bystander cells (A549 or WI38) showed significant increase in γ-H2AX foci. The observed bystander signalling between tumour and normal cells may have potential implications in therapeutic outcome of cancer radiotherapy.

  7. Omitting elective nodal irradiation during thoracic irradiation in limited-stage small cell lung cancer--evidence from a phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Rovel; Sheikh, Hamid; Lorigan, Paul; Blackhall, Fiona; Hulse, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Ashcroft, Linda; Taylor, Paul; Thatcher, Nicholas; Faivre-Finn, Corinne

    2012-04-01

    Omitting elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in limited-stage disease small cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC) is expected to result in smaller radiation fields. We report on data from a randomised phase II trial that omitted ENI in patients receiving concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for LD-SCLC. 38 patients with LD-SCLC were randomised to receive once-daily (66 Gy in 33 fractions) or twice-daily (45 Gy in 30 fractions) radiotherapy (RT). 3D-conformal RT was given concurrently with cisplatin and etoposide starting with the second cycle of a total of four cycles. The gross tumour volume was defined as primary tumour with involved lymph nodes (nodes ≥1 cm in short axis) identifiable with CT imaging. ENI was not used. Six recurrence patterns were identified: recurrence within planning target volume (PTV) only, recurrence within PTV+regional nodal recurrence and/or distant recurrence, isolated nodal recurrence outside PTV, nodal recurrence outside PTV+distant recurrence, distant metastases only and no recurrence. At median follow-up 16.9 months, 31/38 patients were evaluable and 14/31 patients had relapsed. There were no isolated nodal recurrences. Eight patients relapsed with intra-thoracic disease: 2 within PTV only, 4 within PTV and distantly and 2 with nodal recurrence outside PTV plus distant metastases. Rates of grade 3+ acute oesophagitis and pneumonitis in the 31 evaluable patients were 23 and 3% respectively. In our study of LD-SCLC, omitting ENI based on CT imaging was not associated with a high risk of isolated nodal recurrence, although further prospective studies are needed to confirm this. Routine ENI omission will be further evaluated prospectively in the ongoing phase III CONVERT trial (NCT00433563). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. SU-F-T-150: Comparing Normal Tissue Irradiated Volumes for Proton Vs. Photon Treatment Plans On Lung Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, A; Mohan, R; Liao, Z [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to compare the “irradiated volume” (IRV) of normal tissues receiving 5, 20, 50, 80 and 90% or higher of the prescription dose with passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT) vs. IMRT of lung cancer patients. The overall goal of this research is to understand the factors affecting outcomes of a randomized PSPT vs. IMRT lung trial. Methods: Thirteen lung cancer patients, selected randomly, were analyzed. Each patient had PSPT and IMRT 74 Gy (RBE) plans meeting the same normal tissue constraints generated. IRVs were created for pairs of IMRT and PSPT plans on each patient. The volume of iGTV, (respiratory motion-incorporated GTV) was subtracted from each IRV to create normal tissue irradiated volume IRVNT. The average of IRVNT DVHs over all patients was also calculated for both modalities and inter-compared as were the selected dose-volume indices. Probability (p value) curves were calculated based on the Wilcoxon matched-paired signed-rank test to determine the dose regions where the statistically significant differences existed. Results: As expected, the average 5, 20 and 50% IRVNT’s for PSPT was found to be significantly smaller than for IMRT (p < 0.001, 0.01, and 0.001 respectively). However, the average 90% IRVNT for PSPT was greater than for IMRT (p = 0.003) presumably due to larger penumbra of protons and the long range of protons in lower density media. The 80% IRVNT for PSPT was also larger but not statistically distinguishable (p = .224). Conclusion: PSPT modality has smaller irradiated volume at lower doses, but larger volume at high doses. A larger cohort of lung patients will be analyzed in the future and IRVNT of patients treated with PSPT and IMRT will be compared to determine if the irradiated volumes (the magnitude of “dose bath”) correlate with outcomes.

  9. Evaluation of sex specificity on oxidative stress induced in lungs of mice irradiated by 12C6+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Zhang Hong; Zhang Luwei

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify if there is sex specificity on 12 C 6+ ion-induced oxidative damage in mouse lung at different time points. Kun-Ming mice were divided into two groups, each composed of six males and six females: control group and irradiation group with a single acute dose of 4 Gy. Animals were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 12 h respectively, there lungs were removed immediately, and the oxidative stress-related biomarkers were measured by Diagnostic Reagent Kits. The results showed that the relative activities of superoxide dismutase (4 h), catalase (2 h) and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (12 h) have significant changes (P 12 C 6+ ion is pronounced in the lungs of males. We thought that these sex-responded differences may be attributed to the influence of sex hormones. (authors)

  10. Life prolongation and 5-year survival by intensive irradiation of inoperable lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, H.-J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of intensive radiotherapy on 1-5 year survival rates of patients with inoperable lung cancer is investigated. Some 123 cases were treated with 200 kV X-rays (> 3500 cGy tumour dose) and 1046 with cobalt-60 ν-rays (> 5000 cGy tumour dose). All patients had inoperable, histologically confirmed tumours, limited to one side of the thorax. Survival rates for 1 year were 22% and 37% respectively; for 3 years 1% and 5%; and for 5 years 0 and 2.5%. In all highly differentiated tumours the authors obtained a 5-year survival with telecobalt therapy of 6.5%, and for all oat-cell cases, 2.5%. By comparing the total result with their own control group of 'untreated', but prognostically more favourable patients (122 thoracotomized cases without resection) the increase of survival rates achieved by Cobalt-60 therapy is convincing (2.5 times for 1 year, 5 times for 2 years). Nevertheless, the very unfavourable prognosis for more than half of the cases justifies trials with systemic therapy. To date chemotherapy does not appear to influence survival times (except for small-cell tumours). Therefore randomized trials with two half-body irradiations (800 cGy each, 'Toronto method') are recommended. (Auth.)

  11. Evaluation of immunological parameters during irradiation with combined chemotherapy in primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Shuji

    1980-01-01

    Changes of several immunological parameters in 52 cases of primary lung cancer treated with radiation combined chemotherapy were studied in the present paper. During the treatment, decreasing of absolute lymphocyte counts, PHA skin test reactivity and lymphocyte blastoid transformation with PHA were recognized. The decreasing of immunological capacities tested in the present investigation did not depend on among clinical stages or histologic types. But irradiation to mediastinum affected to immunological abilities. The values in some immunological parameter tested at pre-treatment or at post-treatment suggested the correlation with tumor regression, namely in the cases showed high values in absolute lymphocyte counts and PPD skin test reactivity at the time of pre-treatment and in the cases showed high reactivity in PHA skin test at post-treatment, tumor regression was significantly demonstrated compared with the other cases. The patients showed high values in absolute lymphocyte counts and PHA skin test at pretreatment time or showed high values in lymphocyte blastoid transformation with PHA at post-treatment demonstrated longer survival time. As a result, the test of immunological abilities obtained at pre-treatment time was reliable to forecast tumor regression and survival time. (author)

  12. Converging stereotactic radiotherapy using kilovoltage X-rays: experimental irradiation of normal rabbit lung and dose-volume analysis with Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Takatsugu; Kunieda, Etsuo; Deloar, Hossain M; Tsunoo, Takanori; Seki, Satoshi; Oku, Yohei; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Ogawa, Eileen N; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Kameyama, Kaori; Kubo, Atsushi

    2009-10-01

    To validate the feasibility of developing a radiotherapy unit with kilovoltage X-rays through actual irradiation of live rabbit lungs, and to explore the practical issues anticipated in future clinical application to humans through Monte Carlo dose simulation. A converging stereotactic irradiation unit was developed, consisting of a modified diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scanner. A tiny cylindrical volume in 13 normal rabbit lungs was individually irradiated with single fractional absorbed doses of 15, 30, 45, and 60 Gy. Observational CT scanning of the whole lung was performed every 2 weeks for 30 weeks after irradiation. After 30 weeks, histopathologic specimens of the lungs were examined. Dose distribution was simulated using the Monte Carlo method, and dose-volume histograms were calculated according to the data. A trial estimation of the effect of respiratory movement on dose distribution was made. A localized hypodense change and subsequent reticular opacity around the planning target volume (PTV) were observed in CT images of rabbit lungs. Dose-volume histograms of the PTVs and organs at risk showed a focused dose distribution to the target and sufficient dose lowering in the organs at risk. Our estimate of the dose distribution, taking respiratory movement into account, revealed dose reduction in the PTV. A converging stereotactic irradiation unit using kilovoltage X-rays was able to generate a focused radiobiologic reaction in rabbit lungs. Dose-volume histogram analysis and estimated sagittal dose distribution, considering respiratory movement, clarified the characteristics of the irradiation received from this type of unit.

  13. Available evidence on re-irradiation with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy following high-dose previous thoracic radiotherapy for lung malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bari, Berardino; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Mazzola, Rosario; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Trovò, Marco; Livi, Lorenzo; Alongi, Filippo

    2015-06-01

    Patients affected with intra-thoracic recurrences of primary or secondary lung malignancies after a first course of definitive radiotherapy have limited therapeutic options, and they are often treated with a palliative intent. Re-irradiation with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) represents an appealing approach, due to the optimized dose distribution that allows for high-dose delivery with better sparing of organs at risk. This strategy has the goal of long-term control and even cure. Aim of this review is to report and discuss published data on re-irradiation with SABR in terms of efficacy and toxicity. Results indicate that thoracic re-irradiation may offer satisfactory disease control, however the data on outcome and toxicity are derived from low quality retrospective studies, and results should be cautiously interpreted. As SABR may be associated with serious toxicity, attention should be paid for an accurate patients' selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Field- and irradiation-induced phenomena in memristive nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhaylov, A.N.; Gryaznov, E.G.; Belov, A.I.; Korolev, D.S.; Sharapov, A.N.; Guseinov, D.V.; Tetelbaum, D.I.; Tikhov, S.V.; Malekhonova, N.V.; Bobrov, A.I.; Pavlov, D.A.; Gerasimova, S.A.; Kazantsev, V.B.; Agudov, N.V.; Dubkov, A.A. [Lobachevsky University, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Rosario, C.M.M.; Sobolev, N.A. [Departamento de Fisica and I3N, Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal); Spagnolo, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Universita di Palermo, Group of Interdisciplinary Theoretical Physics (Italy); CNISM, Unita di Palermo (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    The breakthrough in electronics and information technology is anticipated by the development of emerging memory and logic devices, artificial neural networks and brain-inspired systems on the basis of memristive nanomaterials represented, in a particular case, by a simple 'metal-insulator-metal' (MIM) thin-film structure. The present article is focused on the comparative analysis of MIM devices based on oxides with dominating ionic (ZrO{sub x}, HfO{sub x}) and covalent (SiO{sub x}, GeO{sub x}) bonding of various composition and geometry deposited by magnetron sputtering. The studied memristive devices demonstrate reproducible change in their resistance (resistive switching - RS) originated from the formation and rupture of conductive pathways (filaments) in oxide films due to the electric-field-driven migration of oxygen vacancies and / or mobile oxygen ions. It is shown that, for both ionic and covalent oxides under study, the RS behaviour depends only weakly on the oxide film composition and thickness, device geometry (down to a device size of about 20 x 20 μm{sup 2}). The devices under study are found to be tolerant to ion irradiation that reproduces the effect of extreme fluences of high-energy protons and fast neutrons. This common behaviour of RS is explained by the localized nature of the redox processes in a nanoscale switching oxide volume. Adaptive (synaptic) change of resistive states of memristive devices is demonstrated under the action of single or repeated electrical pulses, as well as in a simple model of coupled (synchronized) neuron-like generators. It is concluded that the noise-induced phenomena cannot be neglected in the consideration of a memristive device as a nonlinear system. The dynamic response of a memristive device to periodic signals of complex waveform can be predicted and tailored from the viewpoint of stochastic resonance concept. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Field- and irradiation-induced phenomena in memristive nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaylov, A.N.; Gryaznov, E.G.; Belov, A.I.; Korolev, D.S.; Sharapov, A.N.; Guseinov, D.V.; Tetelbaum, D.I.; Tikhov, S.V.; Malekhonova, N.V.; Bobrov, A.I.; Pavlov, D.A.; Gerasimova, S.A.; Kazantsev, V.B.; Agudov, N.V.; Dubkov, A.A.; Rosario, C.M.M.; Sobolev, N.A.; Spagnolo, B.

    2016-01-01

    The breakthrough in electronics and information technology is anticipated by the development of emerging memory and logic devices, artificial neural networks and brain-inspired systems on the basis of memristive nanomaterials represented, in a particular case, by a simple 'metal-insulator-metal' (MIM) thin-film structure. The present article is focused on the comparative analysis of MIM devices based on oxides with dominating ionic (ZrO_x, HfO_x) and covalent (SiO_x, GeO_x) bonding of various composition and geometry deposited by magnetron sputtering. The studied memristive devices demonstrate reproducible change in their resistance (resistive switching - RS) originated from the formation and rupture of conductive pathways (filaments) in oxide films due to the electric-field-driven migration of oxygen vacancies and / or mobile oxygen ions. It is shown that, for both ionic and covalent oxides under study, the RS behaviour depends only weakly on the oxide film composition and thickness, device geometry (down to a device size of about 20 x 20 μm"2). The devices under study are found to be tolerant to ion irradiation that reproduces the effect of extreme fluences of high-energy protons and fast neutrons. This common behaviour of RS is explained by the localized nature of the redox processes in a nanoscale switching oxide volume. Adaptive (synaptic) change of resistive states of memristive devices is demonstrated under the action of single or repeated electrical pulses, as well as in a simple model of coupled (synchronized) neuron-like generators. It is concluded that the noise-induced phenomena cannot be neglected in the consideration of a memristive device as a nonlinear system. The dynamic response of a memristive device to periodic signals of complex waveform can be predicted and tailored from the viewpoint of stochastic resonance concept. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Measurement and calculation of radiation fields of the Sandia irradiator for dried sewage solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.E.

    1981-03-01

    The radiation field of the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids was measured. The results of the measurement are given in this report. In addition, theoretical calculations of the fields are given and then compared with the measured values. Elementary models of the radiation source geometry and irradiated product are found to be adequate and thus allow us to duplicate (through calculation) the important features of the measured fields

  17. Recall lung pneumonitis due to carmustine after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.S.; Geddes, D.M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Respiratory Medicine; Agrawal, S.; Gore, M. [Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    A patient who developed pneumonitis immediately after the administration of carmustine (BCNU), within exactly the same field as previous irradiation, is presented. The patient responded partially to corticosteroids. This case suggests that irradiation causes subclinical sensitisation of the lung and can therefore have an additive effect in precipitating lung damage when another pulmonary toxin is encountered at a later date. (Author).

  18. Calculations of dose distributions in the lungs of a rat model irradiated in the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Pavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protti, N. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: nicoletta.protti@pv.infn.it; Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); Gadan, M.A. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); De Bari, A.; Ballarini, F. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); Ferrari, C.; Clerici, A.M.; Zonta, C. [Department of Surgery, Experimental Surgery Laboratory, University of Pavia (Italy); Bakeine, J.G. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); Dionigi, P.; Zonta, A. [Department of Surgery, Experimental Surgery Laboratory, University of Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    To test the possibility to apply boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to lung tumors, some rats are planned to be irradiated in the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor of University of Pavia. Before the irradiation, lung metastases will be induced in BDIX rats, which will be subsequently infused with boronophenylalanine (BPA). During the irradiation, the rats will be positioned in a box designed to shield the whole animal except the thorax area. In order to optimize the irradiation set-up and to design a suitable shielding box, a set of calculations were performed with the MCNP Monte Carlo transport code. A rat model was constructed using the MCNP geometry capabilities and was positioned in a box with walls filled with lithium carbonate. A window was opened in front of the lung region. Different shapes of the holder and of the window were tested and analyzed in terms of the dose distribution obtained in the lungs and of the dose absorbed by the radiosensitive organs in the rat. The best configuration of the holder ensures an almost uniform thermal neutron flux inside the lungs ({phi}{sub max}/{phi}{sub min}=1.5), an irradiation time about 10 min long, to deliver at least 40 Gy{sub w} to the tumor, a mean lung dose of 5.9{+-}0.4 Gy{sub w}, and doses absorbed by all the other healthy tissues below the tolerance limits.

  19. Impact of field number and beam angle on functional image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Bilal A.; Bragg, Chris M.; Wild, Jim M.; Swinscoe, James A.; Lawless, Sarah E.; Hart, Kerry A.; Hatton, Matthew Q.; Ireland, Rob H.

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of beam angles and field number on functionally-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) normal lung avoidance treatment plans that incorporate hyperpolarised helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging (3He MRI) ventilation data. Eight non-small cell lung cancer patients had pre-treatment 3He MRI that was registered to inspiration breath-hold radiotherapy planning computed tomography. IMRT plans that minimised the volume of total lung receiving  ⩾20 Gy (V20) were compared with plans that minimised 3He MRI defined functional lung receiving  ⩾20 Gy (fV20). Coplanar IMRT plans using 5-field manually optimised beam angles and 9-field equidistant plans were also evaluated. For each pair of plans, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to compare fV20 and the percentage of planning target volume (PTV) receiving 90% of the prescription dose (PTV90). Incorporation of 3He MRI led to median reductions in fV20 of 1.3% (range: 0.2-9.3% p  =  0.04) and 0.2% (range: 0 to 4.1%; p  =  0.012) for 5- and 9-field arrangements, respectively. There was no clinically significant difference in target coverage. Functionally-guided IMRT plans incorporating hyperpolarised 3He MRI information can reduce the dose received by ventilated lung without comprising PTV coverage. The effect was greater for optimised beam angles rather than uniformly spaced fields.

  20. Beyond cancer treatment – a review of total lymphoid irradiation for heart and lung transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, Clare, E-mail: clmck7@student.monash.edu; Knight, Kellie A; Wright, Caroline [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Immunosuppressive drugs used in the management of heart and lung transplants have a large monetary and quality of life cost due to their side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is one method of minimising the need for or replacing post-operative immunosuppressive drugs. A literature review was conducted on electronic databases using defined search terms. The aim was to establish the indications for the use of TLI, its advantages and disadvantages and the weaknesses associated with the methods used in related research. Eight articles were located that focused on TLI usage in combating organ rejection. These studies identified that the use of TLI resulted in a reduction in early rejection. One study reported a drop in rejection episodes from 0.46 to 0.14 episodes per patient per month once the TLI was complete. While the short-term prognosis is excellent, the long-term outlook is less positive with an increased risk of organ rejection and myelodysplasia 3.5 years post-TLI. This review reminds us that radiation therapy (RT) is not exclusively indicated for cancer treatment. While TLI cannot replace immunosuppressive drug therapy, it can offer a treatment option for people that cannot tolerate immunosuppressive drugs, or when conventional anti-rejection treatment is no longer viable. Reported long-term complications suggest that TLI should be used with caution. However, this modality should not be overlooked in cases of chronic rejection. Further research is required to establish the efficacy of RT in the treatment of transplant patients who are unsuitable for drug-based anti-rejection therapies.

  1. Beyond cancer treatment – a review of total lymphoid irradiation for heart and lung transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Clare; Knight, Kellie A; Wright, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs used in the management of heart and lung transplants have a large monetary and quality of life cost due to their side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is one method of minimising the need for or replacing post-operative immunosuppressive drugs. A literature review was conducted on electronic databases using defined search terms. The aim was to establish the indications for the use of TLI, its advantages and disadvantages and the weaknesses associated with the methods used in related research. Eight articles were located that focused on TLI usage in combating organ rejection. These studies identified that the use of TLI resulted in a reduction in early rejection. One study reported a drop in rejection episodes from 0.46 to 0.14 episodes per patient per month once the TLI was complete. While the short-term prognosis is excellent, the long-term outlook is less positive with an increased risk of organ rejection and myelodysplasia 3.5 years post-TLI. This review reminds us that radiation therapy (RT) is not exclusively indicated for cancer treatment. While TLI cannot replace immunosuppressive drug therapy, it can offer a treatment option for people that cannot tolerate immunosuppressive drugs, or when conventional anti-rejection treatment is no longer viable. Reported long-term complications suggest that TLI should be used with caution. However, this modality should not be overlooked in cases of chronic rejection. Further research is required to establish the efficacy of RT in the treatment of transplant patients who are unsuitable for drug-based anti-rejection therapies

  2. Dosimetric evaluation of the feasibility of stereotactic body radiotherapy for primary lung cancer with lobe-specific selective elective nodal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Tetsuya; Kunieda, Etsuo; Kitahara, Tadashi; Akiba, Takeshi; Nagao, Ryuta; Fukuzawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    More than 10% of all patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for primary lung cancer develop regional lymph node recurrence. We evaluated the dosimetric feasibility of SBRT with lobe-specific selective elective nodal irradiation (ENI) on dose-volume histograms. A total of 21 patients were treated with SBRT for Stage I primary lung cancer between January 2010 and June 2012 at our institution. The extents of lobe-specific selective ENI fields were determined with reference to prior surgical reports. The ENI fields included lymph node stations (LNS) 3 + 4 + 11 for the right upper lobe tumors, LNS 7 + 11 for the right middle or lower lobe tumors, LNS 5 + 11 for the left upper lobe tumors, and LNS 7 + 11 for the left lower lobe tumors. A composite plan was generated by combining the ENI plan and the SBRT plan and recalculating for biologically equivalent doses of 2 Gy per fraction, using a linear quadratic model. The V20 of the lung, D(1cm3) of the spinal cord, D(1cm3) and D(10cm3) of the esophagus and D(10cm3) of the tracheobronchial wall were evaluated. Of the 21 patients, nine patients (43%) could not fulfill the dose constraints. In all these patients, the distance between the planning target volume (PTV) of ENI (PTVeni) and the PTV of SBRT (PTVsrt) was ≤2.0 cm. Of the three patients who developed regional metastasis, two patients had isolated lymph node failure, and the lymph node metastasis was included within the ENI field. When the distance between the PTVeni and PTVsrt is >2.0 cm, SBRT with selective ENI may therefore dosimetrically feasible. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  3. Effects of X-ray irradiation on expression of Pokemon gene in A549 cells of human lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Zou Yue; Jiang Qisheng; Li Wei; Song Xiujun; Zhou Xiangyan; Wang Cuilan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the dose-and time-effects of X-ray irradiation on the expression of Pokemon gene in A549 cells of human lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: A549 cells were cultured in vitro and exposed to X-rays with the doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy, respectively. Untreated A549 cells were used as control group. The relative levels of Pokemon mRNA expression in the cells were detected by using quantitative real-time PCR at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation. Results: The Pokemon mRNA expression levels decreased in the early period after irradiation (except 2 and 4 h after irradiation in 2 Gy group) and then increased in the later stage (48 h after irradiation) with significant statistical differences at the most time points in comparison with the control group (t=3.40-154.76, P<0.05). Conclusions: Higher doses of X-rays may degrade the expression of Pokemon mRNA in the human A549 cells and induce apoptosis in the early period, hut also may upgrade its expression in the later period, which might be correlated with the cell cycle regulation and DNA damage repair in the A549 cells. (authors)

  4. CD44 and Bak expression in IL-6 or TNF-alpha gene knockout mice after whole lung irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Minako; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Ohta, Toshie; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Imai, Takashi; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2008-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie radiation pneumonitis, we examined whether knockout of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or the interleukin (IL)-6 gene could give mice an inherent resistance to radiation in the acute phase of alveolar damage after thoracic irradiation. The temporal expression of inflammation (CD44) and apoptosis (Bak) markers in lung after thoracic irradiation was measured to determine the degree of alveolar damage. At 4 weeks post-irradiation (10 Gy), small inflammatory foci were observed in all mice, but there were no obvious histological differences between control (C57BL/6JSlc), TNF-alpha knockout (TNF KO), and IL-6 knockout (IL-6 KO) mice. However, immunohistochemical analysis of CD44 and Bak expression over a time course of 2 weeks highlighted significant differences between the three groups. C57BL/6JSlc and TNF KO mice had increased numbers of both CD44-positive and Bak-positive cells after irradiation, while the IL-6 KO mice showed stable levels of CD44 and Bak. In conclusion, the radioresistant status of IL-6 KO mice in the acute phase of alveolar damage after irradiation suggested an important role for IL-6 in radiation pneumonitis. (author)

  5. Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts from lung tumors maintain their immuno-suppressive abilities after high-dose irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia eGorchs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence supports the notion that high-dose (>5 Gy radiotherapy (RT regimens are triggering stronger pro-immunogenic effects than standard low-dose (2 Gy regimens. However, the effects of RT on certain immunoregulatory elements in tumors remain unexplored. In this study we have investigated the effects of high-dose irradiation (HD-RT on the immunomodulating functions of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs. Primary CAF cultures were established from lung cancer specimens derived from patients diagnosed for non-small cell lung cancer. Irradiated and non-irradiated CAFs were examined for immunomodulation in experiments with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from random, healthy donors. Regulation of lymphocytes behavior was checked by lymphocyte proliferation assays, lymphocyte migration assays and T-cell cytokine production. Additionally, CAF-secreted immuno-regulatory factors were studied by multiplex protein arrays, ELISAs and by LC-MS/MS proteomics. In all functional assays we observed a powerful immuno-suppressive effect exerted by CAF-conditioned medium on activated T-cells (p>0,001, and this effect was sustained after a single radiation dose of 18 Gy. Relevant immuno-suppressive molecules such as prostaglandin E2, interleukin-6 and -10, or transforming growth factor-β were found in CAF conditioned medium, but their secretion was unchanged after irradiation. Finally, immunogenic cell death responses in CAFs were studied by exploring the release of high motility group box-1 and ATP. Both alarmins remained undetectable before and after irradiation. In conclusion, CAFs play a powerful immuno-suppressive effect over activated T-cells, and this effect remains unchanged after HD-RT. Importantly, CAFs do not switch on immunogenic cell death responses after exposure to HD-RT.

  6. Locoregional failures following thoracic irradiation in patients with limited-stage small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, Meredith E.; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Sun, Alexander; Bezjak, Andrea; Le, Lisa W.; Brade, Anthony; Cho, John; Leighl, Natasha B.; Shepherd, Frances A.; Hope, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the patterns of loco-regional (LR) and distant failure in patients with limited-stage small cell lung carcinoma (LS-SCLC) treated with curative intent. Methods: From 1997 to 2008, 253 LS-SCLC patients were treated with curative intent chemo-radiation at our institution. A retrospective review identified sites of failure. The cumulative LR failure (LRF) rate was calculated. Distant failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Volumetric images of LR failures were delineated and registered with the original radiation treatment plans if available. Dosimetric parameters for the delineated failure volumes were calculated from the original treatment information. Results: The median follow-up was 19 months. The site of first failure was LR in 34, distant in 80 and simultaneous LR and distant in 31 patients. The cumulative LRF rate was 29% and 38% at 2 and 5 years. OS was 44% at 2 years. Seventy patients had electronically archived treatment plans of which there were 16 LR failures (7 local and 39 regional failure volumes). Of the local and regional failure volumes 29% and 31% were in-field, respectively. Conclusions: The predominant pattern of LR failure was marginal or out-of-field. LR failures may be preventable with improved radiotherapy target definition.

  7. Unsupervised segmentation of lung fields in chest radiographs using multiresolution fractal feature vector and deformable models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Li; Chang, Koyin; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Segmenting lung fields in a chest radiograph is essential for automatically analyzing an image. We present an unsupervised method based on multiresolution fractal feature vector. The feature vector characterizes the lung field region effectively. A fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is then applied to obtain a satisfactory initial contour. The final contour is obtained by deformable models. The results show the feasibility and high performance of the proposed method. Furthermore, based on the segmentation of lung fields, the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) can be measured. The CTR is a simple index for evaluating cardiac hypertrophy. After identifying a suspicious symptom based on the estimated CTR, a physician can suggest that the patient undergoes additional extensive tests before a treatment plan is finalized.

  8. Late changes in lungs of rats irradiated with 6.5 Gy of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazanowska, A.M.; Jelenska, M.M.; Dancewicz, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    1, 3, 6 and 9 months after exposure of mature male rats to 650 rads of X-rays, the composition of isolated lung collagen has been estimated and the distribution of fatty acids in lipids of lung wash analyzed. The results obtained indicate that during the development of lung fibrosis proportion of type I to type III collagen in this organ increases. At the same period increases proportion of saturated fatty acids in lipids isolated from lung wash. Thus, radiation-induced fibrosis is accompanied not only by collagen accumulation but also by an essential change in the type of collagen produced. It seems that also the increased saturation of fatty acids in lung surfactant contributes to the impairment of function of fibrotic lung. (orig./AJ) [de

  9. Analysis of the risk factors for exposure of the lung to low irradiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogeweg, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this report a description is presented of the risk factors for induction of lungtumours. The contribution of natural radioactivity from uranium and thorium to the lungs is mainly caused by inhalation of alpha-emitting radon and thorium daughter products. Apart from exposure by inhalation the lungs are also exposed to external radiation. For internal as well as external exposure a value of 10 -3 lungcancers per Sv lung dose equivalence is found to be acceptable for the riskfactor. (Auth.)

  10. Uniform dose compensation using field within a field technique in T-shaped irradiation for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Ryuji; Sugahara, Takeshi; Baba, Yuji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2003-01-01

    We devised a uniform compensation method to improve dose distribution using the field within a field technique in T-shaped irradiation for esophageal cancer. Isodose curves and dose volume histograms (DVH) of the esophagus in the treatment volume were examined in ten patients treated for esophageal cancers. For the DVH analysis, the prescription dose was 40 Gy to the center of the treatment volume, and the volume ratio of the esophagus receiving within ±5% of the prescription dose (38-42 Gy) was regarded as an index of dose homogeneity (V±5%). The peak dose in the conventional antero-posterior opposed fields irradiation existed at the clavicular level, and the 90% isodose curve crossing the esophagus almost corresponded to the top level of the aortic arch. When 40 Gy is irradiated, the maximum dose of the esophagus and V±5% were 45.55±0.55 Gy and 59.7±13.2% respectively. The dose distribution of the esophagus became relatively homogeneous when a 10% dose was added using the field within a field technique to the area under the bottom level of the aortic arch, and the maximum dose and V±5% were 42.53±0.94 Gy and 91.7±7.1% respectively. A 10% and more overdose area existed at the clavicular level in the conventional antero-posterior opposed fields irradiation. A relatively homogeneous dose distribution could be obtained using the field within a field technique. (author)

  11. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the lung: Indications and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.D.; Komaki, R.

    1986-01-01

    Intracranial metastasis is one of the most morbid manifestations of cancer of the lung. The resulting seizures, headaches, and motor loss severely compromise the individual in the remaining days of his life. The median survival of patients with brain metastasis is only three to four months. Symptoms and signs resulting from brain metastasis are reversible to some degree with cranial irradiation in most patients. Headaches and seizures are most frequently controlled, but motor loss and impaired mentation are less reversible. The high frequency with which small cell carcinoma spreads to the brain has been recognized for many years. For the past decade, prophylactic cranial irradiation has been used widely in conjunction with combination chemotherapy for small cell carcinoma

  12. Soluble TGF-β type II receptor gene therapy reduces TGF-β activity in irradiated lung tissue and protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujaskovic, Z.; Rabbani, Z.; Zhang, X.; Samulski, T.V.; Li, C.-Y.; Anscher, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The objective was to determine whether administration of recombinant human adenoviral vector carrying soluble TGF-β1 type II receptor (TβR-II) gene reduces availability of active TGFβ1 and protects lung from radiation-induced injury. Female Fisher-344 rats were randomized into four groups to receive: 1) Control 2) Adenoviral green fluorescent protein vector (AdGFP) alone 3) Radiation (RT) + Adenoviral vector with TGF-β1 type II receptor gene (AdexTβR-II-Fc) 4) RT alone. Animals were irradiated to right hemithorax using a single dose of 30 Gy. The packaging and production of a recombinant adenovirus carrying the fused human TβR-II-IgG1 Fc gene was achieved by use of the AdEasy system. The treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc (1.5*1010 PFU) and control vector AdGFP (1*109 PFU) were injected i.v. 24 hrs after RT. Respiratory rate was measured as an index of pulmonary function weekly for 5 weeks post RT. Structural damage was scored histologically. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify activated macrophages. ELISA was used to quantify active TGF-β1 in tissue homogenate. Western blot was used to determine TβR-II expression in plasma and lung tissue. Animals receiving treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc have elevated plasma levels of soluble TβR-II at 24 and 48 hours after injection. In the RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group, there was a significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.002) at four weeks after treatment compared to RT alone group. Histology revealed a significant reduction in lung structural damage in animals receiving gene therapy after RT vs RT alone (p=0.0013). There was also a decrease in the number of activated macrophage (p= 0.02) in RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group vs RT alone. The tissue protein expression of active TGF-β1 was significantly reduced in rats receiving RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc treatment (p<0.05). This study shows the ability of adenovirus mediated soluble TβR-II gene therapy to reduce tissue levels of active TGF-β1 and ameliorate radiation

  13. Implementation of a forearm support to reduce the amount of irradiated lung and heart in radiation therapy of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, Coen W.; Borger, Jacques H.; Giersbergen, Aline van; Cho, John; Mijnheer, Ben J.

    2001-01-01

    We compared simulator images of medial tangential fields taken in two positions: (1) with the ipsilateral arm abducted, holding a 'L-bar' armrest and (2) with both arms extended above the head in a forearm support. The average maximum heart distance as well as the central lung distance decreased significantly by 3.4 (SE 0.9) and 4.7 (SE 1.1) mm, respectively, when the new forearm support was used. The estimated normal tissue complication probability for excess cardiac mortality decreased by on average 3.1% (SE 1.3%). For some patients, a greater amount of the axilla was included in the field. We recommend the use of the forearm support during breast cancer treatment with tangential fields to decrease the amount of heart and lung inside the fields

  14. Once vs. twice daily thoracic irradiation in limited stage small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Sang; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Ju Ock; Kim, Sun Young; Cho, Moon June

    1998-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted comparing single dally fraction (SDF) thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) with twice daily (BID) TRT to determine the potential benefit of BID TRT in limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Endpoints of the study were response, survival, pattern of failure, and acute toxicity. Between November 1989 to December 1996, 78 patients with histologically proven limited-stage SCLC were treated at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital. Of these, 9 were irradiated for palliative intent, and 1 had recurrent disease. Remaining 68 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 26 patients with a median age of 58 years, and 22 (85%) ECOG performance score of less than 1 in SDF TRT. There were 42 patients with a median age of 57 years, and 36 (86%) ECOG performance score of less than 1 in BID TRT. By radiation fractionation regimen, there were 26 in SDF TRT and 42 in BID TRT. SDF TRT consisted of 180 cGy, 5 days a week. BID TRT consisted of 150 cGY BID, 5 days a week in 13 of 42 and 120 cGy BID, in 29 of 42. And the twice daily fractions were separated by at least 4 hours. Total radiotherapy doses were between 5040 and 6940 cGy (median, 5040 cGy) in SDF TRT and was between 4320 and 5100 cGy (median, 4560 cGy) in BID TRT. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) was recommended for patients who achieved a CR. The recommended PCI dose was 2500 cGy/10 fractions. Chemotherapy consisted of CAV (cytoxan 1000 mg/m 2 , adriamycin 40 mg/m 2 , vincristine 1 mg/m 2 ) alternating with VPP (cisplatin 60 mg/m 2 , etoposide 100 mg/m 2 ) every 3 weeks in 25 (96%) of SDF TRT and in 40 (95%) of BID TRT. Median cycle of chemotherapy was six in both group. Timing for chemotherapy was sequential in 23 of SDF TRT and in 3 BID TRT, and concurrent in 3 of SDF TRT and in 39 of BID TRT. Follow-up ranged from 2 of 99 months (median, 14 months) in both groups. Of the 26 SDF TRT, 9 (35%) achieved a complete response (CR) and 14 (54

  15. Effects of X-ray irradiation on the expression of Pokemon gene in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xiaofang; Zou Yue; Wang Lu; Jiang Qisheng; Li Fengsheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the dose and time effects of X-ray radiation on the expression of Pokemon gene and protein in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A 549 . Methods: A 549 cells was exposed to different doses of X-ray (2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy), and the expression of Pokemon mRNA and protein of the cells was detected by using Quantitative real-time PCR and western-blotting at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after irradiation. 3-( 4, 5-Dimethylthiazole-2-yl )-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was used to detect the proliferation of A 549 cells at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 d after 2 Gy X-ray irradiation. The mock treated A 549 cells were used as the control. Results: The expression of Pokemon mRNA trended to decrease after irradiated with 4, 6 and 8 Gy in the earlier period and increased in the later period with statistical difference at the most time points (t =3.40 -154.76, P =0.000 -0.041). The expression of Pokemon protein trended to increase and reached the peak at 8 h after irradiated of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy with statistical difference at the most time points (t =4.18 - 89.64, P =0.000 - 0.039). Compared with the control, the proliferation of A 549 cells was significantly inhibited during 3 to 5 d after irradiation of 2 Gy (t =2.34 - 18.19, P =0.000 -0.040). Conclusions: X-ray irradiation may increase the expression of Pokemon mRNA and protein in A 549 cells, which might be correlated with radiation-resistance of A 549 cells. (authors)

  16. Proliferation and clonal survival of human lung cancer cells treated with fractionated irradiation in combination with paclitaxel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijn, Johannes van; Berg, Jaap van den; Meijer, Otto W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to determine the effects of a continuous exposure to paclitaxel (taxol) in combination with fractionated irradiation on cell proliferation and survival. Methods and Materials: Human lung carcinoma cells (SW1573) were given a daily treatment with 3 Gy of x-rays during 5 days in the continuous presence of 5 nM taxol. The surviving fraction and the total number of cells were determined every 24 h before and immediately after irradiation. Results: Irradiation with 5 x 3 Gy and 5 nM taxol cause approximately the same inhibition of cell proliferation. In combination these treatments have an additional effect and the cell population increases no further after the first 24 h. Whereas the cells become more resistant to taxol after the first 24 h with a minimum survival of 42%, taxol progressively reduces the population of surviving cells in combination with x-rays when the number of fractions increases, up to 25-fold relative to irradiation alone. The enhancement effect of 5 nM taxol is likely to be attributed to an inhibition of the repopulation during fractionated irradiation and not to an increased radiosensitivity. Only after treatment with 10 or 100 nM taxol for 24 h, which is attended with a high cytotoxicity, is moderate radiosensitization observed. Conclusion: Taxol, continuously present at a low concentration with little cytotoxicity, causes a progressive reduction of the surviving cell population in combination with fractionated irradiation, mainly by an inhibition of the repopulation of surviving cells between the dose fractions

  17. Effect of gamma-irradiation on cereal DNA investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Miura, Aya; Imura, Hiromi; Yamada, Takashi; Saito, Yukio

    1996-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation on the DNA of corn, soybean and wheat were investigated using a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis technique. In order to avoid strand breaks during the DNA extracting steps, protoplasts prepared from seeds were embedded in agarose plugs and the DNA was purified by the digesting membranes and proteins. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis can separate large DNA strands of about a few Mb in length. The DNA from unirradiated corn, soybean and wheat had mainly 3 fragments, about 6Mb(Fr.1), 5Mb(Fr.2), a few hundred kb(Fr.3) and so on. After gamma-irradiation, Fr.1 and Fr.2 had decreased depend on irradiation dose. The Fr.4(about 200 kb) of corn and Fr.3 of soybean DNA increased while Fr.3 of wheat did not increase under 10 kGy irradiation, however, the Fr.3 of all samples and the Fr.4 of corn decreased by over 10 kGy irradiation. It can be assumed that the large DNA strands were broken into smaller strands which increased at low irradiation doses, whereas both large and small DNA strands were broken down at higher irradiation doses. The Fr.6(2.5Mb) and Fr.7(1.5Mb) appeared in irradiated wheat DNA. (author)

  18. Fast fluence measurement for JOYO irradiation field using niobium dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikara

    2004-03-01

    Neutron fluence and spectrum are key parameters in various irradiation tests and material surveillance tests so they need to be evaluated accurately. The reactor dosimetry test has been conducted by the multiple foil activation method, and a niobium dosimeter has been developed for measurement of fast neutron fluence in the experimental fast reactor JOYO. The inelastic scattering reaction of 93 Nb has a low threshold energy, about 30 keV, and the energy distribution of reaction cross section is similar to the displacement cross section for iron. Therefore, a niobium dosimeter is suitable for evaluation of the fast neutron fluence and the displacement per atom for iron. Moreover, a niobium dosimeter is suited to measure neutron fluence in long-term irradiation test because 93 Nb, which is produced by the reaction, has a long half-life (16.4 years). This study established a high precision measurement technique using the niobium reaction rate. The effect of self-absorption was decreased by the solution and evaporation to dryness of niobium dosimeter. The dosimeter weight was precisely measured using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. This technique was applied to JOYO dosimetry. The fast neutron fluences (E > 0.1 MeV) found by measuring the reaction rate in the niobium dosimeter were compared with the values evaluated using the multiple foil activation method. The ratio of measured fast neutron fluences by means of niobium dosimeter and multiple foil activation method range from 0.97 to 1.03 and agree within the experimental uncertainty. The measurement errors of fast neutron fluence by niobium dosimeter range from 4.5% (fuel region) to 10.1% (in-vessel storage rack). As a result of this study, the high precision measurement of fast neutron fluence by niobium dosimeters was confirmed. The accuracy of fast reactor dosimetry will be improved by application of niobium dosimeters to the irradiation tests in the JOYO MK-III core. (author)

  19. Analysis of the physical activity effects and measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines in irradiated lungs in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Renata Cristiane Gennari; Katashima, Carlos Kiyoshi [Faculty of Medical Sciences, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete [School of Applied Sciences, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Carvalheira, Jose Barreto Campello [Department of Internal Medicine, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Lopes, Luiz Roberto; Andreollo, Nelson Adami [Department of Surgery, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To study if the pre-radiotherapy physical activity has radio-protective elements, by measuring the radio-induced activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines as interleukin-6 (il-6), transforming growth factor -{beta} (tgf -{beta}), tumor necrosis factor -a (tnf-a) and protein beta kinase {beta} (ikk{beta}), through western blotting analysis. Methods: A randomized study with 28 Wistar Hannover rats, males, with a mean age of 90 days and weighing about 200 grams. The animals were divided into three groups: (GI, GII and GIII). GIII group were submitted to swimming for eight weeks (zero load, three times a week, about 30 minutes). Then, the groups (except the control group) were submitted to irradiation by cobalt therapy, single dose of 3.5 gray in the whole body. All animals were sacrificed by overdose of pentobarbital, according to the time for analysis of cytokines, and then a fragment of the lower lobe of the right lung went to western blotting analysis. Results: The cytokines IKK{beta}, TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 induced by radiation in the lung were lower in the exercised animals. However, exercise did not alter the radiation-induced increase in tgf-{beta}. Conclusion: The results show a lower response in relation to inflammatory cytokines in the group that practiced the exercise preradiotherapy, showing that exercise can protect tissues from tissue damage due to irradiation. (author)

  20. Converging Stereotactic Radiotherapy Using Kilovoltage X-Rays: Experimental Irradiation of Normal Rabbit Lung and Dose-Volume Analysis With Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Takatsugu; Kunieda, Etsuo; Deloar, Hossain M.; Tsunoo, Takanori; Seki, Satoshi; Oku, Yohei; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Ogawa, Eileen N.; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Kameyama, Kaori; Kubo, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To validate the feasibility of developing a radiotherapy unit with kilovoltage X-rays through actual irradiation of live rabbit lungs, and to explore the practical issues anticipated in future clinical application to humans through Monte Carlo dose simulation. Methods and Materials: A converging stereotactic irradiation unit was developed, consisting of a modified diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scanner. A tiny cylindrical volume in 13 normal rabbit lungs was individually irradiated with single fractional absorbed doses of 15, 30, 45, and 60 Gy. Observational CT scanning of the whole lung was performed every 2 weeks for 30 weeks after irradiation. After 30 weeks, histopathologic specimens of the lungs were examined. Dose distribution was simulated using the Monte Carlo method, and dose-volume histograms were calculated according to the data. A trial estimation of the effect of respiratory movement on dose distribution was made. Results: A localized hypodense change and subsequent reticular opacity around the planning target volume (PTV) were observed in CT images of rabbit lungs. Dose-volume histograms of the PTVs and organs at risk showed a focused dose distribution to the target and sufficient dose lowering in the organs at risk. Our estimate of the dose distribution, taking respiratory movement into account, revealed dose reduction in the PTV. Conclusions: A converging stereotactic irradiation unit using kilovoltage X-rays was able to generate a focused radiobiologic reaction in rabbit lungs. Dose-volume histogram analysis and estimated sagittal dose distribution, considering respiratory movement, clarified the characteristics of the irradiation received from this type of unit.

  1. Segmentation of lung fields using Chan-Vese active contour model in chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kiwon

    2011-03-01

    A CAD tool for chest radiographs consists of several procedures and the very first step is segmentation of lung fields. We develop a novel methodology for segmentation of lung fields in chest radiographs that can satisfy the following two requirements. First, we aim to develop a segmentation method that does not need a training stage with manual estimation of anatomical features in a large training dataset of images. Secondly, for the ease of implementation, it is desirable to apply a well established model that is widely used for various image-partitioning practices. The Chan-Vese active contour model, which is based on Mumford-Shah functional in the level set framework, is applied for segmentation of lung fields. With the use of this model, segmentation of lung fields can be carried out without detailed prior knowledge on the radiographic anatomy of the chest, yet in some chest radiographs, the trachea regions are unfavorably segmented out in addition to the lung field contours. To eliminate artifacts from the trachea, we locate the upper end of the trachea, find a vertical center line of the trachea and delineate it, and then brighten the trachea region to make it less distinctive. The segmentation process is finalized by subsequent morphological operations. We randomly select 30 images from the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology image database to test the proposed methodology and the results are shown. We hope our segmentation technique can help to promote of CAD tools, especially for emerging chest radiographic imaging techniques such as dual energy radiography and chest tomosynthesis.

  2. Comparação entre os volumes pulmonares irradiados com técnica bidimensional e tridimensional conformada na radioterapia de pacientes com tumores de pulmão localmente avançados Comparison between irradiated lung volumes with two-dimensional and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy techniques for locally advanced lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa de Andrade Carvalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar e quantificar os volumes pulmonares irradiados utilizando planejamentos bidimensional (2D e tridimensional (3D conformado na radioterapia de tumores de pulmão. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Em 27 pacientes portadores de câncer de pulmão foi feito planejamento 3D e outro correspondente em 2D. As doses prescritas variaram de 45 a 66 Gy. Foram avaliadas as doses no volume alvo planejado (PTV, volume tumoral macroscópico (GTV e pulmões (volume de pulmão que recebe 20 Gy ou 30 Gy - V20 e V30, respectivamente, e dose média. Os órgãos de risco adjacentes (medula espinhal, esôfago e coração receberam doses abaixo dos limites de tolerância. RESULTADOS: O GTV variou de 10,5 a 1.290,0 cm³ (média de 189,65 cm³. Nos planejamentos 2D foi utilizado, em média, um total de 59,33 campos, e nos planejamentos 3D, 75,65 campos. Em todas as situações analisadas houve significante (p OBJECTIVE: To compare and quantify irradiated lung volumes using two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D conformal planning for radiotherapy in the treatment of lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 2D and 3D conformal radiotherapy plannings were performed for 27 patients with lung cancer. Prescribed doses ranged from 45 to 66 Gy. The analysis covered the doses to planning target volume (PTV, gross tumor volume (GTV and lungs (lung volume receiving 20 Gy or 30 Gy - V20 and V30, respectively, and mean dose. The doses to adjacent organs at risk (spinal cord, esophagus and heart were maintained below the tolerance limits. RESULTS: GTV ranged from 10.5 to 1,290.0 cm³ (mean, 189.65 cm³. On average, a total of 59.33 fields were utilized in the 2D planning and 75.65 fields in the 3D planning. Lung volumes were significantly preserved (P < 0.05 with the 3D conformal planning in all the evaluated cases, with about 15% decrease in the irradiated lung volumes. Lungs without tumor were most benefited from this technique. CONCLUSION: 3D radiotherapy allowed a better

  3. A simple technique for an accurate shielding of the lungs during total body irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Mekdash

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This new technique succeeded in reducing the length of the overall treatment session of the conventional TBI procedure and hence reduced patient discomfort while ensuring accurate shielding of the lungs.

  4. Morphologic changes reflecting early and late effects of irradiation of the distal lung of the mouse: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penney, D.P.; Siemann, D.W.; Rubin, P.; Shapiro, D.L.; Finkelstein, J.; Cooper, R.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In radiation of the thorax, the lung has been shown to be a major dose-limiting organ. The early and late responses of the lung to radiation has been reviewed, with primary emphasis on the following cell types: type II pneumocyte, type I pneumocyte, pulmonary endothelial cell and macrophage. The earliest observable and quantifiable cellular response to radiation is exhibited by the type II pneumocytes as a decrease in lamellar bodies and a corresponding increase in surfactant content of the alveolar lavage. By 18-63 weeks following exposure, several type II cells, restored in their lamellar body population, undergo degeneration and sloughing into alveolar spaces. Type I pneumocytes generally exhibit little change, although some investigators describe alveolar denudation due to degenerating type I cells. Macrophages decrease in numbers following irradiation, returning to normal populations by 4 weeks. These changes correspond closely to the changes in alveolar lavage phospholipid phosphorus. Descriptions of radiation-induced damage to endothelial cells are variable. However, blebbing and vacuolation appear to be late developing responses, although altered permeability may be earlier in its expression. Radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis are the two major clinical and experimental responses of the lung to radiation following exposures of greater than 12 Gy. The former appears to involve type II cells, macrophages and pulmonary endothelial cells, and for the latter macrophages, fibroblasts, type II pneumocytes and the pulmonary endothelial cells are involved. The two events are not interdependent, and may not necessarily be interrelated

  5. Comparison of single, fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation on the development of normal tissue damage in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, P.G.S.; Kimler, B.F.; Giri, U.P.; Cox, G.G.; Reddy, E.K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of fractionated thoracic irradiation on the development of normal tissue damage in rats was compared to that produced by single doses. Animals received a single dose of 15 Gy, 30 Gy in 10 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (fractionation), or 30 Gy in 30 fractions of 1 Gy each 3 times a day (hyperfractionation). The treatments produced minimal lethality since a total of only 6 animals died between days 273 and 475 after the initiation of treatment, with no difference in survival observed between the control and any of the 3 treated groups. Despite the lack of lethality, evidence of lung damage was obtained by histological examination. Animals that had received either single doses or fractionated doses had more of the pulmonary parenchyma involved than did animals that had received hyperfractionated doses. The authors conclude that, in the rat lung model, a total radiation dose of 30 Gy fractionated over 14 days produces no more lethality nor damage to lung tissue than does 15 Gy delivered as a single dose. However, long-term effects as evidenced by deposits of collagen and development of fibrosis are significantly reduced by hyperfractionation when compared to single doses and daily fractionation

  6. Method for determining correction factors induced by irradiation of ionization chamber cables in large radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, L.L.C.

    1988-01-01

    A simple method was developed to be suggested to hospital physicists in order to be followed during large radiation field dosimetry, to evaluate the effects of cables, connectors and extension cables irradiation and to determine correction factors for each system or geometry. All quality control tests were performed according to the International Electrotechnical Commission for three clinical dosimeters. Photon and electron irradiation effects for cables, connectors and extention cables were investigated under different experimental conditions by means of measurements of chamber sensitivity to a standard radiation source of 90 Sr. The radiation induced leakage current was also measured for cables, connectors and extension cables irradiated by photons and electrons. All measurements were performed at standard dosimetry conditions. Finally, measurements were performed in large fields. Cable factors and leakage factors were determined by the relation between chamber responses for irradiated and unirradiated cables. (author) [pt

  7. Lung diseases caused by /sup 60/Co irradiation combined by nebulizer therapy with Dexa-Scheroson after the operation of cancer of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saima, S; Oshiro, H; Yamamoto, Y; Naka, K; Asahara, T [Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-11-01

    In 29 cases in which the operation had been carried out for cancer of the breast, nebulizer therapy with Dexa-Scheroson was performed 30 minutes before /sup 60/Co irradiation. Radiation pneumonitis was observed in 17.2% of them, but there was no combination of pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, this method showed no serious side effects, and seemed effective for preventing the roentgenographic changes of the lung caused by /sup 60/Co irradiation.

  8. Biological alterations resulting from chronic lung irradiation. III. Effect of partial 60Co thoracic irradiation upon pulmonary collagen metabolism and fractionation in syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, J.A.; Harris, D.V.; Hahn, F.F.; Belasich, J.J.; Jones, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in pulmonary collagen metabolism were studied in Syrian hamsters given multiple thoracic doses of 60 Co radiation to achieve cumulative exposures of 6000, 4000, and 2000 R. At 13 to 14 wk after initial exposure, 6000- and 4000-R exposures had increased incorporation of injected [ 14 C]proline into pulmonary collagenous protein which suggested an increased collagen synthesis. By 21 to 22 wk after exposure, increased pulmonary soluble collagen was noted. Increased pulmonary scarring was indicated by a variable increase in native collagen at 13 to 36 wk. A collection of alveolar macrophages at 7 to 8 wk followed by inflammation at 13 to 14 wk and a beginning of pulmonary fibrosis at 13 to 19 wk were noted. At 21 to 22 wk after exposure a somewhat more marked pulmonary fibrosis and some epithelialization were observed. Hemosiderin deposits were also observed at 35 to 36 wk after exposure, but pathologic processes were lessened by this time. The early activation of collagen synthesis presumably caused the radiation-induced fibrosis. Later, when collagen tended to accumulate, the synthetic rate was normal. The activation of collagen synthesis caused by external thoracic irradiation resembles that caused by thoracic irradiation from the internal emitter, 144 Ce. Moreover, it demonstrates the usefulness of monitoring collagen biosynthesis by [ 14 C]proline incorporation into the lung. (U.S.)

  9. A phase field model for segregation and precipitation induced by irradiation in alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo, A.; Bellon, P.; Averback, R. S.

    2015-04-01

    A phase field model is introduced to model the evolution of multicomponent alloys under irradiation, including radiation-induced segregation and precipitation. The thermodynamic and kinetic components of this model are derived using a mean-field model. The mobility coefficient and the contribution of chemical heterogeneity to free energy are rescaled by the cell size used in the phase field model, yielding microstructural evolutions that are independent of the cell size. A new treatment is proposed for point defect clusters, using a mixed discrete-continuous approach to capture the stochastic character of defect cluster production in displacement cascades, while retaining the efficient modeling of the fate of these clusters using diffusion equations. The model is tested on unary and binary alloy systems using two-dimensional simulations. In a unary system, the evolution of point defects under irradiation is studied in the presence of defect clusters, either pre-existing ones or those created by irradiation, and compared with rate theory calculations. Binary alloys with zero and positive heats of mixing are then studied to investigate the effect of point defect clustering on radiation-induced segregation and precipitation in undersaturated solid solutions. Lastly, irradiation conditions and alloy parameters leading to irradiation-induced homogeneous precipitation are investigated. The results are discussed in the context of experimental results reported for Ni-Si and Al-Zn undersaturated solid solutions subjected to irradiation.

  10. A phase field model for segregation and precipitation induced by irradiation in alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo, A; Bellon, P; Averback, R S

    2015-01-01

    A phase field model is introduced to model the evolution of multicomponent alloys under irradiation, including radiation-induced segregation and precipitation. The thermodynamic and kinetic components of this model are derived using a mean-field model. The mobility coefficient and the contribution of chemical heterogeneity to free energy are rescaled by the cell size used in the phase field model, yielding microstructural evolutions that are independent of the cell size. A new treatment is proposed for point defect clusters, using a mixed discrete-continuous approach to capture the stochastic character of defect cluster production in displacement cascades, while retaining the efficient modeling of the fate of these clusters using diffusion equations. The model is tested on unary and binary alloy systems using two-dimensional simulations. In a unary system, the evolution of point defects under irradiation is studied in the presence of defect clusters, either pre-existing ones or those created by irradiation, and compared with rate theory calculations. Binary alloys with zero and positive heats of mixing are then studied to investigate the effect of point defect clustering on radiation-induced segregation and precipitation in undersaturated solid solutions. Lastly, irradiation conditions and alloy parameters leading to irradiation-induced homogeneous precipitation are investigated. The results are discussed in the context of experimental results reported for Ni–Si and Al–Zn undersaturated solid solutions subjected to irradiation. (paper)

  11. Air-electron stream interactions during magnetic resonance IGRT. Skin irradiation outside the treatment field during accelerated partial breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Min; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kim, Jung-in; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jin Ho; Jeon, Seung Hyuck; Choi, Noorie

    2018-01-01

    To investigate and to prevent irradiation outside the treatment field caused by an electron stream in the air generated by the magnetic field during magnetic resonance image-guided accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). In all, 20 patients who received APBI with a magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system were prospectively studied. The prescription dose was 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions of 3.85 Gy and delivered with a tri-cobalt system (the ViewRay system). For each patient, primary plans were delivered for the first five fractions and modified plans with different gantry angles from those of the primary plan (in-treatment plans) were delivered for the remaining five fractions to reduce the skin dose. A 1 cm thick bolus was placed in front of the patient's jaw, ipsilateral shoulder, and arm to shield them from the electron stream. Radiochromic EBT3 films were attached to the front (towards the breast) and back (towards the head) of the bolus during treatment. Correlations between the measured values and the tumor locations, treatment times, and tumor sizes were investigated. For a single fraction delivery, the average areas of the measured isodoses of 14% (0.54 Gy), 12% (0.46 Gy), and 10% (0.39 Gy) at the front of the boluses were as large as 3, 10.4, and 21.4 cm 2 , respectively, whereas no significant dose could be measured at the back of the boluses. Statistically significant but weak correlations were observed between the measured values and the treatment times. During radiotherapy for breast cancer with an MR-IGRT system, the patient must be shielded from electron streams in the air generated by the interaction of the magnetic field with the beams of the three-cobalt treatment unit to avoid unwanted irradiation of the skin outside the treatment field. (orig.) [de

  12. Gene expression profiles of irradiated lung tissue in three mouse strains

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of our research is to clarify the mechanisms generating heterogeneity in response to C-ion irradiation that arise from individual genetic variations in...

  13. A TEM method for analyzing local strain fields in irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennetch, J.I.; Jesser, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Of great interest to the field of fracture mechanics is the strain field in front of a crack tip. In irradiated materials, cavities which naturally form as a result of radiation provide convenient internal markers. If a miniaturized irradiated tensile sample is pulled in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), both the relative displacement of these cavities and their distortion in shape provide information on localized strain on a microscopic level. In addition, the TEM method allows direct correlation of active slip systems with crack propagation characteristics. To illustrate this method a strain field map was constructed about a crack propagating in a helium irradiated type 316 stainless steel sample containing large cavities. (orig.)

  14. Supine Craniospinal Irradiation Using Intrafractional Junction Shifts and Field-in-Field Dose Shaping: Early Experience at Methodist Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, Michael C.; Chiu, J. Kam; Teh, Bin S.; Bloch, Charles; Schroeder, Thomas M.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe our preliminary experience with supine craniospinal irradiation. The advantages of the supine position for craniospinal irradiation include patient comfort, easier access to maintain an airway for anesthesia, and reduced variability of the head tilt in the face mask. Methods and Materials: The cranial fields were treated with near lateral fields and a table angle to match their divergence to the superior edge of the spinal field. The collimator was rotated to match the divergence from the superior spinal field. The spinal fields were treated using a source to surface distance (SSD) technique with the couch top at 100 cm. When a second spinal field was required, the table and collimator were rotated 90 o to allow for the use of the multileaf collimator and so the gantry could be rotated to match the divergence of the superior spinal field. The multileaf collimator was used for daily dynamic featherings and field-in-field dose control. Results: With a median follow-up of 20.2 months, five documented failures and no cases of radiation myelitis occurred in 23 consecutive patients. No failures occurred in the junctions of the spine-spine or brain-spine fields. Two failures occurred in the primary site alone, two in the spinal axis alone, and one primary site failure plus distant metastasis. The median time to recurrence was 17 months. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that supine approach for delivering craniospinal irradiation is not associated with increased relapses at the field junctions. To date, no cases of radiation myelitis have developed

  15. Field enhanced luminescence of irradiated organics due to electron tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesby, A.

    1981-01-01

    Many organic materials, following exposure to high energy radiation at low temperatures, continue to emit light for long periods. One possible mechanism is that electrons trapped near their parent cations can tunnel back over long times depending on trap depth and distance. This luminescence can be greatly enhanced by the post-radiation application of an external electric field. Calculations on the kinetics of recombination by tunnelling for various trap depths and distances are extended to allow for the effect of an electrical field subsequently applied. The quantitative results lead to two methods of assessing trap depth, depending on immediate light enhancement and on its subsequent decay. The effect of field reversal is also explained. (author)

  16. Blockade of lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPAR1/3 ameliorates lung fibrosis induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Lu; Xue, Jian-Xin; Li, Xin; Liu, De-Song; Ge, Yan; Ni, Pei-Yan; Deng, Lin; Lu, You; Jiang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels and its receptors LPAR1/3 transcripts were elevated during the development of radiation-induced lung fibrosis. → Lung fibrosis was obviously alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. → VPC12249 administration effectively inhibited radiation-induced fibroblast accumulation in vivo, and suppressed LPA-induced fibroblast proliferation in vitro. → LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling regulated TGFβ1 and CTGF expressions in radiation-challenged lungs, but only influenced CTGF expression in cultured fibroblasts. → LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling induced fibroblast proliferation through a CTGF-dependent pathway, rather than through TGFβ1 activation. -- Abstract: Lung fibrosis is a common and serious complication of radiation therapy for lung cancer, for which there are no efficient treatments. Emerging evidence indicates that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its receptors (LPARs) are involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Here, we reported that thoracic radiation with 16 Gy in mice induced development of radiation lung fibrosis (RLF) accompanied by obvious increases in LPA release and LPAR1 and LPAR3 (LPAR1/3) transcripts. RLF was significantly alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. VPC12249 administration effectively prolonged animal survival, restored lung structure, inhibited fibroblast accumulation and reduced collagen deposition. Moreover, profibrotic cytokines in radiation-challenged lungs obviously decreased following administration of VPC12249, including transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). In vitro, LPA induced both fibroblast proliferation and CTGF expression in a dose-dependent manner, and both were suppressed by blockade of LPAR1/3. The pro-proliferative activity of LPA on fibroblasts was inhibited by siRNA directed against CTGF. Together, our data suggest that the LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling system is involved in the

  17. Blockade of lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPAR1/3 ameliorates lung fibrosis induced by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Xue, Jian-Xin [Department of Thoracic Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Li, Xin [Department of Thoracic Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Liu, De-Song [Department of Pediatrics, Sichuan Provincial Hospital of Women and Children, Chengdu (China); Ge, Yan; Ni, Pei-Yan; Deng, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Lu, You, E-mail: radyoulu@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Thoracic Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Wei, E-mail: wcumsjw72@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Molecular Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels and its receptors LPAR1/3 transcripts were elevated during the development of radiation-induced lung fibrosis. {yields} Lung fibrosis was obviously alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. {yields} VPC12249 administration effectively inhibited radiation-induced fibroblast accumulation in vivo, and suppressed LPA-induced fibroblast proliferation in vitro. {yields} LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling regulated TGF{beta}1 and CTGF expressions in radiation-challenged lungs, but only influenced CTGF expression in cultured fibroblasts. {yields} LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling induced fibroblast proliferation through a CTGF-dependent pathway, rather than through TGF{beta}1 activation. -- Abstract: Lung fibrosis is a common and serious complication of radiation therapy for lung cancer, for which there are no efficient treatments. Emerging evidence indicates that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its receptors (LPARs) are involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Here, we reported that thoracic radiation with 16 Gy in mice induced development of radiation lung fibrosis (RLF) accompanied by obvious increases in LPA release and LPAR1 and LPAR3 (LPAR1/3) transcripts. RLF was significantly alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. VPC12249 administration effectively prolonged animal survival, restored lung structure, inhibited fibroblast accumulation and reduced collagen deposition. Moreover, profibrotic cytokines in radiation-challenged lungs obviously decreased following administration of VPC12249, including transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). In vitro, LPA induced both fibroblast proliferation and CTGF expression in a dose-dependent manner, and both were suppressed by blockade of LPAR1/3. The pro-proliferative activity of LPA on fibroblasts was inhibited by siRNA directed against CTGF. Together, our data suggest that the LPA-LPAR1

  18. Irradiation and testing of compact ignition tokamak toroidal field coil insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, G.K.; Sherick, M.J.; Sparks, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    This report documents the results of an irradiation and testing program performed on behalf of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. in support of the Compact Ignition Tokamak Research and Development program. The purpose of the irradiation and testing program was to determine the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on the mechanical and electrical properties of candidate toroidal field coil insulation materials. Insulation samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in a large I-hole. The insulation samples were irradiated within a lead shield to reduce exposure to gamma radiation to better approximate the desired ration of neutron to gamma exposure. Two different exposure levels were specified for the insulation samples. To accomplish this, the samples were encapsulated in two separate aluminum capsules; the capsules positioned at the ATR core mid-plane and at the top of the fueled region to take advantage of the axial cosine distribution of the neutron and gamma flux; and by varying the length of irradiation time of the two capsules. Disassembly of the irradiated capsules and testing of the insulation samples were performed at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) Hot Cell Facilities. Testing of the samples included shear compression static, shear compression fatigue, flexure static, and electrical resistance measurements

  19. Simulation of the field dose of the irradiator PX γ 30 using MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, N.; Prieto, E. F.; Chavez, A.; Rosales, J.

    2011-01-01

    Given the acceptance and actual application of radiation technology for research purposes, industrial and trade is increasing, and that safety and quality of the product being treated by radiation technology is a function of absorbed dose, it becomes necessary to have a good characterization of the radiation field at processing volume, avoiding in this way that the product receives a different dose that affects its properties, or failure to reach the desired effect, which in many cases would be embarrassing. The simulation using the MCNP program, which uses probabilistic Monte Carlo code, can correctly characterize the dose field in the irradiation chamber of research irradiator PX γ 30 used in the CEADEN. (Author)

  20. Field dispersal ability and taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 male Asian corn borer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huasong; Liu Qiongru; Lu Daguang; Wang Endong; Kang Wen; Li Yongjun; He Qiulan; Hu Jianguo

    1998-01-01

    The dispersal ability of F-1 male Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy Separately in parental generation were tested by marking (with Calco oil red or Sudan blue internally)-releasing-recapturing (with synthesized sex pheromone) method in the field where the farthest distance from release point to pheromone trap was 550 m. The results showed that, as compared with the normal male moths, despite of the fact that a part of the irradiated F-1 males had lost dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone, there was no significant difference between the captured rates of irradiated F-1 males and normal males in the trap 550 m from release point, indicated that the dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 males arrived at 550 m from release point are still well matched with the normal ones

  1. Different early effect of irradiation in brain and small cell lung cancer examined by in vivo 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansen, P E; Pedersen, A G; Quistorff, B

    1992-01-01

    Early effects of irradiation were evaluated by non-invasive in vivo 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) of two small cell lung cancer (SCLC) tumor lines CPH SCCL 54A and 54B, in nude mice. The tumors were originally derived from the same patient and have similar morphology and growth...

  2. Simplified alternative to orthogonal field overlap when irradiating a tracheostomy stoma or the hypopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezner, R.D.; Findley, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    Orthogonal field arrangements are usually employed to irradiate a tumor volume which includes a tracheostomy stoma or the hypopharynx. This approach may produce a significantly greater dose than intended to a small segment of the cervical spinal cord because of field overlap at depth from divergence of the beams. Various sophisticated approaches have been proposed to compensate for this overlap. All require marked precision in reproducing the fields on a daily basis. We propose a simplified approach of initially irradiating the entire treatment volume by anterior and posterior opposed fields. Opposed lateral fields that exclude the spinal cord would then provide local boost treatment. A case example and computer-generated isodose curves are presented

  3. Irradiation induces increased production of haemopoietic and proinflammatory cytokines in the mouse lung

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedoročko, P.; Agyed, A.; Vacek, Antonín

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 4 (2002), s. 305-313 ISSN 0955-3002 Grant - others:VEGA MŠ SR(SK) 1/6026/99 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : colony-stimulating activity (CSA) * lung-conditioned media (LCM) * mice Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.119, year: 2002

  4. Focal exposure of limited lung volumes to high-dose irradiation down-regulated organ development-related functions and up-regulated the immune response in mouse pulmonary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bu-Yeo; Jin, Hee; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kang, Ga-Young; Cho, Jaeho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2016-01-27

    Despite the emergence of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of medically inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients, the molecular effects of focal exposure of limited lung volumes to high-dose radiation have not been fully characterized. This study was designed to identify molecular changes induced by focal high-dose irradiation using a mouse model of SBRT. Central areas of the mouse left lung were focally-irradiated (3 mm in diameter) with a single high-dose of radiation (90 Gy). Temporal changes in gene expression in the irradiated and non-irradiated neighboring lung regions were analyzed by microarray. For comparison, the long-term effect (12 months) of 20 Gy radiation on a diffuse region of lung was also measured. The majority of genes were down-regulated in the focally-irradiated lung areas at 2 to 3 weeks after irradiation. This pattern of gene expression was clearly different than gene expression in the diffuse region of lungs exposed to low-dose radiation. Ontological and pathway analyses indicated these down-regulated genes were mainly associated with organ development. Although the number was small, genes that were up-regulated after focal irradiation were associated with immune-related functions. The temporal patterns of gene expression and the associated biological functions were also similar in non-irradiated neighboring lung regions, although statistical significance was greatly reduced when compared with those from focally-irradiated areas of the lung. From network analysis of temporally regulated genes, we identified inter-related modules associated with diverse functions, including organ development and the immune response, in both the focally-irradiated regions and non-irradiated neighboring lung regions. Focal exposure of lung tissue to high-dose radiation induced expression of genes associated with organ development and the immune response. This pattern of gene expression was also observed in non-irradiated

  5. Effect of X-irradiation on the protein expression of P57kip2 and TGF-β1 in lung cancer cell stain A549

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Huawei; Tan Yonggang; Zhang Heying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of X-irradiation on the proteins expression of p57 kip2 and TGF-β1 in lung cancer cell stain A549 and its clinical significance. Methods: Lung cancer cell stain A549 was cultivated and cell, protein was extracted at 6,12,24,36 and 48 hours after X-irradiation by different doses(2,4, 8 and 12 Gy). The expression of p57 kip2 and TGF-β1 proteins were examined by Western blot. Results: The expression of p57 kip2 in lung cancer cell stain A549 was very low before X-irradiation, and increased significantly after irradiation with different doses and reached the peak level at 12 hours after irradiation (P kip2 and TGF-β1 proteins which increased with certain doses, p57 kip2 and TGF-β1 could be used to predict the damage degree of cancer cells by X-ray. (authors)

  6. Boll weevils: field and laboratory assessment of mating ability and sperm content after irradiation with or without diflubenzuron treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavaso, E.J.; Earle, N.W.; Hollier, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    Sperm depletion did not occur within the 1st week after irradiated males and females of Anthonomus grandis Boheman were released together into isolated field plots. Also, survival and mating ability did not differ as a result of treatment. The treatments were: irradiation of 4-day-old adults plus diflubenzuron (N-(4-chlorophenyl). N 1 -(2,6-difluorobenzoyl) urea)), fractionated irradiation of pupae, and fractionated irradiation of adults plus diflubenzuron

  7. Dosimetric comparison of treatment planning systems in irradiation of breast with tangential fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-W.; Das, Indra J.; Tang, Walter; Chang Sha; Tsai, J.-S.; Ceberg, Crister; Gaspie, Barbara de; Singh, Rajinder; Fein, Douglas A.; Fowble, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study are: (1) to investigate the dosimetric differences of the different treatment planning systems (TPS) in breast irradiation with tangential fields, and (2) to study the effect of beam characteristics on dose distributions in tangential breast irradiation with 6 MV linear accelerators from different manufacturers. Methods and Materials: Nine commercial and two university-based TPS are evaluated in this study. The computed tomographic scan of three representative patients, labeled as 'small', 'medium' and 'large' based on their respective chest wall separations in the central axis plane (CAX) were used. For each patient, the tangential fields were set up in each TPS. The CAX distribution was optimized separately with lung correction, for each TPS based on the same set of optimization conditions. The isodose distributions in two other off-axis planes, one 6 cm cephalic and the other 6 cm caudal to the CAX plane were also computed. To investigate the effect of beam characteristics on dose distributions, a three-dimensional TPS was used to calculate the isodose distributions for three different linear accelerators, the Varian Clinac 6/100, the Siemens MD2 and the Philips SL/7 for the three patients. In addition, dose distributions obtained with 6 MV X-rays from two different accelerators, the Varian Clinac 6/100 and the Varian 2100C, were compared. Results: For all TPS, the dose distributions in all three planes agreed qualitatively to within ± 5% for the 'small' and the 'medium' patients. For the 'large' patient, all TPS agreed to within ± 4% on the CAX plane. The isodose distributions in the caudal plane differed by ± 5% among all TPS. In the cephalic plane in which the patient separation is much larger than that in the CAX plane, six TPS correctly calculated the dose distribution showing a cold spot in the center of the breast contour. The other five TPS showed that the center of the breast received adequate dose. Isodose

  8. Observation, modeling, and temperature dependence of doubly peaked electric fields in irradiated silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, M.; Allkofer, Y.; Bortoletto, D.; Cremaldi, L.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dorokhov, A.; Hoermann, C.; Kim, D.; Konecki, M.; Kotlinski, D.; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Son, S.; Speer, T.

    2006-01-01

    We show that doubly peaked electric fields are necessary to describe grazing-angle charge collection measurements of irradiated silicon pixel sensors. A model of irradiated silicon based upon two defect levels with opposite charge states and the trapping of charge carriers can be tuned to produce a good description of the measured charge collection profiles in the fluence range from 0.5x10^{14} Neq/cm^2 to 5.9x10^{14} Neq/cm^2. The model correctly predicts the variation in the profiles as the temperature is changed from -10C to -25C. The measured charge collection profiles are inconsistent with the linearly-varying electric fields predicted by the usual description based upon a uniform effective doping density. This observation calls into question the practice of using effective doping densities to characterize irradiated silicon.

  9. Automatic lung tumor segmentation on PET/CT images using fuzzy Markov random field model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Feng, Yuanming; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Wang; Sa, Yu; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and CT images provides complementary functional and anatomical information of human tissues and it has been used for better tumor volume definition of lung cancer. This paper proposed a robust method for automatic lung tumor segmentation on PET/CT images. The new method is based on fuzzy Markov random field (MRF) model. The combination of PET and CT image information is achieved by using a proper joint posterior probability distribution of observed features in the fuzzy MRF model which performs better than the commonly used Gaussian joint distribution. In this study, the PET and CT simulation images of 7 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were used to evaluate the proposed method. Tumor segmentations with the proposed method and manual method by an experienced radiation oncologist on the fused images were performed, respectively. Segmentation results obtained with the two methods were similar and Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC) was 0.85 ± 0.013. It has been shown that effective and automatic segmentations can be achieved with this method for lung tumors which locate near other organs with similar intensities in PET and CT images, such as when the tumors extend into chest wall or mediastinum.

  10. Automatic Lung Tumor Segmentation on PET/CT Images Using Fuzzy Markov Random Field Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of positron emission tomography (PET and CT images provides complementary functional and anatomical information of human tissues and it has been used for better tumor volume definition of lung cancer. This paper proposed a robust method for automatic lung tumor segmentation on PET/CT images. The new method is based on fuzzy Markov random field (MRF model. The combination of PET and CT image information is achieved by using a proper joint posterior probability distribution of observed features in the fuzzy MRF model which performs better than the commonly used Gaussian joint distribution. In this study, the PET and CT simulation images of 7 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients were used to evaluate the proposed method. Tumor segmentations with the proposed method and manual method by an experienced radiation oncologist on the fused images were performed, respectively. Segmentation results obtained with the two methods were similar and Dice’s similarity coefficient (DSC was 0.85 ± 0.013. It has been shown that effective and automatic segmentations can be achieved with this method for lung tumors which locate near other organs with similar intensities in PET and CT images, such as when the tumors extend into chest wall or mediastinum.

  11. Evaluating Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Glutathione (GSH, Malondialdehyde (MDA and the Histological Changes of the Lung Tissue after γ-Irradiation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhasan Rezaeyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The lung is a radiosensitive organ and its damage is a dose-limiting factor in radiotherapy. Different side effects such as pneumonia and lung fibrosis are found in patients with thorax irradiation. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of γ-irradiation on acute and chronic injuries of lung tissue in rats. Materials & Methods: 32 rats were divided into two groups. Control group consisted of 14 rats that underwent shame irradiation. In radiation group, 18 rats underwent γ-irradiation. The rats were exposed to γ-irradiation 18 Gy using a single fraction cobalt-60 unit. Eight rats in each group were sacrificed 24 hours after radiotherapy for determining Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Glutathione (GSH, Malondialdehyde (MDA, and histopathological evaluations. Remained animals were sacrificed eight weeks after radiotherapy for histopathological evaluation. Results: Compared to control group, the level of SOD and GSH significantly decreased and MDA level significantly increased in radiation group 24 hours following irradiation, (p=0.001, p<0.001, p=0.001 respectively. Early histopathological results after 24 hours showed that radiation increases neutrophil, macrophage, and inflammation incidence compared to control group (p<0.05. Late histopathological evaluation after eight weeks revealed significant increase in factors including mast cells, pulmonary edema, vascular thickness, vascular damage, and also inflammation and fibrosis incidence in case group compared to radiation group  (p<0.05. Conclusion: Localized chest radiation with dose of 18 Gy induces changes in oxidative stress indices and histopathological lung tissue damage in short and long term.

  12. Neutron Field Characterization of Irradiation Locations Applied to the Slovenian TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbot, Loic; Domergue, Christophe; Breaud, Stephane; Destouches, Christophe; Villard, Jean-Francois; Snoj, Luka; Stancar, Ziga; Radulovic, Vladimir; Trkov, Andrej

    2013-06-01

    This work deals with several neutron flux measurement instruments and particle transport calculations combined in a method to assess the neutron field in experimental locations in nuclear reactor core or reflector. First test of this method in the TRIGA Mark II of Slovenia led to the assessment of three energy groups neutron fluxes in central irradiation locations within reactor core. (authors)

  13. Time-resolved magnetic field effects in exciplex systems under X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchik, S.V.; Lavrik, N.L.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of exciplex systems after X-irradiation of pyrene and N,N-diethylaniline in methanol as well as the influence of the applied magnetic field on exciplex fluorescence was registered using a time-resolving method. The experimental results confirmed the hypothesis on exciplex emergence in the system under study. (author)

  14. Evaluation of cognitive function in patients with limited small cell lung cancer prior to and shortly following prophylactic cranial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Meyers, Christina A; Shin, Dong M; Garden, Adam S; Byrne, Kevin; Nickens, Judy A; Cox, James D

    1995-08-30

    Purpose: Cognitive deficits after treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) have been attributed to prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). A prospective study of neuropsychological function was undertaken to document the evolution and magnitude of neuropsychologic deficits. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with limited stage SCLC who responded well (29 complete response (CR), 1 partial response (PR)) to combination chemotherapy plus thoracic irradiation or resection were studied with neuropsychological tests in the cognitive domains of intelligence, frontal lobe function, language, memory, visual-perception, and motor dexterity prior to a planned course of PCI. Nine patients had a neurologic history that could influence testing. Results: An unexpected 97% (29 out of 30) of patients had evidence of cognitive dysfunction prior to PCI. The most frequent impairment was verbal memory, followed by frontal lobe dysfunction, and fine motor incoordination. Of the patients with no prior neurologic or substance abuse history, 20 out of 21 (95%) had impairments on neuropsychological assessment. This neurologically normal group was just as impaired as the group with such a history with respect to delayed verbal memory and frontal lobe executive function. Eleven patients had neuropsychological testing 6 to 20 months after PCI; no significant differences were found from their pretreatment tests. Conclusions: A high proportion of neurologically normal patients with limited SCLC and favorable responses to combination chemotherapy have specific cognitive deficits before receiving PCI. Short-term (6 to 20 months) observations after PCI have shown no significant deterioration.

  15. Evaluation of cognitive function in patients with limited small cell lung cancer prior to and shortly following prophylactic cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Meyers, Christina A.; Shin, Dong M.; Garden, Adam S.; Byrne, Kevin; Nickens, Judy A.; Cox, James D.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Cognitive deficits after treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) have been attributed to prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). A prospective study of neuropsychological function was undertaken to document the evolution and magnitude of neuropsychologic deficits. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with limited stage SCLC who responded well (29 complete response (CR), 1 partial response (PR)) to combination chemotherapy plus thoracic irradiation or resection were studied with neuropsychological tests in the cognitive domains of intelligence, frontal lobe function, language, memory, visual-perception, and motor dexterity prior to a planned course of PCI. Nine patients had a neurologic history that could influence testing. Results: An unexpected 97% (29 out of 30) of patients had evidence of cognitive dysfunction prior to PCI. The most frequent impairment was verbal memory, followed by frontal lobe dysfunction, and fine motor incoordination. Of the patients with no prior neurologic or substance abuse history, 20 out of 21 (95%) had impairments on neuropsychological assessment. This neurologically normal group was just as impaired as the group with such a history with respect to delayed verbal memory and frontal lobe executive function. Eleven patients had neuropsychological testing 6 to 20 months after PCI; no significant differences were found from their pretreatment tests. Conclusions: A high proportion of neurologically normal patients with limited SCLC and favorable responses to combination chemotherapy have specific cognitive deficits before receiving PCI. Short-term (6 to 20 months) observations after PCI have shown no significant deterioration

  16. Field measurements of irradiation: first use in Italian geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassinis, R; Lechi, G M; Tonelli, A M

    1972-01-01

    General considerations in the field of remote sensing are discussed, particularly geological applications of infrared measurements. The theory of electromagnetic radiation as described by Planck's law is briefly reviewed. IR scanning and radiometry are the most commonly used techniques. Scanning provides photographic images of the spatial distribution of surface radiation. This technique was first used in Italy to obtain radiation data at Solfatara di Pozznoli. The primary causes of error in the technique are variable atmospheric transmissivity, angular inclination, and variable emission. Problems involved in calibration are discussed. The data derived from surveys of volcanic regions are presented in tables and the thermal images and maps are provided. This technique is useful in surveying volcanoes and for the detection of high temperature geothermal resources.

  17. Quantification of lacrimal function after D-shaped field irradiation for retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imhof, S.M.; Tan, K.E.W.P.; Hofman, P.

    1993-01-01

    To study the quantitative effects of mega-voltage external beam irradiation in a D-shaped field in patients with retinoblastoma, biomicroscopy was performed in 61 patients and tear function tests (Schirmer-lactoferrin and lysozyme tests) on 45 eyes in 34 irradiated patients. The results were compared with those obtained in 25 non-irradiated control eyes. The Schirmer test was significantly diminished in irradiated eyes, as were the lactoferrin and lysozyme values. A mild to severe keratitis was found in 17 of the 61 patients (28%). A significant correlation (p<0.005) was found between the severe keratitis and the mean Schirmer values; the mean lactoferrin and lysozyme values were diminished in all patients but did not correlate significantly with the corneal abnormalities. These quantitative data, obtained in patients treated for retinoblastoma, affirm the qualitative data found in patients irradiated for other reasons such as orbital or sinus tumours. Irradiation for retinoblastoma is not a harmless treatment and serious late side effects have to be considered. (Author)

  18. Late biochemical changes in the rat lung after whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dancewicz, A.M.; Kubicka, T.

    1976-01-01

    Young Wistar rats were exposed to 650 R of whole body X-rays then sacrificed at different times after exposure up to one year, and various biochemical parameters in lung tissue were determined. Decrease in protein and elastin content and elevation in fibrinolytic and catheptic activity lasted during the whole observation period. In other parameters a fluctuation, mostly decrease followed by an increase, was seen only during the acute phase of radiation disease. (author)

  19. Dynamical polarizability of graphene irradiated by circularly polarized ac electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busl, Maria; Platero, Gloria; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    We examine the low-energy physics of graphene in the presence of a circularly polarized electric field in the terahertz regime. Specifically, we derive a general expression for the dynamical polarizability of graphene irradiated by an ac electric field. Several approximations are developed...... that allow one to develop a semianalytical theory for the weak-field regime. The ac field changes qualitatively the single- and many-electron excitations of graphene: Undoped samples may exhibit collective excitations (in contrast to the equilibrium situation), and the properties of the excitations in doped...

  20. Air-electron stream interactions during magnetic resonance IGRT : Skin irradiation outside the treatment field during accelerated partial breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Min; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Jung-In; Park, So-Yeon; Jeon, Seung Hyuck; Choi, Noorie; Kim, Jin Ho; Wu, Hong-Gyun

    2018-01-01

    To investigate and to prevent irradiation outside the treatment field caused by an electron stream in the air generated by the magnetic field during magnetic resonance image-guided accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). In all, 20 patients who received APBI with a magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system were prospectively studied. The prescription dose was 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions of 3.85 Gy and delivered with a tri-cobalt system (the ViewRay system). For each patient, primary plans were delivered for the first five fractions and modified plans with different gantry angles from those of the primary plan (in-treatment plans) were delivered for the remaining five fractions to reduce the skin dose. A 1 cm thick bolus was placed in front of the patient's jaw, ipsilateral shoulder, and arm to shield them from the electron stream. Radiochromic EBT3 films were attached to the front (towards the breast) and back (towards the head) of the bolus during treatment. Correlations between the measured values and the tumor locations, treatment times, and tumor sizes were investigated. For a single fraction delivery, the average areas of the measured isodoses of 14% (0.54 Gy), 12% (0.46 Gy), and 10% (0.39 Gy) at the front of the boluses were as large as 3, 10.4, and 21.4 cm 2 , respectively, whereas no significant dose could be measured at the back of the boluses. Statistically significant but weak correlations were observed between the measured values and the treatment times. During radiotherapy for breast cancer with an MR-IGRT system, the patient must be shielded from electron streams in the air generated by the interaction of the magnetic field with the beams of the three-cobalt treatment unit to avoid unwanted irradiation of the skin outside the treatment field.

  1. Follow-up neurological evaluation in patients with small cell lung carcinoma treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catane, R.; Schwade, J.G.; Yarr, I.; Licher, A.S.; Tepper, J.E.; Dunnick, N.R.; Brody, L.; Brereton, H.D.; Cohen, M.; Glatstein, E.

    1981-01-01

    The safety of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has recently been questioned, based on reports of computerized tomographic abnormalities mainly seen in children, who received PCI and chemotherapy, primarily for acute lymphocytic leukemia. In order to clarify the significance of these findings, we examined a series of adult patients who were long term survivors (18 to 48 months, median 26 months, after all treatment). These patients were treated with combination radiotherapy and chemotherapy for small cell lung carcinoma and received cranial irradiation in the absence of known brain involvement by tumor. Patients were divided into three groups: three patients who received PCI + intrathecal methotrexate (MTX) (Group 1), and ten who received only PCI (Group 2). An additional three patients (Group 3) were identified as long term survivors (41 to 70 months after all treatments) of a similar treatment program without any central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis. All patients received an extensive evaluation of a variety of clinical parameters, EEG, and computer tomography (CT). Although CT abnormalities were detectable (mild cerebral atrophy in eight patients, encephalomalacia in one of the 13 patients with CNS prophylaxis, and mild atrophy in two of the three patients without CNS prophylaxis), no significant clinical abnormalities or EEG changes were detectable. While this group of patients is small, it is a unique cohort: adults who have received cranial irradiation in the absence of known brain tumor with long term follow-up. The precise role of CNS prophylaxis in the etiology of CT abnormalities is unclear, and the lack of clinically significant changes would suggest no contraindication to PCI when indicated

  2. A design study on hyper-thermal neutron irradiation field for neutron capture therapy at Kyoto University Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Y.; Kobayashi, T.

    2000-01-01

    A study about the installation of a hyper-thermal neutron converter to a clinical collimator was performed, as a series of the design study on a hyper-thermal neutron irradiation field at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Reactor. From the parametric-surveys by Monte Carlo calculation, it was confirmed that the practical irradiation field of hyper-thermal neutrons would be feasible by the modifications of the clinical collimator and the bismuth-layer structure. (author)

  3. Irradiation test of HAFM and tag gas samples at the standard neutron field of 'YAYOI'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo

    1997-03-01

    To check the accuracy of helium accumulation neutron fluence monitors (HAFM) as new technique for fast reactor neutron dosimetry and the applicability of tag gas activation analysis to fast reactor failed fuel detection, their samples were irradiated at the standard neutron field of the fast neutron source reactor 'YAYOI' (Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo). Since October in 1996, the HAFM samples such as 93% enriched boron (B) powders of 1 mg and natural B powders of 10 mg contained in vanadium (V) capsule were intermittently irradiated at the reactor core center (Glory hole: Gy) and/or under the leakage neutron field from the reactor core (Fast column: FC). In addition, new V capsules filled with enriched B of 40 mg and Be of 100 mg, respectively, were put into an experimental hole through the blanket surrounding the core. These neutron fields were monitored by the activation foils consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Au, 235 U, 237 Np etc., mainly to confirm the results obtained from 1995's preliminary works. In particular, neutron flux distributions in the vicinity of irradiated samples were measured in more detail. At the end of March in 1997, the irradiated neutron fluence have reached the goal necessary to produce the detectable number of He atoms more than ∼10 13 in each HAFM sample. Six kinds of tag gas samples, which are the mixed gases of isotopically adjusted Xe and Kr contained in SUS capsules, were separately irradiated three times at Gy under the neutron fluence of ∼10 16 n/cm 2 in average. After irradiation, γ-ray spectra were measured for each sample. Depending on the composition of tag gas mixtures, the different patterns of γ-ray peak spectra from 79 Kr, 125 Xe, etc. produced through tag gas activation were able to be clearly identified. These experimental data will be very useful for the benchmark test of tag gas activation calculation applied to the fast reactor failed fuel detection. (author)

  4. A phase II study of VP-16-ifosfamide-cisplatin combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, In Sook; Park, Young Suk; Kwon, Sung Hee

    2000-01-01

    At present the addition of thoracic irradiation to combination chemotherapy is a standard treatment for limited staged small cell ling cancer. However, there is still controversy about the optimum timing of chest irradiation. We conducted a phase II study of etoposide (VP-16)-ifosfamide-cisplatin (VIP) combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for the patients with previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer in order to assess if the treatment modality could improve the response rate and the toxicity. Forty-four patients with limited small cell lung cancer were treated with etoposide-ifosfamide-cisplatin and concurrent thoracic irradiation. Combination chemotherapy consisted of etoposide 100 mg/m 2 (on day 1-3), ifosfamide 1000 mg/m 2 (on days 1 and 2) and cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 (on day 1). Concurrent thoracic irradiation consisted of a total of 4000 cGy over 4 weeks starting on the first day of the first chemotherapy. All patients who showed a complete response were given prophylactic cranial irradiation for 2.5 weeks. Forty-four of the 49 patients who entered the study from May 1994 to August 1998 were evaluable. The median age was 59 years and 40 patients had a performance status of 0 or 1. The median survival time was 22.5 months. Twenty-eight patients (62%) showed a complete response and 16 (38%) a partial response. Twenty-four patients (54%) developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia; there was a 9% RTOG score 3 or 4 esophagitis. VIP combination chemotherapy and early concurrent thoracic irradiation for patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer revealed excellent antitumor response with tolerable toxicity. (author)

  5. Inhibition of potential lethal damage repair and related gene expression after carbon-ion beam irradiation to human lung cancer grown in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Tomoyasu; Fujisawa, Takehiko; Koyama-Saegusa, Kumiko; Imai, Takashi; Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2007-01-01

    Using cultured and nude mouse tumor cells (IA) derived from a human lung cancer, we previously demonstrated their radiosensitivity by focusing attention on the dynamics of tumor clonogens and the early and rapid survival recovery (potential lethal damage repair: PLD repair) occurring after X-ray irradiation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating gene expression in association with PLD repair after carbon-ion beam or X-ray irradiation to cancer cells. In this study we tried to detect the mechanism of DNA damage and repair of the clonogens after X-ray or carbon-ion beam irradiation. At first, colony assay method was performed after irradiation of 12 Gy of X-ray or 5 Gy of carbon-ion beam to compare the time dependent cell survival of the IA cells after each irradiation pass. Second, to search the genes causing PLD repair after irradiation of X-ray or carbon-ion beam, we evaluated gene expressions by using semi-quantitative RT-PCR with the selected 34 genes reportedly related to DNA repair. The intervals from the irradiation were 0, 6, 12 and 24 hr for colony assay method, and 0, 3, 18 hr for RT-PCR method. From the result of survival assays, significant PLD repair was not observed in carbon-ion beam as compared to X-ray irradiation. The results of RT-PCR were as follows. The gene showing significantly higher expressions after X-ray irradiation than after carbon-ion beam irradiation was PCNA. The genes showing significantly lower expressions after X-ray irradiation rather than after carbon-ion beam irradiation were RAD50, BRCA1, MRE11A, XRCC3, CHEK1, MLH1, CCNB1, CCNB2 and LIG4. We conclude that PCNA could be a likely candidate gene for PLD repair. (author)

  6. Modulation of the Rho/ROCK pathway in heart and lung after thorax irradiation reveals targets to improve normal tissue toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, Virginie; Pasinetti, Nadia; Schupp, Charlotte; Pouzoulet, Fred; Opolon, Paule; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine

    2010-11-01

    The medical options available to prevent or treat radiation-induced injury are scarce and developing effective countermeasures is still an open research field. In addition, more than half of cancer patients are treated with radiation therapy, which displays a high antitumor efficacy but can cause, albeit rarely, disabling long-term toxicities including radiation fibrosis. Progress has been made in the definition of molecular pathways associated with normal tissue toxicity that suggest potentially effective therapeutic targets. Targeting the Rho/ROCK pathway seems a promising anti-fibrotic approach, at least in the gut; the current study was performed to assess whether this target was relevant to the prevention and/or treatment of injury to the main thoracic organs, namely heart and lungs. First, we showed activation of two important fibrogenic pathways (Smad and Rho/ROCK) in response to radiation-exposure to adult cardiomyocytes; we extended these observations in vivo to the heart and lungs of mice, 15 and 30 weeks post-irradiation. We correlated this fibrogenic molecular imprint with alteration of heart physiology and long-term remodelling of pulmonary and cardiac histological structures. Lastly, cardiac and pulmonary radiation injury and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis were successfully modulated using Rho/ROCK inhibitors (statins and Y-27632) and this was associated with a normalization of fibrogenic markers. In conclusion, the present paper shows for the first time, activation of Rho/ROCK and Smad pathways in pulmonary and cardiac radiation-induced delayed injury. Our findings thereby reveal a safe and efficient therapeutic opportunity for the abrogation of late thoracic radiation injury, potentially usable either before or after radiation exposure; this approach is especially attractive in (1) the radiation oncology setting, as it does not interfere with prior anti-cancer treatment and in (2) radioprotection, as applicable to the treatment of established

  7. Modulation of the ρ/rock pathway in heart and lung after thorax irradiation reveals targets to improve normal tissue toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monceau, V.; Pasinetti, N.; Schupp, C.; Pouzoulet, F.; Opolon, P.; Vozenin, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The medical options available to prevent or treat radiation-induced injury are scarce and developing effective countermeasures is still an open research field. In addition, more than half of cancer patients are treated with radiation therapy, which displays a high antitumor efficacy but can cause, albeit rarely, disabling long-term toxicities including radiation fibrosis. Progress has been made in the definition of molecular pathways associated with normal tissue toxicity that suggest potentially effective therapeutic targets. Targeting the Rho/ROCK pathway seems a promising anti-fibrotic approach, at least in the gut; the current study was performed to assess whether this target was relevant to the prevention and/or treatment of injury to the main thoracic organs, namely heart and lungs. First, we showed activation of two important fibro-genic pathways (Smad and Rho/ROCK) in response to radiation-exposure to adult cardio-myocytes; we extended these observations in vivo to the heart and lungs of mice, 15 and 30 weeks post-irradiation. We correlated this fibro-genic molecular imprint with alteration of heart physiology and long-term remodelling of pulmonary and cardiac histological structures. Lastly, cardiac and pulmonary radiation injury and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis were successfully modulated using Rho/ROCK inhibitors (statins and Y-27632) and this was associated with a normalization of fibro-genic markers. In conclusion, the present paper shows for the first time, activation of Rho/ROCK and Smad pathways in pulmonary and cardiac radiation-induced delayed injury. Our findings thereby reveal a safe and efficient therapeutic opportunity for the abrogation of late thoracic radiation injury, potentially usable either before or after radiation exposure; this approach is especially attractive in (1) the radiation oncology setting, as it does not interfere with prior anti-cancer treatment and in (2) radioprotection, as applicable to the treatment of

  8. Irradiation-induced void evolution in iron: A phase-field approach with atomistic derived parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuan-Yuan; Ding Jian-Hua; Huang Shao-Song; Zhao Ji-Jun; Liu Wen-Bo; Ke Xiao-Qin; Wang Yun-Zhi; Zhang Chi

    2017-01-01

    A series of material parameters are derived from atomistic simulations and implemented into a phase field (PF) model to simulate void evolution in body-centered cubic (bcc) iron subjected to different irradiation doses at different temperatures. The simulation results show good agreement with experimental observations — the porosity as a function of temperature varies in a bell-shaped manner and the void density monotonically decreases with increasing temperatures; both porosity and void density increase with increasing irradiation dose at the same temperature. Analysis reveals that the evolution of void number and size is determined by the interplay among the production, diffusion and recombination of vacancy and interstitial. (paper)

  9. Role of Rad52 in fractionated irradiation induced signaling in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Krishna, Malini

    2012-01-01

    The effect of fractionated doses of γ-irradiation (2 Gy per fraction over 5 days), as delivered in cancer radiotherapy, was compared with acute doses of 10 and 2 Gy, in A549 cells. A549 cells were found to be relatively more radioresistant if the 10 Gy dose was delivered as a fractionated regimen. Microarray analysis showed upregulation of DNA repair and cell cycle arrest genes in the cells exposed to fractionated irradiation. There was intense activation of DNA repair pathway-associated genes (DNA-PK, ATM, Rad52, MLH1 and BRCA1), efficient DNA repair and phospho-p53 was found to be translocated to the nucleus of A549 cells exposed to fractionated irradiation. MCF-7 cells responded differently in fractionated regimen. Silencing of the Rad52 gene in fractionated group of A549 cells made the cells radiosensitive. The above result indicated increased radioresistance in A549 cells due to the activation of Rad52 gene.

  10. Quantitative changes in the arterial blood gases of mice following localized irradiation of the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, D.W.; Hill, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    The arterial pH and partial pressures of oxygen (PaO 2 ) and carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ) were evaluated in LAF1 mice 15 and 38 weeks after localized irradiation of the animals' thoraxes. Graded radiation doses of 900 to 1200 rad were administered. These doses resulted in 0 to 100% lethality by 26 weeks (180 days) after irradiation. At 15 weeks after treatment mice receiving radiation doses which would subsequently result in lethality (by 180 days) exhibited significant reductions in their PaO 2 and elevations in their PaCO 2 values, respectively. However, there was no clear dose-response relationship between blood gas values and radiation dose, which may reflect the animals' ability to compensate for their poor blood gas exchange by an increased breathing frequency. At 38 weeks after irradiation the blood gas values were abnormal in mice from groups which had normal blood gas values at Week 15 (and no fatalities by Week 26) but in which animal deaths had occurred between Weeks 26 and 38. These data therfore indicated (i) that abnormal blood gas values occurred in the mice prior to fatalities resulting from the acute radiation pneumonitis syndrome and (ii) that mice surviving the initial radiation pneumonitis phase could still succumb to progressive pulmonary toxicity which was reflected by the increasing levels of animal lethality and altered blood gas tensions at the later times

  11. Dose to level I and II axillary lymph nodes and lung by tangential field radiation in patients undergoing postmastectomy radiation with tissue expander reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, James K; Armeson, Kent E; Rhome, Ryan; Spanos, Michele; Harper, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    To define the dosimetric coverage of level I/II axillary volumes and the lung volume irradiated in postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) following tissue expander placement. Twenty-three patients were identified who had undergone postmastectomy radiotherapy with tangent only fields. All patients had pre-radiation tissue expander placement and expansion. Thirteen patients had bilateral expander reconstruction. The level I/II axillary volumes were contoured using the RTOG contouring atlas. The patient-specific variables of expander volume, superior-to-inferior location of expander, distance between expanders, expander angle and axillary volume were analyzed to determine their relationship to the axillary volume and lung volume dose. The mean coverage of the level I/II axillary volume by the 95% isodose line (V D95% ) was 23.9% (range 0.3 - 65.4%). The mean Ipsilateral Lung V D50% was 8.8% (2.2-20.9). Ipsilateral and contralateral expander volume correlated to Axillary V D95% in patients with bilateral reconstruction (p = 0.01 and 0.006, respectively) but not those with ipsilateral only reconstruction (p = 0.60). Ipsilateral Lung V D50% correlated with angle of the expander from midline (p = 0.05). In patients undergoing PMRT with tissue expanders, incidental doses delivered by tangents to the axilla, as defined by the RTOG contouring atlas, do not provide adequate coverage. The posterior-superior region of level I and II is the region most commonly underdosed. Axillary volume coverage increased with increasing expander volumes in patients with bilateral reconstruction. Lung dose increased with increasing expander angle from midline. This information should be considered both when placing expanders and when designing PMRT tangent only treatment plans by contouring and targeting the axilla volume when axillary treatment is indicated

  12. Radiation dose to the supraclavicular cavity for different field adjustments of post-irradiated mastectomized women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.J.

    1972-01-01

    It was investigated by exact dose measurements in the supraclavicular fossa whether the skin reactions occasionally found in the median region of the supraclavicular fossa and in the adjoining regions of the neck of mastectomized women treated by conventional radiotherapy using four steady state fields are due to excessive amounts of radiation or to a special property of the skin at this point. X-ray dose measurements were performed by means of capacitor chambers. The highest X-ray doses are measured in the middle of the supraclavicular fossa as a result of direct supraclavicular field irradiation. The strong exposure of the skin as a result of this field setting is unavoidable and cannot be the cause of the skin reactions in the median region because the other areas of the skin are exposed even more strongly. A major fraction of the exposure of the skin in the supraclavicular fossa is contributed by the axillary field irradiation in which a non-uniformity of the angles is to be observed in repeated settings of the irradiation field, which has major consequences upon the skin of the supraclavicular fossa. It can be shown by intentional systematic variation of the angle of exposure that the radiation will be distributed most uniformly throughout the supraclavicular fossa at angles between 30 0 and 40 0 and, hence, that the exposure of the skin accordingly will not be concentrated upon a specific point. (orig./RF) [de

  13. Site requirements and kinetics of immune-dependent elimination of intravascularly administered lung stage schistosomula in mice immunized with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangold, B.L.; Dean, D.A.; Coulson, P.S.; Wilson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to compare the migration and survival of 75Se-labeled schistosomes, introduced by percutaneous cercarial exposure or by intravascular administration of 7-day-old lung stage schistosomula, in control and irradiated cercaria-immunized mice. Schistosomula were intravascularly introduced into the lungs, systemic organs and liver by injection via the femoral vein (FV), left ventricle (LV), and superior mesenteric vein (SMV), respectively. The fate of challenge larvae was examined by autoradiography of host tissues and by recovery of adult worms. It was found that both normal and immune elimination were site-dependent. In control mice 45%-60% of cercarial penetrants and lung schistosomula injected into the FV and LV were recoverable as adult worms, while a significantly greater number (70%-85%) were recoverable when lung schistosomula were injected into the SMV. In immunized mice, parasites introduced as either cercariae or FV-injected schistosomula were both highly sensitive to immune elimination. LV-injected schistosomula were also sensitive but to a slightly lesser degree. In contrast, schistosomula placed directly in the liver by SMV injection were totally insensitive to immune elimination. It was concluded that elimination of schistosomula in irradiated cercaria-immunized mice occurs in the lungs and/or in the systemic organs, but not in the liver. Also, it was concluded that immune elimination is not a rapid process, since more than 7 days were required after intravascular challenge for the development of demonstrable differences between control and immunized mice

  14. Usefulness of Daily Fractionated Administration of Wortmannin Combined With γ-Ray Irradiation in Terms of Local Tumor Response and Lung Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Tano, Keizo; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the usefulness of fractionated administration of wortmannin combined with γ-ray irradiation in terms of local tumor response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of intratumor quiescent (Q) cells. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. The tumor-bearing mice then received γ-ray irradiation after wortmannin treatment through a single or 4 consecutive daily intraperitoneal administrations up to a total dose of 4 mg/kg in combination with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumors were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (= P + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumor-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Results Wortmannin raised the sensitivity of Q cells more remarkably than the total cell population in both single and daily administrations. Daily administration of wortmannin elevated the sensitivity of both the total and Q cell populations, but especially the total cell population, compared with single administration. Daily administration, especially combined with MTH, decreased the number of lung metastases. Conclusion Daily fractionated administration of wortmannin in combination with γ-ray irradiation was thought to be more promising than single administration because of its potential to enhance local tumor response and repress lung metastatic potential. PMID:29147327

  15. Significance of Fractionated Administration of Thalidomide Combined With γ-Ray Irradiation in Terms of Local Tumor Response and Lung Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Sanada, Yu; Moriwaki, Takahiro; Tano, Keizo; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of fractionated administration of thalidomide combined with γ-ray irradiation in terms of local tumor response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of intratumor quiescent (Q) cells. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. The tumor-bearing mice then received γ-ray irradiation after thalidomide treatment through a single or two consecutive daily intraperitoneal administrations up to a total dose of 400 mg/kg in combination with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumors were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (= P + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumor-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Results Thalidomide raised the sensitivity of the total cell population more remarkably than Q cells in both single and daily administrations. Daily administration of thalidomide elevated the sensitivity of both the total and Q cell populations, but especially the total cell population, compared with single administration. Daily administration, especially combined with MTH, decreased the number of lung metastases. Conclusion Daily fractionated administration of thalidomide in combination with γ-ray irradiation was thought to be more promising than single administration because of its potential to enhance local tumor response and repress lung metastatic potential. PMID:29147396

  16. Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, G.L.; Blankenship, W.J.; Burdine, J.A. Jr.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    At present no simple statement can be made relative to the role of radionuclidic lung studies in the pediatric population. It is safe to assume that they will be used with increasing frequency for research and clinical applications because of their sensitivity and ready applicability to the pediatric patient. Methods comparable to those used in adults can be used in children older than 4 years. In younger children, however, a single injection of 133 Xe in solution provides an index of both regional perfusion and ventilation which is easier to accomplish. This method is particularly valuable in infants and neonates because it is rapid, requires no patient cooperation, results in a very low radiation dose, and can be repeated in serial studies. Radionuclidic studies of ventilation and perfusion can be performed in almost all children if the pediatrician and the nuclear medicine specialist have motivation and ingenuity. S []ontaneous pulmonary vascular occlusive disease which occurs in infants and pulmonary emboli in children are easily detected using radionuclides. The pathophysiologic defects of pulmonary agenesis, bronchopulmonary sequestration, and foreign body aspiration may be demonstrated by these techniques. These techniques also appear to be useful in following patients with bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital emphysema, and postinfection pulmonary abnormalities. (auth)

  17. Calculation of flux density distribution on irradiation field of electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi

    1977-03-01

    The simple equation of flux density distribution in the irradiation field of an ordinary electron accelerator is a function of the physical parameters concerning electron irradiation. Calculation is based on the mean square scattering angle derived from a simple multiple scattering theory, with the correction factors of air scattering, beam scanning and number transmission coefficient. The flux density distribution was measured by charge absorption in a graphite target set in the air. For the calculated mean square scattering angles of 0.089-0.29, the values of calculation agree with those by experiment within about 10% except at large scattering angles. The method is applicable to dose evaluation of ordinary electron accelerators and design of various irradiators for radiation chemical reaction. Applicability of the simple multiple scattering theory in calculation of the scattered flux density and periodical variation of the flux density of scanning beam are also described. (auth.)

  18. Critical appraisal of a conformal head and neck cancer irradiation avoiding electron beams and field matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliata, Antonella; Cozzi, Luca; Bieri, Sabine; Bernier, Jacques

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: In head and neck cancer patients, spinal chains are usually irradiated by a combination of photon and electron beams, requiring high precision in field matching. This study compares a conventional treatment approach where two lateral photon beams are combined to direct electron fields, to a conformal radiotherapy based on five photon fields, covering the whole neck. Methods and Materials: A comparative analysis of dose distributions and dose-volume histograms was carried out in patients with locally advanced head and neck tumors, for which planning target volumes (PTV) were outlined from the base of the skull down to the supraclavicular region. The prescribed dose to PTV (excluding booster irradiation) was 54 Gy, with spinal dose constraint not exceeding 75% of the total dose, whatever the technique. Results: For the new five-field technique, minimum and maximum point doses showed mean deviations, on five patients entered in the study, of 84% and 113% from the ICRU prescription point. In the conventional treatment, the corresponding figures were 73% and 112%, respectively. A positioning error analysis (isocenter displacement of 2 mm, in all directions) did not elicit any systematic difference in five-field treatment plans while hot spots were found with electron fields. Conclusions: The five-field technique appears routinely feasible and compares favorably with the conventional mixed photon- and electron-therapy approach, especially in regard to its better compliance with dose homogeneity requirements and a reduced risk in dose inhomogeneity related to field matching and patient positioning

  19. 2nd Tuebingen radiotherapy symposium: Whole body, large field and whole skin irradiation. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, K.H.; Frommhold, W.

    1987-01-01

    The symposium which took place on the 11th and 12th April 1986 set itself the task of discussing three different groups of radiotherapy topics. The chief issue was whole-body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplants, in which all the therapy centres in West Germany, Austria, East Germany and German-speaking Switzerland made clinical and radiophysical contributions. The second part of the Symposium consisted mainly of talks and discussions on large-field irradiation, more precisely half-body and sequential partial body irradiation. This topic was chosen because this type of therapy is scarcely practised at all, particularly in West Germany, whereas in the United States, East Germany, Switzerland and a number of other countries it has long since become one of the established methods. The last talk at the Symposium explained clinical and radiophysical aspects of whole-skin irradiation. Here too, one was impressed by the wide diversity of the equipment and methods of irradiation used which, nevertheless, all demonstrated satisfactory practical solutions in their common aim of distributing the dose as homogeneously as possible. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Irradiated fields spared Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient undergoing radiotherapy for bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musio, D.; Parisi, E.; Dionisi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are two of the most severe, rare, and life-threatening adverse reactions to medications. Their incidence is approximately two patients per million population per year. Several cases have been reported in the literature in which SJS and TEN have occurred in patients with a neoplasm undergoing radiation therapy and who are taking an anticonvulsant. We report a case of SJS-TEN that developed in a 51-year-old woman with nonresectable non-small-cell lung cancer during treatment with phenobarbital plus radiation therapy for bone metastases but in whom the irradiated areas did not exhibit the SJS skin reaction. To our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature. (author)

  1. Differential Motion Between Mediastinal Lymph Nodes and Primary Tumor in Radically Irradiated Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaake, Eva E.; Rossi, Maddalena M.G.; Buikhuisen, Wieneke A.; Burgers, Jacobus A.; Smit, Adrianus A.J.; Belderbos, José S.A.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: In patients with locally advanced lung cancer, planning target volume margins for mediastinal lymph nodes and tumor after a correction protocol based on bony anatomy registration typically range from 1 to 1.5 cm. Detailed information about lymph node motion variability and differential motion with the primary tumor, however, is lacking from large series. In this study, lymph node and tumor position variability were analyzed in detail and correlated to the main carina to evaluate possible margin reduction. Methods and Materials: Small gold fiducial markers (0.35 × 5 mm) were placed in the mediastinal lymph nodes of 51 patients with non-small cell lung cancer during routine diagnostic esophageal or bronchial endoscopic ultrasonography. Four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily 4D cone beam (CB) CT scans were acquired before and during radical radiation therapy (66 Gy in 24 fractions). Each CBCT was registered in 3-dimensions (bony anatomy) and 4D (tumor, marker, and carina) to the planning CT scan. Subsequently, systematic and random residual misalignments of the time-averaged lymph node and tumor position relative to the bony anatomy and carina were determined. Additionally, tumor and lymph node respiratory amplitude variability was quantified. Finally, required margins were quantified by use of a recipe for dual targets. Results: Relative to the bony anatomy, systematic and random errors ranged from 0.16 to 0.32 cm for the markers and from 0.15 to 0.33 cm for the tumor, but despite similar ranges there was limited correlation (0.17-0.71) owing to differential motion. A large variability in lymph node amplitude between patients was observed, with an average motion of 0.56 cm in the cranial-caudal direction. Margins could be reduced by 10% (left-right), 27% (cranial-caudal), and 10% (anteroposterior) for the lymph nodes and −2%, 15%, and 7% for the tumor if an online carina registration protocol replaced a

  2. Esophagus sparing with IMRT in lung tumor irradiation: An EUD-based optimization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Thomas, Emma; Kessler, Marc L.; Fraass, Benedick A.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the use of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) to optimize dose escalation of lung tumors when the esophagus overlaps the planning target volume (PTV) and (2) the potential benefit of further dose escalation in only the part of the PTV that does not overlap the esophagus. Methods and Materials: The treatment-planning computed tomography (CT) scans of patients with primary lung tumors located in different regions of the left and right lung were used for the optimization of beamlet intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. In all cases, the PTV overlapped part of the esophagus. The dose in the PTV was maximized according to 7 different primary cost functions: 2 plans that made use of mean dose (MD) (the reference plan, in which the 95% isodose surface covered the PTV and a second plan that had no constraint on the minimum isodose), 3 plans based on maximizing gEUD for the whole PTV with ever increasing assumptions for tumor aggressiveness, and 2 plans that used different gEUD values in 2 simultaneous, overlapping target volumes (the whole PTV and the PTV minus esophagus). Beam arrangements and NTCP-based costlets for the organs at risk (OARs) were kept identical to the original conformal plan for each case. Regardless of optimization method, the relative ranking of the resulting plans was evaluated in terms of the absence of cold spots within the PTV and the final gEUD computed for the whole PTV. Results: Because the MD-optimized plans lacked a constraint on minimum PTV coverage, they resulted in cold spots that affected approximately 5% of the PTV volume. When optimizing over the whole PTV volume, gEUD-optimized plans resulted in higher equivalent uniform PTV doses than did the reference plan while still maintaining normal-tissue constraints. However, only under the assumption of extremely aggressive tumors could cold spots in the PTV be avoided. Generally, high-level overall results are obtained

  3. A theoretical study on the influence of the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field on the survival fraction of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiaoqiong; Li Qiang; Zhou Guangming; Li Wenjian; Wang Jufang; Wei Zengquan

    2001-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for the homogeneity request of heavy-ion irradiation field, the most important design parameter of the heavy-ion radiotherapy facility planned in IMP (Institute of Modern Physics), the influence of the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field on the survival fraction of cells was investigated theoretically. A formula for survival fraction of cells irradiated by the un-uniform heavy-ion irradiation field was deduced to estimate the influence of the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field on the survival fraction of cells. The results show that the survival fraction of cells irradiation by the un-uniform irradiation field is larger than that of cells irradiated by the uniform irradiation field, and the survival fraction of cells increases as the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field decreasing. Practically, the heavy-ion irradiation field can be treated as uniform irradiation field when its homogeneity is better than 95%. According to these results, design request for the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field should be better than 95%. The present results also show that the agreement of homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field must be checked while comparing the survival fraction curves obtained by different laboratory

  4. Open-Access, Low-Magnetic-Field MRI System for Lung Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Ross W.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Tsai, Leo L.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Patz, Samuel; Ruset, Iullian C.; Hersman, F. William

    2009-01-01

    An open-access magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system is being developed for use in research on orientational/gravitational effects on lung physiology and function. The open-access geometry enables study of human subjects in diverse orientations. This system operates at a magnetic flux density, considerably smaller than the flux densities of typical other MRI systems, that can be generated by resistive electromagnet coils (instead of the more-expensive superconducting coils of the other systems). The human subject inhales air containing He-3 or Xe-129 atoms, the nuclear spins of which have been polarized by use of a laser beam to obtain a magnetic resonance that enables high-resolution gas space imaging at the low applied magnetic field. The system includes a bi-planar, constant-current, four-coil electromagnet assembly and associated electronic circuitry to apply a static magnetic field of 6.5 mT throughout the lung volume; planar coils and associated circuitry to apply a pulsed magnetic-field-gradient for each spatial dimension; a single, detachable radio-frequency coil and associated circuitry for inducing and detecting MRI signals; a table for supporting a horizontal subject; and electromagnetic shielding surrounding the electromagnet coils.

  5. Effect of a magnetic field on the fluorescence produced in irradiated anthracene solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.S.; Sargent, F.P.; Lopata, V.J.; Gardy, E.M.; Brocklehurst, B.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of an applied magnetic field on the fluorescence from radiolytic ion recombination has been studied for anthracene in some hydrocarbon solvents. In pulse-irradiated anthracene in squalane, the fluorescence intensity following the pulse increases as a function of applied magnetic field in the range studied. At a constant magnetic field strength, the field-induced enhancement of the fluorescence intensity varies with time after the pulse. At high field strengths the enhancement reaches a maximum about 50 ns after the pulse. Similar effects are observed in cyclohexane but the enhancement is smaller than that in squalane. In benzene solutions the effect is extremely small. These findings are confirmed by observations in continuously gamma-irradiated solutions. 9,10-Dimethylanthracene gives a larger enhancement and anthracene-d 10 a smaller enhancement than the parent anthracene at high fields. The results are in general agreement with recent theoretical predictions based on the effect of a magnetic field on the loss of spin correlation of geminate ions pairs prior to recombination

  6. Analysis of outcome in patients irradiated for brain metastases of lung (no oatcell) cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lione, Marcelo; Tissera, Norberto

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate our findings with those of the international literature and identify the factors related to survival. Material and methods: Fifty patients with central nervous system metastases of non-small cell lung cancer were evaluated. Holocranial radiotherapy was performed with a daily dose of 1.8 Gy and a total dose of 50.4 Gy. Results: Overall survival of all patients at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years was 37%, 27% and 5% respectively. Mean survival was 5 months; 9 months for the group with a favorable outcome and 4 months for the group with an unfavorable outcome. Conclusion: The results are similar to those published in the international literature. Factors that relate to survival are: age, performance status, and the presence or absence of metastases in other sites. (author)

  7. Statistical report on lung cancer irradiated in three hospital in Gunma Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Mikio; Saito, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Hajime

    1982-01-01

    The data on 158 cases of lung cancer treated with radiotherapy at three hospitals (Hospital of School of Med., Gunma Univ., National Takasaki Hospital and Gunma Cancer Center Hospital) were analized. 1. Seventy one cases (44.9%) of all patients were more than 70 years old. As the histological type, epidermoid carcinoma was recognized in 44% of male patients, and adenocarcinoma in 51.5% of female. The number of patients with epidermoid carcinoma tended to increase with age. 2. Gunma Cancer Center was different from other hospitals in that half of the female patients (6/12) were stage I, adenocarcinoma. 3. The dwelling area of patients in Gunma Cancer Center Hospital distributed over towns and counties at the east district in Gunma prefecture, whereas in other hospitals concentrated in Maebashi and Takasaki cities. (author)

  8. Cell Survival and DNA Damage in Normal Prostate Cells Irradiated Out-of-Field.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, L

    2014-10-31

    Interest in out-of-field radiation dose has been increasing with the introduction of new techniques, such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). These new techniques offer superior conformity of high-dose regions to the target compared to conventional techniques, however more normal tissue is exposed to low-dose radiation with VMAT. There is a potential increase in radiobiological effectiveness associated with lower energy photons delivered during VMAT as normal cells are exposed to a temporal change in incident photon energy spectrum. During VMAT deliveries, normal cells can be exposed to the primary radiation beam, as well as to transmission and scatter radiation. The impact of low-dose radiation, radiation-induced bystander effect and change in energy spectrum on normal cells are not well understood. The current study examined cell survival and DNA damage in normal prostate cells after exposure to out-of-field radiation both with and without the transfer of bystander factors. The effect of a change in energy spectrum out-of-field compared to in-field was also investigated. Prostate cancer (LNCaP) and normal prostate (PNT1A) cells were placed in-field and out-of-field, respectively, with the PNT1A cells being located 1 cm from the field edge when in-field cells were being irradiated with 2 Gy. Clonogenic and γ-H2AX assays were performed postirradiation to examine cell survival and DNA damage. The assays were repeated when bystander factors from the LNCaP cells were transferred to the PNT1A cells and also when the PNT1A cells were irradiated in-field to a different energy spectrum. An average out-of-field dose of 10.8 ± 4.2 cGy produced a significant reduction in colony volume and increase in the number of γ-H2AX foci\\/cell in the PNT1A cells compared to the sham-irradiated control cells. An adaptive response was observed in the PNT1A cells having first received a low out-of-field dose and then the bystander factors. The PNT1A cells showed a significant

  9. Statistical thermodynamics and mean-field theory for the alloy under irradiation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamyshendo, V.

    1993-01-01

    A generalization of statistical thermodynamics to the open systems case, is discussed, using as an example the alloy-under-irradiation model. The statistical properties of stationary states are described with the use of generalized thermodynamic potentials and 'quasi-interactions' determined from the master equation for micro-configuration probabilities. Methods for resolving this equation are illustrated by the mean-field type calculations of correlators, thermodynamic potentials and phase diagrams for disordered alloys

  10. Irradiations under magnetic field. Measurement of resistivity sample irradiations between 100 and 500 deg C in a swimming-pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauleve, J.; Marchand, A.; Blaise, A.

    1964-01-01

    An oven is described which enables the irradiation of small samples in the maximum neutron flux of a swimming-pool reactor of 15 MW (Siloe), at temperatures of between 100 and 500 deg.C defined to ± 0,5 deg.C, The oven is very simple from the technological point of view, and has a diameter of only 27 mm, This permits resistivity measurements to be carried out under irradiation in the reactor, or as another example, it enables irradiations in a magnetic field of 5000 oersteds, created by an immersed solenoid. (authors) [fr

  11. Air-electron stream interactions during magnetic resonance IGRT. Skin irradiation outside the treatment field during accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Min [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Robotics Research Laboratory for Extreme Environments, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan; Wu, Hong-Gyun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-in; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jin Ho [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Seung Hyuck [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Noorie [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-01-15

    To investigate and to prevent irradiation outside the treatment field caused by an electron stream in the air generated by the magnetic field during magnetic resonance image-guided accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). In all, 20 patients who received APBI with a magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system were prospectively studied. The prescription dose was 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions of 3.85 Gy and delivered with a tri-cobalt system (the ViewRay system). For each patient, primary plans were delivered for the first five fractions and modified plans with different gantry angles from those of the primary plan (in-treatment plans) were delivered for the remaining five fractions to reduce the skin dose. A 1 cm thick bolus was placed in front of the patient's jaw, ipsilateral shoulder, and arm to shield them from the electron stream. Radiochromic EBT3 films were attached to the front (towards the breast) and back (towards the head) of the bolus during treatment. Correlations between the measured values and the tumor locations, treatment times, and tumor sizes were investigated. For a single fraction delivery, the average areas of the measured isodoses of 14% (0.54 Gy), 12% (0.46 Gy), and 10% (0.39 Gy) at the front of the boluses were as large as 3, 10.4, and 21.4 cm{sup 2}, respectively, whereas no significant dose could be measured at the back of the boluses. Statistically significant but weak correlations were observed between the measured values and the treatment times. During radiotherapy for breast cancer with an MR-IGRT system, the patient must be shielded from electron streams in the air generated by the interaction of the magnetic field with the beams of the three-cobalt treatment unit to avoid unwanted irradiation of the skin outside the treatment field. (orig.) [German] Beim Einsatz eines Magnetresonanztomographie(MRT)-gefuehrten Bestrahlungsgeraets kann durch die Wechselwirkung von Magnetfeld und Strahlenquelle unerwuenscht

  12. Biosynthesis of collagen in the lung of the mouse after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walklin, C.M.; Law, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    Increases in the activities of both prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P-4-Hase) and protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) were observed as early as 1 month after 5-9 Gy. Maximal increases were observed at 6-7 months after 9 Gy and persisted up to 15 months after exposure. Increases after 5 and 7.5 Gy were more gradual but by 1 year after irradiation they had reached levels similar to those after 9 Gy. Collagen types were analysed at 2, 7.5 and 15 months. Results are shown for 7.5 and 15 months after 9 Gy. Although the total collagen content was increased, the ratio of collagen type I to III was normal. (UK)

  13. Protective effects of lipoic acid against oxidative stress induced by lead acetate and gamma-irradiation in the kidney and lung in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Abdel-Rahman, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Lipoic acid is widely used as antioxidant that protects tissues against a range of oxidative stress. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of lipoic acid against oxidative organ damage induced by lead intoxication and/or gamma-irradiation. Rats were treated daily intrapritonealy (i. p.) with lipoic acid( 200 mg/kg/b.w.) for 15 consecutive days before lead acetate injection(30 mg/kg/b.w) i.p. for 5 days and/ or whole body. gamma-irradiation (3 Gy). Animals were sacrificed on the 3rd day post the last treatment. Histological examination of kidney and lung tissues through light microscope showed that lead acetate injection and/or exposure to gamma radiation has provoked severe architectural damage in both tissues as necrotic lesions, atrophoid glomerulei and degenerated proximal and distal convoluted tubules, severe bronchiole fibrosis, decreased ciliated bronchioles and dilated and widened pulmonary artery. Histological damage was associated with significant biochemical. changes as increase in lead, copper, iron, zinc and calcium levels in both kidney and lung tissues. Kidney and lung of rats treated with lipoic acid before lead intoxication and/or gamma-irradiation showed significant regenerated glomerulei structure, well-defined structure of proximal and distal convoluted tubules, regenerated ciliated bronchiole structure and improved pulmonary artery. Tissue regeneration was associated with significant decrease in Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Ca levels in kidney and lung and prevented the accumulation of metals in these organs. It could be concluded that lipoic acid administration before lead and/or whole body gamma-irradiation might be capable to attenuate lead and/or gamma radiation induced organ injury and organ metals disruption

  14. Clinical outcome of extended-field irradiation vs. pelvic irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yi; Wang, Yanhong; Chen, Kai; Cao, Xinping; Zeng, Yiming

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distinctions in survival and toxicity between patients with cervical cancer with common iliac node or para-aortic node involvement, who were treated with extended-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) and patients with or without lower involved pelvic nodes, who were treated with pelvic IMRT. A total of 55 patients treated with EF-IMRT and 52 patients treated with pelvic IMRT at the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients treated with EF-IMRT had the highest level of lymph node involvement to the para-aortic or common iliac nodes, while patients treated with pelvic IMRT had no para-aortic or common iliac nodes involved (Pirradiation was a protective prognostic factor for OS and DFS. A total of 16 patients in the EF-IMRT group and 13 patients in the pelvic IMRT group experienced treatment failure (P=0.67), with the patterns of failure being the same for the two groups (P=0.88). The cumulative incidence of grade 3 and 4 acute toxicities in the EF-IMRT group was 34.5%, in comparison with 19.2% in the pelvic group (P=0.048). The results of the present study suggest that patients with cervical cancer with grossly involved common iliac or para-aortic nodes should be electively subjected to EF irradiation to improve the survival and alter patterns of recurrence. Notably, EF irradiation delivered via IMRT exhibits an increased toxicity incidence, however, this remains within an acceptable range.

  15. Sink efficiency calculation of dislocations in irradiated materials by phase-field modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouchette, Adrien

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a modelling technique for diffusion of crystallographic migrating defects in irradiated metals and absorption by sinks to better predict the microstructural evolution in those materials.The phase field technique is well suited for this problem, since it naturally takes into account the elastic effects of dislocations on point defect diffusion in the most complex cases. The phase field model presented in this work has been adapted to simulate the generation of defects by irradiation and their absorption by the dislocation cores by means of a new order parameter associated to the sink morphology. The method has first been validated in different reference cases by comparing the sink strengths obtained numerically with analytical solutions available in the literature. Then, the method has been applied to dislocations with different orientations in zirconium, taking into account the anisotropic properties of the crystal and point defects, obtained by state-of-the-art atomic calculations.The results show that the shape anisotropy of the point defects promotes the vacancy absorption by basal loops, which is consistent with the experimentally observed zirconium growth under irradiation. Finally, the rigorous investigation of the dislocation loop case proves that phase field simulations give more accurate results than analytical solutions in realistic loop density ranges. (author)

  16. A study on relation between nitroxyl radical reduction potency and X-ray irradiation on mouse lung using L-band electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneike, Makoto; Sho, Keizen; Morita, Rikushi

    1999-01-01

    Changes in nitroxy radical reduction potency (''reduction potency''), caused by different doses and different number of fractions of X-ray irradiation were studied using a L-band electron spin resonance system on mouse lungs into which 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (hydroxy-TEMPO) was introduced through the trachea. The ''reduction potency'' lineally decreased as the irradiation dose increased from 1.0 to 5.0 Gy, but no further decrease was observed at higher doses of 7.5 and 10 Gy. The reduction potency'' dropped at 20 min after each irradiation, but it recovered to the control levels after 1 week in all 3 groups of single dose of 10 Gy, 3 fractions and 5 fractions in a similar manner. Although the levels of the ''reduction potency'' were kept high in the groups of fractionated irradiation through 1-4 weeks after irradiation, the levels dropped again in the single dose group at 1 week and the levels were kept significantly low until 4 weeks after irradiation. suggesting that the fractionation of X-ray irradiation would also be effective to prevent the deterioration of the ''reduction potency''. Pre-treatment with sufficient ascorbic acid inhibited the lowering effects of radiation on the ''reduction potency'' in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore the levels of the reduction potency'' ever elevated higher than those of controls with the large amount of ascorbic acid of 750 mg/kg or more, suggesting that the large amounts of ascorbic acid could prevent the adverse effects associated with radiation therapy for the lung malignancy. (author)

  17. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Re-irradiation of Persistent or Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trovo, Marco, E-mail: marcotrovo33@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Minatel, Emilio; Durofil, Elena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Polesel, Jerry [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Avanzo, Michele [Department of Medical Physics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Baresic, Tania [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Bearz, Alessandra [Department of Medical Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Del Conte, Alessandro [Department of Medical Oncology, Pordenone General Hospital, Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Franchin, Giovanni; Gobitti, Carlo; Rumeileh, Imad Abu; Trovo, Mauro G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess toxicity and outcome of re-irradiation with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with recurrent or persistent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who were previously treated with radical radiation therapy (50-60 Gy). The secondary endpoint was to investigate whether there are dosimetric parameter predictors of severe radiation toxicity. Methods and Materials: The analysis was conducted in 17 patients with “in-field” recurrent/persistent centrally located NSCLC, who underwent re-irradiation with SBRT. SBRT consisted of 30 Gy in 5 to 6 fractions; these prescriptions would be equivalent for the tumor to 37.5 to 40 Gy, bringing the total 2-Gy-per-fraction cumulative dose to 87 to 100 Gy, considering the primary radiation therapy treatment. Actuarial analyses and survival were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and P values were estimated by the log-rank test, starting from the date of completion of SBRT. Dosimetric parameters from the subgroups with and without grade ≥3 pulmonary toxicity were compared using a 2-tailed Student t test. Results: The median follow-up was 18 months (range, 4-57 months). Only 2 patients had local failure, corresponding to a local control rate of 86% at 1 year. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival (OS) rates at 1 and 2 years were 59% and 29%, respectively; the median OS was 19 months. Four patients (23%) experienced grade 3 radiation pneumonitis, and 1 patient developed fatal pneumonitis. One patient died of fatal hemoptysis 2 months after the completion of SBRT. Unexpectedly, heart maximum dose, D5 (minimum dose to at least 5% of the heart volume), and D10 were correlated with risk of radiation pneumonitis (P<.05). Conclusions: Re-irradiation with SBRT for recurrent/persistent centrally located NSCLC achieves excellent results in terms of local control. However, the high rate of severe toxicity reported in our study is of concern.

  18. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Re-irradiation of Persistent or Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trovo, Marco; Minatel, Emilio; Durofil, Elena; Polesel, Jerry; Avanzo, Michele; Baresic, Tania; Bearz, Alessandra; Del Conte, Alessandro; Franchin, Giovanni; Gobitti, Carlo; Rumeileh, Imad Abu; Trovo, Mauro G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess toxicity and outcome of re-irradiation with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with recurrent or persistent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who were previously treated with radical radiation therapy (50-60 Gy). The secondary endpoint was to investigate whether there are dosimetric parameter predictors of severe radiation toxicity. Methods and Materials: The analysis was conducted in 17 patients with “in-field” recurrent/persistent centrally located NSCLC, who underwent re-irradiation with SBRT. SBRT consisted of 30 Gy in 5 to 6 fractions; these prescriptions would be equivalent for the tumor to 37.5 to 40 Gy, bringing the total 2-Gy-per-fraction cumulative dose to 87 to 100 Gy, considering the primary radiation therapy treatment. Actuarial analyses and survival were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and P values were estimated by the log-rank test, starting from the date of completion of SBRT. Dosimetric parameters from the subgroups with and without grade ≥3 pulmonary toxicity were compared using a 2-tailed Student t test. Results: The median follow-up was 18 months (range, 4-57 months). Only 2 patients had local failure, corresponding to a local control rate of 86% at 1 year. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival (OS) rates at 1 and 2 years were 59% and 29%, respectively; the median OS was 19 months. Four patients (23%) experienced grade 3 radiation pneumonitis, and 1 patient developed fatal pneumonitis. One patient died of fatal hemoptysis 2 months after the completion of SBRT. Unexpectedly, heart maximum dose, D5 (minimum dose to at least 5% of the heart volume), and D10 were correlated with risk of radiation pneumonitis (P<.05). Conclusions: Re-irradiation with SBRT for recurrent/persistent centrally located NSCLC achieves excellent results in terms of local control. However, the high rate of severe toxicity reported in our study is of concern

  19. A Dosimetric Evaluation of Conventional Helmet Field Irradiation Versus Two-Field Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, James B.; Shiao, Stephen L.; Knisely, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare dosimetric differences between conventional two-beam helmet field irradiation (external beam radiotherapy, EBRT) of the brain and a two-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. Methods and Materials: Ten patients who received helmet field irradiation at our institution were selected for study. External beam radiotherapy portals were planned per usual practice. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy fields were created using the identical field angles as the EBRT portals. Each brain was fully contoured along with the spinal cord to the bottom of the C2 vertebral body. This volume was then expanded symmetrically by 0.5 cm to construct the planning target volume. An IMRT plan was constructed using uniform optimization constraints. For both techniques, the nominal prescribed dose was 3,000 cGy in 10 fractions of 300 cGy using 6-MV photons. Comparative dose-volume histograms were generated for each patient and analyzed. Results: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy improved dose uniformity over EBRT for whole brain radiotherapy. The mean percentage of brain receiving >105% of dose was reduced from 29.3% with EBRT to 0.03% with IMRT. The mean maximum dose was reduced from 3,378 cGy (113%) for EBRT to 3,162 cGy (105%) with IMRT. The mean percent volume receiving at least 98% of the prescribed dose was 99.5% for the conventional technique and 100% for IMRT. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy reduces dose inhomogeneity, particularly for the midline frontal lobe structures where hot spots occur with conventional two-field EBRT. More study needs to be done addressing the clinical implications of optimizing dose uniformity and its effect on long-term cognitive function in selected long-lived patients

  20. Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI) versus Active MRI Surveillance for Small Cell Lung Cancer: The Case for Equipoise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusthoven, Chad G; Kavanagh, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for SCLC offers a consistent reduction in the incidence of brain metastases at the cost of measurable toxicity to neurocognitive function and quality of life, in the setting of characteristic pathologic changes to the brain. The sequelae of PCI have historically been justified by the perception of an overall survival advantage specific to SCLC. This rationale has now been challenged by a randomized trial in extensive-stage SCLC demonstrating equivalent progression-free survival and a trend toward improved overall survival with PCI omission in the context of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) staging and surveillance. In this article, we critically examine the randomized trials of PCI in extensive-stage SCLC and discuss their implications on the historical data supporting PCI for limited-stage SCLC from the pre-MRI era. Further, we review the toxicity of moderate doses of radiation to the entire brain that underlie the growing interest in active MRI surveillance and PCI omission. Finally, the evidence supporting prospective investigation of radiosurgery for limited brain metastases in SCLC is reviewed. Overall, our aim is to provide an evidence-based assessment of the debate over PCI versus active MRI surveillance and to highlight the need for contemporary trials evaluating optimal central nervous system management in SCLC. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in resected small cell lung cancer: A systematic review with meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Danhong; Zhou, Xia; Bao, Wuan; Ji, Yonglin; Sheng, Liming; Cheng, Lei; Chen, Ying; Du, Xianghui; Qiu, Guoqin

    2018-01-01

    Background: The use of PCI in early operable patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is still controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to investigate the effects of PCI in resected SCLC patients. Methods: Relevant studies were identified from PubMed and EMBASE databases, the pooled hazard risks were obtained by the random-effects model. We also analyzed the brain metastasis (BM) risk in p-stage I patients without PCI. Results: Five retrospective studies were identified and a total of 1691 patients were included in our analysis, 315 of them received PCI. For all the resected patients, PCI was associated with improved overall survival (HR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33-0.82), and reduced brain metastasis risk (RR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.32-0.78). However, with regard to p-stage I patients, no survival benefit was brought by PCI (HR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.34-2.24). Moreover, the pooled analysis of 7 studies found that the 5-year brain metastasis risk was relatively low (12%, 95% CI: 8%-17%) for p-stage I patients without PCI. Conclusions: PCI might be associated with a favorable survival advantage and reduced BM risk in complete resected SCLC patients, except for p-stage I patients. PMID:29344290

  2. SU-E-T-92: Achieving Desirable Lung Doses in Total Body Irradiation Based On in Vivo Dosimetry and Custom Tissue Compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, G; Shiu, A; Zhou, S; Cui, J; Ballas, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To achieve desirable lung doses in total body irradiation (TBI) based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensation. Methods: The 15 MV photon beam of a Varian TrueBeam STx linac was used for TBI. Patients were positioned in the lateral decubitus position for AP/PA treatment delivery. Dose was calculated using the midpoint of the separation distance across the patient’s umbilicus. Patients received 200 cGy twice daily for 3 days. The dose rate at the patient’s midplane was approximately 10 cGy/min. Cerrobend blocks with a 5-HVL thickness were used for the primary lung shielding. A custom styrofoam holder for rice-flour filled bags was created based on the lung block cutouts. This was used to provide further lung shielding based on in vivo dose measurements. Lucite plates and rice-flour bags were placed in the head, neck, chest, and lower extremity regions during the treatment to compensate for the beam off-axis output variations. Two patients were included in the study. Patients 1 and 2 received a craniospinal treatment (1080 cGy) and a mediastinum treatment (2520 cGy), respectively, before the TBI. During the TBI nanoDot dosimeters were placed on the patient skin in the forehead, neck, umbilicus, and lung regions for dose monitoring. The doses were readout immediately after the treatment. Based on the readings, fine tuning of the thickness of the rice-flour filled bags was exploited to achieve the desirable lung doses. Results: For both patients the mean lung doses, which took into consideration all treatments, were controlled within 900 +/−10% cGy, as desired. Doses to the forehead, neck, and umbilicus were achieved within +/−10% of the prescribed dose (1200 cGy). Conclusion: A reliable and robust method was developed to achieve desirable lung doses and uniform body dose in TBI based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensator

  3. SU-E-T-92: Achieving Desirable Lung Doses in Total Body Irradiation Based On in Vivo Dosimetry and Custom Tissue Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, G; Shiu, A; Zhou, S; Cui, J; Ballas, L [Univ Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To achieve desirable lung doses in total body irradiation (TBI) based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensation. Methods: The 15 MV photon beam of a Varian TrueBeam STx linac was used for TBI. Patients were positioned in the lateral decubitus position for AP/PA treatment delivery. Dose was calculated using the midpoint of the separation distance across the patient’s umbilicus. Patients received 200 cGy twice daily for 3 days. The dose rate at the patient’s midplane was approximately 10 cGy/min. Cerrobend blocks with a 5-HVL thickness were used for the primary lung shielding. A custom styrofoam holder for rice-flour filled bags was created based on the lung block cutouts. This was used to provide further lung shielding based on in vivo dose measurements. Lucite plates and rice-flour bags were placed in the head, neck, chest, and lower extremity regions during the treatment to compensate for the beam off-axis output variations. Two patients were included in the study. Patients 1 and 2 received a craniospinal treatment (1080 cGy) and a mediastinum treatment (2520 cGy), respectively, before the TBI. During the TBI nanoDot dosimeters were placed on the patient skin in the forehead, neck, umbilicus, and lung regions for dose monitoring. The doses were readout immediately after the treatment. Based on the readings, fine tuning of the thickness of the rice-flour filled bags was exploited to achieve the desirable lung doses. Results: For both patients the mean lung doses, which took into consideration all treatments, were controlled within 900 +/−10% cGy, as desired. Doses to the forehead, neck, and umbilicus were achieved within +/−10% of the prescribed dose (1200 cGy). Conclusion: A reliable and robust method was developed to achieve desirable lung doses and uniform body dose in TBI based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensator.

  4. Mathematical simulation of dose fields in the planning of repair stuff irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashlykov, O.L.; Shcheklein, S.E.; Markelov, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    The role of planning stage in the cycle of optimization when organizing repair works at NPPs is discussed. The methods used for forecasting irradiation doses for personnel engaged in repair works are considered. The importance of the problems of simulating the doses connected with estimation of dose rate values in different points of the working area and working time period in corresponding radiation fields is shown. The calculated data on distributions of γ radiation dose rate fields from surface and linear sources are given [ru

  5. Feasibility of internal irradiation of a lobe of the lung with P-32 loaded microspheres: I. stability of microspheres in animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llaurado, J.G.; Brewer, L.A. III; Elam, D.A.; Zielinski, F.W.; Hirst, A.E.; Ing, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Surgical removal, the preferred treatment for lung cancer, is not tolerated by many patients. To test feasibility of treating these cases with high dose isotope irradiation, an occlusion balloon catheter was introduced into a branch of the pulmonary artery in dogs. Ten million (1 g) ion exchange resin microspheres (d. 53-63 μm) labelled with 10-20 mCi P-32 (and 5-10 mCi Tc-99m for imaging) were delivered into the selected lobar artery. After 60 minutes the catheter was withdrawn and a lung scintigraph obtained. Microspheres were prepared by converting cation exchange resin beads to the chromic form, labelling with P-32 phosphate at pH 2 to 4 and stabilizing at pH 9. Quality control testing in boiling physiologic saline confirmed in vitro stability. Since the radiation dose (rad) from total P-32 decay is 733 times the tissue concentration (μCi/g), the injected P-32 distributed in one lobe (ca. 100 g) of canine lung delivers ca. 75,000-150,000 rad. Serial lung scintigraphs were obtained for 8 weeks. Blood level of P-32 was negligible throughout. Following an anesthetic overdoes, dramatic necrosis of the irradiated lobe was observed. Microspheres were visualized histologically in the precapillary beds and never in alveoli or bronchi. Radioactive levels were negligible and no major alterations were discernible in adjacent lung lobes and organs. Thus, large doses of radiation to a selected pulmonary lobe may be delivered without systemic leakage of radioactivity or damage to other organs. This procedure may be useful to destroy inoperable cancer of the lung and other organs

  6. An investigation of methods for neutron dose measurement in high temperature irradiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosako, Toshisou; Sugiura, Nobuyuki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Kudo, Kazuhiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    2000-10-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been conducting the innovative basic research on high temperature since 1994, which is a series of high temperature irradiation studies using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). 'The Task Group for Evaluation of Irradiation Dose under High Temperature Radiation' was founded in the HTTR Utilization Research Committee, which is the promoting body of the innovative basic research. The present report is a summary of investigation which has been made by the Task Group on the present status and subjects of research and development of neutron detectors in high temperature irradiation fields, in view of contributing to high temperature irradiation research using the HTTR. Detectors investigated here in the domestic survey are the following five kinds of in-core detectors: 1) small fission counter, 2) small fission chamber, 3) self-powered detector, 4) activation detector, and 5) optical fiber. In addition, the research and development status in Russia has been investigated. The present report will also be useful as nuclear instrumentation of high temperature gas-cooled reactors. (author)

  7. Radiotherapy of ovarian epithelial cancer by total orthogonal field irradiation of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delouche, G.; Valinta, D.; Bachelot, F.

    1981-01-01

    Isotopic intraperitoneal curietherapy by 32 P is the simplest method for irradiating the peritoneum, but it has only limited indications. This irradiation has usually to be given by the percutaneous route, but because of the size of the region to be irradiated it raises delicate problems poorly resolved by the traditional methods applied. For this reason, a particular method is suggested including, among other characteristics: 4 orthogonal fields; 2 sessions daily, irradiating one part of the abdomen in the morning and the other part in the afternoon; spreading of the doses in confirmity with current specifications; and modulation of the total dose as a function of the maximum size of the tumoral remnants. Abdominal radiotherapy is currently the method of choice in cases where lesions are in their early stages, in so far as chemotherapy, much more restrictive for the patient, has not yet demonstrated its long-term efficacy. A controlled clinical study is necessary in order to determine the most effective method [fr

  8. Angular and magnetic field dependences of critical current in irradiated YBaCuO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrusenko, Yu.

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of mechanisms responsible for the current-carrying capability of irradiated high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) was realized. For the purpose, experiments were made to investigate the effect of point defects generated by high-energy electron irradiation on the critical temperature and the critical current in high-Tc superconducting single crystals YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . The transport current density measured in HTSC single crystals YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x by the dc-method was found to exceed 80000 A/cm 2 . The experiments have demonstrated a more than 30-fold increase in the critical current density in single crystals irradiated with 2.5 MeV electrons to a dose of 3·10 18 el/cm 2 . Detailed studies were made into the anisotropy of critical current and the dependence of critical current on the external magnetic field strength in irradiated single crystals. A high efficiency of point defects as centers of magnetic vortex pinning in HTSC single crystals was first demonstrated.

  9. Design principles and field performance of a solar spectral irradiance meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsiankou, V.; Hinzer, K.; Haysom, J.; Schriemer, H.; Emery, K.; Beal, R.

    2016-08-01

    A solar spectral irradiance meter (SSIM), designed for measuring the direct normal irradiance (DNI) in six wavelength bands, has been combined with models to determine key atmospheric transmittances and the resulting spectral irradiance distribution of DNI under all sky conditions. The design principles of the SSIM, implementation of a parameterized transmittance model, and field performance comparisons of modeled solar spectra with reference radiometer measurements are presented. Two SSIMs were tested and calibrated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) against four spectroradiometers and an absolute cavity radiometer. The SSIMs' DNI was on average within 1% of the DNI values reported by one of NREL's primary absolute cavity radiometers. An additional SSIM was installed at the SUNLAB Outdoor Test Facility in September 2014, with ongoing collection of environmental and spectral data. The SSIM's performance in Ottawa was compared against a commercial pyrheliometer and a spectroradiometer over an eight month study. The difference in integrated daily spectral irradiance between the SSIM and the ASD spectroradiometer was found to be less than 1%. The cumulative energy density collected by the SSIM over this duration agreed with that measured by an Eppley model NIP pyrheliometer to within 0.5%. No degradation was observed.

  10. Determining the field emitter temperature during laser irradiation in the pulsed laser atom probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Three methods are discussed for determining the field emitter temperature during laser irradiation in the recently developed Pulsed Laser Atom Probe. A procedure based on the reduction of the lattice evaporation field with increasing emitter temperature is found to be the most convenient and reliable method between 60 and 500 K. Calibration curves (plots of the evaporation field versus temperature) are presented for dc and pulsed field evaporation of W, Mo, and Rh. These results show directly the important influence of the evaporation rate on the temperature dependence of the evaporation field. The possibility of a temperature calibration based on the ionic charge state distribution of field evaporated lattice atoms is also discussed. The shift in the charge state distributions which occurs when the emitter temperature is increased and the applied field strength is decreased at a constant rate of evaporation is shown to be due to the changing field and not the changing temperature. Nevertheless, the emitter temperature can be deduced from the charge state distribution for a specified evaporation rate. Charge state distributions as a function of field strength and temperature are presented for the same three materials. Finally, a preliminary experiment is reported which shows that the emitter temperature can be determined from field ion microscope observations of single atom surface diffusion over low index crystal planes. This last calibration procedure is shown to be very useful at higher temperatures (>600 K) where the other two methods become unreliable

  11. Dose-dependent induction of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in the lung tissue of fibrosis-prone mice after thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebe, Claudia E.; Uthe, Daniela; Schmid, Kurt W.; Richter, Klaus D.; Wessel, Jan; Schuck, Andreas; Willich, Norman; Ruebe, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The lung is the major dose-limiting organ for radiotherapy of cancer in the thoracic region. The pathogenesis of radiation-induced lung injury at the molecular level is still unclear. Immediate cellular damage after irradiation is supposed to result in cytokine-mediated multicellular interactions with induction and progression of fibrotic tissue reactions. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the acute and long-term effects of radiation on the gene expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in a model of lung injury using fibrosis-sensitive C57BL/6 mice. Methods and Materials: The thoraces of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with 6 and 12 Gy, respectively. Treated and sham-irradiated control mice were sacrificed at times corresponding to the latent period (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 hours and 1 week postirradiation), the pneumonic phase (2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks postirradiation), and the beginning of the fibrotic phase (24 weeks postirradiation). The lung tissue from three different mice per dosage and time point was analyzed by a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, and light microscopy. The mRNA expression of TGF-β was quantified by competitive reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the cellular origin of the TGF-β protein was identified by immunohistochemical staining (alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase [APAAP]). The cytokine expression on mRNA and protein level was correlated with the histopathological alterations. Results: Following thoracic irradiation with a single dose of 12 Gy, radiation-induced TGF-β release in lung tissue was appreciable already within the first hours (1, 3, and 6 hours postirradiation) and reached a significant increase after 12 hours; subsequently (48 hours, 72 hours, and 1 week postirradiation) the TGF-β expression declined to basal levels. At the beginning of the pneumonic phase, irradiation-mediated stimulation of TGF-β release reached

  12. Influence of high-energy electron irradiation on field emission properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Sandip S. [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Koinkar, Pankaj M. [Center for International Cooperation in Engineering Education (CICEE), University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-Josanjima-Cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Dhole, Sanjay D. [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); More, Mahendra A., E-mail: mam@physics.unipune.ac.i [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Murakami, Ri-ichi, E-mail: murakami@me.tokushima-u.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-Josanjima-Cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of very high energy electron beam irradiation on the field emission characteristics of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been investigated. The MWCNTs films deposited on silicon (Si) substrates were irradiated with 6 MeV electron beam at different fluence of 1x10{sup 15}, 2x10{sup 15} and 3x10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}. The irradiated films were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro-Raman spectrometer. The SEM analysis clearly revealed a change in surface morphology of the films upon irradiation. The Raman spectra of the irradiated films show structural damage caused by the interaction of high-energy electrons. The field emission studies were carried out in a planar diode configuration at the base pressure of {approx}1x10{sup -8} mbar. The values of the threshold field, required to draw an emission current density of {approx}1 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, are found to be {approx}0.52, 1.9, 1.3 and 0.8 V/{mu}m for untreated, irradiated with fluence of 1x10{sup 15}, 2x10{sup 15} and 3x10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}. The irradiated films exhibit better emission current stability as compared to the untreated film. The improved field emission properties of the irradiated films have been attributed to the structural damage as revealed from the Raman studies.

  13. TH-CD-207A-05: Lung Surface Deformation Vector Fields Prediction by Monitoring Respiratory Surrogate Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasehi Tehrani, J; Wang, J; McEwan, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we developed and evaluated a method for predicting lung surface deformation vector fields (SDVFs) based on surrogate signals such as chest and abdomen motion at selected locations and spirometry measurements. Methods: A Patient-specific 3D triangular surface mesh of the lung region at end-expiration (EE) phase was obtained by threshold-based segmentation method. For each patient, a spirometer recorded the flow volume changes of the lungs; and 192 selected points at a regular spacing of 2cm X 2cm matrix points over a total area of 34cm X 24cm on the surface of chest and abdomen was used to detect chest wall motions. Preprocessing techniques such as QR factorization with column pivoting (QRCP) were employed to remove redundant observations of the chest and abdominal area. To create a statistical model between the lung surface and the corresponding surrogate signals, we developed a predictive model based on canonical ridge regression (CRR). Two unique weighting vectors were selected for each vertex on the surface of the lung, and they were optimized during the training process using the all other phases of 4D-CT except the end-inspiration (EI) phase. These parameters were employed to predict the vertices locations of a testing data set, which was the EI phase of 4D-CT. Results: For ten lung cancer patients, the deformation vector field of each vertex of lung surface mesh was estimated from the external motion at selected positions on the chest wall surface plus spirometry measurements. The average estimation of 98th percentile of error was less than 1 mm (AP= 0.85, RL= 0.61, and SI= 0.82). Conclusion: The developed predictive model provides a non-invasive approach to derive lung boundary condition. Together with personalized biomechanical respiration modelling, the proposed model can be used to derive the lung tumor motion during radiation therapy accurately from non-invasive measurements.

  14. TH-CD-207A-05: Lung Surface Deformation Vector Fields Prediction by Monitoring Respiratory Surrogate Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasehi Tehrani, J; Wang, J [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); McEwan, A [The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, we developed and evaluated a method for predicting lung surface deformation vector fields (SDVFs) based on surrogate signals such as chest and abdomen motion at selected locations and spirometry measurements. Methods: A Patient-specific 3D triangular surface mesh of the lung region at end-expiration (EE) phase was obtained by threshold-based segmentation method. For each patient, a spirometer recorded the flow volume changes of the lungs; and 192 selected points at a regular spacing of 2cm X 2cm matrix points over a total area of 34cm X 24cm on the surface of chest and abdomen was used to detect chest wall motions. Preprocessing techniques such as QR factorization with column pivoting (QRCP) were employed to remove redundant observations of the chest and abdominal area. To create a statistical model between the lung surface and the corresponding surrogate signals, we developed a predictive model based on canonical ridge regression (CRR). Two unique weighting vectors were selected for each vertex on the surface of the lung, and they were optimized during the training process using the all other phases of 4D-CT except the end-inspiration (EI) phase. These parameters were employed to predict the vertices locations of a testing data set, which was the EI phase of 4D-CT. Results: For ten lung cancer patients, the deformation vector field of each vertex of lung surface mesh was estimated from the external motion at selected positions on the chest wall surface plus spirometry measurements. The average estimation of 98th percentile of error was less than 1 mm (AP= 0.85, RL= 0.61, and SI= 0.82). Conclusion: The developed predictive model provides a non-invasive approach to derive lung boundary condition. Together with personalized biomechanical respiration modelling, the proposed model can be used to derive the lung tumor motion during radiation therapy accurately from non-invasive measurements.

  15. EGSNRC Monte Carlo study of the effect of photon energy and field margin in phantoms simulating small lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, E.K.; Darko, J.; Mosseri, A.; Jezioranski, J.

    2003-01-01

    The dose distribution in small lung tumors (coin lesions) is affected by the combined effects of reduced attenuation of photons and extended range of electrons in lung. The increased range of electrons in low-density tissues can lead to loss of field flatness and increased penumbra width, especially at high energies. The EGSNRC Monte Carlo code, together with DOSXYZNRC, a three-dimensional voxel dose calculation module has been used to study the characteristics of the penumbra in the region of the target-lung interfaces for various radiation beam energies, lung densities, target-field edge distances, target size, and depth. The Monte Carlo model was validated by film measurements made in acrylic (simulating a tumor) imbedded in cork (simulating the lung). Beam profiles that are deemed to be acceptable are defined as those in which no point within the planning target volume (target volume plus 1 cm margin) received less than 95% of the dose prescribed to the center of the target. For parallel opposed beams and 2 cm cube target size, 6 MV photons produce superior dose distribution with respect to penumbra at the lateral, anterior, and posterior surfaces and midplane of the simulated target, with a target-field edge distance of 2.5 cm. A lesser target-field edge distance of 2.0 cm is required for 4 MV photons to produce acceptable dose distribution. To achieve equivalent dose distribution with 10 and 18 MV photons, a target-field edge distance of 3.0 and 3.5 cm, respectively, is required. For a simulated target size of 4 cm cube, a target-field edge distance of 2, 2.5, and 3 cm is required for 6, 10, and 18 MV photons, respectively, to yield acceptable PTV coverage. The effect, which is predominant in determining the target dose, depends on the beam energy, target-field edge distance, lung density, and the depth and size of the target

  16. An estimate of radiation fields in a gamma irradiation facility using fuel elements from a swimming pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narain, Rajendra

    2002-01-01

    A simple gamma irradiation facility set up using a few irradiated or partially irradiated swimming pool elements can be assembled to provide a convenient facility for irradiation of small and medium sized samples for research. The paper presents results of radiation levels with an arrangement using four elements from a reactor core operating at a power of 20 MW. A maximum gamma field of higher than 1 KGy/h at locations adjacent to fuel elements with negligible neutron contamination can be achieved. (author)

  17. Early and late effects of fission-neutron or gamma irradiation on the clearance of bacteria from the lungs of B6CF1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, P.C.; Ainsworth, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    Enhanced susceptibility to experimental respiratory infection following chronic exposure to low-level gamma radiation has been reported, but no comparable information exists for neutron-irradiated animals. Such information is needed in view of the apparently greater additivity of repeated low fission-neutron doses. Consequently altered susceptibility to respiratory infection is being examined in the JANUS Neutron and Gamma-Ray Toxicity Program. Some B6CF 1 mice of various ages were challenged with Pasteurella pneumotropica either by intranasal instillation or by aerosol inhalation following single or fractionated doses of neutrons or 60 Co gamma radiation. Clearance of the bacteria from the lungs was assessed 4 days after challenge by a culture technique and by histological and immunofluorescence staining. From 5 to 21 days after a single dose of 288 neutron rads or 740 gamma rads, a ratio equal to the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for cell killing, there was little repair of the radiation-damaged clearance mechanism evident in neutron-irradiated mice; 85% were unable to clear the organism as long as 21 days after irradiation. Over the same period only 25% of gamma-irradiated mice failed to eliminate P. pneumotropica. Immunofluorescent-stained lung sections at all time intervals between 5 and 21 days were strikingly similar among neutron- and gamma-irradiated mice and unirradiated mice. Alveolar macrophages were swollen with fluorescent P. pneumotropica cells, and macrophages surrounding the bronchi and in the bronchial exudate were also intensely fluorescent. These data, coupled with the culture data, indicate that pulmonary macrophages in the irradiated host are capable of engulfing P. pneumotropica cells but that the ability to kill them is impaired

  18. Visualization of neonatal lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation using x-ray dark-field radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Pritzke, Tina; Koschlig, Markus; Kamgari, Nona; Willer, Konstantin; Gromann, Lukas; Auweter, Sigrid; Hellbach, Katharina; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hilgendorff, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) and supplementation of oxygen-enriched gas, often needed in postnatal resuscitation procedures, are known to be main risk factors for impaired pulmonary development in the preterm and term neonates. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities lack in sensitivity for the detection of early stage lung injury. The present study reports a new imaging approach for diagnosis and staging of early lung injury induced by MV and hyperoxia in neonatal mice. The imaging method is based on the Talbot-Lau x-ray grating interferometry that makes it possible to quantify the x-ray small-angle scattering on the air-tissue interfaces. This so-called dark-field signal revealed increasing loss of x-ray small-angle scattering when comparing images of neonatal mice undergoing hyperoxia and MV-O2 with animals kept at room air. The changes in the dark field correlated well with histologic findings and provided superior differentiation than conventional x-ray imaging and lung function testing. The results suggest that x-ray dark-field radiography is a sensitive tool for assessing structural changes in the developing lung. In the future, with further technical developments x-ray dark-field imaging could be an important tool for earlier diagnosis and sensitive monitoring of lung injury in neonates requiring postnatal oxygen or ventilator therapy.

  19. Assessment of respiratory symptoms and lung function values among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Banibrata

    2016-07-03

    Brick manufacturing process releases large amounts of silica dust into the work environment due to the use of silica-containing materials. The main aim of the study was to investigate the impairment of lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the different groups of brick field workers in comparison with control subjects. A total of 250 brick field workers and 130 unexposed control subjects were randomly selected in which demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms, and lung function values were recorded. The result showed significantly lower p value (workers when compared with control group. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was dyspnea (46.8%), phlegm (39.2%), and chest tightness (27.6%). Dust exposure in working environment affected the lung function values and increased the respiratory symptoms among the brick field workers.

  20. Local field radiotherapy without elective nodal irradiation for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Takuya; Yamazaki, Hideya; Suzuki, Gen; Aibe, Norihiro; Masui, Koji; Tatekawa, Kotoha; Sasaki, Naomi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Konishi, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Satoaki; Yamada, Kei

    2017-09-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer; however, the optimal treatment field remains controversial. This study aims to evaluate the outcome of local field radiotherapy without elective nodal irradiation for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer. We retrospectively investigated 35 patients treated for a postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer with local field radiotherapy between December 2008 and March 2016. The median irradiation dose was 60 Gy (range: 50-67.5 Gy). Thirty-one (88.6%) patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The median follow-up period was 18 months (range: 5-94 months). The 2-year overall survival was 55.7%, with a median survival time of 29.9 months. In the univariate analysis, the maximal diameter ≤20 mm (P = 0.0383), solitary lesion (P = 0.0352), and the complete remission after treatment (P = 0.00411) had a significantly better prognosis. A total of 27 of 35 patients (77.1%) had progressive disease (loco-regional failure [n = 9], distant metastasis [n = 7], and both loco-regional failure and distant metastasis [n = 11]). No patients had Grade 3 or greater mucositis. Local field radiotherapy is a considerable treatment option for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Persistence of Gamma-H2AX Foci in Irradiated Bronchial Cells Correlates with Susceptibility to Radiation Associated Lung Cancer in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochola, Donasian O.; Sharif, Rabab; Bedford, Joel S.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Kato, Takamitsu A.; Fallgren, Christina M.; Demant, Peter; Costes, Sylvain V.; Weil, Michael M.

    2018-01-01

    The risk of developing radiation-induced lung cancer differs between different strains of mice, but the underlying cause of the strain differences is unknown. Strains of mice also differ in their ability to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks resulting from radiation exposure. We phenotyped mouse strains from the CcS/Dem recombinant congenic strain set for their efficacy in repairing DNA double strand breaks during protracted radiation exposures. We monitored persistent gamma-H2AX radiation induced foci (RIF) 24 hours after exposure to chronic gamma-rays as a surrogate marker for repair deficiency in bronchial epithelial cells for 17 of the CcS/Dem strains and the BALB/cHeN founder strain. We observed a very strong correlation R2 = 79.18%, P cancer percent incidence measured in the same strains. Interestingly, spontaneous levels of foci in non-irradiated strains also showed good correlation with lung cancer incidence (R2=32.74%, P =0.013). These results suggest that genetic differences in DNA repair capacity largely account for differing susceptibilities to radiation-induced lung cancer among CcS/Dem mouse strains and that high levels of spontaneous DNA damage is also a relatively good marker of cancer predisposition. In a smaller pilot study, we found that the repair capacity measured in peripheral blood leucocytes also correlated well with radiogenic lung cancer susceptibility, raising the possibility that such phenotyping assay could be used to detect radiogenic lung cancer susceptibility in humans.

  2. Method to characterize inorganic particulates in lung tissue biopsies using field emission scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, Heather; Breit, George N.; Strand, Matthew; Pillers, Renee M.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Todorov, Todor I.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Wolf, Ruth E.; Robinson, Maura; Parr, Jane; Miller, Robert J.; Groshong, Steve; Green, Francis; Rose, Cecile

    2018-01-01

    Humans accumulate large numbers of inorganic particles in their lungs over a lifetime. Whether this causes or contributes to debilitating disease over a normal lifespan depends on the type and concentration of the particles. We developed and tested a protocol for in situ characterization of the types and distribution of inorganic particles in biopsied lung tissue from three human groups using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Many distinct particle types were recognized among the 13 000 particles analyzed. Silica, feldspars, clays, titanium dioxides, iron oxides and phosphates were the most common constituents in all samples. Particles were classified into three general groups: endogenous, which form naturally in the body; exogenic particles, natural earth materials; and anthropogenic particles, attributed to industrial sources. These in situ results were compared with those using conventional sodium hypochlorite tissue digestion and particle filtration. With the exception of clays and phosphates, the relative abundances of most common particle types were similar in both approaches. Nonetheless, the digestion/filtration method was determined to alter the texture and relative abundances of some particle types. SEM/EDS analysis of digestion filters could be automated in contrast to the more time intensive in situ analyses.

  3. Advantages of the technique with segmented fields for tangential breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovski, Zoran; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Petrova, Deva; Lazarova, Emilija

    2013-01-01

    In the case of breast cancer, the prominent role of radiation therapy is an established fact. Depending on the stage of the disease, the breast is most often irradiated with two tangential fields and a direct supraclavicular field. Planning target volume is defined through the recommendations in ICRU Reports 50 and 62. The basic ‘dogma’ of radiotherapy requires the dose in the target volume to be homogenous. The favorable situation would be if the dose width was between 95% and 107%; this, however, is often not possible to be fulfilled. A technique for enhancement of homogeneity of isodose distribution would be using one or more additional fields, which will increase the dose in the volume where it is too low. These fields are called segmented fields (a technique also known as ‘field in field’) because they occupy only part of the primary fields. In this study we will show the influence of this technique on the dose homogeneity improvement in the PTV region. The mean dose in the target volume was increased from 49.51 Gy to 50.79 Gy in favor of the plans with segmented fields; and the dose homogeneity (measured in standard deviations) was also improved - 1.69 vs. 1.30. The increase in the target volume, encompassed by 95% isodose, was chosen as a parameter to characterize overall planning improvement. Thus, in our case, the improvement of dose coverage was from 93.19% to 97.06%. (Author)

  4. Collective-field-corrected strong field approximation for laser-irradiated metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, Th; Bauer, D

    2014-01-01

    The strong field approximation (SFA) formulated in terms of so-called ‘quantum orbits’ led to much insight into intense-laser driven ionization dynamics. In plain SFA, the emitted electron is treated as a free electron in the laser field alone. However, with improving experimental techniques and more advanced numerical simulations, it becomes more and more obvious that the plain SFA misses interesting effects even on a qualitative level. Examples are holographic side lobes, the low-energy structure, radial patterns in photoelectron spectra at low kinetic energies and strongly rotated angular distributions. For this reason, increasing efforts have been recently devoted to Coulomb corrections of the SFA. In the current paper, we follow a similar line but consider ionization of metal clusters. It is known that photoelectrons from clusters can be much more energetic than those emitted from atoms or small molecules, especially if the Mie resonance of the expanding cluster is evoked. We develop a SFA that takes the collective field inside the cluster via the simple rigid-sphere model into account. Our approach is based on field-corrected quantum orbits so that the acceleration process (or any other spectral feature of interest) can be investigated in detail. (paper)

  5. Dose enhancement in radiotherapy of small lung tumors using inline magnetic fields: A Monte Carlo based planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oborn, B. M., E-mail: brad.oborn@gmail.com [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Ge, Y. [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hardcastle, N. [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia); Metcalfe, P. E. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2500, Australia and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia); Keall, P. J. [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To report on significant dose enhancement effects caused by magnetic fields aligned parallel to 6 MV photon beam radiotherapy of small lung tumors. Findings are applicable to future inline MRI-guided radiotherapy systems. Methods: A total of eight clinical lung tumor cases were recalculated using Monte Carlo methods, and external magnetic fields of 0.5, 1.0, and 3 T were included to observe the impact on dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and gross tumor volume (GTV). Three plans were 6 MV 3D-CRT plans while 6 were 6 MV IMRT. The GTV’s ranged from 0.8 to 16 cm{sup 3}, while the PTV’s ranged from 1 to 59 cm{sup 3}. In addition, the dose changes in a 30 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom were investigated for small beams. The central 20 cm of this phantom contained either water or lung density insert. Results: For single beams, an inline magnetic field of 1 T has a small impact in lung dose distributions by reducing the lateral scatter of secondary electrons, resulting in a small dose increase along the beam. Superposition of multiple small beams leads to significant dose enhancements. Clinically, this process occurs in the lung tissue typically surrounding the GTV, resulting in increases to the D{sub 98%} (PTV). Two isolated tumors with very small PTVs (3 and 6 cm{sup 3}) showed increases in D{sub 98%} of 23% and 22%. Larger PTVs of 13, 26, and 59 cm{sup 3} had increases of 9%, 6%, and 4%, describing a natural fall-off in enhancement with increasing PTV size. However, three PTVs bounded to the lung wall showed no significant increase, due to lack of dose enhancement in the denser PTV volume. In general, at 0.5 T, the GTV mean dose enhancement is around 60% lower than that at 1 T, while at 3 T, it is 5%–60% higher than 1 T. Conclusions: Monte Carlo methods have described significant and predictable dose enhancement effects in small lung tumor plans for 6 MV radiotherapy when an external inline magnetic field is included. Results of this study

  6. Electric field and space-charge distribution in SI GaAs: effect of high-energy proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldini, A; Polenta, L; Canali, C; Nava, F

    1999-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on semi-insulating gallium arsenide Schottky diodes has been investigated by means of surface potential measurements and spectroscopic techniques. Before and after irradiation the electric field exhibits a Mott barrier-like distribution, and the box-shaped space charge modifies its distribution with irradiation. The increase in density or the generation of some traps changes the compensation ratio producing a deeper active region and a more homogeneous distribution of the electric field. The latter phenomenon is also observed by EBIC images of edge-mounted diodes.

  7. Late neurological complications after prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small-cell lung cancer: The Toronto experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishner, M.; Feld, R.; Payne, D.G.; Sagman, U.; Sculier, J.P.; Pringle, J.F.; Yeoh, J.L.; Evans, W.K.; Shepherd, F.A.; Maki, E.

    1990-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 58 long-term survivors of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) (greater than 2 years) for neurological complications and their impact on the well-being of these patients. We also attempted to have patients complete a questionnaire regarding any possible neurological problems. This was done in 14 patients. Metastasis to the CNS occurred significantly less often in patients who received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in a dose of 20 Gy in five equal fractions (two of 48), compared with patients who did not receive it (four of 10) (P less than .006). Delayed neurological complications occurred in nine of 48 (19%) patients who received PCI. However, in only two patients did PCI appear to be responsible for progressive dementia. In the other seven patients (one with weakness in the arms and legs, one with transient left hemiparesis, two with hearing loss, and three with various visual disturbances), chemotherapeutic agents (mainly cisplatin and vincristine) and underlying diseases probably contributed significantly to the occurrence of these complications. In addition, these neurological disturbances were transient or ran a stable course and did not adversely affect the daily life of these patients. In comparison, among the 10 patients who did not receive PCI one had progressive dementia and another had hemiparesis secondary to probable brain embolism. We conclude that the use of PCI in these doses was effective in reducing the frequency of CNS metastases and had an adverse effect on the daily life and well-being only in a minority of the patients. Until results of controlled randomized studies show otherwise, PCI should continue to be used as a part of the combined modality treatment of completely responding patients with limited SCLC

  8. Role of prophylactic brain irradiation in limited stage small cell lung cancer: clinical, neuropsychologic, and CT sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laukkanen, E.; Klonoff, H.; Allan, B.; Graeb, D.; Murray, N.

    1988-01-01

    Ninety-four patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer treated between 1981 and 1985 with a regimen including prophylactic brain irradiation (PBI) after combination chemotherapy were assessed for compliance with PBI, brain relapse, and neurologic morbidity. Seventy-seven percent of patients had PBI and of these, 22% developed brain metastases after a median time of 11 months post treatment. The brain was the apparent unique initial site of relapse in 10% of PBI cases but more commonly brain relapse was preceded or accompanied by failure at other sites, especially the chest. Brain metastases were the greatest cause of morbidity in 50% of PBI failures. Twelve of 14 PBI patients alive 2 years after treatment had oncologic, neurologic, and neuropsychological evaluation, and brain CT. All long-term survivors were capable of self care and none fulfilled diagnostic criteria for dementia, with three borderline cases. One third had pretreatment neurologic dysfunction and two thirds post treatment neurologic symptoms, most commonly recent memory loss. Fifty percent had subtle motor findings. Intellectual functioning was at the 38th percentile with most patients having an unskilled occupational history. Neuropsychologic impairment ratings were borderline in three cases and definitely impaired in seven cases. CT scans showed brain atrophy in all cases with mild progression in those having a pre-treatment baseline. Periventricular and subcortical low density lesions identical to the CT appearance of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy were seen in 82% of posttreatment CT studies, and lacunar infarcts in 54%. Neuropsychologic impairment scores and the extent of CT periventricular low density lesions were strongly associated

  9. T-cell abnormalities after mediastinal irradiation for lung cancer. The in vitro influence of synthetic thymosin alpha-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulof, R.S.; Chorba, T.L.; Cleary, P.A.; Palaszynski, S.R.; Alabaster, O.; Goldstein, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of mediastinal irradiation (RT) on the numbers and functions of purified peripheral blood T-lymphocytes from patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were evaluated. The patients were candidates for a randomized trial to evaluate the immunorestorative properties of synthetic thymosin alpha-1. Twenty-one patients studied before RT did not exhibit any significant difference in T-cell numbers or function compared to age-matched healthy subjects. However, 41 patients studied within 1 week after completing RT exhibited significant depressions of E-rosette-forming cells at 4 degrees C (E4 degrees-RFC)/mm3, E-rosette-forming cells at 29 degrees C (E29 degrees-RFC)/mm3, OKT3/mm3, OKT4/mm3, and OKT8/mm3 (P . 0.0001); total T-cell percentages (%OKT3, P . 0.01); and T-cell proliferative responses in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLR) (P . 0.01) and to the mitogen phytohemagglutinin under suboptimal conditions (P less than or equal to 0.03). Nine patients studied before and after RT showed a significant increase in OKT4/OKT8 (P . 0.01) following RT. A short-term in vitro incubation with thymosin alpha-1 could enhance MLR of T-cells in 12 of 27 patients with post-RT abnormalities. In 13 patients who were treated with placebo, the RT-induced depression of T-cell numbers and function persisted for at least 3 to 4 months. In addition, in 12 patients progressive decreases developed in %E4 degrees-RFC, %OKT3, %OKT4, and OKT4/OKT8, which always preceded clinical relapse

  10. Technical study of craniospinal irradiation in pediatric patients with patient position and field matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Masanori; Ise, Toshihide; Umezu, Mikio [Kangawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Hioki, Minoru

    2000-05-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in leukemia and medulloblastoma patients is usually a three-field technique that involves parallel-opposed lateral cranial fields adjacent and orthogonal to a posterior spinal field. Since sedation is often necessary for pediatric patients, the supine position is more favorable than the prone position for respiratory monitoring. We practiced CSI in the supine position in one case of leukemia and three cases of medulloblastoma. Each location of the isocenter was determined by moving the couch to fit the center of the CSI on the basis of incisura intertragica. The angles of collimator rotation and couch rotation were calculated according to each treatment field size. The junction was also moved 2 cm day by day during the course of treatment so that over- and underdose at the junction would be prevented. The supine position did not allow us to visually confirm the proper junction between the lateral cranial fields and the spinal field. However, we succeeded in practicing complete conjunction between the fields by proper collimator and couch rotations on the assessment of the film-dose method. CSI in the supine position is naturally comfortable for pediatric patients and seems effective in pediatric treatments, which often require respiratory monitoring for sedation. (author)

  11. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  12. A quality control study of the accuracy of patient positioning in irradiation of pelvic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzberg, Carien L.; Althof, Vincent G.M.; Hoog, Marjan de; Visser, Andries G.; Huizenga, Henk; Wijnmaalen, Arendjan; Levendag, Peter C.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Determining and improving the accuracy of patient positioning in pelvic fields. Methods and Materials: Small pelvic fields were studied in 16 patients treated for urological cancers using a three-field isocentric technique. Large pelvic fields were studied in 17 gynecological cancer patients treated with anterior and posterior (AP-PA) parallel opposed fields. Quantitative analysis of 645 megavolt images and comparison to 82 simulation images were carried out. Results: Small pelvic fields: for the position of the patient in the field, standard deviations of the difference between simulation (SIM) and treatment (MV) images were 3.4 mm in the lateral direction, 5.3 mm in the cranio-caudal direction, and 4.8 mm in the ventro-dorsal direction. Alterations in the positioning technique were made and tested. Large pelvic fields: differences between simulation and treatment images for the position of the patient in the field were 4 mm [1 standard deviation (SD)] in the lateral direction and 6.5 mm in the cranio-caudal direction. A systematic shift of the treatment field in the cranial direction had occurred in the majority of patients. A positioning technique using laser lines and marking of the caudal field border was shown to be more accurate. Conclusion: Studies of positioning accuracy in routine irradiation techniques are needed to obtain data for definition of the margins for each treatment site at each institution. Random variations should be kept at a minimum by monitoring and improving positioning techniques. Treatment verification by megavolt imaging or film should be used to detect and correct systematic variations early in the treatment series

  13. Effect of grain size on void swelling in irradiated materials: A phase-field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kunok; Lee, Gyeonggeun; Kwon, Junhyun

    2014-01-01

    The progress of swelling is retarded as the average grain diameter increases in a pure copper case. Within the framework of the production bias model (PBM), their experimental results were quantitatively explained. The phase-field method has already been used to investigate the void/bubble behavior in the irradiated materials. In particular, Millett et al. already incorporated the interaction between the point defect and the grain boundary in their study. Therefore, they described the void denuded zones and void peaked zones adjacent to the grain boundaries, which are already observed in the experimental investigations. We performed the phase-field simulation in order to verify the role of the grain diameter on the void swelling in the cascade damage condition. In addition, our results will be compared with the experimental observations or the theoretical works, such as PBM. Two-dimensional phase-field simulations were performed to investigate the void swelling process in the irradiated materials. We clearly observed the void denuded and void peaked zones, which were already observed in formal experimental and computational approaches. We also found that the progress of swelling was retarded as the average grain diameter increased. The triple junctions, which are believed to be a critical factor t affecting the fracture, are the main cites for the void nucleation and growth in our simulations

  14. Field ion microscopy study of depleted zones in tungsten after proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnum, D.J.; Sommer, W.F.; Inal, O.T.; Yu, J.

    1986-01-01

    Depleted zones in tungsten, that resulted from medium-energy proton irradiations, were studied using the Field Ion Microscope (FIM). The shapes and sizes of depleted zones is an important aspect of basic radiation damage. These data can be compared to models that have been suggested as well as aid development of new models. These depleted volumes are of interest not only for an understanding of basic radiation effects, but also because they affect material properties and can act as nucleation sites for voids or gas bubbles. Depleted zones were produced in annealed tungsten wires by irradiation with 600 to 800 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The defects observed in the irradiated samples included vacancies, depleted zones, grain boundaries, and dislocations. Single vacancies were the most commonly observed defect. Of the samples ''imaged,'' over 50 depleted zones were found within the area of high resolution in the area between the prominent [112] poles in a [110] oriented sample. The number of layers photographed in each sample was dependent upon the initial shape of the tip and ranged from 60 to 200 [110] sequential layers

  15. Volume pinning force and upper critical field of irradiated Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, P.; Seibt, E.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation by neutrons and ions in A15 superconductors (Nb 3 Sn, V 3 Ga) exerts a stronger influence on the pinning behavior than in nonordered alloys (NbTi). In this work it is shown for deuteron irradiated Nb 3 /Sn wires prepared by the bronze process that the dose curve of the volume pinning force P/sub V/ can be conveniently described by a sum of two terms, due to the grain boundary pinning and to the radiation pinning, respectively. After deduction of the contribution by the radiation-induced pinning centers, good agreement is obtained between the measured P/sub V/ values and those calculated using the upper critical field B/sub c/2 and the transition temperature T/sub c/ on the basis of the irradiation fluence. The use of a theoretical relationship between B/sub c/2 and T/sub c/ is supported by measured values. Application to multifilamentary superconductors with high current carrying capabilities simplifies the calculation of P/sub V/, since the radiation induced volume pinning force can be neglected

  16. SU-F-T-432: Magnetic Field Dose Effects for Various Radiation Beam Geometries for Patients Treated with Hypofractionated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim-Reinders, S [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Physics (Canada); Keller, B; McCann, C; Sahgal, A; Lee, J; Kim, A [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated partial breast irradiation (HPBI) is being used at our clinic to treat inoperable breast cancer patients who have advanced disease. We are investigating how these patients could benefit from being treated in an MRI-linac, where real-time daily MRI tumor imaging and plan adaptation would be possible. As a first step, this study evaluates the dosimetric impact of the magnetic field for different radiation beam geometries on relevant OARs. Methods: Five patients previously treated using HPBI were selected. Six treatment plans were generated for each patient, evaluating three beam geometries (VMAT, IMRT, 3DCRT) with and without B{sub 0}=1.5 T. The Monaco TPS was used with the Elekta MRI-Linac beam model, where the magnetic field is orthogonal to the radiation beam. All plans were re-scaled to the same isocoverage with a prescription of 40Gy/5 to the PTV. Plans were evaluated for the effect of the magnetic field and beam modality on skin V{sub 3} {sub 0}, lung V{sub 2} {sub 0} and mean heart dose. Results: Averaged over all patients, skin V{sub 3} {sub 0}for 3DCRT was higher than VMAT and IMRT (by +22% and +21%, with B{sub 0}-ON). The magnetic field caused larger increases in skin V{sub 3} {sub 0}for 3DCRT (+8%) than VMAT (+3%) and IMRT (+4%) compared with B{sub 0}-OFF. With B{sub 0}-ON, 3DCRT had a markedly lower mean heart dose than VMAT (by 538cGy) and IMRT (by 562cGy); for lung V{sub 2} {sub 0}, 3DCRT had a marginally lower dose than VMAT (by −2.2%) and IMRT (also −2.2%). The magnetic field had minimal effect on the mean heart dose and lung V{sub 2} {sub 0} for all geometries. Conclusion: The decreased skin dose in VMAT and IMRT can potentially mitigate the effects of skin reactions for HPBI in an MRI-linac. This study illustrated that more beam angles may result in lower skin toxicity and better tumor conformality, with the trade-off of elevated heart and lung doses. We are receiving funding support from Elekta.

  17. Planning of gamma-fields: forming and checking dose-rate homogeneity in irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, V.; Foldiak, G.; Horvath, Zs.; Naszodi, L.

    1975-01-01

    The optimal geometry of the sources of an 80000-Ci 60 Co irradiation facility was calculated. The array of the sources is suitable for fundamental research and pilot-plant radiosterilization simultaneously. A method was developed to compensate the inhomogeneity of the dose-rate field: it is no worse than that of the continuous large-scale facilities. In five years the activity of the sources decreased by about half; therefore, this recharge became inevitable. Experience proved that with the new source geometry optimalized by calculations a dose-rate of 1.2 +-10% became available with the packages. (author)

  18. X-ray topographic investigation of the deformation field around spots irradiated by FLASH single pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.; Balcer, T.; Klinger, D.; Sobierajski, R.; Zymierska, D.; Chalupský, Jaromír; Hájková, Věra; Burian, Tomáš; Gleeson, A.J.; Juha, Libor; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Vyšín, Luděk; Wabnitz, H.; Gaudin, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 10 (2011), s. 1036-1040 ISSN 0969-806X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk LC510; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : silicon * FLASH irradiation * x-ray topography * deformation fields Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.227, year: 2011

  19. Field measurement of clear-sky solar irradiance in Badain Jaran Desert of Northwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Ge, Jinming; Shi, Jinsen; Zhou, Tian; Zhang, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL) sponsored and conducted an intensive field campaign on dust aerosols in Badain Jaran Desert of Northwestern China from April 20 to June 20, 2010. A set of state-of-the-art broadband radiometers and sun/sky photometers were deployed along with launched radiosonde. In this paper, we compared the simulated solar irradiances by using the SBDART radiative transfer model with those from the ground-based measurements for 69 selected cases of 7 days. It was shown that the averaged aerosol optical depth at 500 nm (AOD 500 ) is 0.18±0.09 with AOD 500 less than 0.5 for all cases. The single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor at 675 nm are 0.928±0.035, 0.712±0.023, respectively. The AODs retrieved from the CIMEL sun photometer at various wavelengths agree well with those from the PREDE sky radiometer, and the columnar water vapor contents from CIMEL also agree well with radiosonde observations. In the radiative closure experiment, we used a collocated thermopile pyrgeometer with a shadow and ventilator to correct the thermal dome offset of diffuse irradiance measurement. The mean differences between model and measurements are −9.1 Wm −2 (−2.6%) for the direct irradiance, +3.1 Wm −2 (+2.8%) for diffuse irradiance, and −6.0 Wm −2 (−1.3%) for global irradiance, which indicates an excellent radiative closure. Aerosol shortwave direct radiative forcing (ARF) and radiative heating rate are also investigated. The daily mean ARF ranges from −4.8 to +0.4 Wm −2 at the top of the atmosphere, −5.2 to −15.6 Wm −2 at the surface, and 5.2 to 10.8 Wm −2 in the atmosphere. The corresponding radiative heating rates for the whole atmosphere due to dust aerosols are 0.07, 0.11, 0.14, 0.11, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.07 K/day for the 7 selected cloudless days. These solar radiative forcing can be considered as the representative impact of background dust aerosol in Northwestern China

  20. [A case of brain metastasis discovered after surgery for lung cancer based on changes in CEA, in which long-term survival was obtained by repeated gammaknife irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Inoue, Yuichi; Sawai, Toyomitsu; Ikuta, Yasushi; Ohno, Hideaki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Higashiyama, Yasuhito; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Soda, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2005-12-01

    A 58-year-old man underwent right lower lobectomy for lung adenocarcinoma in June 1998. Since a high level of tumor marker CEA persisted after surgery, chemotherapy was additionally performed, and the CEA level subsequently normalized. However, the CEA level increased in April 1999, and brain metastasis was found in the left occipital lobe, and the first gammaknife irradiation was performed. Multiple brain metastases were found when CEA increased again in August 1999, and the second gammaknife irradiation was performed. Moreover, brain metastases were found in the left frontal and occipital lobes in February 2000, and the third gammaknife irradiation was performed. CEA normalized thereafter, but increased in February 2001. Brain metastasis was found in the right occipital lobe, and the fourth gammaknife irradiation was performed. CEA has remained within the normal range for about 4 years thereafter. Long-term survival was possible by repeated gammaknife irradiation for brain metastases. Monitoring of CEA played an important role in finding recurrent brain metastasis in this patient.

  1. SU-F-T-437: 3 Field VMAT Technique for Irradiation of Large Pelvic Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stakhursky, V [Radiation Oncology, Norwalk Hospital, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: VMAT treatment planning for large pelvic volume irradiation could be suboptimal due to inability of Varian linac to split MLC carriage during VMAT delivery for fields larger than 14.5cm in X direction (direction of leaf motion). We compare the dosimetry between 3 VMAT planning techniques, two 2-arc field techniques and a 3-arc field technique: a) two small in X direction (less than 14.5cm) arc fields, complementing each other to cover the whole lateral extent of target during gantry rotation, b) two large arc fields, each covering the targets completely during the rotation, c) a 3 field technique with 2 small in X direction arcs and 1 large field covering whole target. Methods: 5 GYN cancer patients were selected to evaluate the 3 VMAT planning techniques. Treatment plans were generated using Varian Eclipse (ver. 11) TPS. Dose painting technique was used to deliver 5300 cGy to primary target and 4500 cGy to pelvic/abdominal node target. All the plans were normalized so that the prescription dose of 5300 cGy covered 95% of primary target volume. PTV and critical structures DVH curves were compared to evaluate all 3 planning techniques. Results: The dosimetric differences between the two 2-arc techniques were minor. The small field 2-arc technique showed a colder hot spot (0.4% averaged), while variations in maximum doses to critical structures were statistically nonsignificant (under 1.3%). In comparison, the 3-field technique demonstrated a colder hot spot (1.1% less, 105.8% averaged), and better sparing of critical structures. The maximum doses to larger bowel, small bowel and gluteal fold were 3% less, cord/cauda sparing was 4.2% better, and bladder maximum dose was 4.6% less. The differences in maximum doses to stomach and rectum were statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: 3-arc VMAT technique for large field irradiation of pelvis demonstrates dosimetric advantages compared to 2-arc VMAT techniques.

  2. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for preventing brain metastases in patients undergoing radical treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer: A Cochrane Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, Jason Francis; MacBeth, Fergus R.; Coles, Bernadette

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has a role in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with curative intent. Methods and Materials: A search strategy was designed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PCI with no PCI in NSCLC patients treated with curative intent. The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cancerlit were searched, along with relevant journals, books, and review articles to identify potentially eligible trials. Four RCTs were identified and reviewed. A total of 951 patients were randomized in these RCTs, of whom 833 were evaluable and reported. Forty-two patients with small-cell lung cancer were excluded, leaving 791 patients in total. Because of the small patient numbers and trial heterogeneity, no meta-analysis was attempted. Results: Prophylactic cranial irradiation did significantly reduce the incidence of brain metastases in three trials. No trial reported a survival advantage with PCI over observation. Toxicity data were poorly collected and no quality of life assessments were carried out in any trial. Conclusion: Prophylactic cranial irradiation may reduce the incidence of brain metastases, but there is no evidence of a survival benefit. It was not possible to evaluate whether any radiotherapy regimen is superior, and the effect of PCI on quality of life is not known. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of PCI in clinical practice. Where possible, patients should be offered entry into a clinical trial

  3. Analysis of Incidental Radiation Dose to Uninvolved Mediastinal/Supraclavicular Lymph Nodes in Patients with Limited-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated Without Elective Nodal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Irfan; DeMarco, Marylou; Stevens, Craig W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Fulp, William J. [Biostatistics Core, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Dilling, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Dilling@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Classic teaching states that treatment of limited-stage small cell lung cancer (L-SCLC) requires large treatment fields covering the entire mediastinum. However, a trend in modern thoracic radiotherapy is toward more conformal fields, employing positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans to determine the gross tumor volume (GTV). This analysis evaluates the dosimetric results when using selective nodal irradiation (SNI) to treat a patient with L-SCLC, quantitatively comparing the results to standard Intergroup treatment fields. Sixteen consecutive patients with L-SCLC and central mediastinal disease who also underwent pretherapy PET/CT scans were studied in this analysis. For each patient, we created SNI treatment volumes, based on the PET/CT-based criteria for malignancy. We also created 2 ENI plans, the first without heterogeneity corrections, as per the Intergroup 0096 study (ENI{sub off}) and the second with heterogeneity corrections while maintaining constant the number of MUs delivered between these latter 2 plans (ENI{sub on}). Nodal stations were contoured using published guidelines, then placed into 4 'bins' (treated nodes, 1 echelon away, >1 echelon away within the mediastinum, contralateral hilar/supraclavicular). These were aggregated across the patients in the study. Dose to these nodal bins and to tumor/normal structures were compared among these plans using pairwise t-tests. The ENI{sub on} plans demonstrated a statistically significant degradation in dose coverage compared with the ENI{sub off} plans. ENI and SNI both created a dose gradient to the lymph nodes across the mediastinum. Overall, the gradient was larger for the SNI plans, although the maximum dose to the '1 echelon away' nodes was not statistically different. Coverage of the GTV and planning target volume (PTV) were improved with SNI, while simultaneously reducing esophageal and spinal cord dose though at the expense of modestly reduced dose to

  4. Analysis of incidental radiation dose to uninvolved mediastinal/supraclavicular lymph nodes in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer treated without elective nodal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Irfan; DeMarco, Marylou; Stevens, Craig W; Fulp, William J; Dilling, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Classic teaching states that treatment of limited-stage small cell lung cancer (L-SCLC) requires large treatment fields covering the entire mediastinum. However, a trend in modern thoracic radiotherapy is toward more conformal fields, employing positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans to determine the gross tumor volume (GTV). This analysis evaluates the dosimetric results when using selective nodal irradiation (SNI) to treat a patient with L-SCLC, quantitatively comparing the results to standard Intergroup treatment fields. Sixteen consecutive patients with L-SCLC and central mediastinal disease who also underwent pretherapy PET/CT scans were studied in this analysis. For each patient, we created SNI treatment volumes, based on the PET/CT-based criteria for malignancy. We also created 2 ENI plans, the first without heterogeneity corrections, as per the Intergroup 0096 study (ENI(off)) and the second with heterogeneity corrections while maintaining constant the number of MUs delivered between these latter 2 plans (ENI(on)). Nodal stations were contoured using published guidelines, then placed into 4 "bins" (treated nodes, 1 echelon away, >1 echelon away within the mediastinum, contralateral hilar/supraclavicular). These were aggregated across the patients in the study. Dose to these nodal bins and to tumor/normal structures were compared among these plans using pairwise t-tests. The ENI(on) plans demonstrated a statistically significant degradation in dose coverage compared with the ENI(off) plans. ENI and SNI both created a dose gradient to the lymph nodes across the mediastinum. Overall, the gradient was larger for the SNI plans, although the maximum dose to the "1 echelon away" nodes was not statistically different. Coverage of the GTV and planning target volume (PTV) were improved with SNI, while simultaneously reducing esophageal and spinal cord dose though at the expense of modestly reduced dose to anatomically distant lymph nodes

  5. Burnup calculation with estimated neutron spectrum of JMTR irradiation field. Development of the burnup calculation method for fuel pre-irradiated in the JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okonogi, Kazunari; Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio; Hosoyamada, Ryuji

    1999-03-01

    As a series of the pulse irradiation tests with the irradiated fuel, the high-enriched fuel rods pre-irradiated in the JMTR as well as the fuels irradiated in commercial reactors have been irradiated in the NSRR. In the pre-irradiation at the JMTR, the test fuels were placed at the irradiation holes in the reflector region far from the driver core to keep the linear heat generation rate of the test fuel low. Accordingly, neutron energy spectra of the irradiation holes for the test fuels are softened due to the higher moderator ratio than in those of the ordinary LWR core, which causes quite different burnup characteristics. JMTR post irradiation condition corresponds to the pre-test condition in the NSRR. Therefore, proper understanding of the condition is quite important for the precise evaluating the energy deposition and FP generation in the test. Then, neutron spectra at the JMTR irradiation field were evaluated and its effects on the burnup calculation were quantified. Basing on the configuration of the JMTR core in the operation cycle No.85, neutron diffusion calculations of 107 groups were executed in 2-D slab (X-Y) geometry of CITATION of SRAC95 code system, and neutron energy spectra of the irradiation hole for the test fuels were evaluated. Burnup calculations of Test JMN-1 fuel with the estimated neutron energy spectra were performed and the results were compared to both the measurements and calculation results with the PWR and BWR libraries in ORIGEN2 code. SWAT code was used to collapse the 107 groups spectra into 1 group libraries for the ORIGEN2 use. The calculation results for both the generation and depletion of U, Pu and Nd with the JMTR libraries obtained in the present study were in the reasonably good agreement with the measurements, while in the case of calculation with the PWR and BWR libraries in ORIGEN2, the generation of fission products having mass numbers from 105 to 130 and some actinides were overestimated by about 1.5 to 3.5 times

  6. Lung cancer in Hodgkin's disease: association with previous radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, A.F.; Doll, D.C.; Greco, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Seven cases of lung cancer were observed in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) since 1970. The risk ratio for the development of lung cancer among HD patients was 5.6 times that expected in the general population. The pertinent clinical data from these patients are described and compared to 28 additional patients reported from other institutions. Small-cell lung cancer represented the predominant histologic type of lung cancer encountered in both smoking and nonsmoking patients with HD, accounting for 42% of cases overall and greater than 55% of cases reported in reviews of second malignancies. Tobacco use was noted in only 53% of patients. Twenty-eight (94%) of 30 patients developing metachronous lung cancer received supradiaphragmatic irradiation as primary therapy for HD. Nineteen (68%) of these patients received subsequent chemotherapy salvage. The median age at diagnosis of HD and lung cancer was 39 and 45 years, respectively. The interval between diagnosis of HD and metachronous lung cancer averaged seven years but appeared to vary inversely with age. HD patients treated with supradiaphragmatic irradiation or combined modality therapy may be at increased risk for developing lung cancer. The high frequency of in-field malignancies that the authors observed and the prevalence of small-cell lung cancer in both smoking and nonsmoking patients suggests that chest irradiation may influence the development of metachronous lung cancer in these patients. The finding of a mean latent interval in excess of seven years emphasizes the need for close long-term observation

  7. Sexual Competitiveness, Field Survival, and Dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fruit Flies Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Ortiz, Uriel; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Liedo, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge

    2018-04-02

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is used in area-wide pest management programs for establishing low pest prevalence and/or areas free of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). The aim of this technique is to induce high levels of sterility in the wild population, for this the released insects must have a high sexual competitiveness and field dispersal. However, radiation decreases these biological attributes that do not allow it to compete successfully with wild insects. In this study the sexual competitiveness, field survival and dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart; Diptera: Tephritidae) irradiated at 0, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy were evaluated in laboratory. A dose of 60 Gy produced 98% sterility, whereas doses of 70 and 80 Gy produced 99% sterility. Sexual competitiveness was assessed in field cages, comparing males irradiated at 0, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy against wild males for mating with wild fertile females. Males irradiated at 50 and 60 Gy achieved more matings than those irradiated at 70 and 80 Gy. Wild males were more competitive than mass-reared males, even when these were not irradiated (0 Gy). There was no effect of irradiation on mating latency, yet wild males showed significantly shorter mating latency than mass-reared males. Female remating did not differ among those that mated with wild males and those that mated with males irradiated with different doses. The relative sterility index (RSI) increased from 0.25 at 80 Gy to 0.37 at 60 Gy. The Fried competitiveness index was 0.69 for males irradiated at 70 Gy and 0.57 for those irradiated at 80 Gy, which indicates that a 10 Gy reduction in the irradiation dose produces greater induction of sterility in the wild population. There were no significant differences in field survival and dispersal between flies irradiated at 70 or 80 Gy. Reducing the irradiation dose to 60 or 70 Gy could improve the performance of sterile males and the effectiveness of the SIT. Our results also distinguish between the

  8. Unilateral irradiation of pigs in a mixed neutrons+gamma field. Early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, Guy; Maas, Jean.

    1982-08-01

    Pigs (16-20kg) were irradiated with 60 Co gamma or in a mixed field (neutron + gamma from the pulsed reactor SILENE). Pigs were unilaterally exposed by the left side. Each experimental group was composed of twelve animals and one control. Within the dose range explored (reference dose is mid-line tissue dose): 4-9.8 Gy of gamma rays only; 4.6 - 5.7 Gy of neutrons and gamma rays, pigs presented the haematopioetic form of the acute radiation sickness. At 5 Gy mixed field was more harmful than gamma rays only. Therefore the numerical value of neutron RBE (lethality 50 p cent within 30 days) is more than one. Experiments will be carried out in order to determine RBE values more accurately. Bone marrow dose will also be determined [fr

  9. Local field at an irradiated adatom on jellium: exact microscopic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feibelman, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The first microscopic correction to the image theory of the local field at an irradiated adatom has been calculated in the limit that the adatom is far from a jellium surface. The result of the calculation is the frequency-dependent position of the effective image plane in terms of the properties of semi-infinite jellium. The image plane position is found to be a complex number, reflecting the fact that the response of the surface electrons is lossy. Numerical calculations for r/sub s/=2 jellium suggest that the imaginary component of the image plane position is large enough to prevent large image enhancement of the local field at an adatom, casting doubt on the idea that such enhancement is responsible for the recently observed surface-enhanced Raman effect

  10. Geometric and Dosimetric Approach to Determine Probability of Late Cardiac Mortality in Left Tangential Breast Irradiation: Comparison Between Wedged Beams and Field-in-Field Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pili, Giorgio; Grimaldi, Luca; Fidanza, Christian; Florio, Elena T.; Petruzzelli, Maria F.; D'Errico, Maria P.; De Tommaso, Cristina; Tramacere, Francesco; Musaio, Francesca; Castagna, Roberta; Francavilla, Maria C.; Gianicolo, Emilio A.L.; Portaluri, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the probability of late cardiac mortality resulting from left breast irradiation planned with tangential fields and to compare this probability between the wedged beam and field-in-field (FIF) techniques and to investigate whether some geometric/dosimetric indicators can be determined to estimate the cardiac mortality probability before treatment begins. Methods and Materials: For 30 patients, differential dose-volume histograms were calculated for the wedged beam and FIF plans, and the corresponding cardiac mortality probabilities were determined using the relative seriality model. As a comparative index of the dose distribution uniformity, the planning target volume (PTV) percentages involved in 97-103% of prescribed dose were determined for the two techniques. Three geometric parameters were measured for each patient: the maximal length, indicates how much the heart contours were displaced toward the PTV, the angle subtended at the center of the computed tomography slice by the PTV contour, and the thorax width/thickness ratio. Results: Evaluating the differential dose-volume histograms showed that the gain in uniformity between the two techniques was about 1.5. With the FIF technique, the mean dose sparing for the heart, the left anterior descending coronary artery, and the lung was 15% (2.5 Gy vs. 2.2 Gy), 21% (11.3 Gy vs. 9.0 Gy), and 42% (8.0 Gy vs. 4.6 Gy) respectively, compared with the wedged beam technique. Also, the cardiac mortality probability decreased by 40% (from 0.9% to 0.5%). Three geometric parameters, the maximal length, angle subtended at the center of the computed tomography slice by the PTV contour, and thorax width/thickness ratio, were the determining factors (p = .06 for FIF, and p = .10 for wedged beam) for evaluating the cardiac mortality probability. Conclusion: The FIF technique seemed to yield a lower cardiac mortality probability than the conventional wedged beam technique. However, although our study

  11. Testicular dose and associated risk from inverted-Y field irradiation in patients with Hodgkin's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Kokona, Georgiana; Damilakis, John; Varveris, Haris; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    This study aims to estimate testicular dose and the associated risks for infertility and hereditary effects from inverted-Y field irradiation Radiotherapy was simulated on a humanoid phantom using a 6 MV photon beam. Testicular dose was measured for various field sizes and tissue thicknesses along beam axis using an ionization chamber. Gonadal dose was reduced by placing lead cups around the testes supplemented by a field edge block. For a tumor dose of 40 Gy, testicular dose was 0.56-6.52 Gy depending upon the field size and the distance from the inferior field edge. The corresponding dose to shielded testes was 0.12-1.96 Gy. The increase of tissue thickness in reased the testicular dose up to 40%. An excess risk of hereditary disorders of (7-391) per 10000 births was calculated. The treatment parameters, the presence of gonad shield and the somatometric characteristics determine whether testicular dose can exceed 1 Gy which allows a complete recovery of spermatogenesis.

  12. Soil nutrient content of old-field and agricultural ecosystems exposed to chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentano, T.V.; Holt, B.R.; Bottino, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Soil nutrients (extractable P. and NO 3 -N, exchangeable Ca, Mg and K), exchangeable Al, pH and organic matter content were measured over the top six inches of the soils of the seven-year old-field portion and the cultivated portion of the Brookhaven gamma field. Although concentrations of all nutrient elements were higher in the agricultural soil, the distributions of Ca, P, Al, pH and organic matter were similar along the radiation gradient in both fields. There was also a regular reduction in the phosphorus with decreasing exposure, but distribution of other elements was not clearly related to radiation effects. The distribution of all elements except K was significantly correlated with pH in the agricultural soil. In the old-field only Ca, Mg and Al showed this relationship. The most conspicuous effects of nearly 25 yr of chronic irradiation of the site were a reduction in soil organic matter content and an increase in soil P in both fields. (author)

  13. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Catrin F., E-mail: williamscf@cardiff.ac.uk [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, Newport Road, Cardiff, CF24 3AA Wales (United Kingdom); School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3AT Wales (United Kingdom); Geroni, Gilles M.; Pirog, Antoine; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, Newport Road, Cardiff, CF24 3AA Wales (United Kingdom); Lloyd, David [School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3AT Wales (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-29

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the “internet of things” is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.

  14. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Catrin F.; Geroni, Gilles M.; Pirog, Antoine; Lloyd, David; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the "internet of things" is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.

  15. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Catrin F.; Geroni, Gilles M.; Pirog, Antoine; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian; Lloyd, David

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the “internet of things” is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.

  16. The prognostic value of irradiated lung volumes on the prediction of intra-/ post-operative mortality in patients after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy for esophageal cancer. A retrospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kup, Philipp Günther; Nieder, Carsten; Geinitz, Hans; Henkenberens, Christoph; Besserer, Angela; Oechsner, Markus; Schill, Sabine; Mücke, Ralph; Scherer, Vera; Combs, Stephanie E; Adamietz, Irenäus A; Fakhrian, Khashayar

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between dosimetric factors of the lung and incidence of intra- and postoperative mortality among esophageal cancer (EC) patients treated with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (N-RCT) followed by surgery (S). Inclusion criteria were: age volume histogram (DVH) data. One-hundred thirty-five patients met our inclusion criteria. Median age was 62 years. N-RCT consisted of 36 - 50.4 Gy (median 45 Gy), 1.8 - 2 Gy per fraction. Concomitant chemotherapy consisted of 5-Fluoruracil (5-FU) and cisplatin in 113 patients and cisplatin and taxan-derivates in 15 patients. Seven patients received a single cytotoxic agent. In 130 patients an abdominothoracal and in 5 patients a transhiatal resection was performed. The following dosimetric parameters were generated from the total lung DVH: mean dose, V5, V10, V15, V20, V30, V40, V45 and V50. The primary endpoint was the rate of intra- and postoperative mortality (from the start of N-RCT to 60 days after surgical resection). A total of ten postoperative deaths (7%) were observed: 3 within 30 days (2%) and 7 between 30 and 60 days after surgical intervention (5%); no patient died during the operation. In the univariate analysis, weight loss (≥10% in 6 months prior to diagnosis, risk ratio: 1.60, 95%CI: 0.856-2.992, p=0.043), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-performance status (ECOG 2 vs. 1, risk ratio: 1.931, 95%CI: 0.898-4.150, p=0.018) and postoperative pulmonary plus non-pulmonary complications (risk ratio: 2.533, 95%CI: 0.978-6.563, p=0.004) were significantly associated with postoperative mortality. There was no significant association between postoperative mortality and irradiated lung volumes. Lung V45 was the only variable which was significantly associated with higher incidence of postoperative pulmonary plus non-pulmonary complications (Exp(B): 1.285, 95%CI 1.029-1.606, p=0.027), but not with the postoperative pulmonary complications (Exp(B): 1.249, 95%CI 0.999-1.561, p=0.051). Irradiated lung

  17. Feasibility and preliminary results of intensive chemotherapy and extensive irradiation in selected patients with limited small-cell lung carcinoma--results of three consecutive phase II programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourani, J.M.; Jaillon-Abraham, C.; Coscas, Y.; Dabouis, G.; Andrieu, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of three consecutive programs combining initial intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with limited small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). The objective was to test the feasibility and the effect of high-dose chemotherapy and three thoracic irradiation programs on survival and patterns of relapse. Forty-two patients with limited SCLC were enrolled. All patients received high-dose chemotherapy (vindesine, etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin and cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide). In the SC 84 program, chest and brain radiotherapy was delivered during each course of chemotherapy, with a complementary irradiation after chemotherapy. In the SC 86 and SC 92 programs, patients received chemotherapy followed by thoracic irradiation and prophylactic brain and spinal axis radiotherapy. At the end of treatment, 40 patients (95%) were in complete response. During chemotherapy, high levels of toxicity were noted. All patients had grade IV hematological toxicities. The extra-hematological toxicities were digestive (grade III: 21%; grade IV: 7%) and hepatic (grades III and IV: 14%). During irradiation, patients presented digestive, pulmonary and hematological toxicities. Five patients developed late toxicities and a second malignancy was observed in 4 patients. The 2- and 5-year survival rates for all patients were 51% and 27%, respectively. Despite the marked toxicity of the initial intensive chemotherapy, the treatments are tolerable and effective in the control of extra-thoracic micrometastases, whereas they are less effective for thoracic primary tumor

  18. Bystander Effects Induced by Continuous Low-Dose-Rate 125I Seeds Potentiate the Killing Action of Irradiation on Human Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.H.; Jia, R.F.; Yu, L.; Zhao, M.J.; Shao, C.L.; Cheng, W.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate bystander effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) 125 I seed irradiation on human lung cancer cells in vitro. Methods and Materials: A549 and NCI-H446 cell lines of differing radiosensitivity were directly exposed to LDR 125 I seeds irradiation for 2 or 4 Gy and then cocultured with nonirradiated cells for 24 hours. Induction of micronucleus (MN), γH2AX foci, and apoptosis were assayed. Results: After 2 and 4 Gy irradiation, micronucleus formation rate (MFR) and apoptotic rate of A549 and NCI-H446 cells were increased, and the MFR and apoptotic rate of NCI-H446 cells was 2.1-2.8 times higher than that of A549 cells. After coculturing nonirradiated bystander cells with 125 I seed irradiated cells for 24 hours, MFR and the mean number of γH2AX foci/cells of bystander A549 and NCI-H446 cells were similar and significantly higher than those of control (p 125 I seeds could induce bystander effects, which potentiate the killing action on tumor cells and compensate for the influence of nonuniform distribution of radiation dosage on therapeutic outcomes

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of small field electron beams for small animal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chung-Chi; Chen, Ai-Mei; Tung, Chuan-Jong; Chao, Tsi-Chian

    2011-01-01

    The volume effect of detectors in the dosimetry of small fields for photon beams has been well studied due to interests in radiosurgery and small beamlets used in IMRT treatments; but there is still an unexplored research field for small electron beams used in small animal irradiation. This study proposes to use the BEAM Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to assess characteristics of small electron beams (4, 6, 14, 30 mm in diameter) with the kinetic energies of 6 and 18 MeV. Three factors influencing beam characteristics were studied (1) AE and ECUT settings, (2) photon jaw settings and (3) simulation pixel sizes. Study results reveal that AE/ECUT settings at 0.7 MeV are adequate for linear accelerator treatment head simulation, while 0.521 MeV is more favorable to be used for the phantom study. It is also demonstrated that voxel size setting at 1/4 of the simulation field width in all directions is sufficient to achieve accurate results. As for the photon jaw setting, it has great impact on the absolute output of different field size setting (i.e. output factor) but with minimum effect on the relative lateral distribution.

  20. A prospective study of whether radiation pneumonitis is influenced by low-dose irradiated lung volume in primary lung cancer with chronic pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niibe, Yuzuru; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Masuda, Noriyuki; Yoshimura, Hirokuni

    2007-01-01

    The current study prospectively investigated the optimal dose-volume condition in cases of lung cancer with chronic pulmonary disease compared to those without chronic pulmonary disease. Cases of primary lung cancer treated with intended curative radiation therapy were registered in the current study. Their fraction size was limited to 2-3 Gy, so-called standard fractionation. They were prescribed a total dose of 60 Gy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; n=17) and a total dose of 54 Gy for small cell lung cancer (SCLC; n=4). Of the 21 patients enrolled in this study, 4 had chronic pulmonary disease (study arm), and the others had no chronic pulmonary disease (control arm). Seven received chemotherapy. Symptomatic radiation pneumonitis occurred in 5. Of the four patients in the study arm, two (50%) experienced symptomatic radiation pneumonitis; only 3 of the 17 patients in the control arm (17.6%) experienced symptomatic radiation pneumonitis. Furthermore, the median V 20 of patients who experienced symptomatic radiation pneumonitis in the study arm was 14%, which was higher than that of patients with no symptomatic radiation pneumonitis in the study arm, 5.8%. On the other hand, in the control arm, the median V 20 of patients with symptomatic radiation pneumonitis was 14.2%, about the same as that of patients with no symptomatic radiation pneumonitis in the control arm, 15.1%. The current study suggested that, as much as 15% of V 20 , might play an important role in cases of lung cancer with chronic pulmonary disease. (author)

  1. Microstructural characterization of irradiated PWR steels using the atom probe field-ion microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Burke, M.G.

    1987-08-01

    Atom probe field-ion microscopy has been used to characterize the microstructure of a neutron-irradiated A533B pressure vessel steel weld. The atomic spatial resolution of this technique permits a complete structural and chemical description of the ultra-fine features that control the mechanical properties to be made. A variety of fine scale features including roughly spherical copper precipitates and clusters, spherical and rod-shaped molybdenum carbide and disc-shaped molybdenum nitride precipitates were observed to be inhomogeneously distributed in the ferrite. The copper content of the ferrite was substantially reduced from the nominal level. A thin film of molybdenum carbides and nitrides was observed on grain boundaries in addition to a coarse copper-manganese precipitate. Substantial enrichment of manganese and nickel were detected at the copper-manganese precipitate-ferrite interface and this enrichment extended into the ferrite. Enrichment of nickel, manganese and phosphorus were also measured at grain boundaries

  2. Three-dimensional temperature field model of thermally decomposing resin composite irradiated by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Minsun; Jiang Houman; Liu Zejin

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental equations governing the temperature field of thermally decomposing resin composite irradiated by laser are derived from mass and energy conservation laws with the control Janume method. The thermal decomposition of resin is described by a multi-step model. An assumption is proposed that the flow of pyrolysis gas is one-dimensional, which makes it possible to consider the influence of pyrolysis gas convective transport and realize the closure of the three-dimensional model without introducing mechanical quantities. In view of the anisotropy of resin composite, expressions of the thermal conductivities of partially pyrolyzed material are deduced, as well as the computing formula for the laser absorption coefficient of partially pyrolyzed material. The energy conservation equation is consistent with reference under some simplifications. (authors)

  3. Simulation of enhanced deposition due to magnetic field alignment of ellipsoidal particles in a lung bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, R C; Roshchenko, A; Minev, P; Finlay, W H

    2013-02-01

    Aerosolized chemotherapy has been recognized as a potential treatment for lung cancer. The challenge of providing sufficient therapeutic effects without reaching dose-limiting toxicity levels hinders the development of aerosolized chemotherapy. This could be mitigated by increasing drug-delivery efficiency with a noninvasive drug-targeting delivery method. The purpose of this study is to use direct numerical simulations to study the resulting local enhancement of deposition due to magnetic field alignment of high aspect ratio particles. High aspect ratio particles were approximated by a rigid ellipsoid with a minor diameter of 0.5 μm and fluid particle density ratio of 1,000. Particle trajectories were calculated by solving the coupled fluid particle equations using an in-house micro-macro grid finite element algorithm based on a previously developed fictitious domain approach. Particle trajectories were simulated in a morphologically realistic geometry modeling a symmetrical terminal bronchiole bifurcation. Flow conditions were steady inspiratory air flow due to typical breathing at 18 L/min. Deposition efficiency was estimated for two different cases: [1] particles aligned with the streamlines and [2] particles with fixed angular orientation simulating the magnetic field alignment of our previous in vitro study. The local enhancement factor defined as the ratio between deposition efficiency of Case [1] and Case [2] was found to be 1.43 and 3.46 for particles with an aspect ratio of 6 and 20, respectively. Results indicate that externally forcing local alignment of high aspect ratio particles can increase local deposition considerably.

  4. Rhabdomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Irradiated Field: An Analysis of 43 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Nguyen D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Teh, Bin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Methodist Hospital and Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas (United States); Paulino, Arnold C., E-mail: apaulino@tmhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Methodist Hospital and Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Patients with soft tissue sarcomas that arise from previously irradiated fields have traditionally been reported to have a poor prognosis. In this report, we examined the characteristics and outcomes of patients who developed a rhabdomyosarcoma in a previously irradiated field (RMS-RIF); we hypothesize that these patients should have a better outcome compared to other postradiation soft tissue sarcomas as these tumors are chemosensitive and radiosensitive. A PubMed search of the literature from 1961-2010 yielded 33 studies with data for patients with RMS-RIF. The study included 43 patients with a median age of 6.5 years at the time of radiation therapy (RT) for the initial tumor. The median RT dose was 48 Gy. The median latency period, the time from RT to development of RMS-RIF, was 8 years. The 3-year overall survival for RMS-RIF was 42%. The 3-year overall survival was 66% for patients receiving chemotherapy and local treatment (surgery and/or RT) compared to 29% for those who had systemic treatment only or local treatment only (P=.049). Other factors associated with increased 3-year overall survival included retinoblastoma initial diagnosis (P<.001), age ≤18 years at diagnosis of RMS-RIF (P=.003), favorable site (P=.008), and stage 1 disease (P=.002). Age at time of RMS-RIF, retinoblastoma initial tumor, favorable site, stage 1 disease, and use of both systemic and local treatment were found to be favorable prognostic factors for 3-year overall survival.

  5. The origin of double peak electric field distribution in heavily irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, V; Li, Z

    2002-01-01

    The first observation of double peak (DP) electric field distribution in heavily neutron irradiated (>10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2) semiconductor detectors has been published about 6 yr ago. However, this effect was not quantitatively analyzed up to now. The explanation of the DP electric field distribution presented in this paper is based on the properties of radiation induced deep levels in silicon, which act as deep traps, and on the distribution of the thermally generated free carrier concentration in the detector bulk. In the frame of this model, the earlier published considerations on the so-called 'double junction (DJ) effect' are discussed as well. The comparison of the calculated electric field profiles at different temperatures with the experimental ones allows one to determine a set of deep levels. This set of deep levels, and their charge filling status are essential to the value and the distribution of space charge in the space charge region in the range of 305-240 K, which is actual temperature ran...

  6. Comparison of higher irradiance and black panel temperature UV backsheet exposures to field performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Thomas C.; Gambogi, William J.; Phillips, Nancy; MacMaster, Steven W.; Yu, Bao-Ling; Trout, T. John

    2017-08-01

    The need for faster PV qualification tests that more accurately match field observations is leading to tests with higher acceleration levels, and validating the new tests through comparison to field data is an important step. We have tested and compared a wide panel of backsheets according to a proposed new backsheet UV exposure qualification standard from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Weathering Technical Standard IEC 62788-7-2 specifies higher irradiance and higher black panel temperature UV Xenon exposures. We tested PVF, PVDF, PET, PA and FEVEbased backsheets in glass laminates and simple backsheet coupons in UV exposure condition A3 (0.8W/sqmnm@340nm and 90° C BPT) We find mild yellowing with no mechanical loss in the original lower intensity ASTM G155 0.55 W/sqm-nm 70C BPT exposure condition. The new A3 exposures creates mechanical loss in sensitive backsheets, with no effect on known durable backsheets. Results from the new exposure are closer to field mechanical loss data.

  7. Left-sided breast cancer irradiation using rotational and fixed-field radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, X. Sharon; Liu, Tian X.; Liu, Arthur K.; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Kavanagh, Brian; Hu, Y. Angie

    2014-01-01

    The 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique is the standard for breast cancer radiotherapy. During treatment planning, not only the coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) but also the minimization of the dose to critical structures, such as the lung, heart, and contralateral breast tissue, need to be considered. Because of the complexity and variations of patient anatomy, more advanced radiotherapy techniques are sometimes desired to better meet the planning goals. In this study, we evaluated external-beam radiation treatment techniques for left breast cancer using various delivery platforms: fixed-field including TomoDirect (TD), static intensity-modulated radiotherapy (sIMRT), and rotational radiotherapy including Elekta volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and tomotherapy helical (TH). A total of 10 patients with left-sided breast cancer who did or did not have positive lymph nodes and were previously treated with 3DCRT/sIMRT to the entire breast were selected, their treatment was planned with Monaco VMAT, TD, and TH. Dosimetric parameters including PTV coverage, organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, dose-volume histograms, and target minimum/maximum/mean doses were evaluated. It is found that for plans providing comparable PTV coverage, the Elekta VMAT plans were generally more inhomogeneous than the TH and TD plans. For the cases with regional node involvement, the average mean doses administered to the heart were 9.2 (± 5.2) and 8.8 (± 3.0) Gy in the VMAT and TH plans compared with 11.9 (± 6.4) and 11.8 (± 9.2) Gy for the 3DCRT and TD plans, respectively, with slightly higher doses given to the contralateral lung or breast or both. On average, the total monitor units for VMAT plans are 11.6% of those TH plans. Our studies have shown that VMAT and TH plans offer certain dosimetric advantages over fixed-field IMRT plans for advanced breast cancer requiring regional nodal treatment. However, for early-stage breast cancer fixed-field

  8. Irradiation of malignant lymphonuos with irregularly shaped fields (Yesterday gammatron-3, today theratron 780C cobalt unit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Rasonyi, J.; Pecsenye, B.

    1995-01-01

    The authors compare the technique of shaping irregular (Mantle) field irradiation using Gammatron-3 and Theratron 780C Co-60 units. Patients can be treated from both directions on the treating coach without changing their position as the collimator of Theratron 780C unit makes it possible. Earlier patients could be treated with large field irradiation in prone and supine position on the ground with the old Gammatron-3 unit. The authors prefer using individually casted shielding blocks to manufactured ones. These blocks make personal treatment possible. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  9. Investigation of the stability of polysilicon layers in SOI-structures under irradiation by electrons and hard magnetic field influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoverko Yu. N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The properties of recrystallized polysilicon on insulator layers of p-type conductive SOI-structures with different carrier concentration irradiated with high-energy electrons flow about 1017 сm–2 in temperature range 4,2—300 К and high magnetic fields were investigated. It was found that heavily doped laser recrystallized polysilicon on insulator layers show its radiation resistance under irradiation with high-energy electrons and magnetoresistance of such material remains quite low in magnetic field about 14 T does not exceed 1—2%. Such qulity can be applied in designing of microelectronic sensors of mechanical values operable in hard conditions of exploitation.

  10. The effects of genetic manipulation, dieldrin treatment and irradiation on the mating competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis in field cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hanano; Vreysen, Marc J B; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Munhenga, Givemore; Damiens, David D

    2014-08-13

    To enable the release of only sterile male Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes for the sterile insect technique, the genetic background of a wild-type strain was modified to create a genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 that was based on a dieldrin resistance mutation. Secondly, the eggs of ANO IPCL1 require treatment with dieldrin to allow complete elimination of female L1 larvae from the production line. Finally, male mosquito pupae need to be treated with an irradiation dose of 75 Gy for sterilization. The effects of these treatments on the competitiveness of male An. arabiensis were studied. The competitiveness of ANO IPCL1 males that were treated either with irradiation or both dieldrin and irradiation, was compared with that of the wild-type strain (An. arabiensis Dongola) at a 1:1 ratio in 5.36 m3 semi-field cages located in a climate-controlled greenhouse. In addition, three irradiated: untreated male ratios were tested in semi-field cages (1:1, 5:1 and 10:1) and their competition for virgin wild-type females was assessed. The ANO IPCL1 males were equally competitive as the wild-type males in this semi-field setting. The ANO IPCL1 males irradiated at 75 Gy were approximately half as competitive as the unirradiated wild-type males. ANO IPCL1 males that had been treated with dieldrin as eggs, and irradiated with 75 Gy as pupae were slightly more competitive than males that were only irradiated. Ratios of 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 irradiated ANO IPCL1 males: untreated wild-type males resulted in 31, 66 and 81% induced sterility in the female cage population, respectively. An irradiation dose of 75 Gy reduced the competitiveness of male ANO IPCL1 significantly and will need to be compensated by releasing higher numbers of sterile males in the field. However, the dieldrin treatment used to eliminate females appears to have an unexpected radioprotectant effect, however the mechanism is not understood. A sterile to wild-type ratio of 10:1 effectively reduced the population

  11. Biological alterations resulting from chronic lung irradiation. II. Connective tissue alterations following inhalation of 144Ce fused clay aerosol in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, J.A.; Harris, D.V.; Pfleger, R.C.; Benjamin, S.A.; Belasich, J.J.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to an aerosol of 144 Ce clay to quantitate the relationship between pulmonary radiation dose and induced fibrosis. Collagen, elastin, glucosamine, and the ratios of elastin/collagen, hydroxyproline/hydroxylysine, and hydroxyproline/proline were determined to indicate changes in connective tissue constituents. Total lung collagen was partitioned into native collagen, soluble collagen, and ultrafilterable hydroxyproline peptides. Increased total lung collagen correlated best with increasing cumulative radiation dose and increasing time after inhalation exposure. The increase in total lung collagen was not seen until more than 4 mo after exposure and a cumulative dose of about 40,000 rad. Soluble collagen and low molecular weight hydroxyproline peptide quantities both increased at 2 mo after exposure and cumulative doses of 20,000 to 27,000 rad. A variable elastin response apparently was not related to either increasing time or increasing radiation dose after exposure. These results indicate that collagen accumulation is an important factor in pulmonary fibrosis. Although collagen synthesis and breakdown were both activated at a relatively early time after inhalation, a significant increase in native collagen (scarring) occurred only when the metabolic balance was altered by protracted time or irradiation after exposure. The interrelationships observed in this study provide insight into the mechanism of fibrosis induced by chronic pulmonary injury. (U.S.)

  12. Radiation Effect on Body Weight and Hematological Changes of Hybrid Mice by Conventional Fraction, Large Abdominal Field Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Heon; Shin, Sei One; Kim, Myung Se

    1985-01-01

    Radiation effect on mammals, especially on hematologic changes, has been studied since discovery of x-ray. Various experimental animals were tried for radiobiological studies. 72 hybrid mice with conventional fraction (5X/week), large abdominal field (2 x 3cm, from symphysis pubic to xyphoid process) were used. Body weight was declined gradually by increasing irradiation doses, nadir was about 29.7% in male ; 30.4% in female at 6000 rad irradiation group. Hemoglobin value was nearly normal throughout entire treatment. Significant dropping of WBC count was noted to 40-50% of pretreatment values by only 1000 rad irradiation. Change of differential count was interesting; lymphocyte proportion showed gradual reduction, instead of gradual increasing of segmented neutrophil. Those proportion were reversed after 6000 rad irradiation. Urinary protein tests showed + - +++, showing no correlation with dosage. Application. of our study in clinical combination therapy (radiation + chemotherapy) was discussed

  13. Auxillary system for optimizing simulation and percutaneous irradiation in cranio-caudally contiguous head-neck-mediastinum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistermanns, J.

    1994-01-01

    Percutaneous irradiation in the head and neck region via opponing lateral fields with caudally contiguous ventral and/or dorsal fields makes very high demands on simulation, instrument adjustment and documentation. At the outer boundaries of the irradiation volumes, there is always the danger of overdosage or underdosage with the familiar consequences. Four targeting systems in one plane were inserted in a perspex frame each consisting of two concentric rings and two orthogonal crossbars. Under simulation conditions, the lateral radiation fields take up one half of the targeting systems and the ventro-dorsal fields occupy the remaining half. The corresponding targeting systems project exactly on or into each other with compensation of the beam divergence. A definitively exact irradiation via cranio-caudally contiguous fields with different incident beam direction is possible by using the four targeting systems in one plane. Compensation of divergence is aimed for by rotation of the table and gantry angle modification, errors of compensation can already be checked optically from 0,5 . Deviations of 5 mm in the simulated longitudinal arrangement of the contiguous fields can be imaged on the documentation film made with therapy activity. On the one hand, the auxillary system presented allows both recognition of undesired field overlap and gaps in contiguous fields with different incident beam direction. On the other hand, it can be unequivocally documented whether the therapy is correct. Treatment errors can thus be minimized. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Field emission study from an array of hierarchical micro protrusions on stainless steel surface generated by femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.K., E-mail: anilks@barc.gov.in [Laser & Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; More, M.A. [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai, 40085 (India); Sinha, Sucharita [Laser & Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Array of self assembled micro-protrusions have been generated on stainless steel surfaces by femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation. • Density of the formed micro-protrusions is ∼5.6 × 105 protrusions/cm{sup 2}. • Laser treated surface is mainly composed of iron oxide and cementite phases. • Micro-structured sample has shown good field emission properties – low turn on field, high field enhancement factor and stable emission current. - Abstract: This paper reports our results on femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser induced surface micro/nano structuring of stainless steel 304 (SS 304) samples and their characterization in terms of surface morphology, formed material phases on laser irradiation and field emission studies. Our investigations reveal that nearly uniform and dense array of hierarchical micro-protrusions (density: ∼5.6 × 10{sup 5} protrusions/cm{sup 2}) is formed upon laser treatment. Typical tip diameters of the generated protrusions are in the range of 2–5 μm and these protrusions are covered with submicron sized features. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis of the laser irradiated sample surface has shown formation mainly of iron oxides and cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) phases in the treated region. These laser micro-structured samples have shown good field emission properties such as low turn on field (∼4.1 V/μm), high macroscopic field enhancement factor (1830) and stable field emission current under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  15. Influence of an external magnetic field on damage by self-ion irradiation in Fe90Cr10 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an external magnetic field (B=0.5 T on Fe90Cr10 specimens during Fe ion irradiation, has been investigated by means of Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS. The analysis has revealed significant differences in the average hyperfine magnetic field (=0.3 T between non-irradiated and irradiated samples as well as between irradiations made with B (w/ B and without B (w/o B. It is considered that these variations can be due to changes in the local environment around the probe nuclei (57Fe; where vacancies and Cr distribution play a role. The results indicate that the Cr distribution in the neighbourhood of the iron atoms could be changed by the application of an external field. This would imply that an external magnetic field may be an important parameter to take into account in predictive models for Cr behaviour in Fe–Cr alloys, and especially in fusion conditions where intense magnetic fields are required for plasma confinement.

  16. Prophylactic cranial irradiation could improve overall survival in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer. A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi [Tsinghua University, Medical Center Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li, Jinyu; Hu, Yi; Lin, Zhi; Jiao, Shunchang [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yibao [Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Radiotherapy, Beijing (China); Zhao, Zhifei [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing (China)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on overall survival (OS) in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer (ESCLC). Between April 2005 and May 2014, 204 patients with ESCLC who had any response (according to RECIST 1.1) to initial chemotherapy were reviewed. All patients had undergone appropriate imaging tests to exclude brain metastases before initial chemotherapy. PCI was performed on 45 patients (22.1 %) and the remaining patients (77.9 %) received no such treatment (control group). Primary endpoint was OS. The incidence of brain metastases, brain metastases-free survival (BMFS), and adverse effects were also evaluated. Survival data of the 204 patients were analyzed statistically. PCI significantly prolonged median OS from 12.6 to 16.5 months as compared to the control group (hazard ratio, HR, 0.63; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 0.41 to 0.96; p = 0.033). PCI significantly lowered the risk of brain metastases (HR 0.48; 95 % CI 0.30 to 0.76; p = 0.001). The 1-year incidence of brain metastases was 17.1 and 55.9 % in the PCI and control group, respectively. PCI significantly correlated with the increased median BMFS (p = 0.002). Additionally, multivariate analyses demonstrated that PCI was a favorable independent predictor of OS, BMFS, and the incidence of brain metastases. Acute and chronic adverse effects were generally low grade and well tolerated in patients receiving PCI. PCI after any response to initial chemotherapy significantly improved OS of ESCLC patients analyzed in this study. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung des Effekts der prophylaktischen kranialen Bestrahlung (PCI) auf das Gesamtueberleben (OS) bei Patienten mit ausgedehntem kleinzelligem Lungenkarzinom (ESCLC). Zwischen April 2005 und Mai 2014 wurden 204 Patienten mit ESCLC nach Ansprechen auf eine initiale Chemotherapie (gemaess RECIST 1.1) untersucht. Vor der Chemotherapie wurden bei allen Patienten Untersuchungen mit entsprechenden Bildgebungsverfahren

  17. Irradiation and various cytotoxic drugs enhance tyrosine phosphorylation and β1-integrin clustering in human A549 lung cancer cells in a substratum-dependent manner in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, N.; Beinke, C.; Beuningen, D. van; Plasswilm, L.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: interactions of cells with a substratum, especially extracellular matrix proteins, initiate clustering of integrin receptors in the cell membrane. This process represents the initial step for the activation of signaling pathways regulating survival, proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration, and could, furthermore, be important for cellular resistance-mediating mechanisms against radiation or cytotoxic drugs. The lack of data elucidating the impact of irradiation or cytotoxic drugs on this important phenomenon led to this study on human A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Material and methods: the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 grown on polystyrene or fibronectin (FN) was irradiated with 0-8 Gy or treated with cisplatin (0.1-50 μM), paclitaxel (0.1-50 nM), or mitomycin (0.1-50 μM). Colony formation assays, immunofluorescence staining in combination with activation of integrin clustering using anti-β 1 -integrin antibodies (K20), and Western blotting for tyrosine phosphorylation under treatment of cells with the IC 50 for irradiation (2 Gy; IC 50 = 2.2 Gy), cisplatin (2 μM), paclitaxel (5 nM), or mitomycin (7 μM) were performed. Results: attachment of cells to FN resulted in a significantly reduced radio- and chemosensitivity compared to polystyrene. The clustering of β 1 -integrins examined by immunofluorescence staining was only stimulated by irradiation, cisplatin, paclitaxel, or mitomycin in case of cell attachment to FN. By contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation, as one of the major events following β 1 -integrin clustering, showed a 3.7-fold, FN-related enhancement, and treatment of cells with the IC 50 of radiation, cisplatin, paclitaxel, or mitomycin showed a substratum-dependent induction. Conclusion: for the first time, a strong influence of irradiation and a variety of cytotoxic drugs on the clustering of β 1 -integrins could be shown. This event is a prerequisite for tyrosine phosphorylation and, thus, the

  18. Prediction of irradiation induced microstructures in the AgCu model alloy using a multiscale method coupling atomistic and phase field modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Demange, Gilles; Pontikis, Vassilis; Lunéville, Laurence; Simeone, David

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a multiscale approach based on phase field was developed to simulate the microstructure's evolution under irradiation in binary systems, from atomic to microstructural scale. For that purpose, an efficient numerical scheme was developed. In the case of AgCu alloy under Krypton ions irradiation, phenomenological parameters were computed using atomistic methods, as a function of the temperature and the irradiation flux. As a result, we predicted the influence of the irradiation fl...

  19. Dose characteristics of total-skin electron-beam irradiation with six-dual electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Tae Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae

    1998-01-01

    To obtain the uniform dose at limited depth to entire surface of the body, the dose characteristics of degraded electron beam of the large target-skin distance and the dose distribution of the six-dual electron fields were investigated. The experimental dose distributions included the depth dose curve, spatial dose and attenuated electron beam were determined with 300 cm of Target-Skin Distance (TSD) and full collimator size (35x35 cm 2 on TSD 100 cm) in 4 MeV electron beam energy. Actual collimated field size of 105 cmx105 cm at the distance of 300 cm could include entire hemibody. A patient was standing on step board with hands up and holding the pole to stabilize his/her positions for the six-dual fields technique. As a scatter-degrader, 0.5 cm of acrylic plate was inserted at 20 cm from the body surface on the electron beam path to induce ray scattering and to increase the skin dose. The Full Width at Half Maximum(FWHM) of dose profile was 130 cm in large field of 105x105 cm 2 . The width of 100±10% of the resultant dose from two adjacent fields which were separated at 25 cm from field edge for obtaining the dose uniformity was extended to 186 cm. The depth of maximum dose lies at 5 mm and the 80% depth dose lies between 7 and 8 mm for the degraded electron beam by using the 0.5 cm thickness of acrylic absorber. Total skin electron beam irradiation (TSEBI) was carried out using the six dual fields has been developed at Stanford University. The dose distribution in TSEBI showed relatively uniform around the flat region of skin except the protruding and deeply curvatured portion of the body, which showed excess of dose at the former and less dose at the latter. The percent depth dose, profile curves and superimposed dose distribution were investigated using the degraded using the degraded electron beam through the beam absorber. The dose distribution obtained by experiments of TSEBI showed within±10% difference excepts the protruding area of skin which needs a

  20. Opening of new field in material science and technology by materials irradiation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, Hiroaki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    1998-03-01

    It is believed that high energy particle irradiation causes severe degradation of materials, and great efforts have been made to reveal the underlying mechanism of such degradation. However, recent progress of the developments of irradiation rigs performed in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) and materials fabrication techniques has enabled to change our understanding of radiation effects on materials from the above pessimistic one to the very challenging one, i.e., irradiation has the beneficial effect of producing new phenomena and/or innovative materials that will not be available without irradiation. An example to be noted is that irradiation with neutrons in JMTR greatly improved the ductility of less ductile metals. This ductility improvement due to irradiation is directly opposite to irradiation embrittlement and is called radiation induced ductilization (RIDU). In this presentation the significance of RIDU and its mechanism will be stated. (author)

  1. TU-CD-304-04: Scanning Field Total Body Irradiation Using Dynamic Arc with Variable Dose Rate and Gantry Speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, B; Xu, H; Mutaf, Y; Prado, K [Univ. of Maryland School Of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Enable a scanning field total body irradiation (TBI) technique, using dynamic arcs, which is biologically equivalent to a moving couch TBI. Methods: Patient is treated slightly above the floor and the treatment field scans across the patient by a moving gantry. MLC positions change during gantry motion to keep same field opening at the level of the treatment plane (170 cm). This is done to mimic the same geometry as the moving couch TBI technique which has been used in our institution for over 10 years. The dose rate and the gantry speed are determined considering a constant speed of the moving field, variations in SSD and slanted depths resulting from oblique gantry angles. An Eclipse (Varian) planning system is commissioned to accommodate the extended SSD. The dosimetric foundations of the technique have been thoroughly investigated using phantom measurements. Results: Dose uniformity better than 2% across 180 cm length at 10cm depth is achieved by moving the gantry from −55 to +55 deg. Treatment range can be extended by increasing gantry range. No device such as a gravity-oriented compensator is needed to achieve a uniform dose. It is feasible to modify the dose distribution by adjusting the dose rate at each gantry angle to compensate for body thickness differences. Total treatment time for 2 Gy AP/PA fields is 40–50 minutes excluding patient set up time, at the machine dose rate of 100 MU/min. Conclusion: This novel yet transportable moving field technique enables TBI treatment in a small treatment room with less program development preparation than other techniques. Treatment length can be extended per need, and. MLC-based thickness compensation and partial lung blocking are also possible.

  2. Participation of irradiated Anopheles arabiensis males in swarms following field release in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageep, Tellal B; Alsharif, Bashir; Ahmed, Ayman; Salih, Elwaleed HO; Ahmed, Fayez TA; El Sayed, Badria B; Damiens, David; Gilles, Jeremie RL; Lees, Rosemary S; Diabaté, Abdoulaye

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The success of the SIT depends on the; release of large numbers of sterile males, which are able to; compete for mates with the wild male population within the; target area. The processes of colonisation, mass production; and irradiation may reduce the competitiveness of sterile; males through genetic selection, loss of natural traits and; somatic damage. In this context, the capacity of released; sterile Anopheles arabiensis males to survive, disperse and; participate in swarms occurring at varying distances from; the release site was studied using mark-release-recapture; techniques.; METHODS: In order to assess their participation in; swarms, irradiated and marked laboratory-reared male; mosquitoes were released 50, 100 or 200 m from the; known site of a large swarm on three consecutive nights.; Males were collected from this large swarm on subsequent; nights. Over the three days a total of 8,100 males were released.; Mean distance travelled (MDT), daily probability of; survival and estimated population size were calculated; from the recapture data. An effect of male age at the time; of release on these parameters was observed.; RESULTS: Five per cent of the males released over three; days were recaptured. In two-, three- and four-day-old; males, MDT was 118, 178 and 170 m, and the daily survival; probability 0.95, 0.90 and 0.75, respectively. From the; recapture data on the first day following each release, the; Lincoln index gives an estimation of 32,546 males in the; natural population.; DISCUSSION: Sterile An. arabiensis males released into; the field were able to find and participate in existing; swarms, and possibly even initiate swarms. The survival; probability decreased with the age of male on release but; the swarm participation and the distance travelled by older; males seemed higher than for younger males. The inclusion; of a pre-release period may thus be beneficial to male competitiveness; and increase the attractiveness of adult sexing

  3. Involved field (IF) irradiation with or without chemotherapy in the management of children with Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereb, B.; Tan, C.; Bretsky, S.; He, S.Q.; Exelby, P.

    1984-01-01

    The present policy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) of treating children with Hodgkin's disease [HD] is as follows: involved field (IF) irradiation only (3,600 rad) for Stages IA and IIA; IF irradiation (2,400 or 2,000 rad) combined with multidrug chemotherapy (MDP) protocol for all other stages. A somewhat higher recurrence rate is accepted for Stages IA and IIA in view of the good salvage rate for these recurrences and in view of side effects of more aggressive types of radiation treatment. One hundred forty-two patients with HD, 2-19 years of age, were treated at MSKCC between 1970 and 1981; 98 of these were treated according to the present policy (SP group), and 44 (NP group) were treated differently. All SP patients underwent staging laparotomy. The follow-up time was 12 to 146 months with a median of 65 months; two patients were lost to follow-up. For the SP group, all stages, 10-year disease-free survival is 77%, and 10-year survival is 93%. By comparison, in the NP group 10-year disease-free survival is 64%, and 10-year survival is 80%. The disease-free survival of SP patients in Stages IA and IIA treated with IF radiation alone is 72%, and survival is 95%. The disease-free survival of SP patients in advanced stages treated with combined radiation and chemotherapy is 87%; the salvage rate of recurrent disease in these stages is poor. The survival was apparently better in the SP group as compared to the NP group. All 6 patients of the SP group who died had a nodular sclerosing type of HD. None of the patients in the SP group have developed secondary malignancies, and no severe bone growth retardations or late effects to other organs were observed

  4. The management of tumor motions in the stereotactic irradiation to lung cancer under the use of Abches to control active breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarohda, Tohru I.; Ishiguro, Mitsuru; Hasegawa, Kouhei; Kohda, Yukihiko; Onishi, Hiroaki; Aoki, Tetsuya; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi [Department of Radiology, Asanogawa General Hospital, 83 Kosaka-naka, Kanazawa 920-8621 (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Asanogawa General Hospital, 83 Kosaka-naka, Kanazawa 920-8621 (Japan); Naruwa Clinic, 1-16-6 Naruwa, Kanazawa 920-0818 (Japan); Department of Radiation Therapy, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takaramachi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Breathing control is crucial to ensuring the accuracy of stereotactic irradiation for lung cancer. This study monitored respiration in patients with inoperable nonsmall-cell lung cancer using a respiration-monitoring apparatus, Abches, and investigated the reproducibility of tumor position in these patients. Methods: Subjects comprised 32 patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer who were administered stereotactic radiotherapy under breath-holding conditions monitored by Abches. Computed tomography (CT) was performed under breath-holding conditions using Abches (Abches scan) for treatment planning. A free-breathing scan was performed to determine the range of tumor motions in a given position. After the free-breathing scan, Abches scan was repeated and the tumor position thus defined was taken as the intrafraction tumor position. Abches scan was also performed just before treatment, and the tumor position thus defined was taken as the interfraction tumor position. To calculate the errors, tumor positions were compared based on Abches scan for the initial treatment plan. The error in tumor position was measured using the BrainSCAN treatment-planning device, then compared for each lung lobe. Results: Displacements in tumor position were calculated in three dimensions (i.e., superior-inferior (S-I), left-right (L-R), and anterior-posterior (A-P) dimensions) and recorded as absolute values. For the whole lung, average intrafraction tumor displacement was 1.1 mm (L-R), 1.9 mm (A-P), and 2.0 mm (S-I); the average interfraction tumor displacement was 1.1 mm (L-R), 2.1 mm (A-P), and 2.0 mm (S-I); and the average free-breathing tumor displacement was 2.3 mm (L-R), 3.5 mm (A-P), and 7.9 mm (S-I). The difference between using Abches and free breathing could be reduced from approximately 20 mm at the maximum to approximately 3 mm in the S-I direction for both intrafraction and interfraction positions in the lower lobe. In addition, maximum intrafraction tumor

  5. Pecularities of peripheral blood morphological content in rats in case of combined irradiation of lungs and thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikova, S.B.; Korzhavin, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    Indices of morphological content of peripheral blood were studied in male rats at 1, 3, 7, 14 days following intratracheal administration of oxide suspension of 147 Nd + 147 Pm and oral administration of 131 I. By 14 days the doses for lungs and thyroid were 5 Gy and 10 Gy respectively. It was shown that the doses of 134 I don't influence morphological indices of peripheral blood but combined effect of radioisotopes leads to moderate increase of leukocyte, lymphocytes and neutrophils. Manifestation of changes in white blood turned out to be less than in case of similar effect of stable isotope on the lungs. Minor shifts in white blood and severity of patholoanatomical picture of inflammatory process in the lungs in case of radioactive isotopes effect can be attributed to specific effect of ionizing radiation. 4 refs.; 2 tabs

  6. Common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography of irradiated human skin and ventilated isolated rabbit lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, A.; Wendel, M.; Knels, L.; Knuschke, P.; Mehner, M.; Koch, T.; Boller, D.; Koch, P.; Koch, E.

    2005-08-01

    A compact common path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system based on a broadband superluminescence diode is used for biomedical imaging. The epidermal thickening of human skin after exposure to ultraviolet radiation is measured to proof the feasibility of FD-OCT for future substitution of invasive biopsies in a long term study on natural UV skin protection. The FD-OCT system is also used for imaging lung parenchyma. FD-OCT images of a formalin fixated lung show the same alveolar structure as scanning electron microscopy images. In the ventilated and blood-free perfused isolated rabbit lung FD-OCT is used for real-time cross-sectional image capture of alveolar mechanics throughout tidal ventilation. The alveolar mechanics changing from alternating recruitment-derecruitment at zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to persistent recruitment after applying a PEEP of 5 cm H2O is observed in the OCT images.

  7. Incidental irradiation of mediastinal and hilar lymph node stations during 3D-conformal radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, Lucyna; Bujko, Krzysztof; Zolciak-Siwinska, Agnieszka; Garmol, Dariusz

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate the doses of incidental irradiation in particular lymph node stations (LNS) in different extents of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods. Doses of radiotherapy were estimated for particular LNS delineated according to the recommendations of the Univ. of Michigan in 220 patients treated using 3D-CRT with different (extended, limited and omitted) extents of ENI. Minimum doses and volumes of LNS receiving 40 Gy or more (V40) were compared for omitted vs. limited+extended ENI and limited vs. extended ENI. Results. For omission of the ENI the minimum doses and V40 for particular LNS were significantly lower than for patients treated with ENI. For the limited ENI group, the minimum doses for LNS 5, 6 lower parts of 3A and 3P (not included in the elective area) did not differ significantly from doses given to respective LNS for extended ENI group. When the V40 values for extended and limited ENI were compared, no significant differences were seen for any LNS, except for group 1/2R, 1/2L. Conclusions. Incidental irradiation of untreated LNS seems play a part in case of limited ENI, but not in cases without ENI. For subclinical disease the delineation of uninvolved LNS 5, 6, and lower parts of 3A, 3P may be not necessary, because these stations receive the substantial part of irradiation incidentally, if LNS 4R, 4L, 7, and ipsilateral hilum are included in the elective area while this is not case for stations 1 and 2

  8. Selective Nodal Irradiation on Basis of 18FDG-PET Scans in Limited-Disease Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, Judith van; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Wanders, Rinus; Boersma, Liesbeth; Simons, Jean; Oellers, Michel; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Hochstenbag, Monique; Bootsma, Gerben; Geraedts, Wiel; Pitz, Cordula; Teule, Jaap; Rhami, Ali; Thimister, Willy; Snoep, Gabriel; Dehing-Oberije, Cary; Lambin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of selective nodal irradiation on basis of 18 F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scans in patients with limited-disease small-cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC) on isolated nodal failure. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was performed of 60 patients with LD-SCLC. Radiotherapy was given to a dose of 45 Gy in twice-daily fractions of 1.5 Gy, concurrent with carboplatin and etoposide chemotherapy. Only the primary tumor and the mediastinal lymph nodes involved on the pretreatment PET scan were irradiated. A chest computed tomography (CT) scan was performed 3 months after radiotherapy completion and every 6 months thereafter. Results: A difference was seen in the involved nodal stations between the pretreatment 18 F-deoxyglucose PET scans and computed tomography scans in 30% of patients (95% confidence interval, 20-43%). Of the 60 patients, 39 (65%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 52-76%) developed a recurrence; 2 patients (3%, 95% CI, 1-11%) experienced isolated regional failure. The median actuarial overall survival was 19 months (95% CI, 17-21). The median actuarial progression-free survival was 14 months (95% CI, 12-16). 12% (95% CI, 6-22%) of patients experienced acute Grade 3 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0) esophagitis. Conclusion: PET-based selective nodal irradiation for LD-SCLC resulted in a low rate of isolated nodal failures (3%), with a low percentage of acute esophagitis. These findings are in contrast to those from our prospective study of CT-based selective nodal irradiation, which resulted in an unexpectedly high percentage of isolated nodal failures (11%). Because of the low rate of isolated nodal failures and toxicity, we believe that our data support the use of PET-based SNI for LD-SCLC.

  9. Re-irradiation associated to cetuximab and paclitaxel in the recurrences in irradiated field of upper aero-digestive ducts tumors resistant to platina salts; Re-irradiation associee au cetuximab et au paclitaxel dans les recidives en territoire irradie des tumeurs des voies aero-digestives superieures resistantes aux sels de platine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L.M. [Centre Guillaume-Le-Conquerant, 76 - Le Havre (France); Moran, A.R.; Pavlovitch, J.M. [Clinique du Petit-Colmoulin, 76 - Harfleur (France); El Amarti, R. [Hopital Monod, 76 - Montivilliers (France); Damour, M. [CMC Ormeaux-Vauban, 76 - Le Havre (France)

    2007-11-15

    The objective of this study is to present the preliminary results of the toxicity and efficiency evaluation of the association 're-irradiation-cetuximab-paclitaxel' in the recurrences of upper aero-digestive ducts tumors in irradiated field resistant to platinum salts. (N.C.)

  10. Decursin was Accelerated Human Lung Cancer Cell Death Caused by Proton Beam Irradiation via Blocking the p42/44 MAPK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Myung Hwan; Ra, Se Jin; Kim, Kye Ryung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Decursin, which is one of the extract of Angelica gigas Nakai root, has been traditionally used in Korean folk medicine as a tonic and for treatment of anemia and other common diseases. There are some reports about the pharmacological properties of decursin showing anti-bacterial and anti-amnestic effect, depression of cardiac contraction, antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity. Cell death induced by proton beam is identified as apoptosis. The study investigated that genes involved in apoptosis are checked by RT-PCR and used LET instead of SPBP of proton beam. Apoptosis is the tight regulated by multi-protein action in physiological cell death program. Proton therapy is an attractive approach for the treatment of deep-seated tumor. Recently, many researchers tried to new therapeutic strategy, combination of proton therapy and chemotherapy, in order to increase therapeutic effect. In this study, we investigate whether decursin can accelerate effect of human lung cell apoptosis in proton irradiated cancer cells

  11. A high field and cryogenic test facility for neutron irradiated superconducting wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, A.; Miyata, H.; Yoshida, M.; Iio, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakamoto, T.; Yamazaki, M.; Toyama, T.

    2017-12-01

    A 15.5 T superconducting magnet and a variable temperature insert (VTI) system were installed at a radiation control area in Oarai center in Tohoku University to investigate the superconducting properties of activated superconducting materials by fast neutron. The superconductivity was measured at cryogenic temperature and high magnetic field. During these tests, some inconvenient problems were observed and the additional investigation was carried out. The variable temperature insert was designed and assembled to perform the superconducting property tests. without the liquid helium. To remove the heat induced by radiation and joule heating, high purity aluminum rod was used in VTI. The thermal contact was checked by FEM analysis and an additional support was added to confirm the decreasing the stress concentration and the good thermal contact. After the work for improvement, it was affirmed that the test system works well and all troubles were resolved. In this report, the improved technical solution is described and the first data set on the irradiation effect on Nb3Sn wire is presented.

  12. Adverse impact of multileaf collimator field shaping on lens dose in children with acute leukemia receiving cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalapurakal, John A.; Sathiaseelan, Vythialingam; Bista, Tomasz C.; Marymont, Maryanne H.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the impact of multileaf collimator (MLC) on lens dose in children with leukemia undergoing cranial irradiation. Methods and Materials: This is a prospective study utilizing three common cranial irradiation techniques. Technique A uses a half-beam, nondivergent radiation field. Technique B has the anterior divergent field edge at the lateral bony canthus. Technique C is similar to B, but with a field collimator angle. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) lens dose measurements were obtained in children and phantom with all three techniques. Results: Seventeen children were studied. Lens dose measurements were obtained in 14 children with technique A using MLC and blocks. In 7 of 14 children, dose measurements were obtained with MLC only. One child was treated with technique B and 2 children were treated with C, with MLC ± blocks. In all 3 techniques, with MLC alone, the lens dose increased by 64%, 119%, and 72%, respectively. Similar results were obtained in phantom. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that independent of irradiation technique, additional custom blocking is required to maximally protect the lens with MLC shaped fields. This is due to the lack of conformity between MLC and the desired field edge at the lateral bony canthus

  13. Quantification of incidental mediastinal and hilar irradiation delivered during definitive stereotactic body radiation therapy for peripheral non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Kate L.; Gomez, Jorge; Nazareth, Daryl P.; Warren, Graham W. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Singh, Anurag K., E-mail: anurag.singh@roswellpark.org [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2012-07-01

    To determine the amount of incidental radiation dose received by the mediastinal and hilar nodes for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Fifty consecutive patients with NSCLC, treated using an SBRT technique, were identified. Of these patients, 38 had a prescription dose of 60 Gy in 20-Gy fractions and were eligible for analysis. For each patient, ipsilateral upper (level 2) and lower (level 4) paratracheal, and hilar (level 10) nodal regions were contoured on the planning computed tomography (CT) images. Using the clinical treatment plan, dose and volume calculations were performed retrospectively for each nodal region. SBRT to upper lobe tumors resulted in an average total ipsilateral mean dose of between 5.2 and 7.8 Gy for the most proximal paratracheal nodal stations (2R and 4R for right upper lobe lesions, 2L and 4L for left upper lobe lesions). SBRT to lower lobe tumors resulted in an average total ipsilateral mean dose of between 15.6 and 21.5 Gy for the most proximal hilar nodal stations (10R for right lower lobe lesions, 10 l for left lower lobe lesions). Doses to more distal nodes were substantially lower than 5 Gy. The often substantial incidental irradiation, delivered during SBRT for peripheral NSCLC of the lower lobes to the most proximal hilar lymph nodes may be therapeutic for low-volume, subclinical nodal disease. Treatment of peripheral upper lobe lung tumors delivers less incidental irradiation to the paratracheal lymph nodes with lower likelihood of therapeutic benefit.

  14. Quantification of incidental mediastinal and hilar irradiation delivered during definitive stereotactic body radiation therapy for peripheral non–small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Kate L.; Gomez, Jorge; Nazareth, Daryl P.; Warren, Graham W.; Singh, Anurag K.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the amount of incidental radiation dose received by the mediastinal and hilar nodes for patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Fifty consecutive patients with NSCLC, treated using an SBRT technique, were identified. Of these patients, 38 had a prescription dose of 60 Gy in 20-Gy fractions and were eligible for analysis. For each patient, ipsilateral upper (level 2) and lower (level 4) paratracheal, and hilar (level 10) nodal regions were contoured on the planning computed tomography (CT) images. Using the clinical treatment plan, dose and volume calculations were performed retrospectively for each nodal region. SBRT to upper lobe tumors resulted in an average total ipsilateral mean dose of between 5.2 and 7.8 Gy for the most proximal paratracheal nodal stations (2R and 4R for right upper lobe lesions, 2L and 4L for left upper lobe lesions). SBRT to lower lobe tumors resulted in an average total ipsilateral mean dose of between 15.6 and 21.5 Gy for the most proximal hilar nodal stations (10R for right lower lobe lesions, 10 l for left lower lobe lesions). Doses to more distal nodes were substantially lower than 5 Gy. The often substantial incidental irradiation, delivered during SBRT for peripheral NSCLC of the lower lobes to the most proximal hilar lymph nodes may be therapeutic for low-volume, subclinical nodal disease. Treatment of peripheral upper lobe lung tumors delivers less incidental irradiation to the paratracheal lymph nodes with lower likelihood of therapeutic benefit.

  15. Model-based approach for quantitative estimates of skin, heart, and lung toxicity risk for left-side photon and proton irradiation after breast-conserving surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, Francesco; Durante, Marco; D'Avino, Vittoria; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Conson, Manuel; Farace, Paolo; Palma, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Marco; Cella, Laura; Pacelli, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Proton beam therapy represents a promising modality for left-side breast cancer (BC) treatment, but concerns have been raised about skin toxicity and poor cosmesis. The aim of this study is to apply skin normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) optimization in left-side BC. Ten left-side BC patients undergoing photon irradiation after breast-conserving surgery were randomly selected from our clinical database. Intensity modulated photon (IMRT) and IMPT plans were calculated with iso-tumor-coverage criteria and according to RTOG 1005 guidelines. Proton plans were computed with and without skin optimization. Published NTCP models were employed to estimate the risk of different toxicity endpoints for skin, lung, heart and its substructures. Acute skin NTCP evaluation suggests a lower toxicity level with IMPT compared to IMRT when the skin is included in proton optimization strategy (0.1% versus 1.7%, p < 0.001). Dosimetric results show that, with the same level of tumor coverage, IMPT attains significant heart and lung dose sparing compared with IMRT. By NTCP model-based analysis, an overall reduction in the cardiopulmonary toxicity risk prediction can be observed for all IMPT compared to IMRT plans: the relative risk reduction from protons varies between 0.1 and 0.7 depending on the considered toxicity endpoint. Our analysis suggests that IMPT might be safely applied without increasing the risk of severe acute radiation induced skin toxicity. The quantitative risk estimates also support the potential clinical benefits of IMPT for left-side BC irradiation due to lower risk of cardiac and pulmonary morbidity. The applied approach might be relevant on the long term for the setup of cost-effectiveness evaluation strategies based on NTCP predictions.

  16. SU-D-304-02: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Field Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, GA; Slater, JM; Slater, JD; Wroe, AJ

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of magnetic focusing for small field proton irradiations. It is hypothesized that magnetic focusing will provide significant dose distribution benefits over standard collimated beams for fields less than 10 mm diameter. Methods: Magnets consisting of 24 segments of radiation hard samarium-cobalt adhered into hollow cylinders were designed and manufactured. Two focusing magnets were placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table. Proton beams with energies of 127 and 157 MeV, 15 and 30 mm modulation, and 8 mm initial diameters were delivered to a water tank using single-stage scattering. Depth dose distributions were measured using a PTW PR60020 diode detector and transverse profiles were measured with Gafchromic EBT3 film. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed - both for comparison with experimental data and to further explore the potential of magnetic focusing in silica. For example, beam spot areas (based on the 90% dose contour) were matched at Bragg depth between simulated 100 MeV collimated beams and simulated beams focused by two 400 T/m gradient magnets. Results: Preliminary experimental results show 23% higher peak to entrance dose ratios and flatter spread out Bragg peak plateaus for 8 mm focused beams compared with uncollimated beams. Monte Carlo simulations showed 21% larger peak to entrance ratios and a ∼9 fold more efficient dose to target delivery compared to spot-sized matched collimated beams. Our latest results will be presented. Conclusion: Our results suggest that rare earth focusing magnet assemblies could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering dose to nominally spherical radiosurgery targets over a much shorter time compared to unfocused beams. Immediate clinical applications include those associated with proton radiosurgery and functional radiosurgery of the brain and spine, however expanded treatment sites can be also envisaged

  17. Development of a filtered neutron field in KUR. In behalf of biological irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi; Utsuro, Masahiko; Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1995-07-01

    Very little direct measurements have been made of the biological effects of neutrons below 100keV. Recently, an iron-filtered 24keV neutron beam of Harwell Materials Testing Reactor, PLUTO, was reported to be highly efficient in inducing chromosome aberrations; the efficiency being comparable to that of fission neutrons. This results could have serious repercussions for radiation protection standards as the ICRP assume a decrease in neutron RBE below 100keV. The investigations reported here have as their primary purpose the production of neutron beams at the 24keV iron window energy, using the B-1 experimental facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KURRI). The filtered neutron filed for biomedical applications is designed to maximized the contributions of neutrons with other energies and gamma-rays. The characteristics of the radiation field were obtained by the simple transmission calculations for Fe(45cm) and Al(35cm) filters, by using the Monte Carlo code MCN P, and by the measurement of nuclear heating for Fe and Al filter pieces. The 24keV neutron flux and gamma-ray dose rate were measured using a proton recoil counter and TLDs, respectively. The measured findings are as follows: The 24keV neutron flux at the irradiation field was approximately 1x10 6 n/cm 2 /s, and the gamma-ray dose rate was 1.0Gy/h at the surface of the B-1 plug. Nuclear heating of the filter materials was 5.2mW/g for Fe and 4mW/g for Al, in maximum. (author)

  18. SU-D-304-02: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Field Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, GA; Slater, JM [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Slater, JD; Wroe, AJ [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of magnetic focusing for small field proton irradiations. It is hypothesized that magnetic focusing will provide significant dose distribution benefits over standard collimated beams for fields less than 10 mm diameter. Methods: Magnets consisting of 24 segments of radiation hard samarium-cobalt adhered into hollow cylinders were designed and manufactured. Two focusing magnets were placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table. Proton beams with energies of 127 and 157 MeV, 15 and 30 mm modulation, and 8 mm initial diameters were delivered to a water tank using single-stage scattering. Depth dose distributions were measured using a PTW PR60020 diode detector and transverse profiles were measured with Gafchromic EBT3 film. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed - both for comparison with experimental data and to further explore the potential of magnetic focusing in silica. For example, beam spot areas (based on the 90% dose contour) were matched at Bragg depth between simulated 100 MeV collimated beams and simulated beams focused by two 400 T/m gradient magnets. Results: Preliminary experimental results show 23% higher peak to entrance dose ratios and flatter spread out Bragg peak plateaus for 8 mm focused beams compared with uncollimated beams. Monte Carlo simulations showed 21% larger peak to entrance ratios and a ∼9 fold more efficient dose to target delivery compared to spot-sized matched collimated beams. Our latest results will be presented. Conclusion: Our results suggest that rare earth focusing magnet assemblies could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering dose to nominally spherical radiosurgery targets over a much shorter time compared to unfocused beams. Immediate clinical applications include those associated with proton radiosurgery and functional radiosurgery of the brain and spine, however expanded treatment sites can be also envisaged.

  19. Bone marrow transplantation for girls with aplastic anemia utilizing modified field of total lymphoid irradiation and cyclophosphamide; With emphasis on the field of pelvic cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanada, Ryoji; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Akuta, Naoko; Moriwaki, Kohichi; Kato, Shizue; Inaba, Toshiya; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Yamamoto, Keiko (Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Saitama (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    A preparative regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, consisting of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) with 750 cGy and cyclophosphamide (CY), was used in five girls with aplastic anemia. All patients received bone marrow from HLA matched/mixed lymphocyte culture negative siblings. In our regimen the 'inverted Y' field to irradiate the pelvic nodes was modified, which did not include the whole pelvic cavity in an attempt to protect the ovaries from irradiation. Although some of the pelvic nodes was supported not to be irradiated in order to protect the ovaries, engraftment occurred in all five patients including four who had been transfused prior to transplantation. All five are alive from 47 days to 1378 days (median 285 days) after transplantation without tranplantation-associated complications. The calculated dose to the ovaries was sixteen percent of the entire dose of the regimen. Both of the two evaluable patients that had received tranplantation just before or during the puberty are developing normal sex maturity including menstruation. This study suggests that our preparative regimen is effective not only for engraftment of the donor marrow but also for protecting the ovaries from irradiation. (author).

  20. Total dural irradiation: RapidArc versus static-field IMRT: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Paul J., E-mail: paulj.kelly@hse.ie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mannarino, Edward; Lewis, John Henry; Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Hacker, Fred L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare conventional fixed-gantry angle intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with RapidArc for total dural irradiation. We also hypothesize that target volume-individualized collimator angles may produce substantial normal tissue sparing when planning with RapidArc. Five-, 7-, and 9-field fixed-gantry angle sliding-window IMRT plans were generated for comparison with RapidArc plans. Optimization and normal tissue constraints were constant for all plans. All plans were normalized so that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) received at least 100% of the dose. RapidArc was delivered using 350 Degree-Sign clockwise and counterclockwise arcs. Conventional collimator angles of 45 Degree-Sign and 315 Degree-Sign were compared with 90 Degree-Sign on both arcs. Dose prescription was 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions. PTV metrics used for comparison were coverage, V{sub 107}%, D1%, conformality index (CI{sub 95}%), and heterogeneity index (D{sub 5}%-D{sub 95}%). Brain dose, the main challenge of this case, was compared using D{sub 1}%, Dmean, and V{sub 5} Gy. Dose to optic chiasm, optic nerves, globes, and lenses was also compared. The use of unconventional collimator angles (90 Degree-Sign on both arcs) substantially reduced dose to normal brain. All plans achieved acceptable target coverage. Homogeneity was similar for RapidArc and 9-field IMRT plans. However, heterogeneity increased with decreasing number of IMRT fields, resulting in unacceptable hotspots within the brain. Conformality was marginally better with RapidArc relative to IMRT. Low dose to brain, as indicated by V5Gy, was comparable in all plans. Doses to organs at risk (OARs) showed no clinically meaningful differences. The number of monitor units was lower and delivery time was reduced with RapidArc. The case-individualized RapidArc plan compared favorably with the 9-field conventional IMRT plan. In view of lower monitor unit requirements and shorter delivery time, Rapid

  1. Field-ion microscope studies of the defect structure of the primary state of damage of irradiated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, D.N.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented of field ion microscope applications in studies of point defect distribution in irradiated metals. FIM results on the primary state of radiation damage in neutron and ion-irradiated iridium and tungsten, at both room-temperature and 78 0 K, showed that it consists of: (1) isolated vacancies; (2) depleted zones; (3) compact vacancy clusters of voids; and (4) dislocation loops. The fraction of vacancies stored in the dislocation loops represented a small fraction of the total vacancy concentration; in the case of tungsten it was approximately 10 percent. These FIM observations provide a simple explanation of the low yield-factor, determined by transmission electron microscopy, for a number of ion-irradiated metals

  2. Small cell lung cancer and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI): perhaps the question is not who needs PCI but who wants PCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Chevalier, T.; Arriagada, R. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Medicine Dept., Villejuif, 94 (France)

    1997-10-01

    With 175 000 new cases annually, lung cancer is the most frequent malignancy in adults in the European Community. Approximately 20% of these tumours are of the small cell subtype and roughly a third, chiefly when disease is confined to the thorax, will be in complete remission after aggressive induction therapy combining multidrug chemotherapy (CT) and thoracic radiation therapy. However, the majority of these patients will relapse and ultimately only 15-20% of complete responders will be long-term survivors (i.e. alive beyond 30 months). The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the main organs invaded by small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and a frequent site of relapse. CNS metastases are found in up to 65% of patients at autopsy with the brain traditionally being considered a sanctuary for tumour cells. Although the blood-brain barrier is supposed to bar the entry to harmful substances (in particular most cytotoxic agents) and thus protect the CNS, this shield does not function systematically since dramatic responses to CT have been achieved in brain metastases from SCLC and brain metastases also arise even when clear responses are being observed at all other sites. Alternatively, the spectacular radiosensitivity of SCLC, which has been well established for decades, prompted the strategy of delivering prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) during induction treatment in order to prevent the development of metastases and their cohort of clinical symptoms. (author).

  3. Small cell lung cancer and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI): perhaps the question is not who needs PCI but who wants PCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Chevalier, T.; Arriagada, R.

    1997-01-01

    With 175 000 new cases annually, lung cancer is the most frequent malignancy in adults in the European Community. Approximately 20% of these tumours are of the small cell subtype and roughly a third, chiefly when disease is confined to the thorax, will be in complete remission after aggressive induction therapy combining multidrug chemotherapy (CT) and thoracic radiation therapy. However, the majority of these patients will relapse and ultimately only 15-20% of complete responders will be long-term survivors (i.e. alive beyond 30 months). The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the main organs invaded by small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and a frequent site of relapse. CNS metastases are found in up to 65% of patients at autopsy with the brain traditionally being considered a sanctuary for tumour cells. Although the blood-brain barrier is supposed to bar the entry to harmful substances (in particular most cytotoxic agents) and thus protect the CNS, this shield does not function systematically since dramatic responses to CT have been achieved in brain metastases from SCLC and brain metastases also arise even when clear responses are being observed at all other sites. Alternatively, the spectacular radiosensitivity of SCLC, which has been well established for decades, prompted the strategy of delivering prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) during induction treatment in order to prevent the development of metastases and their cohort of clinical symptoms. (author)

  4. Lung nodules after whole lung radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.D.; Mirkin, D.L.; Provisor, A.; Hornback, N.B.; Smith, J.A.; Slabaugh, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    It is essential to recognize radiation pneumonitis after whole lung irradiation, or nodular changes in response to chemotherapy, so that such conditions are not mistaken for tumor metastases, causing grave error in patient management and the possibility of further lung damage

  5. Bone marrow transplantation for girls with aplastic anemia utilizing modified field of total lymphoid irradiation and cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Ryoji; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Akuta, Naoko; Moriwaki, Kohichi; Kato, Shizue; Inaba, Toshiya; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Yamamoto, Keiko

    1990-01-01

    A preparative regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, consisting of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) with 750 cGy and cyclophosphamide (CY), was used in five girls with aplastic anemia. All patients received bone marrow from HLA matched/mixed lymphocyte culture negative siblings. In our regimen the 'inverted Y' field to irradiate the pelvic nodes was modified, which did not include the whole pelvic cavity in an attempt to protect the ovaries from irradiation. Although some of the pelvic nodes was supported not to be irradiated in order to protect the ovaries, engraftment occurred in all five patients including four who had been transfused prior to transplantation. All five are alive from 47 days to 1378 days (median 285 days) after transplantation without tranplantation-associated complications. The calculated dose to the ovaries was sixteen percent of the entire dose of the regimen. Both of the two evaluable patients that had received tranplantation just before or during the puberty are developing normal sex maturity including menstruation. This study suggests that our preparative regimen is effective not only for engraftment of the donor marrow but also for protecting the ovaries from irradiation. (author)

  6. The use of the multislice CT for the determination of respiratory lung tumor movement in stereotactic single-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, H.; Herfarth, K.K.; Muenter, M.; Debus, J.; Essig, M.; Wannenmacher, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: In three-dimensional (3-D) precision high-dose radiation therapy of lung tumors, the exact definition of the planning target volume (PTV) is indispensable. Therefore, the feasibility of a 3-D determination of respiratory lung tumor movements by the use of a multislice CT scanner was investigated. Patients and Methods: The respiratory motion of 21 lung tumors in 20 consecutively treated patients was examined. An abdominal pressure device for the reduction of respiratory movement was used in 14 patients. Two regions of the tumor were each scanned repeatedly at the same table position, showing four simultaneously acquired slices for each cycle. Stereotactic coordinates were determined for one anatomic reference point in each tumor region (Figure 1). The 3-D differences of these coordinates between the sequentially obtained cycles were assessed (Figure 2), and a correlation with the tumor localization was performed. Results: In the craniocaudal (Z-)direction the mean tumor movement was 5.1 mm (standard deviation [SD] 2.4 mm, maximum 10 mm), in the ventrodorsal (Y-)direction 3.1 mm (SD 1.5 mm, maximum 6.7 mm), and in the lateral (X-)direction 2.6 mm (SD 1.4 mm, maximum 5.8 mm; Figures 3 to 5). Inter- and intraindividual differences were present in each direction. With an abdominal pressure device no clinically significant difference between tumors in different locations was seen. Conclusion: The 3-D assessment of lung tumor movements due to breathing is possible by the use of multislice CT. The determination, indispensable to the PTV definition, should be performed individually for several regions, because of the inter- and intraindividual deviations detected. (orig.)

  7. An ultrastructural examination of irradiated, immunizing schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni during their extended stay in the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastin, A.; Wilson, R.A.; Bickle, Q.D.

    1985-01-01

    An ultrastructural study has been performed on radiation-attenuated parasites fixed in situ during their extended stay in the lungs. At day 7 post-infection all parasites were located within blood vessels. In contrast to normally migrating parasites, at days 13 and 21 post-infection the majority of radiation-attenuated parasites were lying free within alveoli. It appeared that radiation-attenuated parasites had undergone the normal developmental changes associated with the lung-stage of migration. No ultrastructural evidence was found to suggest why schistosomula failed to migrate further and instead burst into alveoli. No parasites observed on day 7 post-infection were associated with a host inflammatory reaction. At day 13, inflammation was noticeable but could have been a response as much to pulmonary tissue damage as to the presence of parasites. At day 21 post-infection some parasites were internally disrupted but were not associated with host inflammatory reactions and had intact tegumental surfaces. One parasite was observed at day 21 with an adherent neutrophil infiltrate and extensive tegumental damage. The relevance of persisting lung-stage parasites to the induction of resistance to challenge is discussed. (author)

  8. Research on the dose of the tissues located outside the treatment field when breast cancer was irradiated by linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Yu; Zhou Juying; Jiang Dezhi; Qin Songbing

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of study was to determine the dose of the tissues which located outside the treatment field, when breast cancer was irradiated by 9 MeV electron-beam and 6 MV-X ray after operation. A search for decreasing the dose of the tissues outside the treatment field was made. Clinically relevant treatment fields were simulated on a tissue-equivalent material phantom and subsequently irradiated with 9 MeV electron-beam and 6 MV-X ray. TLD were used to measure absorbed doses. The prescribed dose of breast cancer region was 50.0 Gy, region-lymph-nodes were 60.0 Gy, each exposure dose was 2.0 Gy. In breast cancer region, if only with 9 MeV electron-beam, the dose of the tissues located outside the treatment field were from 29.0 cGy to 295.5 cGy, when shielded with Pb lump, the doses of the tissues outside the treatment field may descended 9.4%-53.6%; if only with 6 MV-X ray, the doses of aforementioned tissues were from 32.0 cGy to 206.7 cGy, when shielded with Pb lump, the doses of the tissues outside the treatment field descended 19.7%-56.6%. In region-lymph-nodes, with 6 MV-X ray, the doses of aforementioned tissues were from 22.5 cGy to 1650.9 cGy, when shielded with Pb lump, the doses of the tissues outside the treatment field descended 19.7-65.6%. If mix-irradiation (9 MeV electron-beam vs. 6 MV-X ray 2:3) was used, the doses outside field would be lower than only used 9 MeV electron-beam or 6 MV-X ray were used

  9. A case of squamous cell lung cancer after treating with radiation for small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshinari; Ide, Hiroshi; Siomi, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Yukinobu; Tada, Shinya; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Kido, Masamitsu

    1999-01-01

    A 77-year-old man was admitted due to an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray film in September 1993. Small cell lung cancer was diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy of left S 3 . Because of his pulmonary and renal dysfunction, he received only 40 Gy irradiation alone, and the tumor shadow disappeared. After 38 months' observation, a new nodular shadow was detected in the left upper lung field in March 1997. A tumor was found in left B 3 by bronchoscopy, and biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma. Because of his advanced age and hypoxia, he has had no active treatment. This was a rare case of small cell lung cancer with long term survival, treated only by radiation, in which a different histologic type of carcinoma appeared in the same radiation field. (author)

  10. Universal field matching in craniospinal irradiation by a background-dose gradient-optimized method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traneus, Erik; Bizzocchi, Nicola; Fellin, Francesco; Rombi, Barbara; Farace, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The gradient-optimized methods are overcoming the traditional feathering methods to plan field junctions in craniospinal irradiation. In this note, a new gradient-optimized technique, based on the use of a background dose, is described. Treatment planning was performed by RayStation (RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm, Sweden) on the CT scans of a pediatric patient. Both proton (by pencil beam scanning) and photon (by volumetric modulated arc therapy) treatments were planned with three isocenters. An 'in silico' ideal background dose was created first to cover the upper-spinal target and to produce a perfect dose gradient along the upper and lower junction regions. Using it as background, the cranial and the lower-spinal beams were planned by inverse optimization to obtain dose coverage of their relevant targets and of the junction volumes. Finally, the upper-spinal beam was inversely planned after removal of the background dose and with the previously optimized beams switched on. In both proton and photon plans, the optimized cranial and the lower-spinal beams produced a perfect linear gradient in the junction regions, complementary to that produced by the optimized upper-spinal beam. The final dose distributions showed a homogeneous coverage of the targets. Our simple technique allowed to obtain high-quality gradients in the junction region. Such technique universally works for photons as well as protons and could be applicable to the TPSs that allow to manage a background dose. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Magnetic quadrupole resonance of electron irradiated aluminium. Electric field gradients surrounding the vacancies and interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, R.; Minier, M.; Minier, C.

    Some aluminium samples were irradiated at 20K with 3MeV electrons. The quadrupole absorption spectra have been obtained after irradiation and annealing, at 50K, 150K and 300K. Coupled conductivity measurements allowed the evolution in defect concentration to be studied. This new method makes it possible to characterize the presence of vacancies independently of the simultaneous existence of bivacancies, interstitials and clusters [fr

  12. Conclusions from the last five years of experiments in the field of food irradiation in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kálmán, B.

    For the beginning of the eighties Hungary was ready to introduce the radiation technology in the food industry and the authority of the country decided to establish a joint venture to use this technology in large scale. AGROSTER Co started to irradiate food packaging material and some type of spices for the meat industry. The policy of the AGROSTER was to increase the irradiated food items very slowly from one year to another and the same time using a good, marketing to convince of the all interested persons about the benefit of the food irradiation technology in Hungary. A gamma irradiator is used by this company which was built for application research since this plant was very useful in this initial stage in spite of the low source efficiency. It can be said the used step by step strategy of AGROSTER was very success because in the last year the radiation capacity of its gamma facility was used as much as possible to irradiate food items and the government of Hungary recognized the benefit of this technology and gives financial assistance to establish a large commercial gamma irradiator in Budapest.

  13. AP-PA field orientation followed by IMRT reduces lung exposure in comparison to conventional 3D conformal and sole IMRT in centrally located lung tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyfer Viacheslav

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little attention has been paid to the fact that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT techniques do not easily enable treatment with opposed beams. Three treatment plans (3 D conformal, IMRT, and combined (anterior-posterior-posterio-anterior (AP-PA + IMRT of 7 patients with centrally-located lung cancer were compared for exposure of lung, spinal cord and esophagus. Combined IMRT and AP-PA techniques offer better lung tissue sparing compared to plans predicated solely on IMRT for centrally-located lung tumors.

  14. Experimental and theoretical basis of agricultural plant immunostimulation with regard to pathogenic fungi by magnetic field and He-Ne laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belski, Alexey I.; Chivanov, Vadym D.

    1996-09-01

    Spring barley, winter wheat and maize seeds were subjected to the action of He-Ne laser irradiation having a low intensity in the visible region of the spectrum (628-640 nm) in conjunction with magnetic fields. The following results were obtained: laser irradiation with magnetic fields induced activation of the natural plant defence/immune systems gave the harvest crop level increased to about 50- 300 percent; a correlation was established between the rate of the fungal pathogens growth and the stimulation of plant immunity after the seeds had been treated with laser irradiation and magnetic field.

  15. Role of Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and its target genes in human lung adenocarcinoma cells after photon- versus carbon ion irradiation; Expression HIF-1-abhaengiger Gene in humanen Lungenadenokarzinom (A549)-Zellen und deren Regulation nach Photonen- und Schwerionenbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, Verena Maria

    2013-11-26

    Exposed to hypoxia tumor cells are notably resistant to photon irradiation. The hypoxiainducible transcription factor 1α (HIF-1α) seems to play a fundamental role in this resistance, while its role after heavy-ion beam remains unknown. The intention of this study was to determine how A549-cells (non-small-cell lung carcinoma) react in different oxygenation states after irradiation with photons or heavy ions, particularly in regards to their expression of HIF-1 target genes. Resistance of hypoxic A549 cells after photon irradiation was documented by cellular and clonogenic survival. In contrast, cellular survival after heavy-ion irradiation in hypoxic cells was not elevated to normoxic cells. Among the oxygen dependent regulation of HIF-1 target genes, gene expression analyses showed an increased expression of GLUT-1, LDH-A, PDK-1 and VEGF after photon irradiation but not after heavy-ion irradiation after 48 hours in normoxic cells. As expected, CDKN1A as inhibitor of cell cycle progression showed higher expression after both radiation forms; interestingly CDKN1A was also in an oxygen dependent manner lightly upregulated. In western blot analyses we demonstrated a significant increase of HIF-1 and GLUT-1 caused by hypoxia, but only a tendency of increased protein level in hypoxia after photon irradiation and no changes after heavy-ion irradiation. Significantly higher protein level of secreted VEGF-A could be measured 72 hours after photon irradiation in normoxic cells by ELISA analyses. Controversially discussed, I could not detect an association between HIF-1 and SCF or Trx-1 in A549-cells in this study. Whereas Trx-1-expression was neither influenced by changed oxygen partial pressure nor irradiation, I could show increased SCF mRNA by quantitative Real Time-PCR and secreted protein level by ELISA after photon irradiation independent of oxygen state. In summary, this study showed that HIF-1 and its target genes (GLUT-1, LDHA; PDK, VEGF) and also SCF was

  16. Differences in TLD 600 and TLD 700 glow curves derived from distict mixed gamma/neutron field irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Castro, Vinicius A.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.

    2013-01-01

    In Neutron Capture Therapy, a thermal neutron beam shall impinge on a specific nuclide, such as 10 B, to promote a nuclear reaction which releases the useful therapeutic energy. A nuclear reactor is usually used as the neutron source, and therefore field contaminants such as gamma and high energy neutrons are also present in the field. However, mixed field dosimetry still stands as a challenge in some cases, due to the difficulty to experimentally discriminate the dose from each field component. For the mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation end Units (ICRU) recommends the use of detector pairs with different responses for each beam component. The TLD 600/700 pair meets this need, because these LiF detectors have different Li isotopes concentration, with distinct thermal neutron responses because 6 Li presents a much higher neutron capture cross section than does 7 Li for low energy neutrons. TLD 600 is 6 Li enriched while TLD 700 is 7 Li enriched. However, depending on the neutron spectrum presented in the mixed field, TLD 700 response to thermal neutrons cannot be disregarded. This work aims to study the difference in TLD 600 and TLD 700 glow curves when these TLDs are submitted to mixed fields of different energy spectra and components balance. The TLDs were irradiated in a pure gamma source, and in mixed fields from an AmBe sealed source and from the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. These TLDs were read and had their two main dosimetric regions analyzed to observe the differences in the glow curves of these TLDs in each irradiation. Field components discrimination was achieved through Monte Carlo simulations run with MCNP radiation transport code. (author)

  17. Is pollen morphology of Salix polaris affected by enhanced UV-B irradiation? Results from a field experiment in high Arctic tundra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeloff, Dan; Blokker, Peter; Boelen, Peter; Rozema, Jelte

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the thickness of the pollen wall will increase in response to enhanced UV-B irradiation, by examining, the effect of enhanced UV-B irradiance on the pollen morphology of Sali-v polaris Wahlem. grown in a Field experiment on the Arctic tundra of Svalbard.

  18. Mechanistic study of DNA damage and radioprotection of small molecule treatment in the irradiated proliferating and quiescent human lung fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jiawen; Baskar, Rajamanickam

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is an invaluable diagnostic and treatment tool used in various clinical applications and also in cancer control. However, assessing normal tissue injury is of a great interest. Since radiation sensitivity varies with different phases of cell cycle, understanding how these cells differ in their sensitivity will help to prevent or reduce the radiation injury. We have used both proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblast cells and investigated key proteins involved in the cell cycle, DNA damage and death, further the radioprotective role of small molecule after low doses (d ≤1Gy) of radiation exposure. Among the cell cycle/death proteins investigated, p53 and phosphorylation of p53 (Ser-15) were induced in both the proliferating and quiescent phases of cells when studied at different time intervals. In the proliferating cells after irradiation along with p53, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21, p27 were induced. However, similarly in the quiescent cells along with the p53, p21 and p27 were also induced. The DNA damage assessed by phosphorylation of histone H2AX expression showed an increase even in the non-dividing quiescent cells after 1 Gy of radiation exposure. Whereas cell cycle proteins Cyclin A and E and cell death proteins Bax and cytochrome-c did not show any increase in the quiescent cells. In conclusion, human normal lung fibroblast cells that are not actively dividing are also showed similar radiation response as of proliferating cells. Furthermore, proliferating and quiescent cells treated with small molecules attenuate p53 and its downstream target protein p21 indicating radioprotection of the cells. The specific activation of p53, phosphorylation of p53 (Ser-15), p21 and phosphorylation of histone H2AX following radiation doses of d ≤ 1 Gy in the quiescent cells demonstrated in this study may give us a better understanding about the radiation response of non-dividing fibroblast cells, which is present in many

  19. Hemibody irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schen, B.C.; Mella, O.; Dahl, O.

    1992-01-01

    In a large number of cancer patients, extensive skeletal metastases or myelomatosis induce vast suffering, such as intolerable pain and local complications of neoplastic bone destruction. Analgetic drugs frequently do not yield sufficient palliation. Irradiation of local fields often has to be repeated, because of tumour growth outside previously irradiated volumes. Wide field irradiation of the lower or upper half of the body causes significant relief of pain in most patients. Adequate pretreatment handling of patients, method of irradiation, and follow-up are of importance to reduce side effects, and are described as they are carried out at the Department of Oncology, Haukeland Hospital, Norway. 16 refs., 2 figs

  20. Therapy of infections in mice irradiated in mixed neutron/photon fields and inflicted with wound trauma: a review of current work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledney, G D; Madonna, G S; Elliott, T B; Moore, M M; Jackson, W E

    1991-10-01

    When host antimicrobial defenses are severely compromised by radiation or trauma in conjunction with radiation, death from sepsis results. To evaluate therapies for sepsis in radiation casualties, we developed models of acquired and induced bacterial infections in irradiated and irradiated-wounded mice. Animals were exposed to either a mixed radiation field of equal proportions of neutrons and gamma rays (n/gamma = 1) from a TRIGA reactor or pure gamma rays from 60[Co sources. Skin wounds (15% of total body surface area) were inflicted under methoxyflurane anesthesia 1 h after irradiation. In all mice, wounding after irradiation decreased resistance to infection. Treatments with the immunomodulator synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) before or after mixed neutron-gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation increased survival. Therapy with S-TDCM for mice irradiated with either a mixed field or gamma rays increased resistance to Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced infections. Combined therapy with S-TDCM and ceftriaxone for K. pneumoniae infections in mice exposed to a mixed radiation field or to gamma rays was more effective than single-agent therapy. In all irradiated-wounded mice, single therapy of acquired infections with an antibiotic or S-TDCM did not increase survival. Survival of irradiated-wounded mice after topical application of gentamicin sulfate cream suggested that bacteria colonizing the wound disseminated systemically in untreated irradiated mice, resulting in death from sepsis. In lethal models of acquired infections in irradiated-wounded mice, significant increases in survival were achieved when systemic treatments with S-TDCM or gentamicin were combined with topical treatments of gentamicin cream. Therapies for sepsis in all mice exposed to a mixed field were less effective than in mice exposed to gamma rays. Nonetheless, the data show a principle by which successful therapy may be provided to individuals receiving tissue trauma in conjunction with

  1. High-field/ high-frequency EPR study on stable free radicals formed in sucrose by gamma-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Elka R; Pardi, Luca; Jeschke, Gunnar; Gatteschi, Dante; Sorace, Lorenzo; Yordanov, Nicola D

    2006-06-01

    The EPR spectrum of sucrose irradiated by high-energy radiation is complex due to the presence of more than one radical species. In order to decompose the spectrum and elucidate the radical magnetic parameters a high-field (HF(-)EPR) study on stable free radicals in gamma-irradiated polycrystalline sucrose (table sugar) was performed at three different high frequencies--94, 190 and 285 GHz as well as at the conventional X-band. We suggest a presence of three stable radicals R1, R2 and R3 as the main radical species. Due to the increase of g-factor resolution at high fields the g-tensors of these radicals could be extracted by accurate simulations. The moderate g-anisotropy suggests that all three radicals are carbon-centred. Results from an earlier ENDOR study on X-irradiated sucrose single crystals (Vanhaelewyn et al., Appl Radiat Isot, 52, 1221 (2000)) were used for analyzing of the spectra in more details. It was confirmed that the strongest hyperfine interaction has a relatively small anisotropy, which indicates either the absence of alpha-protons or a strongly distorted geometry of the radicals.

  2. Influence of High-Energy Proton Irradiation on β-Ga2O3 Nanobelt Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gwangseok; Jang, Soohwan; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J; Kim, Jihyun

    2017-11-22

    The robust radiation resistance of wide-band gap materials is advantageous for space applications, where the high-energy particle irradiation deteriorates the performance of electronic devices. We report on the effects of proton irradiation of β-Ga 2 O 3 nanobelts, whose energy band gap is ∼4.85 eV at room temperature. Back-gated field-effect transistor (FET) based on exfoliated quasi-two-dimensional β-Ga 2 O 3 nanobelts were exposed to a 10 MeV proton beam. The proton-dose- and time-dependent characteristics of the radiation-damaged FETs were systematically analyzed. A 73% decrease in the field-effect mobility and a positive shift of the threshold voltage were observed after proton irradiation at a fluence of 2 × 10 15 cm -2 . Greater radiation-induced degradation occurs in the conductive channel of the β-Ga 2 O 3 nanobelt than at the contact between the metal and β-Ga 2 O 3 . The on/off ratio of the exfoliated β-Ga 2 O 3 FETs was maintained even after proton doses up to 2 × 10 15 cm -2 . The radiation-induced damage in the β-Ga 2 O 3 -based FETs was significantly recovered after rapid thermal annealing at 500 °C. The outstanding radiation durability of β-Ga 2 O 3 renders it a promising building block for space applications.

  3. [Analysis of the therapeutic effects of different treatment modalities on the outcomes of 87 patients with lung oligometastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Q; Hu, Q Y; Piao, Y F; Hua, Y H; Chen, X Z

    2016-03-23

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different modalities in treatment of lung oligometastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy and to identify a more appropriate treatment modality. The clinical data of 87 cases of lung oligometastases from NPC were analyzed retrospectively. Among them, 33 patients underwent local small-field irradiation+ /- chemotherapy, 28 underwent whole-lung irradiation+ chemotherapy, and 26 underwent simple chemotherapy. The survival rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The differences among the modalities were evaluated using the log-rank test. Cox univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the influencing factors. The 3-year lung metastasis survival (LMS) rates of patients with lung metastasis undergoing the three treatment modalities (local small-field irradiation+ /-chemotherapy, whole-lung irradiation+ chemotherapy and chemotherapy alone) were 89.3%, 72.7%, and 72.4%, respectively, showing a significant difference between the groups (P=0.003). Further subgroup analysis showed that the 5-year LMS rate was significantly higher in the local small-field irradiation+ /-chemotherapy group than that in the whole-lung irradiation+ chemotherapy group and chemotherapy alone group (P=0.001). The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates of the three groups were 57.1%, 25.8% and 3.8%, respectively, showing significant intergroup differences (P=0.002 and P<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that compared with the whole lung irradiation group and the chemotherapy alone group, the local irradiation+ /- chemotherapy is an independent favorable prognostic factor for LMS and PFS (P<0.05). Local radiotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy is the best therapeutic modality for lung oligometastases derived from NPC after radiotherapy, improving the LMS and prolonging the PFS.

  4. Inhibition effect of proteasome inhibitor MG132 combined with X-ray irradiation on cell growth, metastasis and cycle distribution of human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jing; Tang Yiting; Zhou Jundong; Zhang Shuyu; Cao Han; Wu Jinchang; Luo Judong; Chen Guanglie; Cao Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of proteasome inhibitor MG132 on the growth, metastasis, and cell cycle distribution of human lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 irradiated by X-rays. Methods: After treatment of MG132 and irradiation,cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay. Survival was measured by clonogenic assay. Cell migration ability was detected by the Scratch migration assay. Cell invasion ability was detected by transwell migration assay. Cell cycle distribution were analyzed by flow cytometry assay. Protein expression was detected by Western blot assay. Results: MG132 alone inhibited cell growth in a dose-and time-dependent manner. MG132 in combination with radiation significantly suppressed the growth, migration and invasion of A549 cells compared to the control (F =554.78, 954.64, P<0.01). MG132 enhanced radiation-induced G 1 -arrest (t =4.44, 12.41, 3.52, 6.72, P<0.05). The G 1 cell cycle distribution rate of MG132 plus RT group was increased to (71.05 ± 4.17)%. The expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9 and Cyclin D1 were significantly suppressed by MG132 in combination with radiation, while the expression of P53 was up-regulated. Conclusions: MG132 inhibits cell growth, migration and invasion ability, and induces G 1 cell cycle arrest of A549 cells treated with MG132 in combination with radiation, in which the down-regulation of MMPs and Cyclin D1 and up-regulation of P53 may be involved. (authors)

  5. On the diffusion process of irradiation-induced point defects in the stress field of a moving dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, E.

    1987-01-01

    The cellular model of a dislocation is used for an investigation of the time-dependent diffusion process of irradiation-induced point defects interacting with the stress field of a moving dislocation. An analytic solution is given taking into account the elastic interaction due to the first-order size effect and the stress-induced interaction, the kinematic interaction due to the dislocation motion as well as the presence of secondary neutral sinks. The results for the space and time-dependent point defect concentration, represented in terms of Mathieu-Bessel and Mathieu-Hankel functions, emphasize the influence of the parameters which have been taken into consideration. Proceeding from these solutions, formulae for the diffusion flux reaching unit length of the dislocation, which plays an important role with regard to void swelling and irradiation-induced creep, are derived

  6. Identification of biomarkers of radioresponse and subsequent progression towards lung cancer in normal human bronchial epithelial cells after HZE particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Park, Seongmi; Minna, John

    Using variants of a non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line HBEC3-KT, we have examined global gene expression patterns after low and high LET irradiation up to 24h post-IR. Using supervised analyses we have identified 427 genes whoes expression can be used to discriminate the cellular response to γ-vs Si or Fe particles even when the biological outcome, cell death, is equivalent. Furthermore, genetic background also determines gene expression response. When HBEC3-KT is compared to the HBEC3-KT cells line where mutant k-RAS is over-expressed and p53 has been knocked down, HBEC-3KTr53, principal component analysis clearly shows that the response of each cell resides in a different 3-D space, that is, basal gene expression patterns as well as the gene expression response are unique to each cell type. Using regression analysis to examine these 427 genes show clusters of genes whose temporal expression patterns are the same and which are unique to a given radiation type. Ultimately, this approach will allow for the interrogation of gene promoters to identify response elements that drive how cells respond to different radiation types. We are extending our examination to O particles and are now examining gene expression as a function of beam quality. We have made substantial progress in the determination of cellular transformation by HZE particles for these cell lines. (Transformation as defined by the ability to grow in soft agar.) For HBEC-3KT, the spontaneous transformation frequency is about 10- 7.ExposuretoeitherF eorSiparticlesinc KT r53celllinedidnotshowanyincreaseintransf ormationf requencyaf terdosesof upto1Gy, however, thesp 3KT.W ehavenowisolatedover160individualf ocithatf ormedinsof tagarf romcellculturesthatwereirradia termcultureandthenre-introducedintosof tagartoassurethattheabilitytogrowinsof tagarisclonal.T odatew 30 With these cell isolates in hand we will begin to determine tumorigenicity by subcutaneous injections in nude

  7. Toxicities and effects of involved-field irradiation with concurrent cisplatin for unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hiroyuki; Uno, Takashi; Isobe, Kouichi; Ueno, Naoyuki; Aruga, Takashi; Sudo, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Saisho, Hiromitsu; Kawata, Tetsuya; Ito, Hisao

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local effects and acute toxicities of involved field irradiation with concurrent cisplatin (CDDP) for unresectable pancreatic carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three patients with unresectable pancreatic carcinoma were treated with chemoradiotherapy. Sixteen were Stage IVA; 17 were Stage IVB. The total prescribed dose of radiotherapy was 50 Gy/25 fractions or 50.4 Gy/28 fractions, using a three-dimensionally determined involved-field that included only the prima