WorldWideScience

Sample records for irradiated fisheries products

  1. Global marine primary production constrains fisheries catches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassot, Emmanuel; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Mélin, Frédéric; Watson, Reg; Gascuel, Didier; Le Pape, Olivier

    2010-04-01

    Primary production must constrain the amount of fish and invertebrates available to expanding fisheries; however the degree of limitation has only been demonstrated at regional scales to date. Here we show that phytoplanktonic primary production, estimated from an ocean-colour satellite (SeaWiFS), is related to global fisheries catches at the scale of Large Marine Ecosystems, while accounting for temperature and ecological factors such as ecosystem size and type, species richness, animal body size, and the degree and nature of fisheries exploitation. Indeed we show that global fisheries catches since 1950 have been increasingly constrained by the amount of primary production. The primary production appropriated by current global fisheries is 17-112% higher than that appropriated by sustainable fisheries. Global primary production appears to be declining, in some part due to climate variability and change, with consequences for the near future fisheries catches.

  2. Production economic models of fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Levring

    The overall purpose of this PhD thesis is to investigate different aspects of fishermen’s behaviour using production economic models at the individual and industry levels. Three parts make up this thesis. The first part provides an overview of the thesis. The second part consists of four papers...... or fishing location. Behaviour can be viewed as being determined by the fishermen’s objectives subject to different restrictions, given by physical resources, time, mental capacity and information, and institutions. The review of the extensive literature gives reasonable support to the neoclassical...

  3. Production economic models of fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. L.

    The overall purpose of this PhD thesis is to investigate different aspects of fishermen’s behaviour using production economic models at the individual and industry levels. Three parts make up this thesis. The first part provides an overview of the thesis. The second part consists of four papers...... analysing efficiency at the vessel level and factors influencing this. The third part consists of two papers and presents industry level analyses and focuses in particular on the likely impacts of implementing individual transferable quotas. The models are able to allow for changes in fishermen’s behaviour...... via individual learning and adjustments in output mix. All the papers included in Part II: Modelling and Evaluating Fishermen’s Behaviour consider factors influencing fishermen’s behaviour. Knowledge about these factors is important to give a correct description of fishermen’s behaviour. However...

  4. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  5. 75 FR 48933 - 2010 Russian Export Certification for Fishery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX94 2010 Russian Export Certification for Fishery... requirements for exportation of fish and fishery products to the Russian Federation as set forth in the Memorandum of Understanding between Rosselkhoznadzor (the responsible Russian government agency) and...

  6. Ocean fronts drive marine fishery production and biogeochemical cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, C. Brock; Litvin, Steven Y.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term changes in nutrient supply and primary production reportedly foreshadow substantial declines in global marine fishery production. These declines combined with current overfishing, habitat degradation, and pollution paint a grim picture for the future of marine fisheries and ecosystems. However, current models forecasting such declines do not account for the effects of ocean fronts as biogeochemical hotspots. Here we apply a fundamental technique from fluid dynamics to an ecosystem model to show how fronts increase total ecosystem biomass, explain fishery production, cause regime shifts, and contribute significantly to global biogeochemical budgets by channeling nutrients through alternate trophic pathways. We then illustrate how ocean fronts affect fishery abundance and yield, using long-term records of anchovy–sardine regimes and salmon abundances in the California Current. These results elucidate the fundamental importance of biophysical coupling as a driver of bottom–up vs. top–down regulation and high productivity in marine ecosystems. PMID:25624488

  7. Egg production methdos in marine fisheries: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernal, M.; Somarakis, S.; Witthames, P.R.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Uriarte, A.R.; Lo, N.C.H.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an introduction of the Fisheries Research special issue on egg production methods (EPM) that emerged from a dedicated workshop held in Athens, Greece, in 2010. The workshop considered if EPMs are still valid today, it reviewed recent developments in the methods and discussed the utilit

  8. Nutrient dynamics, primary production and fisheries yields of lagoons

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, S W

    1982-01-01

    Differences appear to have a marked influence on the species composition of lagoon ecosystems around the world, but there are some remarkable similarities in nutrient dynamics, the standing crop of phytoplankton, annual primary production, and fisheries yields of many lagoons. For example, in many of the systems reviewed, the annual phosphate cycle was similar in timing and magnitude, primary production amounted to some 200-400 g C m super(-1) yr super(-1). There appears to be an empirical co...

  9. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and marine capture fisheries production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith

    2010-01-01

    activity over several centuries, the changes have been unintentional and undirected; we have not learned how to enhance food production from the sea and are reliant, as hunter-gatherers, on natural production. The goals of maximising fisheries production and maintaining biodiversity may be difficult......Pathways for moving towards the goals of biodiversity conservation and food security in terrestrial systems include the application of trait-based ecology to develop highly productive agroecosystems with less negative effects on biodiversity. Although marine ecosystems have been impacted by human...

  10. Histamine poisoning and control measures in fish and fishery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina eVisciano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Histamine poisoning is one of the most common form of intoxication caused by the ingestion of fish and fishery products. Cooking, canning or freezing cannot reduce the levels of histamine because this compound is heat stable. All humans are susceptible to histamine and its effects can be described as intolerance or intoxication depending on the severity of the symptoms. The amount of histamine in food, the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity in human organism represent the main factors affecting the toxicological response in consumers. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by European Legislation, up to a maximum of 200 mg/kg in fresh fish and 400 mg/kg in fishery products treated by enzyme maturation in brine.

  11. Analysis of Squid Net Fisheries Business Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herna Octivia Damayanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Squid net is one of alternatives to replace trawl net in Pati regency. The purposes of the research are 1 to determine the influence factors, 2 to analyze the return to scale, 3 to analyze cost and return.The research location in Juwana Subdistrict particularly Bakaran Kulon, Dukutalit, Bajomulyo and Bendar Villages. The research conducted on October 2015 to June 2016. The number of final samples was 36, while the formulation of management strategies used 15 samples by snowball sampling. Data analysis techniques used 1 Cobb Douglas production function, 2 revenue-cost ratio analysis. The results of the research are 1 significant inputs for production factor are long trip, Solar fuel, the number of crew and lights. 2 the return to scale of squid net bussiness in Juwana subdistrict Pati regency is -0.231 means decreasing to scale. 3 the R/C ratio of scenario II more profitable for squid net crews than  scenario I.

  12. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Th.

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10∗∗4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50°C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the iradiation field in a closed conveyor system.

  13. 50 CFR 260.97 - Conditions for providing fishery products inspection service at official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... providing fishery products inspection service at official establishments. (a) The determination as to the... products; or (3) For failure to supply enough inspection effort during any period of service. (c) The..., to be used on any product which is not packed under fishery products inspection service nor...

  14. The Study of Manufacturing Considerations of Fishery Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talip N.F,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to have a good system of fishery factory, lean manufacturing system should be applied in this factory to upgrade and improve the existing condition. Not many people in manufacturing industry can truly say that they have not heard of lean. The implementation of lean is become expanded all over the world because the techniquesare very useful for the premises. Since the factory is producing smoked catfish product, the rules that is outlined by the government should be emphasized to have a good quality of raw materials. The premises should have the approval from the HACCP and GMP managements. There are certain things to be considered to build a fisheryfactory. In this case, two methods are used to choose the suitable line balancing in order to improve the current layout, which are Yamazumi board and King’s method algorithm. So, it is important to know about lean manufacturing in order to increase the workers’ liabilities and productions.

  15. 76 FR 23823 - Guidance for Industry on Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls, Fourth Edition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... principles of HACCP. Fish and fishery products are adulterated under section 402(a)(4) of the Federal Food... chapter has been added containing guidance for the control of pathogen survival through processes designed... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Fish and Fishery Products...

  16. 50 CFR 260.96 - Application for fishery products inspection service on a contract basis at official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Application for fishery products inspection service on a contract basis at official establishments. Any person desiring to process and pack products in an establishment under fishery products inspection service on a..., and facilities according to the requirements of the fishery products inspection service and...

  17. Determination of the formaldehyde content in fishery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, H

    1987-10-01

    The influence of external factors, such as storage temperature and time on the content of free formaldehyde (FA) in fishery products is described. On the basis of the examination of several methods for the determination of free and bound FA, the following procedures are recommended: (1) for measuring free FA, the samples are extracted using 6% perchloric acid at room temperature and the FA content of the extracts is measured by the formation of 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine; (2) bound, acid-labile FA is released by steam distillation using 1% sulphuric acid, giving a pH value of about 1. The FA content of the distillates may be determined either by chromotropic acid assay or by the method described for the extracts.

  18. DNA barcoding for species Identification in prepared fishery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA MOTTOLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that seafood mislabeling has been widely reported throughout the world and that the authentication of food components is one of the key issues in food quality, the aim of this study was to use DNA barcoding to investigate the prevalence of mislabeling among fresh prepared fishery products from markets and supermarkets located in Apulia (SE Italy. The study reveals a high occurrence of species mislabeling (42% in the prepared fillet products, further evidence of the need for increased traceability and assessment of the authenticity of food products. Given the increasing demand for transparency in the food industry and the enforcement of proper labeling have provided a driving force for the development of suitable analytical methodologies for species identification. There is therefore a great need to develop fast and reliable methods to identify meat species and to quantify their levels in seafood products, in order to ensure product quality and thus to protect consumers. The study provides further evidence that molecular investigations based on DNA barcoding may be one of the most powerful tools for the assessment of species identity, food traceability, safety and fraud.

  19. Authentication of fishery and aquaculture products by multi-element and stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Boyd, Claude E; Sun, Zhenlong

    2016-03-01

    The market of fishery and aquaculture products is globalized with increasing numbers of mislabeled products. This highlights the need for approaches to indentify the origin of these products. Among the measures used to identify the origin of other agro-products, multi-element and stable isotope analysis are promising approaches to identify the authenticity and traceability of fishery and aquaculture products. The present paper reviews the use of multi-element and stable isotope analysis to determine the origin of fishery and aquaculture products. Principles and limitations of each method will be illustrated and perspectives for traceability of fishery and aquaculture products will be discussed. The aim of this review is to mediate fundamental knowledge for the interpretation of experimental data on authentication of aquaculture products.

  20. Disinfestation of different cereal products by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, E.; Kiss, I.; Boros, A.; Horvath, Ny.; Toth, J.; Gyulai, P.; Szalma, A.

    1986-01-01

    The sensitivity of Tribolium confusum - small flour beetle -to radiation was studied in a dose range of 0-0.8 kGy. We found that the insect egg was the most sensitive to radiation, then larvae and pupae followed it. 0.2 kGy dose of irradiation kills these forms or their further development is inhibited. Imagoes do not immediately die after 0.8 kGy dose of irradiation; the young imagoes are more sensitive to radiation than the aged ones. 0.4 kGy average dose of irradiation is a suitable protection against Tribolium confusum. Disinfestation experiments were performed with wheat-germ and wheat-bran and the most important ingredients of the two products were analysed. The vitamin E content and the rate of lipid-oxidation of wheat germ were determined. The vitamin E content decreased after radiation treatment, however, during storage of at least 6 months, it remained at a level specified by food quality standards (higher than 10 mg%). Carbohydrate content of wheat-bran (water soluble carbohydrate content, crude-fibre and dietary fibre content) did not change at all. Storability of radiation disinfested wheat-germ was 8 months, wheat-bran 3-4 months. On the base of the results 2-2 tons of wheat-germ and wheat-bran were irradiated and trial marked in 1985. In 1986 the irradiation of 10 tons of wheat-germ is planned.

  1. Prospects for Irradiation in Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Saini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Second generation bioethanol production technology relies on lignocellulosic biomass composed of hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignin components. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sources of fermentable sugars. But the structural characteristics of lignocelluloses pose hindrance to the conversion of these sugar polysaccharides into ethanol. The process of ethanol production, therefore, involves an expensive and energy intensive step of pretreatment, which reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulose and makes feedstock more susceptible to saccharification. Various physical, chemical, biological, or combined methods are employed to pretreat lignocelluloses. Irradiation is one of the common and promising physical methods of pretreatment, which involves ultrasonic waves, microwaves, γ-rays, and electron beam. Irradiation is also known to enhance the effect of saccharification. This review explains the role of different radiations in the production of cellulosic ethanol.

  2. PARTICULARITIES AND MANAGEMENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION CHAIN FOR FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Georgeta NICOLAE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The total quality principles implementation contributes to the improving in meeting the consumer needs, essential reduction of costs and increasing sales. The total quality is a concept that assures the total satisfaction of clients on the entire distribution chain, including all the actors in this chain. The aquaculture and fisheries are very diverse sectors which use different breeding and fishing technologies and provide a wide variety of specific products. This induces a real complexity of the supply and distribution chain for fish and fishery products, including the links from the production point (fishery or farm to the final consumer. The components of the distribution chain differ with the geographic areas, type of farms, transportation, information on the fishery market and management systems. Implementing the total food quality system for fishery products involves the quality specification in all marketing stages for all products, along the entire distribution chain. The present work was focused on identifying the distribution chain for fish and fishery products with the identification of the specificity of this type of chain form farm to end consumer, which is the first step in the implementation of total quality concept in aquaculture, with all the benefits that come with it.

  3. Deterioration and shelf-life extension of fish and fishery products by modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish and fishery products have been recognized as a nutrition source due to their high protein content. Moreover, theycontain considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3 fatty acids, which are regarded as preventivecompounds. However, shelf-life of seafood is limited by biochemical and microbiological changes. Modified atmospherepackaging (MAP is widely used for minimally processed fishery products including fresh meat for retarding microbial growthand enzymatic spoilage. CO2, O2, and N2 are most often used in MAP. CO2 enriched atmosphere inhibits the autolyticdegradation of fish muscle during storage. However, high levels of CO2 negatively affect product quality, especially by increasingdrip loss and altering texture. Development of satisfactory methods for shelf-life extension that ensure qualitymaintenance of products with minimum loss has drawn the attention of food technologists. The application of MAP andcombination process in seafood is a promising preservation method to extend the shelf-life of fish and fishery products.

  4. Heat production in microwave-irradiated thermocouples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunscombe, P B; McLellan, J; Malaker, K

    1986-01-01

    It has been known for some time that the irradiation of metallic thermometers by microwaves during clinical hyperthermia can lead to artifactual readings. We describe here a series of measurements in which this effect has been quantitatively studied. In particular, the data yield values for the conversion coefficient describing the rate of heat production per unit length of a thermocouple array per watt applied power which can be compared with the rate of heat production in the same volume of tissue. The degree of artifact in the temperature recording depends on the thermal resistance of the protective materials surrounding the array, and this thermal resistance has also been determined. It has been shown that measures taken to reduce the temperature artifact do not compromise the response time of the probe.

  5. 76 FR 10556 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Fish and Fishery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on... States (U.S.) positions that will be discussed at the 31st session of the Codex Committee on Fish and Fishery Products (CCFFP) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), which will be held in...

  6. Capacity building improve Malaysia's inspection and monitoring system for aquaculture and fishery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, G.J.M.; Zoontjes, P.W.; Essers, M.L.; Klijnstra, M.; Gerssen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The project aimed to help build a credible inspection and monitoring system that can guarantee safe quality products of Ministry of Health (MoH) and Department of Fisheries (DoF) by upgrading the analytical capacity of the laboratory staff directly involved in the analysis and detection of forbidden

  7. WEFTA interlaboratory comparison on total lipid determination in fishery products using the Smedes method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Karl; Oehlenschaeger, J.; Bakaert, K.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid determination by the Smedes method was tested in an interlaboratory trial performed by 9 laboratories from 7 countries belonging to the West European Fish Technologists Association Analytical Methods Working Group. 5 samples of fish and fishery products with different lipid contents, includ...

  8. Capacity building improve Malaysia's inspection and monitoring system for aquaculture and fishery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, G.J.M.; Zoontjes, P.W.; Essers, M.L.; Klijnstra, M.; Gerssen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The project aimed to help build a credible inspection and monitoring system that can guarantee safe quality products of Ministry of Health (MoH) and Department of Fisheries (DoF) by upgrading the analytical capacity of the laboratory staff directly involved in the analysis and detection of forbidden

  9. Analysis of the development of global capture fishery and aquaculture production

    OpenAIRE

    Algayd, Abdelhamid Alhadi

    2011-01-01

    Global production from capture fisheries and aquaculture and the food fish supply is currently the highest on record and remains very significant for global food security. This study is focused on the contribution of the aquaculture to the global production of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and other aquatic animals in the short-time observation from 2000- 2008. The aim of the presented PhD. Thesis title "Analysis of The Development of Global Capture Fish and Aquaculture Production (200-2008)" ...

  10. Production behavior of irradiation defects in solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Hirotake; Moritani, Kimikazu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The irradiation effects in solid breeder materials are important for the performance assessment of fusion reactor blanket systems. For a clearer understanding of such effects, we have studied the production behavior of irradiation defects in some lithium ceramics by an in-situ luminescence measurement technique under ion beam irradiation. The luminescence spectra were measured at different temperatures, and the temperature-transient behaviors of luminescence intensity were also measured. The production mechanisms of irradiation defects were discussed on the basis of the observations. (author)

  11. Accounting for escape mortality in fisheries: implications for stock productivity and optimal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew R; Schindler, Daniel E; Essington, Timothy E; Hilborn, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have considered the management implications of mortality to target fish stocks caused by non-retention in commercial harvest gear (escape mortality). We demonstrate the magnitude of this previously unquantified source of mortality and its implications for the population dynamics of exploited stocks, biological metrics, stock productivity, and optimal management. Non-retention in commercial gillnet fisheries for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) is common and often leads to delayed mortality in spawning populations. This represents losses, not only to fishery harvest, but also in future recruitment to exploited stocks. We estimated incidence of non-retention in Alaskan gillnet fisheries for sockeye salmon (O. nerka) and found disentanglement injuries to be extensive and highly variable between years. Injuries related to non-retention were noted in all spawning populations, and incidence of injury ranged from 6% to 44% of escaped salmon across nine river systems over five years. We also demonstrate that non-retention rates strongly correlate with fishing effort. We applied maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches to stock-recruitment analyses, discounting estimates of spawning salmon to account for fishery-related mortality in escaped fish. Discounting spawning stock estimates as a function of annual fishing effort improved model fits to historical stock-recruitment data in most modeled systems. This suggests the productivity of exploited stocks has been systematically underestimated. It also suggests that indices of fishing effort may be used to predict escape mortality and correct for losses. Our results illustrate how explicitly accounting for collateral effects of fishery extraction may improve estimates of productivity and better inform management metrics derived from estimates of stock-recruitment analyses.

  12. Detection of Histamine in Fish and Fishery Products in Osaka Prefecture (Fiscal 2015 Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awazu, Kaoru; Takatori, Satoshi; Kakimoto, Sachiko; Nomura, Chie; Masayama, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kakimoto, You; Kajimura, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    Histamine food poisoning is caused by ingestion of spoiled fish containing high levels of histamine. This paper reports cases in which histamine was detected in Osaka prefecture in fiscal year 2015 in a survey of fish and fishery products on the market and the food poisoning. A suspected case of histamine food poisoning was also evaluated to investigate the cause and minimize further problems. Histamine in food was separated on SPE cartridge columns, and analyzed after derivatization with fluorescamine by means of HPLC-FL. Histamine was detected in some fishery products on the market and in food that had caused poisoning. The samples in which histamine was detected were semi-dried whole round herring (Urumeiwashi-maruboshi), mackerel (Saba) and sardine dumpling (Iwashi-tsumire). These foods were the main causes of histamine food poisoning according to the report of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Government of Japan.

  13. Capacity building improve Malaysia's inspection and monitoring system for aquaculture and fishery products

    OpenAIRE

    Gevers, G.J.M.; Zoontjes, P.W.; Essers, M.L.; Klijnstra, M.; Gerssen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The project aimed to help build a credible inspection and monitoring system that can guarantee safe quality products of Ministry of Health (MoH) and Department of Fisheries (DoF) by upgrading the analytical capacity of the laboratory staff directly involved in the analysis and detection of forbidden substances. Two training courses were implemented in 2011 in the Bio Security Centre in Kuantan, Malaysia. The first training course on 'Marine lipophilic toxins using LC-MS/MS has been implemente...

  14. [Multiresidue determination of quinolones in animal and fishery products by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, Takao; Fujimoto, Toru; Inoue, Maki; Tazawa, Teijiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    A simple and rapid multiresidue method was developed for the determination of twelve quinolones (ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, flumequine, marbofloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, orbifloxacin, oxolinic acid and sarafloxacin) in muscle, liver, chicken eggs, milk, prawn and rainbow trout. The quinolones were extracted from a sample with acetonitrile-water (95 : 5). A fifth part of the filtered extract was diluted with water to keep the acetonitrile ratio at ca. 60%, and passed through a C18 mini-column. The eluate was evaporated to dryness, and the residues were dissolved in methanol-water (30 : 70) for HPLC analysis. The quinolones were separated on a Inertsil ODS-3V column (4.6 mm i.d.x250 mm) with a gradient system of 0.1% phosphoric acid-acetonitrile as the mobile phase, with fluorescence detection.No interfering peak was found on the chromatograms of animal and fishery products, except for milk. The recoveries of the quinolones were over 60% from the animal and fishery products fortified at 0.1 microg/g, and the quantification limits of the quinolones were 0.005 microg/g. This proposed method was found to be effective and suitable for the screening of the quinolones in animal and fishery products.

  15. Fishery Products Consumptıon in the Cities of Ankara and Izmir in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Saygı

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is one of Turkey at the sea coast in Izmir and Ankara in other inland fisheries are conducted to determine consumer preferences. 306 people in Izmir and 405 people in Ankara were directly interviewed and the orginal data for the research was gathered. Survey data were anlyzed with using SPSS and Microsoft Excel software packages. According to the survey data; it is determined that individuals consumed mostly white meat at the rate of 81%, and consumed white meat at the rate of 19%. At least 46% of these individuals consume fish once a week at a minimum. It is determined that 83% of the individuals in Ankara consumed white meat, 17% consumed red meat. It is found out that at least 30% of these indiviudals consumed fish once a week at a minimum. Aquaculture products are highly important for the nutrition due to its being animal protein resource. In spite of the fast growing population and big problems seen in balanced diets, aquaculture products are not efficiently benefited. As a result of our country to increase fish consumption habits and consumption of fishery products on human health in the short and long term benefits should be explained. To this end, local governments and other regional organizations and institutions of the people in the area where the handle will be of interest to fisheries and should be in promoting.

  16. Can changes in the fisheries yield in the Kattegat (1950-1992) be linked to changes in primary production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Else; Richardson, K.

    1996-01-01

    in primary production. It is, however, noted that the changes in the relative proportion of benthic to pelagic species in the fishery are consistent with the changes which are predicted to occur following an increase in primary production. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea......The increase in fisheries yield in the Kattegat during the last four decades can be correlated with a concomitant increase in annual primary production in the region However, this correlation does not necessarily indicate cause and effect. Other changes have occurred during this period that may...... also affect fisheries yield (changes in fishing effort. market demand, fleet composition, etc.). This paper examines some of these factors in an effort to identify the underlying cause(s) of the observed increase in fisheries yield. It is concluded that, although there have been major changes...

  17. Using wet microalgae for direct biodiesel production via microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Yu, Tao; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-03-01

    To address the large energy consumption of microalgae dewatering and to simplify the conventional two-step method (cellular lipid extraction and lipid transesterification) for biodiesel production, a novel process for the direct conversion of wet microalgae biomass into biodiesel by microwave irradiation is proposed. The influences of conventional thermal heating and microwave irradiation on biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass were investigated. The effects of using the one-step (simultaneous lipid extraction and transesterification) and two-step methods were also studied. Approximately 77.5% of the wet microalgal cell walls were disrupted under microwave irradiation. The biodiesel production rate and yield from wet microalgae biomass obtained through the one-step process using microwave irradiation were 6-fold and 1.3-fold higher than those from wet microalgae obtained through the two-step process using conventional heating.

  18. Occurrence of Mislabelling in Prepared Fishery Products in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Giuseppina; Marchetti, Patrizia; Mottola, Anna; Terio, Valentina; Bottaro, Marilisa; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Di Pinto, Angela

    2015-06-30

    Fish authentication is a major concern not only for the prevention of commercial fraud, but also for the assessment of safety risks deriving from the undeclared introduction of potentially dangerous toxic or allergenic substances or environmentally damaging fish where endangered species are involved. Moreover, food authentication might affect the diet of certain groups of consumers, such as followers of religious practices. Considering the authentication of fish products is one of the key issues in food safety, quality and sustainability, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of mislabelling in sole (Solea solea), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and hake (Merluccius merluccius) fillets from markets and supermarkets located in Apulia (Southern Italy) using DNA barcoding. The results of the molecular investigations reveal that 42/98 (42.8%) fillet samples were not correctly labelled. In particular, 12/27 (44.4%) fillets of sole (Solea solea) were identified as belonging to Solea senegalensis. In addition, 13/28 (46.4%) plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) samples were identified as Pangasius hypophtalmus. All Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) samples were correctly labelled. Post-sequencing data analysis revealed that 17/30 (56.6%) hake fillets (Merluccius merluccius) were not correctly labelled, of which 8/30 samples identified as Merluccius hubbsi, 5/30 samples as Merluccius products and 4/30 as Merluccius capensis. The study reveals a high occurrence of species mislabelling in the prepared fish fillet products, further evidence of the need for increased traceability and assessment of the authenticity of food products.

  19. Occurrence of mislabelling in prepared fishery products in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Tantillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish authentication is a major concern not only for the prevention of commercial fraud, but also for the assessment of safety risks deriving from the undeclared introduction of potentially dangerous toxic or allergenic substances or environmentally damaging fish where endangered species are involved. Moreover, food authentication might affect the diet of certain groups of consumers, such as followers of religious practices. Considering the authentication of fish products is one of the key issues in food safety, quality and sustainability, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of mislabelling in sole (Solea solea, plaice (Pleuronectes platessa, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, and hake (Merluccius merluccius fillets from markets and supermarkets located in Apulia (Southern Italy using DNA barcoding. The results of the molecular investigations reveal that 42/98 (42.8% fillet samples were not correctly labelled. In particular, 12/27 (44.4% fillets of sole (Solea solea were identified as belonging to Solea senegalensis. In addition, 13/28 (46.4% plaice (Pleuronectes platessa samples were identified as Pangasius hypophtalmus. All Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar samples were correctly labelled. Post-sequencing data analysis revealed that 17/30 (56.6% hake fillets (Merluccius merluccius were not correctly labelled, of which 8/30 samples identified as Merluccius hubbsi, 5/30 samples as Merluccius products and 4/30 as Merluccius capensis. The study reveals a high occurrence of species mislabelling in the prepared fish fillet products, further evidence of the need for increased traceability and assessment of the authenticity of food products.

  20. Hyaluronic acid production by irradiated human synovial fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaron, M.; Yaron, I.; Levita, M.; Herzberg, M.

    1977-03-01

    Radioactive particles as well as x irradiation from an external source has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. In order to clarify effects of ionizing irradiation on synovial cells, radioactive gold (/sup 198/Au) and yttrium (/sup 90/Y) were added to fibroblast cultures derived from human synovial membranes. Other cultures were irradiated by a Picker x-ray machine. Fibroblast growth and hyaluronic acid production were measured. Radioactive gold and yttrium particles induced a significant increase of hyaluronic acid synthesis rate (pg/cell/day) and inhibited fibroblast growth. Fibroblasts continued to overproduce hyaluronic acid and to show growth inhibition 3 weeks after irradiation with radioactive gold. Hydrocortisone inhibited hyaluronic acid overproduction induced by radioactive gold. Overproduction of hyaluronic acid induced by the x-ray machine was inhibited by hydrocortisone, actinomycin-D, and cycloheximide. Fibroblasts derived from normal and rheumatoid patients responded similarly to ionizing irradiation.

  1. Impacts of climate change on marine ecosystem production in societies dependent on fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barange, M.; Merino, G.; Blanchard, J. L.; Scholtens, J.; Harle, J.; Allison, E. H.; Allen, J. I.; Holt, J.; Jennings, S.

    2014-03-01

    Growing human populations and changing dietary preferences are increasing global demands for fish, adding pressure to concerns over fisheries sustainability. Here we develop and link models of physical, biological and human responses to climate change in 67 marine national exclusive economic zones, which yield approximately 60% of global fish catches, to project climate change yield impacts in countries with different dependencies on marine fisheries. Predicted changes in fish production indicate increased productivity at high latitudes and decreased productivity at low/mid latitudes, with considerable regional variations. With few exceptions, increases and decreases in fish production potential by 2050 are estimated to be change is predicted to increase productive potential in West Africa and decrease it in South and Southeast Asia. Despite projected human population increases and assuming that per capita fish consumption rates will be maintained, ongoing technological development in the aquaculture industry suggests that projected global fish demands in 2050 could be met, thus challenging existing predictions of inevitable shortfalls in fish supply by the mid-twenty-first century. This conclusion, however, is contingent on successful implementation of strategies for sustainable harvesting and effective distribution of wild fish products from nations and regions with a surplus to those with a deficit. Changes in management effectiveness and trade practices will remain the main influence on realized gains or losses in global fish production.

  2. Ozone production in a dielectric barrier discharge with ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Joanna Maria; Kusano, Yukihiro; Leipold, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production has been investigated using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in pure O2 at room temperature with and without ultrasonic irradiation. It was driven at a frequency of either 15 kHz or 40 kHz. The ozone production was highly dependent on the O2 flow rate...... and the discharge power. Furthermore, powerful ultrasonic irradiation at a fundamental frequency of 30 kHz with the sound pressure level of 150 dB into the discharge can improve the ozone production efficiency, particularly when operated at the frequency of 15 kHz at the flow rate of 15 L/min....

  3. Chemical state of fission products in irradiated uranium carbide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yasuo; Iwai, Takashi; Ohmichi, Toshihiko

    1987-12-01

    The chemical state of fission products in irradiated uranium carbide fuel has been estimated by equilibrium calculation using the SOLGASMIX-PV program. Solid state fission products are distributed to the fuel matrix, ternary compounds, carbides of fission products and intermetallic compounds among the condensed phases appearing in the irradiated uranium carbide fuel. The chemical forms are influenced by burnup as well as stoichiometry of the fuel. The results of the present study almost agree with the experimental ones reported for burnup simulated carbides.

  4. Caribbean Spiny Lobster Fishery Is Underpinned by Trophic Subsidies from Chemosynthetic Primary Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Nicholas D; Newton, Jason; Attrill, Martin J

    2016-12-19

    The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, is one of the most valuable fisheries commodities in the Central American region, directly employing 50,000 people and generating >US$450 million per year [1]. This industry is particularly important to small island states such as The Bahamas, which exports more lobster than any other country in the region [1]. Several factors contribute to this disproportionally high productivity, principally the extensive shallow-water banks covered in seagrass meadows [2], where fishermen deploy artificial shelters for the lobsters to supplement scarce reef habitat [3]. The surrounding seabed communities are dominated by lucinid bivalve mollusks that live among the seagrass root system [4, 5]. These clams host chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts in their gills that synthesize organic matter using reduced sulfur compounds, providing nutrition to their hosts [6]. Recent studies have highlighted the important role of the lucinid clam symbiosis in maintaining the health and productivity of seagrass ecosystems [7, 8], but their biomass also represents a potentially abundant, but as yet unquantified, food source to benthic predators [9]. Here we undertake the first analysis of Caribbean spiny lobster diet using a stable isotope approach (carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) and show that a significant portion of their food (∼20% on average) is obtained from chemosynthetic primary production in the form of lucinid clams. This nutritional pathway was previously unrecognized in the spiny lobster's diet, and these results are the first empirical evidence that chemosynthetic primary production contributes to the productivity of commercial fisheries stocks.

  5. Modified Atmosphere Systems and Shelf Life Extension of Fish and Fishery Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A. Mireles DeWitt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO2 in the preservation of seafood products, and underscores the benefits of combining MA technology with product storage in the superchilled temperature range. It is generally accepted that MA technology cannot improve product quality and should not be utilized as a substitute for good sanitation and strict temperature control. Benefits derived from application of MA, however, can significantly impact preservation of product quality and it subsequent shelf-life. For this reason, this review is the first of its kind to propose detailed handling and quality guidelines for fresh fish to realize the maximum benefit of MA technology.

  6. Modified Atmosphere Systems and Shelf Life Extension of Fish and Fishery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Christina A Mireles; Oliveira, Alexandra C M

    2016-06-28

    This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA) systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO₂ in the preservation of seafood products, and underscores the benefits of combining MA technology with product storage in the superchilled temperature range. It is generally accepted that MA technology cannot improve product quality and should not be utilized as a substitute for good sanitation and strict temperature control. Benefits derived from application of MA, however, can significantly impact preservation of product quality and it subsequent shelf-life. For this reason, this review is the first of its kind to propose detailed handling and quality guidelines for fresh fish to realize the maximum benefit of MA technology.

  7. Production of LEU Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Irradiation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; McMurray, Jake W [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL; Trammell, Michael P [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles embedded inside a SiC matrix. This fuel inherently possesses multiple barriers to fission product release, namely the various coating layers in the TRISO fuel particle as well as the dense SiC matrix that hosts these particles. This coupled with the excellent oxidation resistance of the SiC matrix and the SiC coating layer in the TRISO particle designate this concept as an accident tolerant fuel (ATF). The FCM fuel takes advantage of uranium nitride kernels instead of oxide or oxide-carbide kernels used in high temperature gas reactors to enhance heavy metal loading in the highly moderated LWRs. Production of these kernels with appropriate density, coating layer development to produce UN TRISO particles, and consolidation of these particles inside a SiC matrix have been codified thanks to significant R&D supported by US DOE Fuel Cycle R&D program. Also, surrogate FCM pellets (pellets with zirconia instead of uranium-bearing kernels) have been neutron irradiated and the stability of the matrix and coating layer under LWR irradiation conditions have been established. Currently the focus is on production of LEU (7.3% U-235 enrichment) FCM pellets to be utilized for irradiation testing. The irradiation is planned at INL s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This is a critical step in development of this fuel concept to establish the ability of this fuel to retain fission products under prototypical irradiation conditions.

  8. Policy plan for the early approval for irradiated meat products and the promotion of irradiated meats in market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wang Geun [Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheon Jei [Division of Animal Life Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    The consumption of meat products is gradually being increased by the development of livestock raising technology, industrialized farm management and international trade. This increased consumption also created new market for ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook meat products. However, these convenience meat products can be easily contaminated during the processing and storage by pathogens, and there have been many reported cases of food borne illness by meats. One of the most effective methods for the decontamination of meat products is the radiation technology. Food irradiation was the established, well-recognized and safe sterilization method. Many other countries researched the effect of irradiation on the meat products and approved the irradiation. In this article, the effectiveness, the international acceptance, the economics and the research trend of irradiation on meat products have been reviewed. Also, the policy plans for the early approval of the irradiated meat products in Korea and the promotion policy of irradiated meats in market were discussed.

  9. Mortality of Migratory Birds from Marine Commercial Fisheries and Offshore Oil and Gas Production in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne I. Ellis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an imminent need for conservation and best-practice management efforts in marine ecosystems where global-scale declines in the biodiversity and biomass of large vertebrate predators are increasing and marine communities are being altered. We examine two marine-based industries that incidentally take migratory birds in Canada: (1 commercial fisheries, through bycatch, and (2 offshore oil and gas exploration, development, and production. We summarize information from the scientific literature and technical reports and also present new information from recently analyzed data to assess the magnitude and scope of mortality. Fisheries bycatch was responsible for the highest levels of incidental take of migratory bird species; estimated combined take in the longline, gillnet, and bottom otter trawl fisheries within the Atlantic, including the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Pacific regions was 2679 to 45,586 birds per year. For the offshore oil and gas sector, mortality estimates ranged from 188 to 4494 deaths per year due to the discharge of produced waters resulting in oil sheens and collisions with platforms and vessels; however these estimates for the oil and gas sector are based on many untested assumptions. In spite of the uncertainties, we feel levels of mortality from these two industries are unlikely to affect the marine bird community in Canada, but some effects on local populations from bycatch are likely. Further research and monitoring will be required to: (1 better estimate fisheries-related mortality for vulnerable species and populations that may be impacted by local fisheries, (2 determine the effects of oil sheens from produced waters, and attraction to platforms and associated mortality from collisions, sheens, and flaring, so that better estimates of mortality from the offshore oil and gas sector can be obtained, and (3 determine impacts associated with accidental spills, which are not included in our current assessment. With a

  10. Hydrogen production by Rhodobacter sphaeroides DSM 158 under intense irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krujatz, Felix; Härtel, Paul; Helbig, Karsten; Haufe, Nora; Thierfelder, Simone; Bley, Thomas; Weber, Jost

    2015-01-01

    To identify optimal hydrogen production conditions using growing cultures of Rhodobacter sphaeroides DSM 158 the effects of varying the reactor's volumetric power input (0.01-1.4kWm(-3)) and irradiation intensity (5-2500Wm(-2)) were investigated in batch and continuous production modes. Irradiation intensity had a greater effect on hydrogen production than volumetric power input. Hydrogen production and photofermentative biomass formation were maximized by irradiation at 2250Wm(-2) with a volumetric power input of 0.55kWm(-3). The bacterial dry weight (2.64gL(-1)) and rate of hydrogen production (195mLL(-1)h(-1)) achieved under these conditions were greater than any that have previously been reported for batch-mode hydrogen production by R. sphaeroides. Continuous mode experiments (D=0.1h(-1)) yielded a bacterial dry weight, hydrogen production rate, productivity and hydrogen yield of 2.35±0.18gL(-1), 165±6.2mLL(-1)h(-1), 3.96LL(-1)d(-1) and 36.6%, respectively.

  11. Irradiation temperature dependence of production efficiency of lattice defects in some neutron-irradiated oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Moritami [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 5900494 (Japan)]. E-mail: okada@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Atobe, Kozo [Faculty of Science, Naruto University of Education, Naruto, Tokushima 7728502 (Japan); Nakagawa, Masuo [Faculty of Education, Kagawa University, Takamatsu, Kagawa 7608522 (Japan)

    2004-11-01

    Temperature dependence of production efficiency of irradiation-induced defects in neutron-irradiated oxides has been investigated. Some oxide single crystals, MgO, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sapphire) and TiO{sub 2} (rutile), were irradiated at several controlled temperatures, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 K, using the low-temperature irradiation facility of Kyoto University Reactor (KUR-LTL), and at ambient temperature ({approx}370 K) in the same facility. Irradiation temperature dependence of production efficiency of a 1 {mu}m band in TiO{sub 2} differs greatly from that of anion vacancy (F-type centers) in MgO and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Results for MgO and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} show steep negative gradients from 10 to 370 K, whereas that for TiO{sub 2} includes a valley between 40 and 60 K and a hump at about 130 K, and then disappear at about 200 K. In MgO and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, this behavior can be explained by the recombination of Frenkel pairs, which is activated at higher temperature. In TiO{sub 2}, in addition to the recombination mechanism, a covalent bonding property is thought to be exerted strong influence, and it is suggested that a disappearance of the 1 {mu}m band at above 200 K is due to the recombination process of Frenkel pairs which is caused by the irradiation-induced crystallization.

  12. Validation of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for quantitative analysis of histamine in fish and fishery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K.K.K. Jinadasa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance liquid chromatography method is described for quantitative determination and validation of histamine in fish and fishery product samples. Histamine is extracted from fish/fishery products by homogenizing with tri-chloro acetic acid, separated with Amberlite CG-50 resin and C18-ODS Hypersil reversed phase column at ambient temperature (25°C. Linear standard curves with high correlation coefficients were obtained. An isocratic elution program was used; the total elution time was 10 min. The method was validated by assessing the following aspects; specificity, repeatability, reproducibility, linearity, recovery, limits of detection, limit of quantification and uncertainty. The validated parameters are in good agreement with method and it is a useful tool for determining histamine in fish and fishery products.

  13. Irradiation Scheme Design of 14C Production on CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xing-min; XU; Zhi-long; DING; Li

    2012-01-01

    <正>14C is a radioisotope of carbon. It is widely used in pharmacy, medical treatment, agriculture, reconnoiter and archaeology. China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) is a research reactor of high capability, the applications of which includes the radio nuclides production. Therefore, the technical scheme on 14C irradiation in CARR should be prepared elaborately.

  14. Production yields of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchioni, E.; Ennahar, S. [Universite de Strasbourg, Illkirch (France). Faculte de Pharmacie. Lab. de Chimie Analytique et Sciences de l' Aliment], e-mail: marchion@unistra.fr, e-mail: ennahar@unistra.fr; Horvatovich, P. [University of Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Pharmacy. Analytical Biochemistry], e-mail: p.l.horvatovich@rug.nl; Ndiaye, B. [Centre Hospitalier National de Fann, Dakar (Senegal)], e-mail: ibamath@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    2-alkycyclobutanones are formed by irradiation exclusively, and are considered as unique radiolytic product (URP). Because of the URP character of the 2-alkycyclobutanones, these compounds are good marker of irradiation treatment. The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) developed an analytical method (EN 1785) for detection of 2-alkycyclobutanones having a detection limit of 0.2 pmol, limiting the application to foodstuffs treated for microbial disinfection (doses > 0.5 kGy), with fat content higher than 1.0 g %. The use of this EN 1785 and the supercritical extraction analytical methods allowed the determination of the production yields of 2-alkycyclobutanones in broad range of foodstuffs. The obtained production yields were between 0.20 and 12.21 nmol/mmol fatty acid/kGy), and showed strong dependency from he nature of the food matrix. The amount 2-alkycyclobutanones intake from irradiated foodstuffs by consumer calculated based on production yields determined in this work show, that the doses used in toxicological studies were much higher, than that are consumed by human through eating irradiated foods. (author)

  15. Effect of irradiation on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Jintana Bunnak; Guzman, Z.M. de; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1991-10-01

    The effects of repeated exposure to gamma irradiation on Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris S46 was studied in terms of the development of increased radioresistance and mutations. Original D{sub 10} value was obtained as 0.22 kGy and increased a little after 6 times exposure at a dose of 0.8 kGy. Mutation ratios such as morphological changes and aflatoxin production were not remarkably changed even after 6 times exposure. A little stimulation of production of aflatoxin B{sub 1} occurred by irradiation of spores of strains S46, E11 and E14 at 0.4 and 0.6 kGy in Synthetic Low Salts broth after incubation for 10 days at 25degC. The levels of aflatoxin B{sub 1} was also increased 13 to 40% by incubation of irradiated spores of S46 strain at 1 kGy on autoclaved polished rice, black pepper and red pepper. However, these stimulation effects were not Observed after infection of these cultivates of irradiated sores to fresh media. (author).

  16. Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil Using Microware Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum oil supply crisis, the increase in demand and the price eruption have led to a search for an alternative fuel of bio-origin in India. Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel is considered as a sustainable renewable alternative fuel to fossil diesel. Non-edible jatropha oil has considerable potential for the production of biodiesel in India. The production of biodiesel from jatropha oil using a conventional heating method takes more than 1h. In this work, microwave irradiation has been used as a source of heat for the transesterification reaction. A domestic microwave oven was modified and used for microwave heating of the reactants. The time taken for biodiesel production using microwave irradiation was 1 min. The fuel property analysis shows that the properties of jatropha oil biodiesel satisfy the biodiesel standards, and are close to the fossil diesel standards. From this work, it is concluded that biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil using microwave irradiation, with a significant reduction in production time.

  17. By-catch impacts in fisheries: utilizing the IUCN red list categories for enhanced product level assessment in seafood LCAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornborg, Sara; Svensson, Mikael; Nilsson, Per; Ziegler, Friederike

    2013-11-01

    Overexploitation of fish stocks causes concern not only to fisheries managers and conservation biologists, but also engages seafood consumers; more integrated product perspectives would be useful. This could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA); however, further complements of present LCA methodology are needed to assess seafood production, one being by-catch impacts. We studied the scientific rationale behind using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ for assessment of impacts relating to fish species' vulnerability. For this purpose, the current Red List status of marine fish in Sweden was compared to the advice given in fisheries as well as key life history traits known to indicate sensitivity to high fishing pressure. Further, we quantified the amount of threatened fish (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered) that was discarded in demersal trawl fisheries on the Swedish west coast. The results showed that not only did the national Red List of marine fish have a high consistency with advice given in fisheries and indices of vulnerability, the different fishing practices studied were also found to have vastly different amounts of threatened fish discarded per kilo landing. The suggested approach is therefore promising as a carrier of aggregated information on the extent to which seafood production interferes with conservation priorities, in particular for species lacking adequate stock assessment. To enable extensive product comparisons, it is important to increase coverage of fish species by the global IUCN Red List, and to reconsider the appropriate assessment unit (species or stocks) in order to avoid false alarms.

  18. By-Catch Impacts in Fisheries: Utilizing the IUCN Red List Categories for Enhanced Product Level Assessment in Seafood LCAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornborg, Sara; Svensson, Mikael; Nilsson, Per; Ziegler, Friederike

    2013-11-01

    Overexploitation of fish stocks causes concern not only to fisheries managers and conservation biologists, but also engages seafood consumers; more integrated product perspectives would be useful. This could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA); however, further complements of present LCA methodology are needed to assess seafood production, one being by-catch impacts. We studied the scientific rationale behind using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ for assessment of impacts relating to fish species’ vulnerability. For this purpose, the current Red List status of marine fish in Sweden was compared to the advice given in fisheries as well as key life history traits known to indicate sensitivity to high fishing pressure. Further, we quantified the amount of threatened fish (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered) that was discarded in demersal trawl fisheries on the Swedish west coast. The results showed that not only did the national Red List of marine fish have a high consistency with advice given in fisheries and indices of vulnerability, the different fishing practices studied were also found to have vastly different amounts of threatened fish discarded per kilo landing. The suggested approach is therefore promising as a carrier of aggregated information on the extent to which seafood production interferes with conservation priorities, in particular for species lacking adequate stock assessment. To enable extensive product comparisons, it is important to increase coverage of fish species by the global IUCN Red List, and to reconsider the appropriate assessment unit (species or stocks) in order to avoid false alarms.

  19. A set of sustainability performance indicators for seafood : direct human consumption products from Peruvian anchoveta fisheries and freshwater aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Different seafood products based on Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) fisheries and freshwater aquaculture of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and black pacu (Colossoma macropomum), contribute at different scales to the socio-economic development, environmental degradation and nutrition of the Peruvian population. Various indicators have been used in the literature to assess the performance of these industries regarding different aspects of sustainability, notably ...

  20. The co-production of power and knowledge around the mussel fisheries transition in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Franke; Puente Rodriguez, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Governance practices are places where knowledge and power interconnect. In this paper, the stabilization of a governance practice concerning mussel fisheries in the Dutch Wadden Sea is described and analyzed in terms of the co-production of knowledge and power. In this governance practice,

  1. Chemical state of fission products in irradiated UO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, S.

    1986-08-01

    The chemical state of fission products in irradiated UO 2 fuel has been estimated for FBR as well as LWR on the basis of equilibrium calculation with the SOLGASMIX-PV code. The system considered for the calculation is composed of a gas phase, a CaF 2 type oxide phase, three grey phases, a noble metal alloy, a mixed telluride phase and several other phases each consisting of single compound. The distribution of elements into these phases and the amount of chemical species in each phase at different temperatures are obtained as a function of oxygen potential for LWR and FBR. Changes of the chemical potential of the fuel-fission products system during burnup are also evaluated with particular attention to the difference between LWR and FBR. Some informations obtained by the calculation are compared with the results of post irradiation examination of UO 2 fuels.

  2. Productivity and susceptibility analysis for species caught in Atlantic tuna fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Arrizabalaga, Haritz; De Bruyn, Paul; Diaz, Guillermo A.; Murua, Hilario; Chavance, Pierre; Delgado de Molina, Alicia; Gaertner, Daniel; Ariz, Javier; Ruiz, Jon; Kell, Laurence T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract - Ecological risk assessment is a useful methodology for assisting the management of fisheries from an ecosystem perspective. Atlantic tuna fisheries, managed by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), are economically important and interact with several bycatch species. In spite of these interactions, no comprehensive ecological risk assessment has been conducted for bycatch species caught in ICCAT fisheries. In this paper, we followed a two stag...

  3. Production of high melt strength polypropylene by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugão, A. B.; Artel, B. W. H.; Yoshiga, A.; Lima, L. F. C. P.; Parra, D. F.; Bueno, J. R.; Liberman, S.; Farrah, M.; Terçariol, W. R.; Otaguro, H.

    2007-11-01

    High melt strength polypropylene (HMS-PP) has been recently developed and introduced in the market by the major international producers of polypropylene. Therefore, BRASKEM, the leading Brazilian PP producer, together with EMBRARAD, the leading Brazilian gamma irradiator, and the IPEN (Institute of Nuclear Energy and Research) worked to develop a national technology for the production of HMS-PP. One of the effective approaches to improve melt strength and extensibility is to add chain branches onto polypropylene backbone using gamma radiation. Branching and grafting result from the radical combinations during irradiation process. Crosslinking and main chain scission in the polymer structure are also obtained during this process. In this work, gamma irradiation technique was used to induce chemical changes in commercial polypropylene with two different monomers, Tri-allyl-isocyanurate (TAIC) and Tri-methylolpropane-trimethacrylate (TMPTMA), with concentration ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 mmol/100 g of polypropylene. These samples were irradiated with a 60Co source at dose of 20 kGy. It used two different methods of HMS-PP processing. The crosslinking of modified polymers was studied by measuring gel content melt flow rate and rheological properties like melt strength and drawability. It was observed that the reaction method and the monomer type have influenced the properties. However, the concentration variation of monomer has no effect.

  4. Inland capture fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcomme, Robin L; Cowx, Ian G; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-09-27

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production.

  5. Fisheries productivity and its effects on the consumption of animal protein and food sharing of fishers' and non-fishers' families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Mikaelle Kaline Bezerra; de Melo, Clarissy Dinyz; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana Macedo

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the consumption of animal protein and food sharing among fishers' and non-fishers' families of the northeastern Brazilian coast. The diet of these families was registered through the 24-hour-recall method during 10 consecutive days in January (good fishing season) and June (bad fishing season) 2012. Fish consumption was not different between the fishers' and non-fishers' families, but varied according to fisheries productivity to both groups. Likewise, food sharing was not different between the two groups, but food was shared more often when fisheries were productive. Local availability of fish, more than a direct dependency on fisheries, determines local patterns of animal protein consumption, but a direct dependency on fisheries exposes families to a lower-quality diet in less-productive seasons. As such, fisheries could shape and affect the livelihoods of coastal villages, including fishers' and non-fishers' families.

  6. Fisheries economics and fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peder

    2013-01-01

    spent too much time on fundamentals in fisheries economics at the expense of the development of applicable models for fisheries managers? Of course, this question is relevant only IF fisheries economics and fisheries economists have a role to play in fisheries management.......Professor Rögnvaldur Hannesson's influence on the development and history of fisheries economics is unquestionable. Also, he has strongly pointed out the potential gains from a more active use of fisheries economics in fisheries management. In light of this, one may ask if fisheries economists have...

  7. Investigation of increased listeriosis revealed two fishery production plants with persistent Listeria contamination in Finland in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakari, U-M; Rantala, L; Pihlajasaari, A; Toikkanen, S; Johansson, T; Hellsten, C; Raulo, S M; Kuusi, M; Siitonen, A; Rimhanen-Finne, R

    2014-11-01

    In 2010, a marked increase in listeriosis incidence was observed in Finland. Listeria monocytogenes PFGE profile 96 was responsible for one-fifth of the reported cases and a cluster of PFGE profile 62 was also detected. Investigations revealed two fishery production plants with persistent Listeria contamination. It appears likely that the plants were at least partly responsible for the increase of listeriosis. Epidemiological investigation revealed that 57% (31/54) of cases with underlying immunosuppressive condition or medication reported eating gravad or cold-smoked fish. Two public notices were issued by THL and Evira informing which groups were most at risk from the effects of listeriosis and should therefore be cautious in consuming certain products. Systematic sampling of foods and adequate epidemiological investigation methods are required to identify the sources of Listeria infections. Continuous control measures at fishery production plants producing risk products are essential.

  8. Production of nuclear sources and nuclear batteries by proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, S

    2016-01-01

    The decay of instable nuclei is being used in a broad range of applications from detector calibration to power sources. As the public acceptance of classical fission nuclear technology is decaying and its integral costs are enormous, alternative production routes are required. The mathematical formalism and fundamental considerations are presented for the use of ion accelerators for isotope production. A focus is put on the production of nuclear power sources to substitute Pu-238 based batteries. 20 MeV protons are found to produce {\\alpha} emitting polonium isotopes from bismuth with an energy efficiency of up to 0.031%. Some hours are required to produce a 1Wth power source of the 2.9 year half-life {\\alpha} emitter Po-208 with a suitable accelerator. The accelerator approach offers more flexibility for tailoring of nuclear products and less waste. The technical requirements are close to and compatible with the planned International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility accelerator

  9. Production of gluconic acid by using some irradiated microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf S. Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate the potential fungal isolates have the ability for gluconic acid production by using some agro industrial byproducts as sugarcane molasses, banana-must and grape-must. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the most potent isolates and the fermentation conditions as pH, incubation temperature and incubation period was also investigated. Results showed that the most potential fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium puberulum and Penicillium frequentans whereas their gluconic acid production was 62.17, 56.25 and 39.69 g/L, respectively on Czapek's Dox media at 28 ± 1 °C, pH 6 for 7 days fermentation period. Irradiation of the three most potential isolates at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 kGy doses of gamma ray showed that 0.1 kGy dose caused an increase in gluconic acid production whereas it was 69.35, 60.17 and 40.31 g/L by the three potential isolates respectively. Data showed that utilization of sugarcane molasses, banana-must and grape-must as a sole carbon source in gluconic acid production by the three potential (0.1 kGy irradiated isolates at pH 6, 30 °C for a 7 days incubation period caused increasing in gluconic acid production whereas the productivity of the three (0.1 kGy irradiated isolates (A. niger, P. puberulum and P. frequentans was 69.87, 63.14 and 51.28 g/L by utilizing sugarcane molasses, 61.28, 56.37, 47.15 g/L by utilizing banana-must and 54.25, 52.75 and 44.75 g/L by utilizing grape-must.

  10. 76 FR 15841 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... the irradiation of meat and meat products, re-examined the findings reported in this study. As stated... also cites a second paper by the same researchers \\3\\ describing a study on feeding clams irradiated at... irradiation of molluscan shellfish will result in a product that is microbiologically safe. In support of this...

  11. THE EXISTENCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Vibrio cholerae IN SOME FISHERY PRODUCTS SOLD IN DENPASAR CITY TRADITIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Yogi Widyastana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out the existence of Vibrio cholerae, bacteria that may cause cholera disease, in some fishery products in Denpasar traditional market, Bali. This research used samples taken from three different fisheries products: tuna fishes (Euthynnus affinis, shrimps (Penaeus indicus, and shellfish (Anodonta sp.. They were taken from three traditional markets in Denpasar City: Ketapian, Kumbasari, and Pidada Markets. All samples were cultured on Alkaline Peptone Water (APW media, continued by Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS, and then Biochemical Test and Serology Test undertaken. The results of this study showed that two (7.4% samples taken from Ketapian Market were proved to be positive containing pathogenic bacteria of V. cholerae; they were the shrimps with UA2 code and the shellfish with KA2 code. Meanwhile, there were no V. cholerae contaminations proven to exist in two other kind of products in other two traditional markets.

  12. Bioethanol production from Ficus religiosa leaves using microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Miri; Griess, Ofir; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon

    2016-07-15

    A microwave assisted feasible process for the production of bioethanol from Ficus religiosa leaves was developed. Under the process conditions (8 min. microwave irradiation, 1 M HCl), 10.1 wt% glucose yield was obtained from the leaves. Microwave based hydrolysis process yielded higher glucose content (10.1 wt%) compared to the conventional hydrothermal process (4.1 wt%). Upon fermentation of the hydrolysate using Baker's yeast, 3 wt% (dry wt. basis) of bioethanol was produced.

  13. Temporal Trends and Hydrological Controls of Fisheries Production in the Madeira River (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. A.; Lima, M. A.; Doria, C.

    2016-12-01

    Amazonian river systems are characterized by a strongly seasonal flood pulse and important hydrologic effects have been observed in the dynamics of fish stocks and fishing yields. Changes in the Amazon's freshwater ecosystems from hydropower development will have a cascade of physical, ecological, and social effects and impacts on fish and fisheries are expected to be potentially irreversible. In this work we investigate shared trends and causal factors driving fish catch in the Madeira River (a major tributary of the Amazon) before dam construction to derive relationships between catch and natural hydrologic dynamics. We applied Dynamic Factor Analysis to investigate dynamics in fish catch across ten commercially important fish species in the Madeira River using daily fish landings data including species and total weight and daily hydrological data obtained from the Brazilian Geological Service. Total annual catch averaged over the 18-yr period (1990-2007) was 849 tons yr-1. Species with the highest catch included curimatã, dourada/filhote and pacu, highlighting the importance of medium and long-distance migratory species for fisheries production. We found a four-trend dynamic factor model (DFM) to best fit the observed data, assessed using the Akaike Information Criteria. Model goodness of fit was fair (R2=0.51) but highly variable across species (0.16 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.95). Fitted trends exhibited strong and regular year-to-year variation representative of the seasonal hydrologic pulsing observed on the Madeira River. Next, we considered 11 candidate explanatory time series and found the best DFM used four explanatory variables and only one common trend. While the model fit with explanatory variables was lower (R2=0.31) it removed much reliance on unknown common trends. The most important explanatory variable in this model was maximum water level followed by days flooded, river flow of the previous year and increment. We found unique responses to hydrological

  14. Characterization of Toxin Genes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Fishery Products in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfatahery, Noushin; Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Abedimohtasab, Taranehpeimaneh

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of seafood-borne diseases worldwide, which are attributable to the contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. In this study, a total of 206 (34.3%) Staphylococcus aureus strains were obtained from 600 fish and shrimp samples and were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility. We assessed the prevalence of the genes responsible for the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA, SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) genes. The results indicated that 34% of aqua food samples were contaminated with S. aureus, and 23.8% of these isolates were mec-A-positive. Sixty-four percent of the strains isolated from contaminated seafood was enterotoxigenic S. aureus, and 28.2% of SEs were MRSA-positive. The most prevalent genotype was characterized by the presence of the sea gene (45.2%), followed by the seb gene (18.5%), and the tst gene encoding TSST-1 was found in eight strains (3.9%). Of the 206 S. aureus isolates, 189 strains (84.9%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Given the frequent outbreaks of enterotoxigenic MRSA, it is necessary to make revisions to mandatory programmes to facilitate improved hygiene practices during fishing, aquaculture, processing, and sales to prevent the contamination of fishery products in Iran. PMID:27694813

  15. Validation of the Biofish-300 HIS Enzymatic Biosensor for the Detection of Histamine in Fishery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleres, Sandra; González, Irune; Arantzamendi, Alai; González, Roberto; Maza, Sonia; Jaureguibeitia, Arrate; Hungerford, James M; DeWitt, Christina A; Benner, Ronald A

    2016-09-01

    The Biofish-300 HIS method is a simple, reliable, and specific enzymatic biosensor for the detection of histamine. This technology is highly specific and selective and allows quantification of histamine in fishery products (fresh/frozen and processed) in a short time frame (2-3 min). Histamine in raw tuna, raw mackerel, raw sardine, raw anchovy, boiled tuna, canned tuna in water, canned tuna in oil, canned mackerel in tomato sauce, canned pickled sardine, and canned salted anchovy was analyzed using a water-based extract. Matrix-specific assay procedures and calibration curves were used to enable analyses to be carried out across multiple sample types. The performance of this assay was examined using samples that were naturally contaminated (reference materials and interlaboratory studies) and spiked with histamine. All data were judged against previously established acceptance criteria. Performance measures were evaluated for linearity, selectivity, matrix, lot consistency, and robustness. Results produced in all performance measures, except robustness, were within acceptable ranges. Out-of-range robustness results reflected deviation in sample volume compared to the standard assay procedures. Positive interferences from the presence of agmatine were shown.

  16. Enhanced hydrogen production of Enterobacter aerogenes mutated by nuclear irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Liu, Min; Song, Wenlu; Ding, Lingkan; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Li; Cen, Kefa

    2017-03-01

    Nuclear irradiation was used for the first time to generate efficient mutants of hydrogen-producing bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes, which were screened with larger colour circles of more fermentative acid by-products. E. aerogenes cells were mutated by nuclear irradiation of (60)Co γ-rays. The screened E. aerogenes ZJU1 mutant with larger colour circles enhanced the hydrogenase activity from 89.8 of the wild strain to 157.4mLH2/(gDWh). The hereditary stability of the E. aerogenes ZJU1 mutant was certified after over ten generations of cultivation. The hydrogen yield of 301mLH2/gglucose with the mutant was higher by 81.8% than that of 166mL/gglucose with the wild strain. The peak hydrogen production rate of 27.2mL/(L·h) with the mutant was higher by 40.9% compared with that of 19.3mL/(L·h) with the wild strain. The mutant produced more acetate and butyrate but less ethanol compared with the wild strain during hydrogen fermentation.

  17. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Sung Kee; Kand, Il Joon; Yook, Hong Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicochemical properties (saponin, amino acids, sugars, proximate composition, color, pH, acidity, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids and minerals) were not changed by gamma irradiation upto 10 kGy. Based upon the results, it is concluded that gamma irradiation can effectively improve the microbiological quality of red ginseng powders without significant unfavorable changes. Therefore, it is suggested that irradiation technology is a viable alternative method to other sanitary process containing chemical fumigant and will be useful for the improvement of the quality of red ginseng powders and their products. 5 figs, 18 tabs, 92 refs. (Author).

  18. Fumonisin production on irradiated corn kernels: effect of inoculum size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulze, S N; Etcheverry, M G; Lecumberry, S E; Magnoli, C E; Dalcero, A M; Ramirez, M L; Pascale, M; Rodriguez, M I

    1999-07-01

    Production of fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 by Fusarium moniliforme was evaluated on irradiated corn kernels inoculated with different spore concentrations (10, 10(2), 10(3), 10(5), and 10(6)), a water activity of 0.97, and a temperature of 25 degrees C. There was a direct relationship between the level of toxin produced and inoculum size. The highest levels of total fumonisin produced after 35 days of incubation were 5,028 and 9,063 ng/g at 10(5) and 10(6) spores per ml, respectively. The pattern of fumonisin production (FB1 > FB2 > FB3) in cultures growing from different inocula was not affected during the 35 days of incubation. The ratio between FB2 and FB1 varied from 0.15 to 0.42, whereas the ratio between FB3 and FB1 varied from 0.34 to 0.87.

  19. A Semantically Enabled Metadata Repository for Solar Irradiance Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Cox, M.; Lindholm, D. M.; Nadiadi, I.; Traver, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, LASP, has been conducting research in Atmospheric and Space science for over 60 years, and providing the associated data products to the public. LASP has a long history, in particular, of making space-based measurements of the solar irradiance, which serves as crucial input to several areas of scientific research, including solar-terrestrial interactions, atmospheric, and climate. LISIRD, the LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Data Center, serves these datasets to the public, including solar spectral irradiance (SSI) and total solar irradiance (TSI) data. The LASP extended metadata repository, LEMR, is a database of information about the datasets served by LASP, such as parameters, uncertainties, temporal and spectral ranges, current version, alerts, etc. It serves as the definitive, single source of truth for that information. The database is populated with information garnered via web forms and automated processes. Dataset owners keep the information current and verified for datasets under their purview. This information can be pulled dynamically for many purposes. Web sites such as LISIRD can include this information in web page content as it is rendered, ensuring users get current, accurate information. It can also be pulled to create metadata records in various metadata formats, such as SPASE (for heliophysics) and ISO 19115. Once these records are be made available to the appropriate registries, our data will be discoverable by users coming in via those organizations. The database is implemented as a RDF triplestore, a collection of instances of subject-object-predicate data entities identifiable with a URI. This capability coupled with SPARQL over HTTP read access enables semantic queries over the repository contents. To create the repository we leveraged VIVO, an open source semantic web application, to manage and create new ontologies and populate repository content. A variety of ontologies were used in

  20. Consequences of fisheries-induced evolution for population productivity and recovery potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuparinen, Anna; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2012-07-07

    Fisheries-induced evolution has become a major branch of the research on anthropogenic and contemporary evolution. Within the conservation context, fisheries-induced evolution has been hypothesized to negatively affect the persistence and recovery potential of depleted populations, but this has not been explicitly investigated. Here, we investigate how fisheries-induced evolution of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) life histories affects per capita population growth rate, a parameter negatively correlated with extinction risk. We simulate the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of a cod population for a 100 year period of size-selective harvesting, followed thereafter by 300 years of recovery. To evaluate the relative importance of harvest-induced evolution, we either allowed life histories to evolve during and after the fishing period, or we assumed that fisheries-induced evolution was absent. Population growth rates did not differ appreciably between the evolutionary and non-evolutionary simulation scenarios, despite the emergence of rather pronounced differences in life histories. The underlying reason was that in the absence of fishing the cumulative lifetime reproductive outputs were very similar among differing life histories. The results suggest that fisheries-induced evolution might not always have as clear-cut an effect on population growth rate as previously anticipated.

  1. Improvement of saccharification process for bioethanol production from Undaria sp. by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Don-Hee

    2012-08-01

    Recently, many research works have reported on improvements to the saccharification process that increase bioethanol production from cellulosic materials. Gamma irradiation has been studied as an effective method for the depolymerization of complex polysaccharides. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on saccharification of Undaria biomass for bioethanol production was investigated. The Undaria biomass was irradiated at doses of 0, 10, 50, 100, 200 and 500 kGy and then hydrolyzed using sulfuric acid. The effects of gamma irradiation were measured through microscopic analysis to determine morphological changes and concentration of the reducing sugar of hydrolysates. Microscopic images show that gamma irradiation causes structure breakage of the Undaria cell wall. The concentration of reducing sugar of hydrolysates significantly increased as a result of gamma irradiation, with or without acid hydrolysis. These results indicate that the combined method of gamma irradiation with acid hydrolysis can significantly improve the saccharification process for bioethanol production from marine algae materials.

  2. Summary of intensive monitoring for radionuclides in fishery products after Fukushima accident and comparison to the results of long term monitoring program in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Ken; Morita, Takami; Shigenobu, Yuya; Takagi, Kaori; Miki, Shizuho; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Ambe, Daisuke; Ono, Tsuneo [National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, 2-12-4, Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-8648 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Monitoring of artificial radionuclides in fishery products started in late 1950's and has over half a century history in Japan. Fisheries Agency (FA), Fisheries Research Agency (FRA) and prefectural organizations have been conducting the monitoring. The intensive monitoring of radioactive material in fishery products started in the late of March 2011 immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident for the coastal area faced to the Pacific Ocean in the eastern area of Japan and for the offshore area. The purpose of this monitoring is to avoid the distribution of fishery products containing radioactive cesium in concentration over the Japanese standard limit (Cs-134+Cs-137: 100 Bq/kg). Japanese monitoring data are opened to public on the FA's and FRA's web page. In this study, we resume the results of intensive monitoring started in 2011 and show the temporal change of concentration of radioactive cesium in fishery product. In Fukushima Prefecture, the ratio of samples exceeding the Japanese standard limit shows a steadily decreasing trend from 53% at Mar.- Jun. 2011 to below 3% at Jul. - Sep. 2013. In other prefectures, the ratio was 6.5% at Mar.- Jun. 2011 and fell gradually, and it has been below to 1% at Jul. - Sep. 2013. In presentation, we show the results of monitoring conducted in the coastal area and deeper water around Japan from long gamma ray measurements with ashed samples by high purified germanium gamma spectrometry. (authors)

  3. Structure and Dynamics of Fisheries in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The changes that have taken place in Nigerian fisheries are reviewed. Artisanal fishery has continued to dominate the fisheries, contributing over 85% of total fish production. The inland water and coastal seas are fully exploited and the increase in fishery production is not likely. Aquaculture potentials remain untapped as much as deep-sea fisheries. The combined potential of the fisheries resources-freshwater, marine and aquaculture can meet over 90% of the nation's demand for fish. Opportunities for investments, therefore, exist in the various subsectors, especially in the areas of storage, processing and preservation for the capture fishery and fish seed multiplication for aquaculture.

  4. Performance Comparison Between Logistic and Generalized Surplus-Production Models Applied to the Sillago sihama Fishery in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sher Khan Panhwar; LIU Qun; Shabir Ali Amir; Muhsan Ali Kalhoro

    2012-01-01

    The catch and effort data of Sillago sihama fishery in Pakistani waters were used to investigate the performance of two closely related stock assessment models:logistic and generalized surplus-production models.Compared with the generalized production model,the logistic model produced more reasonable estimates for parameters such as maximum sustainable yield.The Akaike's Information Criterion values estimated at 4.265 and-51.152 respectively by the logistic and generalized models.Simulation analyses of the S.sihama fishery showed that the estimated and observed abundance indices for the logistic model were closer than those for the generalized production model.Standardized residuals were distributed closer for logistic model,but exhibited a slightly increasing trend for the generalized model.Statistical outliers were seen in 1989 and 1993 for the logistic model,and in 1981 and 1999 for the generalized model.Simulated results revealed that the logistic estimates were close to the true value for low CVs(coefficients of variation)but widely dispersed for high CVs.In contrast,the generalized model estimates were loose for all CV levels.The estimated production model curve parameter φ was not reasonable at all the tested levels of white noise.With the increase in white noise R2 for the catch per unit effort decreased.Therefore,we conclude that the logistic model performs more reasonably than the generalized production model.

  5. Impacts of climate change on marine ecosystem production in societies dependent on fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barange, M.; Merino, G.; Blanchard, J.L.; Scholtens, J.; Harle, J.; Allison, E.H.; Allen, J.I.; Holt, J.; Jennings, S.

    2014-01-01

    Growing human populations and changing dietary preferences are increasing global demands for fish1, adding pressure to concerns over fisheries sustainability2. Here we develop and link models of physical, biological and human responses to climate change in 67 marine national exclusive economic zones

  6. 76 FR 20509 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Production, Processing, and Handling of Food AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... amend the regulations in part 179, Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food (21... in other previous rulemakings regarding the irradiation of food (see, e.g., 53 FR 53176 at...

  7. Post irradiation characterization of beryllium and beryllides after high temperature irradiation up to 3000 appm helium production in HIDOBE-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, A.V., E-mail: fedorov@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Postbus 25, Petten, 1755 ZG (Netherlands); Til, S. van; Stijkel, M.P. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Postbus 25, Petten, 1755 ZG (Netherlands); Nakamichi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho (Japan); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/ Josep Pla, n° 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, Barcelona 08019 (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Titanium beryllides are considered as advanced candidate material for neutron multiplier for the helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) and/or the water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) breeder blankets. In the HIDOBE-01 (HIgh DOse irradiation of BEryllium) experiment, beryllium and beryllide pellets with 5 at% and 7 at% Ti are irradiated at four different target temperatures (T{sub irr}): 425 °C, 525 °C, 650 °C and 750 °C up to the dose corresponding to 3000 appm He production in beryllium. The pellets were supplied by JAEA. During post irradiation examinations the critical properties of volumetric swelling and tritium retention were studied. Both titanium beryllide grades show significantly less swelling than the beryllium grade, with the difference increasing with the irradiation temperature. The irradiation induced swelling was studied by using direct dimensions. Both beryllide grades showed much less swelling as compare to the reference beryllium grade. Densities of the grades were studied by Archimedean immersion and by He-pycnometry, giving indications of porosity formation. While both beryllide grades show no significant reduction in density at all irradiation temperatures, the beryllium density falls steeply at higher T{sub irr}. Finally, the tritium release and retention were studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Beryllium shows the same strong tritium retention as earlier observed in studies on beryllium pebbles, while the tritium inventory of the beryllides is significantly less, already at the lowest T{sub irr} of 425 °C.

  8. Development of system for product tracking and data acquisition of data irradiation process in large gamma irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Jose R., E-mail: joseroberto.soares@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie. Escola de Engenharia. Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rela, Paulo R.; Costa, Fabio E., E-mail: prela@ipen.br, E-mail: fecosta@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The sterilization of medical care products using ionizing radiation is a consolidated technique. In Brazil there are in operation gamma irradiators with capacity between 0.37 PBq (10kCi) 185 PBq (5 MCi) using radioisotopes {sup 60}Co as radiation source. The developed work provides an accurate control and data acquisition for the application of good manufacturing practices during all phases of an irradiation process, required by the standards of ANVISA, technical ISO and IAEA recommendations for the treatment of foods and medical products. All the steps involved in the irradiation treatment are mapped into process flow (work flow), where each agent (participant) has its systematized tasks. The automatic data process acquisition using wireless ZigBee technology, monitoring and control, are based on a set of tools (free software licenses) integrated by a network of efficient communication, including the use of Web resources. Using the Gamma Irradiator Multipurpose IPEN/CNEN-SP all the development was performed to be applied in irradiators' facilities operating in industrial scale. The system enables a complete traceability of the process, in real time, for any participant and also the storage of the corresponding records to be audited. (author)

  9. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes; a food irradiation study on radiation induced stress in vegetable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation is a recent preservation method. With the aid of ionizing radiation microorganisms in food can be killed or specific physiological processes in vegetable products can be influenced.

    In order to study the effects of metabolic radiation stress on quantitative chemical changes in

  10. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes (a food irradiation study on radiation-induced stress in vegetable products)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation is a recent preservation method. With the aid of ionizing radiation microorganisms in food can be killed or specific physiological processes in vegetable products can be influenced.In order to study the effects of metabolic radiation stress on quantitative chemical changes in vegetable p

  11. PROCESS FOR CONTINUOUSLY SEPARATING IRRADIATION PRODUCTS OF THORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, L.P.; Miles, F.T.; Sheehan, T.V.; Wiswall, R.H.; Heus, R.J.

    1959-07-01

    A method is presented for separating uranium-233 and protactinium from thorium-232 containing compositions which comprises irradiating finely divided particles of said thorium with a neutron flux to form uranium-233 and protactinium, heating the neutron-irradiated composition in a fluorine and hydrogen atmosphere to form volatile fluorides of uranium and protactinium and thereafter separating said volatile fluorides from the thorium.

  12. Pilot Scale Production of Irradiated Natural Rubber Latex and its Dipping Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Utama

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and fifty kg natural rubber latex (NRL before and after concentration were added with 3 phr (part hundred ratio of rubber normal butyl acrylate, then the mixture were irradiated at 25 kGy by gamma rays of 60Co in pilot scale. The irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL were then being to use for producing rubber products such as condom, surgical gloves, and spygmomanometer in factory scale. The quality of INRL and rubber products such as : total solid content (TSC, dry rubber content (DRC, KOH, VFA and MST number, tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, extractable protein content, and response against Type I allergy etc. were evaluated. The economic aspect for producing INRL by means of Gamma Irradiator (GI and Electron Beam Machine (EBM such as payback period (PP, net present value (NPV and internal rate return (IRR were calculated. The results showed that the latex properties of INRL such as DRC, TSC, KOH, VFA, and MST number are not only found to the requirement of the ISO 2004 standard but also the latex has low protein, lipid, and carbohydrate content. The physical and mechanical properties (tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break of rubber dipping products such as condom, gloves, and sphygmomanometer are not only found to the requirement of ISO 4074, ISO 10282, and ANSI/AAMI SP-1994 standards, but also the allergic response tested clinical latex-sensitive protein allergen by ELISA test on gloves, and by SPT test on condom are found to be negative. It indicates that production of INRL or PVNRL or RVNRL by EBM 250 keV/10 mA, was more cheap than by using gamma γ irradiator 200 kCi, or sulfur vulcanization. The value of PBP (payback period was 2,1 years, NPV (net present value was 4,250 US $, PI (profitability index 1,06 and IRR (internal rate of returns was 25,0%.

  13. Degradation products of mangiferin by gamma irradiation with inhibitory effects on NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun; Yoon, Kyung Young; Jang, Eun Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2016-10-01

    The xanthone glucoside mangiferin (1) was converted by γ-irradiation into three new compounds, mangiferdiol (2), mangiferinol (3), and isomangiferinol (4). The new compound 2 containing two hydroxymethyl groups instead of a ketone moiety exhibited significantly improved inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with IC50 value 47.1 ± 1.7 μM, compared to the mother mangiferin.

  14. PEMANFAATAN HASIL PERIKANAN SEBAGAI PRODUK BERNILAI TAMBAH (VALUE-ADDED DALAM UPAYA PENGANEKARAGAMAN PANGAN [Utilization of Fishery Products with Added Value to Support Food Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Winarni Agustini

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of fishery products efficiently and cooperatively is important to improve esthetical value of the products. Diversification of fishery products is possible to be implemented, both vertically and horizontally. Understanding of their processing technology is very important for fish processors in order to produce healthy products and highly accepted by consumers.In accordance to the government policy about National Food Safety Programs, one of which is to improve the production of processed food, the diversification of fishery processing should be pointed to very focus condition. The consumption of fish is still low in Indonesia ( 21.69 kg per capita per year, while the fishery resources are abundance. Therefore, efforts in increasing consumption of fish by the consumer to reach the target of the national program i.e. 26.5 kg/capita/year are needed. Production of “Value-added” by diversification method is aimed not only to improve consumption but also to create appetizing products for the consumers. Some examples of “Value Added” product that are becoming popular nowadays include: fish ball, milk fish pressed-cooked, fish nuggets, fish sausage, ekado fish, aji furai, etc. Some products had been sold by home industries but is still possible to produce in industrial scale. The raw material used can be from marine or cultured fish and also frozen surimi, that are potential to be implemented in Indonesia.

  15. Effects of irradiation source and dose level on quality characteristics of processed meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Yun-Sang; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of irradiation source (gamma-ray, electron-beam, and X-ray) and dose levels on the physicochemical, organoleptic and microbial properties of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was studied, during 10 days of storage at 30±1 °C. The processed meat products were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy by three different irradiation sources. The pH of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was unaffected by irradiation sources or their doses. The redness of beef patties linearly decreased with increasing dose level (P0.05), while gamma-ray irradiated beef patties showed significantly decreased overall acceptability in a dose-dependent manner (Pmeat products, in particular color, lipid oxidation, and microbial properties are significantly influenced by the irradiation sources.

  16. Effect of Light Intensities and Atmospheric Gas Conditions on Biohydrogen Production of Microalgae Isolated from Fisheries Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujalin Pholchan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the fishery farming industry has been developed rapidly due to increasing demand and consumption as well as the depletion of wild fish resources. Production processes in the industry usually generate large amounts of wastewater containing high nutrients, posing a threat to downstream water. However, phytoplankton removal techniques commonly used to counteract the threat, though appearing to have low efficiency, are timeconsuming and less sustainable. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that convert solar energy into hydrogen. Using the isolated algae from fish farms as a source of renewable energy production could be a promising choice for handling fisheries wastewater in a more efficient manner. However, hydrogen production processes from algae still need more studies as their efficiencies vary between algae species and growth factors. In this work, the efficiency of hydrogen production from Scenedesmus accuminatus and Arthrospira platensis harvested from fish farms under three different light intensity conditions and three atmospheric gas conditions was determined. The results showed that the best conditions for hydrogen production from both species included 24 h darkness and carbon dioxide addition. Under the atmospheric gas combination of 99% argon and 1% carbon dioxide, S. accuminatus could produce hydrogen gas as high as 0.572 mol H2/mgCh h within 12 h, while the highest hydrogen production (0.348 mol H2/mgCh h obtained from A. platensis was found under the atmospheric gas mixture of 98% argon and 2% carbon dioxide. Interestingly, S. accuminatus appeared to produce more hydrogen than A. platensis under the same conditions.

  17. Impact of irradiation on the safety and quality of poultry and meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Corliss A; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C; Olson, Dennis G

    2008-05-01

    For more than 100 years research on food irradiation has demonstrated that radiation will make food safer and improve the shelf life of irradiated foods. Using the current food safety technology, we may have reached the point of diminishing returns even though recent figures from the CDC show a significant drop in the number of foodborne illnesses. However, too many people continue to get sick and die from eating contaminated food. New and under utilized technologies such as food irradiation need to be re-examined to achieve new levels of safety for the food supply. Effects of irradiation on the safety and quality of meat and poultry are discussed. Irradiation control of the principle microbial pathogens including viruses, the differences among at-risk sub-populations, factors affecting the diminished rate of improvement in food safety and published D values for irradiating raw meat and poultry are presented. Currently permitted levels of irradiation are probably not sufficient to control pathogenic viruses. Typical gram-negative spoilage organisms are very sensitive to irradiation. Their destruction leads to a significant increase in the acceptable shelf life. In addition, the destruction of these normal spoilage organisms did not provide a competitive growth advantage for irradiation injured food pathogens. Another of the main focuses of this review is a detailed compilation of the effects of most of the food additives that have been proposed to minimize the negative quality effect of irradiation. Most of the antimicrobials and antioxidants used singly or in combination produced an increased lethality of irradiation and a decrease in oxidation by-products. Combinations of dosage, temperature, dietary and direct additives, storage temperature and packaging atmosphere can produce meats that the average consumer will find indistinguishable from non-irradiated meats. A discussion of the production of unique radiological by-products is also included.

  18. Calculation of Production and Decay of Radio Isotopes for Future Irradiation Experiments and Ion Bea

    CERN Document Server

    M. Eller, J. Lettry, R. Catherall, T. Stora

    The design of future radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities requires the forecast of radio isotope inventory after irradiation. At CERN ISOLDE we developed a software tool that estimates the roduction and activation of materials for ISOLDE radioactive waste anagement. The tool can also be used in the design of new RIB facilities, for licensing procedures, for irradiation experiments and the estimation of production yields.

  19. Use of gamma irradiation to prevent aflatoxin B 1 production in smoked dried fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbadu, G. H.

    Smoked dried fish bought from the Nigerian market was inoculated with spores of barAspergillus flavus (U.I. 81) and irradiated with doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 KGy gamma irradiation. The effect of aflatoxin B 1 production on subsequent incubation for 8 days as stationary cultures was measured. The amount of aflatoxin B 1 produced was found to decrease with increased gamma irradiation dose levels. While the non-irradiated control produced significantly (at 1% level) greater amounts of aflatoxin B 1 as compared to the treated cultures.

  20. Procedure for Process Management in supply chain of fisheries products. Application in the "Empresa Pesquera Sancti Spíritus".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenisel Machín León

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The general procedure for managing supply chains by processes of fishery products in steak chain of Claria, increases levels of reliability of its component processes and its effectiveness, and impacts on the level of customer service. With the diagnosis, is defined and identified logistics processes and maturity profiles of these, with the use of Quality Function Deployment, Analysis and Failure Mode Effects and principles of the SCOR model. Surveys were used, brainstorming and interviews to gather information. The research gives a priority for process management of supply chain and logistics management, according to the reliability and criticality of the processes associated with certain level of maturity, quality customer service and decision making, depending on the nature process of being analyzed. The paper shows the feasibility of implementing the first phase of the general procedure to manage supply chains by processes of flow production, and the gradual deterioration of technology. It is made an improvement proposal.

  1. Application of EPR spectroscopy to identify irradiated Indian medicinal plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Chatterjee, S; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2012-06-01

    A study of gamma-irradiated Indian medicinal plant products was carried out using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Improved approaches like high-power measurement, microwave saturation, and thermal behavior of the radicals were explored for detection of irradiation. Aswagandha (Withania somnifera), vairi (Salacia reticulata), amla (Emblica officinalis), haldi (Curcumin longa), and guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) exhibited a weak singlet at g = 2.005 before irradiation. Aswagandha, immediately after radiation treatment, revealed a complex EPR spectrum characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique as superposition of 3 paramagnetic centers. One group of signal with organic origin was carbohydrate and cellulose radical and the other was isotropic signal of inorganic origin (g⟂ =2.0044 and g|| = 1.9980). However, other products did not exhibit any radiation-specific signal after irradiation. Power saturation and thermal behavior techniques were not suitable for these products. However, amongst all the 3 approaches, high-power measurement of EPR spectra emerged as a suitable technique in identification of the irradiated aswagandha. Gamma-irradiation confirms hygienic quality and improves shelf life of food and other products. However, there is a lack of international consensus over considering this as a general application and different regulations are being enforced. EPR is one of the most promising techniques to identify irradiated foodstuffs for regulatory requirements but it has many limitations. Improved approaches based on the EPR technique explained in this study may be useful to identify irradiated products and become beneficial to food regulators and food irradiation enterprises to enhance confidence in irradiation technology. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Supply regimes in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extremes......-economic supply model with mesh sizes is developed. It is found that in the presence of realistic management schemes, the supply curves are close to vertical in the relevant range. Also, the supply curve under open access with mesh size limitations is almost vertical in the relevant range, owing to constant...... recruitment. The implications are that the effects on supply following from e.g. trade liberalisation and reductions of subsidies are small in several and probably most fisheries worldwide. Keywords: backward-bending supply, regulated open access, regulated restricted access, mesh size regulation, Beverton...

  3. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7{alpha}- and 7{beta}- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions.

  4. Enhanced aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus and aspergillus flavus after low dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1992-09-01

    Spores of Aspergillus parasiticus IFO 30179 and A. flavus var. columnaris S46 were irradiated at 0.05, 0.2 and 0.4 kGy in the synthetic low salts (SL) broth, and the effect on aflatoxin production was examined after 10 days incubation at 30 or 25degC. In these two strains, irradiation of spores at 0.05 kGy resulted in higher B1 or G1 production than the non-irradiated controles. However, spores of the both strains irradiated at 0.2 or 0.4 kGy produced less aflatoxins than non-irradiated controles. In the SL broth, apparent stimulation by low dose irradiation was slight, and these enhanced effects were not observed after reinfection to fresh SL broth. In the case of food samples, the levels of aflatoxin B[sub 1] and G[sub 1] with A. parasiticus were increased from 15 to 90% by incubation of irradiated spores at 1 kGy in autoclaved polished rice, black pepper, white pepper and red pepper. These enhancement would be induced by change of composition in each substrates. Mutations of fungi induced by irradiation is not effective for enhancement of aflatoxin production. (author).

  5. Improvement of foaming ability of egg white product by irradiation and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Binna; Choe, Jun-Ho; Jung, Samooel [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Ho [Radiation Research Center for Bio-Technology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-03-15

    To investigate the enhancement of foaming abilities of liquid egg white (LEW) and egg white powder (EWP) by irradiation and its application for bakery product, LEW and EWP were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 5 kGy by Co-60 gamma ray. There was no pH change found among treatments in both LEW and EWP. The viscosity of LEW decreased significantly by irradiation (P<0.05), whereas that of EWP was not affected by irradiation. The foaming ability of LEW and EWP was significantly increased by irradiation as a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The volume and the height of angel cake baked with irradiated LEW were significantly higher than those of unirradiated control (P<0.05). For EWP, the volume and the height of angel cake were greater at 2 kGy only than those of control. A significant decrease in hardness, chewiness, and gumminess values and an increase in Hunter L* value were observed in the angel cakes prepared from irradiated egg white products (P<0.05). Results indicated that irradiation of egg white could offer advantages in increasing foaming ability and improving quality of final bakery products.

  6. Improvement of shelf stability and processing properties of meat products by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Lee, K.-H.; Kim, H.-Y

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the processing properties of meat products, emulsion-type sausage, beef patties and pork loin ham were manufactured. Most contaminated bacteria were killed by 3 kGy-irradiation to raw ground beef, and sausage can be manufactured with desirable flavor, a reduction of NaCl and phosphate, and extension of shelf life using gamma irradiation on the raw meat. The beef patties were manufactured with the addition of antioxidants (200 ppm), BHA, ascorbyl palmitate, {alpha}-tocopherol, or {beta}-carotene, and gamma-irradiation. Retardation of lipid oxidation appeared at the patties with an antioxidant. A dose of 5 kGy was observed to be as effective as the use of 200 ppm NaNO{sub 2} to provide and maintain the desired color of the product during storage. After curing, irradiation, heating and smoking could extensively prolong the shelf life of the hams.

  7. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods - Detection method for radiolytic products of irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Su; Kim, Sun Min; Park, Eun Ryong; Lee, Hae Jung; Kim, Eun Ah; Jo, Jung Ok [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    Meat (beef, pork, chicken) and nut (sesame, perilla, black sesame, peanut) were irradiated with /sup 60/Co gamma-ray. A process to detect radiation-induced hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones includes the extraction of fat from meat and nut, separation of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones with a florisil column and identification of GC/MS methods. Concentrations of the produced hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones tended to increase linearly with the dose levels of irradiation in beef, pork and chicken, while concentrations of radiation-induced hydrocarbons were different individually at the same dose level. In meat, hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones originated from oleic acid were found in a large amount. The concentrations of radiation-induced hydrocarbons were relatively constant during 16 weeks. In nut, hydrocarbons originated from oleic acid and linoleic acid were the major compounds whereas results of perilla was similar to meat. Radiation-induced hydrocarbons were increased linearly with the irradiation dose and remarkably detected at 0.5 kGy and over. 44 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs. (Author)

  8. Production and characterization of antibodies against irradiated human erythrocytes membrane proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amancio, Francisco F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]|[Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Inst. de Medicina Tropical

    1997-12-01

    Gamma irradiation affects people in several situations, with few if any sensitive biological assay of its action. Nucleic acids and proteins are affected by radiation, but only the former was used in most dosimetric techniques. The irradiation of proteins promotes structural modifications attributed to free radicals from water radiolysis. Theoretically, antibodies induced by irradiated proteins could recognize these radical-related new epitopes, allowing their use as a probe. Human erythrocyte membrane proteins (HEMP), few and well defined molecules, are certainly exposed to radiation, being the ideal target. With this rationale, we study the production of antibodies in mice immunized with {sup 60} Co irradiated HEMPs. Menbranes from hypotonic lysis with differential centrifugation of A+ erythrocytes, were irradiated in a Gammacell 220 with 400, 800 and 1600 Gy, and used as immunogen for Balb/c mice, after SDS-PAGE. Irradiated HEMP induced antibodies recognize only irradiated human erthrocytes in an intact cell indirect immunofluorescence assay (ICIIFA). When used in Wester-blot against non-irradiated HEMPs, those sera recognize most proteins, suggesting a pool of abs directed both to native, as detected by Western Blot, or irradiated, as detected by ICIFA, HEMPs. Those data confirmed our assumptions, allowing the use of those abs in the search for a method of biological dosimetry. (author). 18 refs., 3 figs.

  9. [Rapid screen of 15 basic artificial dyes in fishery products by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Dai, Yifei; Wang, Pingya; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Qiaoling; Jiang, Lingbo; Luo, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    A new method was established for the simultaneous determination of 15 basic artificial dyes in fishery products by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF MS). The analytes in fishery products were extracted with acetonitrile containing 10% (v/v) acetic acid, then purified by dispersive solid phase extraction with C18-silicone adsorbent. The compounds were separated by a C18 column with acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution as the mobile phases, and measured by UPLC-Q-TOF MS with electrospray ionization in positive mode. As a result, the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) of the 15 target compounds were 0.1-100 μg/kg in fishery products. The 15 analytes behaved linearly in their respective ranges with the correlation coefficients no less than 0.993. The average recoveries of the 15 analytes spiked at three levels were ranged from 80.60% to 107.37% with the RSDs of 3.33%-6. 69% (n = 6). This method is suitable for routine qualitative and quantitative analyses of the 15 basic artificial dyes in fishery products due to its fastness, simplicity and relatively high sensitivity.

  10. Forecasting Plant Productivity and Health Using Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratios Extracted from the OMI Aerosol Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are a major contributor to diffuse irradiance. This Candidate Solution suggests using the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) aerosol product as input into a radiative transfer model, which would calculate the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance at the Earth s surface. This ratio can significantly influence the rate of photosynthesis in plants; increasing the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance can accelerate photosynthesis, resulting in greater plant productivity. Accurate values of this ratio could be useful in predicting crop productivity, thereby improving forecasts of regional food resources. However, disagreements exist between diffuse-to-global irradiance values measured by different satellites and ground sensors. OMI, with its unique combination of spectral bands, high resolution, and daily global coverage, may be able to provide more accurate aerosol measurements than other comparable sensors.

  11. Fisheries and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Fish stocks and the fisheries based on them have always experienced variability due to climate. Changes in temperature, salinity, winds, ocean currents, oxygen, and other factors affect their distribution, growth, survival, and recruitment. Examples of such effects are given for several regions...... of the oceans and the processes are described. Poleward distribution shifts have occurred since the 1960s and can be attributed to the effects of anthropogenic climate change with a high degree of confidence. In addition to climate effects, fisheries are subjected to other anthropogenic stresses, including high...... fishing mortality, loss of habitat, pollution, and introduction of alien species. These interact and may reduce the resilience of exploited stocks, although climate change may also increase productivity in some cases. Fisheries production depends on primary production, but to date we have low confidence...

  12. Fisheries and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Fish stocks and the fisheries based on them have always experienced variability due to climate. Changes in temperature, salinity, winds, ocean currents, oxygen, and other factors affect their distribution, growth, survival, and recruitment. Examples of such effects are given for several regions...... of the oceans and the processes are described. Poleward distribution shifts have occurred since the 1960s and can be attributed to the effects of anthropogenic climate change with a high degree of confidence. In addition to climate effects, fisheries are subjected to other anthropogenic stresses, including high...... fishing mortality, loss of habitat, pollution, and introduction of alien species. These interact and may reduce the resilience of exploited stocks, although climate change may also increase productivity in some cases. Fisheries production depends on primary production, but to date we have low confidence...

  13. Nanoparticle production by UV irradiation of combustion generated soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipe, Christopher B.; Choi, Jong Hyun; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.; Sawyer, Robert F.

    2004-07-01

    Laser ablation of surfaces normally produce high temperature plasmas that are difficult to control. By irradiating small particles in the gas phase, we can better control the size and concentration of the resulting particles when different materials are photofragmented. Here, we irradiate soot with 193 nm light from an ArF excimer laser. Irradiating the original agglomerated particles at fluences ranging from 0.07 to 0.26 J/cm{sup 2} with repetition rates of 20 and 100 Hz produces a large number of small, unagglomerated particles, and a smaller number of spherical agglomerated particles. Mean particle diameters from 20 to 50 nm are produced from soot originally having a mean electric mobility diameter of 265nm. We use a non-dimensional parameter, called the photon/atom ratio (PAR), to aid in understanding the photofragmentation process. This parameter is the ratio of the number of photons striking the soot particles to the number of the carbon atoms contained in the soot particles, and is a better metric than the laser fluence for analyzing laser-particle interactions. These results suggest that UV photofragmentation can be effective in controlling particle size and morphology, and can be a useful diagnostic for studying elements of the laser ablation process.

  14. Irradiation effect on bulgogi sauce for making commercial Korean traditional meat product, bulgogi[Bulgogi; Traditional meat products; Irradiation; Safety; Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, C.; Kim, D.H.; Shin, M.G.; Kang, I.J.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-12-01

    Gamma-irradiated sauce of bulogogi, Korean traditional meat products, was compared with heat-pasteurized one to enhance its safety, quality, and commercial availability. The sauce is usually sold in refrigerated state with 2-7 days of self-life or heat-sterilized and sold in room temperature for a year. Raw vegetables, fruits and soy sauce for sauce making were highly contaminated by thermophillic microorganisms (totally 2.13x10{sup 6} CFU/g) and coliform bacteria (totally 5.90x10{sup 4} CFU/g) at the initial stage. Heat treatment (100 deg. C for 30 min) was effective to control coliform and microbes counted from Salmonella-Shigella selective agar in the sauce but not on thermophillic microorganisms, resulting in a rapid spoilage after 2 weeks at 20 deg. C. Gamma irradiation reduced the level of thermophillic microorganisms and the spoilage was prevented during storage for 4 weeks at 20 deg. C. Protease activity of the sauce was significantly reduced by heat treatment while was not changed by irradiation at 2.5, 5.0, and 10 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed that the irradiation was better in color than nonirradiated control or heat-treated sample. Results indicate that low dose irradiation (2.5-5.0 kGy) is effective to ensure safety of bulgogi sauce with acceptable sensory quality.

  15. UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and interleukin-1αindirectly increase MAP kinase/AP-1 activation and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yong; BI Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    Background Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by activating cellular signalling transduction pathways. MMPs are responsible for the degradation and/or inhibition of synthesis of collagenous extracellular matrix in connective tissues. We mimicked the action of environmental ultraviolet on skin and investigated the effects of UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes HaCaT and IL-1α on mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, c-Jun and c-Fos (AP-1 is composed of Jun and Fos proteins)mRNA expression and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts.Methods Following UVA irradiation, the culture medium of fibroblasts was replaced by culture medium from UVB-irradiated HaCaT, or replaced by the complete culture medium with interleukin (IL)-1α. MAP kinase activity expression in fibroblasts was detected by Western blot. c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expressions were determined by reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); MMP-1 production in culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Culture medium from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts. IL-1α increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression,IL-1 α also increased c-Fos mRNA expression. Both culture media from UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and externally applied IL-1 α increased MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts.Conclusions UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and IL-1α indirectly promote MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts by increasing MAP kinase/AP-1 activity. IL-1 may play an important role in the paracrine activation and dermal collagen excessive degradation leading to skin photoaging.

  16. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  17. Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshonas, M.G.; Shaw, P.E.

    1982-05-01

    Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 50-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine.

  18. STATE SUPPORT IN FISHERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jahutka

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available By passing the law on state support in agriculture, fishery and forestry the former support system has been changed. Fishery support beneficiaries can use several kinds of support and help. Former financial stimulations for fishery regulated by law from 1995 to 1st January 2003 were settled by the production stimulation model. Besides that well received model, there are the capital investment model, the support in production insurance, the right to use blue diesel, and granting credit for production of freshwater and saltwater fry, adult fish and shells. These five models of support and help can be used by freshwater and saltwater fish and shell breeders, while for fishing the marine fish the production stimulation model is applied (fishing of small pelagic fish, as well as the capital investment model and right to use blue diesel. Marine and freshwater processors can use the production stimulation and the capital investment model. All these models have in common the fact that all physical and legal entities registered for fishing activities (having licence for commercial fishery, aquaculture (the licence for aquaculture or the one for fish and other marine organisam breeding and processing (having the regulated veterinarian and sanitary conditions, the registration document and having been registered in the List of approved facilities have the right to use them.

  19. Productivity of Chlorella sorokiniana in a short light-path (SLP) panel photobioreactor under high irradiance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Vilchez, C.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Maximal productivity of a 14 mm light-path panel photobioreactor under high irradiance was determined. Under continuous illumination of 2,100 µmol photons m-2 s-1 with red light emitting diodes (LEDs) the effect of dilution rate on photobioreactor productivity was studied. The light intensity used

  20. Productivity of Chlorella sorokiniana in a short light-path (SLP) panel photobioreactor under high irradiance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Vilchez, C.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Maximal productivity of a 14 mm light-path panel photobioreactor under high irradiance was determined. Under continuous illumination of 2,100 µmol photons m-2 s-1 with red light emitting diodes (LEDs) the effect of dilution rate on photobioreactor productivity was studied. The light intensity used i

  1. Productions of hollow atoms from solids irradiated by high intensity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moribayashi, K.; Sasaki, A.; Zhidkov, A. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The production of hollow atoms through the collisions of fast electrons with a solid is studied. These electrons are produced by high-intensity short-pulse laser irradiation on a solid. The inner-shell ionization and excitation processes by the fast electron impact are investigated. It is found that ionization processes give more significant contribution to the production of hollow atoms. (orig.)

  2. Marine fisheries in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on physical characteristics of Jordanian durum wheat and quality of semolina and lasagna products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzeh, F.S. [Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Queen-Rania, Amman (Jordan)], E-mail: firasazzeh@yahoo.com; Amr, A.S. [Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Queen-Rania, Amman (Jordan)

    2009-09-15

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of using varying gamma irradiation doses on the physiochemical and rheological properties of semolina and its products. Ash, protein and water content were not influenced with gamma irradiation, while falling number and fungi counts decreased with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation adversely affected wet gluten at 5 kGy dose. Dough stability was deteriorated vigorously with increasing irradiation dose. Sensory evaluation showed that lasagna produced from 0.25- and 1 kGy-irradiated semolina did not show any significant differences as compared with the control sample.

  4. Operational high latitude surface irradiance products from polar orbiting satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godøy, Øystein

    2016-12-01

    It remains a challenge to find an adequate approach for operational estimation of surface incoming short- and longwave irradiance at high latitudes using polar orbiting meteorological satellite data. In this presentation validation results at a number of North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean high latitude stations are presented and discussed. The validation results have revealed that although the method works well and normally fulfil the operational requirements, there is room for improvement. A number of issues that can improve the estimates at high latitudes have been identified. These improvements are partly related to improved cloud classification using satellite data and partly related to improved handling of multiple reflections over bright surfaces (snow and sea ice), especially in broken cloud conditions. Furthermore, the availability of validation sites over open ocean and sea ice is a challenge.

  5. 27 CFR 28.22 - Vessels employed in the fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fisheries. 28.22 Section 28.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Lading for Use on Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 28.22 Vessels employed in the fisheries. Liquors may be... the fisheries, only for use on vessels of the United States documented to engage in the fisheries...

  6. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program, Part B; Limnology, Primary Production, and Zooplankton in Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, John; Spotts, Jim; Underwood, Keith

    2002-11-01

    The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program is the result of a merger between two projects, the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program (BPA No. 8806300) and the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project (BPA No. 9404300). These projects were merged in 1996 to continue work historically completed under the separate projects, and is now referred to as the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program. The 1998 Annual Report, Part B. Limnology, Primary Production, and Zooplankton in Lake Roosevelt, Washington examined the limnology, primary production, and zooplankton at eleven locations throughout the reservoir. The 1998 research protocol required a continuation of the more complete examination of limnological parameters in Lake Roosevelt that began in 1997. Phytoplankton and periphyton speciation, phytoplankton and periphyton chlorophyll a analysis, complete zooplankton biomass analysis by taxonomic group, and an increased number of limnologic parameters (TDG, TDS, etc.) were examined and compared with 1997 results. Total dissolved gas levels were greatly reduced in 1998, compared with 1997, likely resulting from the relatively normal water year experienced in 1998. Mean water temperatures were similar to what was observed in past years, with a maximum of 22.7 C and a minimum of 2.6 C. Oxygen concentrations were also relatively normal, with a maximum of 16.6 mg/L, and a minimum of 0.9 mg/L. Phytoplankton in Lake Roosevelt was primarily composed of microplankton (29.6%), Cryptophyceae (21.7%), and Bacillriophyceae (17.0 %). Mean total phytoplankton chlorophyll a maximum concentration occurred in May (3.53 mg/m{sup 3}), and the minimum in January (0.39 mg/m{sup 3}). Phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations appear to be influenced by hydro-operations and temperature. Trophic status as indicated by phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations place Lake Roosevelt in the oligomesotrophic range. Periphyton colonization rates and biovolume were significantly greater at a depth

  7. Production of a thermal stress resistant mutant Euglena gracilis strain using Fe-ion beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Koji; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Marukawa, Yuka; Arashida, Ryo; Abe, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kengo

    2016-08-01

    Euglena gracilis is a common phytoplankton species, which also has motile flagellate characteristics. Recent research and development has enabled the industrial use of E. gracilis and selective breeding of this species is expected to further expand its application. However, the production of E. gracilis nuclear mutants is difficult because of the robustness of its genome. To establish an efficient mutation induction procedure for E. gracilis, we employed Fe-ion beam irradiation in the RIKEN RI beam factory. A decrease in the survival rate was observed with the increase in irradiation dose, and the upper limit used for E. gracilis selective breeding was around 50 Gy. For a practical trial of Fe-ion irradiation, we conducted a screening to isolate high-temperature-tolerant mutants. The screening yielded mutants that proliferated faster than the wild-type strain at 32 °C. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation on E. gracilis selective breeding.

  8. Same stock, different management: quantifying the sustainability of three shrimp fisheries in the Skagerrak from a product perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Friederike S.; Hornborg, Sara; Valentinsson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    2014, the World Wildlife Fund gave all Skagerrak shrimp a red light in their seafood consumer guide, which led to an extensive debate, especially in Sweden, about the sustainability of this fishery. The aim of this study was to quantify a set of indicators that together give a broad picture...... of the sustainability of the three fisheries to provide an objective basis for a discussion on needed measures. The different indicators concerned environmental, economic or social aspects of sustainability and were quantified per tonne of shrimp landed by each country in 2012. The Danish fishery was most efficient...

  9. Monitoring of the morphologic reconstruction of deposited ablation products in laser irradiation of silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and IR spectroscopy, it was established that, in the regime of continuous laser irradiation of silicon at P = 170 W in different gaseous atmospheres with an oxygen impurity, SiOx composite films with a complex morphology form. The main components of ablation products are clusters that form during flight of ablation products and as a result of separation of SiOx-clusters from the zone of the irradiation channel. The roughness and density of the films depend on the heating temperature of the target surface and the type of deposited clusters.

  10. Effect of /sup 60/Co-irradiation on penicillin G procaine in veterinary mastitis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, K.; Goetz, J.F.; Vanmeter, W.

    1979-09-01

    The effect of /sup 60/Co-irradation on penicillin G procaine in a peanut oil-based veterinary mastitis product was examined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method is capable of separating and quantifiying procaine, penicillin G, and various degradation compounds. Values obtained by the HPLC method on the product irradiated and stored at various temperatures correlated well with those of the microbiological assay. No significant decrease in the procaine was detected even after 4.0-Mrad irradiation. The HPLC method is applicable for analysis of other beta-lactam antibiotics.

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter product during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Three types (A, B, and C) of peanut butter product with different water activities (0.18, 0.39, and 0.65 aw) inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation (⁶⁰Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. The inactivation of S. Typhimurium in the 3 types of treated peanut butter product over a 14 day storage period and the influence of storage temperature at 4 (refrigerated) and 25 °C (ambient), and peanut butter product formulation were investigated. Three types of peanut butter product inoculated with S. Typhimurium to a level of ca. 6.6 log CFU/g and subjected to gamma irradiation experienced significant (pbutter product to undetectable levels was 14, 5, and 5 days at 25°C after exposure to 3 kGy for products A, B, and C, respectively, and 7 days at 25 °C following exposure to 2 kGy for product C. During storage at 4 and 25 °C, survival of S. Typhimurium was lowest in product C compared to products A and B. Water activity (a(w)) of peanut butter product was likely the most critical factor affecting pathogen survival. When a(w) is reduced, radiolysis of water is reduced, thereby decreasing antimicrobial action. Overall, death was more rapid at 25 °C versus 4 °C for all peanut butter products during 14 day storage. Following gamma irradiation, acid values of peanut butter product were not significantly different from the control, and general observations failed to detect changes in color and aroma, even though lightness observed using a colorimeter was slightly reduced on day 0. The use of gamma irradiation has potential in preventing spoilage of post-packaged food by destroying microorganisms and improving the safety and quality of foods without compromising sensory quality.

  12. Production and irradiation of ionic liquid cluster ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaoka, Gikan H., E-mail: gtakaoka@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Ueda, Ryo [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    We have developed a field-emission-type of cluster ion source using ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF{sub 6}). The current obtained was stable by placing a porous cap around the emitter. Time-of-flight (TOF) measurement showed that the peak mass number was approximately 5000 for positive and negative BMIM-PF{sub 6} ion beams. This indicated that BMIM-PF{sub 6} clusters with a size of a few tens of molecules were produced. With regard to the surface modification by BMIM-PF{sub 6} ion beams, positive and negative cluster ion beams were used to irradiate Si(1 0 0) and glass substrates. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) observations showed that the surface roughness of substrates increased. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement showed that the composition ratio of layers deposited by positive or negative cluster ion beams was similar to that of BMIM-PF{sub 6} solvent.

  13. Production and irradiation of ionic liquid cluster ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Gikan H.; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Ueda, Ryo

    2013-07-01

    We have developed a field-emission-type of cluster ion source using ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6). The current obtained was stable by placing a porous cap around the emitter. Time-of-flight (TOF) measurement showed that the peak mass number was approximately 5000 for positive and negative BMIM-PF6 ion beams. This indicated that BMIM-PF6 clusters with a size of a few tens of molecules were produced. With regard to the surface modification by BMIM-PF6 ion beams, positive and negative cluster ion beams were used to irradiate Si(1 0 0) and glass substrates. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) observations showed that the surface roughness of substrates increased. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement showed that the composition ratio of layers deposited by positive or negative cluster ion beams was similar to that of BMIM-PF6 solvent.

  14. Development of irradiation support devices for production of brachytherapy seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Fabio R.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Souza, Carla D.; Moura, Joao A.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Karan Junior, Dib; Feher, Anselmo; Oliveira, Tiago B.; Benega, Marcos A.G., E-mail: tiagooliveira298@gmail.com, E-mail: mattos.fr@gmail.com, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: czeituni@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: jamoura@ipen.br, E-mail: ernandopeleias@gmail.com, E-mail: s, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.br, E-mail: afeher@ipen.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ophthalmic tumors treatment with brachytherapy sources has been widely used as a primary or secondary therapy for non-malignant or malignant tumors, for example, choroid melanoma, and retinoblastoma. Ruthenium-106, Iodine-125, Palladium -103, Gold-198 and Iridium-192, are some radionuclides that can be applied for treatment of ocular tumors. These sources are in small sizes (a few millimeters) and different shapes (rods, wires, disks). To ensure high accuracy during treatment, they are positioned in eye applicators, specially designed to fit on the surface of tumor. The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN) in a partnership with Paulista Medicine School (UNIFESP) created a project that aims to develop a prototype of Iridium-192 seeds for treatment of eye cancer. This seed consists in a core of Ir -Pt alloy (20%-80%) with a length of 3 mm, to be activated in IPEN's IEA-R1 Reactor, and a titanium capsule sealing the core. It was imperative to develop a sustainer device for irradiation. This piece is used to avoid overlapping of one cores and, therefore, avoiding the 'shadow effect' that does not allow full activation of each core due to the high density. (author)

  15. Some aspects of biological production and fishery resources of the EEZ of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhargava, R.M.S.

    Region and season-wise biological production in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of India has been computed from the data of more than twenty years available at the Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre of the National Institute of Oceanography...

  16. THE LEGISLATIVE CONDITIONS IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPORT FOR SEAFOOD AND OTHER FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STANCIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is by far the world’s biggest importer of fish, seafood andaquaculture products. Import rules for these products are harmonized, meaning thatthe same rules apply in all EU countries. For non-EU countries the EuropeanCommission is the negotiating partner that defines import conditions andcertification requirements. Also, for most countries with existing trade, the EuropeanCommission negotiates on behalf of the 27 Member States.

  17. Current and potential trade in horticultural products irradiated for phytosanitary purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Griffin, Emilia; Hallman, Guy J.; Griffin, Robert L.

    2012-08-01

    The current status of trade in horticultural products irradiated for phytosanitary purposes is examined, including trends, strengths and weaknesses. A strategy is proposed to take advantage of the best future opportunities for increasing trade in irradiated horticultural products by identifying best possibilities for expanding both the number and volume of commodities for irradiation and then applying appropriate business criteria in a general analysis of the commodities, commercial scenarios, and geographic regions where the greatest potential exists for expansion. The results show that fresh fruits such as mango, papaya, citrus, grapes, and vegetables such as tomatoes, onions, asparagus, garlic, and peppers from Asia and the Americas show the greatest potential. Substantial opportunities for additional growth exist, especially as regulatory conditions become more favorable.

  18. The influence of the irradiation regime upon mycotoxins production under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uralová, M; Patzeltová, N; Havlík, F

    1987-01-01

    The paper handles the problem of the inactivation of the toxinogenic strain Aspergillus flavus following the application of gamma radiation to wheat. The amount of the applied dose and of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation upon the inhibition of mycelium growth and toxin production were defined. The aflatoxin B1 was determined by extracting in chloroform and developed on Silufol R within the choroform; aceton system. The applied doses of gamma radiation (3-30 kGy) have show that the absorbed dose does not inhibit aflatoxin production. By combining the action of gamma radiation with humidity of the wheat (humidity 13-15%; 25% irradiation 6 kGy) an inactivation was reached. With the help of toxicologico-genetical tests (the Dominant Lethal Mutations Test, the Three Generations Test) the influence was traced of contaminated, irradiated substrates upon the health of experimental animals. It follows from the results obtained that in long-term feeding with contaminated wheat irradiated by gamma rays no positive mutagenic activity has been recorded. It allows to presume that wheat of humidity of 25% contaminated by a weakly toxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus irradiated by a dose of 6 kGy, and wheat of a humidity of 13-15%, contaminated by a strongly toxinogenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, irradiated by a dose of 6 kGy, are no genetic risk for white rats.

  19. Primary oxidation and reduction products in x-irradiated aspartic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Budzinski, E.E.; Box, H.C.

    1976-08-01

    The primary reduction products identified by ESR--ENDOR spectroscopy in single crystals of DL-aspartic acid hydrochloride irradiated at 4.2degreeK are anions formed by addition of an electron to the carbonyl oxygen atoms of the carboxylic acid groups. The main consequence of the oxidation process is to produce a hole centered mainly on atomic chlorine. (AIP)

  20. Impacts of damage production and accumulation on materials performance in irradiation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    the damage accumulation, irradiation hardening and the loss of ductility. The recently developed production bias model together with one-dimensional glide of interstitial clusters produced in the cascades has been shown to describe the damage accumulation at temperatures above stage V for pure metals...

  1. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...) in part 579 Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food (21...--IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority... / Friday, May 10, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food...

  2. Robustness of egg production methods as a fishery independent alternative to assess the Eastern Baltic cod stock (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Voss, Rüdiger;

    2012-01-01

    At present, several cod stocks are outside safe biological limits and are managed under recovery plans. For these stocks Total Allowable Catches (TAC's) are generally low and quotas are accompanied by a broad variety of technical measures influencing the fishing patterns. Consequently, the input...... data to stock assessment models relying on catch statistics from the commercial fisheries is potentially biased and the perception of stock status may be incorrect. Egg production methods (EPM) provide a fishery independent alternative. Additionally, they provide better estimates of stock reproductive...... potential (SRP). Eastern Baltic cod (Gad us morhua callarias L) has severely declined throughout the 2nd half of the 1980s and 1st half of the 1990s due to climate-driven adverse hydrographic conditions and high fishing intensity. Since 2007 the stock is managed under a long-term management plan and showed...

  3. Production of {sup 4}He and tritium from Be in the COBRA-1A2 irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The production of {sup 4}He and tritium has been calculated for beryllium irradiated in the COBRA-1A2 experiment in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Reaction rates were based on adjusted neutron spectra determined from reactor dosimetry measurements at three different elevations in the region of the beryllium capsules. Equations are given so that gas production can be calculated for any specific capsule elevation.

  4. Volatile profile, lipid oxidation and protein oxidation of irradiated ready-to-eat cured turkey meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-10-01

    Irradiation had little effects on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products, while it increased protein oxidation at 4.5 kGy. The volatile profile analyses indicated that the amount of sulfur compounds increased linearly as doses increased in RTE turkey meat products. By correlation analysis, a positive correlation was found between benzene/ benzene derivatives and alcohols with lipid oxidation, while aldehydes, ketones and alkane, alkenes and alkynes were positively correlated with protein oxidation. Principle component analysis showed that irradiated meat samples can be discriminated by two categories of volatile compounds: Strecker degradation products and radiolytic degradation products. The cluster analysis of volatile data demonstrated that low-dose irradiation had minor effects on the volatile profile of turkey sausages (<1.5 kGy). However, as the doses increased, the differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated cured turkey products became significant.

  5. Design and Manufacture of the Irradiation Complex "Alfa" for Track Membranes Production

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G; Vylov, T D; Glazov, A A; Danilov, V I; Denisov, Yu N; Dmitrievsky, V P; Dolya, S N; Zaplatin, N L; Ivashkevich, S A; Kadyshevskij, V G; Kalinichenko, V V; Karamysheva, G A; Klimkin, I P; Kochkin, V A; Morozov, N A; Novikov, D L; Smolkov, A V; Tolstoy, N S; Tychkov, Yu I; Utkin, V A; Fedorenko, S B; Chesnov, A F

    2004-01-01

    The film irradiation complex "Alfa" intended for exposing the polymer films used in the track membranes production was designed and manufactured at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research for "Trackpore Technology" holding company. The complex consists of the isochronous cyclotron with external injection of ions, the extraction system, the beam transport of accelerated ions and the film irradiation chamber. The complex "Alfa" produces polyethylene terephthalate track membranes with less than 25 {\\mu}m thickness and less than 40 cm width. The film irradiation complex "Alfa" started working in August 2002. Argon ions were accelerated to the project energy - 2.4 MeV/nucleon, extracted beam intensity was about 200 nA, extraction efficiency totaled \\sim 50 %.

  6. Irradiation effect on bulgogi sauce for making commercial Korean traditional meat product, bulgogi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, C.; Kim, D. H.; Shin, M. G.; Kang, I. J.; Byun, M. W.

    2003-12-01

    Gamma-irradiated sauce of bulogogi, Korean traditional meat products, was compared with heat-pasteurized one to enhance its safety, quality, and commercial availability. The sauce is usually sold in refrigerated state with 2-7 days of self-life or heat-sterilized and sold in room temperature for a year. Raw vegetables, fruits and soy sauce for sauce making were highly contaminated by thermophillic microorganisms (totally 2.13×10 6 CFU/g) and coliform bacteria (totally 5.90×10 4 CFU/g) at the initial stage. Heat treatment (100°C for 30 min) was effective to control coliform and microbes counted from Salmonella-Shigella selective agar in the sauce but not on thermophillic microorganisms, resulting in a rapid spoilage after 2 weeks at 20°C. Gamma irradiation reduced the level of thermophillic microorganisms and the spoilage was prevented during storage for 4 weeks at 20°C. Protease activity of the sauce was significantly reduced by heat treatment while was not changed by irradiation at 2.5, 5.0, and 10 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed that the irradiation was better in color than nonirradiated control or heat-treated sample. Results indicate that low dose irradiation (2.5-5.0 kGy) is effective to ensure safety of bulgogi sauce with acceptable sensory quality.

  7. Irradiation effects and behaviour of fission products in zirconia and spinel; Effets d'irradiation et comportement des produits de fission dans la zircone et le spinelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentils, A

    2003-10-01

    Crystalline oxides, such as zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) and spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}), are promising inert matrices for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides. This work deals with the study of the physico-chemical properties of these matrices, more specifically their behaviour under irradiation and their capacity to retain fission products. Irradiations at low energy and incorporation of stable analogs of fission products (Cs, I, Xe) into yttria-stabilized zirconia and magnesium-aluminate spinel single crystals were performed by using the ion implanter IRMA (CSNSM-Orsay). Irradiations at high energy were made on several heavy ion accelerators (GANIL-Caen, ISL-Berlin, HIL-Warsaw). The damage induced by irradiation and the release of fission products were monitored by in situ Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry experiments. Transmission electron microscopy was also used in order to determine the nature of the damage induced by irradiation. The results show that irradiation of ZrO{sub 2} and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} with heavy ions (about hundred keV and about hundred MeV) induces a huge structural damage in crystalline matrices. Total disorder (amorphization) is however never reached in zirconia, contrary to what is observed in the case of spinel. The results also emphasize the essential role played by the concentration of implanted species on their retention capacity. A dramatic release of fission products was observed when the concentration exceeds a threshold of a few atomic percent. Irradiation of implanted samples with medium-energy noble-gas ions leads to an enhancement of the fission product release. The exfoliation of spinel crystals implanted at high concentration of Cs ions is observed after a thermal treatment at high temperature. (author)

  8. Effect of irradiation on the parameters that influence quality characteristics of uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Moon, Sunhee; Lee, Hyunyong; Ahn, Dong U

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on lipid/protein oxidation, color changes, and off-odor volatiles production in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products. Uncured cooked turkey breast meat and cured commercial turkey breast rolls and ham were prepared and irradiated at 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy using a linear accelerator. The results showed that irradiation had little effects on lipid oxidation of cured cooked turkey products, but accelerated lipid oxidation in uncured cooked turkey breast meat (P meats (P meat by irradiation. The redness of uncured cooked turkey was increased (P meat was faded by irradiation (P meat products produced less off-odor volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide, 3-methyl/2-methyl-butananl, and hexanal) than irradiated uncured cooked meat products due to various additives in the cured meat products. Our results suggested that irradiation resulted in different chemical reactions to pigments in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products, but cured cooked turkey meat products have a higher tolerance to odor deterioration than uncured cooked turkey meat products. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. /sup 60/Co irradiation for sterilization of veterinary mastitis products containing antibiotics and steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, K.; Kane, M.P.; Rahn, P.D.; Steindler, K.A. (Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, MI (USA))

    1981-01-01

    Effects of /sup 60/Co irradiation for sterilization of veterinary mastitis products were evaluated. The mastitis products which were examined contained various combinations of antibiotics and steroids suspended in peanut oil vehicle. Bioburden data indicated that the unirradiated products were only occasionally contaminated with microorganisms. The D-values of the nonsterile product and environmental isolates were 0.028, 0.15, 0.017, and 0.018 Mrads for Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium oxalicum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas maltophilia, respectively. The D-value of the biological indicator organism, Bacillus pumilus spores, in the vehicle was 0.27 Mrads. Thus, an irradiation dose of 1.6 Mrads would be sufficient to achieve six log cycles of destruction of the biological indicator organism. The minimum absorbed irradiation dose of 2.5 Mrads preferred by many countries for sterilization would achieve 9.3 log cycle destruction of the indicator organism and guarantee a probability of 1 x 10/sup -15/ assurance for the most radio-resistant product isolate, Penicillium oxalicum. In order to examine short and long term chemical stabilities of active components, stability indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods for the determination of several of the antibiotics and steroids were developed. The rates of degradation and radiolytic degradation schemes for the majority of the compounds were elucidated.

  10. Monte Carlo study of secondary electron production from gold nanoparticle in proton beam irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, we examined some characteristics of secondary electrons produced by gold nanoparticle (NP during proton beam irradiation.Method: By using the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit, we simulated the NP at the range from radius (r of 17.5 nm, 25 nm, 35 nm to r = 50 nm. The proton beam energies used were 20MeV, 50MeV, and 100MeV. Findings on secondary electron production and their average kinetic energy  are presented in this paper. Results: Firstly, for NP with a finite size, the secondary electron production increase with decreasing incident proton beam energy and secondary buildup existed outside NP. Secondly, the average kinetic energy of secondary electrons produced by a gold NP increased with incident proton beam energy. Thirdly, the larger the NP size, the more the secondary electron production.Conclusion: Collectively, our results suggest that apart from biological uptake efficiency, we should take the secondary electron production effect into   account when considering the potential use of NPs in proton beam irradiation.-----------------------------------------------Cite this article as: Gao J, Zheng Y. Monte Carlo study of secondary electron production from gold nanoparticle in proton beam irradiation. Int J  Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:02025.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0202.5

  11. Identification of Degradation Products of Lincomycin and Iopromide by Electron Beam Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yongbyoung; Ham, Hyunsun; Myung, Seungwoon [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Lincomycin and Iopromide are major species among the Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) from four major rivers in Korea. The structure characterization of six lincomycin's and two iopromide's degradation products formed under the irradiation of electron beam was performed, and the degradation efficiency as a function of the various irradiation dose and sample concentration was investigated. Electron beam (10 MeV, 0.5 mA and 5 kW) experiments for the structural characterization of the degradation products, which is fortified with lincomycin, were performed at the dose of 10 kGy. The separation of its degradation products and lincomycin was carried by C18 column (2.1 {Chi} 100 mm, 3.5 {mu}m), using gradient elution with 20 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The structures of degradation products of lincomycin and iopromide were proposed by interpretation of mass spectra and chromatograms by LC/MS/MS, and also the mass fragmentation pathways of mass spectra in tandem mass spectrometry were proposed. The experiments of the degradation efficiency as a function of the irradiation dose intensity and the initial concentration of lincomycin in aqueous environment were performed, and higher dose of electron beam and lower concentration was observed the increased degradation efficiency.

  12. Fishery stock assessment of Kiddi shrimp ( Parapenaeopsis stylifera) in the Northern Arabian Sea Coast of Pakistan by using surplus production models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Muhammad; Mu, Yongtong; Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Kalhoro, Muhammad Talib; Shah, Syed Baber Hussain

    2017-07-01

    Pakistani marine waters are under an open access regime. Due to poor management and policy implications, blind fishing is continued which may result in ecological as well as economic losses. Thus, it is of utmost importance to estimate fishery resources before harvesting. In this study, catch and effort data, 1996-2009, of Kiddi shrimp Parapenaeopsis stylifera fishery from Pakistani marine waters was analyzed by using specialized fishery software in order to know fishery stock status of this commercially important shrimp. Maximum, minimum and average capture production of P. stylifera was observed as 15 912 metric tons (mt) (1997), 9 438 mt (2009) and 11 667 mt/a. Two stock assessment tools viz. CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) and ASPIC (a stock production model incorporating covariates) were used to compute MSY (maximum sustainable yield) of this organism. In CEDA, three surplus production models, Fox, Schaefer and Pella-Tomlinson, along with three error assumptions, log, log normal and gamma, were used. For initial proportion (IP) 0.8, the Fox model computed MSY as 6 858 mt (CV=0.204, R 2 =0.709) and 7 384 mt (CV=0.149, R 2 =0.72) for log and log normal error assumption respectively. Here, gamma error produced minimization failure. Estimated MSY by using Schaefer and Pella-Tomlinson models remained the same for log, log normal and gamma error assumptions i.e. 7 083 mt, 8 209 mt and 7 242 mt correspondingly. The Schafer results showed highest goodness of fit R 2 (0.712) values. ASPIC computed MSY, CV, R 2, F MSY and B MSY parameters for the Fox model as 7 219 mt, 0.142, 0.872, 0.111 and 65 280, while for the Logistic model the computed values remained 7 720 mt, 0.148, 0.868, 0.107 and 72 110 correspondingly. Results obtained have shown that P. stylifera has been overexploited. Immediate steps are needed to conserve this fishery resource for the future and research on other species of commercial importance is urgently needed.

  13. Fishery stock assessment of Kiddi shrimp (Parapenaeopsis stylifera) in the Northern Arabian Sea Coast of Pakistan by using surplus production models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Muhammad; Mu, Yongtong; Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Kalhoro, Muhammad Talib; Shah, Syed Baber Hussain

    2016-09-01

    Pakistani marine waters are under an open access regime. Due to poor management and policy implications, blind fishing is continued which may result in ecological as well as economic losses. Thus, it is of utmost importance to estimate fishery resources before harvesting. In this study, catch and effort data, 1996-2009, of Kiddi shrimp Parapenaeopsis stylifera fishery from Pakistani marine waters was analyzed by using specialized fishery software in order to know fishery stock status of this commercially important shrimp. Maximum, minimum and average capture production of P. stylifera was observed as 15 912 metric tons (mt) (1997), 9 438 mt (2009) and 11 667 mt/a. Two stock assessment tools viz. CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) and ASPIC (a stock production model incorporating covariates) were used to compute MSY (maximum sustainable yield) of this organism. In CEDA, three surplus production models, Fox, Schaefer and Pella-Tomlinson, along with three error assumptions, log, log normal and gamma, were used. For initial proportion (IP) 0.8, the Fox model computed MSY as 6 858 mt (CV=0.204, R 2=0.709) and 7 384 mt (CV=0.149, R 2=0.72) for log and log normal error assumption respectively. Here, gamma error produced minimization failure. Estimated MSY by using Schaefer and Pella-Tomlinson models remained the same for log, log normal and gamma error assumptions i.e. 7 083 mt, 8 209 mt and 7 242 mt correspondingly. The Schafer results showed highest goodness of fit R 2 (0.712) values. ASPIC computed MSY, CV, R 2, F MSY and B MSY parameters for the Fox model as 7 219 mt, 0.142, 0.872, 0.111 and 65 280, while for the Logistic model the computed values remained 7 720 mt, 0.148, 0.868, 0.107 and 72 110 correspondingly. Results obtained have shown that P. stylifera has been overexploited. Immediate steps are needed to conserve this fishery resource for the future and research on other species of commercial importance is urgently needed.

  14. Production of ochratoxin a by aspergillus ochraceus NRRL-3174 before and after exposures to /sup 60/Co irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applegate, K.L.; Chipley, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    Spores from the toxigenic organism Aspergillus ochraceus NRRL-3174 were exposed to specific levels of gamma irradiation and then allowed to germinate on selected media. Increases in ochratoxin A production by irradiated, compared to non-irradiated, spores were observed after inoculation of spores onto a cracked red wheat or into a synthetic liquid medium. Variations in daily ochratoxin production were also observed for control and irradiated spore-derived cultures developing on both media, with maximum toxin production varying from 7 to 11 days of incubation. The most notable increases in ochratoxin A production occurred from cultures developing from spores having been irradiated with 10, 25, or 50 krad. Exposures to 400 or 600 krad resulted in complete inhibition of spore germination and, consequently, no ochratoxin production. Of the two substrates used, wheat and synthetic, the quantities of ochratoxin A produced were significantly lower in the synthetic media than on the natural substrate. Higher and more rapid toxin production occurred from spores having been irradiated with 10, 25, 50, and 100 krad than occurred from the non-irradiated control spores when grown on synthetic media. Cultures derived from spores having been exposed to 10, 25, and 50 krad produced significantly higher levels of ochratoxin A after 8 days of incubation on natural substrate than did the controls. Analysis of variance revealed that substrate, length of incubation, as well as irradiation levels all affected the time required to produce maximum levels of ochratoxin A.

  15. Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Roh, M.J.; Chung, H.W.; Lee, J.E.; Park, N.Y.; Kwon, Y.J.; Seo, S.J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnut, acorn, red bean and mung bean, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in chestnut and acorn, Curculio skkimensis Heller, Curculio dentipes Roelofs, and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee showed an increased mortality when exposed to above 0.5 kGy irradiation, resulting in 100% of mortality three weeks later. Callosobruchus chinensis Linne from both red and mung beans revealed a apparent mortality at around 10 days after irradiation of 1 to 3 kGy. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. (author). 53 refs., 74 figs., 138 tabs.

  16. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  17. Monitoring of irradiated food products marketed in Italy and evaluation of electron spin resonance signal sensitivity of experimentally irradiated fish scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Marrone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, in order to authorise the use of food irradiation, claim the availability of methods to detect the occurred treatment in addition to the respect of safe use of this technology. Among physical methods, the electron spin resonance (ESR measuring the number of free radicals that are formed during irradiation can be applied only to those foods with cellulose, a crystalline or bone structure, in which free radicals have a shelf life greater than irradiated product. The aim of this study was to highlight an irradiation treatment in European and extra-European foods marketed in Southern Italy by the means of ESR technique. Furthermore, in order to optimise the preparation procedures the efficacy of the above mentioned method in fish scales experimentally irradiated has been evaluated. From February to September 2012, a total number of 83 samples of food products of animal and plant origin were taken at the border inspection post and at retail market and finally analysed. At the same time, the scales of grouper and barracuda have been experimentally irradiated at 0.5 kGy and were subsequently analysed using ESR. Results showed 5 frog legs out of 83 samples positive for treatment and confirm the applicability of ESR also for fish scales.

  18. Introduction to fisheries oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Fisheries oceanography can be applied to fisheries ecology, fisheries management and practical fishing. Physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, currents, waves, light, oxygen and salinity) have profound effect on fish...

  19. Applying principles from economics to improve the transfer of ecological production estimates in fisheries ecosystem services research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services (ES) represent a way to represent and quantify multiple uses, values as well as connectivity between ecosystem processes and human well-being. Ecosystem-based fisheries management approaches may seek to quantify expected trade-offs in ecosystem services due to ...

  20. Applying principles from economics to improve the transfer of ecological production estimates in fisheries ecosystem services research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services (ES) represent a way to represent and quantify multiple uses, values as well as connectivity between ecosystem processes and human well-being. Ecosystem-based fisheries management approaches may seek to quantify expected trade-offs in ecosystem services due to ...

  1. Anopheles arabiensis sperm production after genetic manipulation, dieldrin treatment, and irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, D; Vreysen, M J B; Gilles, J R L

    2013-03-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique relies on the release of sterilized mass-reared male insects which, before field releases, endure several unnatural treatments. In the case of Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) sterile insect technique program in Sudan, the genetic background of the original strain was first changed to create a genetic sexing strain that is based on a dieldrin-resistant mutation. Secondly, the eggs of the genetic sexing strain require treatment with dieldrin to allow complete elimination of female L1 larvae to enable the release of males only. Finally, male mosquitoes receive an irradiation dose of 70 Gy as pupae for sterilization. The effects of these treatments on sperm production were tested separately and in combination. Irradiation alone significantly decreased the initial sperm number and prevented new sperm production. However, the dieldrin treatment, aimed at eliminating females, appears to have an unexpected radioprotectant effect.

  2. Fishery Management Plan : Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Fishery Management Plan for Ottawa NWR provides an overview of the relationship between fishery management and Refuge objectives. Wildlife use and production...

  3. Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaise Collin

    2014-09-01

    This report documents comparisons between post-irradiation examination measurements and model predictions of silver (Ag), cesium (Cs), and strontium (Sr) release from selected tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation test of the Advanced Gas Reactor program that occurred from December 2006 to November 2009 in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The modeling was performed using the particle fuel model computer code PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) developed at INL. PARFUME is an advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel performance modeling and analysis code (Miller 2009). It has been developed as an integrated mechanistic code that evaluates the thermal, mechanical, and physico-chemical behavior of fuel particles during irradiation to determine the failure probability of a population of fuel particles given the particle-to-particle statistical variations in physical dimensions and material properties that arise from the fuel fabrication process, accounting for all viable mechanisms that can lead to particle failure. The code also determines the diffusion of fission products from the fuel through the particle coating layers, and through the fuel matrix to the coolant boundary. The subsequent release of fission products is calculated at the compact level (release of fission products from the compact) but it can be assessed at the particle level by adjusting the diffusivity in the fuel matrix to very high values. Furthermore, the diffusivity of each layer can be individually set to a high value (typically 10-6 m2/s) to simulate a failed layer with no capability of fission product retention. In this study, the comparison to PIE focused on fission product release and because of the lack of failure in the irradiation, the probability of particle failure was not calculated. During the AGR-1 irradiation campaign, the fuel kernel produced and released fission products, which migrated through the successive

  4. FISHERIES POLICY OF ICELAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Treer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries has recently been very exploited area in the Croatian media, either regarding the EU accession negotiations or regarding the interrelationships of the involved parties within Croatia. Iceland is one of the strongest fishery nations in the world that passed through some heavy struggles to protect its fishery grounds (so called “fishery or cod wars”. Therefore its experience in fisheries can be useful when creating Croatian fishery policy. So, the aim of this article is to present the Statement on Responsible Fisheries in Iceland signed by all the parties involved in the Icelandic fishery industry.

  5. Fate and transformation products of amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers under ozonation and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Morales, Javier [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Rosal, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.rosal@uah.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Hernando, María D. [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology – INIA, Crta. de la Coruña, km 7.5, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ulaszewska, Maria M. [Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); García-Calvo, Eloy [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R. [Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Pesticide Residue Research Group, Department of Hydrogeology and Analytical Chemistry, University of Almería, 04120 Almería (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • We detected transformation products from dendrimer under ozonation and irradiation. • Retro-Michael fragmentation pathway with highly oxygenated structures. • High toxicity of G3 PAMAM dendrimer for green algae. • Reactive oxygen species were associated with the toxic damage. • Transformation mixtures could be more toxic than the parent dendrimer. -- Abstract: This article deals with the degradation of a third-generation (G3) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer under ozonation and irradiation. The identification and quantification of G3 PAMAM dendrimer and its transformation products has been performed by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. The dendrimer was completely depleted by ozone in less than 1 min. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation was attributed to hydroxyl-mediated oxidation. The transformation products were attributed to the oxidation of amines, which resulted in highly oxidized structures with abundance of carboxylic acids, which started from the formation of amine oxide and the scission of the C-N bond of the amide group. We studied the toxicity of treated mixtures for six different organisms: the acute toxicity for the bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, the multigenerational growth inhibition of the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the seed germination phytotoxicity of Licopersicon esculentum, Lactuca sativa and Lolium perenne. Ozonation and irradiation originated transformation products are more toxic than the parent dendrimer. The toxicity of the dendrimer for the green alga was linked to a strong increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species with intense lipid peroxidation.

  6. Irradiation Scheme Design of 14C Production on 49-2 Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xing-min; XU; Zhi-long; ZHANG; Ya-dong

    2012-01-01

    <正>14C is a radioisotope of carbon, it is widely used in pharmacy, medical treatment, agriculture, reconnoiter and archaeology. 49-2 research reactor is a swimming pool style reactor which has operated for more than 40 years. The application of 49-2 reactor includes the radio nuclides production. Therefore, the technical scheme on 14C irradiation in 49-2 reactor should be prepared elaborately.

  7. Photodegradation of malachite green under simulated and natural irradiation: Kinetics, products, and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Li [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhanqi, Gao [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Analysis for Organic Pollutants in Surface Water, Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center, Nanjing 210036 (China); Yuefei, Ji [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Xiaobin, Hu [School of Life Science, Huzhou University, Huzhou 313000 (China); Cheng, Sun, E-mail: envidean@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Shaogui, Yang; Lianhong, Wang; Qingeng, Wang; Die, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Photofate of malachite green was studied under simulated and natural irradiation. • Favorable conditions for degradation were optimized by the orthogonal array design. • Main ROS for the decomposition were determined by free radical quenchers. • Fifty-three products were determined by LC–MS and GC–MS. • Pathways were proposed with the aid of theoretical calculation. - Abstract: In this work photodegradation rates and pathways of malachite green were studied under simulated and solar irradiation with the goal of assessing the potential of photolysis as a removal mechanism in real aquatic environment. Factors influencing the photodegradation process were investigated, including pH, humic acid, Fe{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, and NO{sub 3}{sup −}, of which favorable conditions were optimized by the orthogonal array design under simulated sunlight irradiation in the presence of dissolved oxygen. The degradation processes of malachite green conformed to pseudo first-order kinetics and their degradation rate constants were between 0.0062 and 0.4012 h{sup −1}. Under solar irradiation, the decolorization efficiency of most tests can reach almost 100%, and relatively thorough mineralization could be observed. Forty degradation products were detected by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and thirteen small molecular products were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Based on the analyses of the degradation products and calculation of the frontier electron density, the pathways were proposed: decomposition of conjugated structure, N-demethylation reactions, hydroxyl addition reactions, the removal of benzene ring, and the ring-opening reaction. This study has provided a reference, both for photodegradation of malachite green and future safety applications and predictions of decontamination of related triphenylmethane dyes under real conditions.

  8. Irradiation of plexiglas with heavy Gev ions: a study of destruction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, D. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany); Moeckel, H.J. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany); Melzer, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany); Klett, R. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany); Cardoso, J. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. de Fisica; Montiel, R. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. de Fisica; Vazquez, H. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. de Fisica; Hosoi, F. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Omichi, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Wang, L. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Chadderton, L.T. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences]|[CSIRO, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Div. of Appl. Phys.

    1997-01-01

    Examinations were performed on GeV-ion irradiated plexiglas. The radiochemical reaction products are studied by FTIR and UV spectrometry as a function of their depth of origin, and some of the possible radiochemical reaction mechanisms are examined in detail. The radiochemistry of commercial plexiglas is found to differ somewhat from the one of pure PMMA. No hint for ion-induced buckminsterfullerene formation could be found. (orig.). With 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Mutagenesis and Screening of High Yield Xylanase Production Strain of Aspergillus usamii by Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永泉; 陈时飞; 岑沛霖

    2003-01-01

    A high yield xylanase producing strain, A. usamii L336-23, was screened out from its parent strain A.usamii L336 after microwave irradiation. Its productivity of xylanase activity increased by 35.7% from 21000μ·m1-1 to 28500μ·m1-1 and was stable after frequent subcultures and storage for more than two months.The mechanism of microwave mutation was also discussed.

  10. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...... that there are great differences in the fuel consumption between fisheries targeting ground or shellfish and those targeting pelagic or industrial fish....

  11. Post-Irradiation Examination of 237Np Targets for 238Pu Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Baldwin, Charles A [ORNL; Hobbs, Randy W [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is recovering the US 238Pu production capability and the first step in the process has been to evaluate the performance of a 237Np target cermet pellet encased in an aluminum clad. The process proceeded in 3 steps; the first step was to irradiate capsules of single pellets composed of NpO2 and aluminum power to examine their shrinkage and gas release. These pellets were formed by compressing sintered NpO2 and aluminum powder in a die at high pressure followed by sintering in a vacuum furnace. Three temperatures were chosen for sintering the solution precipitated NpO2 power used for pellet fabrication. The second step was to irradiate partial targets composed of 8 pellets in a semi-prototypical arrangement at the two best performing sintering temperatures to determine which temperature gave a pellet that performed the best under the actual planned irradiation conditions. The third step was to irradiate ~50 pellets in an actual target configuration at design irradiation conditions to assess pellet shrinkage and gas release, target heat transfer, and dimensional stability. The higher sintering temperature appeared to offer the best performance after one cycle of irradiation by having the least shrinkage, thus keeping the heat transfer gap between the pellets and clad small minimizing the pellet operating temperature. The final result of the testing was a target that can meet the initial production goals, satisfy the reactor safety requirements, and can be fabricated in production quantities. The current focus of the program is to verify that the target can be remotely dissembled, the pellets dissolved, and the 238Pu recovered. Tests are being conducted to examine these concerns and to compare results to code predictions. Once the performance of the full length targets has been quantified, the pellet 237Np loading will be revisited to determine if it can be

  12. Photodegradation of malachite green under simulated and natural irradiation: kinetics, products, and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Li; Zhanqi, Gao; Yuefei, Ji; Xiaobin, Hu; Cheng, Sun; Shaogui, Yang; Lianhong, Wang; Qingeng, Wang; Die, Fang

    2015-03-21

    In this work photodegradation rates and pathways of malachite green were studied under simulated and solar irradiation with the goal of assessing the potential of photolysis as a removal mechanism in real aquatic environment. Factors influencing the photodegradation process were investigated, including pH, humic acid, Fe(2+), Ca(2+), HCO3(-), and NO3(-), of which favorable conditions were optimized by the orthogonal array design under simulated sunlight irradiation in the presence of dissolved oxygen. The degradation processes of malachite green conformed to pseudo first-order kinetics and their degradation rate constants were between 0.0062 and 0.4012 h(-1). Under solar irradiation, the decolorization efficiency of most tests can reach almost 100%, and relatively thorough mineralization could be observed. Forty degradation products were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and thirteen small molecular products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the analyses of the degradation products and calculation of the frontier electron density, the pathways were proposed: decomposition of conjugated structure, N-demethylation reactions, hydroxyl addition reactions, the removal of benzene ring, and the ring-opening reaction. This study has provided a reference, both for photodegradation of malachite green and future safety applications and predictions of decontamination of related triphenylmethane dyes under real conditions.

  13. Preliminary feasibility study on production of cobalt-60 source for industrial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Po Kook; Park, Kyung Bae; Ahn, Yun Soo; Lee, Jong Tai; Kim, Hark Rho

    1999-05-01

    As there is a high possible demand of industrial Co-60 source in the world market, feasibility study of a project was performed to produce and to export Co-60 sources, utilizing KEPCO's Wolsung NPP for irradiation of cobalt and KAERI's hot-cells for fabrication of cobalt sources. Main concerns of the study were to understand irradiation and fabrication (encapsulation) processes and to examine related technologies, required facilities and equipment. In particular, it was examined intensively if it would be possible to modify facilities around the reactor vessel of Wolsung NPP tp substantiate the related licensing in order to irradiate cobalt in the reactor. It is expected that once, if cooperation scheme with MDS Nordion of Canada is established, main issues such as modification of facilities, related licensing, raw material procurement and technology transfer for high quality product will be solved. In order to review overall feasibility of the project, present status and prospect of the world market was surveyed and various usages of cobalt sources were reviewed with emphasis on possible demand increase per usage. Food poisoning accidents are prevailing worldwide and food irradiation with cobalt sources is considered as a promising measure to prevent them and may bring forth high increase of cobalt sources demand in the world market. Preliminary economic feasibility was studied in conservation, evaluating roughly the investment and the operating cost based on materials from various information sources. (author)

  14. 臭氧冰在水产品保鲜中的研究%The Study on Ozone Ice in the Freshness Keeping of Fishery Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐涛

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ozone ice on the shelf life of Pseudosciaena crocea and cuttlefish, stored under refrigeration (4±0.5℃) were studied by monitoring the microbiological, chemical and sensory changes for a period of 17 days. Results showed that the shelf life could be lengthened 4~5 days preserved by 4mg/kg ozone ice. The total volatility basis nitrogen (TVB-N) was reduced and the bacteria colony was decreased by 92%. The bactericidal effectiveness of ozone ice is strong enough to attain better preservation effect. As a convenient, simple and environmental friendly method, it could be used in the preservation and transportation of fishery products.

  15. Defect production in Ar irradiated graphene membranes under different initial applied strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Asencio, J., E-mail: jesusmartinez@ua.es [Dept. Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Fase II, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante E-036090 (Spain); Ruestes, C.J.; Bringa, E. [CONICET and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza 5500 (Argentina); Caturla, M.J. [Dept. Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Fase II, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante E-036090 (Spain)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Defects in graphene membranes are formed due to 140 eV Ar ions irradiation using MD. • Different initial strains are applied, which influence the type and number of defects. • Mono-vacancies, di-vacancies and tri-vacancies production behaves linearly with dose. • The total number of defects under compression is slightly higher than under tension. - Abstract: Irradiation with low energy Ar ions of graphene membranes gives rise to changes in the mechanical properties of this material. These changes have been associated to the production of defects, mostly isolated vacancies. However, the initial state of the graphene membrane can also affect its mechanical response. Using molecular dynamics simulations we have studied defect production in graphene membranes irradiated with 140 eV Ar ions up to a dose of 0.075 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} and different initial strains, from −0.25% (compressive strain) to 0.25% (tensile strain). For all strains, the number of defects increases linearly with dose with a defect production of about 80% (80 defects every 100 ions). Defects are mostly single vacancies and di-vacancies, although some higher order clusters are also observed. Two different types of di-vacancies have been identified, the most common one being two vacancies at first nearest neighbours distance. Differences in the total number of defects with the applied strain are observed which is related to the production of a higher number of di-vacancies under compressive strain compared to tensile strain. We attribute this effect to the larger out-of-plane deformations of compressed samples that could favor the production of defects in closer proximity to others.

  16. Mass spectrometry analysis of etch products from CR-39 plastic irradiated by heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, S.; Nanjo, D.; Kawashima, H.; Yasuda, N.; Konishi, T.; Kurano, M.; Kitamura, H.; Uchihori, Y.; Naka, S.; Ota, S.; Ideguchi, Y.; Hasebe, N.; Mori, Y.; Yamauchi, T.

    2012-09-01

    As a feasibility study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) have been applied to analyze etch products of CR-39 plastic (one of the most frequently used solid states nuclear track detector) for the understanding of track formation and etching mechanisms by heavy ion irradiation. The etch products of irradiated CR-39 dissolved in sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) contain radiation-induced fragments. For the GC-MS analysis, we found peaks of diethylene glycol (DEG) and a small but a definitive peak of ethylene glycol (EG) in the etch products from CR-39 irradiated by 60 MeV N ion beams. The etch products of unirradiated CR-39 showed a clear peak of DEG, but no other significant peaks were found. DEG is known to be released from the CR-39 molecule as a fragment by alkaline hydrolysis reaction of the polymer. We postulate that EG was formed as a result of the breaking of the ether bond (C-O-C) of the DEG part of the CR-39 polymer by the irradiation. The mass distribution of polyallylalcohol was obtained from the etch products from irradiated and unirradiated CR-39 samples by MALDI-MS analysis. Polyallylalcohol, with the repeating mass interval of m/z = 58 Da (dalton) between m/z = 800 and 3500, was expected to be produced from CR-39 by alkaline hydrolysis. We used IAA as a matrix to assist the ionization of organic analyte in MALDI-MS analysis and found that peaks from IAA covered mass spectrum in the lower m/z region making difficult to identify CR-39 fragment peaks which were also be seen in the same region. The mass spectrometry analysis using GC-MS and MALDI-MS will be powerful tools to investigate the radiation-induced polymeric fragments and helping to understand the track formation mechanism in CR-39 by heavy ions.

  17. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production on irradiated corn kernels: Influence of inoculum size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoli, C; Etcheverry, M G; Cavaglieri, L; Saenz, M; Alvarez, G; Lecumberry, S

    1998-03-01

    The influence of inoculum size on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) production was examined on irradiated corn kernels.Spore concentrations were determined in serial dilutions and adjusted to 10,10(2),10(3),10(5) and 10(6) spores/ml. Aflatoxin B1 production was dependent on the inoculum size. The high levels of aflatoxin B1 produced byA. parasiticus (21 and 30 mg/kg) were obtained with 10(2) and 10(3) spores/ml after 35 and 20 days incubation. There was no spore concentration influence on zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production after 10, 20 and 35 days incubation. At 28°C and 0.97 water activity (aw), the mean levels of zearalenone production were 382, 267 and 520 µg/kg and the mean levels on deoxynivalenol production were 697,465 and 782 µg/kg.

  18. Identification of radiolytic products of [C4mim][PF6] underγ-irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖银勇; 徐敏; 彭静; 李久强; 翟茂林; 吴国忠

    2015-01-01

    The trace water-soluble radiolytic products of neat 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4mim][PF6]) were identified by analysing water-washed samples of γ-irradiated ionic liquids. HF and difluorophosphinic acid were confirmed as the main radiolytic products of [C4mim][PF6], and their radiation chemical yields were quantified by 19F NMR (G(F−)=0.14 µmol/J, G(HOP(O)F2)=0.053 µmol/J). Com-pared to [C4mim][NTf2], [C4mim][PF6] shows better radiation stability.

  19. Chemical forms of solid fission products in the irradiated uranium—plutonium mixed nitride fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yasuo; Maeda, Atsushi; Shiozawa, Ken-ichi; Ohmichi, Toshihiko

    1994-06-01

    Chemical forms of solid fission products in the irradiated (U, Pu)N fuel were estimated by both thermodynamic equilibrium calculation and electron microprobe analysis on burnup simulated samples prepared by carbothermic reduction. Besides the MX type matrix phase dissolving zirconium, niobium, yttrium and rare earth elements, the existence of two kinds of inclusion was recognized. One is URu 3 type intermetallic compound constituted by uranium and platinum group elements. The other is an alloy containing molybdenum as a principal constituent. Furthermore, the swelling rate due to solid fission products precipitation was evaluated to be about 0.5% per %FIMA.

  20. Large-scale expansion of no-take closures within the Great Barrier Reef has not enhanced fishery production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, W J; Kearney, R E; Wise, B S; Nash, W J

    2015-07-01

    A rare opportunity to test hypotheses about potential fishery benefits of large-scale closures was initiated in July 2004 when an additional 28.4% of the 348 000 km2 Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region of Queensland, Australia was closed to all fishing. Advice to the Australian and Queensland governments that supported this initiative predicted these additional closures would generate minimal (10%) initial reductions in both catch and landed value within the GBR area, with recovery of catches becoming apparent after three years. To test these predictions, commercial fisheries data from the GBR area and from the two adjacent (non-GBR) areas of Queensland were compared for the periods immediately before and after the closures were implemented. The observed means for total annual catch and value within the GBR declined from preclosure (2000-2003) levels of 12780 Mg and Australian $160 million, to initial post-closure (2005-2008) levels of 8143 Mg and $102 million; decreases of 35% and 36% respectively. Because the reference areas in the non-GBR had minimal changes in catch and value, the beyond-BACI (before, after, control, impact) analyses estimated initial net reductions within the GBR of 35% for both total catch and value. There was no evidence of recovery in total catch levels or any comparative improvement in catch rates within the GBR nine years after implementation. These results are not consistent with the advice to governments that the closures would have minimal initial impacts and rapidly generate benefits to fisheries in the GBR through increased juvenile recruitment and adult spillovers. Instead, the absence of evidence of recovery in catches to date currently supports an alternative hypothesis that where there is already effective fisheries management, the closing of areas to all fishing will generate reductions in overall catches similar to the percentage of the fished area that is closed.

  1. Cyclotron production of {sup 64}Cu by deuteron irradiation of {sup 64}Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, K. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: kamel.abbas@jrc.it; Kozempel, J. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Charles University Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic and Nuclear Chemistry, 128 43 Prague (Czech Republic); Bonardi, M. [LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, University and INFN, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Groppi, F. [LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, University and INFN, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Alfarano, A. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Holzwarth, U. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Simonelli, F. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Hofman, H. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Horstmann, W. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Menapace, E. [ENEA, Applied Physics Division, Bologna (Italy); Leseticky, L. [Charles University Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic and Nuclear Chemistry, 128 43 Prague (Czech Republic); Gibson, N. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    The short-lived (12.7 h half-life) {sup 64}Cu radioisotope is both a {beta} {sup +} and a {beta} {sup -} emitter. This property makes {sup 64}Cu a promising candidate for novel medical applications, since it can be used simultaneously for therapeutic application of radiolabelled biomolecules and for diagnosis with PET. Following previous work on {sup 64}Cu production by deuteron irradiation of natural zinc, we report here the production of this radioisotope by deuteron irradiation of enriched {sup 64}Zn. In addition, yields of other radioisotopes such as {sup 61}Cu, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 69m}Zn, {sup 66}Ga and {sup 67}Ga, which were co-produced in this process, were also measured. The evaporation code ALICE-91 and the transport code SRIM 2003 were used to determine the excitation functions and the stopping power, respectively. All the nuclear reactions yielding the above-mentioned radioisotopes were taken into account in the calculations both for the natural and enriched Zn targets. The experimental and calculated yields were shown to be in reasonable agreement. The work was carried out at the Scanditronix MC-40 Cyclotron of the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (Ispra site, Italy). The irradiations were carried out with 19.5 MeV deuterons, the maximum deuteron energy obtainable with the MC-40 cyclotron.

  2. MICRO/NANO-STRUCTURAL EXAMINATION AND FISSION PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION IN NEUTRON IRRADIATED AGR-1 TRISO FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rooyen, I. J.; Lillo, T. M.; Wen, H. M.; Hill, C. M.; Holesinger, T. G.; Wu, Y. Q.; Aguiara, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    Advanced microscopic and microanalysis techniques were developed and applied to study irradiation effects and fission product behavior in selected low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO-coated particles from fuel compacts in six capsules irradiated to burnups of 11.2 to 19.6% FIMA. Although no TRISO coating failures were detected during the irradiation, the fraction of Ag-110m retained in individual particles often varied considerably within a single compact and at the capsule level. At the capsule level Ag-110m release fractions ranged from 1.2 to 38% and within a single compact, silver release from individual particles often spanned a range that extended from 100% retention to nearly 100% release. In this paper, selected irradiated particles from Baseline, Variant 1 and Variant 3 type fueled TRISO coated particles were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Atom Probe Tomography; Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy; Precession Electron Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) examinations and Electron Probe Micro-Analyzer. Particle selection in this study allowed for comparison of the fission product distribution with Ag retention, fuel type and irradiation level. Nano sized Ag-containing features were predominantly identified in SiC grain boundaries and/or triple points in contrast with only two sitings of Ag inside a SiC grain in two different compacts (Baseline and Variant 3 fueled compacts). STEM and HRTEM analysis showed evidence of Ag and Pd co-existence in some cases and it was found that fission product precipitates can consist of multiple or single phases. STEM analysis also showed differences in precipitate compositions between Baseline and Variant 3 fuels. A higher density of fission product precipitate clusters were identified in the SiC layer in particles from the Variant 3 compact compared with the Variant 1 compact. Trend analysis shows

  3. A green approach to the production of 2-pyridone derivatives promoted by infrared irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, F.; De la Cruz, F.; Lopez, J.; Pena, E.; Vazquez, M. A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Dapartamento de Quimica, Noria Alta s/n, 36050 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Delgado, F. [IPN, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n, 11340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Alcaraz, Y.; FRobles, J.; Martinez A, M., E-mail: mvazquez@ugto.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Farmacia, Noria Alta s/n, 36050 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    An alternative is presented by promoting a reaction with infrared irradiation to obtain different 4-aryl-3-cyano-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone derivatives 9 a-k. The process was carried out with a green approach from the corresponding 4 H-pyrans, using mild reaction conditions and infrared irradiation as the energy source. In the first stage, the reaction produced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-2-one derivatives 8 a-k, followed by an oxidative step to afford the target molecules in good yields. The structure of products 9 a-k was confirmed by Ft-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the efficiency of the reaction depends on the catalyst and the solvent, as well as on the aldehyde substituents. (Author)

  4. Microbial decontamination of cosmetic raw materials and personal care products by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katusin-Razem, Branka; Mihaljevic, Branka; Razem, D. E-mail: razem@rudjer.irb.hr

    2003-03-01

    Typical levels of sporadically occurring (dynamic) microbial contamination of cosmetic raw materials: pigments, abrasives and liposomes, as well as of final products for personal care: toothpaste, crayons, shampoos, cleansers and creams, were evaluated. In most cases the contamination was dominated by a single population of microorganisms, either Gram-negative bacteria or molds. The feasibility of microbial decontamination by irradiation was studied by determining the resistance to gamma radiation of contaminating microflora in situ. It was expressed as a dose required for the first 90% reduction, D{sub first{sub 90%}{sub red}}. The values in the range 1-2 kGy for molds and 0.1-0.6 kGy for Gram-negative bacteria were obtained. This relatively high susceptibility to irradiation allowed inactivation factors close to 6 to be achieved with doses generally not exceeding 3 kGy, and yielding endpoint contamination less than 10/g.

  5. Effect of He-Ne laser irradiation on hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wenyu; Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Sun, Bing; Chen, Yu.; Liu, Minhui [Department of Biochemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-01-15

    Enterobacter aerogenes W-23 bacteria exhibiting hydrogen production (HP) ability were exposed to He-Ne laser irradiation (632.8 nm) to improve the HP ability. Upon the optimum irradiation dosage (18 mW for 22.2 min), a stable positive mutant strain E. aerogenes HB-5M was obtained. The maximum specific rate of HP of the mutant strain was 0.042h{sup -1}, which was about twice that of the wild strain. It was suggested that the higher HP ability of the mutant strain might be presumably attributed to the enhancement of hydrogenase activity. In addition, the kinetic parameters of cell growth, substrate consumption and HP of the wild strain and its mutant strain were regressed to simulate the fermentation process of E. aerogenes. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. (author)

  6. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioengenharia

    1996-07-01

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of gamma-rays from {sup 60} Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular weight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies, known to react with conformational epitopes in native crotoxin. Linear epitopes are also preserved, as demonstrated by peptide mapping of the aggregates. These same aggregates can function as antigens to raise antisera which cross-react and neutralize crotoxin. Compared with crotoxin, the aggregates appear to be less myotoxic, largely devoid of phospholipase activity and virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that the irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  7. Production of {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, and tritium from Be irradiated in FFTF-MOTA-2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The production of {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, and tritium has been calculated for beryllium irradiated in the Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA)-2B experiment in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Reaction rates were based on adjusted neutron spectra determined from reactor dosimetry measurements at seven different elevations in the irradiation assembly. Equations are given so that gas production, dpa, and neutron fluences can be calculated for any specific elevation in the MOTA-2B assembly.

  8. CROATIAN FISHERY IN 2003 YEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jahutka

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the analysis and sublimation of all the relevant informations regarding fisheries in Republic of Croatia. This means that there were processed data about freshwater fisheries (farming of freshwater fish and other aquatic organisms, commercial and sports fisheries, marine fisheries (mariculture, commercial fisheries, small–scale fisheries and processing of fish products, import and export of fish and fish products as well as the financial subventions regarding fisheries. The farming of freshwater fish in 2003 is marked by the decrease of production comparing to the past 5 years. Carp is furthermore the most dominant fish species in freshwater fish farming, but it’s percentage is decreasing, and the percentage of the trout is increasing over the years. In addition to the decrease of production, the areas of production are decreasing as well, and now they are the smallest in the past decade — 6,281.97 ha. In 2003 the amount of used food is also decreased, but the amount of used fertilizers and lime is increased, that means it is the biggest in the past decade. This is caused by the bad climate conditions during the summer. Marine fisheries farming (mariculture in 2003 is in a slightly better position then the freshwater fish farming. The production of white fish species, which was reached before few years, is not changing — 2,510 tons, also the farming of oysters is stagnating, but in the past few years the farming of mussels and tuna fish is increasing. The total marine fish catch is 29,102 tons and it is performed over 34,000 km2, comparing to the 2002 it is increased by almost 49.24%. Additional to the increase of the total catch the number of commercial fishermen and fishing vessels is also increased. The number of fisherman which fish for their own consumption without the right to sell fish, that means the small–scale fishermen in 2003 is 13,500. The production of fish and fish products in 2003 is 19,000 tons

  9. Study on antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from fishery products%水产品中大肠埃希菌耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦寒; 沈强; 朱莉勤; 姜韬

    2011-01-01

    目的:测定水产品中的大肠杆菌的耐药性.方法:进行水产品中大肠埃希菌分离,用VITEK 2 Compact全自动微生物分析仪鉴定和做药敏分析.结果:共分离得到85株具有抗生素抗性或中介性的大肠埃希菌,其中有5株菌产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs),对抗生素的总耐药率高于50%.结论:应尽快做出有效措施,以遏制细菌耐药性的进一步发展.%Objective: To determine the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from fishery products. Methods : To isolate and identify E. Coli in fishery products, susceptibility test of different antimicrobial agents were done by VITEK 2 Compact. Results; 85 isolates of Escherichia coli with antibiotic resistance or intermediation were obtained in total, in which there were 5 strains of ESBLs, whose antibiotic resistance were higher than 50%. Conclusion: Effective measures should be adopted timely to prevent further progress of the antibiotic resistance.

  10. Fission Product Inventory and Burnup Evaluation of the AGR-2 Irradiation by Gamma Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Stempien, John Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Demkowicz, Paul Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Gamma spectrometry has been used to evaluate the burnup and fission product inventory of different components from the US Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program's second TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiation test (AGR-2). TRISO fuel in this irradiation included both uranium carbide / uranium oxide (UCO) kernels and uranium oxide (UO2) kernels. Four of the 6 capsules contained fuel from the US Advanced Gas Reactor program, and only those capsules will be discussed in this work. The inventories of gamma-emitting fission products from the fuel compacts, graphite compact holders, graphite spacers and test capsule shell were evaluated. These data were used to measure the fractional release of fission products such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Eu-154, Ce-144, and Ag-110m from the compacts. The fraction of Ag-110m retained in the compacts ranged from 1.8% to full retention. Additionally, the activities of the radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) have been used to evaluate the burnup of all US TRISO fuel compacts in the irradiation. The experimental burnup evaluations compare favorably with burnups predicted from physics simulations. Predicted burnups for UCO compacts range from 7.26 to 13.15 % fission per initial metal atom (FIMA) and 9.01 to 10.69 % FIMA for UO2 compacts. Measured burnup ranged from 7.3 to 13.1 % FIMA for UCO compacts and 8.5 to 10.6 % FIMA for UO2 compacts. Results from gamma emission computed tomography performed on compacts and graphite holders that reveal the distribution of different fission products in a component will also be discussed. Gamma tomography of graphite holders was also used to locate the position of TRISO fuel particles suspected of having silicon carbide layer failures that lead to in-pile cesium release.

  11. Fission Product Inventory and Burnup Evaluation of the AGR-2 Irradiation by Gamma Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Stempien, John D.

    2016-11-01

    Gamma spectrometry has been used to evaluate the burnup and fission product inventory of different components from the US Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program's second TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiation test (AGR-2). TRISO fuel in this irradiation included both uranium carbide / uranium oxide (UCO) kernels and uranium oxide (UO2) kernels. Four of the 6 capsules contained fuel from the US Advanced Gas Reactor program, and only those capsules will be discussed in this work. The inventories of gamma-emitting fission products from the fuel compacts, graphite compact holders, graphite spacers and test capsule shell were evaluated. These data were used to measure the fractional release of fission products such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Eu-154, Ce-144, and Ag-110m from the compacts. The fraction of Ag-110m retained in the compacts ranged from 1.8% to full retention. Additionally, the activities of the radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) have been used to evaluate the burnup of all US TRISO fuel compacts in the irradiation. The experimental burnup evaluations compare favorably with burnups predicted from physics simulations. Predicted burnups for UCO compacts range from 7.26 to 13.15 % fission per initial metal atom (FIMA) and 9.01 to 10.69 % FIMA for UO2 compacts. Measured burnup ranged from 7.3 to 13.1 % FIMA for UCO compacts and 8.5 to 10.6 % FIMA for UO2 compacts. Results from gamma emission computed tomography performed on compacts and graphite holders that reveal the distribution of different fission products in a component will also be discussed. Gamma tomography of graphite holders was also used to locate the position of TRISO fuel particles suspected of having silicon carbide layer failures that lead to in-pile cesium release.

  12. Development of food irradiation technology and consumer attitude toward irradiated food in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Cho, Han-Ok (Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of))

    1992-12-01

    In Korea, the well-integrated research of biological effects of radiation has been launched from the late 1960s. As research activities, the following food items have been dealt with: sprouting foods, fruits, mushrooms, grains, spices or mixed condiments, fish or fishery products, meat or meat products, and fermented foods. The usage of gamma radiation from [sup 60]Co source is now authorized for food irradiation of the following items: potato, onion, garlic, chestnut, mushroom, dried mushroom, dried spices (including red pepper, garlic, black pepper, onion, ginger, and green onion), dried meat, powdered fish and shellfish, soybean paste powder, hot pepper paste powder, soybean sauce powder, and starch. Since the authorization of food irradiation in 1985, consumers' acceptance has been considered the most important. The survey evaluating the basic perception and attitule toward food irradiation revealed the following results. Consumers' awareness of food irradiation was 82%, with significantly higher in radiation workers than the general public (p<0.0001). Seventy-five percent distinguished the contaminated food by radionuclides from irradiated food. In purchasing irradiated foods, 50.9% required more information. The contribution of irradiated foods to wholesomeness was suspicious in 51%, acceptable in 33%, and uncertain in 16%. If information about the benefits of irradiation is provided to consumers, positive response was increased to 60%. The most critical impediment in the commercial application of food irradiation was found to have resulted from the general consumers' slow acceptance; however, consumers' attitude to irradiated food became positive if they understood the safety and advantages of this technology. The most important task is to overcome consumers' psychological resistance and transporting matters of the products to be irradiated. (N.K.).

  13. Irradiation treatment of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in water and wastewater: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlong; Chu, Libing

    2016-08-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), especially the pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) such as antibiotics and hormones have attracted great concerns worldwide for their persistence and potential threat to ecosystem and public health. This paper presents an overview on the ionizing irradiation-induced degradation of PPCPs in aqueous solution. Parameters that affect PPCPs degradation, such as the absorbed dose, solution pH, dose rate, water matrices and the presence of some inorganic ions and humic acid are evaluated. The mechanism and pathways of radiolytic degradation of PPCPs are reviewed. In many cases, PPCPs such as antibiotics and X-ray contrast agent could be removed completely by radiation, but a higher absorbed dose was needed for their mineralization and toxicity reduction. The combination of ionizing irradiation with other methods such as H2O2, ozonation and TiO2 nanoparticles could improve the degradation efficacy and reduce the cost. Ionizing irradiation is a promising alternative for degradation of PPCPs in aqueous solution.

  14. Production of Sulfur Allotropes in Electron Irradiated Jupiter Trojans Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Ahmed; Poston, Michael J.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Eiler, John M.; Brown, Michael E.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Hodyss, Robert; Hand, Kevin P.; Carlson, Robert; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate sulfur chemistry in laboratory analogs of Jupiter Trojans and Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Electron irradiation experiments of CH3OH–NH3–H2O and H2S–CH3OH–NH3–H2O ices were conducted to better understand the chemical differences between primordial planetesimals inside and outside the sublimation line of H2S. The main goal of this work is to test the chemical plausibility of the hypothesis correlating the color bimodality in Jupiter Trojans with sulfur chemistry in the incipient solar system. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of the irradiated mixtures allows the detection of small sulfur allotropes (S3 and S4) after the irradiation of H2S containing ice mixtures. These small, red polymers are metastable and could polymerize further under thermal processing and irradiation, producing larger sulfur polymers (mainly S8) that are spectroscopically neutral at wavelengths above 500 nm. This transformation may affect the spectral reflectance of Jupiter Trojans in a different way compared to KBOs, thereby providing a useful framework for possibly differentiating and determining the formation and history of small bodies. Along with allotropes, we report the production of organo-sulfur molecules. Sulfur molecules produced in our experiment have been recently detected by Rosetta in the coma of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. The very weak absorption of sulfur polymers in the infrared range hampers their identification on Trojans and KBOs, but these allotropes strongly absorb light at UV and Visible wavelengths. This suggests that high signal-to-noise ratio UV–Vis spectra of these objects could provide new constraints on their presence.

  15. Effect of irradiated sodium alginate and phosphorus on biomass and artemisinin production in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Siddiqi, T O; Moinuddin; Varshney, Lalit

    2014-09-22

    It is now being realized that irradiation products of natural bioactive agents can also be beneficially utilized to impart value addition in agriculture by converting these bioactive agents into more useful form. Polysaccharides, such as sodium alginate, have proven to be wonderful growth promoting substances in their depolymerized form for various plants. Artemisinin has been increasingly popular as an effective and safe alternative therapy against malaria; also proved effective against the highly adaptable malaria parasite, which has already become resistant to many other drugs. The drug artemisinin can be extracted from the leafy tissues of Artemisia annua. Therefore, experiments were conducted with an aim to evaluate artemisinin production and overall plant development though depolymerized sodium alginate application and nutrient supply. In the present study, sodium alginate, irradiated by Co-60 gamma rays together with various phosphorus doses, was used to study their effect on growth, physiological and biochemical processes and production of artemisinin in A. annua. Among various applied doses of phosphorus fertilizer, P40 (40 kg Pha(-1)) together with ISA80 (80 mg L(-1)) significantly improved all the parameters studied. Increase in plant height as well as weight was noted at this treatment. Dry leaf yield, artemisinin concentration in leaves and artemisinin yield was also significantly enhanced by the treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trial Production of Surgical Gloves from Irradiated Natural Rubber Latex on Factory Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Utama

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Trial production of surgical gloves from irradiated natural rubber latex at the PT. Laxindo Utama Serang Banten glove factory has been carried out. The variation of heating temperature and leaching time during processing were evaluated. The physical and mechanical properties and the protein allergen respond of surgical gloves using ELISA method were measured. The results showed that the physical and mechanical of surgical gloves such as tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break arefound to meet the requirements of the ISO or SNI standard for surgical gloves. While the allergic response through clinical tested latex-sensitive protein allergen known as ELISA test is found to be negative.

  17. EPR as an analytical tool in assessing the mineral nutrients and irradiated food products-vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Gopal, N. O.

    2008-12-01

    EPR spectral investigations of some commonly available vegetables in south India, which are of global importance like Daucus carota (carrot), Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (cluster beans), Coccinia indica (little gourd) and Beta vulgaris (beet root) have been carried out. In all the vegetable samples a free radical corresponding to cellulose radical is observed. Almost all the samples under investigation exhibit Mn ions in different oxidation states. The temperature variation EPR studies are done and are discussed in view of the paramagnetic oxidation states. The radiation-induced defects have also been assessed by using the EPR spectra of such irradiated food products.

  18. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...... that there are great differences in fuel consumption between fisheries targeting groundfish or shellfish and those targeting pelagic fish or industrial fish. Here, I show that fuel consumption per kilogram of caught fish varies considerably as a function of fishing gear and vessel size, even considering the same......) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals that there are great differences in fuel consumption between...

  19. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals that th...... that there are great differences in the fuel consumption between fisheries targeting ground or shellfish and those targeting pelagic or industrial fish.......Previous studies based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...

  20. Review on Aquatic Production and International Trade of Major Fisheries Nations in 2011%全球主要渔业国家2011年水产品生产和与国际贸易回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李励年

    2012-01-01

    2011年,全球渔业生产和水产品国际贸易基本保持平稳。渔业捕捞产量出现上升,水产品国际贸易保持活跃。全球主要渔业国家的渔业生产大多呈现了不同程度的增长。本文针对不同国家的渔业特征,对全球主要渔业国家2011年的渔业生产和国际贸易状况进行了回顾与分析。由于发达国家经济滞长,亚洲和拉美的新兴经济体和国家将成为今后全球渔业发展的主要推动力。%Global fisheries production and international trade of aquatic products remained stable in 2011. Fishing production increased and international trade of aquatic products remained active. Fishery production of the world' s major fisheries nations is mostly showing different degrees of growth. Asia and Latin America, emerging economies and countries will become the main driving force of the future development of global fisheries.

  1. Effect of helium production on swelling of F82H irradiated in HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, E. E-mail: wakai@realab01.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Hashimoto, N.; Miwa, Y.; Robertson, J.P.; Klueh, R.L.; Shiba, K.; Jistukawa, S

    2000-12-01

    The effects of helium production and heat treatment on the swelling of F82H steel irradiated in the HFIR to 51 dpa have been investigated using {sup 10}B, {sup 58}Ni and {sup 60}Ni-doped specimens. The swelling of tempered F82H-std and F82H doped with {sup 10}B irradiated at 400 deg. C ranged from 0.52% to 1.2%, while the swelling of the non-tempered F82H doped with {sup 58}Ni or {sup 60}Ni was less than 0.02%. At 300 deg. C the swelling in all steels was insignificant. In the F82H + Ni, a high number of density carbides formed in the matrix at these temperatures. The production of helium atoms enhanced the swelling of the F82H steel. However, the non-tempered treatment for the F82H + Ni suppressed remarkably the swelling. The cause of low swelling in the F82H + Ni may be due to the occurrence of the high density of carbides acting as sinks or the decrease of mobility of vacancies interacting with carbon atoms in matrix.

  2. Probability of divacancy trap production in silicon diodes exposed to focused ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuović, Željko; Vittone, Ettore; Capan, Ivana; Jakšić, Milko

    2011-02-01

    We present ion beam induced charge (IBIC) measurements of the critical displacement damage dose Dd values and modeling of the probability of divacancy trap production in p+-n-n+ silicon diodes exposed to megaelectron volt energy ion beam irradiation. The normalized induced charge (Q0/Q) measured by He ion probe in tested silicon diodes irradiated by focused He, Li, O, and Cl ion beams with energies of about 0.3 MeV/u increases linearly with Dd according to the modified radiation damage function and nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) theory. A simple IBIC model based on Gunn theorem showed clear dependence of the induced charge Q and corresponding equivalent damage factor Ked value on both a depth profile of charge created by ionizing particle (probe) and a depth distribution of stable defects created from primary defects produced by damaging ions. The average probability of the divacancy production (defined as the ratio of the final electrical active defect quantity and primary ion induced vacancy quantity for each impinging ion) of 0.18 (18%) was calculated by the IBIC modeling for all damaging ions.

  3. Partitioning of selected fission products from irradiated oxide fuel induced by thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbina, Natalia; Kivel, Niko; Günther-Leopold, Ines

    2013-06-01

    The release of fission products (FPs) from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been studied as a function of the temperature and redox conditions. The present paper concerns essentially the high temperature separation of Cs and Sr from irradiated pressurized (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel of different burn-up levels with use of an in-house designed system for inductive vaporization (InVap). Using thermodynamic calculations with the Module of Fission Product Release (MFPR) code along with annealing experiments on SNF in the InVap it was shown that the speciation of Cs and Sr, hence their release behavior at high temperature, is sensitive to the redox conditions during thermal treatment. It was demonstrated that annealing conditions in the InVap can be adjusted in the way to promote the release of selected FPs without significant loss of the fuel matrix or actinides: complete release of Cs and I was achieved during treatment of irradiated fuel at 1800 °C under reducing atmosphere (0.7% H2/Ar mixture). The developed partitioning procedure can be used for the SNF pretreatment as an advanced head-end step in the hydrometallurgical or pyrochemical reprocessing technology.

  4. Partitioning of selected fission products from irradiated oxide fuel induced by thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbina, Natalia, E-mail: natalia.shcherbina@psi.ch [Department of Nuclear Energy and Safety, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Kivel, Niko; Günther-Leopold, Ines [Department of Nuclear Energy and Safety, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen 5232 (Switzerland)

    2013-06-15

    The release of fission products (FPs) from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been studied as a function of the temperature and redox conditions. The present paper concerns essentially the high temperature separation of Cs and Sr from irradiated pressurized (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel of different burn-up levels with use of an in-house designed system for inductive vaporization (InVap). Using thermodynamic calculations with the Module of Fission Product Release (MFPR) code along with annealing experiments on SNF in the InVap it was shown that the speciation of Cs and Sr, hence their release behavior at high temperature, is sensitive to the redox conditions during thermal treatment. It was demonstrated that annealing conditions in the InVap can be adjusted in the way to promote the release of selected FPs without significant loss of the fuel matrix or actinides: complete release of Cs and I was achieved during treatment of irradiated fuel at 1800 °C under reducing atmosphere (0.7% H{sub 2}/Ar mixture). The developed partitioning procedure can be used for the SNF pretreatment as an advanced head-end step in the hydrometallurgical or pyrochemical reprocessing technology.

  5. Maximizing the production of Scenedesmus obliquus in photobioreactors under different irradiation regimes: experiments and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Bertucco, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Maximizing biomass productivity and photosynthetic efficiency are key factors to develop large-scale microalgae cultivation for biodiesel production. If the photobioreactor (PBR) is not operated under proper conditions, productivity and efficiency values drop considerably. In this work, the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus in continuous flat-panel PBR is considered. Experimental data and simulations were used with the aim of determining suitable working conditions to achieve maximum productivity. Microalgae concentration and productivity have been measured in a continuous 250 mL flat-panel PBR as a function of the space-time τ. Simulations were performed at both low and high irradiance values, with different light regimes (constant light and day-night profiles). Model parameters were optimized based on laboratory-scale experimental data, and the importance of the maintenance energy requirement as a function of light intensity was outlined. The effect of different extent of axial mixing on PBR performances was investigated. Results obtained show how to determine optimum working conditions and how they could be used in the design of a large-scale PBR to achieve maximum microalgal productivity.

  6. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eva [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Rosenthal, Harald [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Kaeferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  7. Solar irradiance changes and phytoplankton productivity in Earth's ocean following astrophysical ionizing radiation events

    CERN Document Server

    Neale, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Two atmospheric responses to simulated astrophysical ionizing radiation events significant to life on Earth are production of odd-nitrogen species, especially NO2, and subsequent depletion of stratospheric ozone. Ozone depletion increases incident short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 280-315 nm) and longer ( > 600 nm) wavelengths of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR, 400 -700 nm). On the other hand, the NO2 haze decreases atmospheric transmission in the long-wavelength UVA (315-400 nm) and short wavelength PAR. Here we use the results of previous simulations of incident spectral irradiance following an ionizing radiation event to predict changes in Terran productivity focusing on photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton. The prediction is based on a spectral model of photosynthetic response developed for the dominant genera in central regions of the ocean (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), and remote-sensing based observations of spectral water transparency, temperature, wind speed and mixed...

  8. Development of a production scale purification of Ge-68 from irradiated gallium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan M.; Mausner, Leonard [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Germanium-68 (Ge-68) is produced by proton irradiation of a gallium metal target and purified by organic extraction. The Ge-68 can be used in a medical isotope generator to produce Gallium-68 (Ga-68) which can be used to radiolabel PET imaging agents. The emerging use of Ge-68 in the Ga-68 medical isotope generator has caused us to develop a new purification method for Ge-68 that does not use toxic solvents. The purpose of this work was to develop a production scale separation of Ge-68 that utilizes a leaching step to remove a bulk of the gallium metal, followed by purification with Sephadex {sup copyright} G25. Production scale (300 mCi) purification was performed with the new method. The purified Ge-68 contained the highest radioactivity concentration of Ge-68 produced at BNL; the sample meet Department of Energy specifications and the method had an excellent recovery of Ge-68.

  9. 75 FR 17070 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Hawaii Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XU60 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Hawaii Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; Fishery Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ]...

  10. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 579 Irradiation in the Production, Processing... THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority citation for... generated from machine sources at energy levels not to exceed 10 million electron volts (MeV); (3)...

  11. Fishery Performance Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Performance indicators for landings, effort, revenue and distribution of revenue are collected for various fisheries nation-wide. The fisheries include catch and...

  12. Color-center production and recovery in electron-irradiated magnesium aluminate spinel and ceria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Lelong, Gérald; Guillaumet, Maxime; Weber, William J; Takaki, Seiya; Yasuda, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-17

    Single crystals of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) with (1 0 0) or (1 1 0) orientations and cerium dioxide or ceria (CeO2) were irradiated by 1.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV electrons in a high-fluence range. Point-defect production was studied by off-line UV-visible optical spectroscopy after irradiation. For spinel, regardless of both crystal orientation and electron energy, two characteristic broad bands centered at photon energies of 5.4 eV and 4.9 eV were assigned to F and F(+) centers (neutral and singly ionized oxygen vacancies), respectively, on the basis of available literature data. No clear differences in color-center formation were observed for the two crystal orientations. Using calculations from displacement cross sections by elastic collisions, these results are consistent with a very large threshold displacement energy (200 eV) for oxygen atoms at room temperature. A third very broad band centered at 3.7 eV might be attributed either to an oxygen hole center (V-type center) or an F2 dimer center (oxygen di-vacancy). The onset of recovery of these color centers took place at 200 °C with almost full bleaching at 600 °C. Activation energies (~0.3-0.4 eV) for defect recovery were deduced from the isochronal annealing data by using a first-order kinetics analysis. For ceria, a sub-band-gap absorption feature, which peaked at ~3.1 eV, was recorded for 2.5 MeV electron irradiation only. Assuming a ballistic process, we suggest that the latter defect might result from cerium atom displacement on the basis of computed cross sections.

  13. THE KNOWLEDGE BASE FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    and the associated relevance criteria for knowledge – has been promoted by most national ...... Table III: List of indicators describing the fishery production ..... Rome;. FAO: 41 pp. FAO 1999 — Indicators for sustainable development of marine.

  14. Atomic scale modeling of defect production and microstructure evolution in irradiated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Soneda, N.; Shimomura, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Irradiation effects in materials depend in a complex way on the form of the as-produced primary damage state and its spatial and temporal evolution. Thus, while collision cascades produce defects on a time scale of tens of picosecond, diffusion occurs over much longer time scales, of the order of seconds, and microstructure evolution over even longer time scales. In this report the authors present work aimed at describing damage production and evolution in metals across all the relevant time and length scales. They discuss results of molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades in Fe and V. They show that interstitial clusters are produced in cascades above 5 keV, but not vacancy clusters. Next, they discuss the development of a kinetic Monte Carlo model that enables calculations of damage evolution over much longer time scales (1000`s of s) than the picosecond lifetime of the cascade. They demonstrate the applicability of the method by presenting predictions on the fraction of freely migrating defects in {alpha}Fe during irradiation at 600 K.

  15. Algae harvesting for biofuel production: influences of UV irradiation and polyethylenimine (PEI) coating on bacterial biocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbakpe, Michael; Ge, Shijian; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Xuezhi; Kobylarz, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    There is a pressing need to develop efficient and sustainable separation technologies to harvest algae for biofuel production. In this work, two bacterial species (Escherichia coli and Rhodococus sp.) were used as biocoagulants to harvest Chlorella zofingiensis and Scenedesmus dimorphus. The influences of UV irradiation and polyethylenimine (PEI)-coating on the algal harvesting efficiency were investigated. Results showed that the UV irradiation could slightly enhance bacteria-algae biocoagulation and algal harvesting efficiency. In contrast, the PEI-coated E. coli cells noticeably increased the harvesting efficiencies from 23% to 83% for S. dimorphus when compared to uncoated E. coli cells. Based on the soft-particle Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, an energy barrier existed between uncoated E. coli cells and algal cells, whereas the PEI coating on E. coli cells eliminated the energy barrier, thereby the biocoagulation was significantly improved. Overall, this work presented groundwork toward the potential use of bacterial biomass for algal harvesting from water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods - Development of detection method for radiolytic products of irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Su; Lee, Eun Ryong; Hong, Hae Jung [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    Meats, nuts, legumes and cereals were irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray. The detection methods included the fat extraction from samples, isolation of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones by florisil column chromatography and analyses of GC-FID and GC/MS analyzers. Concentrations of hydrocarbons and 2-clobutanones increased with the irradiation dose in meat, nuts, legumes and cereals. In nuts (sesame seeds, black sesame seeds, perilla seeds, pine nuts and peanuts), legumes (white beans, black soybeans, yellow bean sprout soybeans, mouse-eyed soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans and small red beans) and cereals (brown rice, corns and wheat), 8-heptadecene and 1,7-hexadecadiene originated from oleic acid and 6,9-heptadecadiene and 1,7,10-hexadecatriene induced from linoleic acids were the major hydrocarbons due to the composition of fatty acids. Concentrations of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in nuts were slightly reduced and hydrocarbons were still significantly detectable, during 6 months at -18 deg. C. In meats and nuts, 2-(5'-tetradecenyl)cyclobutanone formed from oleic acid was found in most. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone was detected in a large amount. The concentrations of radiation-induced 2-alkylcyclobutanones in meats slightly decreased, but relatively constant during 6 months at -18 deg. C. 62 refs., 45 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  17. Production scale purification of Ge-68 and Zn-65 from irradiated gallium metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan M; Mausner, Leonard

    2015-07-01

    Germanium-68 (Ge-68) is produced by proton irradiation of a gallium metal target, purified by organic extraction and used in a medical isotope generator to produce Gallium-68 PET imaging agents. The purpose of this work was to implement a production scale separation of Ge-68 and Zn-65 that does not use organic solvents and uses a limited number of columns. The current separation approach was modified to use AG1 resin and/or Sephadex(©) G25 with zinc spikes to purify Ge-68 with near quantitative recovery. The purified Ge-68 meets DOE specifications. Methods utilizing zinc spikes resulted in the purist Ge-68 produced at Brookhaven National Lab with no other impurities by ICP-OES. During process optimization approximately 2.5 Ci of Ge-68 was purified utilizing the different processing methods, and the material was sold to the Nuclear Medicine community between 2012-2013. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistical analysis of the irradiation process of various products in the industrial irradiator JS-6500; Analisis estadistico del proceso de irradiacion de productos varios en el irradiador industrial JS-6500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naquid G, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the methodology for the control of the irradiation service applied to disposable products of medical use, foods, medications, cosmetics and several to different dose in the Gamma Irradiation Plant, with radiation of Cobalt 60, by means of the Graphs of Quality Control by Variables. These they are used to check if the irradiation process has been carried out appropriately, or well, if the variations surpass the established limits in the one that influences some another factor. (Author)

  19. Ubiquitous quantum dot-sensitized nanoporous film for hydrogen production under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyauchi, Masahiro, E-mail: mmiyauchi@ceram.titech.ac.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); JST, PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Shiga, Yuhiro; Srinivasan, Nagarajan; Atarashi, Daiki; Sakai, Etsuo [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    To develop the efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production device, tin monosulfide (SnS) quantum dots (QDs) were deposited onto a nanoporous TiO{sub 2} electrode by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. When Pt nanoparticles as co-catalysts were modified at the interface between the electroconductive glass substrate and nanoporous SnS QDs/TiO{sub 2} layer, hydrogen molecules were produced under visible-light irradiation without applying a bias potential. In addition, the size and color of SnS QDs could be tailored using SILAR method, and the optimal structure of the SnS QDs was determined for efficient photocurrent generation and hydrogen production. The photocatalysis device developed in the present study was constructed as a simple single plate consisting of non-toxic elements. - Highlights: • Unique photo-electrochemical thin film device without application of a bias potential. • Non-toxic and inexpensive SnS quantum dot for visible-light harvesting. • Tailored SnS quantum dots using the SILAR method for efficient hydrogen production.

  20. Co-catalyst free Titanate Nanorods for improved Hydrogen production under solar light irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Lakshmana Reddy; D Praveen Kumar; M V Shankar

    2016-04-01

    Harnessing solar energy for water splitting into hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gases in the presence of semiconductor catalyst is one of the most promising and cleaner methods of chemical fuel (H2) production. Herein, we report a simplified method for the preparation of photo-active titanate nanorods catalyst and explore the key role of calcination temperature and time period in improving catalytic properties. Both as-synthesized and calcined material showed rod-like shape and trititanate structure as evidenced from crystal structure and morphology analysis. Notably, calcination process affected both length and diameter of the nanorods into shorter and smaller size respectively. In turn, they significantly influenced the band gap reduction, resulting in visible light absorption at optimized calcination conditions. The calcined nanorods showed shift in optical absorption band edge towards longer wave length than pristine nanorods. The rate of hydrogen generation using different photocatalysts was measured by suspending trititanate nanorods (in the absence of co-catalyst) in glycerol-water mixture under solar light irradiation. Among the catalysts, nanorods calcined at 250°C for 2 hours recorded high rate of H2 production and stability confirmed for five cycles. Photocatalytic properties and plausible pathway responsible for improved H2 production are discussed in detail.

  1. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  2. Fusion neutron irradiation induced ordering and defect production in Cu/sub 3/Au at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.S.; Guinan, M.W.; Kirk, M.A.; Hahn, P.A.

    1987-08-01

    We irradiate three Cu/sub 3/Au alloys different degrees of initial long-range order at temperatures between 300K and 434K. The resistivity of samples is monitored during irradiation and related to the long-term order parameter by the Muto relation. The results show that the ordering rate, which is proportional to the concentration of freely migrating vacancies, increases at the beginning and then decreases later with fluence. The decrease is a result of the continuous production of sinks in the form of dislocation loops. The effect of sinks on vacancy annihilation in some cases causes a reversed temperature dependence of ordering rate. The free vacancy production rate and the rate of sink production are determined using an ordering kinetics theory. The results of the 14 MeV neutron irradiations are compared to those obtained in other neutron spectra and particle irradiations. The estimated free vacancy production rate is also compared to the primary defect production rate measured at 4.2K in disordered samples.

  3. Hard x-ray and hot electron production from intense laser irradiation of wavelength-scale particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, T.D.; Rust, M.; Weiner, I. [Department of Physics, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA (United States); Allen, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, R.A. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Steinke, C.A. [Lyman Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Wilks, S.; Zweiback, J.; Cowan, T.E.; Ditmire, T. [Laser Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2001-05-28

    We have examined the production of hard x-rays from the irradiation of {approx}1 {mu}m diameter water droplets with a 35 fs laser at an intensity of up to 7x10{sup 17} W cm{sup -2}. We observe substantial x-ray production in the photon energy range above 100 keV and find that the implied hot electron temperatures from these micron-scale targets are significantly higher than electron temperatures observed from irradiation of solid planar plastic targets under nearly identical irradiation conditions. The observed enhancement of the hot electron temperature from droplets is consistent with hot electron spectra calculated from particle-in-cell simulations. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  4. Triolein reduces MMP-1 upregulation in dermal fibroblasts generated by ROS production in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leirós, Gustavo J; Kusinsky, Ana Gabriela; Balañá, María Eugenia; Hagelin, Karin

    2017-02-01

    Cytokine production and oxidative stress generated by ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) skin exposure are main factors of skin photoaging. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) produced by irradiated keratinocytes is proposed to have a role in metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression activation in dermal fibroblasts. We examined the effect of triolein treatment of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes on MMP1 (interstitial collagenase) expression response of dermal fibroblasts. We assayed UVB-irradiated keratinocytes soluble signals, mainly IL-6 and reactive oxygen species (ROS). IL-6 expression and ROS generation were assayed in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes. MMP1 mRNA expression response was assayed in fibroblasts grown in keratinocytes conditioned medium. We evaluated the effect of treating keratinocytes with triolein on IL-6 expression and ROS generation in keratinocytes, and MMP1 expression in fibroblasts. The irradiation of epidermal cells with sublethal UVB doses increased IL-6 expression and ROS generation. Conditioned culture medium collected from keratinocytes was used to culture dermal fibroblasts. MMP1 mRNA expression increase was observed in fibroblasts cultured in medium collected from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes. Triolein treatment reduced the IL-6 expression and ROS generation in keratinocytes and this effect was reflected in downregulation of MMP1 expression in fibroblasts. Triolein reduces both the expression of IL-6 and ROS generation in irradiated keratinocytes. It seems to exert an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effect on irradiated keratinocytes that in turn reduces MMP1 expression in dermal fibroblasts. Collectively, these results indicate that triolein could act as a photoprotective agent. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Solar Irradiance Changes and Phytoplankton Productivity in Earth's Ocean Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Patrick J; Thomas, Brian C

    2016-04-01

    Two atmospheric responses to simulated astrophysical ionizing radiation events significant to life on Earth are production of odd-nitrogen species, especially NO2, and subsequent depletion of stratospheric ozone. Ozone depletion increases incident short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 280-315 nm) and longer (>600 nm) wavelengths of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm). On the other hand, the NO2 haze decreases atmospheric transmission in the long-wavelength UVA (315-400 nm) and short-wavelength PAR. Here, we use the results of previous simulations of incident spectral irradiance following an ionizing radiation event to predict changes in terran productivity focusing on photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton. The prediction is based on a spectral model of photosynthetic response, which was developed for the dominant genera in central regions of the ocean (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), and on remote-sensing-based observations of spectral water transparency, temperature, wind speed, and mixed layer depth. Predicted productivity declined after a simulated ionizing event, but the effect integrated over the water column was small. For integrations taking into account the full depth range of PAR transmission (down to 0.1% of utilizable PAR), the decrease was at most 2-3% (depending on strain), with larger effects (5-7%) for integrations just to the depth of the surface mixed layer. The deeper integrations were most affected by the decreased utilizable PAR at depth due to the NO2 haze, whereas shallower integrations were most affected by the increased surface UV. Several factors tended to dampen the magnitude of productivity responses relative to increases in surface-damaging radiation, for example, most inhibition in the modeled strains is caused by UVA and PAR, and the greatest relative increase in damaging exposure is predicted to occur in the winter when UV and productivity are low.

  6. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eva; Rosenthal, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Käferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  7. Influence of gamma irradiation on productivity indices of the edible Emperor moth caterpillar, Cirina forda (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, M O; Fasoranti, J O; Ande, A T; Olayemi, I K

    2013-08-01

    This study was aimed at generating baseline information for sustainable genetic improvement of Cirana forda larvae for entomophagy, through the use of gamma irradiation. Eggs of C. forda were irradiated with increasing doses of gamma rays from 0 to 200 Gy and raised through larval instal stages under laboratory conditions. The Body Weight (BW) and Head Capsule Width (HCW) of the larval instar stages were monitored as indices of productivity. Successful larval emergence was recorded for all irradiation doses tested and BW of the 1st and 2nd instar larvae were not significantly (p > 0.05) different between the control and treated groups (range = 0.021 +/- 0.003 g/larva in the 200 Gy treatment to 0.028 +/- 0.003 g/larva in the control group and 0.105 +/- 0.003 g/larva in 20 Gy treatment to 0.172 +/- 0.009 g/larva in the control group, respectively). On the other hand, BW during the 3rd and 4th larval instars were significantly (p < 0.05) lower among the irradiated treatments than control. Pattern of distribution of HCW was different from that of BW; as HCW increased with irradiation dose from 10-50 Gy during the 3rd and 4th larval instars. Also, HCW during the 5th instar larvae among the irradiated treatments (range = 5.256 +/- 0.012 to 5.662 +/- 0.026 mm) were not higher than that of the 6th instar in the control group (6.065 +/- 0.010 mm). These results suggest promising potentials of the use of gamma irradiation in sustainably improving the productivity of C. forda larvae for entomophagy.

  8. Consideration on Developing the Enhancement Fishery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua; LE; Cheng; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    The enhancement fishery is one of five pillar industries of aquatic products industry. Cultivation and development of enhancement fishery have certain conditions and advantages in China. From the concept of the enhancement fishery,this paper introduced four approaches for developing the enhancement fishery. It pointed out major problems in the development of enhancement fishery,including small construction scale of protection zone and unreasonable distribution,substandard releasing technology,not obvious enhancement effect,unclear development orientation,and difficult operation of implementation standard. Finally,it came up with recommendations for developing enhancement fishery,improving legal protection system,increasing input support effort,enhancing construction of scientific research institutions,strengthening supervision and management functions,establishing scientific evaluation system,and promoting comprehensive development of enhancement fishery.

  9. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research needs and implementation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, T. Douglas; Arlinghaus, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.; McIntyre, Peter B.; De Silva, Sena; Bartley, Devin M.; Cowx, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social–ecological system dynamics.

  10. Study on food preservation by irradiation of agricultural and marine products from Cheju island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.H.; Choung, C.C.; Cho, H.O. (Jeju Univ. (Republic of Korea))

    1984-01-01

    Salted dry yellow sea bream were vaccum packed in a plastic bags and irradiated at differents levels (0,0.5,1.0,1.5, and 2.0 Mrad) using sup(60)Co source. The irradiated samples were stored at room temperature 5degC. Physical and chemical properties were examined during storage. The total bacterial count was depressed according to level of irradiation applied. It was noted that cold storage after irradiation was more effective than room temperature. TMA contents slowly increased with higher dosage rates up to 1.5 Mrad but there was a gradual decrease of TMA at the 2.0 Mrad level. It was observed that there was a rapid decrease of TMAO 20 days after irradiation irrespective of storage temperature. The reduction of total nitrogen content was highest in the control but to a lesser degree when irradiation was applied. VBN content increased in all treatments 30 days after irradiation but it was also noted that there was a tendency toward depression of VBN by irradiation. The shelf life of salted dry sea bream was extended by 20 days with irradiation plus room temperature, and by 40 days with irradiation plus cold storage. To extend shelf life of salted dry sea bream, the most effective dosage rate was 1.0 Mrad based on tenderness, bacterial count and rancidity.

  11. Electron microscopic evaluation and fission product identification of irradiated TRISO coated particles from the AGR-1 experiment: A preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I J van Rooyen; D E Janney; B D Miller; J L Riesterer; P A Demkowicz

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Post-irradiation examination of coated particle fuel from the AGR-1 experiment is in progress at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this presentation a brief summary of results from characterization of microstructures in the coating layers of selected irradiated fuel particles with burnup of 11.3% and 19.3% FIMA will be given. The main objective of the characterization were to study irradiation effects, fuel kernel porosity, layer debonding, layer degradation or corrosion, fission-product precipitation, grain sizes, and transport of fission products from the kernels across the TRISO layers. Characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy were used. A new approach to microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates is also briefly demonstrated. The characterization emphasized fission-product precipitates in the SiC-IPyC interface, SiC layer and the fuel-buffer interlayer, and provided significant new insights into mechanisms of fission-product transport. Although Pd-rich precipitates were identified at the SiC-IPyC interlayer, no significant SiC-layer thinning was observed for the particles investigated. Characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentration Ag in precipitates with significantly higher concentrations of contain Pd and U. Different approaches to resolving this problem are discussed. Possible microstructural differences between particles with high and low releases of Ag particles are also briefly discussed, and an initial hypothesis is provided to explain fission-product precipitate compositions and locations. No SiC phase transformations or debonding of the SiC-IPyC interlayer as a result of irradiation were observed. Lessons learned from the post-irradiation examination are described and future actions are recommended.

  12. Change in colony morphology and kinetics of tylosin production after UV and gamma irradiation mutagenesis of Streptomyces fradiae NRRL-2702.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Shazia; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Afzal Ghauri, Muhammad; Iqbal, Ruqia; Mukhtar Khalid, Ahmad; Muddassar, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic used as veterinary drug and growth promoter. Attempts were made for hyper production of tylosin by a strain of Streptomyces fradiae NRRL-2702 through irradiation mutagenesis. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of wild-type strain caused development of six morphologically altered colony types on agar plates. After screening using Bacillus subtilis bioassay only morphological mutants indicated the production of tylosin. An increase of 2.7+/-0.22-fold in tylosin production (1500mg/l) in case of mutant UV-2 in complex medium was achieved as compared to wild-type strain (550mg/l). Gamma irradiation of mutant UV-2 using (60)Co gave one morphologically altered colony type gamma-1, which gave 2500mg/l tylosin yield in complex medium. Chemically defined media promoted tylosin production upto 3800mg/l. Maximum value of q(p) (3.34mg/gh) was observed by mutant gamma-1 as compared to wild strain (0.81mg/gh). Moreover, UV irradiation associated changes were unstable with loss of tylosin activity whereas mutant gamma-1 displayed high stability on subsequent culturing.

  13. Influence of SiC grain boundary character on fission product transport in irradiated TRISO fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, T. M.; van Rooyen, I. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the fission product precipitates at silicon carbide grain boundaries from an irradiated TRISO particle were identified and correlated with the associated grain boundary characteristics. Precession electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope provided the crystallographic information needed to identify grain boundary misorientation and boundary type (i.e., low angle, random high angle or coincident site lattice (CSL)-related). The silicon carbide layer was found to be composed mainly of twin boundaries and small fractions of random high angle and low angle grain boundaries. Most fission products were found at random, high-angle grain boundaries, with small fractions at low-angle and CSL-related grain boundaries. Palladium (Pd) was found at all types of grain boundaries while Pd-uranium and Pd-silver precipitates were only associated with CSL-related and random, high-angle grain boundaries. Precipitates containing only Ag were found only at random, high-angle grain boundaries, but not at low angle or CSL-related grain boundaries.

  14. A new mechanism for hydroxyl radical production in irradiated nanoparticle solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard-Roselli, Cécile; Brun, Emilie; Gilles, Manon; Baldacchino, Gérard; Kelsey, Colin; McQuaid, Harold; Polin, Chris; Wardlow, Nathan; Currell, Frederick

    2014-08-27

    The absolute yield of hydroxyl radicals per unit of deposited X-ray energy is determined for the first time for irradiated aqueous solutions containing metal nanoparticles based on a "reference" protocol. Measurements are made as a function of dose rate and nanoparticle concentration. Possible mechanisms for hydroxyl radical production are considered in turn: energy deposition in the nanoparticles followed by its transport into the surrounding environment is unable to account for observed yield whereas energy deposition in the water followed by a catalytic-like reaction at the water-nanoparticle interface can account for the total yield and its dependence on dose rate and nanoparticle concentration. This finding is important because current models used to account for nanoparticle enhancement to radiobiological damage only consider the primary interaction with the nanoparticle, not with the surrounding media. Nothing about the new mechanism appears to be specific to gold, the main requirements being the formation of a structured water layer in the vicinity of the nanoparticle possibly through the interaction of its charge and the water dipoles. The massive hydroxyl radical production is relevant to a number of application fields, particularly nanomedicine since the hydroxyl radical is responsible for the majority of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  15. Culture of the green microalga Botryococcus braunii Showa with LED irradiation eliminating violet light enhances hydrocarbon production and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atobe, Sueko; Saga, Kiyotaka; Maeyama, Haruko; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro; Okada, Shigeru; Imou, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    The green microalga Botryococcus braunii (B. braunii), race B, was cultured under light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation with and without violet light. This study examined the effect of violet light on hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii. C34 botryococcene hydrocarbons were efficiently extracted by thermal pretreatments at lower temperatures when the alga was cultured without violet light. The hydrocarbon content was also higher (approximately 3%) in samples cultured without violet light. To elucidate the mechanism of effective hydrocarbon recovery and production, we examined structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The amounts of extracellular carotenoids and water-soluble polymers extracted by thermal pretreatment from the ECM were decreased when the alga was cultured without violet light. These results indicate that LED irradiation without violet light is more effective for hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii. Furthermore, structural ECM components are closely involved in hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii.

  16. Fission product release and microstructure changes of irradiated MOX fuel at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, J.-Y.; Hiernaut, J.-P.; Wiss, T.; Beneš, O.; Thiele, H.; Papaioannou, D.; Rondinella, V. V.; Sasahara, A.; Sonoda, T.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2013-11-01

    burnups correspond reasonably well with measurement of Walker et al. [11]. All those data are shown Fig. 2.Fragments of 2-8 mg were chosen for the experiments. Since these specimens are small compared to the drilled sample size and were taken randomly, the precise radial position could not be determined, in particular the specimens of sample type, A and B could be from close radial locations.Specimens from each drilled sample type were annealed up to complete vaporisation (˜2600 K) at a speed of about 10 K min-1 in a Knudsen effusion mass spectrometer (KEMS) described previously [13,14]. In addition to helium and to the FGs all the species present in the vapour between 83 and 300 a.m.u. were measured during the heating. Additionally, the 85Kr isotope was analysed in a cold trap by β and γ counting. The long-lived fission gas isotopes correspond to masses 131, 132, 134 and 136 for Xe and 83, 84, 85 and 86 for Kr. The absolute quantities of gas released from specimens of sample types A and B were also determined using the in-house built Q-GAMES (Quantitative gas measurement system), described in detail in [15].For each of the samples, fragments were also annealed and measured in the KEMS up to specific temperatures corresponding to different stages of the FGs or He release. These fragments were subsequently analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Philips XL40) [16] in order to investigate the relationship between structural changes, burn-up, irradiation temperature and fission products release. SEM observations were also done on the samples before the KEMS experiments and the fracture surface appearance of the samples is shown in Fig. 3, revealing the presence of the high burnup structure (HBS) in the Pu-rich agglomerates.A summary of the 12 samples analysed by KEMS, SEM and Q-GAMES is given in Table 1. At 1300 K no clear change potentially related to gas release appears in the UM and PA. At 1450 K a beginning of grain boundaries opening can be observed as well as

  17. Assessment of human health hazards associated with the dietary exposure to organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ángel; Camacho, María; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Boada, Luis D.; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Almeida González, Maira [Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (ICIC), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Zaccaroni, Annalisa [Large Pelagic Vertebrate Group, Veterinary Faculty, University of Bologna, Viale Vespucci 2, Cesenatico (FC) 47042 (Italy); Zumbado, Manuel [Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (ICIC), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); and others

    2016-07-01

    In this work we have evaluated the potential carcinogenic and acutely toxic risks associated to the exposure to highly prevalent organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products by the Spanish population. The concentrations of 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (expressed as benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (B[a]P{sub eq})), and three inorganic toxic elements [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)] were determined in 93 samples of the most consumed species of white fish, blue fish, cephalopods and seafood species, which were acquired directly in markets and supermarkets in the Canary Islands, Spain. The chemical concentration data were combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the daily intake of these contaminants, and on this basis the risk quotients for carcinogenicity and acute toxicity were determined for Spanish adults and children. Our results showed that the daily intake of OCPs, PCBs and B[a]P{sub eq,} which is associated to blue fish consumption was the highest within the fish group. The estimated intake of pollutants can be considered low or very low for the individual contaminants, when compared to reference values, except in the case of HCB and As. All the estimated intakes were below the reported Tolerable Daily Intakes. Considering the additive effects of multiple contaminants, the risk of acute toxic effects can also be considered as low or very low. However, our results reflect that the current consumption of white fish in adults and children, and also the blue fish in the case of adults, poses a moderate carcinogenic risk to Spanish consumers, mainly related to their concentrations of As. The conclusions of this research may be useful for the design of appropriate risk communication campaigns. - Highlights: • The daily intake of persistent pollutants through fish consumption is estimated

  18. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries: a management approach for the North Sea demersal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    . An objective method is suggested that provides an optimal set of fishing mortality within the range, minimizing the risk of total allowable catch mismatches among stocks captured within mixed fisheries, and addressing explicitly the trade-offs between the most and least productive stocks.......Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative...... ranges to combine long-term single-stock targets with flexible, short-term, mixed-fisheries management requirements applied to the main North Sea demersal stocks. It is shown that sustained fishing at the upper bound of the range may lead to unacceptable risks when technical interactions occur...

  19. 77 FR 38738 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Exempted Fishery for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-BB35 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Exempted Fishery for the Southern New England Skate Bait Trawl Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  20. 75 FR 1023 - International Fisheries Regulations; Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Pelagic Fisheries; Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... CFR Part 665 [Docket No. 080225267-91393-03] RIN 0648-AW49 International Fisheries Regulations; Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Pelagic Fisheries; Hawaii-based Shallow-set Longline Fishery; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  1. 77 FR 25117 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Exempted Fishery for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-BB35 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Exempted Fishery for the Southern New England Skate Bait Trawl Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  2. 77 FR 64305 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Exempted Fishery for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-BC50 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Exempted Fishery for the Cape Cod Spiny Dogfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  3. Marine fishery possibilities of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panikkar, N.K.

    Marine fishery activity of the west coast of India is discussed. Sea fish production from the west coast of India makes three fourths of total fish production from Indian coasts. Kerala accounts for the largest production of fish in India...

  4. Evaluation of Water Quality Conditions Near Proposed Fish Production Sites Associated with the Yakima Fisheries Project, 1991-1993 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    1994-05-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began studying water quality at several sites in the Yakima River Basin for the Bonneville Power Administration. These sites were being proposed as locations for fish culture facilities as part of the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP). Surface water quality parameters near the proposed fish culture facilities are currently suitable for fish production. Water quality conditions in the mainstream Yakima River and its tributaries are generally excellent in the upper part of the watershed (i.e., near Cle Elum), but they are only fair to poor for the river downstream of Union Gap (river mile 107). Water quality of the Naches River near Oak Flats is also suitable for fish production. Groundwater supplies near the proposed fish production facilities typically have elevated concentrations of metals and dissolved gases. These conditions can be mitigated using best engineering practices such as precipitation and degasification. Additionally, mixing with surface water may improve these conditions. Depending on the location and depth of the well, groundwater temperatures may be warmer than optimum for acclimating and holding juvenile and adult fish. Water quality parameters measured in the Yakima River and tributaries sometimes exceed the range of values described as acceptable for culture of salmonids and for the protection of other aquatic life. However, constituent concentrations are within ranges that exist in many northwest fish hatcheries. Additionally, site-specific tests conducted by PNL (i.e., live box exposures and egg incubation studies) indicate that fish can be successfully reared in surface and well water near the proposed facility sites. Thus, there appear to be no constraints to artificial production for the YFP.

  5. Enhancing the various solvent extraction method via microwave irradiation for extraction of lipids from marine microalgae in biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Chee Loong; Idris, Ani

    2014-11-01

    The types of microalgae strains and the method used in lipid extraction have become crucial factors which influence the productivity of crude oil. In this paper, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were chosen as the strains and four different methods were used to extract the lipids: Hara and Radin, Folch, Chen and Bligh and Dyer. These methods were performed by using conventional heating and microwave irradiation methods. Results revealed that highest lipid yield from the different species was obtained using different extraction methods; both under microwave irradiation. The lipid yield for Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. was highest when Hara and Radin (8.19%), and Folch (8.47%) methods were used respectively under microwave irradiation. The lipids extracted were then transesterified to biodiesel and the quality of the biodiesel was analyzed using the gas chromatography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of medical isotopes from a thorium target irradiated by light charged particles up to 70 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemin, C.; Guertin, A.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N.; Métivier, V.

    2015-02-01

    The irradiation of a thorium target by light charged particles (protons and deuterons) leads to the production of several isotopes of medical interest. Direct nuclear reaction allows the production of Protactinium-230 which decays to Uranium-230 the mother nucleus of Thorium-226, a promising isotope for alpha radionuclide therapy. The fission of Thorium-232 produces fragments of interest like Molybdenum-99, Iodine-131 and Cadmium-115g. We focus our study on the production of these isotopes, performing new cross section measurements and calculating production yields. Our new sets of data are compared with the literature and the last version of the TALYS code.

  7. Production of medical isotopes from a thorium target irradiated by light charged particles up to 70 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemin, C; Guertin, A; Haddad, F; Michel, N; Métivier, V

    2015-02-07

    The irradiation of a thorium target by light charged particles (protons and deuterons) leads to the production of several isotopes of medical interest. Direct nuclear reaction allows the production of Protactinium-230 which decays to Uranium-230 the mother nucleus of Thorium-226, a promising isotope for alpha radionuclide therapy. The fission of Thorium-232 produces fragments of interest like Molybdenum-99, Iodine-131 and Cadmium-115g. We focus our study on the production of these isotopes, performing new cross section measurements and calculating production yields. Our new sets of data are compared with the literature and the last version of the TALYS code.

  8. New irradiation facilities for development of production methods of medical radionuclides at cyclotrons at Forschungszentrum Jülich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellerberg, S.; Scholten, B.; Spahn, I.; Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Qaim, S. M.; Bai, M.; Neumaier, B.

    2017-05-01

    An essential basis for research and development work on radiopharmaceuticals is the efficient production of radionuclides of high quality. In this process research-oriented studies aiming for elucidation of biochemical processes require novel products. The radionuclide development at INM-5 entails basic research, e.g. the determination of nuclear reaction data, as well as technical aspects of practical production, such as high-current targetry, chemical separation, formulation and quality control. In this work developments, adaptation and optimization of irradiation facilities at the BC 1710, JULIC as Injector of COSY and COSY itself are summarized, which shall allow the extension of radionuclide production possibilities, aiming at innovations in medical applications.

  9. Management effectiveness of the world's marine fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mora

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing declines in production of the world's fisheries may have serious ecological and socioeconomic consequences. As a result, a number of international efforts have sought to improve management and prevent overexploitation, while helping to maintain biodiversity and a sustainable food supply. Although these initiatives have received broad acceptance, the extent to which corrective measures have been implemented and are effective remains largely unknown. We used a survey approach, validated with empirical data, and enquiries to over 13,000 fisheries experts (of which 1,188 responded to assess the current effectiveness of fisheries management regimes worldwide; for each of those regimes, we also calculated the probable sustainability of reported catches to determine how management affects fisheries sustainability. Our survey shows that 7% of all coastal states undergo rigorous scientific assessment for the generation of management policies, 1.4% also have a participatory and transparent processes to convert scientific recommendations into policy, and 0.95% also provide for robust mechanisms to ensure the compliance with regulations; none is also free of the effects of excess fishing capacity, subsidies, or access to foreign fishing. A comparison of fisheries management attributes with the sustainability of reported fisheries catches indicated that the conversion of scientific advice into policy, through a participatory and transparent process, is at the core of achieving fisheries sustainability, regardless of other attributes of the fisheries. Our results illustrate the great vulnerability of the world's fisheries and the urgent need to meet well-identified guidelines for sustainable management; they also provide a baseline against which future changes can be quantified.

  10. Management effectiveness of the world's marine fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Myers, Ransom A; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Pitcher, Tony J; Sumaila, Rashid U; Zeller, Dirk; Watson, Reg; Gaston, Kevin J; Worm, Boris

    2009-06-16

    Ongoing declines in production of the world's fisheries may have serious ecological and socioeconomic consequences. As a result, a number of international efforts have sought to improve management and prevent overexploitation, while helping to maintain biodiversity and a sustainable food supply. Although these initiatives have received broad acceptance, the extent to which corrective measures have been implemented and are effective remains largely unknown. We used a survey approach, validated with empirical data, and enquiries to over 13,000 fisheries experts (of which 1,188 responded) to assess the current effectiveness of fisheries management regimes worldwide; for each of those regimes, we also calculated the probable sustainability of reported catches to determine how management affects fisheries sustainability. Our survey shows that 7% of all coastal states undergo rigorous scientific assessment for the generation of management policies, 1.4% also have a participatory and transparent processes to convert scientific recommendations into policy, and 0.95% also provide for robust mechanisms to ensure the compliance with regulations; none is also free of the effects of excess fishing capacity, subsidies, or access to foreign fishing. A comparison of fisheries management attributes with the sustainability of reported fisheries catches indicated that the conversion of scientific advice into policy, through a participatory and transparent process, is at the core of achieving fisheries sustainability, regardless of other attributes of the fisheries. Our results illustrate the great vulnerability of the world's fisheries and the urgent need to meet well-identified guidelines for sustainable management; they also provide a baseline against which future changes can be quantified.

  11. Directional and Spectral Irradiance in Ocean Models:Effects on Simulated Global Phytoplankton,Nutrients,and Primary Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Gregg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of including directional and spectral light in simulations of ocean radiative transfer was investigated using a coupled biogeochemical-circulation-radiative model of the global oceans. The effort focused on phytoplankton abundances, nutrient concentrations and net primary production.The importance was approached by sequentially removing directional (i.e., direct vs. diffuse and spectral irradiance and comparing results of the above variables to a fully directionally and spectrally-resolved model.In each case the total irradiance was kept constant; it was only the pathways and spectral nature that were changed.Assuming all irradiance was diffuse had negligible effect on global ocean primary production. Global nitrate and total chlorophyll concentrations declined by about 20% each. The largest changes occurred in the tropics and sub-tropics rather than the high latitudes, where most of the irradiance is already diffuse. Disregarding spectral irradiance had effects that depended upon the choice of attenuation wavelength. The wavelength closest to the spectrally-resolved model, 500nm, produced lower nitrate (19% and chlorophyll (8% and higher primary production (2% than the spectral model. Phytoplankton relative abundances were very sensitive to the choice of non-spectral wavelength transmittance. The combined effects of neglecting both directional and spectral irradiance exacerbated the differences, despite using attenuation at 500nm. Global nitrate decreased 33% and chlorophyll decreased 24%. Changes in phytoplankton community structure were considerable, representing a change from chlorophytes to cyanobacteria and coccolithophores. This suggested a shift in community function, from light-limitation to nutrient limitation: lower demands for nutrients from cyanobacteria and coccolithophores favored them over the more nutrient-demanding chlorophytes. Although diatoms have the highest nutrient demands in the model, their relative

  12. A Structure Identification and Toxicity Assessment of the Degradation Products of Aflatoxin B1 in Peanut Oil under UV Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jin; He, Bing; Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of extremely hazardous compounds because of their genotoxicity and carcinogenicity to human and animals, are commonly found in many tropical and subtropical regions. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is proven to be an effective method to reduce or detoxify aflatoxins. However, the degradation products of aflatoxins under UV irradiation and their safety or toxicity have not been clear in practical production such as edible oil industry. In this study, the degradation products of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in peanut oil were analyzed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Thermo Quadrupole Exactive Focus mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQEF-MS/MS). The high-resolution mass spectra reflected that two main products were formed after the modification of a double bond in the terminal furan ring and the fracture of the lactone ring, while the small molecules especially nitrogen-containing compound may have participated in the photochemical reaction. According to the above results, the possible photodegradation pathway of AFB1 in peanut oil is proposed. Moreover, the human embryo hepatocytes viability assay indicated that the cell toxicity of degradation products after UV irradiation was much lower than that of AFB1, which could be attributed to the breakage of toxicological sites. These findings can provide new information for metabolic pathways and the hazard assessment of AFB1 using UV detoxification. PMID:27845743

  13. Enhanced electron-positron pair production by ultra intense laser irradiating a compound target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Xun; Ma, Yan-Yun; Yu, Tong-Pu; Zhao, Jun; Yang, Xiao-Hu; Gan, Long-Fei; Zhang, Guo-Bo; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Liu, Jin-Jin; Zhuo, Hong-Bin; Shao, Fu-Qiu; Kawata, Shigeo

    2016-12-01

    High-energy-density electron-positron pairs play an increasingly important role in many potential applications. Here, we propose a scheme for enhanced positron production by an ultra intense laser irradiating a gas-Al compound target via the multi-photon Breit-Wheeler (BW) process. The laser pulse first ionizes the gas and interacts with a near-critical-density plasma, forming an electron bubble behind the laser pulse. A great deal of electrons are trapped and accelerated in the bubble, while the laser front hole-bores the Al target and deforms its front surface. A part of the laser wave is thus reflected by the inner curved target surface and collides with the accelerated electron bunch. Finally, a large number of γ photons are emitted in the forward direction via the Compton back-scattering process and the BW process is initiated. Dense electron-positron pairs are produced with a maximum density of 6.02× {{10}27} m-3. Simulation results show that the positron generation is greatly enhanced in the compound target, where the positron yield is two orders of magnitude greater than that in only the solid slab case. The influences of the laser intensity, gas density and length on the positron beam quality are also discussed, which demonstrates the feasibility of the scheme in practice.

  14. Investigation of the effect of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, Philipp; Rennhofer, Marcus; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Wagner, Jochen; Laube, Wolfgang; Gadermaier, Josef

    2013-04-01

    In the present study we investigate the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on Photovoltaic module performance. This investigation is performed using continuous hemispherical fish eye photographs of the sky, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and short circuit current measurements of a-Si, c-Si and CdTe PV modules. These measurements have been performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m.a.s.l) located in the southern part of Austria during a period of one and half year. The time resolution of the measurements is one minute, which allows to accurately follow the formation-eventually the disappearance- or the movement of the contrails in the sky. Using the fish eye photographs we identified clear sky days with a high contrail persistence. We especially look at situations where the contrails were shading the sun. Results show that contrails shading the sun may reduce the global radiation by up to 60%. In general we however observe that during days with a high contrail persistence the diffuse irradiance is slightly increased. Finally a statistic of the contrail persistence during the period of measurement is presented and conclusions as to the relevance for the solar energy production are drawn.

  15. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    that there are great differences in fuel consumption between fisheries targeting groundfish or shellfish and those targeting pelagic fish or industrial fish. Here, I show that fuel consumption per kilogram of caught fish varies considerably as a function of fishing gear and vessel size, even considering the same...... fisheries targeting groundfish or shellfish and those targeting pelagic fish or industrial fish. Here, I show that fuel consumption per kilogram of caught fish varies considerably as a function of fishing gear and vessel size, even considering the same target species. I argue that these differences need......Previous studies based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...

  16. Climate and oceanic fisheries: recent observations and projections and future needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salinger, M.J.; Bell, Johan D.; Evans, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence show that climatic variation and global warming can have a major effect on fisheries production and replenishment. To prevent overfishing and rebuild overfished stocks under changing and uncertain environmental conditions, new research partnerships between fisheries scie...

  17. Enhanced biocatalysis mechanism under microwave irradiation in isoquercitrin production revealed by circular dichroism and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, An; Zhu, Dan; Mei, Yi-Yuan; Xu, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Fu-An; Wang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    An efficient and rapid process for isoquercitrin production by hesperidinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of rutin was successfully developed under microwave irradiation detecting the affinity by circular dichroism (CD) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. A maximum isoquercitrin yield of 91.5±2.7% was obtained in 10min with the conditions of 10g/L hesperidinase, 2g/L rutin, 30°C and microwave power density 88.9W/L. Enzymatic reaction rate and Vm/Km in the microwave reactor were 6.34-fold higher than in a continuous flow microreactor and 1.24-fold higher than in a biphasic system. CD and SPR analysis results also showed that hesperidinase has a better selectivity and affinity (3.3-fold than in a batch reactor) to generate isoquercitrin under microwave irradiation. Microwave irradiation greatly improved the reaction efficiency and productivity, leading to a more positive economical assessment. The binding affinity indicates the presence of strong multivalent interactions between rutin and hesperidinase under microwave irradiation.

  18. Ice algae sun-screening: feedbacks between irradiance and algal productivity and pigmentation on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, C.; Anesio, A. M.; Yallop, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have shown compelling evidence that algae growing at the surface of glaciers and ice sheets can have a strong influence on the albedo of the ice. However, very little data are available about the relationship between ice-algal pigmentation and photochemistry despite their importance in both algal proliferation on the ice and wider ice sheet processes, i.e. change of albedo and melt. This relationship can provide the fundamental mechanistic explanation of how ice algae change the albedo of the ice. Here, we present the first in-situ assessment of ice-algal photochemistry undertaken on the Greenland Ice Sheet to constrain the mechanisms employed by ice algal community to maintain growth and productivity. We measured the photo-physiology of mixed algal communities over four weeks of the summer melt season during 2016 using a combination of HPLC pigment analysis and chlorophyll fluorometry. In-situ rapid light curves and induction/recovery curves revealed the photo-adaptation and acclimation strategies employed by ice algae to balance excessive irradiance and UV with the requirements for photosynthesis. The data indicate significant down-regulation of photochemistry to prevent photo-damage during high-irradiance periods, whilst diurnal decreases in irradiance allow recovery and photosynthetic repair. High irradiance during the day limits ice algal photosynthetic electron transport limiting productivity. On the other hand, down-regulation of photochemistry can have an important control on the formation of secondary pigmentation, which in turn has a direct impact on ice albedo.

  19. Soft X-ray irradiation of methanol ice: Formation of products as a function of photon energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Juang, K.-J.; Yih, T.-S. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32054, Taiwan (China); Ciaravella, A.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Jiménez-Escobar, A., E-mail: aciaravella@astropa.unipa.it [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-12-01

    Pure methanol ices have been irradiated with monochromatic soft X-rays of 300 and 550 eV close to the 1s resonance edges of C and O, respectively, and with a broadband spectrum (250-1200 eV). The infrared (IR) spectra of the irradiated ices show several new products of astrophysical interest such as CH{sub 2}OH, H{sub 2}CO, CH{sub 4}, HCOOH, HCOCH{sub 2}OH, CH{sub 3}COOH, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and (CH{sub 2}OH){sub 2}, as well as HCO, CO, and CO{sub 2}. The effect of X-rays is the result of the combined interactions of photons and electrons with the ice. A significant contribution to the formation and growth of new species in the CH{sub 3}OH ice irradiated with X-rays is given by secondary electrons, whose energy distribution depends on the energy of X-ray photons. Within a single experiment, the abundances of the new products increase with the absorbed energy. Monochromatic experiments show that product abundances also increase with the photon energy. However, the abundances per unit energy of newly formed species show a marked decrease in the broadband experiment as compared to irradiations with monochromatic photons, suggesting a possible regulatory role of the energy deposition rate. The number of new molecules produced per absorbed eV in the X-ray experiments has been compared to those obtained with electron and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation experiments.

  20. Effect of incubation temperatures for inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria after gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakauma, Makoto; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Tada, Mikiro [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    2000-09-01

    Irradiated fresh meat or fishery products have been expected to store and distribute under refrigerated temperature below 10degC. From previous reports, growth of coliform bacteria in these products were suppressed by gamma-irradiation below expected doses obtained at 30-37degC. This research was performed to observe the irradiation effect on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria at different incubation temperatures of 10-40degC on plate agar after irradiation. From this study, D10 values of all strains decreased 17- 45% at 10degC compared with maximum D10 values at 30- 40degC. Radiation sensitivities were related to the ability to grow at low temperatures in which psychrotrophic type E. coli A4-1 indicated most sensitive to radiation, next of Salmonella enteritidis YK-2, E. coli S2, B4 whereas most resistant at Enterobacter agglomerans K3-1. (author)

  1. Efficient production of NV colour centres in nanodiamonds using high-energy electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantelle, G., E-mail: geraldine.dantelle@polytechnique.ed [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Moleculaire, ENS Cachan, 94 235 CACHAN Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 PALAISEAU Cedex (France); Slablab, A.; Rondin, L. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Moleculaire, ENS Cachan, 94 235 CACHAN Cedex (France); Laine, F.; Carrel, F.; Bergonzo, Ph. [CEA-LIST, CEA/Saclay, 91 191 GIF-SUR-YVETTE Cedex (France); Perruchas, S.; Gacoin, T. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 PALAISEAU Cedex (France); Treussart, F.; Roch, J.-F. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Moleculaire, ENS Cachan, 94 235 CACHAN Cedex (France)

    2010-09-15

    Nanodiamond powders with an average size of 50 nm have been irradiated using high-energy electron beam. After annealing and chemical treatment, nanodiamond colloidal solutions were obtained and deposited on silica coverslips by spin-coating. The fluorescence of nanodiamonds was studied by confocal microscopy together with atomic force microscopy. We evaluated the proportion of luminescent nanodiamonds as a function of the irradiation duration and showed that large quantities, exceeding hundreds of mg, of luminescent nanodiamonds can be produced within 1 h of electron irradiation.

  2. Decontamination of fish and seafood products by irradiation; Descontaminacion por irradiacion de pescado y productos del mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna C, P.C

    1992-05-15

    An alternative to prolong the useful shelf life of the fish and of the sea products is the use of the ionizing radiation. The radiation process in combination with other conservation methods like the refrigeration or freezing, assures the hygienic quality of the marine products, eliminating bacteria that cause decomposition as well as of others that produce illnesses and that they are transmitted through these, like is the case of Vibrio Cholera, Salmonella, Shigella Yersinia etc. In this document the technical feasibility of the irradiation applied to the fish and the sea products, in fresh, refrigerated and frozen form will be analyzed. (Author)

  3. Distribution of products in polymer materials induced by ion-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Masaki; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Seguchi, Tadao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Hama, Yoshimasa; Hamanaka, Ken-ichi; Matsumoto, Hideya

    1997-03-01

    The depth profile of double bond formed in low density polyethylene (LDPE) sheet by ion beams irradiation was observed by a micro FT-IR spectrometer in order to investigate the linear energy transfer (LET) dependency on radiation effects to polymer materials. The distribution of double bond formation in LDPE by irradiation of light ions as H+ was found to be same with the dose distribution calculated from TRIM code, and the yield was also same with that by gamma-rays irradiation, which means that the LET dependency is very small. However, the distribution of double bond to depth was much different from the calculated depth-dose in heavy ions irradiation as Ar and Kr. Then, the dose evaluation was difficult from the TRIM code calculation for heavy ions. (author)

  4. Isobaric production cross sections from 0.6 GeV proton irradiation of neptunium and thorium using mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, H.U. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: hansueli.wenger@psi.ch; Al Mazouzi, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Atchison, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Burghartz, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Guenther-Leopold, I. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Heimgartner, P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hellwig, Ch. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ingold, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kopajtic, Z. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Linder, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2006-01-09

    A high-fluence proton irradiation of neptunium was the last experiment in PSIs programme ATHENA related to accelerator-based transmutation. The principal aim of the programme has been to provide experimental data for the validation of theoretical models in nucleon-meson transport codes, with emphasis on the mass yield distribution of fission and spallation products. An improved mass spectrometry method has allowed the direct derivation of isobaric production cross sections with only minor corrections and an estimate of the fission cross section by integration in the fission hump. In a second sample position of the irradiation head, a repetition of the previous ATHENA experiment with thorium was possible, profiting from the improved mass spectrometry technique. The experimental results are better predicted by the code FUSSPOT than by HETC/RAL, both used at PSI.

  5. Dynamic patterns of overexploitation in fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissi, Ilaria; Bardi, Ugo; El Asmar, Toufic; Lavacchi, Alessandro

    2017-09-10

    Understanding overfishing and regulating fishing quotas is a major global challenge for the 21st Century both in terms of providing food for humankind and to preserve the oceans' ecosystems. However, fishing is a complex economic activity, affected not just by overfishing but also by such factors as pollution, technology, financial factors and more. For this reason, it is often difficult to state with complete certainty that overfishing is the cause of the decline of a fishery. In this study, we developed a simple dynamic model specifically designed to isolate and to study the role of depletion on production. The model is based on the well-known Lotka-Volterra model, or Prey-Predator mechanism, assuming that the fish stock and the fishing industry are coupled variables that dynamically affect each other. In the model, the fishing industry acts as the "predator" and the fish stock as the "prey". If the model can fit historical data, in particular relative to the productive decline of specific fisheries, then we have a strong indication that the decline of the fish stock is driving the decline of the fishery production. The model doesn't pretend to be a general description of the fishing industry in all its varied forms; however, the data reported here show that the model can describe several historical cases of fisheries whose production decreased and collapsed, indicating that the overexploitation of the fish stocks is an important factor in the decline of fisheries.

  6. Development of a PVD-based manufacturing process of monolithic LEU irradiation targets for {sup 99}Mo production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmer, Tobias

    2015-08-03

    {sup 99}Mo is the most important radioisotope in nuclear medicine. It is produced by fission of uranium in irradiation targets. The usage of cylindrical monolithic targets can ensure a safe supply of {sup 99}Mo and at the same reduce the amount of highly radioactive waste generated during production. To manufacture these targets, a novel PVD-based technique was developed. Both the feasibility and the high efficiency of this process were demonstrated in a prototype apparatus.

  7. Parallel computation safety analysis irradiation targets fission product molybdenum in neutronic aspect using the successive over-relaxation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmikanti, Mike; Dewayatna, Winter; Sulistyo, Yos

    2014-09-01

    One of the research activities in support of commercial radioisotope production program is a safety research on target FPM (Fission Product Molybdenum) irradiation. FPM targets form a tube made of stainless steel which contains nuclear-grade high-enrichment uranium. The FPM irradiation tube is intended to obtain fission products. Fission materials such as Mo99 used widely the form of kits in the medical world. The neutronics problem is solved using first-order perturbation theory derived from the diffusion equation for four groups. In contrast, Mo isotopes have longer half-lives, about 3 days (66 hours), so the delivery of radioisotopes to consumer centers and storage is possible though still limited. The production of this isotope potentially gives significant economic value. The criticality and flux in multigroup diffusion model was calculated for various irradiation positions and uranium contents. This model involves complex computation, with large and sparse matrix system. Several parallel algorithms have been developed for the sparse and large matrix solution. In this paper, a successive over-relaxation (SOR) algorithm was implemented for the calculation of reactivity coefficients which can be done in parallel. Previous works performed reactivity calculations serially with Gauss-Seidel iteratives. The parallel method can be used to solve multigroup diffusion equation system and calculate the criticality and reactivity coefficients. In this research a computer code was developed to exploit parallel processing to perform reactivity calculations which were to be used in safety analysis. The parallel processing in the multicore computer system allows the calculation to be performed more quickly. This code was applied for the safety limits calculation of irradiated FPM targets containing highly enriched uranium. The results of calculations neutron show that for uranium contents of 1.7676 g and 6.1866 g (× 106 cm-1) in a tube, their delta reactivities are the still

  8. GEH-4-63, 64: Proposal for irradiation of production brazed Zircaloy-2 clad fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverberg, J.C.

    1961-05-18

    A brazed end closure is currently being used on prototypical NPR fuel elements. The production closure will use a braze alloy composed of 5% Be + 95% Zry-2 to braze the Zircaloy-2 cap to the jacket and to the metallic uranium core. A similar MTR test, a GEH-4-57, 58, used a braze alloy of the composition 4% Be + 12% Fe + 84% Zry-2 which melts at a lower temperature. In this previous test, element GEH-4-57 failed through a cladding defect located at the base of the braze heat affected zone. Because of this failure it would be desirable to subject a fuel element, which had been subjected to more severe brazing conditions, to the same conditions as GEH-4-57, 58. For this reason the thermal conditions of this test essentially match those of GEH-4-57, 58. This irradiation test consists of two identical fuel elements. The fuel material is normal metallic uranium, Zircaloy-2 clad of the tubular geometry, NPR inner size. The fuel was coextruded at Hanford by General Electric`s Fuels Preparation Department. Each element is 10.8 inches in length with flat Zircaloy-2 end caps brazed to the jacket and uranium core with the 5 Be + 95 Zry-2 brazing alloy, then TIG welded to further insure closure integrity. The elements ar 1.254 inches OD and 0.439 inches ID. For hydraulic purposes a 0.343 inch diamater flow restrictor has been fitted into the central flow channel of both elements.

  9. Investigation of the Feasibility of Utilizing Gamma Emission Computed Tomography in Evaluating Fission Product Migration in Irradiated TRISO Fuel Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Demkowicz

    2014-10-01

    In the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) the TRISO particle fuel serves as the primary fission product containment. However the large number of TRISO particles present in proposed HTGRs dictates that there will be a small fraction (~10-4 to 10-5) of as manufactured and in-pile particle failures that will lead to some fission product release. The matrix material surrounding the TRISO particles in fuel compacts and the structural graphite holding the TRISO particles in place can also serve as sinks for containing any released fission products. However data on the migration of solid fission products through these materials is lacking. One of the primary goals of the AGR-3/4 experiment is to study fission product migration from failed TRISO particles in prototypic HTGR components such as structural graphite and compact matrix material. In this work, the potential for a Gamma Emission Computed Tomography (GECT) technique to non-destructively examine the fission product distribution in AGR-3/4 components and other irradiation experiments is explored. Specifically, the feasibility of using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS) system for this GECT application is considered. To test the feasibility, the response of the PGS system to idealized fission product distributions has been simulated using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. Previous work that applied similar techniques during the AGR-1 experiment will also be discussed as well as planned uses for the GECT technique during the post irradiation examination of the AGR-2 experiment. The GECT technique has also been applied to other irradiated nuclear fuel systems that were currently available in the HFEF hot cell including oxide fuel pins, metallic fuel pins, and monolithic plate fuel.

  10. Comparison of N-nitrosodiethylamine degradation in water by UV irradiation and UV/O3: efficiency, product and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingbing; Chen, Zhonglin; Qi, Fei; Ma, Jun; Wu, Fengchang

    2010-07-15

    N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a member of nitrosamines, which is strong carcinogenic. In order to explore an effective treatment method for NDEA removal from water, sole UV irradiation and UV/O(3) were carried out in this study. The removal efficiency, degradation products and pathways were compared between those two processes. Results showed that NDEA removal efficiency achieved 99% within 15 min by both UV and UV/O(3). Degradation reaction well followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. Water pH had different effect on NDEA degradation in those two processes. Acidic and neutral conditions were good for NDEA degradation by sole UV irradiation. However, NDEA underwent rapid degradation under various pH conditions in the UV/O(3) process. Though the ozone introduction in the UV/O(3) process had little effect on NDEA degradation efficiency, it had significant effect on its degradation products and pathways. Methylamine, dimethylamine, ethylamine and diethylamine were observed as aliphatic amine products of NDEA degradation in both two processes. They were assumed to arise due to N-N bond fission under UV irradiation, or due to the reaction of NDEA and hydroxyl radicals in the UV/O(3) process.

  11. Effect of Thai banana (Musa AA group) in reducing accumulation of oxidation end products in UVB-irradiated mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerach, Nontaphat; Yakaew, Swanya; Phimnuan, Preeyawass; Soimee, Wichuda; Nakyai, Wongnapa; Luangbudnark, Witoo; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2017-03-01

    Chronic UVB exposure causes skin disorders and cancer through DNA strand breaks and oxidation of numerous functional groups of proteins and lipids in the skin. In this study, we investigated the effects of Thai banana (Musa AA group, "Khai," and Musa ABB group, "Namwa") on the prevention of UVB-induced skin damage when fed to male ICR mice. Mice were orally fed banana (Khai or Namwa) fruit pulps at dose of 1mg/g body weight/day for 12weeks. The shaved backs of the mice were irradiated with UVB for 12weeks. The intensity dose of UVB-exposure was increased from 54mJ/cm(2)/exposure at week 1 to 126mJ/cm(2)/exposure at week 12. A significant increase in skin thickness, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation end products, and expression of MMP-1 was observed in UVB-irradiated mouse skin. A reduction in the accumulation of oxidation end products was found in the skin of UVB-irradiated mice receiving Khai. This occurred in conjunction with a reduction in MMP-1 expression, inhibition of epidermal thickening, and induction of γ-GCS expression. The dietary intake of Khai prevented skin damage from chronic UVB exposure by increased γ-GCS expression and reduced oxidation end products included carbonyls, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fisheries: hope or despair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Tony J; Cheung, William W L

    2013-09-30

    Recent work suggesting that fisheries depletions have turned the corner is misplaced because analysis was based largely on fisheries from better-managed developed-world fisheries. Some indicators of status show improvements in the minority of fisheries subjected to formal assessment. Other indicators, such as trophic level and catch time series, have been controversial. Nevertheless, several deeper analyses of the status of the majority of world fisheries confirm the previous dismal picture: serious depletions are the norm world-wide, management quality is poor, catch per effort is still declining. The performance of stock assessment itself may stand challenged by random environmental shifts and by the need to accommodate ecosystem-level effects. The global picture for further fisheries species extinctions, the degradation of ecosystem food webs and seafood security is indeed alarming. Moreover, marine ecosystems and their embedded fisheries are challenged in parallel by climate change, acidification, metabolic disruptors and other pollutants. Attempts to remedy the situation need to be urgent, focused, innovative and global.

  13. STEM-EDS analysis of fission products in neutron-irradiated TRISO fuel particles from AGR-1 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, B.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Wu, Y. Q.; Szlufarska, I.; Sridharan, K.

    2016-07-01

    Historic and recent post-irradiation-examination from the German AVR and Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Project have shown that 110 m Ag is released from intact tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel. Although TRISO fuel particle research has been performed over the last few decades, little is known about how metallic fission products are transported through the SiC layer, and it was not until March 2013 that Ag was first identified in the SiC layer of a neutron-irradiated TRISO fuel particle. The existence of Pd- and Ag-rich grain boundary precipitates, triple junction precipitates, and Pd nano-sized intragranular precipitates in neutron-irradiated TRISO particle coatings was investigated using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy analysis to obtain more information on the chemical composition of the fission product precipitates. A U-rich fission product honeycomb shape precipitate network was found near a micron-sized precipitate in a SiC grain about ∼5 μm from the SiC-inner pyrolytic carbon interlayer, indicating a possible intragranular transport path for uranium. A single Ag-Pd nano-sized precipitate was found inside a SiC grain, and this is the first research showing such finding in irradiated SiC. This finding may possibly suggest a possible Pd-assisted intragranular transport mechanism for Ag and may be related to void or dislocation networks inside SiC grains. Preliminary semi-quantitative analysis indicated the micron-sized precipitates to be Pd2Si2U with carbon existing inside these precipitates. However, the results of such analysis for nano-sized precipitates may be influenced by the SiC matrix. The results reported in this paper confirm the co-existence of Cd with Ag in triple points reported previously.

  14. Climatic and anthropogenic factors changing spawning pattern and production zone of Hilsa fishery in the Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shohidullah Miah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha Hamilton as a single species accounts 12% for more than half of the total marine catches. About 2% of the entire population of the country is directly or indirectly engaged with Hilsa fishing. Hilsa has a wide geographical distribution in Asia from the Persian Gulf to the South China Sea. Particularly large stocks are found in Upper Bay of Bengal (BoB region sustained by the large river systems. The global Hilsa catch is reported 75% from Bangladesh water, 15% from Myanmar, 5% from India and 5% from other countries such as Thailand and Iran. Hilsa is a highly migratory and anadromous fish with the same migratory and same breeding behavior as that of Atlantic Salmon fish (Salmo sp.. Due to various anthropogenic activities, climate change effect, increased siltation and rising of the river basins, the migratory routes as well as spawning grounds of Hilsa are disturbed, displaced or even destroyed. During last two decades hilsa production from inland water declined about 20%, whereas marine water yield increased about 3 times. Major Hilsa to catch has been gradually shifted from inland to marine water. Hilsa fish ascend for spawning migration from sea into estuaries. It has been found that the major spawning areas have been shifted to the lower estuarine regions of Hatia, Sandwip and Bhola. At the spawning ground of Hilsa, the fishing level F=1.36 yr−1, where in the river Meghna the Fmsy=0.6 yr−1 and exploitation rate E=0.70 is (Emsy>0.5. Oceanographic changes viz. high turbidity increased flooding, more tidal action and changes of salinity etc. have accelerated the change of migration patterns of spawning, growth and its production. Hilsa fecundity ranges from 1.5 to 2.0 million eggs for fish ranging in length from 35 to 50 cm. Hilsa fecundity is declining in different areas due to climate change and the declining fecundity impacting greatly on Hilsa production. Due to shifting of the spawning ground at the lower

  15. The concept of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sible and sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, we will individually and ... The review reveals that all fisheries have impacts beyond the target species and that an ecosystem ..... and Tourism 2000). In addition ..... were production and energy flows in ecosystems, and influences of ...... LITERATURE CITED. AHRENS ...

  16. Contextualising fisheries policy in the Lower Mekong Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Development policies for fishery resources within the Mekong River Basin are increasingly divided between aquaculture and capture fisheries. The modern production orientation of aquaculture has been adopted by government and NGOs and justified by the rhetoric of poverty alleviation and rural develop

  17. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco [Investigaciones y Recursos Solares Avanzados (IrSOLaV), Tres Cantos 2 8045 (Spain); Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana [Energy Department, CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

  18. 78 FR 54547 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Fisheries; California Drift Gillnet Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ...; Issuance of Permit; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Fisheries; California Drift Gillnet Fishery; Sperm Whale Interaction Restriction; Final Rule and Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BD57 Fisheries Off West Coast...

  19. 78 FR 65887 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; 2013 Bigeye Tuna Longline Fishery Closure in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 300 RIN 0648-XC922 International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; 2013 Bigeye Tuna Longline Fishery Closure in the Eastern Pacific Ocean AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  20. Historical changes of the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem: modelling the role and impact of primary productivity and fisheries changes over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroddi, Chiara; Coll, Marta; Liquete, Camino; Macias, Diego; Greer, Krista; Buszowski, Joe; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Danovaro, Roberto; Christensen, Villy

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been defined “under siege” because of intense pressures from multiple human activities; yet there is still insufficient information on the cumulative impact of these stressors on the ecosystem and its resources. We evaluate how the historical (1950–2011) trends of various ecosystems groups/species have been impacted by changes in primary productivity (PP) combined with fishing pressure. We investigate the whole Mediterranean Sea using a food web modelling approach. Results indicate that both changes in PP and fishing pressure played an important role in driving species dynamics. Yet, PP was the strongest driver upon the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem. This highlights the importance of bottom-up processes in controlling the biological characteristics of the region. We observe a reduction in abundance of important fish species (~34%, including commercial and non-commercial) and top predators (~41%), and increases of the organisms at the bottom of the food web (~23%). Ecological indicators, such as community biomass, trophic levels, catch and diversity indicators, reflect such changes and show overall ecosystem degradation over time. Since climate change and fishing pressure are expected to intensify in the Mediterranean Sea, this study constitutes a baseline reference for stepping forward in assessing the future management of the basin. PMID:28290518

  1. Historical changes of the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem: modelling the role and impact of primary productivity and fisheries changes over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroddi, Chiara; Coll, Marta; Liquete, Camino; Macias, Diego; Greer, Krista; Buszowski, Joe; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Danovaro, Roberto; Christensen, Villy

    2017-03-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been defined “under siege” because of intense pressures from multiple human activities; yet there is still insufficient information on the cumulative impact of these stressors on the ecosystem and its resources. We evaluate how the historical (1950-2011) trends of various ecosystems groups/species have been impacted by changes in primary productivity (PP) combined with fishing pressure. We investigate the whole Mediterranean Sea using a food web modelling approach. Results indicate that both changes in PP and fishing pressure played an important role in driving species dynamics. Yet, PP was the strongest driver upon the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem. This highlights the importance of bottom-up processes in controlling the biological characteristics of the region. We observe a reduction in abundance of important fish species (~34%, including commercial and non-commercial) and top predators (~41%), and increases of the organisms at the bottom of the food web (~23%). Ecological indicators, such as community biomass, trophic levels, catch and diversity indicators, reflect such changes and show overall ecosystem degradation over time. Since climate change and fishing pressure are expected to intensify in the Mediterranean Sea, this study constitutes a baseline reference for stepping forward in assessing the future management of the basin.

  2. Chemical thermodynamics of Cs and Te fission product interactions in irradiated LMFBR mixed-oxide fuel pins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, M. G.; Aitken, E. A.; Lindemer, T. B.

    1985-02-01

    A combination of fuel chemistry modelling and equilibrium thermodynamic calculations has been used to predict the atom ratios of Cs and Te fission products (Cs:Te) that find their way into the fuel-cladding interface region of irradiated stainless steel-clad mixed-oxide fast breeder reactor fuel pins. It has been concluded that the ratio of condensed, chemically-associated Cs and Te in the interface region,Čs:Te, which in turn determines the Te activity, is controlled by an equilibrium reaction between Cs 2Te and the oxide fuel, and that the value of Čs:Te is, depending on fuel 0:M, either equal to or slightly less than 2:1. Since Cs and Te fission products are both implicated as causative agents in FCCI (fission product-assisted inner surface attack of stainless steel cladding) and in FPLME (fission product-assisted liquid metal embrittlement of AISI-Type 316), the observed out-of-pile Cs:Te thresholds for FCCI (4˜:1) and FPLME (2˜:1) have been rationalized in terms of Cs:Te thermochemistry and phase equilibria. Also described in the paper is an updated chemical evolution model for reactive/volatile fission product behavior in irradiated oxide pins.

  3. EPR study of the production of OH radicals in aqueous solutions of uranium irradiated by ultraviolet light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARKO DAKOVIĆ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish whether hydroxyl radicals (•OH were produced in UV-irradiated aqueous solutions of uranyl salts. The production of •OH was studied in uranyl acetate and nitrate solutions by an EPR spin trap method over a wide pH range, with variation of the uranium concentrations. The production of •OH in uranyl solutions irradiated with UV was unequivocally demonstrated for the first time using the EPR spin-trapping method. The production of •OH can be connected to speciation of uranium species in aqueous solutions, showing a complex dependence on the solution pH. When compared with the results of radiative de-excitation of excited uranyl (*UO22+ by the quenching of its fluorescence, the present results indicate that the generation of hydroxyl radicals plays a major role in the fluorescence decay of *UO22+. The role of the presence of carbonates and counter ions pertinent to environmental conditions in biological systems on the production of hydroxyl radicals was also assessed in an attempt to reveal the mechanism of *UO22+ de-excitation. Various mechanisms, including •OH production, are inferred but the main point is that the generation of •OH in uranium containing solutions must be considered when assessing uranium toxicity.

  4. Photolysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the marine environment under simulated sunlight conditions: irradiation and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aasim Musa Mohamed; Kallenborn, Roland; Sydnes, Leiv Kristen; Rønning, Helene Thorsen; Alarif, Walied Mohamed; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan

    2017-06-01

    The photochemical fate of 16 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) found in the environment has been studied under controlled laboratory conditions applying a sunlight simulator. Aqueous samples containing PPCPs at environmentally relevant concentrations were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) after irradiation. The exposed extracts were subsequently analysed by liquid chromatography combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for studying the kinetics of photolytic transformations. Almost all exposed PPCPs appeared to react with a half-life time (τ 1/2) of less than 30 min. For ranitidine, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, warfarin, sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin, τ1/2 was found to be even less than 5 min. The structures of major photolysis products were determined using quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QToF) and spectroscopic data reported in the literature. For diclofenac, the transformation products carbazol-1-yl-acidic acid and 8-chloro-9H-carbazol-1-yl-acetic acid were identified based on the mass/charge ratio of protonated ions and their fragmentation pattern in negative electrospray ionization (ESI(-)-QTOF). Irradiation of carbamazepine resulted in three known products: acridine, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, and 10,11-dihydro-10,11-dihydroxy-carbamazepine, whereas acetaminophen was photolytically transformed to 1-(2-amino-5 hydroxyphenyl) ethenone. These photochemical products were subsequently identified in seawater or fish samples collected at sites exposed to wastewater effluents on the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea.

  5. Chemical thermodynamics of Cs and Te fission product interactions in irradiated LMFBR mixed-oxide fuel pins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M.G.; Aitken, E.A. (General Electric Co., Sunnyvale, CA (USA). Advanced Nuclear Technology Operation)

    1985-02-01

    A combination of fuel chemistry modelling and equilibrium thermodynamic calculations has been used to predict the atom ratios of Cs and Te fission products (Cs:Te) that find their way into the fuel-cladding interface region of irradiated stainless steel-clad mixed-oxide fast breeder reactor fuel pins. It has been concluded that the ratio of condensed, chemically-associated Cs and Te in the interface region, products are both implicated as causative agents in FCCI (fission product-assisted inner surface attack of stainless steel cladding) and in FPLME (fission product-assisted liquid metal embrittlement of AISI-Type 316), the observed out-of-pile Cs:Te thresholds for FCCI (proportional4:1) and FPLME (proportional2:1) have been rationalized in terms of Cs:Te thermochemistry and phase equilibria. Also described in the paper is an updated chemical evolution model for reactive/volatile fission product behavior in irradiated oxide pins.

  6. STEM-EDS analysis of fission products in neutron-irradiated TRISO fuel particles from AGR-1 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, B. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Thorium Molten Salts Reactor Center, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai, 201800 (China); Rooyen, I.J. van, E-mail: Isabella.vanrooyen@inl.gov [Fuel Design and Development Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Wu, Y.Q. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725-2090 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Szlufarska, I.; Sridharan, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Historic and recent post-irradiation-examination from the German AVR and Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Project have shown that 110 m Ag is released from intact tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel. Although TRISO fuel particle research has been performed over the last few decades, little is known about how metallic fission products are transported through the SiC layer, and it was not until March 2013 that Ag was first identified in the SiC layer of a neutron-irradiated TRISO fuel particle. The existence of Pd- and Ag-rich grain boundary precipitates, triple junction precipitates, and Pd nano-sized intragranular precipitates in neutron-irradiated TRISO particle coatings was investigated using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy analysis to obtain more information on the chemical composition of the fission product precipitates. A U-rich fission product honeycomb shape precipitate network was found near a micron-sized precipitate in a SiC grain about ∼5 μm from the SiC-inner pyrolytic carbon interlayer, indicating a possible intragranular transport path for uranium. A single Ag-Pd nano-sized precipitate was found inside a SiC grain, and this is the first research showing such finding in irradiated SiC. This finding may possibly suggest a possible Pd-assisted intragranular transport mechanism for Ag and may be related to void or dislocation networks inside SiC grains. Preliminary semi-quantitative analysis indicated the micron-sized precipitates to be Pd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}U with carbon existing inside these precipitates. However, the results of such analysis for nano-sized precipitates may be influenced by the SiC matrix. The results reported in this paper confirm the co-existence of Cd with Ag in triple points reported previously. - Highlights: • First research data in neutron irradiated TRISO coated particles showing a Ag-Pd nano-sized precipitate inside a SiC grain. • Intragranular Ag Pd

  7. Production of actinium, thorium and radium isotopes from natural thorium irradiated with protons up to 141 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolaev, S.V.; Zhuikov, B.L.; Kokhanyuk, V.M.; Matushko, V.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Nuclear Research; Kalmykov, S.N. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.; Aliev, R.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.N. Frumkin Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry

    2012-07-01

    Cross sections of {sup 225}Ac, {sup 227}Ac, {sup 227}Th and {sup 228}Th in thorium-232 targets irradiated with protons in the energy range 21-141 MeV have been measured. Based on these data, production yields of {sup 225}Ac and {sup 223}Ra in thick thorium targets have been calculated. It is possible to produce in proton energy range 60-140 MeV about 96 GBq (2.6 Ci) {sup 225}Ac per 10-d irradiation with 100 {mu}A proton beam current and 10-d decay, and much higher amount of {sup 223}Ra. The impurities of {sup 227}Ac and {sup 224}Ra are important and need to be assessed for further medical applications. (orig.)

  8. Ionic liquid as a promising biobased green solvent in combination with microwave irradiation for direct biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    The wet biomass microalgae of Nannochloropsis sp. was converted to biodiesel using direct transesterification (DT) by microwave technique and ionic liquid (IL) as the green solvent. Three different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-metyhlimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl], 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium methyl sulphate [EMIM][MeSO4] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethane sulfonate [BMIM][CF3SO3]) and organic solvents (hexane and methanol) were used as co-solvents under microwave irradiation and their performances in terms of percentage disruption, cell walls ruptured and biodiesel yields were compared at different reaction times (5, 10 and 15 min). [EMIM][MeSO4] showed highest percentage cell disruption (99.73%) and biodiesel yield (36.79% per dried biomass) after 15 min of simultaneous reaction. The results demonstrated that simultaneous extraction-transesterification using ILs and microwave irradiation is a potential alternative method for biodiesel production.

  9. Fisheries Reclamation Events

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows waterbodies that have been treated for fish removal(i.e., reclaimed)by DNR Fisheries. Some waterbodies have had multiple treatments. Attributes...

  10. Fishery Management Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is intended to summarize much of the information which has been compiled over the years for the fishery management program on Moosehorn National Wildlife...

  11. International Fisheries Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of game theory to the economic analysis of international fisheries agreements. The relevance of this study comes not only from the existence of a vast literature on the topic but especially from the specific features of these agreements. The emphasis of the survey...... and stability of international fisheries agreements. A key message that emerges from this literature strand is that self-enforcing cooperative management of internationally shared fish stocks is generally difficult to achieve. Hence, the international legal framework and regulations play a decisive role...... is on coalition games, an approach that has become prominent in the fisheries economics literature over the last decade. It is shown that coalition games were first applied to international fisheries agreements in the late 1990s addressing cooperative issues under the framework of characteristic function games...

  12. Morocco - Artisanal Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The final performance evaluation roadmap for the Small-Scale Fisheries Project (PPA-MCC) is developed using a grid constructed around indicators relating to Project...

  13. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  14. 75 FR 33733 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... as part of the live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of...

  15. 77 FR 71312 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lane A. Highbarger, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-255.... Section 301(ll) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act X. References I. Background In a notice... irradiation of meat (Ref. 1). Under section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act)...

  16. Hot deuteron generation and neutron production in deuterated nanowire array irradiated at relativistic intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Alden; Calvi, Chase; Tinsley, Jim; Hollinger, Reed; Wang, Shoujun; Rockwood, Alex; Wang, Yong; Buss, Conrad; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Kaymak, V.; Pukhov, Alexander; Rocca, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    Irradiation of arrays of aligned high aspect ratio nanowires with high contrast femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensity was recently shown to volumetrically heat near solid density plasmas to multi-KeV energy. Using aligned arrays of deuterated polyethylene nanowires (CD2) irradiated at laser intensities of up to 1 ×1020 W/cm2 we are able to generate near solid density plasmas in which the tail of the deuteron distribution was measured to reach energies of up to 3 MeV, in agreement with particle-in-cell simulations. Comparative measurements conducted using flat CD2 targets irradiated by the same laser pulses show the maximum deuteron energies are sub-MeV. We also observed a 100x increase in the number of neutrons produced as compared to flat CD2 targets irradiated at the same conditions, with the highest yield shots producing above 106 neutrons per Joule of laser energy. Work supported by AFOSR Award FA9560-14-10232 and NSTec SDRD program.

  17. Structure modification and medical application of the natural products by proton beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. W.; Park, J. K.; Kang, J. E.; Shin, S. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, E. S. [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    This study was performed for the investigation of changes of constituent contents of Korean ginseng (Panax genseng C.A. Meyer) after proton beam irradiation (Beam energy from MC-50 cyclotron : 36.5MeV) with beam range of 500 - 10000Gy

  18. Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield - The case of product integrated photovoltaic operated under indoor solar irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C. [Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Sinke, W.C. [Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we show that photovoltaic (PV) energy yields can be simulated using standard rendering and ray-tracing features of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. To this end, three-dimensional (3-D) sceneries are ray-traced in CAD. The PV power output is then modeled by translating irradiance intensity data of rendered images back into numerical data. To ensure accurate results, the solar irradiation data used as input is compared to numerical data obtained from rendered images, showing excellent agreement. As expected, also ray-tracing precision in the CAD software proves to be very high. To demonstrate PV energy yield simulations using this innovative concept, solar radiation time course data of a few days was modeled in 3-D to simulate distributions of irradiance incident on flat, single- and double-bend shapes and a PV powered computer mouse located on a window sill. Comparisons of measured to simulated PV output of the mouse show that also in practice, simulation accuracies can be very high. Theoretically, this concept has great potential, as it can be adapted to suit a wide range of solar energy applications, such as sun-tracking and concentrator systems, Building Integrated PV (BIPV) or Product Integrated PV (PIPV). However, graphical user interfaces of 'CAD-PV' software tools are not yet available. (author)

  19. Two-dimensional MoS2 under ion irradiation: from controlled defect production to electronic structure engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani-Asl, Mahdi; Kretschmer, Silvan; Spearot, Douglas E.; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), like MoS2, have unique electronic and optical properties, which can further be tuned using ion bombardment and post-synthesis ion-beam mediated methods combined with exposure of the irradiated sample to precursor gases. The optimization of these techniques requires a complete understanding of the response of 2D TMDs to ion irradiation, which is affected by the reduced dimensionality of the system. By combining analytical potential molecular dynamics with first-principles calculations, we study the production of defects in free-standing MoS2 sheets under noble gas ion irradiation for a wide range of ion energies when nuclear stopping dominates, and assess the probabilities for different defects to appear. We show that depending on the incident angle, ion type and energy, sulfur atoms can be sputtered away predominantly from the top or bottom layers, creating unique opportunities for engineering mixed MoSX compounds where X are chemical elements from group V or VII. We study the electronic structure of such systems, demonstrate that they can be metals, and finally discuss how metal/semiconductor/metal junctions, which exhibit negative differential resistance, can be designed using focused ion beams combined with the exposure of the system to fluorine.

  20. Irradiation strategies for the production of Co{sup 60} in a MTR-type research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatuff, Fabian E. [Investigacion Aplicada S.E. (INVAP), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    1996-07-01

    There were analyzed some possible irradiation strategies for cobalt devices in a 10-MW MTR-type research, with radioisotope production criteria of 50000 Ci/year - provided by the extraction of pellets with 200 Ci/g as average specific activity. The present activity calculations rely on a series of six assumptions concerning the cycle length, the spatial treatment of pins with cobalt pellets and the bundle of pins, the calculation of absorption rates for each region and energy group the determination of appropriate macroscopic cross sections, the determination of appropriate fluxes, and the consideration of cobalt burnup in alternate cycles of T{sub 1} irradiation days followed by T{sub 2} decay days. It is shown the only irradiation strategy of two years of permanence of the cobalt device in different locations in the core and reflector for the reference bundle design - and some others strategies of three years of permanence - satisfying the design criteria. In addition, there studied alternative designs for the cobalt bundle, and the reactivity worth of cobalt for the safety analysis. Alternatives to the reference cobalt bundle seem to improve activities only in few percents. Typical uncertainties are estimated in a 10%. (author)

  1. Radiolysis products and sensory properties of electron-beam-irradiated high-barrier food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chytiri, S D; Badeka, A V; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

    2010-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the production of radiolysis products and sensory changes in experimental high-barrier packaging films composed of polyamide (PA), ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE, while films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the middle buried layer were taken as controls. Irradiation doses ranged between zero and 60 kGy. Generally, a large number of radiolysis products were produced during electron-beam irradiation, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food 'cold pasteurization'). The quantity of radiolysis products increased with irradiation dose. There were no significant differences in radiolysis products identified between samples containing a recycled layer of LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the 'functional barrier' properties of external virgin polymer layers. Sensory properties (mainly taste) of potable water were affected after contact with irradiated as low as 5 kGy packaging films. This effect increased with increasing irradiation dose.

  2. Production of solar radiation bankable datasets from high-resolution solar irradiance derived with dynamical downscaling Numerical Weather prediction model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Charabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A bankable solar radiation database is required for the financial viability of solar energy project. Accurate estimation of solar energy resources in a country is very important for proper siting, sizing and life cycle cost analysis of solar energy systems. During the last decade an important progress has been made to develop multiple solar irradiance database (Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI, using satellite of different resolution and sophisticated models. This paper assesses the performance of High-resolution solar irradiance derived with dynamical downscaling Numerical Weather Prediction model with, GIS topographical solar radiation model, satellite data and ground measurements, for the production of bankable solar radiation datasets. For this investigation, NWP model namely Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO is used for the dynamical downscaling of solar radiation. The obtained results increase confidence in solar radiation data base obtained from dynamical downscaled NWP model. The mean bias of dynamical downscaled NWP model is small, on the order of a few percents for GHI, and it could be ranked as a bankable datasets. Fortunately, these data are usually archived in the meteorological department and gives a good idea of the hourly, monthly, and annual incident energy. Such short time-interval data are valuable in designing and operating the solar energy facility. The advantage of the NWP model is that it can be used for solar radiation forecast since it can estimate the weather condition within the next 72–120 hours. This gives a reasonable estimation of the solar radiation that in turns can be used to forecast the electric power generation by the solar power plant.

  3. Comparison of γ-irradiation with other pretreatments followed with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation on bioconversion of microcrystalline cellulose for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhou, Hua; Wang, Shihui; Wang, Keqin; Su, Xiaojun

    2015-04-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation pretreatment was compared with other pretreatment methods including ionic liquids (ILs), 1% HCl, 1% H2SO4, acidic aqueous Ils (AA-ILs), on the bioconversion efficiency of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) for bioethanol production. The efficiency of MCC pretreatment followed with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was firstly evaluated according to the variations of the irradiation-derived compounds and structure of MCC, as well as yeast growth curve and bioethanol yield. Results showed that the appropriate irradiation dose (891 kGy used in our work) could eliminate the negative effect of toxic irradiation-derived compounds on SSF for ethanol bioconversion with the yield value of 67%. Analyses of SEM, FT-IR, reducing sugar and bioethanol yield showed that the efficiency of pretreatment on MCC was ILs ≈ irradiation pretreatment > AA-ILs pretreatment > 1% HCl pretreatment > 1% H2SO4 pretreatment.

  4. Microbial Safety of Fishery Products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya; Parvathi, A.

    , 2004). In Japan, where seafood consumption is high and raw fish consumption is popular, 70% of food-borne illness is attributed to seafood. These data highlight the importance of seafood as vehicles for human illness. However, the true incidence... of seafood-borne diseases worldwide is not known, as there is no surveillance system in the developing countries. In addition to being responsible for human health problems, the presence of infectious agents in seafood results in rejection of seafood...

  5. Androgens Attenuate Vitamin D Production Induced by UVB Irradiation of the Skin of Male Mice by an Enzymatic Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingben; Ying, Lee; Horst, Ronald L; Watson, Gordon; Goltzman, David

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous exposure to UVB irradiation is an important source of vitamin D. Here, we examined sex-specific differences in cutaneous vitamin D production in mice. Both male and female mice on a vitamin D-deficient diet manifested vitamin D deficiency, with mineral abnormalities, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and osteomalacia. UVB irradiation significantly increased vitamin D levels in the skin of female mice and normalized serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels, as well as mineral and skeletal abnormalities. However, in male mice, the vitamin D response to UVB was attenuated and mineral and skeletal abnormalities were not normalized. The vitamin D precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC), was significantly lower in the skin of male than female mice. This reduction was due to local androgen action in the skin as demonstrated by castration studies and skin-specific androgen receptor deletion in male mice, both of which reversed the male phenotype. Local androgen regulation in the skin of the CYP11A1 gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme that metabolizes cholesterol, 7DHC, and vitamin D, appeared to contribute to the gender differences in UVB-induced vitamin D production and to its reversal of vitamin D deficiency. Sex-specific, enzymatically regulated differences in cutaneous production of vitamin D may therefore be of importance to ensure vitamin D sufficiency.

  6. Production of isotopes and isomers with irradiation of Z = 47–50 targets by 23-MeV bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamian, S. A., E-mail: karamian@nrmail.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Carroll, J. J. [US Army Research Laboratory (United States); Aksenov, N. V.; Albin, Yu. A.; Belov, A. G.; Bozhikov, G. A.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Starodub, G. Ya. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The irradiations of Ag to Sn targets by bremsstrahlung generated with 23-MeV electron beams are performed at the MT-25 microtron. Gamma spectra of the induced activities have been measured and the yields of all detected radionuclides and isomers are carefully measured and analyzed. A regular dependence of yields versus changed reaction threshold is confirmed. Many isomers are detected and the suppression of the production probability is observed with growing product spin. Special peculiarities for the isomer-to-ground state ratios were deduced for the {sup 106m}Ag, {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 113m}In, {sup 115m}In, and {sup 123m}Sn isomers. The production of such nuclides as {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 115m}In, {sup 117g}In, and {sup 113m}Cd is of interest for applications, especially when economic methods are available.

  7. Acid-beta-glycerophosphatase reaction products in the central nervous system mitochondria following x-ray irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizin, L; Orlovskaja, D; Liu, J C; Carsten, A L

    1975-06-01

    A survey of the literature to date on the enzyme histochemistry of intracellular organelles has not yielded any reference to the presence of acid phosphatase reaction products in the mammalian mitochondria of the central nervous system. A combination of Gomori's acid phosphatase mehtod, however, with standard electron microscopy has disclosed the presence of enzyme reaction products in the mitochondria of the central nervous system of rats from 2 hr to 22 weeks after x-ray irradiation, as well as in a cerebral biopsy performed on a patient affected by Huntington's chorea. No enzyme reaction products, on the other hand, were observed in serial sections that had been incubated in substrates either containing sodium fluoride or lacking in beta-glycerophosphate. The abnormal mitochondrial enzyme reaction (chemical lesion) is considered to be the consequenco of the pathologic process affecting the ultrastructural-chemical organization of the organelle.

  8. High-temperature electron irradiation and radiation-thermal technology for utilization, purification and production of some metals

    CERN Document Server

    Solovetskii, Y; Lunin, V

    1998-01-01

    High-temperature irradiation by the beam of 1.2-1.6 MeV accelerated electrons has been used for production Pt, Pd, Mo, Co, Cu and Ni from desactivated Pt(Pd)-containing reforming catalysts, molybdenum sulfide hydrodesulphurization catalysts and hydrogenation catalyst waste material. The radiation-induced decomposition of supported Ni(Co)-Mo/Al sub 2 O sub 3 sulfide catalyst and organic fragments of hydrogenation catalyst wastes has been studied. Radiolysis product distributions are shown as function of time (time up to 1,0 h) and temperature (570-1400K). There was made a principle scheme of the first technological unit for radiation-thermal utilization, purification and production of some metals from solid wastes material.

  9. Damage production in low-energy Au and Si irradiation of a-Si: Influence of projectile mass

    CERN Document Server

    Koster, M

    2003-01-01

    Using molecular-dynamics computer simulation, we study the processes occurring in a-Si after irradiation with a projectile with energy E sub 0<=500 eV. By comparing Au and Si impact, we can study the effects of high and low deposited energy density. We find that damage production (creation of over- and under-coordinated Si atoms) and recoil implantation are strongly enhanced under Au impact. This effect can be traced back to the creation of an elastic collision spike for Au impact.

  10. Estimating Oceanic Primary Production Using Vertical Irradiance and Chlorophyll Profiles from Ocean Gliders in the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, Victoria S; Smyth, Timothy J; Martin, Adrian P; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Thompson, Andrew F; Damerell, Gillian; Painter, Stuart C

    2015-10-06

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (Seaglider) has been used to estimate marine primary production (PP) using a combination of irradiance and fluorescence vertical profiles. This method provides estimates for depth-resolved and temporally evolving PP on fine spatial scales in the absence of ship-based calibrations. We describe techniques to correct for known issues associated with long autonomous deployments such as sensor calibration drift and fluorescence quenching. Comparisons were made between the Seaglider, stable isotope ((13)C), and satellite estimates of PP. The Seaglider-based PP estimates were comparable to both satellite estimates and stable isotope measurements.

  11. Parallel computation safety analysis irradiation targets fission product molybdenum in neutronic aspect using the successive over-relaxation algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susmikanti, Mike, E-mail: mike@batan.go.id [Center for Development of Nuclear Informatics, National Nuclear Energy Agency, PUSPIPTEK, Tangerang (Indonesia); Dewayatna, Winter, E-mail: winter@batan.go.id [Center for Nuclear Fuel Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, PUSPIPTEK, Tangerang (Indonesia); Sulistyo, Yos, E-mail: soj@batan.go.id [Center for Nuclear Equipment and Engineering, National Nuclear Energy Agency, PUSPIPTEK, Tangerang (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    One of the research activities in support of commercial radioisotope production program is a safety research on target FPM (Fission Product Molybdenum) irradiation. FPM targets form a tube made of stainless steel which contains nuclear-grade high-enrichment uranium. The FPM irradiation tube is intended to obtain fission products. Fission materials such as Mo{sup 99} used widely the form of kits in the medical world. The neutronics problem is solved using first-order perturbation theory derived from the diffusion equation for four groups. In contrast, Mo isotopes have longer half-lives, about 3 days (66 hours), so the delivery of radioisotopes to consumer centers and storage is possible though still limited. The production of this isotope potentially gives significant economic value. The criticality and flux in multigroup diffusion model was calculated for various irradiation positions and uranium contents. This model involves complex computation, with large and sparse matrix system. Several parallel algorithms have been developed for the sparse and large matrix solution. In this paper, a successive over-relaxation (SOR) algorithm was implemented for the calculation of reactivity coefficients which can be done in parallel. Previous works performed reactivity calculations serially with Gauss-Seidel iteratives. The parallel method can be used to solve multigroup diffusion equation system and calculate the criticality and reactivity coefficients. In this research a computer code was developed to exploit parallel processing to perform reactivity calculations which were to be used in safety analysis. The parallel processing in the multicore computer system allows the calculation to be performed more quickly. This code was applied for the safety limits calculation of irradiated FPM targets containing highly enriched uranium. The results of calculations neutron show that for uranium contents of 1.7676 g and 6.1866 g (× 10{sup 6} cm{sup −1}) in a tube, their delta

  12. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND PRODUCTIVITY OF BASIL PLANTS (Ocimum basilicum L.) UNDER DIFFERENT IRRADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    M.N. POLYAKOVA; Yu, Ts; T.A. DILOVAROVA; A.A. KOSOBRYUKHOV

    2015-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of growing plants in phytotrons is largely linked to the introduction of advanced technologies, providing the optimization of the light conditions. The use of modern light sources such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) or induction lamps can reduce the energy consumption for growing plants due to the high light output, long work and control of the spectrum of irradiation. Comparative studies of growth processes and activity of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants of B...

  13. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: 'Cockroach Kill Gel' for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  14. Murcott seedless: influence of gamma irradiation on citrus production and fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermejo, A.; Pardo, J.; Cano, A.

    2012-11-01

    A Seedlessness is an important economic trait relating to fruit quality, and gamma irradiation is a common technique used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Herein, we report a study of new seedless Murcott mandarin clones obtained by bud irradiation from the self-compatible not parthenocarpic Murcott mandarin. All irradiated clones examined presented lower seed numbers (from 0.23 to 2.47 seeds per fruit) and reduced pollen germination (from 1.40% to 8.55%) whereas the wild-type Murcott showed an average number of 9.03 seeds per fruit and a pollen germination value of 47.15%. Fruit quality and nutritional bio-components were affected differently; some clones presented no changes compared to the control Murcott mandarin, while other clones showed significant differences. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds, using photodiode array, mass and refractive index detectors. Our results indicated high contents in natural antioxidants as vitamin C (from 20.13 to 25.73 mg/100 mL) and phenolic compounds, as flavonoids, in these citrus varieties cultived under the Mediterranean climate. Some of these clones, which ripen late in the season and whose fruit quality is maintained or improved, are in the process of registration. In conclusion, budwood irradiation is a suitable technique to improve cultivars, produce seedless cultivars, adjust ripening time or raise the content of health-promoting compounds. Also this study investigates the influence of temperature during flowering on the number of seeds formed. Findings indicate that low temperatures during flower formation decreased pollen germination and seed number. (Author) 35 refs.

  15. Cassava Pulp Hydrolysis under Microwave Irradiation with Oxalic Acid Catalyst for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Hermiati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microwave irradiation is an alternative method of starch hydrolysis that offers a rapid process. The aim of this research was to improve microwave-assisted hydrolysis of cassava pulp by using oxalic acid as a catalyst. Suspension of cassava pulp in 0.5% oxalic acid (1 g/20 mL was subjected to microwave irradiation at 140-230 °C for 5 minutes, with 4 minutes of pre-heating. One gram of fractured activated carbon made of coconut shell was added into a number of suspensions that were subjected to the same conditions of microwave irradiation. The soluble fraction of the hydrolysates was analyzed for its total soluble solids, malto-oligomer distribution, glucose content, pH value, and formation of brown compounds. The effects of the combined severity parameter at a substrate concentration of 5-12.5% on the glucose yield were also evaluated. The highest glucose yield (78% of dry matter was obtained after hydrolysis at 180 °C without activated carbon addition. Heating above 180 °C reduced the glucose yield and increased the pH and the formation of brown compounds. The use of activated carbon in microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis of cassava pulp reduced the glucose yield, but suppressed the formation of brown compounds. The highest glucose yield (70-80% of dry matter was attained at a severity parameter of 1.3-1.5.

  16. Biofuels and Fisheries: Risks and Opportunities .

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapidly developing biofuels industry in the U.S. and around the globe poses novel environmental challenges and opportunities, with implications for teh health and sustainability of fisheries. Changes in land uses and agricultural practices for production of biofuel feedstocks ...

  17. Fish and fisheries of Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.

    Fish is a protein rich food. It forms a chief component in the diet of about 90% of the population of Goa. Capture fisheries of Goa (India) constitute a highly productive sector. They remain one of the major sources of valuable food and employment...

  18. The implications of ecosystem dynamics for fisheries management: a case study of selected fisheries in the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoray, Shanta; Teelucksingh, Sonja Sabita

    2007-10-01

    It is accepted that if fisheries resources are to remain renewable and able to sustain livelihoods, appropriate management practices must be implemented. Even while fisheries management grapples to resolve single-species issues, the biological and economic interactions among species mandate that to be effective, management techniques must be based on more interactive and aggregate-level analyses. In order to implement these techniques, the actual links, and the potential impact of these links, among the fisheries must be established. Vector autoregression (VAR) analysis has the potential to play an increasingly important role in ecosystem modelling for fisheries management. This study uses VAR analysis to demonstrate the quantitative impact of certain ecosystem changes on the productivity of the carite, honey shrimp and croaker fisheries of the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad, in the particular context of the ecosystem dynamics of trophic linkages, bycatch and multispecies fisheries. Four VAR models are constructed to investigate the extent to which these factors affect the production of the selected fisheries, and to evaluate the management implications of these linkages. The empirical analysis is further evidence that, if sustainable management of fishery resources is to be achieved, management practices based on more multi-species, ecosystem approaches must replace the traditional, single-species management techniques.

  19. 50 CFR 300.106 - Exploratory fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exploratory fisheries. 300.106 Section 300.106 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.106 Exploratory fisheries. (a) An exploratory fishery,...

  20. USVI commercial fisheries cost data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To assist the Caribbean Fishery Management Council in managing marine living resources in the United States Virgin Islands, the Southeast Fisheries Science Center...

  1. African Journals Online: Fish & Fisheries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Marine Science provides an international forum for the ... The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries (Afr. J. Trop. ... promote the development of the fisheries profession and related disciplines in Nigeria, ...

  2. Management of complex fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Andersen, Peder; Hoff, Ayoe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how fisheries economics management issues or problems can be analyzed by using a complex model based on conventional bioeconomic theory. Complex simulation models contain a number of details that make them suitable for practical management advice......, including taking into account the response of the fishermen to implemented management measures. To demonstrate the use of complex management models this paper assesses a number of second best management schemes against a first rank optimum (FRO), an ideal individual transferable quotas (ITQ) system....... This is defined as the management scheme which produces the highest net present value over a 25 year period. The assessed management schemes (scenarios) are composed by several measures as used in the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union for the cod fishery in the Baltic Sea. The scenarios are total...

  3. Displacement rate dependence of irradiation creep as predicted by the production bias model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, C.H.

    1996-04-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the non-swelling component of irradiation creep of austenitic stainless steels is relatively independent of temperature but is sensitive to the displacement rate. An earlier model of Lewthwaite and Mosedale anticipated the sensitivity of displacement rate and attributed it to the flux sensitivity of point defect recombination. The point-defect recombination process does not yield the observed temperature dependence, however, although it does predict an inverse dependence of the creep rate on the square root of the displacement rate that was experimentally observed at relatively low temperatures.

  4. Aging Effects in Irradiated MgH2; Connection to Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra KURKO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibility to control aging of MgH2 by controlling the deposited energy, number and type of defects and their distribution in the near surface region using Ar8+, Xe8+, and B3+ ion irradiation. The evolution of the obtained phases was monitored using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, laser scattering particle size distribution measurements and surface area analyses. Obtained results give the possibility to resolve between the material related (impurities, defects, strains and the ambient induced component of aging. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.2308

  5. Régulation de la production, par des cellules endothéliales, de cytokines pro-inflammatoires après irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meeren, A.; Lafont, H.; Mathé, D.

    1998-04-01

    Gamma irradiation leads to an increased production of interleukin- (IL)-6 and IL-8 by human endothelial cells. In order to regulate the radio-induced production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, we used the immunoregulatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. These agents were added either before or after a 10 Gy-irradiation. Our results show that it is possible to decrease the radio-induced production of IL-6 and IL-8 with the use of IL-4 and IL-10. Differences in the intensity of the response have been observed according to the time of treatment. The anti-inflammatory potential of both IL-4 and IL-10 was more pronounced when added after irradiation. Après irradiation gamma, des cellules endothéliales humaines ont une production accrue des interleukines (IL-) -6 et -8. Dans le but de réguler la production de ces cytokines pro-inflammatoires, nous avons utilisé des cytokines dites anti-inflammatoires, l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Ces agents ont été ajoutés soit avant soit après une irradiation de 10Gy. Nos résultats montrent qu'il est possible de diminuer les productions radio-induites d'IL-6 et d'IL-8 par l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Des différences dans l'intensité de la réponse ont toutefois été observées selon que l'IL-4 ou l'IL-10 ont été ajoutées avant ou après irradiation; leur efficacité anti-inflammatoire étant plus marquée lorsque les cytokines sont ajoutées après l'irradiation.

  6. HTR-2014 Paper Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaise Collin

    2001-10-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict fission product release from tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements provided data on release of fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of fission products in the compacts outside of the SiC layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of these fission products was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed silicon carbide (SiC) layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of about two, corresponding to an over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of about 100. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by an average of about an order of magnitude, which could additionally be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 30%. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-estimated by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release from intact particles varied considerably from compact to compact, making it difficult to assess the effective over-estimation of the diffusivities. Furthermore, the release of strontium from particles with failed SiC is difficult to observe experimentally due to the release from intact particles, preventing any conclusions to be made on the accuracy or validity of the

  7. Standard Guide for Irradiation of Pre-packaged Processed Meat and Poultry Products to Control Pathogens and Other Microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This guide outlines procedures for the irradiation of pre-packaged refrigerated and frozen processed meat and poultry products. Note 1—The Codex Alimentarius Commission defines "meat" (including poultry and game) as "the edible part of any mammal slaughtered in an abattoir," and "poultry meat" as "the edible part of slaughtered domesticated birds, including chicken, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea-fowls, or pigeons." (CAC/RCP 13-1976) Note 2—Current U.S. regulations limit the definition of livestock species to cattle, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine and poultry species to chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and guinea (2, 3). 1.2 This guide addresses all refrigerated and frozen meat and poultry products NOT covered by Guide F 1356. 1.3 This guide provides information regarding absorbed doses used for inactivation of parasites and reduction of bacterial load. Such doses are typically less than 10 kilogray (kGy).

  8. Microbial short-chain fatty acid production and extracellular enzymes activities during in vitro fermentation of polysaccharides from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. treated with microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Li, Chang; Fu, Zhi-Hong; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2013-06-26

    Effects of microwave irradiation on microbial short-chain fatty acid production and the activites of extracellular enzymes during in vitro fermentation of the polysaccharide from Plantago asiatica L. were investigated in this study. It was found that the apparent viscosity, average molecular weight, and particle size of the polysaccharide decreased after microwave irradiation. Reducing sugar amount increased with molecular weight decrease, suggesting the degradation may derive from glycosidic bond rupture. The polysaccharide surface topography was changed from large flakelike structure to smaller chips. FT-IR showed that microwave irradiation did not alter the primary functional groups in the polysaccharide. However, short-chain fatty acid productions of the polysaccharide during in vitro fermentation significantly increased after microwave irradiation. Activities of microbial extracellular enzymes xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylosidase, and glucuronidase in fermentation cultures supplemented with microwave irradiation treated polysaccharide were also generally higher than those of untreated polysaccharide. This showed that microwave irradiation could be a promising degradation method for the production of value-added polysaccharides.

  9. Tritium production in a sphere of /sup 6/LiD irradiated by 14-MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmendinger, A.; Ragan, C.E.; Shunk, E.R.; Ellis, A.N.; Anaya, J.M.; Wallace, J.M.

    1978-10-01

    The specific production of tritium in samples of /sup 6/LiH and /sup 7/LiH embedded in a 600-mm-diam sphere of /sup 6/LiD irradiated by a central source of 14-MeV neutrons was determined by measuring the activity of the hydrogen evolved from the samples of each isotope at each of five different radii in the /sup 6/LiD assembly. The entire process of decomposing the LiH, transferring the evolved gas into counters, and determining the decay rate was standardized by processing LiH samples irradiated by thermal neutrons for which the /sup 6/Li(n,..cap alpha..) cross section is well known. The specific production of tritium in /sup 6/LiH and /sup 7/LiH (embedded samples) and the activation of radiochemical detector foils of /sup 45/Sc, /sup 89/Y, /sup 90/Zr, /sup 169/Tm, /sup 191/Ir /sub 373/, /sup 193/Ir /sub 627/, /sup 197/Au, /sup 235/U, and /sup 238/U placed at various positions in the /sup 6/LiD sphere were calculated and compared with the experimental data. One- and three-dimensional Monte Carlo and S/sub n/ neutron-transport calculations were performed. The most reliable (three-dimensional Monte Carlo) calculation is in reasonable agreement with both the tritium-production and the radiochemical-activation data. The existing discrepancies between calculation and experiment appear largely attributable to uncertainties in some tritium-production and radiochemical-activation cross sections. 15 references.

  10. Production study of high specific activity NCA Re-186g by proton and deuteron cyclotron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonardi, M.L., E-mail: mauro.bonardi@mi.infn.i [L.A.S.A., Radiochemistry Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano, UNIMI and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (Italy); Groppi, F.; Manenti, S.; Persico, E.; Gini, L. [L.A.S.A., Radiochemistry Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano, UNIMI and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    Very high specific activity (A{sub S}) {sup 186g}Re could be produced by either proton or deuteron cyclotron irradiation on highly enriched {sup 186}W target in no-carrier-added (NCA) form, leading to a A{sub S} very close to the theoretical carrier free (CF) value of 6.88 GBq {mu}g{sup -1}. Thick target yields (TTYs), obtained irradiating both thick metal W targets of natural isotopic composition and highly enriched pressed powdered {sup 186}W targets, were measured at different particles energies taking into account high accuracy and precision on both yield and beam energy. The measurement of radionuclidic purity of {sup 186g}Re obtained activating highly enriched {sup 186}W by both p and d beams were also carried out and accurately compared. The excitation function as thin-target yields (tty, i.e. proportional to the reaction cross-sections) and the integrated TTYs for all Re (A=181, 182, 183, 184, 186 and their metastable levels), W and Ta co-produced radionuclides will be presented elsewhere in deep details.

  11. Processing, quality and safety of irradiation - and high pressure processed meat and seafood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past two decades, worldwide demands for meat and seafood products have increased dramatically due to the improved economical condition in many countries. To meet the demand, the producers have increased the production of meat and seafood products as well as applied new processing techniques t...

  12. Strain improvement of Trichoderma viride for increased cellulase production by irradiation of electron and (12)C(6+)-ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaozhou; Chen, Xiujin; Li, Zhili; Li, Daomin; Wang, Yao; Gao, Hongli; Cao, Li; Hou, Yuze; Li, Songbiao; Liang, Jianping

    2016-06-01

    To improve cellulase production and activity, Trichoderma viride GSICC 62010 was subjected to mutation involving irradiation with an electron beam and subsequently with a (12)C(6+)-ion beam. Mutant CIT 626 was the most promising cellulase producer after preliminary and secondary screening. Soluble protein production and cellulase activities were increased mutifold. The optimum temperature, pH and culture time for the maximum cellulase production of the selected mutant were 35 °C, pH 5 and 6 days. The highest cellulase production was obtained using wheat bran. The prepared cellulases from T. viride CIT 626 had twice the hydrolytic performance with sawdust (83 %) than that from the parent strain (42.5 %). Furthermore, molecular studies demonstrated that there were some key mutation sites suggesting that some amino acid changes in the protein caused by base mutations had led to the enhanced cellulase production and activity. Mutagenesis with electron and (12)C(6+)-ion beams could be developed as an effective tool for improvement of cellulase producing strains.

  13. Prediction of production of 22Na in a gas-cell target irradiated by protons using Monte Carlo tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, M.; Kakavand, T.; Mirzaii, M.; Rajabifar, S.

    2015-01-01

    The 22Ne(p,n)22Na is an optimal reaction for the cyclotron production of 22Na. This work tends to monitor the proton induced production of 22Na in a gas-cell target, containing natural and enriched neon gas, using Monte Carlo method. The excitation functions of reactions are calculated by both TALYS-1.6 and ALICE/ASH codes and then the optimum energy range of projectile for the high yield production is selected. A free gaseous environment of neon at a particular pressure and temperature is prearranged and the proton beam is transported within it using Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and SRIM. The beam monitoring performed by each of these codes indicates that the gas-cell has to be designed as conical frustum to reach desired interactions. The MCNPX is also employed to calculate the energy distribution of proton in the designed target and estimation of the residual nuclei during irradiation. The production yield of 22Na in 22Ne(p,n)22Na and natNe(p,x)22Na reactions are estimated and it shows a good agreement with the experimental results. The results demonstrate that Monte Carlo makes available a beneficial manner to design and optimize the gas targets as well as calibration of detectors, which can be used for the radionuclide production purposes.

  14. Hambantota Fishery Harbour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, P.S.; Julianus, E.J.B.; Marijnissen, M.; Voorend, S.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    At the southern coast of Sri Lanka a small fishery harbour is located in Hambantota. Soon after construction of the harbour in 2006 the harbour started silting up at various places. From that point onwards the harbour’s basin has been dredged multiple times, but the problem turned out to be structur

  15. Hambantota Fishery Harbour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, P.S.; Julianus, E.J.B.; Marijnissen, M.; Voorend, S.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    At the southern coast of Sri Lanka a small fishery harbour is located in Hambantota. Soon after construction of the harbour in 2006 the harbour started silting up at various places. From that point onwards the harbour’s basin has been dredged multiple times, but the problem turned out to be

  16. Jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine is required for the production of a flavonoid phytoalexin but not diterpenoid phytoalexins in ultraviolet-irradiated rice leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Koji; Enda, Isami; Okada, Toshiki; Sato, Yumiko; Watanabe, Kohei; Sakazawa, Tomoko; Yumoto, Emi; Shibata, Kyomi; Asahina, Masashi; Iino, Moritoshi; Yokota, Takao; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2016-10-01

    Rice produces low-molecular-weight antimicrobial compounds known as phytoalexins, in response to not only pathogen attack but also abiotic stresses including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Rice phytoalexins are composed of diterpenoids and a flavonoid. Recent studies have indicated that endogenous jasmonyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is not necessarily required for the production of diterpenoid phytoalexins in blast-infected or CuCl2-treated rice leaves. However, JA-Ile is required for the accumulation of the flavonoid phytoalexin, sakuranetin. Here, we investigated the roles of JA-Ile in UV-induced phytoalexin production. We showed that UV-irradiation induces the biosynthesis of JA-Ile and its precursor jasmonic acid. We also showed that rice jasmonate biosynthesis mutants produced diterpenoid phytoalexins but not sakuranetin in response to UV, indicating that JA-Ile is required for the production of sakuranetin but not diterpenoid phytoalexins in UV-irradiated rice leaves.

  17. Factors of Ukrainian fisheries deterioration in terms of industrial enterprises mechanism of management formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Yarkina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of factors predetermining the crisis situation of Ukrainian fisheries from the point of view of the appropriate areas of fishing activities, namely: aquaculture, fishery in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov basin, ocean fishery is described in this article. Along with the transition period, common economical reasons which stipulated crisis tendencies of national fisheries development, certain industrial sectors were characterized by specifically industrial factors of fish catching volume reduction. Particularly, reasons of fish farming commodity production decreasing were such as: business environment changes; inadequate privatization; deterioration of fish farming technology; deterioration of Ukrainian market situation for national fish producer. In addition, fishery resources depletion reaching critical point also affected negatively the fish catching volume from inland water bodies. Reasons of catastrophic situation in national oceanic fishing are following: modifications of juridical and international legal terms in fishery; fishery monitoring by international fishery regional agencies; steady growth of world oil and oil products prices; quantitative and qualitative deterioration of ocean fleet bases. It is stated that resolution of the problems related to both the stagnation of national fishery and putting industrial enterprises out of crisis is basically outside the specific business entity competence and requires an immediate governmental interference. The set of measures of governmental support for revival and development of Ukrainian fisheries as a strategically important branch of national economy which was worked out with regard to identified factors of Ukrainian fisheries deterioration is to become one of key elements of fish industry enterprises mechanism of management

  18. Simultaneous Effect of Temperature and Irradiance on Growth and Okadaic Acid Production from the Marine Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum belizeanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo López-Rosales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benthic marine dioflagellate microalgae belonging to the genus Prorocentrum are a major source of okadaic acid (OA, OA analogues and polyketides. However, dinoflagellates produce these valuable toxins and bioactives in tiny quantities, and they grow slowly compared to other commercially used microalgae. This hinders evaluation in possible large-scale applications. The careful selection of producer species is therefore crucial for success in a hypothetical scale-up of culture, as are appropriate environmental conditions for optimal growth. A clone of the marine toxic dinoflagellate P. belizeanum was studied in vitro to evaluate its capacities to grow and produce OA as an indicator of general polyketide toxin production under the simultaneous influence of temperature (T and irradiance (I0. Three temperatures and four irradiance levels were tested (18, 25 and 28 °C; 20, 40, 80 and 120 µE·m−2·s−1, and the response variables measured were concentration of cells, maximum photochemical yield of photosystem II (PSII, pigments and OA. Experiments were conducted in T-flasks, since their parallelepipedal geometry proved ideal to ensure optically thin cultures, which are essential for reliable modeling of growth-irradiance curves. The net maximum specific growth rate (µm was 0.204 day−1 at 25 °C and 40 µE·m−2·s−1. Photo-inhibition was observed at I0 > 40 μEm−2s−1, leading to culture death at 120 µE·m−2·s−1 and 28 °C. Cells at I0 ≥ 80 µE·m−2·s−1 were photoinhibited irrespective of the temperature assayed. A mechanistic model for µm-I0 curves and another empirical model for relating µm-T satisfactorily interpreted the growth kinetics obtained. ANOVA for responses of PSII maximum photochemical yield and pigment profile has demonstrated that P. belizeanum is extremely light sensitive. The pool of photoprotective pigments (diadinoxanthin and dinoxanthin and peridinin was not able to regulate the excessive light

  19. Photolytic destruction of endocrine disruptor atrazine in aqueous solution under UV irradiation: Products and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang Shaogui, E-mail: yangdlut@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Guo Yaping [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Sun Cheng, E-mail: envidean@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gu Chenggang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu Bin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2009-12-30

    The ultraviolet (UV) photolysis of atrazine in aqueous solution was investigated at wavelength of 254 nm in this study. This paper was mainly focused on the identification of atrazine degradation intermediates by HPLC-MS/MS and its degradation mechanisms. The photodegradation products included the following seven classes: dechloro-hydroxylated products, chloro-dealkylated products, dechloro-dealkylated products, alkylic-oxidated products, delamination-hydroxylated products, olefinic products, and dechloro-hydrogenated products which were never reported in direct photolytic process, 4-isopropylamino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine (IEST), 4,6-dihydroxy-s-triazine (OOST). The main degradation products were 2-hydroxy-4-acetamido-6-ethylamino-s-triazine (OIET), 2-chloro-4-isopropyl-amino-6-methylamino-s-triazine (CIMT), 2-chloro-4,6-divinylamino-s-triazine (CVVT), 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-amino-s-triazine(CEAT), 2-methoxy-4-isopropyl-amino-6-methylamino-s-triazine (OIMT), 2-hydroxy-4-acetamindo-6-ethylamino-s-triazine (ODET), etc. Finally, the possible degradation mechanism was also proposed here.

  20. Photocatalytic hydrogen production of the CdS/TiO2-WO3 ternary hybrid under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lin; Lo, Shang-Lien; Chang, Hsiang-Ling; Yeh, Hsiao-Mei; Sun, Liping; Oiu, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    An attractive and effective method for converting solar energy into clean and renewable hydrogen energy is photocatalytic water splitting over semiconductors. The study aimed at utilizing organic sacrificial agents in water, modeled by formic acid, in combination with visible light driven photocatalysts to produce hydrogen with high efficiencies. The photocatalytic hydrogen production of cadmium sulfide (CdS)/titanate nanotubes (TNTs) binary hybrid with specific CdS content was investigated. After visible light irradiation for 3 h, the hydrogen production rate of 25 wt% CdS/TNT achieved 179.35 μmol·h(-1). Thanks to the two-step process, CdS/TNTs-WO3 ternary hybrid can better promote the efficiency of water splitting compared with CdS/TNTs binary hybrid. The hydrogen production of 25 wt% CdS/TNTs-WO3 achieved 212.68 μmol·h(-1), under the same condition. Coating of platinum metal onto the WO3 could further promote the reaction. Results showed that 0.2 g 0.1 wt% Pt/WO3 + 0.2 g 25 wt% CdS/TNTs had the best hydrogen production rate of 428.43 μmol·h(-1). The resultant materials were well characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-Vis spectra.

  1. Effect of relative humidity and temperature on PVC degradation under gamma irradiation: Evolution of HCl production Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labed, V.; Obeid, H.; Ressayre, K.

    2013-03-01

    The separate and combined effects of the relative humidity and temperature were investigated on the HCl production yields arising from two types of PVC subjected to gamma irradiation (pure PVC and PVC formulated with plasticizing additives). The test procedure developed included experiments performed at different dose rates (400 Gy h-1 and 4 kGy h-1), temperatures (room temperature and 70 °C) and relative humidity values (plasticized PVC at low dose rates, raising the temperature increases the HCl production by a factor of about 1.3, with either low or high relative humidity. For pure PVC, depending on the humidity and dose rate, G(HCl) varies differently with the temperature: at low humidity and low dose rates, G(HCl) increases by a factor of 1.7 for a 45 °C temperature increase; at high humidity, the same temperature increase does not result in a significant increase of G(HCl). The influence of the relative humidity on HCl production has not been clearly identified and interpreted. The relative humidity appears to be a factor limiting the effects of temperature on the formation of HCl from pure PVC at high dose rates. The G values remain constant and even diminish under some experimental conditions. For plasticized PVC, the relative humidity has no influence on the HCl production yields.

  2. Irradiation effects and diffusion of fission products (cesium and iodine) in silicon carbide; Effets d'irradiation et diffusion des produits de fission (cesium et iode) dans le carbure de silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audren, A

    2007-03-15

    Silicon carbide is envisaged as a cladding material for the nuclear fuel in the fourth generation reactors. The aim of this work is to study the capacity to retain fission products and the structure evolution of this material under the combined effects of temperature and irradiation. The low energy ion implantations and the incorporation of stable analogues of fission products (Cs and I) in single crystalline 6H-SiC samples were performed by using the ion implanter or the accelerator of the CSNSM. The high energy heavy ion irradiations were made at GANIL. The evolution of the implanted ion profiles and the crystal structure were studied by RBS and Channeling. Complementary information were obtained by using the UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The low energy ion implantations at room temperature induce a fast structural damage in the crystal. On the other hand, it is possible to attain a small disorder rate in the crystal during implantation by increasing the implantation temperature (600 C). The high energy heavy ion irradiations do not damage the SiC crystals. On the contrary, they cause an annealing of the disorder created by the low energy implantations. The implanted ions (I) do not diffuse during low or high energy ion irradiations at room temperature and at 600 C. However, a diffusion of Cs ions was observed during a post-implantation annealing at 1300 C. At this temperature, the crystal which had an extended amorphous layer starts to recover a single-crystal structure. (author)

  3. Determination of critical assembly absolute power using post-irradiation activation measurement of week-lived fission products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Milčák, Ján; Rypar, Vojtěch; Koleška, Michal

    2014-07-01

    The work presents a detailed comparison of calculated and experimentally determined net peak areas of longer-living fission products after 100 h irradiation on a reactor with power of ~630 W and several days cooling. Specifically the nuclides studied are (140)Ba, (103)Ru, (131)I, (141)Ce, (95)Zr. The good agreement between the calculated and measured net peak areas, which is better than in determination using short lived (92)Sr, is reported. The experiment was conducted on the VVER-1000 mock-up installed on the LR-0 reactor. The Monte Carlo approach has been used for calculations. The influence of different data libraries on results of calculation is discussed as well.

  4. Production of vacancy-oxygen defect in electron irradiated silicon in the presence of self-interstitial-trapping impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronkov, V. V.; Falster, R. [MEMC Electronic Materials, 59012 Merano BZ (Italy); Londos, C. A.; Sgourou, E. N.; Andrianakis, A. [University of Athens, Solid State Physics Section, Panepistimiopolis Zografos, Athens 157 84 (Greece); Ohyama, H. [Kumamoto National College of Technology, 26592, Nishigoshi, Kumamoto 861-1102 (Japan)

    2011-11-01

    The enhancement by carbon of vacancy-oxygen (VO) defect formation in electron irradiated silicon was investigated using many samples of various carbon contents. The effect of carbon is well described by a simple analytical model of competing trapping of self-interstitials by VO and by carbon (and by emerging carbon-related defects like C{sub i}O{sub i} and IC{sub i}O{sub i}). The trapping ratio by C{sub s} and by VO was determined to be about 0.9, and the optical calibration coefficients for C{sub i}O{sub i} and IC{sub i}O{sub i} were deduced. In crystals containing a high concentration of Ge, germanium also acts as a self-interstitial trapping impurity and, thus, enhances VO production. The trapping efficiency of Ge is 1000 times less than that of carbon.

  5. 75 FR 34092 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 697 RIN 0648-AY41 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... Such action is authorized under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act...

  6. 78 FR 45896 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trimester Closure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC782 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trimester Closure for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  7. 76 FR 39313 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA523 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed Butterfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  8. 78 FR 51131 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 697 RIN 0648-BD45 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  9. 78 FR 76759 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trimester Closure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XD024 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trimester Closure for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  10. 77 FR 58969 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC235 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist,...

  11. 76 FR 74009 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA825 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist, (978) 281-9224. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  12. 78 FR 64199 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: (800) 445-8667 or (843) 308- 9330. Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council,...

  13. 78 FR 48653 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC). SUMMARY: The SAFMC will... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC...

  14. Grand challenges in the management and conservation of North American inland fishes and fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail; Cooke, Steven J.; Beard, Douglas; Kao, Yu-Chun; Lorenzen, Kai; Song, Andrew M.; Allen, Micheal S.; Basher, Zeenatul; Bunnell, David; Camp, Edward V.; Cowx, Ian G.; Freedman, Jonathan A.; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Nohner, Joel K.; Rogers, Mark W.; Siders, Zachary A.; Taylor, William W.; Youn, So-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Even with long-standing management and extensive science support, North American inland fish and fisheries still face many conservation and management challenges. We used a grand challenges approach to identify critical roadblocks that if removed would help solve important problems in the management and long-term conservation of North American inland fish and fisheries. We identified seven grand challenges within three themes (valuation, governance, and externalities) and 34 research needs and management actions. The major themes identified are to (1) raise awareness of diverse values associated with inland fish and fisheries, (2) govern inland fish and fisheries to satisfy multiple use and conservation objectives, and (3) ensure productive inland fisheries given nonfishing sector externalities. Addressing these grand challenges will help the broader community understand the diverse values of inland fish and fisheries, promote open forums for engagement of diverse stakeholders in fisheries management, and better integrate the inland fish sector into the greater water and land use policy process.

  15. Deuteron irradiation of W and WO3 for production of high specific activity (186)Re: Challenges associated with thick target preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Ethan R; Gagnon, Katherine; Strong, Kevin T; Smith, Bennett E; Dorman, Eric F; Emery, Robert C; Pauzauskie, Peter J; Fassbender, Michael E; Cutler, Cathy S; Ketring, Alan R; Jurisson, Silvia S; Wilbur, D Scott

    2016-09-01

    This investigation evaluated target fabrication and beam parameters for scale-up production of high specific activity (186)Re using deuteron irradiation of enriched (186)W via the (186)W(d,2n)(186)Re reaction. Thick W and WO3 targets were prepared, characterized and evaluated in deuteron irradiations. Full-thickness targets, as determined using SRIM, were prepared by uniaxially pressing powdered natural abundance W and WO3, or 96.86% enriched (186)W, into Al target supports. Alternatively, thick targets were prepared by pressing (186)W between two layers of graphite powder or by placing pre-sintered (1105°C, 12h) natural abundance WO3 pellets into an Al target support. Assessments of structural integrity were made on each target prepared. Prior to irradiation, material composition analyses were conducted using SEM, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. Within a minimum of 24h post irradiation, gamma-ray spectroscopy was performed on all targets to assess production yields and radionuclidic byproducts. Problems were encountered with the structural integrity of some pressed W and WO3 pellets before and during irradiation, and target material characterization results could be correlated with the structural integrity of the pressed target pellets. Under the conditions studied, the findings suggest that all WO3 targets prepared and studied were unacceptable. By contrast, (186)W metal was found to be a viable target material for (186)Re production. Thick targets prepared with powdered (186)W pressed between layers of graphite provided a particularly robust target configuration.

  16. Effect of ultrasound irradiation on the production of nHAp/MWCNT nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Anderson O; Zanin, Hudson; Siqueira, Idalia A W B; Leite, Nelly C S; Marciano, Fernanda R; Corat, Evaldo J

    2013-10-01

    Large amounts of nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp)-multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites are produced by two different aqueous precipitation methods. The ultrasonic irradiation (UI) and slow-drip addition under continuous magnetic stirring (DMS) methods were used to investigate the precipitation of nHAp acicular crystals. Calcium-nitrate, diammonium hydrogen phosphate, and ammonium hydroxide were used as precursor reagents. Superhydrophilic MWCNT were also employed. XPS analysis evidences that the functionalized MWCNTs are composed of 18 to 20 at.% of oxygen and that this property influences the nHAp formation. The high surface area of the MWCNT decreases the mean free path of ions, favoring the nHAp formation assisted by UI. The crystallinity was evaluated using the Scherrer equation. Semi-qualitative energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed that the main components of HAp powders were calcium and phosphorus in the ratio Ca/P around of 1.67. Bioactivity properties of the nHAp/MWCNT-UI nanocomposites could be evaluated after 14 days soaking in simulated body fluid medium. Scanning electron microscopy, EDS, Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques proved that the apatites formed on the surface and to points that the nHAp/MWCNT-UI have potential biological applications.

  17. Sporicidal performance induced by photocatalytic production of organic peroxide under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Shimodo, Takahito; Chikamori, Noriyasu; Usuki, Sho; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Endo, Takeshi; Katsumata, Ken-Ichi; Terashima, Chiaki; Ikekita, Masahiko; Fujishima, Akira; Suzuki, Tomonori; Sakai, Hideki; Nakata, Kazuya

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria that cause serious food poisoning are known to sporulate under conditions of nutrient and water shortage. The resulting spores have much greater resistance to common sterilization methods, such as heating at 100 °C and exposure to various chemical agents. Because such bacteria cannot be inactivated with typical alcohol disinfectants, peroxyacetic acid (PAA) often is used, but PAA is a harmful agent that can seriously damage human health. Furthermore, concentrated hydrogen peroxide, which is also dangerous, must be used to prepare PAA. Thus, the development of a facile and safe sporicidal disinfectant is strongly required. In this study, we have developed an innovative sporicidal disinfection method that employs the combination of an aqueous ethanol solution, visible light irradiation, and a photocatalyst. We successfully produced a sporicidal disinfectant one hundred times as effective as commercially available PAA, while also resolving the hazards and odor problems associated with PAA. The method presented here can potentially be used as a replacement for the general disinfectants employed in the food and health industries.

  18. Prediction of production of {sup 22}Na in a gas-cell target irradiated by protons using Monte Carlo tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami, M., E-mail: mohammad.eslami25@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zengan (Zanjan) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kakavand, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zengan (Zanjan) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzaii, M.; Rajabifar, S. [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Angular distribution of the proton beam in a gaseous environment. • Particle energy distribution profile and proton flux within gas-cell target with MCNPX. • Detection of the residual nuclei during the nuclear reactions. • Estimation of production yield for {sup 22,nat}Ne(p,x){sup 22}Na reactions. - Abstract: The {sup 22}Ne(p,n){sup 22}Na is an optimal reaction for the cyclotron production of {sup 22}Na. This work tends to monitor the proton induced production of {sup 22}Na in a gas-cell target, containing natural and enriched neon gas, using Monte Carlo method. The excitation functions of reactions are calculated by both TALYS-1.6 and ALICE/ASH codes and then the optimum energy range of projectile for the high yield production is selected. A free gaseous environment of neon at a particular pressure and temperature is prearranged and the proton beam is transported within it using Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and SRIM. The beam monitoring performed by each of these codes indicates that the gas-cell has to be designed as conical frustum to reach desired interactions. The MCNPX is also employed to calculate the energy distribution of proton in the designed target and estimation of the residual nuclei during irradiation. The production yield of {sup 22}Na in {sup 22}Ne(p,n){sup 22}Na and {sup nat}Ne(p,x){sup 22}Na reactions are estimated and it shows a good agreement with the experimental results. The results demonstrate that Monte Carlo makes available a beneficial manner to design and optimize the gas targets as well as calibration of detectors, which can be used for the radionuclide production purposes.

  19. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries: a management approach for the North Sea demersal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    ranges to combine long-term single-stock targets with flexible, short-term, mixed-fisheries management requirements applied to the main North Sea demersal stocks. It is shown that sustained fishing at the upper bound of the range may lead to unacceptable risks when technical interactions occur....... An objective method is suggested that provides an optimal set of fishing mortality within the range, minimizing the risk of total allowable catch mismatches among stocks captured within mixed fisheries, and addressing explicitly the trade-offs between the most and least productive stocks....

  20. 75 FR 32993 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... quality product for the consumer. 8. Increase safety in the fishery. Because OY on healthy stocks is... ability and result in changes to fishing behavior, which include a reduction in the bycatch rate of...; freezing, cooking, smoking, or drying groundfish; packaging that groundfish for resale into 100 pound units...

  1. Improvement in Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Production and Pharmaceutical Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. by Ultraviolet-B Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m2 and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC and total phenolic content (TPC were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m2 increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold, catechin (0.85-fold, kaempferol (0.65-fold rutin (0.68-fold and luteolin (1.00-fold content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid was observed in the 3.60 W/m2 of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m2 of UV-B irradiation. UV

  2. Improvement in Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Production and Pharmaceutical Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by Ultraviolet-B Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Ashkani, Sadegh; Baghdadi, Ali; Pazoki, Alireza; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-09-09

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m²) and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h) was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m² increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold), catechin (0.85-fold), kaempferol (0.65-fold) rutin (0.68-fold) and luteolin (1.00-fold) content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid) was observed in the 3.60 W/m² of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h) except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m² of UV-B irradiation. UV

  3. Contamination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in fishery products in Xiacheng district in Hangzhou%2010年杭州市下城区水产品中副溶血性弧菌的污染调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪琴; 商晓春; 帅慧群; 张睿

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the contamination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP)in fishery products in farm produce markets in Xiacheng district. Methods A total of 100 samples of fishery products were collected from these markets to conduct VP isolation and identification according to the national standard. Serotyping, drug resistance test and PCR detection of species-specific gene (R72H) and virulence genes (tdh, trh) were conducted for the isolated VP strains. Results Twenty four strains of VP were isolated. All were positive for species-specific gene R72H, 22 strains were negative for virulence genes tdh and trh and 2 strains were positive for tdh but negative for trh. Conclusion VP had been the major pathogens to cause food poisoning in the area, although most VP isolates carried no tdh, trh virulence genes in this detection. It is still necessary to strengthen the surveillance of VP in fishery products.%目的 调查杭州市下城区各大农贸市场水产品中副溶血性弧菌(VP)的污染情况.方法 2010年采集下城区各大农贸市场水产品100份,按国标方法进行VP的分离与鉴定;对分离出的VP做血清分型,耐药性检测,并采用PCR法检测其种特异性基因(R72H)和毒力基因(tdh、trh).结果 共分离到24株VP,种特异性基因R72H全为阳性,其中2株毒力基因tdh阳性、trh阴性,其余22株tdh和trh均为阴性.结论 虽然本次分离到的VP绝大部分都不携带tdh、trh毒力基因,但VP是历年来本辖区内引起食物中毒的主要病原菌,故仍有必要加强对水产品中VP的监测管理.

  4. 50 CFR 259.32 - Conditional fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditional fisheries. 259.32 Section 259.32 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND Capital Construction...

  5. 50 CFR 600.110 - Intercouncil fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intercouncil fisheries. 600.110 Section 600.110 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Regional Fishery Management Councils §...

  6. Fishprint of Coastal Fisheries in Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Leticia Bravo-Olivas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal fisheries contribute to global food security, since fish are an important source of protein for many coastal communities in the world. However, they are constrained by problems, such as weak management of fisheries and overfishing. Local communities perceive that they are fishing less, as in other fisheries in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fisheries sustainability in the Jalisco coast through the fishing footprint, or fishprint (FP, based on the primary productivity required (PPR and the appropriated surface by the activity (biocapacity. The total catch was 20,448.2 metric tons from 2002–2012, and the average footprint was calculated to be 65,458 gha/year, a figure that quadrupled in a period of 10 years; the biocapacity decreased, and the average trophic level of catches was 3.1, which implies that it has remained at average levels, resulting in a positive balance between biocapacity and ecological footprint. Therefore, under this approach, the fishing activity is sustainable along the coast of Jalisco.

  7. Production of krypton and xenon isotopes in thick stony and iron targets isotropically irradiated with 1600 MeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Gilabert, E; Lavielle, B; Leya, I; Michel, R; Neumann, S

    2002-01-01

    Two spherical targets made of gabbro with a radius of 25 cm and of steel with a radius of 10 cm were irradiated isotropically with 1600 MeV protons at the SATURNE synchrotron at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS)/CEN Saclay, in order to simulate the production of nuclides in meteorites induced by galactic cosmic-ray protons in space. These experiments supply depth-dependent production rate data for a wide range of radioactive and stable isotopes in up to 28 target elements. In this paper, we report results for /sup 78/Kr, /sup 80-86/Kr isotopes in Rb, Sr, Y and Zr and for /sup 124/Xe, /sup 126/Xe, /sup 128-132/Xe, /sup 134/Xe, /sup 136/Xe isotopes in Ba and La. Krypton and xenon concentrations have been measured at different depths in the spheres by using conventional mass spectrometry. Based on Monte-Carlo techniques, theoretical production rates are calculated by folding depth-dependent spectra of primary and secondary protons and secondary neutrons with the excitation functions of the relevant nuclear reac...

  8. The effect of humidity after gamma-irradiation on aflatoxin B-1 production of A.flavus in ground nutmeg and peanut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N.; Chosdu, R. [Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation, Jakarta (Indonesia); Matsuyama, A. [Tokyo University of Agriculture (Japan). Nodai Research Inst.

    1995-10-01

    The effect of humidity of 75 up to 97% after irradiation on radiosensitivity and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus isolated from Indonesian nutmeg were examined. Irradiation doses used were 0;0.5;1 and 3 kGy. Mould free ground nutmeg and peanut were used as the growth media, and about 10{sup 8} of spores were used to contaminate each of the media. Aflatoxin productions were measured after having incubated 3 days up to 5 months under humidity of 91 and 97%. Prior to HPLC analysis, aflatoxin was cleaned-up using an immunoaffinity column. The results were: (1) A. flavus indicated no or almost no growth under RH of 85% or less. (2) Under 91-97% RH, growth of mycelium and toxin production were inhibited more or less by irradiation up to 1 kGy, although the effectiveness of irradiation varied with different RH and media during postirradiation incubation. (3) By 3 kGy or more, both mycelium growth and toxin production of the mould were found to be completely inhibited. (4) The production of aflatoxin in nutmeg began after having incubated for 25 and 45 days and in peanut for 3 and 6 days under 97 and 91% RH, respectively. (Author).

  9. Effect of low doses γ-irradiation on oxidative stress and secondary metabolites production of rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) callus culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beltagi, Hossam S.; Ahmed, Osama K.; El-Desouky, Wael

    2011-09-01

    Effect of various γ-irradiation doses (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 G) on the enhancement of secondary metabolites production and antioxidant properties of rosemary callus culture was investigated. The obtained data showed a highly metabolic modification of chemical constituents and various antioxidant defense enzymes (APX, CAT, SOD and GR), which gradually increased in response to radiation doses, while reduced (GSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) contents, total soluble protein, total soluble amino acids, total soluble sugars and PAL activity positively correlated with the increased doses. On the other hands the high irradiation levels significantly increased the accumulation of various oxidative burst (MDA, H 2O 2 and O 2-). Meanwhile, higher doses of gamma irradiation positively enhanced secondary products accumulation of total phenols and total flavonoids in rosemary callus culture.

  10. Dworshak Dam Impact Assessment and Fishery Investigation, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauser, Gregg; Cannamela, David; Downing, Richard

    1990-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded two 4-year research projects to develop recommendations for improving the sport fishery on Dworshak Reservoir. Research began during 1987 as a cooperative effort between the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The Nez Perce Tribe examined smallmouth bass and rainbow trout fisheries. The IDFG evaluated kokanee population dynamics and documented changes in reservoir productivity. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Reserve Site Selection in a Limited-Entry Fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchirico, James

    2002-01-01

    Marine reserves are gaining attention around the world as a tool to both conserve ocean resources and improve the productivity of fisheries. Using simulation analysis, we investigate in a limited-entry fishery comprising nine subpopulations the inherent bioeconomic trade-offs associated with cost-effective designs of marine reserve networks—that is, the trade-offs between the degree of connectedness of a site and the biological and economic heterogeneity. We find in many cases that closing tw...

  12. Production of complex organic molecules:H-atom addition versus UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, K.-J.; Fedoseev, G.; Qasim, D.; Ioppolo, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2017-01-01

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) have been identified in different environments in star-forming regions. Laboratory studies show that COMs form in the solid state, on icy grains, typically following a `non-energetic' (atom-addition) or `energetic' (UV photon absorption) trigger. So far, such studies have been largely performed for single processes. Here we present the first work that quantitatively investigates both the relative importance and the cumulative effect of `(non)energetic' processing. We focus on astronomically relevant CO:CH3OH = 4:1 ice analogues exposed to doses relevant for the collapse stage of dense clouds. Hydrogenation experiments result in the formation of methyl formate (MF; HC(O)OCH3), glycolaldehyde (GA; HC(O)CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (EG; H2C(OH)CH2OH) at 14 K. The absolute abundances and the abundance fractions are found to be dependent on the H-atom/CO:CH3OH-molecule ratios and on the overall deposition rate. In the case that ices are exposed to UV photons only, several different COMs are found. Typically, the abundance fractions are 0.2 for MF, 0.3 for GA, and 0.5 for EG as opposed to the values found in pure hydrogenation experiments without UV in which MF is largely absent: 0.0, 0.2-0.6 and 0.8-0.4, respectively. In experiments where both are applied, overall COM abundances drop to about half of those found in the pure UV irradiation experiments, but the composition fractions are very similar. This implies COM ratios can be used as a diagnostic tool to derive the processing history of an ice. Solid-state branching ratios derived here for GA and EG compare well with observations, while the MF case cannot be explained by solid state conditions investigated here.

  13. Production of complex organic molecules: H-atom addition versus UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, K.-J.; Fedoseev, G.; Qasim, D.; Ioppolo, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2017-05-01

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) have been identified in different environments in star-forming regions. Laboratory studies show that COMs form in the solid state, on icy grains, typically following a 'non-energetic' (atom-addition) or 'energetic' (UV-photon absorption) trigger. So far, such studies have been largely performed for single processes. Here, we present the first work that quantitatively investigates both the relative importance and the cumulative effect of '(non-)energetic' processing. We focus on astronomically relevant CO:CH3OH = 4:1 ice analogues exposed to doses relevant for the collapse stage of dense clouds. Hydrogenation experiments result in the formation of methyl formate (MF; HC(O)OCH3), glycolaldehyde (GA; HC(O)CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (EG; H2C(OH)CH2OH) at 14 K. The absolute abundances and the abundance fractions are found to be dependent on the H-atom/CO:CH3OH-molecule ratios and on the overall deposition rate. In the case that ices are exposed to UV photons only, several different COMs are found. Typically, the abundance fractions are 0.2 for MF, 0.3 for GA and 0.5 for EG as opposed to the values found in pure hydrogenation experiments without UV in which MF is largely absent: 0.0, 0.2-0.6 and 0.8-0.4, respectively. In experiments where both are applied, overall COM abundances drop to about half of those found in the pure UV irradiation experiments, but the composition fractions are very similar. This implies COM ratios can be used as a diagnostic tool to derive the processing history of an ice. Solid-state branching ratios derived here for GA and EG compare well with observations, while the MF case cannot be explained by solid-state conditions investigated here.

  14. NALYSIS OF ROMANIAN FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE IN REGIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela\tNECULITA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Integration in European Union assumes obtaining certain benefits. Fisheries and aquaculture can provide a key contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. Employment in the sector has grown faster than the world’s population, providing jobs and supports the livelihoods of hundreds of millions. Fish continues to be one of the most- traded food commodities worldwide being very important for developing countries. However, productivity gains in fisheries do not always imply long-term increases in supply. Developing countries are continuing their efforts to clarify the linkage between development activities and sustainable resource use. Both population and economic growth are putting enormous additional pressures on inland and marine fisheries resources as contributors to food security and providers of a social safety net. At the same time, the use of domestic fisheries to generate foreign exchange is exacerbating allocation issues between artisan and industrial fleets. The actual fisheries legislation was influence by social, economic and environmental considerations. The paper proposes an integrated analysis of Romanian situation by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions. Fisheries in general and aquaculture sector in particular could be regarded as an advantage for Romania in the European competition. The main problem of the Romanian fisheries is its unsatisfactory competitiveness both regarding the domestic and European market.

  15. Influence of water activity and temperature on growth and mycotoxin production by Alternaria alternata on irradiated soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Maria Silvina; Ramirez, Maria Laura; Barros, Germán Gustavo; Chulze, Sofia Noemi

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)) (0.99-0.90), temperature (15, 25 and 30°C) and their interactions on growth and alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) production by Alternaria alternata on irradiated soya beans. Maximum growth rates were obtained at 0.980 a(w) and 25°C. Minimum a(w) level for growth was dependent on temperature. Both strains were able to grow at the lowest a(w) assayed (0.90). Maximum amount of AOH was produced at 0.98 a(w) but at different temperatures, 15 and 25°C, for the strains RC 21 and RC 39 respectively. Maximum AME production was obtained at 0.98 a(w) and 30°C for both strains. The concentration range of both toxins varied considerably depending on a(w) and temperature interactions. The two metabolites were produced over the temperature range 15 to 30°C and a(w) range 0.99 to 0.96. The limiting a(w) for detectable mycotoxin production is slightly greater than that for growth. Two-dimensional profiles of a(w)× temperature were developed from these data to identify areas where conditions indicate a significant risk from AOH and AME accumulation on soya bean. Knowledge of AOH and AME production under marginal or sub-optimal temperature and a(w) conditions for growth can be important since improper storage conditions accompanied by elevated temperature and moisture content in the grain can favour further mycotoxin production and lead to reduction in grain quality. This could present a hazard if the grain is used for human consumption or animal feedstuff. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Marine Ecological Footprint of Italian Mediterranean Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica de Leo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of marine and coastal ecosystems to sustain seafood production and consumption is seldom accounted for and is not included in the signals that guide economic development. In this article, we review estimates of marine and coastal areas aimed at sustaining catches for seafood consumption. The aim of this paper is the assessment of the interactions between the environment, intended as a set of ecological subsystems in natural equilibrium, including the marine ecosystem, and the process of fisheries systems. In particular we analyze fisheries in Italy, which is the third biggest economy and the greatest consumer of seafood in the Eurozone, conducting an in-depth analysis of the Marine Ecological Footprint (MEF that evaluates the marine ecosystem area exploited by human populations to supply seafood and other marine products and services. The positioning of Italian fisheries shows a level of sustainability next to the threshold value. The analysis in the present study highlights the importance of absolute indicators in providing rough estimates about human dependence on ecological systems and recognizes the importance of those indicators, such as the Marine Footprint (expressed in % of Primary Production Required/Primary Production, in ensuring a high level of precision and accuracy in quantifying human activity impact on the environment.

  17. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Kang, H. J.; Chung, H. W.; Roh, M. J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export, some selected agricultural products, such as apple and pear, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MeBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in apple and pear, Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmis Koch revealed a 100% mortality at around 17 days after irradiation of 3 kGy but it was too high dose for apple and pear. Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmi Koch from both apple and pear showed an increased mortality when exposed to 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation, resulting in apparent mortality 1 month later. 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation could be recommended for apple and pear. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. 40 refs., 64 figs., 160 tabs. (Author)

  18. Distribution and Validation of CERES Irradiance Global Data Products Via Web Based Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, David; Mitrescu, Cristian; Doelling, David; Kato, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    The CERES SYN1deg product provides climate quality 3-hourly globally gridded and temporally complete maps of top of atmosphere, in atmosphere, and surface fluxes. This product requires efficient release to the public and validation to maintain quality assurance. The CERES team developed web-tools for the distribution of both the global gridded products and grid boxes that contain long term validation sites that maintain high quality flux observations at the Earth's surface. These are found at: http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/order_data.php. In this poster we explore the various tools available to users to sub-set, download, and validate using surface observations the SYN1Deg and Surface-EBAF products. We also analyze differences found in long-term records from well-maintained land surface sites such as the ARM central facility and high quality buoy radiometers, which due to their isolated nature cannot be maintained in a similar manner to their land based counterparts.

  19. Solar UV Irradiation-Induced Production of Greenhouse Gases from Plant Surfaces: From Leaf to Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Ambus, Per

    2016-01-01

    -methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), NOx and N2O. This gas production, near or at the plant surface, is a new discovery and is normally not included in emission budgets (e.g. by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC) due to a lack of information with respect to validation and upscaling. For CH...

  20. HTGR fuels and core development program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending November 30, 1976. [Graphite and fuel irradiations; fission product release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-27

    The work reported includes studies of reactions between core materials and coolant impurities, basic fission product transport mechanisms, core graphite development and testing, the development and testing of recyclable fuel systems, and physics and fuel management studies. Materials studies include irradiation capsule tests of both fuel and graphite. Experimental procedures and results are discussed and the data are presented in tables, graphs, and photographs.

  1. HTGR Fuels and Core Development Program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending August 31, 1977. [Graphite and fuel irradiation; fission product release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The work reported includes studies of reactions between core materials and coolant impurities, basic fission product transport mechanisms, core graphite development and testing, the development and testing of recyclable fuel systems, and physics and fuel management studies. Materials studies include irradiation capsule tests of both fuel and graphite. Experimental procedures and results are discussed and data are presented.

  2. HTGR fuels and core development program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending November 30, 1977. [Graphite and fuel irradiation; fission product release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    The work reported here includes studies of basic fission product transport mechanisms, core graphite development and testing, and the development and testing of recyclable fuel systems. Materials studied include irradiation capsule tests of both fuel and graphite. Experimental procedures and results are discussed and data are presented.

  3. Artisanal Fishers' Use of Sustainable Fisheries Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artisanal Fishers' Use of Sustainable Fisheries Management Practices in the Jebba Lake ... as key stakeholders in fisheries policy formulation, implementation and evaluation. ... Keywords: Fisheries, Policy, Environment and Management ...

  4. Fisheries management: what chance on coral reefs?

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Failures of fishery management to control fishing effort globally and how this affects the coral reef fisheries are discussed. The use of marine reserves in coral reef fisheries management is also emphasized.

  5. Inland capture fishery contributions to global food security and threats to their future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, So-Jung; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Cowx, Ian G.; Beard, T. Douglas; Bartley, Devin; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Inland fish and fisheries play important roles in ensuring global food security. They provide a crucial source of animal protein and essential micronutrients for local communities, especially in the developing world. Data concerning fisheries production and consumption of freshwater fish are generally inadequately assessed, often leading decision makers to undervalue their importance. Modification of inland waterways for alternative uses of freshwater (particularly dams for hydropower and water diversions for human use) negatively impacts the productivity of inland fisheries for food security at local and regional levels. This paper highlights the importance of inland fisheries to global food security, the challenges they face due to competing demands for freshwater, and possible solutions.

  6. Estimates of fishery potentials of the EEZ of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Bhargava, R.M.S.; Sarupria, J.S.

    August 1989 and in revised/arm 19 March 1990 Keywords: primary production; secondary production; Indian EEZ; fishery potentials An attempt has been made to estimate the fisJlery potentials ofthe EEZ of India on the basis of data on primary and secondary... production. The total column primary production andzooplank~onproduction have been calculated to be 265·9 and 9 million tonnes ofcarbon per year, respectively. From these values the fishery potential has been estimated as 2·5 million tonnes per year. To this...

  7. Thermochemical prediction of chemical form distributions of fission products in LWR oxide fuels irradiated to high burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kouki; Furuya, Hirotaka [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-09-01

    Based on the result of micro-gamma scanning of a fuel pin irradiated to high burnup in a commercial PWR, the radial distribution of chemical forms of fission products (FPs) in LWR fuel pins was theoretically predicted by a thermochemical computer code SOLGASMIX-PV. The absolute amounts of fission products generated in the fuel was calculated by ORIGEN-2 code, and the radial distributions of temperature and oxygen potential were calculated by taking the neutron depression and oxygen redistribution in the fuel into account. A fuel pellet was radially divided into 51 sections and chemical forms of FPs were calculated in each section. In addition, the effects of linear heat rating (LHR) and average O/U ratio on radial distribution of chemical form were evaluated. It was found that approximately 13 mole% of the total amount of Cs compounds exists as CsI and virtually remaining fraction as Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} under the operation condition of LHR below 400 W/cm. On the other hand, when LHR is beyond 400 W/cm under the transient operation condition, its distribution did not change so much from the one under normal operation condition. (author)

  8. Solar UV Irradiation-Induced Production of Greenhouse Gases from Plant Surfaces: From Leaf to Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Ambus, Per

    2016-01-01

    During the past few decades it has been documented that the ultra-violet (UV) component of natural sunlight alone or in combination with visible light can instantaneously stimulate aerobic plant production of a range of important trace gases: CH4, CO2, CO, short-chain hydrocarbons/ non...... for CH4 production, but underlying mechanisms are not fully known. For other gases such generating processes have not been established yet and mechanisms remain hypothetical. Field measurements of UV-induced emissions of the gases under natural light conditions are scarce. Therefore, realistic upscaling...... to the ecosystem level is uncertain for all gases. Nevertheless, based on empirical response curves, we propose the first global upscaling of UV-induced N2O and CO to illustrate emission ranges from a global perspective and as a contribution to an ongoing quantification process. When scaled to the global level...

  9. Waste Treatment of Acidic Solutions from the Dissolution of Irradiated LEU Targets for 99-Mo Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakel, Allen J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Conner, Cliff [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-10-01

    One of the missions of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program (and now the National Nuclear Security Administrations Material Management and Minimization program) is to facilitate the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets for 99Mo production. The conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU targets will require five to six times more uranium to produce an equivalent amount of 99Mo. The work discussed here addresses the technical challenges encountered in the treatment of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH)/nitric acid solutions remaining after the dissolution of LEU targets. Specifically, the focus of this work is the calcination of the uranium waste from 99Mo production using LEU foil targets and the Modified Cintichem Process. Work with our calciner system showed that high furnace temperature, a large vent tube, and a mechanical shield are beneficial for calciner operation. One- and two-step direct calcination processes were evaluated. The high-temperature one-step process led to contamination of the calciner system. The two-step direct calcination process operated stably and resulted in a relatively large amount of material in the calciner cup. Chemically assisted calcination using peroxide was rejected for further work due to the difficulty in handling the products. Chemically assisted calcination using formic acid was rejected due to unstable operation. Chemically assisted calcination using oxalic acid was recommended, although a better understanding of its chemistry is needed. Overall, this work showed that the two-step direct calcination and the in-cup oxalic acid processes are the best approaches for the treatment of the UNH/nitric acid waste solutions remaining from dissolution of LEU targets for 99Mo production.

  10. Determination of Fission Products in Irradiated Fuel by X-Ray Fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    X-ray fluorescence i s a well e s t a b l i s h e d analytical tool for measuring elemental composition of fairly large (~ 5 cm2) "cold" samples. A version of t h i s technique has been developed for a n a l y s i s of radial d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i s s i o n products Xe, Cs and Ba in irra...

  11. Conversion of Molybdenum-99 production process to low enriched uranium: Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses of HEU and LEU target plates for irradiation in Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Ahmad; Iqbal, Masood; Bokhari, Ishtiaq Hussain; Mahmood, Tayyab; Muhammad, Atta

    2012-09-01

    Technetium-99m, the daughter product of Molybdenum-99 is the most widely needed radionuclide for diagnostic studies in Pakistan. Molybdenum-99 Production Facility has been established at PINSTECH. Highly enriched uranium (93% 235U) U/Al alloy targets have been irradiated in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) for the generation of fission Mo-99, while basic dissolution technique is used for separation of Mo-99 from target matrix activity. In line with the international objective of minimizing and eventually eliminating the use of HEU in civil commerce, national and international efforts have been underway to shift the production of medical isotopes from HEU to LEU (LEU; uranium is needed. LEU aluminum uranium dispersion target has been developed, which may replace existing HEU aluminum/uranium alloy targets for production of 99Mo using basic dissolution technique. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations were performed for safe irradiation of targets in the core of PARR-1.

  12. Mechanistic approach for nitride fuel evolution and fission product release under irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgodvorov, A. P.; Ozrin, V. D.

    2017-01-01

    A model for describing uranium-plutonium mixed nitride fuel pellet burning was developed. Except fission products generating, the model includes impurities of oxygen and carbon. Nitrogen behaviour in nitride fuel was analysed and the nitrogen chemical potential in solid solution with uranium-plutonium nitride was constructed. The chemical program module was tested with the help of thermodynamic equilibrium phase distribution calculation. Results were compared with analogous data in literature, quite good agreement was achieved, especially for uranium sesquinitride, metallic species and some oxides. Calculation of a process of nitride fuel burning was also conducted. Used mechanistic approaches for fission product evolution give the opportunity to find fission gas release fractions and also volumes of intergranular secondary phases. Calculations present that the most massive secondary phases are the oxide and metallic phases. Oxide phase contain approximately 1 % wt of substance over all time of burning with slightly increasing of content. Metallic phase has considerable rising of mass and by the last stage of burning it contains about 0.6 % wt of substance. Intermetallic phase has less increasing rate than metallic phase and include from 0.1 to 0.2 % wt over all time of burning. The highest element fractions of released gaseous fission products correspond to caesium and iodide.

  13. Spatio-temporal declines in Philippine fisheries and its implications to coastal municipal fishers’ catch and income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Anticamara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of overexploitation in global fisheries is well-recognized. However, published assessment of fisheries spatio-temporal trends at the national scale is lacking for many high biodiversity developing countries, which is problematic since fisheries management is often implemented at the local or national levels. Here, we present the long-term spatio-temporal trends of Philippine fisheries production based on the landed national fish catch data (1980-2012 and fishers’ interviews. We found that the total Philippine fish catch volume (Metric Tons MT of most capture fisheries throughout the country has either stagnated or declined over the last three decades. The decline is even more prominent when evaluating fisheries trends at the provincial level, suggesting spatial serial depletion of the country’s fisheries. In contrast, the total Philippine fish catch value (US Dollars US$ or Philippine Pesos PHP has continued to increase over time, despite the declining fish catch volume. However, local municipal fishers are experiencing both low fish catch and income, contributing to observable poverty in many coastal communities in the Philippines. The various stakeholders of Philippine fisheries need to recognize the depleted state of Philippine fisheries, and learn from various experiences of collapsed and recovered fisheries from around the world, in order to recover the Philippines’ capture fisheries. Lessons from the literature on collapsed fisheries offer the following options for recovery: (1 regulate or reduce fisheries exploitation and other human activities impacting the fisheries to allow fisheries to rebuild or recover, (2 enforce effective networks of marine reserves, (3 engage fishers, consumers, and other stakeholders in fisheries management, (4 improve fisheries science, monitoring, and management capacities, and (5 provide alternative livelihood, skills, and improved education to fishers and their families.

  14. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.C. E-mail: may@cber.fda.gov; Rey, L.; Lee, C.-J

    2002-03-01

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0 deg. C or frozen in liquid nitrogen.

  15. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen

    2002-03-01

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen.

  16. Towards sustainable coexistence of aquaculture and fisheries in the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Øjvind; Gomez, Emma Bello; Børsheim, Knut Yngve;

    2012-01-01

    Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include ......, both industries represent human activities strongly influencing, and influenced by, the environment. Management of aquaculture and fisheries, as well as other uses of the coastal zone, should be considered integral parts with local variations in their respective importance.......Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include...... ecosystem‐based management as demanded by the Marine Strategy Directive. The biological interconnectedness of fisheries and aquaculture is strong, with factors such as competition for space, disease transmission, genetic impact from escapees, availability of food for cultured finfish, and organic...

  17. Expression of filaggrin and its degradation products in human skin following erythemal doses of ultraviolet B irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Stine; Thyssen, Jacob P.; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal filaggrin level is affected by ultraviolet B irradiation in animal and experimental models. This study examined the effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on epidermal filaggrin and natural moisturizing factors in vivo in healthy adults (n = 22). Participants were irradiated with 2 minimal...... moisturizing factor levels after irradiation, but mean trans-urocanic acid was significantly reduced, as expected (n = 8). In conclusion, erythemal doses of ultraviolet B exert acute effects on profilaggrin mRNA and filaggrin protein in human skin in vivo.......Epidermal filaggrin level is affected by ultraviolet B irradiation in animal and experimental models. This study examined the effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on epidermal filaggrin and natural moisturizing factors in vivo in healthy adults (n = 22). Participants were irradiated with 2 minimal...... erythema doses of ultraviolet B on the skin. Biopsies and tape strips were collected from skin irradiated 24 and 72 h earlier and from nonirradiated skin (control). Real-time quantitative PCR on skin biopsies showed significantly reduced profilaggrin mRNA expression 24 h after irradiation (mean relative m...

  18. EUROPEAN FISHERIES FUND – NEW DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA DIANA SABĂU-POPA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the financial support given by the European Union to the member states on the purpose of enduring development of their fishing area, as well as the new development opportunities for Romania. The main financing instrument of the common fisheries policy is the European Fisheries Fund, which is managed alike the structural funds. This fund supports the European fisheries and aquaculture area in its effort to adapt a new fleet, whose competitiveness must be consolidated, and encourages the application of some measures meant to protect and improve the environment. In the case of Romania, the increase of the European Fisheries Fund’s absorption has become a priority for the Managing Authorities of this Fund, in order to stimulate the development of the Romanian market for fishing products, a market having a great potential.

  19. CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERIES IN 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Turk

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Date on the production and fish cath according to species, on the surface of the fish ponds, on the means of fish catching and on the distribution of the production and the catch in 1998 is presented. Ackerages used for the fish production have been increased 6 ha or 0,66%. The total fish amount was bigger for 462 tons, or 10,04%. The feeding coefficient is 3,8 kg 46,15% bigger compared to the previous year. The amount of the fertilizer used has decreased by 11,45%. The fry carp growing ponds make up 1,39% of the total fish pond surfaces, the yung carp ponds 19.92%, and the ponds with consumption fish 77,76%. The total amount in the carp ponds with consumption fish 77,76%. The total amount in the carp ponds was 522 kg/ha, and in the trout ponds it was 110,4 tons/ha. The most produced fish species is the carp with 79,04% followed the herbivorous fish with 10,42%, the trout with 5,89%, while all the other fish species make up 4,65% of the entire production. In the structure of herbivorous fish the big head carp with 57,57%, followed by the grass carp with 37,31% and the silver carp with 5,12%. Compared to the previous year the production herbivorous fish, the sheat fish, the pike and young carp, while the production the trout. Fish catch in open waters this year not in the files in statisc. The number of fisheries workers has decreased for 5,77%, and the production per worker is bigger for 16,74% compared to the previous year. Average production per worker was 8,38 tons of fish.

  20. Enhanced photon emission and pair production in laser-irradiated plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Lv, Chong; Jia, Moran; Xie, Baisong

    2017-07-01

    Enhanced photon emission and pair production due to heavy ion mass in the interaction of an ultraintense laser with overdense plasmas is explored by particle-in-cell simulation. It is found that plasmas with heavier ion mass can excite a higher and broader electrostatic field, which causes the enhancement of backward photon emission. The pair yields are then enhanced due to the increase of backwards photons colliding with the incoming laser pulse. By examining the density evolution and angle distribution of each particle species, the origin of pair yield enhancement is clarified.

  1. Problems and Countermeasures of Logistics in the Marine Fisheries Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the connotation of marine fisheries logistics,the thesis gives a brief account of its features:firstly,it is more susceptible to natural conditions;secondly,the aquatic logistics is with strong specialized assets;thirdly,the aquatic products market has relative greater uncertainties;fourthly,it calls for higher logistics technology;fifthly,it is difficult to conduct supply chain management.Then the thesis analyzes the problems in the marine fisheries industry:the first problem is the imperfect standardization system of the aquatic logistics;the second is the backward development in the cold storage of the marine fisheries;the third is low information-based degree of marine fisheries logistics system;the fourth one is the low level of the value-added services;the fifth problem is the immature participants in logistics.In order to solve these problems,this thesis further proposes some countermeasure to develop the logistics in the marine fisheries industry:at first,to build various forms of logistics organization entities;secondly,to gradually realize the integration of logistics functions and performance;thirdly,to strengthen the information construction of marine fisheries logistics;at last,to reinforce the government roles in developing the logistics industry of aquatic products.

  2. Effect of low doses {gamma}-irradiation on oxidative stress and secondary metabolites production of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) callus culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Beltagi, Hossam S., E-mail: lbltg@yahoo.com [Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, P.O. Box 12613, Gamma st, Giza, Cairo (Egypt); Ahmed, Osama K. [Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, P.O. Box 12613, Gamma st, Giza, Cairo (Egypt); El-Desouky, Wael [Biochemistry Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-09-15

    Effect of various {gamma}-irradiation doses (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 G) on the enhancement of secondary metabolites production and antioxidant properties of rosemary callus culture was investigated. The obtained data showed a highly metabolic modification of chemical constituents and various antioxidant defense enzymes (APX, CAT, SOD and GR), which gradually increased in response to radiation doses, while reduced (GSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) contents, total soluble protein, total soluble amino acids, total soluble sugars and PAL activity positively correlated with the increased doses. On the other hands the high irradiation levels significantly increased the accumulation of various oxidative burst (MDA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{sup -}). Meanwhile, higher doses of gamma irradiation positively enhanced secondary products accumulation of total phenols and total flavonoids in rosemary callus culture. - Highlights: > We model effects of {gamma}-irradiation on rosemary callus. > Highly changes of chemical contents, oxidative burst and antioxidant enzymes. > Treatments positively enhanced secondary products.

  3. Sizing up: property rights and fisheries management. A collection of articles from SAMUDRA Report

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    As the world's fisheries continue to come under scrutiny for their potential to be depleted of resources due to various pressures, including overfishing, modern fisheries management has focused on allocation of fishing rights as one prescription for sustainable fisheries management. Solutions based on such a perspective have often pivoted around the gamut of property rights, and how to control the social arrangements that govern the ownership, use and disposal of factors of production and goo...

  4. Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Defect Formation and Fission Product Dynamics in Oxide Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James

    2012-12-19

    The objective of this research program is to address major nuclear fuels performance issues for the design and use of oxide-type fuels in the current and advanced nuclear reactor applications. Fuel performance is a major issue for extending fuel burn-up which has the added advantage of reducing the used fuel waste stream. It will also be a significant issue with respect to developing advanced fuel cycle processes where it may be possible to incorporate minor actinides in various fuel forms so that they can be 'burned' rather than join the used fuel waste stream. The potential to fission or transmute minor actinides and certain long-lived fission product isotopes would transform the high level waste storage strategy by removing the need to consider fuel storage on the millennium time scale.

  5. Production of Low Enriched Uranium Nitride Kernels for TRISO Particle Irradiation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurray, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Silva, C. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Helmreich, G. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gerczak, T. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, J. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunt, R. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lindemer, T. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, K. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A large batch of UN microspheres to be used as kernels for TRISO particle fuel was produced using carbothermic reduction and nitriding of a sol-gel feedstock bearing tailored amounts of low-enriched uranium (LEU) oxide and carbon. The process parameters, established in a previous study, produced phasepure NaCl structure UN with dissolved C on the N sublattice. The composition, calculated by refinement of the lattice parameter from X-ray diffraction, was determined to be UC0.27N0.73. The final accepted product weighed 197.4 g. The microspheres had an average diameter of 797±1.35 μm and a composite mean theoretical density of 89.9±0.5% for a solid solution of UC and UN with the same atomic ratio; both values are reported with their corresponding calculated standard error.

  6. Effect of ozonation and UV irradiation with direct filtration on disinfection and disinfection by-product precursors in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirsardari, Y; Yu, Q; Willams, P

    2001-09-01

    Pilot plant studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-ozonation and ultraviolet irradiation on disinfection, disinfection by-product precursors and water quality in a direct filtration water treatment system. Disinfection parameters including total coliforms, faecal coliforms and heterotrophic plate count were investigated. Total organic carbon (TOC), trihalomethanes (THMs), total organic halides (TOX), filtered water turbidity and colour were also evaluated. It was found that advanced pre-oxidation processes (ozonation and UV irradiation) significantly increase the level of disinfection of raw water. Removal of total trihalomethanes and total organic halides precursors improved with ozonation and UV irradiation, compared to no oxidation treatment in direct filtration and/or in conventional water treatment. All coliforms (total and faecal) were completely destroyed by ozonation alone, and also with ozonation in conjunction with UV irradiation. However, the heterotrophic plate count was not significantly reduced at an ozone residual concentration of 0.1 mg l(-1). This suggests that disinfection efficiency is strongly influenced by competition reactions of organic and inorganic compounds with ozone. Precursors of total trihalomethanes and total organic halides were reduced by 90% and 98%, respectively, with advanced pre-oxidation processes. Water quality parameters were improved by the pre-ozonation and UV irradiation treatment system.

  7. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor Measurements of Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratio for Improved Forecasting of Plant Productivity and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Studies have shown that vegetation is directly sensitive to changes in the diffuse-to-global irradiance ratio and that increased percentage of diffuse irradiation can accelerate photosynthesis. Therefore, measurements of diffuse versus global irradiance could be useful for monitoring crop productivity and overall vegetative health as they relate to the total amount of particulates in the air that result from natural disasters or anthropogenic (manmade) causes. While the components of solar irradiance are measured by satellite and surface sensors and calculated with atmospheric models, disagreement exists between the results, creating a need for more accurate and comprehensive retrievals of atmospheric aerosol parameters. Two satellite sensors--APS and VIIRS--show promise for retrieving aerosol properties at an unprecedented level of accuracy. APS is expected to be launched in December 2008. The planned launch date for VIIRS onboard NPP is September 2009. Identified partners include the USDA s ARS, North Carolina State University, Purdue Climate Change Research Center, and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University. Although at present no formal DSSs (decision support systems) require accurate values of diffuse-to-global irradiance, this parameter is sufficiently important that models are being developed that will incorporate these measurements. This candidate solution is aligned with the Agricultural Efficiency and Air Quality National Applications.

  8. Fisheries Information Network in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Sarojini

    During the early 1980s the Indonesian government made a policy decision to develop fisheries as an important sector of the national economy. In doing so, it recognized the need for the collection and dissemination of fisheries research information not only for the scientists themselves, but also for the ultimate transfer of technology through…

  9. Fisheries Information Network in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Sarojini

    During the early 1980s the Indonesian government made a policy decision to develop fisheries as an important sector of the national economy. In doing so, it recognized the need for the collection and dissemination of fisheries research information not only for the scientists themselves, but also for the ultimate transfer of technology through…

  10. Managing Uncertainty for an Integrated Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Hasan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates ways to deal with the uncertainties in fishing trawler scheduling and production planning in a quota-based integrated commercial fishery. A commercial fishery faces uncertainty mainly from variation in catch rate, which may be due to weather, and other environmental factors. The firm tries to manage this uncertainty through planning co-ordination of fishing trawler scheduling, catch quota, processing and labour allocation, and inventory control. Scheduling must necessarily be done over some finite planning horizon, and the trawler schedule itself introduces man-made variability, which in turn induces inventory in the processing plant. This induced inventory must be managed, complicated by the inability to plan easily beyond the current planning horizon. We develop a surprisingly simple innovation in inventory, which we have not seen in other papers on production management, which of requiring beginning inventory to equal ending inventory. This tool gives management a way to calculate a profit-maximizing safety stock that counter-acts the man-made variability due to the trawler scheduling. We found that the variability of catch rate had virtually no effects on the profitability with inventory. We report numerical results for several planning horizon models, based on data for a major New Zealand fishery.

  11. Photodegradation of malachite green under natural sunlight irradiation: kinetic and toxicity of the transformation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Estrada, L A; Agüera, A; Hernando, M D; Malato, S; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2008-02-01

    This article describes the photolytic degradation of malachite green (MG), a cationic triphenylmethane dye used worldwide as a fungicide and antiseptic in the aquaculture industry. Photolysis experiments were performed by direct exposure of a solution of MG in water to natural sunlight. The main transformation products (TPs) generated during the process were identified by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 28 TPs identified with this strategy indicate that MG undergoes three main reactions, N-demethylation, hydroxylation and cleavage of the conjugated structure forming benzophenone derivatives. These processes involve hydroxyl radical attack on the phenyl ring, the N,N-dimethylamine group and the central carbon atom. The Vibrio fischeri acute toxicity test showed that the solution remains toxic after MG has completely disappeared. This toxicity could be assigned, at least in part, to the formation of 4-(dimethylamine)benzophenone, which has an EC(50,30 min) of 0.061 mg l(-1), and is considered "very toxic to aquatic organisms" by current EU legislation.

  12. 鄱阳湖湖滨地区渔业产量与结构变化研究%Changes in Fishery Production and Structure in Lakeside Region of Poyang Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹丹; 刘俊国

    2015-01-01

    In this study ,the structure characteristics of fishery production were analyzed in lakeside region of Poyang Lake from 1996 to 2008 by sector Kuzenets K value and Moore structure value .The results showed that fish gross production was increased steadily by 6% ,of which culture was main section ,and catching production was nearly steady with a little decrease . There was obviously difference in fish production between different counties in lakeside region under the natural conditions .The fish production in Nanchang county was leading among all the counties , accounting for over 1/6 of the gross fish production in lakeside region due to exceptionally natural resources .In the w hole period ,the adjustment of fishery resource structure speeded up in speed and rate ,higher than Jiangxi provinces at the same period . There was significant difference in speed and rate between different counties in lakeside region .Before 2000 ,Xinjian County had the maximal K value (6 .2) and e value (4 .1°) .After 2001 ,however ,the maximal K value and e value were observed in Poyang County ,indicating that difference in the studied counties reflected the special trait on fishery policy and natural condition .To keep the sustainability of fishery resources in Poyang Lake ,fisheries and agricultural department should speed up to adjust the sector structure additionally ,to improve the area of fish farming and rice‐fishing and to decrease the use of artificial diet and organic fertilizer in the lake . We can create health water condition for fish to make economic profit and ecological benefit in Poyang Lake .%利用时间序列以及产业结构研究中广泛使用的库兹涅茨产业结构变动幅度、产业结构变动速率分析1996—2008年间鄱阳湖湖滨地区的渔业产量和结构变化特征。研究结果表明,湖滨地区的渔业总产量以每年6%的增长率稳定增加,其中养殖产量为增长的主动力,天然捕捞量稳中有降。受自然

  13. Investigation of the Distribution of Fission Products Silver, Palladium and Cadmium in Neutron Irradiated SIC using a Cs Corrected HRTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. J. van Rooyen; E. Olivier; J. H Neethlin

    2014-10-01

    Electron microscopy examinations of selected coated particles from the first advanced gas reactor experiment (AGR-1) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provided important information on fission product distribution and chemical composition. Furthermore, recent research using STEM analysis led to the discovery of Ag at SiC grain boundaries and triple junctions. As these Ag precipitates were nano-sized, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) examination was used to provide more information at the atomic level. This paper describes some of the first HRTEM results obtained by examining a particle from Compact 4-1-1, which was irradiated to an average burnup of 19.26% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA), a time average, volume-averaged temperature of 1072°C; a time average, peak temperature of 1182°C and an average fast fluence of 4.13 x 1021 n/cm2. Based on gamma analysis, it is estimated that this particle may have released as much as 10% of its available Ag-110m inventory during irradiation. The HRTEM investigation focused on Ag, Pd, Cd and U due to the interest in Ag transport mechanisms and possible correlation with Pd, Ag and U previously found. Additionally, Compact 4-1-1 contains fuel particles fabricated with a different fuel carrier gas composition and lower deposition temperatures for the SiC layer relative to the Baseline fabrication conditions, which are expected to reduce the concentration of SiC defects resulting from uranium dispersion. Pd, Ag, and Cd were found to co-exist in some of the SiC grain boundaries and triple junctions whilst U was found to be present in the micron-sized precipitates as well as separately in selected areas at grain boundaries. This study confirmed the presence of Pd both at inter- and intragranular positions; in the latter case specifically at stacking faults. Small Pd nodules were observed at a distance of about 6.5 micron from the inner PyC/SiC interface.

  14. Maintenance of raw and cooked ready-to-eat product quality of infused poultry meats with selected plant extracts during electron beam irradiation and after storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha

    samples. Infusion of extracts/combinations into chicken meats increased lightness and decreased redness as well as the hardness of products. Infusion of chicken meat with plant extracts is an effective method to minimize physicochemical properties, volatile developments, and sensory quality caused by irradiation.

  15. Effect Evaluation of a Low-carbon Fisheries Production by Marine Ranching in Daya Bay%大亚湾海洋牧场低碳渔业生产效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纯厚; 贾晓平; 齐占会; 刘永; 陈丕茂; 徐姗楠; 黄洪辉; 秦传新

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a low-carbon fisheries production by marine ranching on marine resources conservation and marine carbon sink were assessed in Daya Bay, according to the field investigation data of April 2007 and May 2009. The results showed that there was an ecological regulation effect of marine ranching on environment and fishery resources. The densities of phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos were higher in the marine ranching areas than those in the adjacent waters. There was also an obvious increment of species and quantity of fishery resource. Moreover, the number and biomass of dominant commercial fish with high market value were increased markedly in the area of marine ranching. The carbon sink capability of marine ranching water was increased, approximate more than 937.40 kgC was fixed in the area of marine ranching, which equivalent to 3.44 metric tons of carbon dioxide. The results indicated that the marine ranching not only has positive effects on living aquatic resources, but also provided a new pattern for the development of low-carbon fisheries.%以基于人工鱼礁为构建主体的大亚湾海洋牧场为研究实例,以2007年4月和2009年5月调查数据为基础,研究了海洋牧场在资源养护和提高海域碳汇能力等方面的作用.结果表明,人工鱼礁型海洋牧场建设提高了海域浮游生物和底栖生物的栖息密度以及渔业资源的数量和质量,底栖生物和游泳生物的生物多样性指数增加,渔业资源优势种中的优质经济鱼类的数量增加.根据海域叶绿素浓度的提高进行计算,海洋牧场建设使海域碳汇增加了937.40 kgC,相当于3.44t CO2.如果同时考虑通过渔业生物收获从海域中移出碳而增加的海域碳汇能力,则其起到的海域碳增汇能力将更高.本研究的结果表明,海洋牧场是一种环境友好型、可持续发展的低碳渔业生产模式,有利于水生生物资源养护和增殖,也是生物碳汇扩增的科学途径.

  16. Study of molybdenum-99 production in IEA-R1m reactor using a beryllium irradiator; Estudos sobre a producao de molibdenio no reator IEA-R1m utilizando um irradiador de berilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci Filho, Walter [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Joao M.L. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    The IEA-R1 reactor has undergone a modernization to increase its operating power to 5 MW, in order to allow a more efficient production of the {sup 99} Mo radioisotope. An irradiation element made of Be was acquired for the reactor and studies were initiated for determining its performance when compared to other irradiators available in the reactor, the water and graphite types. The results obtained showed some advantages of the Be irradiation element for producing {sup 99} Mo: the epithermal neutron flux in the irradiation element is approximately 15% greater than in the water and in the graphite irradiation elements; the negative reactivity introduced in the reactor by the Be irradiation element is substantially smaller than the those introduced by the other elements: - 1636 pcm for the Be irradiator, -2568 for the graphite irradiator and -2977 pcm for the water irradiator. It is concluded that the production of the {sup 99M}o radioisotope with the Be irradiation element can be increased by 15% in the IEA-R1m reactor. It also requires less fuel for the reactor operation due to the smaller negative reactivity introduced in the reactor core. (author) 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The contribution of lakes to global inland fisheries harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deines, Andrew M.; Bunnell, David B.; Rogers, Mark W.; Bennion, David; Woelmer, Whitney; Sayers, Michael J.; Grimm, Amanda G.; Shuchman, Robert A.; Raymer, Zachary B.; Brooks, Colin N.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.; Taylor, William W.; Beard, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems provide numerous services for communities worldwide, including irrigation, hydropower, and municipal water; however, the services provided by inland fisheries – nourishment, employment, and recreational opportunities – are often comparatively undervalued. We provide an independent estimate of global lake harvest to improve biological and socioeconomic assessments of inland fisheries. On the basis of satellite-derived estimates of chlorophyll concentration from 80,012 globally distributed lakes, lake-specific fishing effort based on human population, and output from a Bayesian hierarchical model, we estimated that the global lake fishery harvest in the year 2011 was 8.4 million tons (mt). Our calculations excluded harvests from highly productive rivers, wetlands, and very small lakes; therefore, the true cumulative global fishery harvest from all freshwater sources likely exceeded 11 mt as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). This putative underestimate by the FAO could diminish the perceived importance of inland fisheries and perpetuate decisions that adversely affect these fisheries and millions of people.

  18. The coastal fishes and fisheries of the Socotra Archipelago, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonz, Uwe; Lavergne, Edouard; Klaus, Rebecca; Krupp, Friedhelm; Aideed, Moteah Sheikh; Saeed, Fouad Naseeb

    2016-04-30

    The Socotra Archipelago is situated in the Gulf of Aden where tropical and "pseudo-temperate" conditions combine to create a unique marine ecosystem. The diversity, ecology, productivity and fisheries of the coastal fish assemblages are still relatively understudied and no update of the scientific knowledge existed. The islands support unique coastal and coral-associated fish assemblages in spite of the limited biogenic reef frameworks. Fish diversity is the highest among comparable Arabian eco-regions, and fish biomass productivity high too by Indian Ocean standards. The production of the once traditionally-managed small-scale fishery is severely declining and whether it is sustainable nowadays is extremely doubtful. At a time when Yemen is torn apart by a severe political and humanitarian crisis it is timely to review and update the current state of knowledge for scientists and managers, and thereby ease access to existing information, facilitating follow-on studies and evidence-based conservation and fisheries management.

  19. Coupling a simple irradiance description to a mechanistic growth model to predict algal production in industrial-scale solar-powered photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Philip; Flynn, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Various innovative photobioreactor designs have been proposed to increase production of algae-derived biomass. Computer models are often employed to test these designs prior to construction. In the drive to optimise conversion of light energy to biomass, efforts to model the profile of irradiance levels within a microalgal culture can lead to highly complex descriptions which are computationally demanding. However, there is a risk that this effort is wasted if such optic models are coupled to overly simplified descriptions of algal physiology. Here we demonstrate that a suitable description of microalgal physiology is of primary significance for modelling algal production in photobioreactors. For the first time, we combine a new and computationally inexpensive model of irradiance to a mechanistic description of algal growth and test its applicability to modelling biofuel production in an advanced photobioreactor system. We confirm the adequacy of our approach by comparing the predictions of the model against published experimental data collected over a 2 ½-year period and demonstrate the effectiveness of the mechanistic model in predicting long-term production rates of bulk biomass and biofuel feedstock components at a commercially relevant scale. Our results suggest that much of the detail captured in more complicated irradiance models is indeed wasted as the critical limiting procedure is the physiological description of the conversion of light energy to biomass.

  20. 75 FR 42610 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XX54 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  1. 76 FR 58720 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA709 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited...

  2. 76 FR 40836 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA554 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  3. 75 FR 59156 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY79 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited...

  4. 77 FR 50952 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC166 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  5. 78 FR 51097 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC783 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  6. 75 FR 13731 - National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); April 9...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Fisheries Service Report 2. Fishery Management Plan Amendment 2 - Annual Catch Limits and Accountability... Groundfish Fisheries 3. National Marine Fisheries Service Report 4. Part I of Management Measures for 2011... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV42 National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific...

  7. Evolutionary impact assessment of the north sea plaice fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollet, Fabian M.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Dieckmann, Ulf; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that fishing causes evolution in life-history traits that affect the productivity of fish stocks. Here we explore the impact of fisheries-induced evolution (FIE) on the productivity of North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) using an ecogenetic, individual-based model b

  8. Fish to 2030 : Prospects for Fisheries and Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report analyzes global prospects for fisheries and aquaculture. The World Bank Group (WBG) Agriculture Action Plan 2013-15 summarizes critical challenges facing the global food and agriculture sector. An ever-increasing global population necessitates adequate food and nutrition for the growing population through increased production and reduced waste. Production increase must occur in...

  9. The History and Characteristics of the Mobulid Ray Fishery in the Bohol Sea, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    The fishery for mobulid rays, also known as devil rays, has been practiced in the Bohol Sea for over a century yet very little is known about its history and characteristics. This study provides the first detailed description of the mobulid ray fishery in the Bohol Sea, Philippines. It describes the history and evolution of the fishery from the 19th century to 2013. It characterizes the fishery based on the species targeted, gears used, the organization, catch distribution, processing, monetary value, and the market of its by-products. This paper also analyses the changes that occurred through time, the management of the fishery and the drivers of the fishery. A multi-disciplinary approach was employed by combining ethno-historical research methods and catch landing monitoring in four primary sites within the Bohol Sea. This fishery began as an artisanal fishery using sail and row boats equipped with harpoons and gaff hooks practiced in at least four coastal villages in Bohol, Camiguin and Limasawa. The fishing fleet has decreased since the beginning of the 20th century however, with the motorization of the fishery and shift to the use of gillnets, the extent of the fishing grounds and market of the products have expanded. Four species of mobulid rays are caught in the Bohol Sea: Manta birostris, Mobula japanica, Mobula thurstoni and Mobula tarapacana. A fifth species, targeted by a fishing community off Dinagat as an off-shoot of the Bohol fishery is most likely the Manta alfredi. Currently, the fishery for mobulids is centered in Bohol Province where it has been practiced longest. The monetary value of mobulids in this region has increased and the dependence of fishing communities for their livelihood is significant. The unique characteristics of this fishery and the socio-cultural context within which it operates merits a thorough investigation in order to design the appropriate management strategy. PMID:27575536

  10. How fisheries management can benefit from genomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Quiñonez, Fausto

    2016-09-01

    Fisheries genomics is an emerging field that advocates the application of genomic tools to address questions in fisheries management. Genomic approaches bring a new paradigm for fisheries management by making it possible to integrate adaptive diversity to understand fundamental aspects of fisheries resources. Hence, this review is focused on the relevance of genomic approaches to solve fisheries-specific questions. Particularly the detection of adaptive diversity (outlier loci) provides unprecedented opportunity to understand bio-complexity, increased power to trace processed sample origin to allow enforcement and the potential to understand the genetic basis of micro-evolutionary effects of fisheries-induced evolution and climate change. The understanding of adaptive diversity patterns will be the cornerstone of the future links between fisheries and genomics. These studies will help stakeholders anticipate the potential effects of fishing or climate change on the resilience of fisheries stocks; consequently, in the near future, fisheries sciences might integrate evolutionary principles with fisheries management.

  11. CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERIES IN 1996.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Turk

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on the production and fish catch according to species, on the surface of the fish ponds, on the means of fish catching and on the distribution of the production and the catch in 1996 is presented. The surface area used for production of fish has decreased by 1357 ha or 11.99%. The total fish amount has decreased by 1,921.00 tons or 29.76%. The feeding coefficient is 4 kg (33.33% bigger compared to the previous year. The amount of the fertilizer used has decreased by 18.79%. The fry carp growing ponds make up 5.99% of the total fish pond surfaces, the young carp ponds 21.13%, and the ponds with consumption fish 71.53%. The total fish amount in the carp ponds was 376 kg/ha, and in the trout ponds it was 146.6 tons/ha. The most produced fish species is the carp with 82.21 %, followed by the trout with 8.57%, the herbivorous fish with 4.78%, while all the other fish species make up 4.44% of the entire production. In the structure of herbivorous fish the grass carp is leading with 64,28%, followed by the big head carp with 26.02% and the silver carp with 9.70%. Compared to the previous year the production of the trout and tench has somewhat increased, while the production of all the other species of fish has decreased. Fish catch in open waters has increased by 19.23% in comparison to the previous year. In the production and catch of the total freshwater fish, carp made up 77.46%, the herbivorous fish made up 4.32%, trout 4.32%, sheat fish, pike perch and pike 2.99% and all other fish species 7.36%. As far as the distribution of production and catch is concerned, 46.91% were sold on the market, 39.19% were used for reproduction (stocking the fish farms, mortalities were 6.23%, and for personal use (sports fishing 7.67% was used. The number of fisheries workers has decreased by 17.75%, and the production per worker has also decreased by 26.62%, compared to the previous year. Average production per worker was 5.87 tons of fish.

  12. [Studies on the effect of combined treatment of irradiation with vacuum packaging on ready-to-eat meat products contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ping; Ji, Rong; Li, Yuwei; Li, Yanjun

    2002-08-01

    Altogether one hundred and fifty samples of Beijing roast duck, roast chicken and cooked meat products inoculated with approximately 1.5 x 10(3)-2.3 x 10(3) cfu/g L. monocytogenes are packed under vacuum and are irradiated with 60Co radiation at doses of 1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3 kGy. The results showed that L. monocytogenes in samples can be eliminated by a dose of 2.5 kGy. The resistance of the model strain 54004 to irradiation is stranger than three isolates (X20, G4 and g2). In addition, the spoilage bacteria in 150 samples of roast duck, roast chicken and cooked meat products can be killed at doses of 10.15 and 20 kGy, respectively.

  13. Evaluation of the cross-sections of threshold reactions leading to the production of long-lived radionuclides during irradiation of steels by thermonuclear spectrum neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Blokhin, A I; Manokhin, V N; Mikhajlyukova, M V; Nasyrova, S M; Skripova, M V

    2001-01-01

    The present paper analyses and evaluates the cross-sections of threshold reactions leading to the production of long-lived radionuclides during the irradiation, by thermonuclear spectrum neutrons, of steels containing V, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni. On the basis of empirical systematics. a new evaluation of the (n,2n), (n,p), (n,np), (n,alpha) and (n,n alpha) excitation functions is made for all isotopes of V, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni and for intermediate isotopes produced in the chain from irradiated isotopes up to production of the long-lived radionuclides sup 3 sup 9 Ar, sup 4 sup 2 Ar, sup 4 sup 1 Ca, sup 5 sup 3 Mn, sup 6 sup 0 Fe, sup 6 sup 0 Co, sup 5 sup 9 Ni and sup 6 sup 3 Ni. A comparison is made with the experimental and other evaluated data.

  14. Artisanal Fisheries Research: A Need for Globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Júnior, José Gilmar C; Silva, Luana P S; Malhado, Ana C M; Batista, Vandick S; Fabré, Nidia N; Ladle, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Given limited funds for research and widespread degradation of ecosystems, environmental scientists should geographically target their studies where they will be most effective. However, in academic areas such as conservation and natural resource management there is often a mismatch between the geographic foci of research effort/funding and research needs. The former frequently being focused in the developed world while the latter is greater in the biodiverse countries of the Global South. Here, we adopt a bibliometric approach to test this hypothesis using research on artisanal fisheries. Such fisheries occur throughout the world, but are especially prominent in developing countries where they are important for supporting local livelihoods, food security and poverty alleviation. Moreover, most artisanal fisheries in the Global South are unregulated and unmonitored and are in urgent need of science-based management to ensure future sustainability. Our results indicate that, as predicted, global research networks and centres of knowledge production are predominantly located in developed countries, indicating a global mismatch between research needs and capacity.

  15. Jointness through fishing days input in a multi-species fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Carsten Lynge

    .g. translog, normalized quadratic). In this paper we argue that jointness in the latter, essentially separable fishery is caused by allocation of fishing days input among harvested species. We developed a structural model of a multi-species fishery where the allocation of fishing days input causes production...

  16. Jointness through fishing days input in a multi-species fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Carsten Lynge

    .g. translog, normalized quadratic). In this paper we argue that jointness in the latter, essentially separable fishery is caused by allocation of fishing days input among harvested species. We developed a structural model of a multi-species fishery where the allocation of fishing days input causes production...

  17. Measurement of water column primary production using photosynthesis-irradiance relations for surface phytoplankton, the vertical chlorophyll profile, and underwater light intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, A. B.; Gagarin, V. I.; Mosharov, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    A method has been developed to measure water column integrated primary production (PPint) in the water column using photosynthesis-irradiance relations for surface phytoplankton, the vertical profile of chlorophyll a concentration, and the underwater light intensity. Good correlation has been found for the results calculated with this method and light dependences in situ. The advantages of this method are the independence of PPint calculation from CTD profiling and water sampling, and thus optimization (reduction) of the station working time.

  18. Oyster Fisheries App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Guerrero, Geraldo A.; Armstrong, Duane; Underwood, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This project is creating a cloud-enabled, HTML 5 web application to help oyster fishermen and state agencies apply Earth science to improve the management of this important natural and economic resource. The Oyster Fisheries app gathers and analyzes environmental and water quality information, and alerts fishermen and resources managers about problems in oyster fishing waters. An intuitive interface based on Google Maps displays the geospatial information and provides familiar interactive controls to the users. Alerts can be tailored to notify users when conditions in specific leases or public fishing areas require attention. The app is hosted on the Amazon Web Services cloud. It is being developed and tested using some of the latest web development tools such as web components and Polymer.

  19. INTERNET IN FISHERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matulić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet is a global communication system interconnected with computer networks and intended to exchange the information of any kind. It is frequently called »network of all the networks« because it incorporates thousands and thousands of various computer networks all around the world and in order to communicate, has the same technical standards. The Internet has become an exclusive, unique source of information forever growing population. It has also become an ideal communication channel because of its dynamics, interaction, tractability and miraculously manageable updating of the content published. Nowadays, when fisheries starts playing and important role in Croatia, many people seek professional advice and guidance via Internet in order to fulfil their demanding professional tasks.

  20. Effect of gadolinium nitrate concentration on molecular product yield during gamma irradiation and on corrosion of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal, D.; Puspalata, R.; Rangarajan, S.; Velmurugan, S.

    2017-09-01

    Effect of high concentrations of soluble neutron poison gadolinium nitrate, Gd(NO3)3, in the moderator system of a proposed advanced Indian nuclear reactor, was evaluated from the safety point of view. The radiolytic yields of H2 and H2O2 was expected to be high as moderator water system pH would be lowered and conductivity also would be high by the addition of higher concentration Gd(NO3)3 solutions during various shutdown states. Experiments were carried out to estimate this increase in radiolytic yield of molecular products with the addition of Gd(NO3)3 in the concentration range of 15-400 mg kg-1. Both the H2O2 and H2 yields were found to increase with absorbed dose and also with increasing Gd3+ concentration up to 100 mg kg-1 but the increase were marginal in 100-400 mg kg-1 range. For a given concentration of Gd(NO3)3 solution, radiolysis in high purity D2O showed a lower D2 formation than H2 in light water. In a simulated moderator temperature of 65 °C, a higher yield of H2 was observed. The headspace provided above the liquid phase in irradiation zone had shown to have a substantial effect on the generation of H2. With decreasing headspace, H2 generation increased and went through a maximum. Considering the expected long operational life ( 100 years) for the proposed reactor, the corrosion rate of the structural materials (stainless steel 304 LN) in contact with this high concentration Gd(NO3)3 solution was also estimated at 65 °C which showed a negligible effect.

  1. CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERIES IN 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Turk

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the production and fish catch according to species, on the surface of the fish ponds, on the means of fish catching and on the distribution of the production and the catch in 1997 is presented. The surface area used for production of fish has decreased for 836 ha or 8.40%. The total fish amount was bigger for 477 tons, or 10,52%. The feeding coefficient is 2.6 kg decreased 35% for in comparison to the bigger compared to the previous year. The amount of the fertilizer used is bigger for 37.30%. The fry carp growing ponds make up 6.50% of the total fish pond surfaces, the young carp ponds 22.04/0, and the ponds with consumption fish 70.31%. The total amount in the carp ponds was 446 kg/ha, and in the trout ponds it was 160.8 tons/ha. The most produced fish species is the carp with 79.32%, followed by the trout with 11.50%, the herbivorous fish with 4.25%, while all the other fish species make up 4.93% of the entire production. In the structure of herbivorous fish the grass carp is leading with 69,23%, followed by the big head carp with 29.74% and the silver carp with 1.03%. Compared to the previous year the production of the carp, grass carp and tench is increased. Fish catch in open waters has decreased by 5.53% in comparison to the previous year. In the production and catch of the total freshwater fish, carp made up 75.34%, herbivorous fish made up 3.89%, trout 10.66%, sheat fish, pike perch and pike 2.70% and all other fish species 7.41%. As far as the distribution of production and catch of fish is concerned, 52,80% were sold on the market, 37.94% were used for reproduction (stocking the fish farms, mortality was 1.43%, and for personal use (sports fishing 7.83%. The number of fisheries workers has decreased for 8.17%, and the production per worker is bigger for 22.25%, compared to the previous year. Average production per worker was 7.17% tons of fish.

  2. Determination of tylosin residues in fishery products by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定水产品中泰乐菌素残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任惠丽; 杨元昊; 田强兵; 李维平; 杨娟宁; 王绿洲

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To establish a HPLC method for determination of tylosin residue in fishery products. Methods; The samples were extracted by ethyl acetate at pH 8.0 medium,after condensed with rotary evaporation,the sample was extracted for defatting by hexane, and purified with SCX solid - phase extraction column. The target compound was separated with gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile - phosphate buffer solution, and quantified by external standard method. Results; The method showed a good linearity within the range of 0. 050 μg/ml ~ 5. 00 μg/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0. 9998. The detection limit was 30 μg/kg and the quantification limits were 100 μg/kg. The mean recoveries at spiked concentration of 50 μg/kg ~ 500 μg/kg were in the range of 72.4% ~ 106% ,and the relative standard deviations were less than 10% . Conclusion; The sensitivity and repeatability of the method could meet the analysis requirements for determination of tylosin residues in fishery products.%目的:建立水产品中泰乐菌素残留量的高效液相色谱测定方法.方法:样品在碱性条件下用乙酸乙酯提取,提取液旋转蒸干后,经正己烷脱脂,SCX柱固相萃取净化,乙腈与磷酸盐缓冲液为流动相梯度洗脱,外标法定量.结果:泰乐菌素在0.050 μg/ml~5.00 μg/ml内呈良好线性关系,相关系数r=0.9998.检出限为30 μg/kg,定量限为100 μg/kg.在50 μg/kg~500 μg/kg添加水平下回收率为72.4%~106%,相对标准偏差均小于10%.结论:该方法的灵敏度和重复性均满足水产品中泰乐菌素药物残留量检测需要.

  3. Comparison of N-nitrosodiethylamine degradation in water by UV irradiation and UV/O{sub 3}: Efficiency, product and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Bingbing, E-mail: xbb_hit@126.com [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100021 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Chen Zhonglin, E-mail: zhonglinchen@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Qi Fei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083 (China); Ma Jun [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Wu Fengchang [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100021 (China)

    2010-07-15

    N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a member of nitrosamines, which is strong carcinogenic. In order to explore an effective treatment method for NDEA removal from water, sole UV irradiation and UV/O{sub 3} were carried out in this study. The removal efficiency, degradation products and pathways were compared between those two processes. Results showed that NDEA removal efficiency achieved 99% within 15 min by both UV and UV/O{sub 3.} Degradation reaction well followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. Water pH had different effect on NDEA degradation in those two processes. Acidic and neutral conditions were good for NDEA degradation by sole UV irradiation. However, NDEA underwent rapid degradation under various pH conditions in the UV/O{sub 3} process. Though the ozone introduction in the UV/O{sub 3} process had little effect on NDEA degradation efficiency, it had significant effect on its degradation products and pathways. Methylamine, dimethylamine, ethylamine and diethylamine were observed as aliphatic amine products of NDEA degradation in both two processes. They were assumed to arise due to N-N bond fission under UV irradiation, or due to the reaction of NDEA and hydroxyl radicals in the UV/O{sub 3} process.

  4. Measurement of Volatile Radionuclides Production and Release Yields followed by a Post-Irradiation Analysis of a Pb/Bi Filled Ta Target at ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, L.; Köster, U.; David, J. C.; Tall, Y.; Andersson, M.; Berg, K.; Cormon, S.; Fallot, M.; Foucher, Y.; Frånberg, H.; Gröschel, F.; Guertin, A.; Kirchner, T.; Leray, S.; Manfrin, E.; Noah, E.; Ravn, H.; Stora, T.; Thiollière, N.; Wohlmuther, M.

    2014-05-01

    A crucial requirement in the development of liquid-metal spallation neutron target is knowledge of the composition and amount of volatile radionuclides that are released from the target during operation. It is also important to know the total amount produced, which could be released if there was an accident. One type is the lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target where different radionuclides can be produced following interaction with a high-energy proton beam, notably noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe isotopes) and other relative volatile isotopes such as Hg and At. The results of an irradiation experiment performed at ISOLDE on a LBE target are compared with predictions from the MCNPX code using the latest developments on the Liège Intranuclear Cascade model (INCL4.6) and the CEM03 model. The calculations are able to reproduce the mass distribution of the radioisotopes produced, including the At production, where there is a significant contribution from secondary reactions. Subsequently, a post-irradiation examination of the irradiated target was performed. Investigations of both the tantalum target structure, in particular the beam window, and the lead-bismuth eutectic were performed using several experimental techniques. No sign of severe irradiation damage, previously observed in other ISOLDE targets, was found.

  5. Working with, not against, coral-reef fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Charles

    2017-03-01

    The fisheries policies of some Pacific island nations are more appropriate to the biology of their resources than are some of the fisheries policies of more industrialized countries. Exclusive local ownership of natural resources in Palau encourages adjustive management on biologically relevant scales of time and space and promotes responsibility by reducing the tragedy of the commons. The presence of large individuals in fish populations and adequate size of spawning aggregations are more efficient and meaningful cues for timely management than are surveys of abundance or biomass. Taking fish from populations more than halfway to their carrying capacity is working favorably with the fishery because removing fish potentially increases resource stability by negative feedback between stock size and population production. Taking the same amount of fish from a population below half its carrying capacity is working against the fishery, making the population unstable, because reducing the reproductive stock potentially accelerates reduction of the population production by positive feedback. Reef fish are consumed locally, while Palauan laws ban the export of reef resources. This is consistent with the high gross primary production with little excess net production from undisturbed coral-reef ecosystems. The relatively rapid growth rates, short life spans, reliable recruitment and wide-ranging movements of open-ocean fishes such as scombrids make them much more productive than coral-reef fishes. The greater fisheries yield per square kilometer in the open ocean multiplied by well over a thousand times the area of the exclusive economic zone than that of Palau's coral reefs should encourage Palauans to keep reef fishes for subsistence and to feed tourists open-ocean fishes. Fisheries having only artisanal means should be encouraged to increase the yield and sustainability by moving away from coral reefs to bulk harvesting of nearshore pelagics.

  6. 78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes new Federal American lobster regulations that would control lobster trap fishing effort by limiting access into the lobster trap fishery in Lobster...

  7. 78 FR 43125 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial, Limited Entry Pacific Coast... Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This action proposes to implement trailing actions for the program... time, the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) and NMFS have been addressing...

  8. 75 FR 43928 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... review the status of the red crab fishery and recent developments in processing, marketing, and.... Thompson, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING...

  9. Hoffman etal 2016 Fisheries Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Fish collection data associated with the data analysis presented in Hoffman et al. 2016. Fisheries 41(1):26-37, DOI: 10.1080/03632415.2015.1114926. This dataset is...

  10. Unintended cultivation, shifting baselines, and conflict between objectives for fisheries and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher J; Trebilco, Rowan

    2014-06-01

    The effects of fisheries on marine ecosystems, and their capacity to drive shifts in ecosystem states, have been widely documented. Less well appreciated is that some commercially valuable species respond positively to fishing-induced ecosystem change and can become important fisheries resources in modified ecosystems. Thus, the ecological effects of one fishery can unintentionally increase the abundance and productivity of other fished species (i.e., cultivate). We reviewed examples of this effect in the peer-reviewed literature. We found 2 underlying ecosystem drivers of the effect: trophic release of prey species when predators are overfished and habitat change. Key ecological, social, and economic conditions required for one fishery to unintentionally cultivate another include strong top-down control of prey by predators, the value of the new fishery, and the capacity of fishers to adapt to a new fishery. These unintended cultivation effects imply strong trade-offs between short-term fishery success and conservation efforts to restore ecosystems toward baseline conditions because goals for fisheries and conservation may be incompatible. Conflicts are likely to be exacerbated if fisheries baselines shift relative to conservation baselines and there is investment in the new fishery. However, in the long-term, restoration toward ecosystem baselines may often benefit both fishery and conservation goals. Unintended cultivation can be identified and predicted using a combination of time-series data, dietary studies, models of food webs, and socioeconomic data. Identifying unintended cultivation is necessary for management to set compatible goals for fisheries and conservation. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Effectiveness of Low Level Laser Irradiation on Tinnitus and Parameters of Electrocochleography and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mahmoudian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is the consciousness of sound that arises in the ear or head without any external sound origin. The efficacies of transmeatal low-level laser irradiation for tinnitus treatment were reported before. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low level laser therapy on tinnitus and ECochG and DPOAEs parameters. Materials and Methods: The study design was prospective, quasi experimental. This investigation conducted on 16 ears (10 patients with disabling tinnitus. All patients underwent ENT examination, complete audiological evaluation, tinnitus study, ECochG and DPOAEs, and finally completing tinnitus data sheet. The results were compared before and after irradiation. Results: Means of tinnitus loudness (LMT and CAP amplitudes were significant different before and after irradiation (p<0.005. There was no any other significant difference before and after low level laser irradiation in subjective loudness, pitch matching annoyance grade of tinnitus and DPOAEs and other ECochG parameters.Conclusion: Transmeatal low-power laser irradiation with 200 mW seems not to be effective for treatment of tinnitus. This paper is the research brief report. In clinical point of view, this study should be repeated with a greater sample size although our results were statistically important.

  12. The use of PCR applications for assessment of Clostridium botulinum presence in the culture environment and fish samples in the conditions of open system production from Romanian fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Mihociu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A rapid expansion in world aquaculture has taken place in recent years due to its highestpotential to answer to the consumers demands on healthy food products. The application of biosecurityin aquaculture production systems and the safety of fish and fish products, in the context of climatechanges, requires investigations of the production systems and solutions for processing andpreservation technologies of fish products. PCR methods will be developed using the procedure ofgenes fragments amplification for Clostridium botulinum van Ermengem, 1896 species producingtoxins A, B, E and F from isolates of C. botulinum using extract broth TGPY (culture medium used forproteolytic strains and TPGYT (culture medium used for non-proteolytic strains of C. botulinum. Theresults will contribute to the integral development of food safety management and the quality of fishon the fish chain focused on the Cyprinidae for humans consumption.

  13. Phosphorus leakage from fisheries sector - A case study in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathumchai, Nuchnapa; Polprasert, Chongchin; Englande, Andrew J

    2016-12-01

    Although phosphorus (P) is an essential element needed for all lives, excess P can be harmful to the environment. The objective of this study aims to determine P flows in the fisheries sector of Thailand consisting of both sea and freshwater activities of captures and cultures. Currently, the annual fisheries catch averages 3.44 ± 0.50 Mt. Most comes from marine capture 1.95 ± 0.46 Mt, followed by coastal aquaculture 0.78 ± 0.09 Mt, freshwater aquaculture 0.49 ± 0.05 Mt, and inland capture 0.22 ± 0.01 Mt. Of this total, about 11% is contained in fresh products directly sold in local markets for consumption, while 89% is sent to processing factories prior to being sold in local markets and exported. The quantities of P entering the fisheries sector come from captures, import of fisheries products and feed produced from agriculture. This P input to the fisheries sector is found to average 28,506 t P.y(-1) based on the past ten-year records. Of this total, P input from captures accounts for 76%; while, 11% represents aquatic feeds from agriculture and animal manures. About 13% is obtained from the imports of fishery products. Coastal and freshwater aquacultures are found to be P consumers because their feeds are almost all produced from agricultural crops grown inland. Moreover, these activities cause most of P losses, approximately 10,188 t P·y(-1), which account for 89% of the total P loss from the fisheries sector. Overall, P in the fisheries sector is found to mobilize through three channels: (a) 44% is consumed within the country; (b) about 16% is exported; and, (c) 40% is lost from the ecosystem. Based on the results of this work it is recommended that future research be directed on ways to minimize P loss and maximize P recycle in Thailand's fisheries sector as to enhance its food security and curtail water pollution.

  14. Marine Reserve Targets to Sustain and Rebuild Unregulated Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueck, Nils C.; Ahmadia, Gabby N.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Riginos, Cynthia; Treml, Eric A.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Overfishing threatens the sustainability of coastal marine biodiversity, especially in tropical developing countries. To counter this problem, about 200 governments worldwide have committed to protecting 10%–20% of national coastal marine areas. However, associated impacts on fisheries productivity are unclear and could weaken the food security of hundreds of millions of people who depend on diverse and largely unregulated fishing activities. Here, we present a systematic theoretic analysis of the ability of reserves to rebuild fisheries under such complex conditions, and we identify maximum reserve coverages for biodiversity conservation that do not impair long-term fisheries productivity. Our analysis assumes that fishers have no viable alternative to fishing, such that total fishing effort remains constant (at best). We find that realistic reserve networks, which protect 10%–30% of fished habitats in 1–20 km wide reserves, should benefit the long-term productivity of almost any complex fishery. We discover a “rule of thumb” to safeguard against the long-term catch depletion of particular species: individual reserves should export 30% or more of locally produced larvae to adjacent fishing grounds. Specifically on coral reefs, where fishers tend to overexploit species whose dispersal distances as larvae exceed the home ranges of adults, decisions on the size of reserves needed to meet the 30% larval export rule are unlikely to compromise the protection of resident adults. Even achieving the modest Aichi Target 11 of 10% “effective protection” can then help rebuild depleted catch. However, strictly protecting 20%–30% of fished habitats is unlikely to diminish catch even if overfishing is not yet a problem while providing greater potential for biodiversity conservation and fishery rebuilding if overfishing is substantial. These findings are important because they suggest that doubling or tripling the only globally enforced marine reserve target will

  15. Marine Reserve Targets to Sustain and Rebuild Unregulated Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueck, Nils C; Ahmadia, Gabby N; Possingham, Hugh P; Riginos, Cynthia; Treml, Eric A; Mumby, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Overfishing threatens the sustainability of coastal marine biodiversity, especially in tropical developing countries. To counter this problem, about 200 governments worldwide have committed to protecting 10%-20% of national coastal marine areas. However, associated impacts on fisheries productivity are unclear and could weaken the food security of hundreds of millions of people who depend on diverse and largely unregulated fishing activities. Here, we present a systematic theoretic analysis of the ability of reserves to rebuild fisheries under such complex conditions, and we identify maximum reserve coverages for biodiversity conservation that do not impair long-term fisheries productivity. Our analysis assumes that fishers have no viable alternative to fishing, such that total fishing effort remains constant (at best). We find that realistic reserve networks, which protect 10%-30% of fished habitats in 1-20 km wide reserves, should benefit the long-term productivity of almost any complex fishery. We discover a "rule of thumb" to safeguard against the long-term catch depletion of particular species: individual reserves should export 30% or more of locally produced larvae to adjacent fishing grounds. Specifically on coral reefs, where fishers tend to overexploit species whose dispersal distances as larvae exceed the home ranges of adults, decisions on the size of reserves needed to meet the 30% larval export rule are unlikely to compromise the protection of resident adults. Even achieving the modest Aichi Target 11 of 10% "effective protection" can then help rebuild depleted catch. However, strictly protecting 20%-30% of fished habitats is unlikely to diminish catch even if overfishing is not yet a problem while providing greater potential for biodiversity conservation and fishery rebuilding if overfishing is substantial. These findings are important because they suggest that doubling or tripling the only globally enforced marine reserve target will benefit

  16. Physical, biogeochemical, and fisheries data from the Association of Primary Production and Recruitment in Subarctic Ecosystems (APPRISE) project in Auke Bay, Alaska, from 1985 to 1989 (NCEI Accession 9800068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Technical data reports with tabulized sets of physical, bio-geo-chemical, and fisheries data were obtained from Dr. David Ziemann of Oceanic Institute on Oahu,...

  17. CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERY IN 2001 and 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jahutka

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available For each segment of freshwater fisheries — freshwater aquaculture, commercial and sport and recreational fisheries — there is a legal obligation for data submission to the Ministry of agriculture and forestry, Directorate of fisheries. Within the segments of commercial and sport and recreational fisheries the data submission obligation refers to the period beginning with the year 2003, while in the segment of aquaculture that obligation includes also the year 2002. Data collected for freshwater aquaculture contain the information on production of freshwater fish, total production areas, food, fertilizers and subsidies for freshwater fish farming. Data collected for commercial and sport and recreational fisheries contain the information on catch quantities and number of commercial and sport and recreational fishermen. Freshwater fish production in the year 2001 was 5,549. 50 tons, while the total fresh water fish production in the year 2002 decreased for 1.00% compared to the previous year, amounting to 5,501.07 tons. Although total fresh water fish production constantly decreases comparing to previous years, trout production has increased and the maximum production was noted in the year 2002. Total area of the freshwater fish farms in the year 2001 increased compared to the year 2000 for 2.14% amounting to 11,880.41 ha. Actual production area slightly increased in comparison to the previous year as well and amounted to 9,214.11 ha. In the year 2002 total area of freshwater fish farms was 11,491.29 ha, and 72.13% of that figure was the actual production area, that is 8,288.27 ha. Production per unit area in the year 2001 was 485.31 kg/ha for warm–water species and 280.44 t/ha for cold–water species. In the year 2002 production per unit area for warm–water species was 462.95 kg/ha, and for cold–water species 315.26 t/ha. During the year 2001, in total, 10,575.82 t of food was spent and 1,891 tons of fertilizers and lime, while in the

  18. Production of acetic from ethanol solution by acetobactor acetigenum and effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umar, J.M. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1996-03-01

    A preliminary study on fermentation of acetic acid by S. cerevisiae and A. acetigenum was carried out to obtain information to develop the effective utilization technology of agricultural liquid wastes. Aqueous solutions of glucose and/or ethanol were used as a model of agricultural liquid waste. The effect of gamma-ray irradiation on A. acetigenum for enhancement of the fermentation was also examined. In this study, irradiated A. acetigenum had activity to produce acetic acid even after loss the activity to grow. (author).

  19. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  20. An operational satellite remote sensing system for ocean fishery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAOZhihua; ZHUQiankun; PANDelu

    2004-01-01

    Ocean environmental information is very important to supporting the fishermen in fishing and satellite remote sensing technology can provide it in large scale and in near real-time. Ocean fishery locations are always far away beyond the coverage of the satellite data received by a land-based satellite receiving station. A nice idea is to install the satellite ground station on a fishing boat. When the boat moves to a fishery location, the station can receive the satellite data to cover the fishery areas. One satellite remote sensing system was once installed in a fishing boat and served fishing in the North Pacific fishery areas when the boat stayed there. The system can provide some oceanic environmental charts such as sea surface temperature (SST) and relevant derived products which are in most popular use in fishery industry. The accuracy of SST is the most important and affects the performance of the operational system, which is found to be dissatisfactory. Many factors affect the accuracy of SST and it is difficult to increase the accuracy by SST retrieval algorithms and clouds detection technology. A new technology of temperature error control is developed to detect the abnormity of satellite-measured SST. The performance of the technology is evaluated to change the temperature bias from-3.04 to 0.05 ℃ and the root mean square (RMS) from 5.71 to 1.75 ℃. It is suitable for employing in an operational satellite-measured SST system and improves the performance of the system in fishery applications. The system has been running for 3 a and proved to be very useful in fishing. It can help to locate the candidates of the fishery areas and monitor the typhoon which is very dangerous to the safety of fishing boats.

  1. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  2. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Samôr Lopes

    Full Text Available Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp. that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  3. Degradation of some typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products with copper-plating iron doped Cu2O under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing An; Qixing Zhou

    2012-01-01

    A mixture of five commonly used pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) was degraded using a new combined catalyst under visible light irradiation.Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the combined catalyst was composed of copper-plating iron doped Cu2O (FeCu/Cu2O).Compared with the Fe/C inner micro-circuit,the electric currents flowing between Cu and Fe increase the speed of anodic Fe dissolution.Moreover,due to the photochemical properties,Cu2O can accelerate the PPCPs degradation processes under the irradiation of visible light.In addition,shaking increased the dissolved oxygen concentration in the solution,which not only preconditioned the photo-catalysis reaction,but also set the stage for Fe reduction.Aocording to the experimental results,we propose the possible reaction mechanism of the reaction.

  4. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation; Caracterizacao bioquimica e imunologica dos principais produtos gerados pela irradiacao de crotoxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Nanci do

    1995-07-01

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of {gamma}-rays from {sup 60} Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  5. Modelling of Disinfection by-products formation via UV irradiation of the water from Tajan River (source water for Sari drinking water, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahbakhsh Javid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study Irradiation with ultraviolet light (UV is used for the disinfection of bacterial contaminants in the production of potable water. The main objective of the study was to investigate and model Disinfection By-Products (DBPs formation due to the UV Irradiation of the Tajan River water under different Irradiation conditions. Materials & Methods:  Water samples were collected throughout September 2011 to August 2013. Transportation of the sample to the laboratory was done on ice in a cooler, and physiochemical analysis was conducted immediately within one day. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was determined by a TOC analyzer. Irradiation experiments were conducted in a series of 25 mL glass serum bottles with Teflon septa. The present study adopts an orthogonal design. The design involved irradiation with UV at a UV/DOC ratio of 0.5–3.0 and incubating (headspace-free storage for 5–25 sec. A 1 mM phosphate buffer maintained the pH at 6, 7, or 8 respectively, and an incubator maintained the temperature (Temp at 15, 20, or 25 °C respectively. The development of empirical models for DBPs formation used a multivariate regression procedure (stepwise which applied the SPSS System for Windows (Version 16.0. Results:  The results showed that the total DBPs formation ranged between 12.3 and 67.4 mg/l and that control of the levels was primarily due to the reaction time and the dissolved organic carbon level (DOC in the water. Conclusions:  Reaction time and level of DOC concentrations in water exerted a dominant influence on the formation of DBPs during the UV irradiation of water from the Tajan River. The relationships between the measured and predicted values were satisfactory with R 2 values ranging from 0.89 (for Octanal–0.92 (for Formaldehydes. The DOC level in water is the key factor in controlling DBPs formation.

  6. Evaluation of a dispersion medium for the irradiation of blood products in a electron linear accelerator; Evaluacion de un medio dispersor para la irradiacion de hemoderivados en un acelerador lineal de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordiales, J. M.; Falero, B.; Vazquez, M.; Alvarez, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    The use of bags of rice as dispersion medium in irradiation of blood products for medical use is less effective than the immersion from the point of view dosimetric water. However, given the wide range of dose values for a valid result and once subjected to quality control procedure, the method provides the necessary work for the irradiation of blood products in a linear electron accelerator. (Author)

  7. 76 FR 43266 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Fisheries Service (NMFS). ACTION: Notice; Public meeting. SUMMARY: The New England Fishery Management... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA582 New England Fishery Management Council.... Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978)...

  8. Fisheries-induced disruptive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Pietro; Hui, Cang; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-21

    Commercial harvesting is recognized to induce adaptive responses of life-history traits in fish populations, in particular by shifting the age and size at maturation through directional selection. In addition to such evolution of a target stock, the corresponding fishery itself may adapt, in terms of fishing policy, technological progress, fleet dynamics, and adaptive harvest. The aim of this study is to assess how the interplay between natural and artificial selection, in the simplest setting in which a fishery and a target stock coevolve, can lead to disruptive selection, which in turn may cause trait diversification. To this end, we build an eco-evolutionary model for a size-structured population, in which both the stock׳s maturation schedule and the fishery׳s harvest rate are adaptive, while fishing may be subject to a selective policy based on fish size and/or maturity stage. Using numerical bifurcation analysis, we study how the potential for disruptive selection changes with fishing policy, fishing mortality, harvest specialization, life-history tradeoffs associated with early maturation, and other demographic and environmental parameters. We report the following findings. First, fisheries-induced disruptive selection is readily caused by commonly used fishing policies, and occurs even for policies that are not specific for fish size or maturity, provided that the harvest is sufficiently adaptive and large individuals are targeted intensively. Second, disruptive selection is more likely in stocks in which the selective pressure for early maturation is naturally strong, provided life-history tradeoffs are sufficiently consequential. Third, when a fish stock is overexploited, fisheries targeting only large individuals might slightly increase sustainable yield by causing trait diversification (even though the resultant yield always remains lower than the maximum sustainable yield that could be obtained under low fishing mortality, without causing disruptive

  9. Experimental and theoretical study of the yields of residual product nuclei produced in thin targets irradiated by 100-2600 MeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Titarenko, Y E; Karpikhin, E I

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the project is measurements and computer simulations of independent and cumulative yields of residual product nuclei in thin targets relevant as target materials and structure materials for hybrid accelerator-driven systems coupled to high-energy proton accelerators. The yields of residual product nuclei are of great importance when estimating such basic radiation-technology characteristics of hybrid facility targets as the total target activity, target 'poisoning', buildup of long-lived nuclides that, in turn, are to be transmuted, product nuclide (Po) alpha-activity, content of low-pressure evaporated nuclides (Hg), content of chemically-active nuclides that spoil drastically the corrosion resistance of the facility structure materials, etc. In view of the above, radioactive product nuclide yields from targets and structure materials were determined by an experiment using the ITEP U-10 proton accelerator in 51 irradiation runs for different thin targets: sup 1 sup 8 sup 2 sup , sup 1 sup 8 ...

  10. Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield - The case of product integrated photovoltaic operated under indoor solar irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Sinke, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that photovoltaic (PV) energy yields can be simulated using standard rendering and ray-tracing features of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. To this end, three-dimensional (3-D) sceneries are ray-traced in CAD. The PV power output is then modeled by translating irradiance

  11. Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield - The case of product integrated photovoltaic operated under indoor solar irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Sinke, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that photovoltaic (PV) energy yields can be simulated using standard rendering and ray-tracing features of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. To this end, three-dimensional (3-D) sceneries are ray-traced in CAD. The PV power output is then modeled by translating irradiance

  12. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution in natural LiAlO{sub 2}/HDPE assembly irradiated by D-T neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakhar, Shrichand, E-mail: shrichand.s@gmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Abhangi, Mitul; Rao, C.V.S.; Basu, T.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Bhade, Sonali P.D.; Reddy, Priyanka J. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2012-02-15

    A neutronics experiment was performed to measure the tritium production rate (TPR) profile in the breeder assembly with LiAlO{sub 2} as breeder and high density polyethylene (HDPE) as neutron reflector. The breeder assembly was irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons from DT neutron generator at IPR Neutronics Laboratory. The objective of the experiment was to validate the tritium production prediction capability of the Monte-Carlo code MCNP and FENDL 2.1 data library. The tritium production rate profile in the breeding assembly was measured by irradiating Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pellets kept at various locations and then tritium counting liquid scintillation technique. Experiment was analyzed with 3D Monte-Carlo code MCNP with FENDL 2.1 cross-section data library. The calculation results were found to agree with the measured tritium production rates except one point near to the source. This experiment is a starting experiment in the series of benchmark experiments for the Indian Demo breeding blanket.

  13. Projected impacts of climate change on marine fish and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollowed, Anne B.; Barange, Manuel; Beamish, Richard J.;

    2013-01-01

    ) implications for food security and associated changes; and (v) uncertainty and modelling skill assessment. Climate change will impact fish and shellfish, their fisheries, and fishery-dependent communities through a complex suite of linked processes. Integrated interdisciplinary research teams are forming...... in many regions to project these complex responses. National and international marine research organizations serve a key role in the coordination and integration of research to accelerate the production of projections of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems and to move towards a future where...

  14. MARKET RENT DISSIPATION IN REGULATED OPEN ACCESS FISHERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Homans, Frances R.; Wilen, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Using a new model of markets in regulated open access resources, we illustrate the evolution of a fishery as demand for the product grows. We show that increased demand for fish in its fresh form shortens the fishing season and leads to the development of a market for processed fish. The model allows us to calculate the rent gains from rationalizing the fishery, and we show that much of the rent gains come on the market side as the season lengthens and more fish can be delivered to the higher...

  15. An Evaluation of Rebuilding Policies for U.S. Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Ashleen Julia; Cooper, Andrew B; Carruthers, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Rebuilding depleted fish populations is a priority of modern fisheries management. In the U.S., strong statutory mandates extend to both the goals and process by which stocks are to be rebuilt. However, the National Standard Guidelines that govern the implementation of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act may change to increase flexibility in rebuilding requirements. In this study we evaluate performance of the status quo approach to fish stock rebuilding in the United States against 3 alternatives that have been proposed to improve rebuilding outcomes. These alternatives either simplify the analytical requirements of rebuilding analyses or apply 'best practices' in fisheries management, thereby avoiding the need for rebuilding analyses altogether. We use a Management Strategy Evaluation framework to evaluate rebuilding options across 6 fish life history types and 5 possible real-world fishery scenarios that include options for stock assessment quality, multiple fleets, and the degree to which the stocks are overfished at the start of the analysis. We show that the status quo rebuilding plan and a harvest control rule that reduces harvest rates at low stock size generally achieve the best rebuilding outcomes across all life-history types and fishery scenarios. Both approaches constrain fishing in the short term, but achieve high catches in the medium and long term as stocks rebuild to productive levels. These results support a growing body of literature that indicates that efforts to end overfishing early pay off in the medium- to long-term with higher cumulative catches than the alternative.

  16. A Comprehensive Evaluation and Countermeasures of Fishery Development in China Based on Its Domestic Development and Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixiu ZHANG; Qi ZHANG; Yanyuan ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] The aim was to make a comprehensive evaluation and explore strategies on fishery development. [Method] Fishery development in China was ana- lyzed and concerning evaluation system was established based on its development stage, international competiveness and exportation. In addition, a comprehensive evaluation was made on fishery and countermeasures were proposed considering from government, department of quality control, fishery guild, producing and process- ing enterprises. [Result] Although progresses have been made in fishery in China, some problems still exist, such as overdose of drug residues, overloading breeding, lower additional value of products, and fewer excellent and famous products. Hence, local governments should give much support to fishery and enhance competitiveness to improve the products in global market; departments of quality control should strengthen supervision and management on fishery products against technical trade barriers; fishery guilds or researching institutions should provide technical support for concerning breeding and processing which should be mainly relied on science and technology. [Conclusion] The research provided references for fishery development.

  17. CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERIES IN 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Turk

    1995-09-01

    of fisheries workers decreased by 10,72% and the production per worker decreased by 3,12% in comparison to the previous year. According to each worker their was an average production of 9,00 tons of fish. In 1994 the highest production of fish was reached in Garešnica with 14,70 tons of fish per worker.

  18. 利用PVC-U管材洗机料生产渔用浮标%PRODUCTION OF FISHERY FLOAT BY USE OF PVC-U PIPES WASTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶荣龙

    2001-01-01

    介绍以PVC-U管材洗机料生产渔用浮标的配方设计、工艺流程及各工序的工艺控制。%The formulation design, technical process and technical control of the procedures in the production of fishe~ float by use of PVC-U pipe wastes are introduced.

  19. Acoustic telemetry and fisheries management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T.; Heupel, Michelle R.; Holbrook, Christopher; Hussey, Nigel E.; Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Raby, Graham D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of acoustic telemetry as a tool for addressing issues in fisheries management, and serves as the lead to the special Feature Issue of Ecological Applications titled “Acoustic Telemetry and Fisheries Management”. Specifically, we provide an overview of the ways in which acoustic telemetry can be used to inform issues central to the ecology, conservation, and management of exploited and/or imperiled fish species. Despite great strides in this area in recent years, there are comparatively few examples where data have been applied directly to influence fisheries management and policy. We review the literature on this issue, identify the strengths and weaknesses of work done to date, and highlight knowledge gaps and difficulties in applying empirical fish telemetry studies to fisheries policy and practice. We then highlight the key areas of management and policy addressed, as well as the challenges that needed to be overcome to do this. We conclude with a set of recommendations about how researchers can, in consultation with stock assessment scientists and managers, formulate testable scientific questions to address and design future studies to generate data that can be used in a meaningful way by fisheries management and conservation practitioners. We also urge the involvement of relevant stakeholders (managers, fishers, conservation societies, etc.) early on in the process (i.e. in the co-creation of research projects), so that all priority questions and issues can be addressed effectively.

  20. 50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treaty Indian fisheries. 300.95 Section 300.95 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Any...

  1. Influência da biomassa inicial sobre o crescimento e a produtividade de peixes em sistema de policultivo Effects of initial biomass on fish growth and fishery productivity in polyculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria Pimentel Nunes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o crescimento dos peixes, a composição das espécies e a produtividade de quatro policultivos (P75, P78, P87 e P207, visando melhorar o manejo e a produtividade pesqueira dos pequenos açudes (0,1-5,0ha do Semi-Árido brasileiro. Simulou-se as condições desses açudes em viveiros com 120 e 5.000 m² de área, sem renovação de água, utilizando moderada quantidade de adubo e fertilizante. A biomassa inicial variou de 75 a 207kg ha-1, sendo formada por: tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, curimatã pacu (Prochilodus argenteus, carpa comum (Cyprinus carpio, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum e tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris. Os peixes apresentaram baixo crescimento (The analysed species composition, fish growth, and productivity of four polycultures (P75, P78, P87, and P207 with the objective to improve the small reservoir (0.1-5 ha fishery management and productivity in the Brazilian semiarid region were conducted a experiment. To mimic reservoir conditions, we used 120 and 5,000m² ponds and evaporation and infiltration water loss was replaced. In addition, manure and fertilizers were used only moderately. The initial biomass of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, 'tambaqui' Colossoma macropomum, 'curimatã pacu' Prochilodus argenteus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and 'tucunaré' Cichla ocellaris ranged from 75 to 207kg ha-1. The fish showed low growth rates (<0.01g g-1 d-1 after 75 days of culture (P78 and P87. Tambaqui, tilapia, and curimatã growth decreased after 53 days (P75. In moderate biomass, tambaqui grew less than carp and curimatã did (P207. Tilapia productivity reached 720kg ha-1yr-1 (P78 and fell to 220kg ha-1yr-1 because of the reproductive process (P75 and P207. The carp productivity of 1,600kg.ha-1yr-1 was higher than those of the other fish (P87. The 75kg.ha-1 biomass level (60:30:4:3:3% of tilapia, tambaqui, carp, curimatã, and tucunaré, respectively optimized fish growth and productivity. The use of

  2. Pallet irradiators for food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, R. G.; Chu, R. D. H.

    This paper looks at the various design concepts for the irradiation processing of food products, with particular emphasis on handling the products on pallets. Pallets appear to offer the most attractive method for handling foods from many considerations. Products are transported on pallets. Warehouse space is commonly designed for pallet storage and, if products are already palletized before and after irradiation, then labour could be saved by irradiating on pallets. This is also an advantage for equipment operation since a larger carrier volume means lower operation speeds. Different pallet irradiator design concepts are examined and their suitability for several applications are discussed. For example, low product holdup for fast turn around will be a consideration for those operating an irradiation "service" business; others may require a very large source where efficiency is the primary requirement and this will not be consistent with low holdup. The radiation performance characteristics and processing costs of these machines are discussed.

  3. Development of management policy for the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate fishery in Puerto Rico: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, M. P.; LeGore, R.S.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the collection of tropical marine organisms for the aquarium trade has become perceived as an activity with an unsustainable history as well as obvious potential for rehabilitation through resource-based fisheries management and consumer-oriented product certification. In the case of Puerto Rico, collection of ornamentals has existed for decades, though unregulated due to a weak fisheries law dating from the 1930’s. The new Fisheries Law 278 of 1998 enabled new regulatory appr...

  4. 78 FR 33067 - Fisheries of the United States; NOAA Fisheries Policy for Modifying Fisheries Closures in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC097 Fisheries of the United States; NOAA Fisheries Policy for Modifying Fisheries Closures in the Event of a Public Health Emergency or Oil Spill... public comment on potential adjustments to the draft policy. DATES: Written comments must be received...

  5. Hydrogen production via reforming of biogas over nanostructured Ni/Y catalyst: Effect of ultrasound irradiation and Ni-content on catalyst properties and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Mahdi [Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reactor and Catalysis Research Center (RCRC), Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighi, Mohammad, E-mail: haghighi@sut.ac.ir [Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reactor and Catalysis Research Center (RCRC), Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahifar, Mozaffar [Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reactor and Catalysis Research Center (RCRC), Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nanostructured Ni/Y catalyst by sonochemical and impregnation methods. • Enhancement of size distribution and active phase dispersion by employing sonochemical method. • Evaluation of biogas reforming over Ni/Y catalyst with different Ni-loadings. • Preparation of highly active and stable catalyst with low Ni content for biogas reforming. • Getting H{sub 2}/CO very close to equilibrium ratio by employing sonochemical method. - Abstract: The effect of ultrasound irradiation and various Ni-loadings on dispersion of active phase over zeolite Y were evaluated in biogas reforming for hydrogen production. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, Fourier transform infrared analysis and TEM analysis were employed to observe the characteristics of nanostructured catalysts. The characterizations implied that utilization of ultrasound irradiation enhanced catalyst physicochemical properties including high dispersion of Ni on support, smallest particles size and high catalyst surface area. The reforming reactions were carried out at GHSV = 24 l/g.h, P = 1 atm, CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} = 1 and temperature range of 550–850 °C. Activity test displayed that ultrasound irradiated Ni(5 wt.%)/Y had the best performance and the activity remained stable during 600 min. Furthermore, the proposed reaction mechanism showed that there are three major reaction channels in biogas reforming.

  6. Project and implantation of automation in irradiation systems for solid, liquid and gaseous targets in cyclotrons aiming the production of radioisotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, S G D

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, two cyclotron are being operated at IPEN-CNEN/SP: one model CV-28, capable of accelerating p, d sup 3 He sub 4 and alpha, with energies of 24, 14, 36 and 28 MeV, respectively, and beam currents up to 30 mu A; the other one, model Cyclone 30, accelerates protons with energy of 30 MeV and currents up to 350 mu A. Both have the objective of irradiating targets both for radioisotopes production for use in nuclear medicine, such as sup 6 sup 7 Ga, sup 2 sup 0 sup 1 Tl, sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 I, sup 1 sup 8 F and general research. The development of irradiating systems completely automatic was the objective of this work, always aiming to reduce the radiation exposition dose to the workers and to increase the reliability of use of these systems, because very high activities are expected in these processes. In the automation, a Programmable Logical Controller (PCL) was used connected to a feedback net, to manage all the variables involved in the irradiation processes. The program of the PCL was developed using S...

  7. Photolytic and photocatalytic transformation of methadone in aqueous solutions under solar irradiation: kinetics, characterization of major intermediate products and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postigo, Cristina; Sirtori, Carla; Oller, Isabel; Malato, Sixto; Maldonado, Manuel Ignacio; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià

    2011-10-15

    The present manuscript describes the transformation and mineralization of methadone (MET) in aqueous solutions (demineralized water (DW) and synthetic municipal wastewater effluent (SWeff)) by natural solar irradiation and two solar photocatalytic processes: heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and homogeneous photocatalysis by photo-Fenton. Direct solar irradiation resulted in almost complete transformation of MET in the investigated matrices after 20 h of normalized irradiation time. MET photocatalytic transformation required shorter illumination times in DW compared to SWeff. Only 16 and 36 min of solar illumination were required during photo-Fenton and photocatalysis with TiO2, respectively, to transform MET completely in SWeff. Mineralization of the dissolved organic carbon took place only during photocatalytic treatments. Kinetics parameters were calculated for processes comparison. Additionally, phototransformation intermediates generated during each treatment were investigated and characterized by means of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqTOF-MS/MS). The main MET phototransformation pathways were observed to be hydroxylation, and fragmentation and cyclization. According to the Vibrio fischeri bioassay, the acute toxicity of the generated phototransformation products was not relevant, since the observed inhibition percentages of bacterial bioluminescence were always below 30% after 30 min of sample contact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 76 FR 43773 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... access general category (LAGC) fleets; open area days-at-sea (DAS) and Sea Scallop Access Area (access... Part 648 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework... 0648-BA72 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery;...

  9. 77 FR 73433 - Appointments to a Recreational Fisheries Working Group by the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Working Group by the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: Nominations are being solicited for appointment to a Recreational Fisheries Working Group of the... Recreational Fisheries Working Group (RFWG) in 2010, to assist it in the development of recommendations to...

  10. 75 FR 3416 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Pelagic Fisheries; Vessel Identification Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-AX38 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Pelagic Fisheries; Vessel Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jarad Makaiau, Sustainable Fisheries, NMFS PIR, 808-944-2108. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  11. 78 FR 54399 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC815 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... December 31, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist,...

  12. 78 FR 64182 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC921 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist, 978-281-9224....

  13. 75 FR 74005 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Monkfish Fishery; Scoping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BA50 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Monkfish Fishery; Scoping Process AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... statement (EIS) and scoping meetings; request for comments. SUMMARY: The New England Fishery...

  14. 76 FR 53832 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Decrease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA652 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Decrease for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  15. 77 FR 76424 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 648 [Docket No. 120201086-2418-02] RIN 0648-XC394 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist, 978-281-9224....

  16. 75 FR 57249 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast (NE) Multispecies Fishery; Charter/Party...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-BA09 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast (NE) Multispecies Fishery; Charter/Party Fishery Control Date AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  17. 77 FR 22678 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648- XB145 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Trimester 1 Longfin Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  18. Fishery Management Plan : Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Fishery Management Plan for Tamarac NWR provides an inventory of fishery resources on the Refuge including a description of the water area and fish sampling...

  19. Fisheries Management Plan : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Fisheries Management Plan for Muscatatuck NWR provides an introduction to the Refuge, summarizes the relationship of fishery management to Refuge objectives,...

  20. Observer Coverage of the Southeastern Shrimp Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vessel, gear and biological data collected by fishery observers from the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic commerical shrimp fishery.