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Sample records for irradiated chlamydia trachomatis

  1. Molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STT) worldwide. A better understand of the transmission of C. trachomatis may contribute to improved screening and prevention programs in the future and ultimately alleviate this burden. Through the

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis in non-specific urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terho, P

    1978-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 58.5% of 159 patients with non-specific urethritis (NSU) using irradiated McCoy cell cultures. Patients with persistent Chlamydia-positive NSU remained Chlamydia-positive each time they were examined before treatment and patients with Chlamydia-negative NSU remained Chlamydia-negative during the course of the illness. Neither the duration of symptoms of urethritis nor a history of previous urethritis affected the chlamydial isolation rate significantly. Of 40 patients with severe discharge 30 (75%) harboured C. trachomatis. One-third of the Chlamydia-positive patients had a severe urethral discharge, while this was present in only 15% of Chlamydia-negative patients. Complications--such as conjunctivitis, arthritis, and epididymitis--were more severe in men with Chlamdia-positive NSU than in those with Chlamydia-negative NSU. Of 64 men matched for sexual promiscuity but without urethritis, none harboured C. trachomatis in his urethra. This differs significantly (P less than 0.001) when compared with patients with NSU. C. trachomatis was isolated from the urogenital tract in 24 (42%) out of 57 female sexual contacts of patients with NSU. The presence of C. trachomatis in the women correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with the isolation of the agent from their male contacts. These findings give further evidence for the aetiological role of C. trachomatis in non-specific urethritis and its sexual transmission. PMID:678958

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. O’Connell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years, likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID, resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days. However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal.

  4. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

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    Maria Agnese Latino

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t. infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more common among young women <25 years old, with multiple sexual partners within six months and non protected intercourses. Because re-infection rates are high, complications may be reduced if partners are treated and women re-tested. This paper emphasizes the importance of counselling and prevention programs and underlines that selective screening of high-risk population remains an essential component of C.t. control. In the last years, the detection of C.t. infection has been improved in sensitivity and specificity.We describe the main diagnostic techniques, from culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA, direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA to the new DNA-based test systems. Actually, NAATs (nucleic acid amplification tests are regarded as the gold standard diagnostic techniques for chlamydial infections.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis in hydrocele fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, G; Mohanty, S; Pani, S P; Panda, S K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in hydrocele fluid. METHODS: 90 male patients with hydrocele of tunica vaginalis from an endemic area for bancroftian filariasis were investigated for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in their hydrocele fluids. C trachomatis antigen detection tests-a direct immunofluorescence assay and an enzyme immunoassay along with polymerase chain reaction assay for amplification of a 517 bp fragment of C trachomatis endogenous plasmid-were used in this study. The patients were also tested for the presence of microfilaria in their hydrocele fluids and night blood. Histopathological examination was carried out to detect adult filarial worm in tunica vaginalis testes. RESULTS: Eight (8.88%) patients had chlamydia antigen in the hydrocele fluids; C trachomatis plasmid sequences could be amplified from five of these. Seven (7.77%) patients had microfilaria in the hydrocele fluids, three of them having adult worm in tunica vaginalis. CONCLUSION: C trachomatis infection might be associated with hydrocele in some of these patients. PMID:9582470

  6. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1]. The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions: The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results: We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica [9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26, availability of test (n=1, effectiveness of screening (n=11, acceptance of the programme (n=11, economical issues (n=7. Discussion

  7. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was investigated among 100 women attending infertility clinics and compared with another subset of 100 pregnant women who served as control. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen detection cassette supplied by Biomil Diagnostics was used to detect the presence of ...

  8. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...

  9. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... application of direct immunofluorescence in the diagnostics of. Chlamydia trachomatis in the East Bohemian Region of Czech. Republic during 1997-2003. Ceska Gynekol. 70:128-33. Gerris H (2005). Molecular diagnostic methods for the Detection of. Neisseria gonorrheae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Rev ...

  10. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with.

  11. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    . Nigeria. The aim of this research is to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt. Methods: Four hundred undergraduate ...

  12. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... Chlamydia trachomatis is a ubiquitous human pathogen that is responsible for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Studies show that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more sensitive than cellular culture for detection of C. trachomatis infections. The aim of this study is to.

  13. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a ubiquitous human pathogen that is responsible for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Studies show that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more sensitive than cellular culture for detection of C. trachomatis infections. The aim of this study is to compare different ...

  14. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world with severe complications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of C. trachomatis in Kano. There is dearth of information on this subject in this locality. Method: Urine samples ...

  15. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world with severe complications. ... Conclusion: C. trachomatis infection if unchecked will continue to pose a threat to reproductive life with its established ... lead to chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility3.

  16. Novel overlapping coding sequences in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Petersen, Lise; Falk, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the aetiological agent of trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. The C. trachomatis genome sequence revealed an organism adapted to the intracellular habitat with a high coding ratio and a small genome consisting of 1.042-kilobase (kb) with 895 annotated protein...... of the novel genes in C. trachomatis Serovar A and Chlamydia muridarum. Several of the genes have typical gene-like and protein-like features. Furthermore, we confirm transcriptional activity from 10 of the putative genes. The combined evidence suggests that at least seven of the 15 are protein coding genes...

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    A 27 kDa Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein with homology of a 175-amino-acid C-terminal fragment to the surface-exposed Legionella pneumophila mip-gene product has previously been described. In this paper the entire chlamydia Mip-like sequence of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (lymphogranuloma...... venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...... chain reaction (PCR) in other C. trachomatis serovars and by sequencing of the mip-like genes of serovars B and E (trachoma biovar) was shown to be highly conserved within the two major biovars of C. trachomatis. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Mip-like protein failed...

  18. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which...

  19. In vivo activities of Baicalin against Chlamydia trachomatis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Our previous studies have shown that Baicalin could effectively inhibit Chlamydia trachomatis in vitro. In this study, Baicalin was tested for potential antichlamydial activity using a murine genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection model. It was demonstrated that Baicalin significantly reduced C. trachomatis.

  20. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Abdelrahman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments.

  1. Immunoelectron microscopy of lipopolysaccharide in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific for Chlamydia trachomatis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were used for immunoelectron microscopy analysis. MAb specific for MOMP showed strong reaction with the chlamydial surface, whereas MAb specific for LPS showed strong...... association of gold particles with the periphery of the chlamydial body. After fixation of the chlamydia cells, the reactivity was, however, similar to the anti-MOMP reactivity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that MAb specific for LPS could remove LPS from the chlamydial membrane....

  2. Prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis in patients attending the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study objective: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in patients presenting for termination of pregnancy. Chlamydia trachomatis is associated with severe morbidity and determining the prevalence would be a big step forward towards possible instituting a screening process or a universal ...

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis and placental inflammation in early preterm delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid); R.R. de Krijger (Ronald); A. Ott (Alewijn); H.F. Willemse; R. de Groot (Ronald); L.J.I. Zimmermann (Luc); R.F. Kornelisse (René); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); R.P.A.J. Verkooijen (Roel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChlamydia trachomatis may infect the placenta and subsequently lead to preterm delivery. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and signs of placental inflammation in women who delivered at 32 weeks gestation or less. Setting: placental

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis and placental inflammation in early preterm delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rours, G.I.J.G.; Krijger, R.R. de; Ott, A.; Willemse, H.F.; Groot, R. de; Zimmermann, L.J.; Kornelisse, R.F.; Verbrugh, H.A.; Verkooijen, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis may infect the placenta and subsequently lead to preterm delivery. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and signs of placental inflammation in women who delivered at 32 weeks gestation or less. Setting: placental histology and

  5. Seroevidence Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection In Infertile Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the lack of information concerning the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male infertility, it has become imperative to analyse the quality of semen of male with seroevidence of antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. A total of 156 male patients attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme/Invitro ...

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland

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    Suvi Niemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%, F (28%, and G (13%. Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.

  7. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyńska-Gorzelak, Bozena; Darmochwal-Kolarz, Dorota; Borowiec-Blinowska, Agnieszka; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the risk factors, the impact of the infection on the course of pregnancy and the condition of neonates born from pregnancies complicated by Chlamydia trachomatis infection. 558 pregnant women aged 18-42 yrs, between the 4th and 40th week of pregnancy recruited from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical Academy Lublin, and 10 men, partners of Chlamydia trachomatis infected patients were included in the study. All patients were examined using an immunoenzymatic method (MEIA). The ligase chain reaction (LCR) method was used only in cases of Chlamydia trachomatis detection with the use of MEIA method, in male partners of infected women and in patients with a cervical erosion and with a mucopurulent cervicitis. There were 64 women and 10 men who were examined using the LCR method. Positive results of MEIA test were found in 10 women (1.8% of studied population). Among men, the infection by Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 9 cases (90%). There were no infections with Chlamydia trachomatis in the group of neonates born from infected mothers. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 1.8% in the studied group. The factors favourable for an infection are: young, unmarried patients, residents of towns or cities and changes in the cervix such as cervicitis or ectopy. In the cases of pathological pregnancy we should take into account Chlamydia trachomatis infections as a cause of abdominal pain or premature uterine contractions. The test towards Chlamydia trachomatis infection should be performed in pregnant patients to decrease the rate of pregnancy complications.

  8. THE PREVALENCE OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION IN SAINT-PETERSBURG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Kulyashova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chlamydia trachomatis causes various diseases of reproductive organs. Only limited data on the incidence of urogenital chlamydia infection in the Russian Federation are available. The main goal of this study was to detect the prevalence of infection associated with Chlamydia trachomatis in citizens of St.Petersburg. Overall 3833 individuals including 2190 children and adolescents aged from 0 to 18 years old and 1643 adults aged 19–70 years old were tested in 2008–2010. This group included patients with acute and chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility as well as patients without clinical symptoms of Chlamydia infection. The high level of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among newborns and dramatic increase of the infection among adolescents were determined. These results support urgent needs to develop adequate preventive measures to control Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the population. The effectiveness of different laboratory tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis infection depends on the causative agent localization in the macroorganism, on acuity of infection process and on immune response. The combined using of different laboratory tests give the possibility to obtain objective results about Chlamydia etiology role in inflammatory disease of urogenital tract as well as about prevalence of infection in regions of the country.

  9. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia trachomatis infection to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia trachomatis infection to Coccidioidomycosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases...

  10. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia trachomatis infection to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia trachomatis infection to Coccidioidomycosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases...

  11. Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis in patients presenting with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis in patients presenting with ectopic pregnancy at Groote Schuur hospital. ... South African Medical Journal ... While the role of C. trachomatis infection in women who develop ectopic pregnancies needs to be explored further, it seems wise to treat them all with empirical antibiotics at the ...

  12. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted diseases that is not of viral origin and there is accumulating evidence of a significant role played by this pathogen in causing male factor infertility. This study thus aimed to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis among infertile males and to ...

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infants: a prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Preece, P M; Anderson, J M; Thompson, R G

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective study of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnancy, 198 mothers positive for chlamydial antigen were identified; the infants of 174 were followed for up to six months and C trachomatis was recovered in cell culture from 43 infants (25%). Conjunctivitis occurred in significantly more infants who were positive for C trachomatis (20 of 43, 47%) than in those who were negative (18 of 131, 14%). There were also significantly more lower respiratory tract infections among infants...

  14. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2) was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved ...

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibodies seroprevalence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia infection is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in humans caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. This study ... Hence, there is need to institute appropriate prevention and control measures against the transmission of the disease especially among those at risk of contracting the disease.

  16. De kans op 'pelvic inflammatory disease' bij urogenitale infectie met Chlamydia trachomatis; literatuuronderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, A. J. P.; van Bergen, J. E. A. M.; Morré, S. A.; van Everdingen, J. J. E.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the rate of PID in women with genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Systematic literature review. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched over the years 1975-2003 using the keywords 'Chlamydia trachomatis', 'complication', 'pelvic (inflammatory disease)', 'PID', 'endometritis', 'adnexitis',

  17. De kans op 'pelvic inflammatory disease' bij urogenitale infectie met Chlamydia trachomatis; literatuuronderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, A.J.P.; van Bergen, J.E.; Morre, S.A.; van Everdingen, J.J.E.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of PID in women with genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. METHOD: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched over the years 1975-2003 using the keywords 'Chlamydia trachomatis', 'complication', 'pelvic (inflammatory disease)', 'PID',

  18. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all...... are important human pathogens. Chlamydia is obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellularly chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) are small, metabolic inactive, infectious particles with a tight outer cell membrane. After internalization into host cells the chlamydial...

  19. [Chlamydia trachomatis and urogenital mycoplasms in nonconococcal urethritis in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesić, Sonja; Vukićević, Jelica; Gvozdenović, Eleonora; Skiljević, Dusan; Janosević, Slobodanka; Medenica, Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Nongonococcal urethritis is the most common sexually transmitted infection in men, with vast majority of the etiological agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis, followed by urogenital mycoplasmas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in nongonococcal urethritis in men, and to examine infections associated with these agents. Material and methods 299 sexually active, heterosexual men with nongonococcal urethritis were included into the study. Urethral samples were taken with a dacron swab placed into the urethra up to 2-3 cm. The Direct immunofluorescence technique was performed for identification of Chlamydia trachomatis. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis were detected with Mycoplasma IST assay. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 22.75%, Uraeplasma urealyticum in 21.08% and Mycoplasma hominis in 8.02% cases. We found no significant differences in prevalence between Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticym (p > 0.05). Monoinfections were found in 51.85% with significantly higher rate (p urethritis with prevalence of 51.85% in monoinfections and 11.70% in associated infections. In 36.45% of cases the etiology of urethritis was not elucidated. These results suggest that more sensitive diagnostic tool should be applied when searching for the derailed etiology of nongonococcal urethritis.

  20. Cytochemical localization of glycogen in Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappino, M L; Dawson, C; Schachter, J; Nichols, B A

    1995-01-01

    The origin and distribution of glycogen in inclusions of Chlamydia trachomatis were demonstrated with silver proteinate stain for electron microscopy. Glycogen particles were detected in all developmental stages of C. trachomatis, as well as free in the inclusions. Intrachlamydial glycogen was most common in elementary bodies but was also detected in intermediate forms and reticulate bodies (RBs). Abnormal divisions and breakdown of cytoplasmic membranes were common in RBs. Cytoplasmic conten...

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined.......High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  2. 10 seroevidence of chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Eggert-Kruse W, Rohr G,. Demirakca T. et al. Chlamydial serology in 1303 asymptomatic subfertile couples. Hum. Reprod. 1997; 12:1464-1475. 4. Idahl A, Boman J, Kumlin U,. Olofsson JL. Demonstration of. Chlamydia trachomatis. IgG antibodies in the male partner of the infertile couple is correlated.

  3. Characterization of Ancient Ferredoxins & Chlamydia Trachomatis Ribonucleotide Reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Hanne

    differences are that the R2 subunit in class I RNR function using a tyrosyl radical located close to a [Fe-Fe] site, while class Ic RNR function with a [Mn-Fe] site. In class Ic RNR a phenylalanine is found where the tyrosyl radical is formed in class I RNR. Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) RNR belongs to class Ic...

  4. Protegrins: structural requirements for inactivating elementary bodies of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, B; Lehrer, R I; Harwig, S S; Wagar, E A

    1996-01-01

    We tested 20 protegrins against Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 (L2/434/Bu). Five of the protegrins had native structures; the others included nonamidated, enantiomeric, and truncated variants and peptides with <2 disulfide bonds. Antichlamydial activity resided principally in residues 5 to 15 of native protegrin PG-1, and optimal activity required both intramolecular disulfide bonds. PMID:8890254

  5. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Herrmann, B; Jensen, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the molecular diagnosis of gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection. In addition, good laboratory practice and issues that should be considered before and after implementation of NAATs for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae...

  6. Chlamydia Trachomatis IgG Antibodies Seroprevalence Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... residence significantly affected Chlamydia trachomatis seroprevalence with a preponderance towards students living .... an important causal agent in pelvic inflammatory disease with sequelae including infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic Pain. Up to two thirds of cases of tubal-factor infertility and one ...

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervicitis and urethritis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, J; Vesterinen, E

    1982-01-01

    In the Scandinavian countries today, Chlamydia trachomatis seems to be the most important cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Although C. trachomatis is most prevalent in symptomatic women and in persons visiting venereal disease clinics, the asymptomatic carrier rate, particularly in young women, appears to be surprisingly high. In addition to young age and level of sexual activity, the use of oral contraceptives and the presence of cervical ectopy are important risk factors for chlamydial infection. Chlamydial cervicitis often is characterized by a hypertrophic follicular appearance, with severe edema, erythema, friability, and endocervical mucopurulent discharge. On colposcopy, an atypical transformation zone is frequently observed. Papanicolaou smears taken from C. trachomatis culture-positive patients often reveal benign atypias and dyskaryotic changes. C. trachomatis, therefore, being a venereally transmitted intracellular organism, may well play a role in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Future studies on patients with cytological atypias, therefore, also should include tests for C. trachomatis. Prospective studies are needed to determine the natural history and outcome of C. trachomatis-associated atypias and their behavior after adequate therapy. A large proportion of C. trachomatis-infected women also are culture-positive from the urethra. The demonstration that C. trachomatis is a common causative agent of acute urethral syndrome (also called abacterial urethritis, dysuria-pyuria syndrome) in women has been a valuable contribution. The diagnosis of pyuria in a patient with abacterial dysuria is of critical importance, since it suggests a chlamydial etiology and thus is a potentially treatable condition.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy: knowledge, test practices, and attitudes of Dutch midwives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, M.T.R.; Manniën, J.; Rours, G.I.J.G.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnancy may lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. In the Netherlands, testing for C. trachomatis is based on risk assessment. We assessed midwives' knowledge, test practices, assessment of risk behavior, and attitudes regarding testing for C.

  9. Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA. From the published sequence of the common C. trachomatis plasmid, two primer sets were selected. Detection of amplified sequences was done by agarose gel electrophoresis of cleaved or uncleaved...... developed a closed system in which airborne contamination was minimized. Analysis of 228 clinical samples tested by cell culture, IDEIA enzyme immunosorbent assay (Medico-Nobel, Boots-Celltech Ltd., Berkshire, United Kingdom), and PCR showed a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 93% when PCR was compared...

  10. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnant women in Martinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chout, R T; Vaton, S; Duval-Violton, D; Leguyader-Despres, P; Orfila, J

    1995-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital infection and to identify behavioral, demographic, and clinical factors associated with the infection in pregnant women in Martinique. One-thousand-four-hundred-eleven patients 15-39 years old, at 10-16 weeks of gestation and attending the prenatal clinic at Lamentin Hospital, were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the cervix and urethra using tissue culture. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 375 (26.7%) women; 34% of them were positive in the cervix and urethra, 58% in the cervix only, and 8% in the urethra only. Factors found by multivariate analysis to be significantly associated with chlamydial infection were age less than 25 years, first intercourse at less than 18 years old, previous induced abortions, mucopurulent cervicitis, and repeated candidiasis. None of the factors associated with chlamydial infection was sensitive enough to permit efficient selective screening. It is cost effective to recommend a routine screening for chlamydial infection together with an educational program.

  11. Comparison between ICT and PCR for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, E R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Hasan, M M; Rahman, M M; Nahar, K; Kubayashi, N

    2012-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium which is the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI). The present study was carried to diagnose genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women of reproductive age, attending Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, during July 2009 to June 2010 by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 70 females were included in this study. Out of 70 cases 56 were symptomatic and 14 asymptomatic. Endocervical swabs were collected from each of the cases and examined by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) for antigen detection and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of endogenous plasmid-based nucleic acid. A total 29(41.4%) of the cases were found positive for C. trachomatis either by ICT or PCR. Of the 56 symptomatic cases, 19(33.9%) were found ICT positive and 17(30.4%) were PCR positive. Among 14 asymptomatic females, 2(14.3%) were ICT positive and none were PCR positive. Though PCR is highly sensitive but a total of twelve cases were found ICT positive but PCR negative. It may be due to presence of plasmid deficient strain of C trachomatis which could be amplified by ompA based (Chromosomal gene) multiplex PCR.

  12. Flavonoid Naringenin: A Potential Immunomodulator for Chlamydia trachomatis Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebayehu N. Yilma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections, can manifest itself as either acute cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, or a chronic asymptomatic infection. Inflammation induced by C. trachomatis contributes greatly to the pathogenesis of disease. Here we evaluated the anti-inflammatory capacity of naringenin, a polyphenolic compound, to modulate inflammatory mediators produced by mouse J774 macrophages infected with live C. trachomatis. Infected macrophages produced a broad spectrum of inflammatory cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p70, and IL-10 and chemokines (CCL4, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL10 which were downregulated by naringenin in a dose-dependent manner. Enhanced protein and mRNA gene transcript expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 in addition to the CD86 costimulatory molecule on infected macrophages were modulated by naringenin. Pathway-specific inhibition studies disclosed that p38 mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK is involved in the production of inflammatory mediators by infected macrophages. Notably, naringenin inhibited the ability of C. trachomatis to phosphorylate p38 in macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism of its attenuation of concomitantly produced inflammatory mediators. Our data demonstrates that naringenin is an immunomodulator of inflammation triggered by C. trachomatis, which possibly may be mediated upstream by modulation of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 receptors on infected macrophages and downstream via the p38 MAPK pathway.

  13. Deteccion de Chlamydia trachomatis en muestras uretrales mediante inmunofluorescencia directa Detecção de Chlamydia trachomatis em amostras uretrais mediante imunofluorescência direta Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral samples by means of direct immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Wilson Schuster

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 82 pacientes con uretritis para la búsqueda de Chlamydia trachomatis mediante inmunofluorescencia directa, Neisscria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplastna y Ureaplasma mediante métodos estándar. Se encontró un 19,5% de Chlamydia trachomatis y en 11 de ellos (68,8% se encontró asociada a otras bacterias y estos pacientes presentó una secreción escasa-gelatinosa.Em 82 doentes com uretrite foi pesquisada a presença de Chlamydia trachomatis, utilizando a prova da imunofluorescência direta, e de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma e Ureaplasma, utilizando os métodos padrões. Ch. trachomatis foi encontrada em 19,5% dos casos, sendo que em 11 deles (68,8% observou-se associação entre Chlamydia e as outras bactérias pesquisadas. Nesses pacientes observou-se presença de secreção uretral escassa e de aspecto gelatinoso.The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was studied by the direct immunofluorescence test, as also was that of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma by the standard methods, in 82 patients with urethral discharge. Ch. trachomatis was found in 19.5% (16 of the cases and in 11 of them (68.8% there was association with the other bacteria investigated. This eleven patients presented a scanty gelatinous discharge.

  14. Quinolones for the Treatment of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia Trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Faro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly sexually transmitted bacteria are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The quinolones ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin have been shown to have activity against both of these bacteria in vitro and in vivo. Ofloxacin is particularly well suited for the treatment of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis cervical infection, which can be considered the earliest manifestation of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID. Not only can ofloxacin be effectively used as a single agent, it is also useful in treating urinary tract infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Although it has moderate activity against anaerobes in general, ofloxacin does have activity against the anaerobes commonly isolated from female patients with soft tissue pelvic infections. Thus, ofloxacin has the potential for being utilized to treat early salpingitis.

  15. Rapid screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by detecting ?-mannosidase activity in urogenital tract specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ze-yu; Fu, Guang-yu; Wang, Shan-mei; Qin, Dong-chun; Wang, Zhong-quan; Cui, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis may cause multiple different urogenital tract disorders, but current non-culture assays for rapid screening of C. trachomatis typically use immunochromatography-based methods. We established another new rapid non-culture method for detection of C. trachomatis based on the measurement of α-mannosidase enzymatic activity in urogenital tract specimens. Method To evaluate the performance of this method, α-mannosidase activities of C. trachomatis serotype ...

  16. Validity of self-reported history of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisse, Ann C; Marrazzo, Jeanne M; Tutlam, Nhial T; Schreiber, Courtney A; Teal, Stephanie B; Turok, David K; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2017-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is common and largely asymptomatic in women. If untreated, it can lead to sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. It is unknown whether a patient's self-reported history of Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a valid marker of past infection. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of women's self-reported history of Chlamydia trachomatis infection compared with Chlamydia trachomatis serology, a marker for previous infection. We analyzed data from the Fertility After Contraception Termination study. We compared participants' survey responses with the question, "Have you ever been told by a health care provider that you had Chlamydia?" to serological test results indicating the presence or absence of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis as assessed by a microimmunofluorescence assay. Prevalence of past infection, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios were calculated. The Cohen's kappa statistic was computed to assess agreement between self-report and serology. Among 409 participants, 108 (26%) reported having a history of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, whereas 146 (36%) had positive serological test results. Relative to positive microimmunofluorescence assay, the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported history of Chlamydia trachomatis infection were 52.1% (95% confidence interval, 43.6-60.4%) and 87.8% (95% confidence interval, 83.3-91.5%), respectively. The positive predictive value of the self-report was 70.4% (95% confidence interval, 60.8-78.8%), and the negative predictive value was 76.7% (95% confidence interval, 71.6-81.4%). The likelihood ratio was found to be 4.28. Agreement between self-report and serology was found to be moderate (kappa = 0.42, P Self-reported history of Chlamydia trachomatis infection commonly yields false-negative and false-positive results. When definitive status of past Chlamydia trachomatis infection is needed, serology should be obtained

  17. The glycyl-tRNA synthetase of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagar, E A; Giese, M J; Yasin, B; Pang, M

    1995-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases specifically charge tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. A prototype for the most complex aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases is the four-subunit glycyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli, encoded by two open reading frames. We examined the glycyl-tRNA synthetase gene from Chlamydia trachomatis, a genetically isolated bacterium, and identified only a single open reading frame for the chlamydial homolog (glyQS). This is the first report of a prokaryotic glycyl-tRNA synthetase encoded by a single gene. PMID:7665503

  18. Characterization of native and recombinant 75-kilodalton immunogens from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1989-01-01

    A 75-kilodalton (kDa) immunogen from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 was characterized. The 75-kDa protein was localized in the cytoplasm of chlamydiae and was shown to be a protein synthesized early in the developmental cycle of chlamydiae. A gene library was made by the recombinant DNA technique...

  19. Susceptibility of Chlamydia trachomatis to protegrins and defensins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, B; Harwig, S S; Lehrer, R I; Wagar, E A

    1996-01-01

    We compared the susceptibilities of Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies (EBs) to human defensin HNP-2 and porcine protegrin PG-1, cysteine-rich beta-sheet antimicrobial peptides produced by mammalian leukocytes. Although both peptides protected McCoy cell monolayers from infection by chlamydial EBs, protegrins were especially potent. Protegrin-mediated inactivation of chlamydiae occurred rapidly, was relatively independent of the presence of serum, and was effective against serovars L2, D, and H. Protegrin-treated EBs showed striking morphological changes, with obvious damage to their limiting membranes and loss of their cytoplasmic contents and nucleoid. Their effectiveness against chlamydial EBs and other sexually transmitted pathogens combined with their relative lack of cytotoxicity suggests that protegrins and related molecules could serve as prototypes for topical agents to prevent sexually transmitted chlamydial infection. PMID:8641770

  20. Azithromycin versus Doxycycline for Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, William M; Uniyal, Apurva; Lee, Jeannette Y; Lensing, Shelly Y; Johnson, Shacondra; Perry, Raymond C W; Kadrnka, Carmel M; Kerndt, Peter R

    2015-12-24

    Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection remains prevalent and causes substantial reproductive morbidity. Recent studies have raised concern about the efficacy of azithromycin for the treatment of chlamydia infection. We conducted a randomized trial comparing oral azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of urogenital chlamydia infection among adolescents in youth correctional facilities, to evaluate the noninferiority of azithromycin (1 g in one dose) to doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 7 days). The treatment was directly observed. The primary end point was treatment failure at 28 days after treatment initiation, with treatment failure determined on the basis of nucleic acid amplification testing, sexual history, and outer membrane protein A (OmpA) genotyping of C. trachomatis strains. Among the 567 participants enrolled, 284 were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin, and 283 were randomly assigned to receive doxycycline. A total of 155 participants in each treatment group (65% male) made up the per-protocol population. There were no treatment failures in the doxycycline group. In the azithromycin group, treatment failure occurred in 5 participants (3.2%; 95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 7.4%). The observed difference in failure rates between the treatment groups was 3.2 percentage points, with an upper boundary of the 90% confidence interval of 5.9 percentage points, which exceeded the prespecified absolute 5-percentage-point cutoff for establishing the noninferiority of azithromycin. In the context of a closed population receiving directly observed treatment for urogenital chlamydia infection, the efficacy of azithromycin was 97%, and the efficacy of doxycycline was 100%. The noninferiority of azithromycin was not established in this setting. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00980148.).

  1. Spontaneous resolution of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Jeanne S; Andrews, Williams W; Klebanoff, Mark A; Macpherson, Cora; Carey, J Christopher; Ernest, J M; Wapner, Ronald J; Trout, Wayne; Moawad, Atef; Miodovnik, Menachem; Sibai, Baha; Varner, Michael W; Caritis, Steve N; Dombrowski, Mitchell; Langer, Oded; O'Sullivan, Mary J

    2005-03-01

    We sought to estimate the rate of spontaneous resolution of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy and to evaluate factors associated with its resolution. A cohort of women enrolled in a large multicenter randomized bacterial vaginosis antibiotic trial (metronidazole versus placebo) that, when randomly allocated, had asymptomatic C trachomatis diagnosed by urine ligase chain reaction (from frozen archival specimens) between 16(0/7) and 23(6/7) weeks were included. The urine ligase chain reaction is a highly accurate predictor of genital tract chlamydial infection. A follow-up ligase chain reaction was performed between 24(0/7) and 29(6/7) weeks. A total of 1,953 women were enrolled in the original antibiotic trial; 1,547 (79%) had ligase chain reaction performed both at randomization and follow-up. Women receiving antibiotics effective against Chlamydia between randomization and follow-up or having symptomatic Chlamydia infection were excluded (26 women). Of the 140 women (9%) who were diagnosed as positive via the initial ligase chain reaction assay, 61 (44%) had spontaneous resolution of Chlamydia by the follow-up ligase chain reaction assay. Factors associated with spontaneous resolution included older age (P = .02), more than 5 weeks from randomization to follow-up (P = .02), and a greater number of lifetime sexual partners (P = .02). Using a logistic regression model, maternal age and a greater-than-5-week follow-up interval remained significant; for every 5-year increase in maternal age, the odds of a positive result on the ligase chain reaction test at follow-up decreased by 40% (odds ratio 0.6; 95% confidence interval 0.4-0.9). Race, substance abuse, parity, and treatment with metronidazole were not associated with spontaneous resolution. Gram stain score and vaginal pH at randomization and follow-up also were not associated. The prevalence of asymptomatic C trachomatis in pregnancy was 9%; infection resolved spontaneously in almost half of these

  2. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  3. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in a man positive for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kazuhide; Fukuda, Hiromi; Umeda, Kaoru; Yamauchi, Ryo; Fukuda, Sho; Kunimoto, Hideo; Tanaka, Takashi; Yokoyama, Keiji; Morihara, Daisuke; Takeyama, Yasuaki; Irie, Makoto; Shakado, Satoshi; Sakisaka, Shotaro

    2018-02-07

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS) is characterized by perihepatic and pelvic inflammation and occurs mostly in women of childbearing age. Here, we report a case of FHCS caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in a 50-year-old man. The patient presented to our hospital with right upper quadrant abdominal pain, and enhanced computed tomography revealed perihepatic and pelvic free fluid and early-phase hepatic capsular enhancement. A urine specimen was positive for Chlamydia trachomatis. The patient was diagnosed with FHCS due to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. In conclusion, FHCS cannot be excluded when men present with right upper quadrant abdominal pain without significant signs of biliary tract disease.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in neonates and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darville, Toni

    2005-10-01

    In 1911, Lindner and colleagues identified intracytoplasmic inclusions in infants with a nongonococcal form of ophthalmia neonatorum called inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn (ICN). Mothers of affected infants were found to have inclusions in their cervical epithelial cells, fathers of such infants had inclusions in their urethral cells, and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted chlamydial infections was revealed. Fifty years later, chlamydial isolation procedures were developed, and studies again demonstrated Chlamydia trachomatis as an etiology of ICN and the female birth canal as the reservoir. In the late 1970s, a report by Beem and Saxon described respiratory tract colonization and a distinct pneumonia syndrome in infected infants. Genital chlamydial infection is recognized as the world's most common sexually transmitted disease, with estimates of greater than 4 million new infections occurring annually in the United States. Although most C. trachomatis infections in men and women are asymptomatic, infection can lead to severe reproductive complications in women. The high prevalence in women of child-bearing age results in exposure of an estimated 100,000 neonates in the United States annually. Many of these infants develop conjunctivitis, pneumonia, or both in the first few months of life. Clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and approaches to prevention of conjunctivitis and pneumonia in the newborn and young infant are reviewed here. Appropriate testing for chlamydial infection in a pediatric victim of sexual assault and the implications of identifying C. trachomatis in suspected cases of childhood sexual abuse also are reviewed.

  5. Dysuria in the Emergency Department: Missed Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan D. Wilbanks

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical presentation of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia in women is often indistinguishable from a urinary tract infection. While merited in the setting of dysuria, emergency department (ED clinicians do not routinely test for chlamydia in women. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of chlamydia testing among women presenting to the ED with dysuria. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of women 19-25 years of age presenting with dysuria to an urban ED and who had been coded with urinary tract infection (UTI as their primary diagnosis (ICD-9 599.0 from October 2005 to March 2011. We excluded women who were pregnant, had underlying anatomical or neurological urinary system pathology, had continuation of symptoms from UTI or a sexually transmitted infection (STI diagnosed elsewhere, or were already on antibiotics for a UTI or STI. We identified the rates of sexual history screening, pelvic examination and chlamydia assay testing and evaluated predictors using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Of 280 women with dysuria and a UTI diagnosis, 17% were asked about their sexual history, with 94% reporting recent sexual activity. Pelvic examination was performed in 23%. We were unable to determine the overall chlamydia prevalence as only 20% of women in the cohort were tested. Among the 20% of women tested for chlamydia infection, 21% tested positive. Only 42% of chlamydia-positive women were prescribed treatment effective for chlamydia (azithromycin or doxycycline at their visit; the remaining were prescribed UTI treatment not effective against chlamydia. Predictors of sexual history screening included vaginal bleeding (OR 5.4, 95% CI=1.5 to 19.6 and discharge (OR 2.8, 95% CI=1.1 to 6.9. Predictors of a pelvic examination being performed included having a complaint of vaginal discharge (OR 11.8, 95% CI=4.2 to 32.9, a sexual history performed (OR 2.5, 95% CI=1.1 to 5

  6. [Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in cases of cervicitis and patients with vaginal discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, A M

    1993-10-01

    This study was carried on 129 women of 16-62 age group, with complaints of vaginal discharge, genital itching and soreness, dysuria and pollakiuria. Endocervical specimens were investigated for Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) antigen by ELISA. Risk factors for several gynecologic and obstetric pathologies and the role of C. trachomatis in mucopurulent cervicitis were emphasized. C. trachomatis antigen was found to be positive in 9 (7%) specimens. We concluded that, in cases of cervicitis, especially to prevent complications and social problems, the presence of C. trachomatis should also be investigated in addition to several viral, bacterial and fungal agents.

  7. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Morelli, Giovanna; Kusecek, Barica; Morré, Servaas A.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.; Langerak, Ankie A.; van der Ende, Arie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome.

  8. Synthesis of protein in host-free reticulate bodies of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, T.P.; Miceli, M.; Silverman, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of protein by the obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L2) isolated from host cells (host-free chlamydiae) was demonstrated for the first time. Incorporation of [ 35 S]methionine and [ 35 S]cysteine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material by reticulate bodies of chlamydiae persisted for 2 h and was dependent upon a exogenous source of ATP, an ATP-regenerating system, and potassium or sodium ions. Magnesium ions and amino acids stimulated synthesis; chloramphenicol, rifampin, oligomycin, and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (a proton ionophore) inhibited incorporation. Ribonucleoside triphosphates (other than ATP) had little stimulatory effect. The optimum pH for host-free synthesis was between 7.0 and 7.5. The molecular weights of proteins synthesized by host-free reticulate bodies closely resembled the molecular weights of proteins synthesized by reticulate bodies in an intracellular environment, and included outer membrane proteins. Elementary bodies of chlamydiae were unable to synthesize protein even when incubated in the presence of 10 mM dithiothreitol, a reducing agent which converted the highly disulfide bond cross-linked major outer membrane protein to monomeric form

  9. Spontaneous pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis RNA clearance. A cross-sectional study followed by a cohort study of untreated STI clinic patients in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Martijn S.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim; Morré, Servaas A.; van Dam, Alje P.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) might contribute to ongoing chlamydia transmission, yet data on spontaneous clearance duration are rare. We examined the prevalence, spontaneous clearance, chlamydial DNA concentration and genotypes of pharyngeal chlamydia among clinic patients

  10. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in men and women with a symptomatic or asymptomatic infection : an association with clinical manifestations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morre, SA; Rozendaal, L; van Valkengoed, IGM; Boeke, AJP; Vader, PCV; Schirm, J; de Blok, S; van den Hoek, JAR; van Doornum, GJJ; Meijer, CJLM; van den Brule, AJC

    To determine whether certain Chlamydia trachomatis serovars are preferentially associated with a symptomatic or an asymptomatic course of infection, C. trachomatis serovar distributions were analyzed in symptomatically and asymptomatically infected persons. Furthermore, a possible association

  11. High-Resolution Typing Reveals Distinct Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in an At-Risk Population in Nanjing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, Reinier J. M.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Wang, Qianqiu; Long, Fuquan; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated Chlamydia trachomatis strains from Nanjing, China, and whether these strains differed from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. C. trachomatis type was determined with multilocus sequence typing. Most strains were specific to Nanjing, but some clustered with strains from Amsterdam. This

  12. Characterization of a linear epitope on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 DnaK-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozkokmen, D; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    A cytoplasmic 75-kDa immunogen from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 has previously been characterized as being similar to the Escherichia coli heat shock protein DnaK. We have localized a linear epitope for one monoclonal antibody specific for C. trachomatis DnaK. By use of a recombinant DNA...

  13. Characterization of two conformational epitopes of the Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 DnaK immunogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Mygind, P; Holm, A

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis DnaK is an important immunogen in chlamydial infections. DnaK is composed of a conserved N-terminal ATP-binding domain and a variable C-terminal peptide-binding domain. To locate the immunogenic part of C. trachomatis Dnak, we generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against...

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis detection in cervical PreservCyt specimens from an Irish urban female population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keegan, H

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in urban women undergoing routine cervical cytological screening and to investigate the relationship with age, cytology, smoking status and concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODS: A total of 996 women (age range 16-69 years) attending general practitioners for routine liquid-based cervical smear screening in the Dublin area were recruited in the study of prevalence of C. trachomatis. Informed consent was obtained and liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens were sent for cytological screening. DNA was extracted from residual LBC and tested for C. trachomatis by PCR using the highly sensitive C. trachomatis plasmid (CTP) primers and for HPV infection using the MY09\\/11 primers directed to the HPV L1 gene in a multiplex format. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis was 5.4%. Prevalence was highest in the <25 years age group (10%). Coinfection with HPV and C. trachomatis occurred in 1% of the screening population. A higher rate of smoking was observed in women positive for C. trachomatis, HPV infections or those with abnormal cervical cytology. Chlamydia trachomatis infection was not associated with abnormal cytology. CONCLUSIONS: Women (5.4%) presenting for routine cervical screening are infected with C. trachomatis. Opportunistic screening for C. trachomatis from PreservCyt sample taken at the time of cervical cytological screening may be a possible strategy to screen for C. trachomatis in the Irish female population.

  16. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel RM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

  17. Knowledge and acceptability of Chlamydia trachomatis screening among pregnant women and their partners: a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, M.T.R.; Spelten, E.R.; Manniën, J.; Rours, G.I.J.G.; Morré, S.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hutton, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infections in pregnancy can cause maternal disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal disease, which is why chlamydia screening during pregnancy has been advocated. The effectiveness of a screening program depends on the knowledge of health care professionals,

  18. Knowledge and acceptability of Chlamydia trachomatis screening among pregnant women and their partners; a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, M.T.R.; Spelten, E.R.; Manniën, J.; Rours, G.I.J.G.; Morré, S.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hutton, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infections in pregnancy can cause maternal disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal disease, which is why chlamydia screening during pregnancy has been advocated. The effectiveness of a screening program depends on the knowledge of health care professionals,

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections during Pregnancy: Consequences for pregnancy outcome and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. Chlamydia is responsible for a significant proportion of genitourinary tract infections in adult males and females, but like STIs in general, it is primarily a woman’s health care issue

  20. Topological analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol...

  1. Lateral flow-based antibody testing for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwyn, Sarah; Mitchell, Alexandria; Dean, Deborah; Mkocha, Harran; Handali, Sukwan; Martin, Diana L

    2016-08-01

    We describe here a lateral flow-based assay (LFA) for the detection of antibodies against immunodominant antigen Pgp3 from Chlamydia trachomatis, the causative agent of urogenital chlamydia infection and ocular trachoma. Optimal signal detection was achieved when the gold-conjugate and test line contained Pgp3, creating a dual sandwich capture assay. The LFA yielded positive signals with serum and whole blood but not with eluted dried blood spots. For serum, the agreement of the LFA with the non-reference multiplex assay was 96%, the specificity using nonendemic pediatric sera was 100%, and the inter-rater agreement was κ=0.961. For whole blood, the agreement of LFA with multiplex was 81.5%, the specificity was 100%, and the inter-rater agreement was κ=0.940. The LFA was tested in a field environment and yielded similar results to those from laboratory-based testing. These data show the successful development of a lateral flow assay for detection of antibodies against Pgp3 with reliable use in field settings, which would make antibody-based testing for trachoma surveillance highly practical, especially after cessation of trachoma elimination programs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Diagnóstico da infecção urogenital por Chlamydia trachomatis =Diagnosis methods’ for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelon, João da Rosa et al.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Revisar os diferentes métodos para o diagnóstico de infecção urogenital por Chlamydia trachomatis. Material e métodos: Revisão de literatura médica especializada. Conclusões: Na escolha do método diagnóstico deve-se considerar a sensibilidade e especificidade da técnica pretendida, a individualidade do caso e a adequação aos recursos disponíveis. O exame cultural para Chlamydia trachomatis constitui-se no teste padrão, por apresentar a melhor especificidade na detecção da infecção. Entretanto, estudos recentes sugerem que as técnicas de amplificação de ácido nucléico têm demonstrado maior sensibilidade e especificidade semelhante ao teste cultural. Objective: To review the different methods for the diagnosis of genital infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Material and methods: Review of medical literature. Conclusions: By choosing the method, it must be consider the sensitivity and specificity of the technique, the individuality of the case and the available possibilities. The culture exam for Chlamydia trachomatis is the gold-standard test, due to its’ best specificity in the detection of this disease. Nevertheless, recent trails suggests that the nucleic acid amplified tests have shown better sensibility and equal specificity when compared to the cultural test.

  3. Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandie D Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brandie D Taylor, Catherine L HaggertyUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, "ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted disease, chlamydia screening, chlamydia treatment

  4. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Remah M

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method.

  5. Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis heat shock proteins in women with tubal factor infertility are associated with prior infection by C. trachomatis but not by C. pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, K; Osser, S; Birkelund, Svend

    1999-01-01

    The antibody response to heat shock proteins 60 and 10 were studied in 163 patients with tubal factor infertility and in 163 age-matched pregnant women. The associations of these antibodies with specific antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis and to Chlamydia pneumoniae as well as with antibodies...... proteins and to C. trachomatis but no independent influence of antibodies to C. pneumoniae. No interaction between C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae suggesting a synergistic effect was found although the heat shock proteins from these two organisms are immunologically similar. Antibodies to the chlamydial...... lipopolysaccharide also seemed to be related to C. trachomatis and not to C. pneumoniae in these women....

  6. Distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in neonatal conjunctivitis in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Eszter; Petrovay, Fruzsina; Erdősi, Tímea; Balázs, Andrea; Henczkó, Judit; Urbán, Edit; Donders, Gilbert G G

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and age distribution of different Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) genotypes causing ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) in Hungary. Using CT specific PCR, we tested 76 conjunctival samples from symptomatic infants up to 3 months old in the National Centre for Epidemiology, Budapest between 2008 and 2016. CT tested positive in 30 of 76 conjunctival samples (39.5 %). The sequencing of the positive samples was successful in every case but one, and resulted in 48 % dominance for genotype E (14/29), followed by 24 % for genotype G (7/29), 10 % for J (3/29), 6.9 % for K and F (2/29), and 3.4 % for H (1/29). CT must still be regarded as a common pathogen causing ON in Hungary. Routine screening and treatment of pregnant women can be recommended to prevent these conditions. Chronic ON cases can be reduced by early diagnosis. Further research is needed to explain the dominance of genotypes E and G.

  7. Molecular typing ofChlamydia trachomatis: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawre, Jyoti; Juyal, Deepak; Dhawan, Benu

    2017-01-01

    Urogenital infection due to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and is a major public health problem worldwide. Molecular characterisation of CT is important for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of chlamydial disease and its transmission dynamics in sexual networks. Traditionally, strain typing of CT was based on serotyping methods characterising the major outer membrane protein (MOMP). With the advent of polymerase chain reaction and sequencing the era of molecular typing began. Molecular characterization of CT strains is based on sequence analysis of ompA gene encoding MOMP. However, in due course of time, improvements were made to enhance the discriminatory power of sequencing and quality of epidemiological information. New high-resolution genotyping methods using multiple loci such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multiple loci variable number of tandem repeats (MLVA) were developed but were unable to differentiate mixed infections (MIs). The development of DNA-hybridisation methods emerged as a major breakthrough in detecting MIs. Although MLST and MLVA are more discriminative than other genotyping methods, they are laborious and expensive. DNA microarray technique is an affordable alternative for genotyping. Since recombination is widespread in the CT genome, ompA is not a reliable marker for phylogenetic studies; hence, whole genome sequencing may provide maximum phylogenetic resolution of CT strains. A descriptive review is provided of the various molecular CT typing methods. The vital information gained can be used for formulating screening programmes, targeted prevention and optimising therapeutic measures aiming to reduce disease transmission.

  8. CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS AND HUMANPAPILLOMA VIRUS 16 AND 18 IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Vrtačnik Bokal

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents represent a risk group for sexually transmitted infections. The aim of this study was to find the incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and human papillomavirus (HPV in adolescents. Additionally, we wanted to know, whether the prevalence of CT was so high that antibiotic prophylaxis would be appropriate before termination of pregnancy.Patients and methods. In the study 200 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years were enrolled: 100 came for termination of pregnancy and 100 for a contraceptive method. In all cases the cervical smears were taken for culture and direct immunofluorescence (DIF for CT. The cervical smear was used also for hybridization test for the detection of HPV 16 and HPV 18. Serologic analysis for hepatitis B, HIV and syphilis were done in all cases.Results. CT was isolated in 6% in the first and in 4% in the second group Using DIF method CT was confirmed in 7% in the first and in 4% in the second group. HPV 16 or 18 was positive in 26% in the first and in 13% in the second group. We did not find any case of syphilis, HIV and hepatitis.Conclusions. A 6% prevalence of CT justifies the use of antibiotic prophylaxis before termination of pregnancy.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis C-complex serovars are a risk factor for preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Stine; Vogel, Ida; Thorsen, Poul

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potential associations between current or previous C. trachomatis infections (general IgG and serovars) and spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) were examined and associations between C. trachomatis infections and previous fertility problems were explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS: At week 17......, Chlamydia antigen, Chlamydia IgG, Chlamydia complex B, C and GF levels were measured. Spontaneous preterm birth (...) and odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: C. trachomatis C-complex positivity was associated with spontaneous PTB [RR 2.6 (1.1-6.29)] and additionally with a prior history of subfertility [OR 4.4 [2.5-7.7]), infertility treatment [OR 7.2 (4.0-12.8)] and ectopic pregnancy [5.2 (2...

  10. Identification and characterization of a novel Chlamydia trachomatis reticulate body protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Roepstorff, Peter

    2002-01-01

    was identified by tandem mass spectrometry. No homology of this protein was observed to proteins from other organisms. The protein was conserved in C. trachomatis but not found in Chlamydia pneumoniae. Using proteomics, we show that the expression of the protein is initiated at the middle of the developmental...... cycle. The protein is rapidly degraded and is only present in reticulate or intermediate bodies, suggesting a possible function in the intracellular stage of C. trachomatis development. We have termed the protein '7-kDa reticulate body protein'.......The genome of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis comprises 894 genes predicted by computer-based analysis. As part of a large-scale proteome analysis of C. trachomatis, a small abundant protein encoded by a previously unrecognized novel 204-bp open reading frame...

  11. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections among ethnic groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; determinants and ethnic sexual mixing patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie J van der Helm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for chlamydia, including the role of ethnicity, and identified transmission patterns and ethnic sexual networks among clients of two clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname. METHODS: Participants were recruited at two sites a sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic and a family planning (FP clinic in Paramaribo. Urine samples from men and nurse-collected vaginal swabs were obtained for nucleic acid amplification testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of chlamydia. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST was performed to genotype C. trachomatis. To identify transmission patterns and sexual networks, a minimum spanning tree was created, using full MLST profiles. Clusters in the minimum spanning tree were compared for ethnic composition. RESULTS: Between March 2008 and July 2010, 415 men and 274 women were included at the STI clinic and 819 women at the FP clinic. Overall chlamydia prevalence was 15% (224/1508. Age, ethnicity, and recruitment site were significantly associated with chlamydia in multivariable analysis. Participants of Creole and Javanese ethnicity were more frequently infected with urogenital chlamydia. Although sexual mixing with other ethnic groups did differ significantly per ethnicity, this mixing was not independently significantly associated with chlamydia. We typed 170 C. trachomatis-positive samples (76% and identified three large C. trachomatis clusters. Although the proportion from various ethnic groups differed significantly between the clusters (P = 0.003, all five major ethnic groups were represented in all three clusters. CONCLUSION: Chlamydia prevalence in Suriname is high and targeted prevention

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar Distribution and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Coinfection in Male Patients with Urethritis in Greece▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadogeorgakis, Helen; Pittaras, Theodore E.; Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Pitiriga, Vassiliki; Katsambas, Andreas; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection was studied in a group of 100 C. trachomatis-positive males with urethritis in Greece. The serovar distribution revealed that apart from the predominant worldwide types E and F, the relatively uncommon type G is also prevalent. Gonococcal coinfection was frequent (30%) and was associated with genovariant Ja (75%, P = 0.008). PMID:20357220

  13. Identification of Chlamydia trachomatis by direct immunofluorescence applied in specimens originating in remote areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, T; Maniar, A C; Brunham, R C; Hammond, G W

    1985-01-01

    The efficacy of the MicroTrak (Syva Co., Palo Alto, Calif.) direct immunofluorescence test for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis was compared with cell culturing of fresh specimens obtained from patients attending a clinic on sexually transmitted disease and of frozen specimens delayed in transit from urban or remote physicians' offices and clinics. Direct immunofluorescence testing detected C. trachomatis more frequently than culturing of the same specimens when transit caused a delay i...

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections: Implications for Pregnant Adolescents and Their Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Melzer-Lange

    1994-01-01

    trachomatis in pregnant adolescents. This study was undertaken to determine if aggressive screening for C. trachomatis in pregnant adolescents and early treatment with erythromycin can prevent complications in their newborn infants.

  15. Overexpression and surface localization of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koehler, JF; Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is the quantitatively predominant surface protein which has important functional, structural and antigenic properties. We have cloned and overexpressed the MOMP in Escherichia coli. The MOMP is surface exposed in C. trachomatis....... The induction of MOMP expression had a rapidly lethal effect on the L2rMOMP E. coli clone. Although no genetic system exists for Chlamydia, development of a stable, inducible E. coli clone which overexpresses the chlamydial MOMP permits a study of the biological properties of the MOMP, including...

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  17. [Expression of gamma interferon during HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in cervical samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín-Ferreyra, María Del Carmen; Mendieta-Zerón, Hugo; Romero-Figueroa, María Del Socorro; Martínez-Madrigal, Migdania; Martínez-Pérez, Sergio; Domínguez-García, María Victoria

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to mesure the expression of gamma interferon in HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in squamous intraepithelial lesions. Samples from 100 patients diagnosed by colposcopy with or without squamous intraepithelial lesions were used in the present study. Each patient was found to be infected by HPV and C.trachomatis. Relative gamma interferon mRNA expression was assessed using a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay (RT-PCR). The relative units of expression of gamma interferon mRNA were 13, 1.8 and 0.3, for HPV and C.trachomatis co-infection, or HPV or C.trachomatis infection, respectively. HPV and C.trachomatis could overstimulate the expression of gamma interferon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis GlgA is secreted into host cell cytoplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxue Lu

    Full Text Available Glycogen has been localized both inside and outside Chlamydia trachomatis organisms. We now report that C. trachomatis glycogen synthase (GlgA was detected in both chlamydial organism-associated and -free forms. The organism-free GlgA molecules were localized both in the lumen of chlamydial inclusions and in the cytosol of host cells. The cytosolic GlgA displayed a distribution pattern similar to that of a known C. trachomatis-secreted protease, CPAF. The detection of GlgA was specific since the anti-GlgA antibody labeling was only removed by preabsorption with GlgA but not CPAF fusion proteins. GlgA was detectable at 12h and its localization into host cell cytosol only became apparent at 24h after infection. The cytosolic localization of GlgA was conserved among all C. trachomatis serovars. However, the significance of the GlgA secretion into host cell cytoplasm remains unclear since, while expression of chlamydial GlgA in HeLa cells increased glycogen stores, it did not affect a subsequent infection with C. trachomatis. Similar to several other C. trachomatis-secreted proteins, GlgA is immunogenic in women urogenitally infected with C. trachomatis, suggesting that GlgA is expressed and may be secreted into host cell cytosol during C. trachomatis infection in humans. These findings have provided important information for further understanding C. trachomatis pathogenic mechanisms.

  19. Broad recruitment of mGBP family members to Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valesca Lindenberg

    Full Text Available Chlamydia, the most common sexually transmitted pathogen, is an exquisitely adapted Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium. Intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis replicate in a specialized vacuole, termed inclusion, which shields the bacterium from antimicrobial immunity of the host cells and acts as a signalling interface. Previously it was shown that members of the interferon induced guanylate binding protein (mGBP family, in particular murine GBP1 and mGBP2, were found to accumulate at the bacterial inclusions, similar to previously published recruitment of GBPs to the parasitophorous vacuole of Toxoplasma gondii. Here, we provide a wide comparison of mGBPs roles within the host cell in the context of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma infection. By confocal microscopy on fixed and living infected cells we show localization of mGBP3, mGBP6, mGBP7, mGBP9, and mGBP10, in addition to mGBP1 and mGBP2, at chlamydia inclusions. In time lapse videos using GFP expressing Chlamydia we show rapid and transient dynamics of mGBP9 accumulation onto chlamydia inclusions. Taken together this study reveals a broad activation of mGBP recruitment towards Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions after infection and provides evidence for time limited action of mGBP9 at the chlamydia inclusion.

  20. Differences in Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis by Ambulatory Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, William S; Gift, Thomas L; Leichliter, Jami S; Jenkins, Wiley D

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the US and timely, correct treatment can reduce CT transmission and sequelae. Emergency departments (ED) are an important location for diagnosing STIs. This study compared recommended treatment of CT in EDs to treatment in physician offices. Five years of data (2006-2010) were analyzed from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NHAMCS), including the Outpatient survey (NHAMCS-OPD) and Emergency Department survey (NHAMCS-ED). All visits with a CT diagnosis and those with a diagnosis of unspecified venereal disease were selected for analysis. Differences in receipt of recommended treatments were compared between visits to physician offices and emergency departments using Chi square tests and logistic regression models. During the 5 year period, approximately 3.2 million ambulatory care visits had diagnosed CT or an unspecified venereal disease. A greater proportion of visits to EDs received the recommended treatment for CT compared to visits to physician offices (66.1 vs. 44.9 %, p < .01). When controlling for patients' age, sex and race/ethnicity, those presenting to the ED with CT were more likely to receive the recommended antibiotic treatment than patients presenting to a physician's office (OR 2.16; 95 % CI 1.04-4.48). This effect was attenuated when further controlling for patients' expected source of payment. These analyses demonstrate differences in the treatment of CT by ambulatory care setting as well as opportunities for increasing use of recommended treatments for diagnosed cases of this important STI.

  1. Diagnóstico da infecção urogenital por Chlamydia trachomatis = Diagnosis methods’ for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelon, João da Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Revisar os diferentes métodos para o diagnóstico de infecção urogenital por Chlamydia trachomatis. Material e métodos: Revisão de literatura médica especializada. Conclusões: Na escolha do método diagnóstico deve-se considerar a sensibilidade e especificidade da técnica pretendida, a individualidade do caso e a adequação aos recursos disponíveis. O exame cultural para Chlamydia trachomatis constitui-se no teste padrão, por apresentar a melhor especificidade na detecção da infecção. Entretanto, estudos recentes sugerem que as técnicas de amplificação de ácido nucléico têm demonstrado maior sensibilidade e especificidade semelhante ao teste cultural

  2. A prospective study of the psychosocial impact of a positive Chlamydia trachomatis laboratory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Stoner, Bradley P; Zaidi, Akbar A; Buckel, Christina; Tran, Molly; Leichliter, Jami S; Berman, Stuart M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2011-11-01

    Few data exist on potential harms of chlamydia screening. We assessed the psychosocial impact of receiving a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test result. We prospectively studied women ≥16 years of age undergoing chlamydia testing in 2 Midwestern family planning clinics. We surveyed women at baseline and about 1 month after receiving test results, using 9 validated psychosocial scales/subscales and chlamydia-specific questions. Changes in scale scores were calculated for each woman. Mean percent changes in scores for chlamydia-positive and -negative women were compared using a t test. We enrolled 1807 women (response rate, 84%). Of the 1688 women with test results, 149 (8.8%) tested positive. At follow-up, chlamydia-positive women (n = 71) had a 75% increase in anxiety about sexual aspects of their life on the Multidimensional Sexual Self-Concept Questionnaire (P < 0.001), significantly greater than the 26% increase among 280 randomly selected chlamydia-negative women (P = 0.02). There were no differences for the other 8 scales/subscales, including general measures of anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Chlamydia-positive women were more likely than chlamydia-negative women to be "concerned about chlamydia" (80% vs. 40%, P < 0.001) and to report breaking up with a main partner (33% vs. 11%, P < 0.001) at follow-up. Women testing positive reported a range of chlamydia-specific concerns. Chlamydia-positive women had significant increases in anxiety about sex and concern about chlamydia, but did not have marked changes in more general measures of psychosocial well-being about 1 month after diagnosis. Chlamydia diagnoses were associated with some disruption of relationships with main partners. Chlamydia-specific concerns may guide counseling messages to minimize psychosocial impact.

  3. PCR assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection of semen specimens processed for artificial insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Y.; Westenberg, S. M.; de Vries, J.; Repping, S.; Spanjaard, L.; Eijk, P. P.; van der Ende, A.; Dankert, J.

    2000-01-01

    In order to ascertain the microbiological quality of stored semen specimens processed for artificial insemination by a donor (AID), we developed a PCR assay targeting the chlamydial plasmid to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in semen. The lower limit of detection of this assay corresponded to 2.5 to 5

  4. TLR4 in Chlamydia trachomatis infections: knockout mice, STD patients and women with tubal factor subfertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, J. E.; Lyons, J. M.; Ouburg, S.; Fennema, J. S. A.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Bruggeman, C. A.; Ito, J. I.; Peña, A. S.; Land, J. A.; Morré, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterium in the world with almost 100 million new cases each year, some of which will develop tubal pathology. Clear differences in its clinical course of infections have been observed, and recently it has been shown that 40% is based

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis in Cervical Lymph Node of Man with Lymphogranuloma Venereum, Croatia, 20141.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjurašin, Branimir; Lepej, Snježana Židovec; Cole, Michelle J; Pitt, Rachel; Begovac, Josip

    2018-04-01

    We report an HIV-infected person who was treated for lymphogranuloma venereum cervical lymphadenopathy and proctitis in Croatia in 2014. Infection with a variant L2b genovar of Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in a cervical lymph node aspirate. A prolonged course of doxycycline was required to cure the infection.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis antibody detection in home-collected blood samples for use in epidemiological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Ess, E F; van den Broek, I V F; van Loo, I H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    Capillary blood collected in serum tubes was subjected to centrifugation delay while stored at room temperature. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG concentrations in aliquoted serum of these blood samples remained stable for seven days after collection. CT IgG concentrations can reliably be measured in

  7. Susceptibilities of Chlamydia trachomatis isolates causing uncomplicated female genital tract infections and pelvic inflammatory disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, R J; Bhullar, V; Mitchell, S H; Bullard, J; Knapp, J S

    1995-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 45 recent clinical isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis obtained from women with asymptomatic genital tract infection, mucopurulent cervicitis, or pelvic inflammatory disease to doxycycline, azithromycin, ofloxacin, and clindamycin were determined. In addition, susceptibilities of 12 isolates to amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were also determined. Isolates also were serotyped with a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific for chlamydial major outer...

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar distributions in Russian men and women: a comparison with Dutch serovar distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelov, V.; Quint, K. D.; Pleijster, J.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; Shalepo, K.; Shipitsyna, E.; Domeika, M.; Gorelov, A.; Savicheva, A.; Quint, W. G. V.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Ouburg, S.; Morré, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    The data on serovar distributions of Chlamydia trachomatis - the most diagnosed sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide - are important for epidemiologic purposes and transmission studies but are completely lacking in Russia. The aim of the current study is to determine the serogroup and

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis contains a protein similar to the Legionella pneumophila mip gene product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend; Fey, SJ

    1991-01-01

    A 27kDa Chlamydia trachomatis L2 protein was characterized by the use of monoclonal antibodies and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein was shown to be located in the membrane of reticulate bodies as well as elementary bodies. Its synthesis could be detected from 10 hours post...

  10. Influence of volume of sample processed on detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital samples by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessens, W H; Kluytmans, J A; den Toom, N; van Rijsoort-Vos, T H; Niesters, B G; Stolz, E; Verbrugh, H A; Quint, W G

    In the present study, it was demonstrated that the sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is influenced by the volume of the clinical sample which is processed in the PCR. An adequate sensitivity for PCR was established by processing at least 4%, i.e., 80 microliters, of

  11. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis : Estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Van Bergen, J.E.A.M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje; Postma, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands.

  12. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis: estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Robin; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands.

  13. Epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women and the cost-effectiveness of screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, Jolande; Van Bergen, J E A M; Morré, S A; Postma, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women are asymptomatic, but may give rise to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tubal infertility. Screening programmes aim at reducing morbidity in individuals by early detection and treatment, and at decreasing the overall

  14. Classical and Molecular Methods for Evaluation of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women with Tubal Factor Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajikhani, Bahareh; Motallebi, Tayebeh; Norouzi, Jamileh; Bahador, Abbas; Bagheri, Rezvan; Asgari, Soheila; Chamani-Tabriz, Leili

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease, especially among young women worldwide. The aim of this study was comparison the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in woman with tubal infertility by means of PCR and cell culture techniques. Methods Fifty-one women with confirmed TFI were enrolled in this study in (avicenna infertility Clinic) between January 2010 and January 2011. Cervical swab and cytobrush specimens were collected from each patient by gynecologists and sent to laboratory in transport media. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in samples was performed using PCR and bacteria culture in MacCoy cell line. The data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test and independent t-test. Statistical significance was established at a p-value <0.05. Results A significant relation was observed between increased the age of first intercourse and chlamydial infection. Six (11.7%) samples had positive PCR result, whereas cell culture results were positive in only 2 (3.9%) samples. A significant relation was also identified between the duration of infertility and infection (p < 0.05) by PCR versus cell culture method. Conclusion The results showed that PCR is a rapid method, compared to cell culture for detecting Chlamydial organism. It also became clear that the age at first intercourse is important to predict the likelihood of Chlamydia trachomatis. PMID:23926558

  15. Interleukin-1 is the initiator of Fallopian tube destruction during Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Malene; Baczynska, Agata; Deleuran, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with severe Fallopian tube tissue damage leading to tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy. To explore the molecular mechanisms behind infection an ex vivo model was established from human Fallopian tubes and examined by scanning electron microscopy...

  16. Interleukin-1 is the initiator of fallopian tube destruction during Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Malene; Baczynska, Agata; Deleuran, Bent Winding

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with severe Fallopian tube tissue damage leading to tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy. To explore the molecular mechanisms behind infection an ex vivo model was established from human Fallopian tubes and examined by scanning electron microscopy...

  17. Low diagnostic accuracy of selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, I. G.; Morré, S. A.; van den Brule, A. J.; Meijer, C. J.; Devillé, W.; Bouter, L. M.; Boeke, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in the general population. METHODS: 11,505 people, aged 15-40 years, registered in 16 general practices in Amsterdam were invited to return by mail a home obtained first void urine

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis as a cause of neonatal conjunctivitis in Dutch infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid); M.R. Hammerschlag; A. Ott (Alewijn); J.T.H.N. de Faber; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); R. de Groot (Ronald); R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted pathogen in adults, which at delivery may be transmitted from mother to child and cause conjunctivitis and pneumonia. In the Netherlands, prenatal chlamydial screening and treatment of pregnant women is not routine

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis as a cause of neonatal conjunctivitis in Dutch infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rours, I.G.; Hammerschlag, M.R.; Ott, A.; Faber, T.J. de; Verbrugh, H.A.; Groot, R. de; Verkooyen, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted pathogen in adults, which at delivery may be transmitted from mother to child and cause conjunctivitis and pneumonia. In The Netherlands, prenatal chlamydial screening and treatment of pregnant women is not routine practice.

  20. HPV/Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection: metagenomic analysis of cervical microbiota in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Marisa; Filardo, Simone; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Recine, Nadia; Latino, Maria Agnese; Sessa, Rosa

    2018-01-01

    HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Most infections are asymptomatic and left untreated lead to severe reproductive tract sequelae such as cervical cancer and infertility. Interestingly, C. trachomatis may also increase the susceptibility to HPV infection as well as contribute to viral persistence. Recently, a growing body of evidence has suggested that the composition of the cervico-vaginal microbiota plays a key role in the susceptibility and outcome of genital infections caused by several pathogens, including HPV and C. trachomatis. The aim of our study was to undertake a metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16s rRNA gene amplicons to characterize the cervical microbiota from asymptomatic women with HPV/C. trachomatis co-infection. The composition of the cervical microbiota from HPV-positive or C. trachomatis-positive women was also analysed. The main finding of our study showed that the cervical microbiota in HPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women had a higher microbial diversity than the cervical microbiota in healthy controls (pHPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women and the detection of potential microbiological biomarkers of C. trachomatis infection will open the way to innovative approaches that may be helpful to identify women at risk of co-infection.

  1. Lactobacillus crispatus inhibits the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies, in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Paola; Ñahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Parolin, Carola; Laghi, Luca; Foschi, Claudio; Cevenini, Roberto; Vitali, Beatrice; Marangoni, Antonella

    2016-06-29

    Lactobacillus species dominate the vaginal microbiota of healthy reproductive-age women and protect the genitourinary tract from the attack of several infectious agents. Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading cause of sexually transmitted disease worldwide, can induce severe sequelae, i.e. pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. In the present study we investigated the interference of Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and L. vaginalis, known to be dominant species in the vaginal microbiome, with the infection process of C. trachomatis. Lactobacilli exerted a strong inhibitory effect on Chlamydia infectivity mainly through the action of secreted metabolites in a concentration/pH dependent mode. Short contact times were the most effective in the inhibition, suggesting a protective role of lactobacilli in the early steps of Chlamydia infection. The best anti-Chlamydia profile was shown by L. crispatus species. In order to delineate metabolic profiles related to anti-Chlamydia activity, Lactobacillus supernatants were analysed by (1)H-NMR. Production of lactate and acidification of the vaginal environment seemed to be crucial for the activity, in addition to the consumption of the carbonate source represented by glucose. The main conclusion of this study is that high concentrations of L. crispatus inhibit infectivity of C. trachomatis in vitro.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis C-complex serovars are a risk factor for preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Stine; Vogel, Ida; Thorsen, Poul

    2007-01-01

    , Chlamydia antigen, Chlamydia IgG, Chlamydia complex B, C and GF levels were measured. Spontaneous preterm birth (ectopic pregnancies. Crude and adjusted relative risks (RR......) and odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: C. trachomatis C-complex positivity was associated with spontaneous PTB [RR 2.6 (1.1-6.29)] and additionally with a prior history of subfertility [OR 4.4 [2.5-7.7]), infertility treatment [OR 7.2 (4.0-12.8)] and ectopic pregnancy [5.2 (2.......2-12.4)]. CONCLUSION: A previous infection with C. trachomatis C-complex was associated with an increased risk for spontaneous PTB and may potentially contribute to subfertility, infertility and ectopic pregnancy....

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčanica Ljubin-Sternak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, tubal factor infertility (TFI, and ectopic pregnancy (EP are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health.

  4. Prevalence and genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis in symptomatic male patients from Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Muammer Osman; Beka, Hayati; Demirci, Mehmet; Kadioglu, Ates; Agacfidan, Ali; Akgül, Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in symptomatic male patients who were referred to the clinics of the Istanbul Faculty of Medicine. Of 419 urogenital swabs, 57 samples (13.6 %) were positive for C. trachomatis . Genotype distribution of C. trachomatis -positive samples identified five genetic variants namely genotype E as the most prevalent (36.4 %), followed by genotype G (23.6 %), H (21.8 %), D (16.4 %) and F (1.8 %). We believe that this is the first study on distribution of genotypes of C. trachomatis genital infections in symptomatic men in Istanbul, Turkey.

  5. Genetic differences in the Chlamydia trachomatis tryptophan synthase alpha-subunit can explain variations in serovar pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A C; Christiansen, G; Roepstorff, P

    2000-01-01

    The human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium, characterized by a developmental cycle that alternates between the infectious, extracellular elementary bodies and intracellular, metabolically active reticulate bodies. The cellular immune effector interferon gamma...

  6. Original paper Incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in patients with reactive arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Ostaszewska-Puchalska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with reactive arthritis (ReA within the area of the Podlaskie province (north eastern Poland. Material and methods: The study concerned 323 patients including 132 women and 191 men diagnosed with ReA. The material for C. trachomatis was collected from the urethra in men and the cervical canal in women. Also, every patient was tested for the presence of anti- C. trachomatis IgG class antibodies, while 121 individuals were additionally tested for IgA class antibodies. In the direct studies, the direct immunofluorescence (DIF method or polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used. The immunoenzymatic method was used to detect anti- C. trachomatis antibodies. The control group in the case of direct studies comprised 125 individuals, while in the case of serology research it included 127 (IgG and 109 (IgA persons. Results : Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the urethral and cervical smears was found in 42 patients (13.0% including 20 women (15.2% and 22 men (11.5%. In the control group chlamydia was detected in 3 patients (2.4% including 4% of women and 2% of men. IgA class antibodies were present in 10/121 (8.3% patients, similarly in women and in men (8.2% and 8.3% respectively. In the control group the specific IgA class antibodies were found in 3/85 patients (3.5%. Anti- C. trachomatis IgG antibodies were found in 70/323 patients (21.7%, similarly in men and women. Conclusions : 1. Chlamydia trachomatis is a common bacterial factor observed in the genitourinary system of patients with ReA. The outcomes of studies within the Podlaskie province indicate less frequent presence of chlamydial infection compared with Dolnośląskie province. 2. No correlations between detecting the presence of C. trachomatis in the urogenital tract and the presence of specific antibodies in the serum of ReA patients were observed. 3. Concurrent direct studies of the

  7. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Dyani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data.

  8. Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence by PCR and LCR in women presenting for termination of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, S M; Tabrizi, S; Hallo, J; Chen, S

    2000-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in a patient population presenting for legal termination of pregnancy by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligase chain reaction (LCR), from first catch urine and self administered tampons, and comparing with the traditionally collected endocervical swab tested by both PCR and culture. Consecutive women attending for legal termination of pregnancy were screened for chlamydia by patient collected first catch urine and tampon, and physician collected endocervical swab. Of 1175 patients with complete samples, there were 33 (2.8%) in whom chlamydia was detected by two or more assays from one or more sample site. Chlamydia was detected equally well by both PCR and LCR in first catch urine (p = 0.25), tampon (p = 0.5), and endocervical swab (p = 0.5). However, both PCR and LCR were significantly better than culture of an endocervical swab (p = 0.0005) for detection of C trachomatis. The prevalence of chlamydia in patients presenting for termination of pregnancy was 2.8%. A simple efficient way of performing screening for chlamydia for women presenting for termination of pregnancy is by first catch urine or tampon, which can be tested by the highly sensitive amplification assays, PCR or LCR.

  9. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouri Vivian

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence rates and serovar distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infections in Cuban women, two different groups were selected. Group I consisted of 60 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 seropositive women from different regions of Cuba and group II of 60 randomly selected women HIV seronegative and apparently healthy. C. trachomatis was detected in cervical scrapes by mean of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for major out membrane protein. The overall prevalence rate of C. trachomatis in cervical scrapes determined by nested PCR was 10% in group I and the estimated prevalence was 6.6% for group II; 83.3% of HIV seropositive women with C. trachomatis infection reported history of pelvic inflammatory disease followed by cervicitis (50%. The control group C. trachomatis-infected women referred a history of cervicitis in 75% of cases. Other reports in the latter group included infertility and pelvic inflamatory disease in 50%. The present study is the first report of C. trachomatis prevalence in Cuba. It showed that there was not significantly difference in the prevalence rate of C. trachomatis between both groups.

  10. Compensatory T cell responses in IRG-deficient mice prevent sustained Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Coers

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. In women C. trachomatis can establish persistent genital infections that lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility. In contrast to natural infections in humans, experimentally induced infections with C. trachomatis in mice are rapidly cleared. The cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ plays a critical role in the clearance of C. trachomatis infections in mice. Because IFNγ induces an antimicrobial defense system in mice but not in humans that is composed of a large family of Immunity Related GTPases (IRGs, we questioned whether mice deficient in IRG immunity would develop persistent infections with C. trachomatis as observed in human patients. We found that IRG-deficient Irgm1/m3((-/- mice transiently develop high bacterial burden post intrauterine infection, but subsequently clear the infection more efficiently than wildtype mice. We show that the delayed but highly effective clearance of intrauterine C. trachomatis infections in Irgm1/m3((-/- mice is dependent on an exacerbated CD4(+ T cell response. These findings indicate that the absence of the predominant murine innate effector mechanism restricting C. trachomatis growth inside epithelial cells results in a compensatory adaptive immune response, which is at least in part driven by CD4(+ T cells and prevents the establishment of a persistent infection in mice.

  11. Does typing of Chlamydia trachomatis using housekeeping multilocus sequence typing reveal different sexual networks among heterosexuals and men who have sex with men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Bart; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; van der Ende, Arie; Pannekoek, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections remain the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. To gain more insight into the epidemiology and transmission of C. trachomatis, several schemes of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) have been developed. We investigated the clustering of C.

  12. Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis or Ureaplasma urealyticum from the synovial fluid of patients with Reiter's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlica Ljiljana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to contribute to the insight of the role of the infectious agent in ethiopathogenesis of the Reiter’s syndrome development, which could directly influence the choise of treatment of these patients. Methods. Eighteen patients with urogenital form of the Reiter’s syndrome and 16 controls (6 with rheumatoid arthritis and 10 with pigmented villonodular synovitis were included in the study. In all patients standard laboratory analyses of the blood, urine and stool were made; antibody titer to Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum was determined in synovial fluid and serum; isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in urethral, cervical and conjunctival swabs, as well as in prostatic and synovial fluid, was also made. HLA typing was done, too. Chlamydia was isolated in the McCoy cell culture treated with cycloheximide while Ureaplasma was identified according to its biochemical properties grown on cell-free liquid medium. Results. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the synovial fluid of 4 patients with Reiter's syndrome 22.2%, while Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated in 7 of them (38.9%. These microorganisms were not found in any synovial fluid of the control group patients. Conclusion. Presence of these bacteria in the inflamed joint might be an important factor in etiopathogenesis of this disease, and it supports the hypothesis that arthritis in Reiter's syndrome is probably of the infectious origin.

  13. The Role of Surinamese Migrants in the Transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, Reinier J. M.; van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Grünberg, Antoon W.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective

  14. Specific-Pathogen-Free Pigs as an Animal Model for Studying Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Vanrompay, Daisy; Hoang, Thi Q. T.; De Vos, Liselotte; Verminnen, Kristel; Harkinezhad, Taher; Chiers, Koen; Morré, Servaas A.; Cox, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate pigs as a large-animal model for female genital infection with two Chlamydia trachomatis human serovar E strains. Sixteen-week-old specific-pathogen-free female pigs (gilts) were intravaginally infected with the trachoma type E reference strain Bour or the urogenital serovar E strain 468. Several conclusions can be drawn from our findings on the pathogenicity of a primary C. trachomatis genital infection in gilts. First of all, we demonstrated ...

  15. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of Chlamydia testing and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M.E.; Leung, Stella

    2017-01-01

    Background: The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months...... chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. Results......: The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment PID at 12-months was attributable to treated (baseline) chlamydia infections (Manitoba: 8.86%(95%CI 7.15-10.75); Denmark: 3.84%(3.26-4.45); screened...

  16. Rapid screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by detecting α-mannosidase activity in urogenital tract specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-yu; Fu, Guang-yu; Wang, Shan-mei; Qin, Dong-chun; Wang, Zhong-quan; Cui, Jing

    2013-01-24

    Chlamydia trachomatis may cause multiple different urogenital tract disorders, but current non-culture assays for rapid screening of C. trachomatis typically use immunochromatography-based methods. We established another new rapid non-culture method for detection of C. trachomatis based on the measurement of α-mannosidase enzymatic activity in urogenital tract specimens. To evaluate the performance of this method, α-mannosidase activities of C. trachomatis serotype D strain 、 and 29 standard strains related to clinical urogenital pathogens were investigated. Furthermore, 553 urogenital tract specimens were used for clinical assays via cell culture method and ligase chain reaction method (LCR), adopting an expanded gold standard. Only C. trachomatis was positive for α-mannosidase activity among different types of microbes tested in the research. When prostate fluid specimens, which have some interfering activity, were excluded, the sensitivity and specificity of the enzymatic method were 91.8% (78/85) and 98.3% (409/416), respectively. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05). These results showed that α-mannosidase activity could be utilised as a screening marker of C. trachomatis infection.

  17. Rapid screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by detecting α-mannosidase activity in urogenital tract specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ze-yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis may cause multiple different urogenital tract disorders, but current non-culture assays for rapid screening of C. trachomatis typically use immunochromatography-based methods. We established another new rapid non-culture method for detection of C. trachomatis based on the measurement of α-mannosidase enzymatic activity in urogenital tract specimens. Method To evaluate the performance of this method, α-mannosidase activities of C. trachomatis serotype D strain 、 and 29 standard strains related to clinical urogenital pathogens were investigated. Furthermore, 553 urogenital tract specimens were used for clinical assays via cell culture method and ligase chain reaction method (LCR, adopting an expanded gold standard. Results Only C. trachomatis was positive for α-mannosidase activity among different types of microbes tested in the research. When prostate fluid specimens, which have some interfering activity, were excluded, the sensitivity and specificity of the enzymatic method were 91.8% (78/85 and 98.3% (409/416, respectively. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05. Conclusions These results showed that α-mannosidase activity could be utilised as a screening marker of C. trachomatis infection.

  18. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CONTEMPORARY METHODS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS UROGENITAL INFECTIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Bakardzhiev

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study were 486 outpatients between the ages of 17 and 62, diagnosed with urethritis, epidydimitis, prostatitis, cervicitis, endocervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility. The following tests were used to make the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis: Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA, Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA, Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA amplification for Chlamydia Trachomatis, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma Genitalium and Ureaplasma Urealyiticum. Comparison PCR and EIA showed statistically significant difference between the positive results obtained by the two methods (p0,1. EIA is a method that gives a higher percentage of nonspecific positive reactions, while the results obtained from ELFA are much closer to the ones obtained by PCR. According to contemporary evidence based medicine, the developmet of unified standard methods for diagnosis and evaluation is of vital importance, not only for the patient and the treating physician but also concerns for the healthcare system, the general public and the pharmaceutical companies as well.

  19. Interaction between the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, G; Pedersen, Lotte Bang; Koehler, J E

    1993-01-01

    The gene encoding the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) from serovar L2 was cloned into Escherichia coli by use of expression vector pET11d. In this vector, transcription of the gene is under the control of a bacteriophage T7 promoter, and T7 RNA polymerase is inducible in the h......The gene encoding the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) from serovar L2 was cloned into Escherichia coli by use of expression vector pET11d. In this vector, transcription of the gene is under the control of a bacteriophage T7 promoter, and T7 RNA polymerase is inducible...

  20. The Proteome of the Isolated Chlamydia trachomatis Containing Vacuole Reveals a Complex Trafficking Platform Enriched for Retromer Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Aeberhard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that replicates inside the infected host cell in a unique vacuole, the inclusion. The formation of this intracellular bacterial niche is essential for productive Chlamydia infections. Despite its importance for Chlamydia biology, a holistic view on the protein composition of the inclusion, including its membrane, is currently missing. Here we describe the host cell-derived proteome of isolated C. trachomatis inclusions by quantitative proteomics. Computational analysis indicated that the inclusion is a complex intracellular trafficking platform that interacts with host cells' antero- and retrograde trafficking pathways. Furthermore, the inclusion is highly enriched for sorting nexins of the SNX-BAR retromer, a complex essential for retrograde trafficking. Functional studies showed that in particular, SNX5 controls the C. trachomatis infection and that retrograde trafficking is essential for infectious progeny formation. In summary, these findings suggest that C. trachomatis hijacks retrograde pathways for effective infection.

  1. Inhibition of Wnt Signaling Pathways Impairs Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Endometrial Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, Jennifer; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Butler, Megan; Hall, Jennifer V

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent the predominant cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections. As an obligate intracellular bacterium, C. trachomatis is dependent on the host cell for survival, propagation, and transmission. Thus, factors that affect the host cell, including nutrition, cell cycle, and environmental signals, have the potential to impact chlamydial development. Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling benefits C. trachomatis infections in fallopian tube epithelia. In cervical epithelial cells chlamydiae sequester β-catenin within the inclusion. These data indicate that chlamydiae interact with the Wnt signaling pathway in both the upper and lower female genital tract (FGT). However, hormonal activation of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways is an essential component of cyclic remodeling in another prominent area of the FGT, the endometrium. Given this information, we hypothesized that Wnt signaling would impact chlamydial infection in endometrial epithelial cells. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed the effect of Wnt inhibition on chlamydial inclusion development and elementary body (EB) production in two endometrial cell lines, Ishikawa (IK) and Hec-1B, in nonpolarized cell culture and in a polarized endometrial epithelial (IK)/stromal (SHT-290) cell co-culture model. Inhibition of Wnt by the small molecule inhibitor (IWP2) significantly decreased inclusion size in IK and IK/SHT-290 cultures ( p Wnt inhibition caused chlamydiae to become aberrant in morphology. EB formation was also impaired in IK, Hec-1B and IK/SHT-290 cultures regardless of whether Wnt inhibition occurred throughout, in the middle (24 hpi) or late (36 hpi) during the development cycle. Overall, these data lead us to conclude that Wnt signaling in the endometrium is a key host pathway for the proper development of C. trachomatis .

  2. Daily oral grepafloxacin vs. twice daily oral doxycycline in the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection.

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, W M; Martin, D H; Hook, E W; Jones, R B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of a 7-day course of treatment with oral grepafloxacin, 400 mg once daily, and oral doxycycline, 100 mg twice daily, in patients with chlamydial cervicitis. METHODS: Women aged 18 years or older attending 17 sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States who had clinical signs of mucopurulent cervicitis or who had a recent positive culture or nonculture test for Chlamydia trachomatis or who had contact with a male partner with a positiv...

  3. Activities of rifamycin derivatives against wild-type and rpoB mutants of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minsheng; Suchland, Robert J; Carswell, Joli A; Van Duzer, John; Buxton, Debra K; Brown, Kara; Rothstein, David M; Stamm, Walter E

    2005-09-01

    Rifalazil, a semisynthetic rifamycin, was shown previously to have exceptional potency against Chlamydia trachomatis (MIC of 0.00025 microg/ml). We therefore tested 250 additional rifamycin derivatives and identified 12 with activities that are eightfold more potent than that of rifalazil. These compounds also showed exceptional activities against rifampin-resistant strains that carry missense mutations in the rpoB gene. The antimicrobial potency and intracellular penetration of these agents suggest their potential in treatment of chlamydial infections.

  4. Seropositivity to Chlamydia trachomatis in prostitutes: relationship to other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino-de-Araujo, A; de-los-Santos Fortuna, E

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and its relationship with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was investigated by serological determinations in a group of 45 women working as prostitutes in Santos, State of São Paulo. Seropositivity to HIV-1 was demonstrated in 4 (9%) of the cases and to HIV-2 in one case. Syphilis and hepatitis B were detected in 29% and 43% of the 45 women, respectively. Specific antibodies to C. trachomatis were found in all subjects. The high seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), syphilis and C. trachomatis in this population was related to predisposing factors such as number of sexual contacts, sexual practices, drug use and episodes of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

  5. Protection of pigs against genital Chlamydia trachomatis challenge by parenteral or mucosal DNA immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schautteet, Katelijn; De Clercq, Evelien; Jönsson, Yannick; Lagae, Stefanie; Chiers, Koen; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2012-04-16

    The current study evaluates combined aerosol-vaginal delivery of a MOMP-based Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar E) DNA vaccine in a pig genital challenge model. Most non-replicating antigens are rather poor mucosal immunogens in comparison to replicating antigens. Therefore, a mucosal administered DNA vaccine, which actually mimics a live vaccine, could be promising. Protection was promoted by plasmids encoding the porcine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (pcDNA3.1zeo::GM-CSF), the Escherichia coli thermo-labile enterotoxin (LT) subunit A (plasmid PJV2004::LTa) and subunit B (plasmid PJV2005::LTb). Mucosal C. trachomatis DNA vaccination induced significant protection against genital C. trachomatis challenge although the infection could not be eradicated. Intradermal immunization was significantly less efficient in protecting experimentally infected pigs. Protection was correlated with efficient T cell priming and significantly higher serum IgA titers following primo vaccination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity of Cervical Microbiota in Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Filardo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection continues to be an important public health problem worldwide due to its increasing incidence. C. trachomatis infection can lead to severe sequelae, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, obstructive infertility, and preterm birth. Recently, it has been suggested that the cervico-vaginal microbiota may be an important defense factor toward C. trachomatis infection as well as the development of chronic sequelae. Therefore, the investigation of microbial profiles associated to chlamydial infection is of the utmost importance. Here we present a pilot study aiming to characterize, through the metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16s rRNA gene amplicons, the cervical microbiota from reproductive age women positive to C. trachomatis infection. The main finding of our study showed a marked increase in bacterial diversity in asymptomatic C. trachomatis positive women as compared to healthy controls in terms of Shannon's diversity and Shannon's evenness (P = 0.031 and P = 0.026, respectively. More importantly, the cervical microbiota from C. trachomatis positive women and from healthy controls significantly separated into two clusters in the weighted UniFrac analysis (P = 0.0027, suggesting that differences between the two groups depended entirely on the relative abundance of bacterial taxa rather than on the types of bacterial taxa present. Furthermore, C. trachomatis positive women showed an overall decrease in Lactobacillus spp. and an increase in anaerobes. These findings are part of an ongoing larger epidemiological study that will evaluate the potential role of distinct bacterial communities of the cervical microbiota in C. trachomatis infection.

  7. Analysis of direct-to-consumer marketed Chlamydia trachomatis diagnostic tests in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinton, Nils; Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Håheim, Håkon; Garstad, Kjersti; Mørch-Reiersen, Lisa Therese; Moghaddam, Amir

    2015-08-01

    Background In 2014, and for the first time in Norway, a pharmacy chain started selling home sampling kits for Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) detection. Direct-to-consumer diagnostic kits for C. trachomatis have been available in Norway from an Internet company since 2005. There has been little assessment of persons who purchase direct-to-consumer diagnostic tests for sexually transmissible infections (STIs) detection and if low-risk populations are being unnecessarily encouraged to buy these tests. The prevalence of C. trachomatis in customers who purchased home sampling kits from the pharmacy chain and from the commercial Internet Co. were compared to that of patients attending STI clinics and other free primary healthcare services. Prevalences of other STIs in pharmacy and Internet customers were also determined. The prevalence of C. trachomatis among pharmacy customers was 11%, almost identical to the prevalence among Internet customers (12%). In comparison, the prevalence among patients attending STI clinics in Oslo was 7.2%, which is similar to the prevalence among patients who have been tested through primary healthcare services. The prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium was two-fold less than that of C. trachomatis in the STI and primary physician population, and significantly less in the Internet and the pharmacy population. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was not detected in urine samples from pharmacy customers or from Internet customers. Both pharmacy and Internet C. trachomatis home-sampling kits seem to be purchased by the right risk population. Marketing of direct-to-consumer N. gonorrhoeae tests and possibly M. genitalium tests cannot be justified in Norway. Direct-to-consumer diagnostic tests should be actively utilised as part of national programs in preventing the spread of C. trachomatis.

  8. Molecular detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Mycoplasma Hominis in endometriosis lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azizvakili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retrograde of menstrual blood into the peritoneal cavity is one of the accepted theories for initiation of endometriosis although indicated that other factors are involved in pathogenesis. Investigation of infectious agents is important in this regard. Objective: To investigate the presence of bacterial infections; Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma Hominis as risk factors in endometriosis lesions. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Sarem Hospital in 2014. DNA was extracted from 90 paraffin-embedded blocks included 40 endometriosis tissue samples, 23 samples of endometrial tissue from the same patients and 27 samples of endometrial tissue of the patients without endometriosis, and molecular analysis were performed using polymerase chain reaction. Results were analyzed by Fisher Exact Test and McNemar Test. Findings: Chlamydia trachomatis infection was seen in 11 (27.5% endometriosis tissue, 3 (13% normal tissue from patients and 10 (37% in patient without endometriosis. Mycoplasma hominis was diagnosed in 11 (27.5% endometriosis tissue, 7 (30.4% of normal tissue from patients and one patient without endometriosis (3.7%. These differences show significant relations between infection with Mycoplasma hominis and endometriosis. Conclusion: The findings of this study did not show significant association between Chlamydia trachomatis infections and endometriosis. However; it seems Mycoplasma hominis infection can increase the risk of endometriosis incidence.

  9. Conjuntivitis folicular por Chlamydia trachomatis: frecuencia y pruebas diagnósticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Muñoz Z

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available La Chlamydia trachomatis es la principal causa infecciosa de ceguera en el mundo, que empieza como conjuntivitis folicular. En el Perú se han realizado pocos estudios, debido a su dificultad diagnóstica. Se realizó un estudio en 55 pacientes de 18 a 68 años con diagnóstico de conjuntivitis folicular atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Oftalmología (Lima, Perú durante los años 2005 y 2006, con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y evaluar la utilidad de la tinción de Giemsa y la inmunofluorescencia directa (IFD para el diagnóstico de C. trachomatis en relación con el cultivo celular. La frecuencia de C. trachomatis en muestras de secreciones de conjuntivitis folicular fue de 13% (7/55 por cultivo celular, 20% (11/55 por IFD y de 9%(5/55 por Giemsa; los signos y síntomas más frecuentes fueron la presencia de secreciones y fotofobia. Todos los casos fueron varones y manifestaron no tener antecendentes de infecciones de transmisión sexual previas. Se encontró una sensibilidad de 42,9 y 85,7 % y una especificidad de 98,8 y 89,6% para la tinción Giemsa e IFD respectivamente.

  10. Host immune responses after hypoxic reactivation of IFN-γ induced persistent Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eJerchel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis are the most frequent sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Severe clinical sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, tubal occlusion and tubal infertility are linked to chronic inflammatory processes of persistently infected tissues. The oxygen concentrations in the female urogenital tract are physiologically low and further diminished (0.5-5 % O2, hypoxia during an ongoing inflammation. However, little is known about the effect of a low oxygen environment on genital C. trachomatis infections. In this study, we investigated the host immune responses during reactivation of IFN-γ induced persistent C. trachomatis infection under hypoxia. For this purpose, the activation of the MAP-kinases p44/42 and p38 as well as the induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 were analyzed. Upon hypoxic reactivation of IFN-γ induced persistent C. trachomatis infection, the phosphorylation of the p44/42 but not of the p38 MAP-kinase was significantly diminished compared to IFN-γ induced chlamydial persistence under normoxic condition. In addition, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression levels were observed for reactivated Chlamydiae under hypoxia compared to a persistent chlamydial infection under normoxia. Our findings indicate that hypoxia not only reactivates IFN-γ induced persistent C. trachomatis infections resulting in increased bacterial growth and progeny but also dampens inflammatory host immune signaling responses that are normally observed in a normoxic environment.

  11. Risk-based screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae prior to intrauterine device insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grentzer, Jaclyn M; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Zhao, Qiuhong; McNicholas, Colleen; Secura, Gina M; Madden, Tessa

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to compare three strategies for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae screening prior to intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. This was a secondary analysis of the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. We measured the prevalence of C. trachomatis and/or N. gonorrhoeae at the time of IUD insertion. We then compared sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, and likelihood ratios for three screening strategies for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prior to IUD insertion: (a) "age-based" — age ≤25 years alone; (b) "age/partner-based" — age ≤25 and/or multiple sexual partners; and (c) "risk-based" — age ≤25, multiple sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and/or history of prior sexually transmitted infection (STI). Among 5087 IUD users, 140 (2.8%) tested positive for C. trachomatis, 16 (0.3%) tested positive for N. gonorrhoeae, and 6 (0.1%) were positive for both at the time of IUD insertion. The "risk-based" screening strategy had the highest sensitivity (99.3%) compared to "age-based" and "age/partner-based" screening (80.7% and 84.7%, respectively.) Only one (0.7%) woman with a chlamydia or gonorrhea infection would not have been screened using "risk-based" screening. A risk-based strategy to screen for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prior to IUD insertion has higher sensitivity than screening based on age alone or age and multiple sexual partners. Using a risk-based screening strategy (age≤25, multiple sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and/or history of an STI) to determine who should be screened for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prior to IUD insertion will miss very few cases of infection and obviates the need for universal screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Internet testing for Chlamydia trachomatis in England, 2006 to 2010

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    Woodhall Sarah C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been interest in websites as a means of increasing access to free chlamydia tests through the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP in England. We aimed to describe and evaluate online access to chlamydia testing within the NCSP. Methods We analysed NCSP chlamydia testing data (2006–2010 for 15–24 year olds from the 71/95 programme areas in England where site codes were available to identify tests ordered through the internet. The characteristics of people using online testing services in 2010 were compared with those testing in general practice (GP or community sexual and reproductive health (SRH services. We evaluated 58 websites offering free chlamydia tests through the NCSP, and 32 offering kits on a commercial basis for signposting to clinical service and health promotion advice offered. Results Between 2006 and 2010, 5% of all tests in the included programme areas were accessed through the internet. The number of internet tests increased from 18 (1 sexual partner in the past year. Provision of sexual health information and appropriate signposting for those in need of clinical services varied between websites. Service provision within the NCSP was fragmented with multiple providers serving specific geographical catchment areas. Conclusion Internet testing reaches a population with a relatively high risk of chlamydia infection and appears acceptable to young men, a group that has been difficult to engage with chlamydia testing. In order to maximise the potential benefit of these services, websites should be consistent with national guidelines and adhere to minimum standards for signposting to clinical care and health promotion information. The current system with multiple providers servicing geographically specific catchment areas is contrary to the geographically unrestricted nature of the internet and potentially confusing for clients.

  13. Genital forekomst af Chlamydia trachomatis hos abortsøgende--korrelerer med ung alder og nulliparitet, men ikke tidligere underlivsbetoendelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E

    1992-01-01

    Out of 432 women applying for termination of pregnancy, 7.9% (34/428) had cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and 0.7% (3/431) genital Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The prevalence of Chlamydia was 19.2% among the women applying for termination who were under 20 years and 12.8% among those aged 21-25 years....... The finding of Chlamydia among nulliparae was 14.5%. Only 2.8% of the women with Chlamydia had previously had pelvic infections. Women with Chlamydia did not have significantly greater frequency of previous venereal diseases. It is concluded that women under the age of 25 years and nulliparae who apply...... for termination of pregnancy should be examined for Chlamydia and should be treated in connection with the intervention. Previous pelvic infections are observed significantly more rarely in women with Chlamydia applying for termination and thus do not constitute an indication for examination for Chlamydia...

  14. Timing of progression from Chlamydia trachomatis infection to pelvic inflammatory disease: a mathematical modelling study

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    Herzog Sereina A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID results from the ascending spread of microorganisms from the vagina and endocervix to the upper genital tract. PID can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain. The timing of development of PID after the sexually transmitted bacterial infection Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia might affect the impact of screening interventions, but is currently unknown. This study investigates three hypothetical processes for the timing of progression: at the start, at the end, or throughout the duration of chlamydia infection. Methods We develop a compartmental model that describes the trial structure of a published randomised controlled trial (RCT and allows each of the three processes to be examined using the same model structure. The RCT estimated the effect of a single chlamydia screening test on the cumulative incidence of PID up to one year later. The fraction of chlamydia infected women who progress to PID is obtained for each hypothetical process by the maximum likelihood method using the results of the RCT. Results The predicted cumulative incidence of PID cases from all causes after one year depends on the fraction of chlamydia infected women that progresses to PID and on the type of progression. Progression at a constant rate from a chlamydia infection to PID or at the end of the infection was compatible with the findings of the RCT. The corresponding estimated fraction of chlamydia infected women that develops PID is 10% (95% confidence interval 7-13% in both processes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that clinical PID can occur throughout the course of a chlamydia infection, which will leave a window of opportunity for screening to prevent PID.

  15. Frequency of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in infertile women referred to Tabriz Al-Zahra hospital

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    Mahtab Sattari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is one of the major issues in society and its incidence is estimated to be almost 10-15%. Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis is an important cause of sexually transmitted diseases leading to infertility. Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency of anti-C. trachomatis antibodies in infertile women at Al-zahra hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the blood samples were collected randomly from 184 infertile women (case group and 100 pregnant women (control group. The frequency of specific IgG and IgM anti-C. trachomatis antibodies were evaluated using ELISA method. Results: The frequency of IgG anti-C. trachomatis antibody in the control and case groups was 18% and 35.88%, respectively. IgM anti-C. trachomatis antibody was found in 2% of controls and 5.44% of infertile women. Our results showed the significant differences between the case and control groups in anti-C. trachomatis antibodies (IgG, p=0.035 and IgM, p=0.004. Also, no significant relation was seen between the frequency of anti-C. trachomatis antibodies and age, location, and tubal factor infertility in our two study groups. Conclusion: According to high frequency of antibody anti-C. trachomatis among infertile women in competition to the control group, evaluation and treatment of Chlamydia infections is necessary in these patients

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis re-infection in Spain: A STI clinic-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-de-Munain, Josefina; Cámara-Pérez, Maria Del Mar; Imaz-Pérez, Manuel; Pereda-Berroeta, Javier; López-Azcarreta, Iñigo; Muñoz-Sánchez, Josefa; Cisterna-Cáncer, Ramón; Ferrero-Beneitez, Oscar Luis; Ibarra-Ugarte, Sofia; Zubero-Sulibarria, Zuriñe; Baraia-Etxaburu Artetxe, Josu Mirena

    2017-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most frequently reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) in developed countries, but there is a lack data on its incidence and population dynamics in Spain. The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence of C. trachomatis in patients seeking medical attention in an STI clinic with a defined population catchment area, to identify factors associated with this infection, and to explore differences between factors associated with new infections and re-infections. A retrospective study was conducted on a cohort of patients from a STI clinic who underwent chlamydia testing at least twice between 2007 and 2015. Of the 2633 patients who met study selection criteria, 795 (30.2%) tested positive for C. trachomatis at baseline (baseline Chlamydia). The overall incidence was 7.97/100 person-years (95% CI: 7.2-8.8): 5.9/100 person-years (95% CI: 5.2-6.7) among patients testing negative for C. trachomatis at baseline, and 18.3 person-years (95% CI: 15.6-21.5) among those testing positive at baseline. In multivariate analysis, the factors independently associated with overall incidence were a history of infection with C. trachomatis in the previous 6 months (hazard ratio=3.6; 95% CI: 2.3-5.4), younger age (HR <20 vs ≥35 years=5.5; 95% CI: 3.2-9.5), male sex, 2 or more sexual partners in the previous month and year, and inconsistent condom use. Guidelines should be established for C. trachomatis in Spain, including recommendations on the need for follow-up and re-testing, independently of age. Though data concerning the optimal timing of re-testing are inconclusive, our findings support the establishment of a 3-6 month interval. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Transformation of sexually transmitted infection-causing serovars of chlamydia trachomatis using Blasticidin for selection.

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    Honglei Ding

    Full Text Available Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using β-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, in the current study, we modified the pGFP::SW2 plasmid by fusing a blasticidin S deaminase gene to the GFP gene to establish blasticidin resistance as a selectable marker and replacing the β-lactamase gene with the Sh ble gene to eliminate the penicillin resistance. The new vector termed pGFPBSD/Z::SW2 was used for transforming plasmid-free C. trachomatis serovar D organisms. Using blasticidin for selection, stable transformants were obtained. The GFP-BSD fusion protein was detected in cultures infected with the pGFPBSD/Z::SW2-trasnformed serovar D organisms. The transformation restored the plasmid property to the plasmid-free serovar D organisms. Thus, we have successfully modified the pGFP::SW2 transformation system for studying the biology and pathogenesis of other STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis.

  18. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

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    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  19. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rona; Mills, Nicola; Sanford, Emma; Graham, Anna; Low, Nicola; Peters, Tim J

    2006-04-25

    The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham) were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  20. Predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women attending rural Midwest family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, T M; Smith, E M; Ault, K

    2001-01-01

    To determine predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women 14-24 years of age attending family planning clinics throughout a rural Midwestern state. The study population included 16,756 women between the ages of 14 and 24 years attending family planning clinics for annual examinations throughout the state of Iowa in 1997. All women under 25 years of age having annual exams were tested for C. trachomatis during the visit. At the time of exam, both behavioral and demographic data were collected on all women participating in the study. The majority of women in the study (96%) reported no symptoms of chlamydia. Only 2.5% of all women had a positive test result. In the multivariate model, the odds ratios were significantly increased among the youngest age (14-17 years; OR = 2.2), those with mucopurulent cervicitis (OR = 3.4), cervical friability (OR = 2.2), symptomatic for infection (OR = 1.8), risk history (OR = 1.6), and black race (OR = 1.2) and predictive of a C. trachomatis infection. Risk factors predictive of C. trachomatis infection among younger aged women attending family planning clinics in a Midwest rural population are consistent with predictors of infection among women attending family planning clinics across the United States. The overall findings suggest the importance of developing screening guidelines as a means of lowering chlamydia rates. This may be a particularly difficult task in light of the low rate of symptoms that would lead a woman to seek medical care, even in younger age women who are at higher risk. In addition, screening guidelines would be more difficult to implement in a rural setting.

  1. Formulation, characterization, and expression of a recombinant MOMP Chlamydia trachomatis DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles

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    Cambridge CD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chino D Cambridge, Shree R Singh, Alain B Waffo, Stacie J Fairley, Vida A DennisCenter for NanoBiotechnology Research (CNBR, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Previous vaccination attempts have employed the recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP of C. trachomatis nonetheless, with limited success, perhaps, due to stability, degradation, and delivery issues. In this study we cloned C. trachomatis recombinant MOMP DNA (DMOMP and encapsulated it in chitosan nanoparticles (DMCNP using the complex coacervation technique. Physiochemical characterizations of DMCNP included transmission and scanning electron microcopy, Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and zeta potential. Encapsulated DMOMP was 167–250 nm, with a uniform spherical shape and homogenous morphology, and an encapsulation efficiency > 90%. A slow release pattern of encapsulated DMOMP, especially in acidic solution, was observed over 7 days. The zeta potential of DMCNP was ~8.80 mV, which indicated that it was highly stable. Toxicity studies of DMCNP (25–400 µg/mL to Cos-7 cells using the MTT assay revealed minimal toxicity over 24–72 hours with >90% viable cells. Ultra-violet visible (UV-vis spectra indicated encapsulated DMOMP protection by chitosan, whereas agarose gel electrophoresis verified its protection from enzymatic degradation. Expression of MOMP protein in DMCNP-transfected Cos-7 cells was demonstrated via Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Significantly, intramuscular injection of BALB/c mice with DMCNP confirmed the delivery of encapsulated DMOMP, and expression of the MOMP gene transcript in thigh muscles and spleens. Our data show that encapsulation of DMOMP in biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles imparts stability and protection from enzymatic digestion, and enhances delivery and

  2. Proportion of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Cases Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis: Consistent Picture From Different Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Malcolm J; Ades, A E; Welton, Nicky J; Simms, Ian; Macleod, John; Horner, Paddy J

    2016-08-15

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a leading cause of both tubal factor infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Chlamydia trachomatis is an important risk factor for PID, but the proportion of PID cases caused by C. trachomatis is unclear. Estimates of this are required to evaluate control measures. We consider 5 separate methods of estimating age-group-specific population excess fractions (PEFs) of PID due to C. trachomatis, using routine data, surveys, case-control studies, and randomized controlled trials, and apply these to data from the United Kingdom before introduction of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme. As they are informed by randomized comparisons and national exposure and outcome estimates, our preferred estimates of the proportion of PID cases caused by C. trachomatis are 35% (95% credible interval [CrI], 11%-69%) in women aged 16-24 years and 20% (95% CrI, 6%-38%) in women aged 16-44 years in the United Kingdom. There is a fair degree of consistency between adjusted estimates of PEF, but all have wide 95% CrIs. The PEF decreases from 53.5% (95% CrI, 15.6%-100%) in women aged 16-19 years to 11.5% (95% CrI, 3.0%-25.7%) in women aged 35-44 years. The PEFs of PID due to C. trachomatis decline steeply with age by a factor of around 5-fold between younger and older women. Further studies of the etiology of PID in different age groups are required. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women

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    F Ghalmbor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

  4. Small molecule inhibitor of type three secretion suppresses acute and chronic Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a novel urogenital Chlamydia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, Ekaterina A; Kobets, Natalia V; Zayakin, Egor S; Luyksaar, Sergei I; Shabalina, Ludmila A; Zigangirova, Naylia A

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported that a compound from a group of thiohydrazides of oxamic acids, CL-55, possessed antichlamydial activity in vitro that was accompanied by a decreased translocation of the type three secretion effector, IncA, into the host cell. In this study, the antichlamydial activity of CL-55 was tested in vivo in DBA/2 mice infected with C. trachomatis serovar D. We found that intravaginal inoculation of DBA/2 mice with the clinically relevant strain, C. trachomatis serovar D, results in a course of infection and pathology similar to that observed in humans. The early stage of infection in this model was characterized by a shedding of Chlamydia in vaginal secretions followed by an ascending infection and inflammation in the upper genital tract. We found that CL-55 possessed antibacterial activity in vivo and was able to control C. trachomatis vaginal shedding, ascending infection, and inflammation in the upper genital organs in DBA/2 mice. Our data provide a proof of concept for the protective effect of the thiadiazinon, CL-55, against chlamydial infection in vivo and support the feasibility of further studies of its potential therapeutic applications.

  5. Seroprevalence of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis IgM in neonatal respiratory tract infections in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Eszter; Donders, Gilbert G G; Petrovay, Fruzsina; Urbán, Edit

    2017-08-04

    To determine the seroprevalence of specific IgM indicative of respiratory tract infection (RTI) due to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among symptomatic infants. A descriptive study was conducted on young infants up to 5 months old at the Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections Reference Laboratory, National Centre for Epidemiology, Budapest, covering the period 2008-2016. Serum samples from infants suffering from RTIs were screened with a micro-immunofluorescence test (Focus, Cypress, USA) for the presence of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis-specific IgM. A parallel Bordetella pertussis screening was performed by an indirect immunofluorescence test (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) that detected specific IgM. The CT-specific serum IgM was highly reactive in 50 (19.1 %) of the 262 neonates with RTIs, while all proved negative for Bordetella pertussis-specific IgM. Vertically transmitted C. trachomatis must be regarded as a common pathogen among symptomatic neonates with RTIs in Hungary. Routine screening and treatment of pregnant women could be one option to help prevent these conditions. Focused laboratory testing based on raised clinical awareness should enable early diagnosis and appropriate therapy for symptomatic infants.

  6. A Functional Core of IncA Is Required for Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mary M; Noriea, Nicholas F; Bauler, Laura D; Lam, Jennifer L; Sager, Janet; Wesolowski, Jordan; Paumet, Fabienne; Hackstadt, Ted

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that is the etiological agent of a variety of human diseases, including blinding trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. Chlamydiae replicate within a membrane-bound compartment, termed an inclusion, which they extensively modify by the insertion of type III secreted proteins called Inc proteins. IncA is an inclusion membrane protein that encodes two coiled-coil domains that are homologous to eukaryotic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) motifs. Recent biochemical evidence suggests that a functional core, composed of SNARE-like domain 1 (SLD-1) and part of SNARE-like domain 2 (SLD-2), is required for the characteristic homotypic fusion of C. trachomatis inclusions in multiply infected cells. To verify the importance of IncA in homotypic fusion in Chlamydia, we generated an incA::bla mutant. Insertional inactivation of incA resulted in the formation of nonfusogenic inclusions, a phenotype that was completely rescued by complementation with full-length IncA. Rescue of homotypic inclusion fusion was dependent on the presence of the functional core consisting of SLD-1 and part of SLD-2. Collectively, these results confirm in vitro membrane fusion assays identifying functional domains of IncA and expand the genetic tools available for identification of chlamydia with a method for complementation of site-specific mutants. Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a parasitophorous vacuole termed an inclusion. The chlamydial inclusions are nonfusogenic with vesicles in the endocytic pathway but, in multiply infected cells, fuse with each other to form a single large inclusion. This homotypic fusion is dependent upon the presence of a chlamydial inclusion membrane-localized protein, IncA. Specificity of membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells is regulated by SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment receptor) proteins on the cytosolic face of vesicles and target

  7. Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Jordan; Weber, Mary M; Nawrotek, Agata; Dooley, Cheryl A; Calderon, Mike; St Croix, Claudette M; Hackstadt, Ted; Cherfils, Jacqueline; Paumet, Fabienne

    2017-05-02

    The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis develops in a parasitic compartment called the inclusion. Posttranslationally modified microtubules encase the inclusion, controlling the positioning of Golgi complex fragments around the inclusion. The molecular mechanisms by which Chlamydia coopts the host cytoskeleton and the Golgi complex to sustain its infectious compartment are unknown. Here, using a genetically modified Chlamydia strain, we discovered that both posttranslationally modified microtubules and Golgi complex positioning around the inclusion are controlled by the chlamydial inclusion protein CT813/CTL0184/InaC and host ARF GTPases. CT813 recruits ARF1 and ARF4 to the inclusion membrane, where they induce posttranslationally modified microtubules. Similarly, both ARF isoforms are required for the repositioning of Golgi complex fragments around the inclusion. We demonstrate that CT813 directly recruits ARF GTPases on the inclusion membrane and plays a pivotal role in their activation. Together, these results reveal that Chlamydia uses CT813 to hijack ARF GTPases to couple posttranslationally modified microtubules and Golgi complex repositioning at the inclusion. IMPORTANCE Chlamydia trachomatis is an important cause of morbidity and a significant economic burden in the world. However, how Chlamydia develops its intracellular compartment, the so-called inclusion, is poorly understood. Using genetically engineered Chlamydia mutants, we discovered that the effector protein CT813 recruits and activates host ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) and ARF4 to regulate microtubules. In this context, CT813 acts as a molecular platform that induces the posttranslational modification of microtubules around the inclusion. These cages are then used to reposition the Golgi complex during infection and promote the development of the inclusion. This study provides the first evidence that ARF1 and ARF4 play critical roles in controlling posttranslationally modified

  8. Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis among male patients with urethritis in northeast of Iran detected by polymerase chain reaction

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    Kiarash Ghazvini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning for appropriate preventive measures against Chlamydia trachomatis, a common cause of sexually transmitted disease, requires knowledge of prevalence of infection so that interventions can be targeted in a cost-effective manner. This study was performed on 178 male patients presenting with urethritis in the Mashhad province to determine the prevalence of chlamydial infection in Northeast Iran. A cotton swab and first voided urine specimen were collected according to standard procedures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests were used for the detection of C. trachomatis in the specimens collected and the results were analyzed using SPSS program. Results showed that 10.6% of male patients in this group were infected with C. trachomatis. This study provides strong evidence that prevalence of Chlamydia in the Northeast Iran is high and suggests that Chlamydia screening as a routine part of STD investigations is highly necessary in this area.

  9. Aerobic bacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis, Pneumocystis carinii and Cytomegalovirus as agents of severe peneumonia in small infants Bactérias aeróbias, Chlamydia trachomatis, Pneumocystis carinii e Cytomegalovirus: agentes causadores de pneumonia grave em pequenos lactentes

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    Bernardo Ejzenberg

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied 58 infants hospitalized for pneumonia in a semi-intensive care unit. Age ranged from 1 complete to 6 incomplete months. The infants were sent from another hospital in 20 cases and from home in a further 38. Pulmonary involvement, which was alveolar in 46 cases and interstitial in 12, was bilateral in 31 children. The investigation was carried out prospectively on the etiological agents associated with respiratory infection to look for evidence of aerobic bacteria (blood cultures, Chlamydia trachomatis and Cytomegalovirus (serology, and Pneumocystis carinii (direct microscopy of tracheal aspirated material. The following infectious agents were diagnosed in 21 children (36.2%: Aerobic bacteria (8, Chlamydia trachomatis (5, Pneumocystis carinii (3, Cytomegalovirus (3, Cytomegalovirus and Chlamydia trachomatis (1, Aerobic bacteria and Cytomegalovirus (1. Seven cases of infection by Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Cytomegalovirus were diagnosed out of the 12 cases with pulmonary interstitial involvement.Os autores estudaram prospectivamente 58 lactentes internados por pneumonia em unidade semi-intensiva. A idade foi limitada entre 1 mês completo e 6 meses incompletos. A procedência das crianças foi de outro hospital em 20 casos e domiciliar em 38. O acometimento pulmonar era alveolar em 46 casos, intersticial em 12 e bilateral em 31 crianças. Foram pesquisados agentes etiológicos associados à infecção respiratória dos lactentes jovens: Bactérias aeróbias (Hemoculturas, Chlamydia trachomatis e Cytomegalovirus (sorologia, e Pneumocystis carinii (microscopia direta do aspirado traqueal. Foram diagnosticadas infecções em 21 crianças (36,2%: Bactérias aeróbias (8, Chlamydia trachomatis (5, Cytomegalovirus (3, Pneumocystis carinii (3, Cytomegalovirus e Chlamydia trachomatis (1, Bactéria aeróbia e Cytomegalovirus (1. Foram diagnosticadas 7 infecções por Chlamydia trachomatis e/ou Cytomegalovirus entre as 12 crianças com

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile and pregnant women in southern Brazil

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    Deborah Beltrami Gomez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infection, affecting mainly young, sexually active women. Untreated infection may lead to reproductive complications due to tubal damage. Infections during pregnancy may cause preterm labor, low birth weight, perinatal death, and neonatal conjunctivitis and pneumonia. There are few data on CT infection in Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine CT prevalence in infertile and pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study included 77 infertile and 60 asymptomatic pregnant women. First-void urine was tested for CT using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. Blood samples were collected for CT IgG antibodies testing using indirect immunofluorescence. A questionnaire about medical, gynecological, and sexual history was completed by all participants. Results: We found statistically similar prevalence of PCR and IgG antibodies between the groups. There was a 61% prevalence of CT IgG antibodies in infertile women and 56.7% in pregnant women. PCR was positive in only one (1.3% infertile woman and in none pregnant women. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of CT IgG antibody in Brazilian pregnant and infertile women, but we found a low prevalence of positive PCR in the urine samples. CT antibodies were associated with sexual behavior and smoking. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia infections, prevalence, nucleic acid amplification techniques; infertility, female; fluorescent antibody technique

  11. Analysis of patients with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in an STD clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repiso-Jiménez, J B; Fernandez-Morano, T; Rivas-Ruiz, F; de Troya-Martin, M

    2014-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is common in our setting and early treatment can prevent complications. The aim of this study was to report on patients diagnosed with C trachomatis genital infection in a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, observational study of patients diagnosed with C. trachomatis infection between 2010 and 2011. We recorded demographic data and information on sexual habits, concomitant sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and various aspects of treatment. In total, 12.3% of the samples analyzed were positive for C trachomatis genital infection. Sixty-two patients (43 men) with a mean age of 31 years were studied; 75% were heterosexual and 87% had had a sexual partner in the previous 2 months. Condom use was inconsistent in 81%, 79%, and 65% of patients who practiced vaginal, oral, and anal sex, respectively. Thirteen percent of the patients had symptoms and anogenital warts were the most common associated STI. The most widely used treatment was doxycycline. A high prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection was detected in our STD clinic, and the majority of cases were found in young men. We observed a high rate of asymptomatic infection in patients who do not engage in high-risk sexual behavior and who had come to the clinic for another reason. Systematic screening of C. trachomatis infection should be implemented in STD units to enable the early treatment of patients and their recent sexual partners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas Vaginalis Infection in Chilean Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneeus, Andrea; Schilling, Andrea; Fernandez, Mario I

    2018-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis infection in sexually active Chilean adolescents and young adults. A comparative analysis was performed between genders to identify demographic, clinical, and sexual behavior characteristics to predict the occurrence of C trachomatis. Analytical observational study. Santiago, Chile. Two hundred eighty-six sexually active volunteers aged 24 years or younger (171 female and 115 male); 82.9% (237/286) of them were classified as having high socioeconomic status. Confidential survey and self-collected samples (urine for men and vaginal swabs for women). Prevalence, demographic characteristics, symptoms, and sexual behavior characteristics. The prevalence rate of C trachomatis was 8.7% (10/115) in men and 8.8% (15/171) in women (P = .58). N gonorrhoeae was detected in 1 subject, whereas no T vaginalis cases were detected. In multivariate analysis, having some college education was protective (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.89), whereas having a higher number of sexual partners was a risk factor (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3) for C trachomatis infection. The latter was also predicted by postcoital bleeding (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.30-16.23) in the female model. C trachomatis infection rates were similar between both genders. Protective characteristics for the occurrence of this infection were having some college education, lower number of sexual partners, and if female, the absence of postcoital bleeding. This study highlights the importance of C trachomatis screening among the Chilean affluent population younger than 25 years. However, further studies are needed in a more diverse and representative sample to recommend universal screening in Chilean adolescents and young adults. Copyright © 2018 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in gyneco-obstetric outpatients from a mexican hospital

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    Laura Conde-Ferráez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Human papillomavirus (HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most frequent sexually transmitted infections, usually asymptomatic. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types and other cofactors such as the concomitant infection with C. trachomatis can represent a higher risk to develop cervical lesions; therefore, screening with sensitive methods could aid to identify women at risk. Aims: The aim is to determine the prevalence and concurrence of both infections, detected with in-house molecular methods, and to identify the risk factors associated to the infections in Mexican women. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including gynaecological-obstetrical medical outpatients from a Social Security Hospital in Southeast Mexico. After informed consent, cervicovaginal samples were collected and tested for HPV and C. trachomatis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. HPV positives were further tested for high-risk HPV16, 18, 58 and low-risk 11 using real-time PCR. All methods employed were in-house. Data analyses included odds ratios (OR, Chi-square and linear regressions. Results: Women included were 233, aging 15–49 (mean 30 years, 52.8% were pregnant. For HPV and C. trachomatis testing, 230 samples were adequate, resulting in 48 (20.9% and 15 (6.5% positives, respectively; 4 (1.7% were positive to both. The most frequent genotype identified was HPV58 (25% of typified samples. C. trachomatis positives were 73% asymptomatic, none had pelvic inflammatory disease or infertility histories. The only variable associated to HPV infection was the history of previous sexually transmitted disease (OR = 3.69,P= 0.0019. Conclusions: More than 25% of the population was infected with either agent. We successfully used in-house molecular methodologies for diagnosis and typing, showing HPV and C. trachomatis prevalence consistent to previous reports. Concomitant infections were found, HPV high-risk types were involved in half of these

  14. Benefits of Rapid Molecular Diagnosis of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections in Women Attending Family Planning Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois-Nicolaos, Nadège; Jaureguy, Françoise; Pozzi-Gaudin, Stéphanie; Masson, Claire; Guillet-Caruba, Christelle; Lavisse, Frédérique; Larmignat, Philippe; Benachi, Alexandra; Picard, Bertrand; Doucet-Populaire, Florence

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated the benefits of on-demand systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the Xpert CT/NG assay in 589 women attending family planning clinics. The sexually transmitted infection prevalence was 16.5% with 15.1% C. trachomatis and 3.1% N. gonorrhoeae infections. The on-demand test allowed for a quicker management of patients at high risk for sexually transmitted infections.

  15. One-day detection of PCR amplified Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in clinical samples: ELISA versus Southern blot hybridisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Roymans, R T; Onland, G; Postma, B H

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To compare ELISA and Southern blot hybridisation for the detection of PCR amplified Chlamydia trachomatis DNA extracted from clinical samples; to assess the value of the ELISA method in a clinical setting. METHODS: DNA was extracted from urogenital samples of 508 patients, purified and amplified using C trachomatis specific primers, one of which was endlabelled with biotin. Amplification products were detected by Streptavidin biotin based ELISA and non-radioactive Southern blotting. RES...

  16. Inhibition of Fusion of Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusions at 32°C Correlates with Restricted Export of IncA

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, K. A.; Fischer, E.; Hackstadt, T.

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that develops within a parasitophorous vacuole termed an inclusion. The inclusion is nonfusogenic with lysosomes but intercepts lipids from a host cell exocytic pathway. Initiation of chlamydial development is concurrent with modification of the inclusion membrane by a set of C. trachomatis-encoded proteins collectively designated Incs. One of these Incs, IncA, is functionally associated with the homotypic fusion of inclusions. Incl...

  17. A high-resolution melting analysis for genotyping urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Hong; Yin, Yue-Ping; Zheng, He-Ping; Zhong, Ming-Ying; Peng, Rui-Rui; Wang, Baoxi; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) for the genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis and applied it specifically to the 11 sexually transmitted infection-related genotypes: D through K and L1 through L3. The variable segment 2 (VS2) was selected as the target for HRMA genotype identification. Eleven C. trachomatis genotypes were amplified by a nested real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the presence of the LCGreen saturating dye and showed no cross-reaction with 10 pathogenic bacteria or commensals from urogenital tract. The detection limit of HRMA method was 100 elementary bodies (EB)/mL. All of the 11 genotypes can be distinguished from each other by following an HRMA workflow. Genotype F, G, H, I, J, K, L2, and L3 could be directly identified from each other, whereas D, E, and L1 could be distinguished from each other by a second analysis with fewer curves or by heteroduplex formation with a known reference strain. In the validation panel of 36 C. trachomatis-positive urogenital samples genotyped by VS1-VS2 sequencing, nested real-time VS2 PCR followed by HRMA was able to discriminate between all samples correctly. This assay requires no fluorescence-labeled probes or separate post-PCR analysis and provides a simple and rapid approach for genotyping the C. trachomatis strains that are the most commonly sexually transmitted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of the Internet for home testing for Chlamydia trachomatis in Sweden: who are the users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, D; Novak, M

    2012-02-01

    Sweden was the first country to introduce online Chlamydia trachomatis testing for both men and women and this article provides information about the user characteristics and which risk groups are reached with this method. During the years 2005-2007 a questionnaire was administered with a response rate of 86% (n = 6025) (62.5% women, 37.5% men). Over 60% of respondents were aged below 26 years and single. The average years of education for men and women was 14 (range 9.0-26.0). The mean Internet usage time was 22.4 hours/week among men and 15.5 hours/week among women. Only 22% men and 34% women had tested themselves for C. trachomatis at clinics previously. Respondents reported a higher frequency of previous sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared with other Internet users (i.e. C. trachomatis: men 19%, women 24%). Eighty percent of online test users had engaged in sex with ≥ 2 partners without a condom during the previous year. Online C. trachomatis test users are mostly young people with high sexual risk behaviour.

  19. Clinical predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervicitis in adolescent women. Looking for the right combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remafedi, G; Abdalian, S E

    1989-12-01

    Chlamydial disease in adolescent women is a serious public health problem, but secondary preventive efforts through early detection and treatment are encumbered by the cost and complexity of mass screening. This study was undertaken to identify clinical predictors of infection that might narrow the scope of screening adolescent populations. Demographic/clinical data and endocervical smears for the direct-specimen fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody test for Chlamydia trachomatis were collected from 244 consecutive women, 21 years of age or less, attending an adolescent health clinic. Positive direct-specimen fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody test for C trachomatis results were associated with a past history of chlamydial infection, multiple sexual partners, sexual contact with men with urethritis, nonuse of condoms, metrorrhagia, exocervicitis, mucopurulent endocervical discharge, abnormal cervical cytologic features, and isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from the endocervix. These variables were entered into a discriminant analysis to predict direct-specimen fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody test for C trachomatis results. The discriminant function was statistically significant but explained only 17% of between-group variance. Two variables alone, exocervicitis and partners with urethritis, correctly predicted direct-specimen fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody test for C trachomatis results in 79% of all cases (negative predictive value 90%; positive predictive value 35%). When routine screening with reliable laboratory tests is not feasible, selective testing or empirical treatment of adolescent women with either risk factor may be cost-effective alternatives.

  20. [Chlamydia trachomatis infection in females consulting health centres in Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráiz, Nailet; Marcucci, Rafael; Colina, Sonia; Reyes, Francia; Rondón, Netxibeth; Bermúdez, Valmore; Reyna, Nadia

    2008-01-01

    Evaluating Chlamydia trachomatis infection prevalence in a group of symptomatic and asymptomatic females attending gynaecology services in health centres in Maracaibo in the state of Zulia in Venezuela. 168 patients attending two health centres in Maracaibo were included in this study. Gynaecological evaluation was based on examining the pelvis, deep areas of the vagina and the cervix. Patients were classified into groups according to age and the presence of clinical manifestations. Two DNA amplification assays of endogenous plasmid and the omp1 gene taken from endocervical swabs were used for investigating C. trachomati. 168 patients were evaluated; 81 (48,2 %) were symptomatic and 87 (51,8 %) asymptomatic, A 7,7 % prevalence (p>0.05) was found in the total population (9,9 % prevalence for symptomatic patients and 5,8 % for asymptomatic ones). The 18- 28 year old patient group exhibited the highest prevalence (13,7 %) (p=0.0322). The predominant clinical manifestations were mucopurulent secretion (35,8 %) and cervicitis (21 %). C. trachomatis was detected in 7,1 % of patients having mucopurulent secretion and 23,5 % of cervicitis cases; however, no significant association between infection and individual clinical manifestations was shown (p>0.05). Medium C. trachomatis infection prevalence was found In the population being assessed here, the highest frequency being exhibited in young females. This microorganism should be investigated in sexually-active young women, regardless of their symptomatic or asymptomatic status.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar G infection in a bisexual male with urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawre, Jyoti; Dhawan, Benu; Saigal, Karnika; Khanna, Neena

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar G urogenital tract infection in a 33-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) seropositive Indian bisexual male. This case highlights the emergence of a new serovar in India. The patient was tested positive for C. trachomatis by both cryptic plasmid and omp A gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On further characterization using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and omp A gene sequencing, the strain was found to be C. trachomatis serovar G. His spouse was also found to be infected with C. trachomatis serovar G. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the clinical isolates obtained from both partners and were found to be identical to the isolates available in GenBank. The sexual network could not be traced further. Detection of a new genotype suggests importation of a new strain into the population probably by sexual contact with a person from a geographical area where the strain is common. Identifying circulating genotypes in the community can assist in developing strategies for improved sexually transmitted disease control.

  2. External Quality Assessment for the Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Urine Using Molecular Techniques in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard China

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide. C. trachomatis is an intracellular bacterium and its growth in vitro requires cell culture facilities. The diagnosis is based on antigen detection and more recently on molecular nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT that are considered fast, sensitive, and specific. In Belgium, External Quality Assessment (EQA for the detection of C. trachomatis in urine by NAAT was introduced in 2008. From January 2008 to June 2012, nine surveys were organized. Fifty-eight laboratories participated in at least one survey. The EQA panels included positive and negative samples. The overall accuracy was 75.4%, the overall specificity was 97.6%, and the overall sensitivity was 71.4%. Two major issues were observed: the low sensitivity (45.3% for the detection of low concentration samples and the incapacity of several methods to detect the Swedish variant of C. trachomatis. The reassuring point was that the overall proficiency of the Belgian laboratories tended to improve over time.

  3. Specific-pathogen-free pigs as an animal model for studying Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanrompay, Daisy; Hoang, Thi Q T; De Vos, Liselotte; Verminnen, Kristel; Harkinezhad, Taher; Chiers, Koen; Morré, Servaas A; Cox, Eric

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate pigs as a large-animal model for female genital infection with two Chlamydia trachomatis human serovar E strains. Sixteen-week-old specific-pathogen-free female pigs (gilts) were intravaginally infected with the trachoma type E reference strain Bour or the urogenital serovar E strain 468. Several conclusions can be drawn from our findings on the pathogenicity of a primary C. trachomatis genital infection in gilts. First of all, we demonstrated that the serovar E strains Bour and 468 could ascend in the genital tract of gilts. The serovar E strains could replicate in the superficial columnar cervical epithelium and in the superficial epithelial layer of the uterus, which are known to be the specific target sites for a C. trachomatis genital infection in women. Second, inflammation and pathology occurred at the replication sites. Third, the organisms could trigger a humoral immune response, as demonstrated by the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA in both serum and genital secretion samples. Our findings imply that the pig model might be useful for studying the pathology, pathogenesis, and immune response to a C. trachomatis infection of the genital system.

  4. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Chan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM, and men who have sex only with women (MSW, including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6–35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%, 0–29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%, 2.0–77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%, and 0.2–3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2–24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%, 0.5–16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%, 2.1–23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%, and 0–3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0–5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%, 0.4–15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%, 0–11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%, and 0–22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%. Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research.

  5. Diagnosis of mucopurulent cervicitis among women at risk for Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B P; Caine, V A; Jones, R B

    1989-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of a gram stain of endocervical secretions in the prediction of endocervical infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Endocervical examinations, Gram stains and chlamydial cultures were performed on 214 women who were attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic and were at increased risk for chlamydial infection. Almost 24% of the Gram stains were judged inadequate because of the presence of ectocervical material. However, significantly higher isolation rates for C. trachomatis were found for those women with valid smears and 10 or more polymorphonuclear cells on their smear (44% vs 19%, P = .0008). This relationship was independent of the presence of gonococcal infection. Based on the results of this study, endocervical Gram stains appear to be a valuable screening tool for chlamydial infection, particularly among those without mucopurulent discharge.

  6. In vitro activity of the spermicide nonoxynol-9 against Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J P; Reynolds, R B; Stagno, S; Louv, W C; Alexander, W J

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro activity of nonoxynol-9 against four serotypes (C, D, H, and K) of Chlamydia trachomatis was investigated. A constant inoculum of each serotype was exposed to serial twofold dilutions (1:100 to 1:800) of Koromex, Conceptrol, or reference preparations (not containing nonoxynol-9) for 4 and 24 h at 37 degrees C. The mixtures of nonoxynal-9 or nonnonoxynol preparations and control inocula were dispensed into triplicate wells containing McCoy cell monolayers. After incubation at 37 degrees C, the monolayers were fixed and stained with iodine and examined for evidence of infection with C. trachomatis. All nonoxynol-9-containing preparations showed marked antichlamydial activity as judged by percent reduction of glycogen-containing intracytoplasmic inclusions. The reference preparations, which did not contain nonoxynol-9, were markedly less active when tested in this in vitro system. PMID:2990326

  7. The 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide is a DnaK-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    ,980-base-pair open reading frame revealed 94% homology with a 75-kilodalton protein from C. trachomatis serovar D and 57% homology with the DnaK proteins of E. coli and of Bacillus megaterium, while amino acid homology with human heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) was 42%. The promoter region was identified......The gene coding for the 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide has been cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence has been determined. The cloned DNA fragment contained the coding region as well as the putative promoter. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 1...... by computer search and by primer extension of mRNA synthesized in recombinant E. coli. The promoter region which differed from the putative promoter region in serovar D was shown to be a mixed promoter type in which the -10 region showed a regular TATA box configuration while the -35 region showed high...

  8. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical smears of sexually active women in Manaus-AM, Brazil, by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is now one of the most prevalent bacteria found in classic sexually transmissible diseases (STD, and as such, constitutes a serious public health problem. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in 121 sexually active women who sought treatment for STD in the Alfredo da Matta Institute of Dermatology and Venerology and the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Amazonas in Manaus, Brazil. These women were examined by a specific PCR for the chlamydial plasmid, and the nature of the amplicon was determined by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. The PCR diagnosis revealed a prevalence of 20.7% infected women.

  9. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend

    1991-01-01

    the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples......Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... not detect Chlamydia trachomatis after sufficient antibiotic treatment of the chlamydial infections....

  10. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend

    1993-01-01

    the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples......Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... not detect Chlamydia trachomatis after sufficient antibiotic treatment of the chlamydial infections....

  11. Forekomst af Chlamydia trachomatis hos værnepligtige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, P; Møller, B R; Thorsen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was 1) to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis among young men and women enrolled in military service, 2) to compare enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) of a urethral swab with a sample of first voided morning urine, 3) to determine frequency of earlier venereal diseases...... (VD) and actual symptoms of urethritis and cervicitis. EIA positive specimens were confirmed by immunofluorescent microscopy. The investigation comprised 831 men and 80 women (17-26 years). The prevalence was 5.7% (95% confidence limits 4.2-7.4%) and 15% (8-25%) for men and women, respectively (p ....005, chi 2). The agreement between the results of the urethral swab and the urine sample was low. Sensitivity and positive predictive value for urethral swab was better than for urine. The handling of urine specimens was more laborious and confirmation more difficult. The percentage of actual symptoms...

  12. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langerak Ankie A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST scheme to understand the population genetic structure and diversity of these species and to evaluate the association between genotype and disease. Results A collection of 26 strains of C. trachomatis of different serovars and clinical presentation and 18 strains of C. pneumoniae were included in the study. For comparison, sequences of C. abortus, C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum (Chlamydophila, C. muridarum (Chlamydia and of Candidatus protochlamydia and Simkania negevensis were also included. Sequences of fragments (400 – 500 base pairs from seven housekeeping genes (enoA, fumC, gatA, gidA, hemN, hlfX, oppA were analysed. Analysis of allelic profiles by eBurst revealed three non-overlapping clonal complexes among the C. trachomatis strains, while the C. pneumoniae strains formed a single group. An UPGMA tree produced from the allelic profiles resulted in three groups of sequence types. The LGV strains grouped in a single cluster, while the urogenital strains were distributed over two separated groups, one consisted solely of strains with frequent occurring serovars (E, D and F. The distribution of the different serovars over the three groups was not consistent, suggesting exchange of serovar encoding ompA sequences. In one instance, exchange of fumC sequences between strains of different groups was observed. Cluster analyses of concatenated sequences of the Chlamydophila and Chlamydia species together with those of Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania

  13. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Morelli, Giovanna; Kusecek, Barica; Morré, Servaas A; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M; Langerak, Ankie A; van der Ende, Arie

    2008-02-28

    The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to understand the population genetic structure and diversity of these species and to evaluate the association between genotype and disease. A collection of 26 strains of C. trachomatis of different serovars and clinical presentation and 18 strains of C. pneumoniae were included in the study. For comparison, sequences of C. abortus, C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum (Chlamydophila), C. muridarum (Chlamydia) and of Candidatus protochlamydia and Simkania negevensis were also included. Sequences of fragments (400 - 500 base pairs) from seven housekeeping genes (enoA, fumC, gatA, gidA, hemN, hlfX, oppA) were analysed. Analysis of allelic profiles by eBurst revealed three non-overlapping clonal complexes among the C. trachomatis strains, while the C. pneumoniae strains formed a single group. An UPGMA tree produced from the allelic profiles resulted in three groups of sequence types. The LGV strains grouped in a single cluster, while the urogenital strains were distributed over two separated groups, one consisted solely of strains with frequent occurring serovars (E, D and F). The distribution of the different serovars over the three groups was not consistent, suggesting exchange of serovar encoding ompA sequences. In one instance, exchange of fumC sequences between strains of different groups was observed. Cluster analyses of concatenated sequences of the Chlamydophila and Chlamydia species together with those of Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania negevensis resulted in a tree identical to that

  14. Developmental regulation of tandem promoters for the major outer membrane protein gene of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, R S; Wagar, E A; Edman, U

    1988-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis has a biphasic developmental cycle which is characterized by qualitative and quantitative changes in protein expression. The molecular mechanisms that mediate these changes are unknown. Evidence for transcriptional regulation of the chlamydial major outer membrane protein gene (omp1) was found by Northern hybridization of RNA isolated sequentially during the chlamydial developmental cycle. Early in the growth cycle a single transcript was detected, which was followed hours later in the cycle by an additional transcript. Mapping of the initiating nucleotide for each transcript suggested that this gene is regulated by differential transcription from tandem promoters. Images PMID:2448291

  15. Large-scale testing of women in Copenhagen has not reduced the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, H.; Kolmos, H J

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a stable, large-scale enzyme immunoassay (EIA) Chlamydia trachomatis testing situation in Copenhagen, and to estimate the impact of introducing a genomic-based assay with higher sensitivity and specificity. METHODS: Over a five-year study period, 25 305-28 505...... and negative predictive values of the Chlamydia test result, new screening strategies for both men and women in younger age groups will be necessary if chlamydial infections are to be curtailed....

  16. Severe Sepsis and Acute Myocardial Dysfunction in an Adolescent with Chlamydia Trachomatis Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ashley M; Roden, R Claire; Matson, Steven C; Wallace, Grant M; Lange, Hannah L H; Bonny, Andrea E

    2018-04-01

    Although generally asymptomatic, severe Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infections have been documented. C. trachomatis has been associated with myocarditis as well as sepsis. A 19-year-old girl with type 1 diabetes mellitus developed sudden-onset mental status change and shock after resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis. Abdominal and pelvic imaging showed uterine and adnexal inflammation, and pelvic examination confirmed a diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease. The patient was intubated, required vasopressor support, and developed severe biventricular myocardial dysfunction. Infectious myocarditis workup was negative. Nucleic acid amplification testing from vaginal discharge was positive for C. trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis and negative for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. C. trachomatis should be considered in the workup of septic shock, particularly in populations at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of type III secretion substrates of Chlamydia trachomatis using Yersinia enterocolitica as a heterologous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Maria; Milho, Catarina; Almeida, Filipe; Pais, Sara V; Borges, Vítor; Maurício, Rui; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, João Paulo; Mota, Luís Jaime

    2014-02-17

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen causing ocular and urogenital infections that are a significant clinical and public health concern. This bacterium uses a type III secretion (T3S) system to manipulate host cells, through the delivery of effector proteins into their cytosol, membranes, and nucleus. In this work, we aimed to find previously unidentified C. trachomatis T3S substrates. We first analyzed the genome of C. trachomatis L2/434 strain for genes encoding mostly uncharacterized proteins that did not appear to possess a signal of the general secretory pathway and which had not been previously experimentally shown to be T3S substrates. We selected several genes with these characteristics and analyzed T3S of the encoding proteins using Yersinia enterocolitica as a heterologous system. We identified 23 C. trachomatis proteins whose first 20 amino acids were sufficient to drive T3S of the mature form of β-lactamase TEM-1 by Y. enterocolitica. We found that 10 of these 23 proteins were also type III secreted in their full-length versions by Y. enterocolitica, providing additional support that they are T3S substrates. Seven of these 10 likely T3S substrates of C. trachomatis were delivered by Y. enterocolitica into host cells, further suggesting that they could be effectors. Finally, real-time quantitative PCR analysis of expression of genes encoding the 10 likely T3S substrates of C. trachomatis showed that 9 of them were clearly expressed during infection of host cells. Using Y. enterocolitica as a heterologous system, we identified 10 likely T3S substrates of C. trachomatis (CT053, CT105, CT142, CT143, CT144, CT161, CT338, CT429, CT656, and CT849) and could detect translocation into host cells of CT053, CT105, CT142, CT143, CT161, CT338, and CT429. Therefore, we revealed several C. trachomatis proteins that could be effectors subverting host cell processes.

  18. The use and limitations of endocervical Gram stains and mucopurulent cervicitis as predictors for Chlamydia trachomatis in female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscicki, B; Shafer, M A; Millstein, S G; Irwin, C E; Schachter, J

    1987-07-01

    We evaluated the presence of polymorphonuclear cells on endocervical Gram stains and clinical indices of cervicitis as predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 193 sexually active female adolescents; 148 (77%) subjects had no complaints. C. trachomatis was isolated from 34 (18%) subjects. The incidence of C. trachomatis differed by race: it was isolated from 30% of black subjects and 7% of nonblack subjects. Polymorphonuclear cells on Gram stains were found to be associated with the presence of C. trachomatis (chi 2 = 33.2, p less than 0.0001). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for polymorphonuclear cells to predict the presence of C. trachomatis were 91% (31/34), 65% (103/159), and 36% (31/87), respectively. When examined by ethnicity, polymorphonuclear cells remained significantly associated with C. trachomatis for black subjects (chi 2 = 24.3, p less than 0.001) but not for nonblack subjects (chi 2 = 2.49, p less than 0.1). Mucopurulent discharge, friability, or erythema-edema of ectopy were not reliable indicators for C. trachomatis. Endocervical Gram stains alone are useful to identify populations at risk for C. trachomatis infection. Caution must be advised when interpreting data from different population groups because of the variability in C. trachomatis prevalence.

  19. Detecção do DNA de Chlamydia trachomatis em espondiloartropatias e artrite reumatóide Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Navarrete Fernandez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis é a bactéria responsável pela doença sexualmente transmissível mais prevalente no mundo. A maioria das infecções em homens e mulheres é assintomática e, quando não diagnosticada e tratada, pode causar artrite e complicações relacionadas ao aparelho reprodutor feminino. OBJETIVO: pesquisar o DNA de C. trachomatis no líquido sinovial e urina de pacientes com espondiloartropatias e artrite reumatóide (AR, avaliar a presença de anticorpos séricos IgG e IgM anti-C. trachomatis nesses dois grupos de doenças e identificar o antígeno HLA-B27 em pacientes com espondiloartropatias. MÉTODOS: a população do estudo consistiu em 15 pacientes com espondiloartropatias: nove com espondiloartropatia indiferenciada (EI e seis com artrite reativa (ARe (grupo I e 15 pacientes com AR (grupo II. O DNA clamidial foi pesquisado em amostras de líquido sinovial e urina de todos os pacientes, empregando-se a PCR (Amplicor Roche, Suíça. Os anticorpos IgG e IgM anticlamidiais foram quantificados por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI, enquanto o HLA-B27 foi tipado em 15 pacientes do grupo I por citometria de fluxo. RESULTADOS: o DNA da C. trachomatis foi evidenciado apenas em uma amostra de líquido sinovial do grupo I (6,7%, sendo o paciente portador de ARe. Em dois pacientes com AR, o DNA clamidial foi identificado na urina (13,3%. Os anticorpos IgG anticlamidiais estavam presentes em oito pacientes da população estudada, três do grupo I (20% e cinco do grupo II (33,3%. O maior título desse anticorpo (1/256 associou-se com a presença do DNA clamidial na urina de um paciente do grupo II. O anticorpo IgM não foi detectado em nenhuma amostra dos dois grupos. O antígeno HLA-B27 foi positivo em quatro indivíduos do grupo II (26,7% e sua presença relacionou-se com sacroileíte. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados deste estudo indicam que em pacientes com diagnóstico de espondiloartropatias e artrite reumatóide, com quadro articular

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis responds to heat shock, penicillin induced persistence, and IFN-gamma persistence by altering levels of the extracytoplasmic stress response protease HtrA

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    Mathews Sarah A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and a leading cause of preventable blindness. HtrA is a virulence and stress response periplasmic serine protease and molecular chaperone found in many bacteria. Recombinant purified C. trachomatis HtrA has been previously shown to have both activities. This investigation examined the physiological role of Chlamydia trachomatis HtrA. Results The Chlamydia trachomatis htrA gene complemented the lethal high temperature phenotype of Escherichia coli htrA- (>42°C. HtrA levels were detected to increase by western blot and immunofluorescence during Chlamydia heat shock experiments. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a likely periplasmic localisation of HtrA. During penicillin induced persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis, HtrA levels (as a ratio of LPS were initially less than control acute cultures (20 h post infection but increased to more than acute cultures at 44 h post infection. This was unlike IFN-γ persistence where lower levels of HtrA were observed, suggesting Chlamydia trachomatis IFN-γ persistence does not involve a broad stress response. Conclusion The heterologous heat shock protection for Escherichia coli, and increased HtrA during cell wall disruption via penicillin and heat shock, indicates an important role for HtrA during high protein stress conditions for Chlamydia trachomatis.

  1. An optimal method of iron starvation of the obligate intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Christopher C. Thompson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor in a number of critical biochemical reactions, and as such, its acquisition, storage, and metabolism is highly regulated in most organisms. The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis experiences a developmental arrest when iron within the host is depleted. The nature of the iron starvation response in Chlamydia is relatively uncharacterized because of the likely inefficient method of iron depletion, which currently relies on the compound deferoxamine mesylate (DFO. Inefficient induction of the iron starvation response precludes the identification of iron-regulated genes. This report evaluated DFO with another iron chelator, 2,2’-bipyridyl (Bpdl and presented a systematic comparison of the two across a range of criteria in a single-treatment time-of-infection regimen. We demonstrate that the membrane permeable Bpdl was superior to DFO in the inhibition of chlamydia development, the induction of aberrant morphology, and the induction of an iron starvation transcriptional response in both host and bacteria. Furthermore, iron starvation using Bpdl identified the periplasmic iron binding protein-encoding ytgA gene as iron- responsive. Overall, the data present a compelling argument for the use of Bpdl, rather than DFO, in future iron starvation studies of chlamydia and other intracellular bacteria.

  2. Prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, México Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in registered prostitutes of Durango City, Mexico

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    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, Durango y establecer si existe alguna correlación entre los datos epidemiológicos y la infección. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiadas 247 prostitutas y se obtuvieron muestras endocervicales y datos epidemiológicos. La prueba Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, EUA fue usada para detectar el antígeno de C. trachomatis. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas para C. trachomatis 41 prostitutas (16.6%, y 37 de ellas habían tenido actividad sexual en diferentes estados de la República mexicana, en comparación con las 206 mujeres negativas, entre las que sólo 109 habían tenido relaciones sexuales fuera de Durango (pOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among registered prostitutes of Durango City and to establish whether there is a correlation between epidemiological factors and infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two-hundred-and-forty-seven registered prostitutes of Durango city were studied. Endocervical samples and epidemiological data were obtained. C. trachomatis antigen was detected with the Chlamydiazyme test (Abbott Laboratories, USA. RESULTS: Forty-one (16.6% out of 247 prostitutes were positive to C. trachomatis. Thirty-seven out of the 41 positive women had had sexual activity on several States of Mexico (95.1%, as compared to only 109 out of 206 negative women (53.0% (p<.0001. Prostitutes positive to C. trachomatis (39/41, 95.1% were more likely to belong to low socioeconomic level than negatives (171/206, 83% (p=0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 16.6%. C. trachomatis infection was associated with sexual activity in multiple States of Mexico, and had a tendency to be associated with low socioeconomic level.

  3. Cytokinesis is blocked in mammalian cells transfected with Chlamydia trachomatis gene CT223

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    Weeks Sara K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chlamydiae alter many aspects of host cell biology, including the division process, but the molecular biology of these alterations remains poorly characterized. Chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins (Incs are likely candidates for direct interactions with host cell cytosolic proteins, as they are secreted to the inclusion membrane and exposed to the cytosol. The inc gene CT223 is one of a sequential set of orfs that encode or are predicted to encode Inc proteins. CT223p is localized to the inclusion membrane in all tested C. trachomatis serovars. Results A plasmid transfection approach was used to examine the function of the product of CT223 and other Inc proteins within uninfected mammalian cells. Fluorescence microscopy was used to demonstrate that CT223, and, to a lesser extent, adjacent inc genes, are capable of blocking host cell cytokinesis and facilitating centromere supranumeracy defects seen by others in chlamydiae-infected cells. Both phenotypes were associated with transfection of plasmids encoding the carboxy-terminal tail of CT223p, a region of the protein that is likely exposed to the cytosol in infected cells. Conclusion These studies suggest that certain Inc proteins block cytokinesis in C. trachomatis-infected cells. These results are consistent with the work of others showing chlamydial inhibition of host cell cytokinesis.

  4. Assessing a potential role of host Pannexin 1 during Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

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    Mary J McKuen

    Full Text Available Pannexin 1 (Panx1 is a plasma membrane channel glycoprotein that plays a role in innate immune response through association with the inflammasome complex. Probenecid, a classic pharmacological agent for gout, has also been used historically in combination therapy with antibiotics to prevent cellular drug efflux and has been reported to inhibit Panx1. As the inflammasome has been implicated in the progression of Chlamydia infections, and with chlamydial infections at record levels in the US, we therefore investigated whether probenecid would have a direct effect on Chlamydia trachomatis development through inhibition of Panx1. We found chlamydial development to be inhibited in a dose-dependent, yet reversible manner in the presence of probenecid. Drug treatment induced an aberrant chlamydial morphology consistent with persistent bodies. Although Panx1 was shown to localize to the chlamydial inclusion, no difference was seen in chlamydial development during infection of cells derived from wild-type and Panx1 knockout mice. Therefore, probenecid may inhibit C. trachomatis growth by an as yet unresolved mechanism.

  5. Diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections using antigen detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, W E

    1986-03-01

    Rapid antigen detection methods have great potential value in managing sexually transmitted gonococcal and chlamydial infections. Ideally, such tests should be rapid, technically simple, inexpensive, accurate, and applicable to all sites of infection commonly sampled (cervix, urethra, pharynx). For gonorrhea, the Gram stain fulfills these criteria in men with symptomatic urethritis, but lacks sensitivity when used at other sites or in asymptomatic patients. Antigen detection for gonorrhea would thus be of greatest value in 1) the diagnosis of gonococcal cervical infections in women with mucopurulent cervicitis or pelvic inflammatory disease, 2) the diagnosis of gonococcal proctitis in homosexual men, and 3) in situations requiring lengthy specimen transport. Because culture confirmation of Chlamydia trachomatis infections is not widely available, antigen detection tests could be of great value in management of these infections. Major uses include 1) confirming infection in women with cervicitis, endometritis, and pelvic inflammatory disease; 2) screening for asymptomatic infections in high risk groups of women; and 3) confirmation of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in infants and in adult males. The currently available methods for diagnosis of gonococcal and chlamydial infection by antigen detection are reviewed herein. Continued experience with antigen detection tests in well defined populations having high and low risk of gonococcal and chlamydial infection is needed to more fully determine how best to utilize these assays.

  6. Membrane proteins PmpG and PmpH are major constituents of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Per H; Christiansen, Gunna; Roepstorff, P

    2000-01-01

    The outer membrane complex of Chlamydia is involved in the initial adherence and ingestion of Chlamydia by the host cell. In order to identify novel proteins in the outer membrane of Chlamydia trachomatis L2, proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. By....... By silver staining of the protein profile, a major protein doublet of 100-110 kDa was detected. In-gel tryptic digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry identified these proteins as the putative outer membrane proteins PmpG and PmpH....

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis IncA Is Localized to the Inclusion Membrane and Is Recognized by Antisera from Infected Humans and Primates†

    OpenAIRE

    Bannantine, John P.; Stamm, Walter E.; Suchland, Robert J.; Rockey, Daniel D.

    1998-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci produces a collection of proteins, termed IncA, IncB, and IncC, that are localized to the chlamydial inclusion membrane. In this report we demonstrate that IncA is also produced by Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis IncA is structurally similar to C. psittaci IncA and is also localized to the inclusion membrane. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that sera from C. trachomatis-infected patients and from experimentally infected monkeys both recognized C. trachomatis IncA.

  8. Genomic analyses of the Chlamydia trachomatis core genome show an association between chromosomal genome, plasmid type and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Bart; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; van der Ende, Arie; Harrison, Odile B.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) plasmid has been shown to encode genes essential for infection. We evaluated the population structure of Ct using whole-genome sequence data (WGS). In particular, the relationship between the Ct genome, plasmid and disease was investigated. Results: WGS data

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis and invasive cervical cancer: a pooled analysis of the IARC multicentric case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.S.; Bosetti, C; Munoz, N.; Herrero, R; Bosch, F.X.; Eluf-Neto, J; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Brule, van den AJ; Franceschi, S; Peeling, RW

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection is consistently associated with an increased risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) after accounting for the strong effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a case-control study of 1,238 cases of ICC and 1,100 control women from 7

  10. Construction of physical and genetic maps of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    We constructed the physical map of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 by using three restriction endonucleases, NotI (GC[GGCCGC), SgrAI (C(A/G)[CCGG(T/G)G), and Sse8387I (CCTGCA[GG), and we analyzed the fragments by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 25 restriction endonuclease sites and 13...

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Schmiedel, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical intraepithel...... intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in women with prevalent HPV infection and in a subgroup of women with persistent HPV infection....

  12. Plasmid deficiency in urogenital isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis reduces infectivity and virulence in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigar, Ira M; Schripsema, Justin H; Wang, Yibing; Clarke, Ian N; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Seth-Smith, Helena M B; Thomson, Nicholas R; Bjartling, Carina; Unemo, Magnus; Persson, Kenneth; Ramsey, Kyle H

    2014-02-01

    We hypothesized that the plasmid of urogenital isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis would modulate infectivity and virulence in a mouse model. To test this hypothesis, we infected female mice in the respiratory or urogenital tract with graded doses of a human urogenital isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar F, possessing the cognate plasmid. For comparison, we inoculated mice with a plasmid-free serovar F isolate. Following urogenital inoculation, the plasmid-free isolate displayed significantly reduced infectivity compared with the wild-type strain with the latter yielding a 17-fold lower infectious dose to yield 50% infection. When inoculated via the respiratory tract, the plasmid-free isolate exhibited reduced infectivity and virulence (as measured by weight change) when compared to the wild-type isolate. Further, differences in infectivity, but not in virulence were observed in a C. trachomatis, serovar E isolate with a deletion within the plasmid coding sequence 1 when compared to a serovar E isolate with no mutations in the plasmid. We conclude that plasmid loss reduces virulence and infectivity in this mouse model. These findings further support a role for the chlamydial plasmid in infectivity and virulence in vivo. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. T Lymphocyte Immunity in Host Defence against Chlamydia trachomatis and Its Implication for Vaccine Development

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    X Yang

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes several significant human infectious diseases, including trachoma, urethritis, cervicitis and salpingitis, and is an important cofactor for transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Until very recently, over three decades of research effort aimed at developing a C trachomatis vaccine had failed, due mainly to the lack of a precise understanding of the mechanisms for protective immunity. Although most studies concerning protective immunity to C trachomatis have focused on humoral immune responses, recent studies have clearly shown that T helper-1 (Th1-like CD4 T cell-mediated immune responses play the dominant role in protective immunity. These studies suggest a paradigm for chlamydial immunity and pathology based on the concept of heterogeneity (Th1/Th2 in CD4 T cell immune responses. This concept for chlamydial immunity offers a rational template on which to base renewed efforts for development of a chlamydial vaccine that targets the induction of cell-mediated Th1 immune responses.

  14. Individual and population level effects of partner notification for Chlamydia trachomatis.

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    Christian L Althaus

    Full Text Available Partner notification (PN or contact tracing is an important aspect of treating bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs, such as Chlamydia trachomatis. It facilitates the identification of new infected cases that can be treated through individual case management. PN also acts indirectly by limiting onward transmission in the general population. However, the impact of PN, both at the level of individuals and the population, remains unclear. Since it is difficult to study the effects of PN empirically, mathematical and computational models are useful tools for investigating its potential as a public health intervention. To this end, we developed an individual-based modeling framework called Rstisim. It allows the implementation of different models of STI transmission with various levels of complexity and the reconstruction of the complete dynamic sexual partnership network over any time period. A key feature of this framework is that we can trace an individual's partnership history in detail and investigate the outcome of different PN strategies for C. trachomatis. For individual case management, the results suggest that notifying three or more partners from the preceding 18 months yields substantial numbers of new cases. In contrast, the successful treatment of current partners is most important for preventing re-infection of index cases and reducing further transmission of C. trachomatis at the population level. The findings of this study demonstrate the difference between individual and population level outcomes of public health interventions for STIs.

  15. Intrauterine inoculation of minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis during diestrus establishes a longer lasting infection compared to vaginal inoculation during estrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Secher, Jan O

    2017-01-01

    Advanced animal models, such as minipigs, are needed for the development of a globally requested human Chlamydia vaccine. Previous studies have shown that vaginal inoculation of sexually mature Göttingen minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis resulted in an infection lasting only 3-5 days. The aim...... of a C. trachomatis infection in the minipig. Targeting the upper genital tract (transcervical inoculation) resulted in a longer lasting infection (at least 7 days) compared to vaginal inoculation (3-5 days). When comparing intrauterine inoculation during estrus and diestrus, inoculation during diestrus...... resulted in a longer lasting infection (at least 10 days) compared to estrus (3-5 days). Furthermore, we found a significant C. trachomatis specific IFN-γ response in pigs inoculated during estrus correlating with the accelerated clearance of infection in these pigs. These findings suggest...

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60-specific antibody and cell-mediated responses predict tubal factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiitinen, A.; Surcel, H.-M.; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 88 women with TFI and 163 control women. C. trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (CHSP......60)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Proliferative reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied in vitro against Chlamydia elementary body (EB) and recombinant CHSP60 antigens. RESULTS: C. trachomatis......-specific IgG antibodies were found more frequently (43.2 versus 13.5%), and the antibody levels were higher in the TFI cases than in the controls (P cases and 58.9% of the controls (P

  17. Use of cell culture and a rapid diagnostic assay for Chlamydia trachomatis screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, E W; Spitters, C; Reichart, C A; Neumann, T M; Quinn, T C

    1994-09-21

    To compare a rapid, office-based test with standard cell culture for screening of women for Chlamydia trachomatis infections. An 8-month prospective crossover trial used alternating screening protocols in two Baltimore (Md) sexually transmitted disease clinics from January 2 through August 14, 1991. Consecutive women attending the two clinics who had no indication for administration of antichlamydial antibiotic therapy (eg, history of recent sexual contact with a partner with a sexually transmitted disease, mucopurulent cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, known gonorrhea, or previously diagnosed Chlamydia infections). Chlamydia screening was offered according to one of two protocols. Use of the two screening protocols was alternated between clinics each month. In the "rapid test clinic," eligible women were screened with both a 30-minute enzyme immunoassay test and tissue culture. Patients screened with the rapid test were asked to remain in the clinic until their rapid assay results were available so that, if positive, the patients could be treated. In the "routine screening clinic," eligible women were screened for Chlamydia by cell culture. Women identified as being infected with Chlamydia by screening culture were later confidentially notified of their test results by health department disease intervention specialists and referred for therapy. Performance of screening tests for bringing infected patients to therapy; time intervals between initial clinic visits and therapy; and pelvic inflammatory disease occurring between initial visits and therapy. Chlamydia cultures were positive in 100 (6.6%) of 1526 women screened with the solid-phase immunoassay, 47 of which were detected and treated on the basis of rapid test results. In contrast, 93 (74%) of 126 women with positive screening cultures returned to the clinic and received therapy. The median interval between testing and therapy for women with positive screening cultures was 14 days, and three (3

  18. Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en mujeres cubanas en edad reproductiva Infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in Cuban women at reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maydelín Frontela Noda

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la frecuencia y los factores asociados a la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en mujeres cubanas en edad reproductiva. Se realizó un estudio transversal en mujeres que asistieron a consultas de ginecología, infertilidad y terminación del embarazo en Ciudad de La Habana. Se obtuvieron muestras de exudado endocervical de 224 mujeres, mediante la técnica de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Adicionalmente se aplicó un cuestionario sobre algunos aspectos sociodemográficos, clínicos y de conducta sexual. Los datos se analizaron con el uso de los métodos de Chi cuadrado y razón de ventajas. La frecuencia total de la infección fue de 6,9. Hubo 6 asociaciones significativas: edad menor de 25 años (14,5, que fuera soltera (13,4; no refiriera síntomas de infección ginecológica (14,0; no tuviera antecedentes de enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica (10,1 ni de infecciones de transmisión sexual (12,3 y que hubiera tenido más de una pareja sexual en los últimos 3 meses. Se concluye que estos resultados demuestran que la infección se presenta con mayor frecuencia en las mujeres adolescentes y adultas jóvenes, solteras, asintomáticas y con conductas sexuales de riesgo.The aim of this article was to determine the frequency and factors associated with the infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis at reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted among women that visited the offices of gynecology, infertility and full pregnancy, in Havana City. Endocervical smear samples from 224 women were obtained and processed by polymerase chain reaction. A questionnaire was applied on some sociodemographic, clinical and sexual behavior aspects. Data were analyzed by the Chi square test and odds ratio. The total frequency of infection was 6.9. Six significant associations were found: age under 25 (14.5, being single (13.4, referring no symptoms of gynecological infection (14.0, having no

  19. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among men with urethritis in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sweih, N A; Khan, S; Rotimi, V O

    2011-09-01

    Chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis and gonorrhoea are the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections worldwide. Data on these infections are scanty in the Islamic world, especially Kuwait. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among men with symptomatic urethritis in Kuwait. Men with urethral discharge seen and managed at eight governmental hospitals were recruited into the study. A pair of urethral swab and first-voided urine sample were taken from the patients and sent immediately to the laboratory where they were processed using strand displacement nucleic acid amplification kits (SDA; ProbeTec, Becton Dickinson); one pair per patient was studied. A total of 426 symptomatic men were studied, out of whom 155 (36.4%) were infected by either C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae, or both. The overall prevalence rates of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were 12.4% and 23.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference in chlamydial and gonococcal prevalence between Kuwaiti men and non-Kuwaitis (P>0.05). Infection rates were much lower in married men than unmarried men. Men in the age range of 21-35 years were more vulnerable to both infections. The findings show that N. gonorrhoeae and, to a lesser extent, C. trachomatis are common in men with urethritis in Kuwait. Appropriate preventive strategies that conform to Islamic rules and values should be of highest priority of the policymakers. Copyright © 2011 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of novel type III secretion chaperone-substrate complexes of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Sara V; Milho, Catarina; Almeida, Filipe; Mota, Luís Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans that uses a type III secretion (T3S) system to manipulate host cells through the delivery of effector proteins into their cytosol and membranes. The function of T3S systems depends on small bacterial cytosolic chaperone-like proteins, which bind T3S substrates and ensure their appropriate secretion. To find novel T3S chaperone-substrate complexes of C. trachomatis we first searched its genome for genes encoding proteins with features of T3S chaperones. We then systematically tested for interactions between candidate chaperones and chlamydial T3S substrates by bacterial two-hybrid. This revealed interactions between Slc1 (a known T3S chaperone) or CT584 and several T3S substrates. Co-immunoprecipitation after protein expression in Yersinia enterocolitica and protein overlay binding assays indicated that Slc1 interacted with the N-terminal region of the known T3S substrates Tarp (a previously described substrate of Slc1), CT694, and CT695, and that CT584 interacted with a central region of CT082, which we identified as a C. trachomatis T3S substrate using Y. enterocolitica as a heterologous system. Further T3S assays in Yersinia indicated that Slc1 or CT584 increased the amount of secreted Tarp, CT694, and CT695, or CT082, respectively. Expression of CT584 increased the intra-bacterial stability of CT082, while Slc1 did not affect the stability of its substrates. Overall, this indicated that in C. trachomatis Slc1 is a chaperone of multiple T3S substrates and that CT584 is a chaperone of the newly identified T3S substrate CT082.

  1. Histopathology of endocervical infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviat, N B; Paavonen, J A; Wølner-Hanssen, P; Critchlow, C W; Stamm, W E; Douglas, J; Eschenbach, D A; Corey, L A; Holmes, K K

    1990-08-01

    We determined the histologic correlates of clinically identified mucopurulent cervicitis, culture-proven cervical infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and vaginal infection with Trichomonas vaginalis by examining cervical biopsies from 83 women. Clinical mucopurulent cervicitis and culture-documented infection with one or more of these pathogens correlated histologically with intraepithelial neutrophils, reactive endocervical cells, edema, luminal neutrophils, and with several deeper tissue changes such as extensive and dense subepithelial inflammation, granulation tissue, and necrotic ulceration. Focal loss of surface columnar cells and spongiosis were also correlated with culture-confirmed infection. Well-formed germinal centers were seen in biopsies from 14 of 21 patients (67%) with C trachomatis infection alone, but in none of 17 patients with infections other than C trachomatis (P less than 0.001). A predominantly plasmacytic infiltrate was also significantly associated with chlamydial infection. Necrotic ulcers overlying a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate were seen in six of nine patients (67%) with HSV infection alone but in only two of 40 patients (5%) with other infections (P less than 0.001). Marked inflammatory changes were not seen in the patients infected with N gonorrhoeae. The organism T vaginalis was not associated with any endocervical pathology. If these results are confirmed by prospective studies, they suggest that pathologists should alert clinicians to the possibility of recent or current infection with C trachomatis or HSV when cervical biopsies show the above changes. The loss of surface columnar epithelium with HSV, chlamydial, and gonococcal infection offers a possible explanation for the reported association of these infections with increased risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  2. Daily oral grepafloxacin vs. twice daily oral doxycycline in the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, W M; Martin, D H; Hook, E W; Jones, R B

    1998-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of a 7-day course of treatment with oral grepafloxacin, 400 mg once daily, and oral doxycycline, 100 mg twice daily, in patients with chlamydial cervicitis. Women aged 18 years or older attending 17 sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States who had clinical signs of mucopurulent cervicitis or who had a recent positive culture or nonculture test for Chlamydia trachomatis or who had contact with a male partner with a positive culture for C. trachomatis were enrolled into this randomized, double-blind, active-controlled clinical study. The diagnosis of chlamydial cervicitis was based on culture for C. trachomatis. Patients were randomized to receive a 7-day course of treatment with either oral grepafloxacin, 400 mg once daily, or oral doxycycline, 100 mg twice daily. Response to therapy was assessed 3-8 days and 21-28 days after completion of treatment. The primary measure of efficacy was eradication of C. trachomatis at the 21-28 day follow-up visit. Clinical success, defined as improvement or complete resolution of the signs and symptoms of cervicitis, was a secondary measure of efficacy. Of the 451 female patients enrolled, 228 received grepafloxacin and 223 received doxycycline. In all, 154/451 (35%) patients were evaluable at the 21-28 day follow-up (81 who received grepafloxacin and 73 who received doxycycline). Microbiologic and clinical success rates demonstrated the equivalence of the two treatments. The C. trachomatis eradication rates were 96.3% (78/81) and 98.6% (72/73) for patients receiving grepafloxacin or doxycycline, respectively. The two study drugs were also equivalent in resolving clinical signs and symptoms, with clinical success rates of 88.9% (64/72) and 89.5% (51/57) for patients treated with grepafloxacin and doxycycline, respectively. Both drugs were well tolerated, with 47% of patients receiving grepafloxacin and 46% of patients receiving doxycycline experiencing drug-related adverse events

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E isolates from patients with different clinical manifestations have similar courses of infection in a murine model: host factors as major determinants of C trachomatis mediated pathogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyons, JM; Ito, JIJr; Morre, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some investigators have proposed an association between certain Chlamydia trachomatis serovars and the clinical course of infection in humans. A recent study of over 1100 patients with culture confirmed and serotyped C trachomatis urogenital infection detected no such association. AIMS:

  4. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Serostatus With Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men: The HPV in Men Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men; therefore, we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2

  5. Risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among users of an internet-based testing service in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Masuma; Novak, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to assess potential risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among users of an Internet-based testing service in Sweden. Users of an Internet-based C. trachomatis testing service sent in home urine samples by post which were analysed for C. trachomatis and answered a questionnaire regarding their socio-demographic background, sexual risk behaviour, and sexual health. Potential risk factors for C. trachomatis were determined by logistic regression models. The questionnaire response rate was 86% (6025/6978) with a male and female response rate of 77% and 93%, respectively. 5763 subjects both answered questionnaire and supplied urine sample. Mean age was 24.4 years (range 15-67 years) and 62% were women. The participants'C. trachomatis prevalence in men was 8.0% (73/2163) and 5.6% in women (201/3600). Compared to non-infected individuals, the C. trachomatis infected men and women were younger, had a higher number of sexual partners, more intercourse without condom (only men). After adjusting for age, civil status, and geographical region, the risk factors significantly associated with C. trachomatis infection were multiple partners during the previous year, non-condom usage, and having symptoms (only men). A novel finding was that, in women, believing to be infected and having been requested to be tested by a sexual partner, was associated with an increased risk of having a C. trachomatis infection. The Internet-based C. trachomatis testing service reaches a risk group of men and women. The results emphasise the value of self-risk assessment for C. trachomatis infection and the importance of easy accessible and simple sexual transmitted infection testing services. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma reduces the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, M; Bottomley, C; Tome, H; Pitakaka, R; Butcher, R; Sokana, O; Kako, H; Solomon, A W; Mabey, D C

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection and is frequently asymptomatic; ocular C. trachomatis strains cause trachoma. Mass drug administration (MDA) of azithromycin for trachoma might also reduce the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis. In a survey conducted in the Solomon Islands in 2014, prior to MDA, the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis was 20.3% (95% CI 15.9% to 25.4%). We conducted a survey to establish the impact of MDA with azithromycin on genital C. trachomatis. Women attending three community outpatient clinics, predominantly for antenatal care, 10 months after MDA with azithromycin given for trachoma elimination, were enrolled in this survey. Self-taken high vaginal swabs were for C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the BD Probetec strand displacement assay. 298 women were enrolled. C. trachomatis infection was diagnosed in 43 women (14.4%, 95% CI 10.6% to 18.9%) and N. gonorrhoeae in 9 (3%, 95% CI 1.4% to 5.7%). The age-adjusted OR for C. trachomatis infection was consistent with a significant decrease in the prevalence of C. trachomatis following MDA (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.94, p=0.027). There was no change in the prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae between following MDA (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.22, p=0.13). This study demonstrated a 40% reduction in the age-adjusted prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection following azithromycin MDA for trachoma elimination. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis: correlation with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in female STI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, Matilda; Tunbäck, Petra

    2013-03-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent genital infections and is an important cause of tubal factor infertility. The majority of infected females are asymptomatic. Evidence on the reliability of signs of inflammation used to predict chlamydia in female patients is inconsistent. This study examined associations between criteria routinely used in many Scandinavian sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and a positive chlamydia test in a high-prevalence population. Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis were recorded in 99 women attending due to chlamydia infection in a sexual partner. Mucopurulent cervical discharge, easily induced bleeding from the cervix, and more polymorpho-nuclear cells than epithelial cells in vaginal wet smear all correlated significantly with a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test (odds ratios: 3.4, 4.0 and 4.8, respectively). Increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (>30 and ≥ 5 respectively) in stained cervical and urethral smears were not significantly correlated with chlamydia infection. Hence, routine collection of cervical and urethral smears in female STI patients is questionable.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis and invasive cervical cancer: a pooled analysis of the IARC multicentric case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer S; Bosetti, Cristina; Muñoz, Nubia; Herrero, Rolando; Bosch, F Xavier; Eluf-Neto, José; Meijer, Chris J L M; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J C; Franceschi, Silvia; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection is consistently associated with an increased risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) after accounting for the strong effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a case-control study of 1,238 cases of ICC and 1,100 control women from 7 countries was carried out (hospital-based studies in Thailand, the Philippines, Morocco, Peru, Brazil and population-based studies in Colombia and Spain, all coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France). C. trachomatis serum antibody detection was made by means of a microfluorescence assay. Among HPV DNA-positive cases and controls, the risk of squamous cell ICC was elevated in C. trachomatis seropositive women (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.2-2.7) after adjustment for age, center, oral contraceptive use, history of Pap smears, number of full-term pregnancies and herpes simplex virus 2 seropositivity. The effect of C. trachomatis seropositivity on squamous cell ICC risk increased with increasing C. trachomatis antibody titers and was higher in women under 55 years of age. C. trachomatis antibodies were not associated with adeno- or adenosquamous cell carcinoma (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.53-1.9) in HPV DNA-positive women. An association of C. trachomatis with squamous cell ICC was found among all cases and control women with or without adjustment for HPV. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis & herpes simplex virus in males with urethritis & females with cervicitis attending STD clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malathi, J; Madhavan, H N; Therese, K L; Rinku, J P; Narendar, K P

    2002-08-01

    Cervicitis and urethritis due to Chlamydia trachomatis are common sexually transmitted diseases. However, there is a paucity of information on urethritis and mucopurulent cervicitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) from India. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to find out the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HSV associated urethritis in males and mucopurulent cervicitis in females attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic. Twenty five endocervical swabs from 25 women with mucopurulent cervicitis and 75 urethral swabs from 72 males with urethritis were processed for the detection of C. trachomatis and HSV by antigen detection by fluorescent antibody test (FAT), culture and PCR. Among the 25 women, one (4.0%) was positive for C. trachomatis and 3 (12.0%) were positive for HSV by PCR. FAT and culture were negative. Nine (12.0%) of the 75 urethral swabs were positive for C. trachomatis and 5 (6.6%) were positive for HSV by PCR. Among the 9 positive by PCR for C. trachomatis, 3 (4.0%) were positive by FAT. Cultures for both organisms were negative. Endocervicitis and male urethritis due to C. trachomatis and HSV are not uncommon among high-risk individuals. The diagnosis could be established mainly by PCR.

  10. Dysbiosis of the Vaginal Microbiota and Higher Vaginal Kynurenine/Tryptophan Ratio Reveals an Association with Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Ziklo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural course of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital tract infections varies between individuals. While protective immunity can occur, some women can become reinfected, contributing to the development of severe pathology. While the reasons for these differences are unknown, an individual's response to induced interferon-γ (IFN-γ is suggested to be critical. IFN-γ induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which depletes tryptophan, may be the key. One hypothesis suggests that indole-producing bacteria in the vaginal microbiota can provide a substrate for the Chlamydia to synthesize tryptophan, rescuing the Chlamydia from host IFN-γ attack. We studied a cohort of 25 women who were either, Chlamydia negative, Chlamydia positive with a single infection, or Chlamydia positive with repeated infection, to test our hypothesis. We characterized their vaginal microbiota, cytokine response, as well as their tryptophan, kynurenine and indole concentrations directly in vaginal secretions. We found that C. trachomatis urogenital tract infections either initial or repeat infections, were associated with elevated vaginal kynurenine/tryptophan ratios, primarily as a result of elevated kynurenine levels. In addition, vaginal microbiota of community state type (CST IV showed significantly lower vaginal tryptophan levels compared to CST I and III, which might be related to a higher abundance of indole producers found within this group. Furthermore, we found a higher abundance of indole producers in women who cleared their Chlamydia infection post antibiotic treatment. This study demonstrates for the first time in vivo, the association between high vaginal kynurenine/tryptophan ratios and C. trachomatis infections. In addition, tryptophan depletion was associated with vaginal microbiota of CST IV.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis co-opts GBF1 and CERT to acquire host sphingomyelin for distinct roles during intracellular development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherilyn A Elwell

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The strain designated Chlamydia trachomatis serovar that was used for experiments in this paper is Chlamydia muridarum, a species closely related to C. trachomatis (and formerly termed the Mouse Pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. [corrected]. The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a membrane-bound inclusion that acquires host sphingomyelin (SM, a process that is essential for replication as well as inclusion biogenesis. Previous studies demonstrate that SM is acquired by a Brefeldin A (BFA-sensitive vesicular trafficking pathway, although paradoxically, this pathway is dispensable for bacterial replication. This finding suggests that other lipid transport mechanisms are involved in the acquisition of host SM. In this work, we interrogated the role of specific components of BFA-sensitive and BFA-insensitive lipid trafficking pathways to define their contribution in SM acquisition during infection. We found that C. trachomatis hijacks components of both vesicular and non-vesicular lipid trafficking pathways for SM acquisition but that the SM obtained from these separate pathways is being utilized by the pathogen in different ways. We show that C. trachomatis selectively co-opts only one of the three known BFA targets, GBF1, a regulator of Arf1-dependent vesicular trafficking within the early secretory pathway for vesicle-mediated SM acquisition. The Arf1/GBF1-dependent pathway of SM acquisition is essential for inclusion membrane growth and stability but is not required for bacterial replication. In contrast, we show that C. trachomatis co-opts CERT, a lipid transfer protein that is a key component in non-vesicular ER to trans-Golgi trafficking of ceramide (the precursor for SM, for C. trachomatis replication. We demonstrate that C. trachomatis recruits CERT, its ER binding partner, VAP-A, and SM synthases, SMS1 and SMS2, to the inclusion and propose that these proteins establish an on-site SM biosynthetic

  12. Recruitment of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in cervical mucosa during Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, T; Vats, V; Wallace, P K; Singh, A; Salhan, S; Mittal, A

    2009-01-01

    The mobilization of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) to the cervix during chlamydial infection is not fully understood, and the role of these cells in immunopathogenesis is largely unknown. As an effective vaccine to control chlamydial infection is currently unavailable, understanding the regulation of the local immune response becomes a necessity. Therefore, mDC and pDC populations were analysed in peripheral blood and cervical samples of controls and Chlamydia-positive women, with or without mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC). Cervical cytokines and C-reactive protein levels in serum were quantified by ELISA and the chlamydial infectious load by culture. Chlamydia trachomatis infection mobilized both mDCs and pDCs to the cervical mucosa. pDCs were recruited more often in women with MPC (p cervical interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels. Upregulation of surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD83 and CD86) on cervical mDCs and pDCs was observed during chlamydial infection but was significant only for mDCs. Significantly higher levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 were observed in Chlamydia-positive women with MPC; however, after therapy, IL-8 levels decreased significantly. Median numbers of mDCs after therapy were significantly higher in the cervix and blood of infected women as compared to the numbers of pDCs, which were found to be lower in the cervix after therapy. These results thus suggest that during chlamydial infection, both mDCs and pDCs are recruited to the cervix, but their number and possible immunological functions may differ with the pathological condition. pDCs were associated more often with MPC and inflammatory factors, suggesting that they may possibly be involved in the immunopathogenesis of infections due to Chlamydia.

  13. The trans-Golgi SNARE syntaxin 10 is required for optimal development of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Lucas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, grows inside of a vacuole, termed the inclusion. Within the inclusion, the organisms differentiate from the infectious elementary body (EB into the reticulate body (RB. The RB communicates with the host cell through the inclusion membrane to obtain the nutrients necessary to divide, thus expanding the chlamydial population. At late time points within the developmental cycle, the RBs respond to unknown molecular signals to redifferentiate into infectious EBs to perpetuate the infection cycle. One strategy for Chlamydia to obtain necessary nutrients and metabolites from the host is to intercept host vesicular trafficking pathways. In this study we demonstrate that a trans-Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE, syntaxin 10, and/or syntaxin10-associated Golgi elements colocalize with the chlamydial inclusion. We hypothesized that Chlamydia utilizes the molecular machinery of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane to intercept specific vesicular trafficking pathways in order to create and maintain an optimal intra-inclusion environment. To test this hypothesis, we used siRNA knockdown of syntaxin 10 to examine the impact of the loss of syntaxin 10 on chlamydial growth and development. Our results demonstrate that loss of syntaxin 10 leads to defects in normal chlamydial maturation including: variable inclusion size with fewer chlamydial organisms per inclusion, fewer infectious progeny, and delayed or halted RB-EB differentiation. These defects in chlamydial development correlate with an overabundance of NBD-lipid retained by inclusions cultured in syntaxin 10 knockdown cells. Overall, loss of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane negatively affects Chlamydia. Understanding host machinery involved in maintaining an optimal inclusion environment to support chlamydial growth and development is critical towards understanding the molecular signals involved in

  14. Nonactivated titanium-dioxide nanoparticles promote the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis and decrease the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A; Janovák, L; Lantos, I; Endrész, V; Sebők, D; Szabó, T; Dékány, I; Deák, J; Rázga, Z; Burián, K; Virok, D P

    2017-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus (HSV) are the most prevalent bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections. Due to the chronic nature of their infections, they are able to interact with titanium-dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) applied as food additives or drug delivery vehicles. The aim of this study was to describe the interactions of these two prevalent pathogens with the TiO 2 NPs. Chlamydia trachomatis and HSV-2 were treated with nonactivated TiO 2 NPs, silver NPs and silver decorated TiO 2 NPs before infection of HeLa and Vero cells. Their intracellular growth was monitored by quantitative PCR. Unexpectedly, the TiO 2 NPs (100 μg ml -1 ) increased the growth of C. trachomatis by approximately fourfold, while the HSV-2 replication was not affected. Addition of TiO 2 to silver NPs decreased their antimicrobial activity against C. trachomatis up to 27·92-fold. In summary, nonactivated TiO 2 NPs could increase the replication of C. trachomatis and decrease the antimicrobial activity of silver NPs. The food industry or drug delivery use of TiO 2 NPs could enhance the growth of certain intracellular pathogens and potentially worsen disease symptoms, a feature that should be further investigated. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Use of pooled urine samples and automated DNA isolation to achieve improved sensitivity and cost-effectiveness of large-scale testing for Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rours, G.I.J.G.; Verkooyen, R.P.; Willemse, H.F.M.; Zwaan, E.A. van der; Belkum, A. van; Groot, R. de; Verbrugh, H.A.; Ossewaarde, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The success of large-scale screening for Chlamydia trachomatis depends on the availability of noninvasive samples, low costs, and high-quality testing. To evaluate C. trachomatis testing with pregnant women, first-void urine specimens from 750 consecutive asymptomatic pregnant women from the

  16. Time to clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis RNA and DNA after treatment in patients coinfected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae - a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Carolien M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Unemo, Magnus; Schuurman, Rob; van Dam, Alje P.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Performing a test of cure (TOC) could demonstrate success or failure of antimicrobial treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, but recommendations for the timing of a TOC using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are inconsistent. We assessed time to clearance of C. trachomatis after

  17. Comparison of the protein-coding gene content of Chlamydia trachomatis and Protochlamydia amoebophila using a Raspberry Pi computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, James F; Barker, Daniel

    2015-10-13

    To demonstrate the bioinformatics capabilities of a low-cost computer, the Raspberry Pi, we present a comparison of the protein-coding gene content of two species in phylum Chlamydiae: Chlamydia trachomatis, a common sexually transmitted infection of humans, and Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila, a recently discovered amoebal endosymbiont. Identifying species-specific proteins and differences in protein families could provide insights into the unique phenotypes of the two species. Using a Raspberry Pi computer, sequence similarity-based protein families were predicted across the two species, C. trachomatis and P. amoebophila, and their members counted. Examples include nine multi-protein families unique to C. trachomatis, 132 multi-protein families unique to P. amoebophila and one family with multiple copies in both. Most families unique to C. trachomatis were polymorphic outer-membrane proteins. Additionally, multiple protein families lacking functional annotation were found. Predicted functional interactions suggest one of these families is involved with the exodeoxyribonuclease V complex. The Raspberry Pi computer is adequate for a comparative genomics project of this scope. The protein families unique to P. amoebophila may provide a basis for investigating the host-endosymbiont interaction. However, additional species should be included; and further laboratory research is required to identify the functions of unknown or putative proteins. Multiple outer membrane proteins were found in C. trachomatis, suggesting importance for host evasion. The tyrosine transport protein family is shared between both species, with four proteins in C. trachomatis and two in P. amoebophila. Shared protein families could provide a starting point for discovery of wide-spectrum drugs against Chlamydiae.

  18. Increase in sexual risk behavior and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among adolescents in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Sara J; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Papp, John; Kilmarx, Peter H; Markowitz, Lauri E; Tappero, Jordan W; Chaowanachan, Thanyanan; Uthaivoravit, Wat; van Griensven, Frits

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring changes in adolescent sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections is critical for evaluating the effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus and other prevention programs, but population-based data on adolescents in Thailand are limited. We report findings from 2 cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1999 and 2002 among 15-to 21-year-old vocational students. In 1999 and 2002, 1725 and 966 students, respectively, were interviewed using computer-assisted self-interview methods. Urine samples were collected and tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by polymerase chain reaction. From 1999 to 2002 C. trachomatis prevalence increased from 3.2% to 7.5% (P partners among both men (3.4-4.7, P = 0.01) and women (2.5-3.3, P partners among men (1.1-2.1, P use decreased significantly among women with casual partners (43%-19%, P = 0.03) but not among men (25%-31%, P = 0.31). Our study identified important increases in the prevalence of chlamydial infection and in sexual risk behaviors among Thai adolescents over a 3-year period. These findings are consistent with other studies suggesting profound social changes are changing norms of adolescent sexual behavior in Thailand, and highlight the need for adolescent sexual health services and prevention programming.

  19. Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis in genital specimens: kerman city, PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes genital disease and the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. The most frequent risk factors associated with chlamydial infection are related to sexual behavior, multiple partners, and inconsistent condom use. Presenting primarily as urtheritis in men and cervicitis in women, CT a major cause of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and subsequent infertility in women, eye and lung infection in newborns and other manifestations. Identification of CT-infected patients may prevent its spread and thereby reduce the high morbidity associated with CT infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of small quantity of bacterial DNA in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of C. trachomatis by PCR in genital samples from patients in the city of Kerman.Methods: A total of 130 genital samples including 64 endocervical and 66 urethral swab samples were collected by physicians. Nucleic acid was extracted from each sample using a commercial DNA extraction kit. PCR primers specific for a conserved region of the C. trachomatis omp2 gene, encoding an outer membrane protein, were used for amplification.  Results: A total of 9.2% (6.25% of cervicitis and 12.1% of urethritis of the samples were found positive for CT using this PCR method. Conclusions:  The present study shows a high prevalence of CT infection, especially in men with urethritis. Such patients should be referred to genitourinary clinics for treatment and partner notification. Given its worldwide prevalence, further CT studies on more populations are needed to assess potential public health implications of these infections.

  20. Anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis Load Is Similar in Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women Reporting Anal Sex.

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    Geneviève A F S van Liere

    Full Text Available Anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia is frequently diagnosed in men who have sex with men (MSM and in women, but it is unknown whether these infections are comparable in clinical impact and transmission potential. Quantifying bacterial load and identifying determinants associated with high bacterial load could provide more insight.We selected a convenience sample of MSM who reported anal sex (n = 90 and women with concurrent urogenital/anorectal chlamydia who reported anal sex (n = 51 or did not report anal sex (n = 61 from the South Limburg Public Health Service's STI unit. Bacterial load (Chlamydia/ml was quantified for all samples and log transformed for analyses. Samples with an unquantifiable human leukocyte antigen (n = 9 were excluded from analyses, as they were deemed inadequately sampled.The mean log anorectal chlamydia load (3.50 was similar for MSM and women who reported having anal sex (3.80, P = 0.21. The anorectal chlamydia load was significantly higher in these groups than in women who did not report having anal sex (2.76, P = 0.001. Detectable load values ranged from 1.81-6.32 chlamydia/ml for MSM, 1.74-7.33 chlamydia/ml for women who reported having anal sex and 1.84-6.31 chlamydia/ml for women who did not report having anal sex. Symptoms and several other determinants were not associated with anorectal chlamydia load.Women who did not report anal sex had lower anorectal loads, but they were within a similar range to the other two groups. Anorectal chlamydia load was comparable between MSM and women who reported anal sex, suggesting similar transmission potential.

  1. DXD Motif-Dependent and -Independent Effects of the Chlamydia trachomatis Cytotoxin CT166

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    Miriam Bothe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative, intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes acute and chronic urogenital tract infection, potentially leading to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The only partially characterized cytotoxin CT166 of serovar D exhibits a DXD motif, which is important for the enzymatic activity of many bacterial and mammalian type A glycosyltransferases, leading to the hypothesis that CT166 possess glycosyltransferase activity. CT166-expressing HeLa cells exhibit actin reorganization, including cell rounding, which has been attributed to the inhibition of the Rho-GTPases Rac/Cdc42. Exploiting the glycosylation-sensitive Ras(27H5 antibody, we here show that CT166 induces an epitope change in Ras, resulting in inhibited ERK and PI3K signaling and delayed cell cycle progression. Consistent with the hypothesis that these effects strictly depend on the DXD motif, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif causes neither Ras-ERK inhibition nor delayed cell cycle progression. In contrast, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif is still capable of inhibiting cell migration, suggesting that CT166 with the mutated DXD motif cannot be regarded as inactive in any case. Taken together, CT166 affects various fundamental cellular processes, strongly suggesting its importance for the intracellular survival of chlamydia.

  2. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M. E.; Leung, Stella

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months......: The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment PID at 12-months was attributable to treated (baseline) chlamydia infections (Manitoba: 8.86%(95%CI 7.15-10.75); Denmark: 3.84%(3.26-4.45); screened...... in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. METHODS: We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated...

  3. Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y papilomavirus en mujeres con alteraciones citohistológicas de cuello uterino Chlamydia trachomatis and papillomavirus infection in women with cytohistological abnormalities in uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo D. Deluca

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió mediante técnica de PCR la presencia de Chlamydia trachomatis y de papilomavirus humano (HPV en 189 mujeres sexualmente activas de entre 15 y 58 años de edad, con alteraciones citológicas del epitelio cérvico-uterino, provenientes de una región con alta incidencia de cáncer de cuello uterino de Argentina, y se analizaron los factores de riesgo. La prevalencia global por C. trachomatis fue de 24.9%; observándose una diferencia significativa de la prevalencia entre las mujeres de bajo nivel socio-económico (32.9% y las de nivel medio o alto (17.7%. En cuanto a la infección por HPV, la prevalencia fue de 52.9% y se pudo observar que las mujeres infectadas con C. trachomatis presentan un mayor riesgo de infección por este virus que las no infectadas (OR=2.27 / IC 95%=1.10-4.73 con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p=0.016.The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and human papillomavirus (HPV was evaluated by PCR technique in 189 sexually active women, between 15 and 58 years old, with cytological abnormalities in their uterine cervical epithelium and belonging to a region of Argentina with high incidence of cervical cancer. Risk factors in relation to chlamydial infection were also analyzed. Total prevalence for C. trachomatis infection was 24.9%, but there was a significant difference between prevalence in low socio-economical level (32.9% and high or medium socio-economical level (17.7%. Total prevalence for DNA of HPV was 52.9%, but women infected with C. trachomatis showed a higher risk for viral infection than non-infected ones (OR=2.27 / CI 95%=1.10-4.73, with statistical significant difference (p=0.016.

  4. Diagnostic efficacy of a real time-PCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women in north India

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    Benu Dhawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Indian women with infertility. To improve the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection in developing countries, there is an urgent need to establish cost-effective molecular test with high sensitivity and specificity. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic utility of a real time-PCR assay for detention of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women attending an infertility clinic in north India. The in house real time-PCR assay was also compared with a commercial real-time PCR based detection system. Methods: Endocervical swabs, collected from 200 infertile women were tested for C. trachomatis by three different PCR assays viz. in-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid using published primers, along with omp1 gene and cryptic plasmid based conventional PCR assays. Specimens were also subjected to direct fluorescence assay (DFA and enzyme immunoassay (EIA Performance of in-house real time-PCR was compared with that of COBAS Taqman C. trachomatis Test, version 2.0 on all in-house real time-PCR positive sample and 30 consecutive negative samples. Results: C. trachomatis infection was found in 13.5 per cent (27/200 infertile women by in-house real time-PCR, 11.5 per cent (23/200 by cryptic plasmid and/or omp1 gene based conventional PCR, 9 per cent (18/200 by DFA and 6.5 per cent (7/200 by EIA. The in-house real time-PCR exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 100 per cent, considering COBAS Taqman CT Test as the gold standard. The negative and positive predictive values of the in-house real time-PCR were 100 per cent. The in-house real time-PCR could detect as low as 10 copies of C. trachomatis DNA per reaction. Interpretation & conclusions: In-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid of C. trachomatis exhibited an excellent sensitivity and specificity similar to that of COBAS Taqman CT Test, v2.0 for detection of C

  5. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending infertility and sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, E O; Sadiq, Magaji N

    2014-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world with severe complications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of C. trachomatis in Kano. There is dearth of information on this subject in this locality. Urine samples, Endocervical swabs and Urethral swab were collected from consecutive patients attending the Infertility and STD clinics in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) between June and December 2012, after administering a questionnaire by the attending physician and also obtaining an informed consent.Samples were analyzed using Diaspot Chlamydia kit, a rapid immunoassay test for the detection of genital chlamydial antigen in urinogenital samples. A total of 125 consecutive samples were collected, comprising 69 females and 56 males aged between 14 - 55 years. Twelve samples tested positive for C. trachomatis antigen giving a prevalence rate of 9.6%. The age group prevalence were as follows 25 - 29 yrs (17.1%), 20 - 24 (16.7%), 15 - 19 (12.5%), 30 - 34 (11.1%) and > 49 years (9.0%). Married patients were associated with higher infection rate than single (8.3%), and divorced patients (33.3%). A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of C. trachomatis infection and its complications. Previous STD exposure was associated with increased risk of Chlamydia infection. C. trachomatis infection if unchecked will continue to pose a threat to reproductive life with its established complications. Since asymptomatic cases are common in the population regular screening should be encouraged for every adult especially before commencement of marital life.

  6. Evaluation of single whole inclusion serum test for IgG antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic women.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, M P; Amortegui, A J

    1987-01-01

    IgG antibody titres against Chlamydia trachomatis were measured using a whole inclusion assay (Electro-Nucleonics Laboratories, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) in single serum samples of patients who presented for termination of pregnancy with evidence of infection with this organism (case group) and of 30 women with no evidence of infection (control group). Case and control patients were matched for age, race, marital status, history of sexually transmitted diseases, number of lifetime sexual partn...

  7. Uptake and population-level impact of expedited partner therapy (EPT) on Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: the Washington State community-level randomized trial of EPT.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew R Golden; Roxanne P Kerani; Mark Stenger; James P Hughes; Mark Aubin; Cheryl Malinski; King K Holmes

    2015-01-01

    Editors? Summary Background Every day, more than 1 million people worldwide acquire a sexually transmitted infection (STI). STIs are viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections that pass between people during sexual activity (through semen, vaginal fluids, blood, or skin-to-skin contact). Two of the most common STIs?chlamydia and gonorrhea?are caused by bacteria (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, respectively). Chlamydia rarely has any symptoms, especially in women, although some...

  8. Killing of diverse eye pathogens (Acanthamoeba spp., Fusarium solani, and Chlamydia trachomatis with alcohols.

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    Yousuf Aqeel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is caused by eye pathogens that include a free-living protist (Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. byersi, and/or other Acanthamoeba spp., a fungus (Fusarium solani, and a bacterium (Chlamydia trachomatis. Hand-eye contact is likely a contributor to the spread of these pathogens, and so hand washing with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizers (when water is not available might reduce their transmission. Recently we showed that ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers kill walled cysts of Giardia and Entamoeba, causes of diarrhea and dysentery, respectively. The goal here was to determine whether these alcohols might kill infectious forms of representative eye pathogens (trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba, conidia of F. solani, or elementary bodies of C. trachomatis.We found that treatment with 63% ethanol or 63% isopropanol kills >99% of Acanthamoeba trophozoites after 30 sec exposure, as shown by labeling with propidium iodide (PI and failure to grow in culture. In contrast, Acanthamoeba cysts, which contain cellulose fibers in their wall, are relatively more resistant to these alcohols, particularly isopropanol. Depending upon the strain tested, 80 to 99% of Acanthamoeba cysts were killed by 63% ethanol after 2 min and 95 to 99% were killed by 80% ethanol after 30 sec, as shown by PI labeling and reduced rates of excystation in vitro. Both ethanol and isopropanol (63% for 30 sec kill >99% of F. solani conidia, which have a wall of chitin and glucan fibrils, as demonstrated by PI labeling and colony counts on nutrient agar plates. Both ethanol and isopropanol (63% for 60 sec inactivate 96 to 99% of elementary bodies of C. trachomatis, which have a wall of lipopolysaccharide but lack peptidoglycan, as measured by quantitative cultures to calculate inclusion forming units.In summary, alcohols kill infectious forms of Acanthamoeba, F. solani, and C. trachomatis, although longer times and higher ethanol

  9. Transcervical Inoculation with Chlamydia trachomatis Induces Infertility in HLA-DR4 Transgenic and Wild-Type Mice.

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    Pal, Sukumar; Tifrea, Delia F; Zhong, Guangming; de la Maza, Luis M

    2018-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of infection-induced infertility in women. Attempts to control this epidemic with screening programs and antibiotic therapy have failed. Currently, a vaccine to prevent C. trachomatis infections is not available. In order to develop an animal model for evaluating vaccine antigens that can be applied to humans, we used C. trachomatis serovar D (strain UW-3/Cx) to induce infertility in mice whose major histocompatibility complex class II antigen was replaced with the human leukocyte antigen DR4 (HLA-DR4). Transcervical inoculation of medroxyprogesterone-treated HLA-DR4 transgenic mice with 5 × 10 5 C. trachomatis D inclusion forming units (IFU) induced a significant reduction in fertility, with a mean number of embryos/mouse of 4.4 ± 1.3 compared to 7.8 ± 0.5 for the uninfected control mice ( P mice (4.3 ± 1.4 embryos/mouse) compared to the levels of the WT controls (9.1 ± 0.4 embryos/mouse) ( P mice mounted more robust humoral and cellular immune responses than HLA-DR4 mice. As determined by vaginal shedding, HLA-DR4 mice were more susceptible to a transcervical C. trachomatis D infection than WT mice. To assess if HLA-DR4 transgenic and WT mice could be protected by vaccination, 10 4 IFU of C. trachomatis D was delivered intranasally, and mice were challenged transcervically 6 weeks later with 5 × 10 5 IFU of C. trachomatis D. As determined by severity and length of vaginal shedding, WT C57BL/6 and HLA-DR4 mice were significantly protected by vaccination. The advantages and limitations of the HLA-DR4 transgenic mouse model for evaluating human C. trachomatis vaccine antigens are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Factores de riesgo y secuelas reproductivas asociados a la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en mujeres infértiles Risk factors and reproductive sequelae associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women

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    Fernando Guerra-Infante

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar la información clínica y el estilo de vida sexual en dos grupos de mujeres con y sin infección por Chlamydia trachomatis que asisten a la clínica de infertilidad del Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, de la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De febrero a noviembre de 1998, se realizó un estudio prospectivo en pacientes con diagnóstico de infertilidad. En el estudio se incluyó a pacientes con diagnóstico de infertilidad, tratados en el Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, de la Ciudad de México, durante 1988. Las muestras endocervicales de 309 mujeres, que incluyeron a 77 con infección y a 232 sin infección, fueron examinadas para Chlamydia trachomatis, usando inmunofluorescencia directa. Los cultivos vaginales fueron obtenidos antes de iniciar el tratamiento. También se investigó la presencia de otros agentes infecciosos de transmisión sexual y la información demográfica, de conducta sexual, histórica y clínica fue recopilada de cada paciente. Los datos clínicos y ginecológicos de ambos grupos fueron comparados por ji2. La magnitud de las asociaciones fueron establecidas por razón de momios en análisis bivariados. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para establecer los efectos confusores en relación con los factores analizados. Las diferencias fueron consideradas estadísticamente significativas si pOBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical and sexual lifestyle characteristics associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women diagnosed with infertility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study subjects were women with an infertility diagnosis attending the infertility clinic at the National Institute of Perinatology. Endocervical specimens from 309 women were examined for Chlamydia trachomatis using the direct immunofluorescence method. Vaginal culture samples were taken before initiating treatment. The presence of other sexually-transmitted infections was also assessed. Demographic, sexual

  11. Knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis among men and women approached to participate in community-based screening, Scotland, UK

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    Hart Graham J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor awareness and knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis could be a barrier to uptake of screening. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness and knowledge of chlamydia among young people who were being approached in a variety of community settings and offered opportunistic screening. Methods Men and women aged 16-24 years were approached in education, health and fitness, and workplace settings and invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire then provide a urine sample for chlamydia testing. Follow-up semi-structured interviews with 24 respondents were carried out after test results were received. Results 363 questionnaires were completed (43.5% from men. Whilst awareness of chlamydia was high, knowledge decreased as questions became increasingly focussed so that around half of respondents were unaware of the asymptomatic nature of chlamydia infections. Men's knowledge of symptoms was consistently lower than women's, with most men failing to identify unusual discharge as a symptom in men (men 58.3%, female 45.8%, p = 0.019; fewer men knew unusual discharge was a symptom among women (men 65.3% female 21.4%, p Conclusions Despite scientific gains in understanding chlamydia infection, public understanding remains limited. Greater efforts are required to translate scientific evidence to the public. An improvement in knowledge may maximise gains from interventions to improve detection.

  12. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi women attending the infertility clinic in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarraj, Dunia A; Somily, Ali M; Alssum, Rasheed M; Abotalib, Zeinab M; El-Sayed, Amal A; Al-Mandeel, Hazim H

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection among Saudi women, its clinical presentation, and its association to infertility. This study was conducted between October 2012 and July 2013 at King Khalid University Hospital and King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Female patients aged between 19 and 46 years old with infertility problems seen at both hospitals were recruited to join the study. A separate group of female patients without infertility problems was also recruited from both hospitals to serve as controls for the study. Endocervical swabs were collected from both groups of patients, and samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction. There was a statistically significantly greater prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women (n=8, 8.0%) compared with the fertile group of women (n=1, 1.0%). The C. trachomatis infection was significantly correlated to infertility. A significant association between infertility and increased prevalence of C. trachomatis infection is shown in this study, thus, we suggest that screening for Chlamydial infection to be part of the routine investigation for infertility. 

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infection: prevalence and determinants among women presenting for routine gynecologic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, R; Laperrière, H; Rousseau, H; Lefebvre, J; Remis, R S

    1991-10-15

    To determine the prevalence of and risk indicators for Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infection among women presenting for a periodic medical examination. Prevalence study. Centre local de services communautaires (CLSC) Saint-Louis du Parc, Montreal. All women presenting for a routine gynecologic examination from May 1985 to July 1986. Of the 773 (99%) who agreed to participate 56 were excluded because of inadequate diagnostic tests (34), antibiotic intake in the preceding 6 weeks (19) or loss to follow-up after the initial visit (3). Culture was the diagnostic standard, but rapid diagnostic tests were also used. From the identified cases logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the following risk indicators: age, place of residence, use of oral contraceptives, sexual partners and frequency, history of sexually transmitted disease (STD) and abnormalities found on genital examination. Fifty-one of the women were found to have C. trachomatis infection, for a prevalence rate of 7.1%; 32 (63%) were completely asymptomatic. Three independent indicators were found: age of 25 years or less (odds ratio [OR] 3.2, 95% confidence limits [CL] 1.8 and 5.9), cervical erythema, contact bleeding or mucopurulent exudate (OR 2.5, 95% CL 1.4 and 4.5) and residency in the CLSC area (OR 2.3, 95% CL 1.1 and 5.1). A history of STD or vaginitis had a significant protective effect in women 30 years of age or more (OR 0.2). Case-finding for chlamydial infection could be an effective public health measure among women 25 years of age or less and among those with signs of cervicitis when they present for a Papanicolaou test.

  14. Nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Chlamydia trachomatis from male urethritis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Hayami, Hiroshi; Uehara, Shinya; Yamamoto, Shingo; Minamitani, Shinichi; Kadota, Junichi; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Akira; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Masumori, Naoya; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Wada, Koichiro; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Eto, Masatoshi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Kuroiwa, Kentaro; Ito, Kenji; Hosobe, Takahide; Hirayama, Hideo; Narita, Harunori; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Ito, Shin; Sumii, Toru; Kawai, Shuichi; Kanokogi, Mototsugu; Kawano, Hiromi; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawahara, Motoshi; Takayama, Kazuo; Ito, Masayasu; Yoshioka, Masaru; Kano, Motonori; Konishi, Takatoshi; Kadena, Hitoshi; Nishi, Shohei; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Yamauchi, Takamine; Maeda, Shinichi; Horie, Masanobu; Ihara, Hideari; Matsumura, Masaru; Shirane, Takeshi; Takeyama, Koh; Akiyama, Kikuo; Takahashi, Koichi; Ikuyama, Toshihiro; Inatomi, Hisato; Yoh, Mutsumasa

    2016-09-01

    Genital chlamydial infection is a principal sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Chlamydia trachomatis can cause male urethritis, acute epididymitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease as sexually transmitted infections. Fortunately, homotypic resistant C. trachomatis strains have not been isolated to date; however, several studies have reported the isolation of heterotypic resistant strains from patients. In this surveillance study, clinical urethral discharge specimens were collected from patients with urethritis in 51 hospitals and clinics in 2009 and 38 in 2012. Based on serial cultures, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) could be determined for 19 isolates in 2009 and 39 in 2012. In 2009 and 2012, the MICs (MIC90) of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tosufloxacin, sitafloxacin, doxycycline, minocycline, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin were 2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, 0.5 μg/ml and 0.5 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, 0.063 μg/ml and 0.063 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, 0.016 μg/ml and 0.016 μg/ml, and 0.063 μg/ml and 0.063 μg/ml, respectively. In summary, this surveillance project did not identify any resistant strain against fluoroquinolone, tetracycline, or macrolide agents in Japan. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a transformation system for Chlamydia trachomatis: restoration of glycogen biosynthesis by acquisition of a plasmid shuttle vector.

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    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Lambden, Paul R; Clarke, Ian N

    2011-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis remains one of the few major human pathogens for which there is no transformation system. C. trachomatis has a unique obligate intracellular developmental cycle. The extracellular infectious elementary body (EB) is an infectious, electron-dense structure that, following host cell infection, differentiates into a non-infectious replicative form known as a reticulate body (RB). Host cells infected by C. trachomatis that are treated with penicillin are not lysed because this antibiotic prevents the maturation of RBs into EBs. Instead the RBs fail to divide although DNA replication continues. We have exploited these observations to develop a transformation protocol based on expression of β-lactamase that utilizes rescue from the penicillin-induced phenotype. We constructed a vector which carries both the chlamydial endogenous plasmid and an E.coli plasmid origin of replication so that it can shuttle between these two bacterial recipients. The vector, when introduced into C. trachomatis L2 under selection conditions, cures the endogenous chlamydial plasmid. We have shown that foreign promoters operate in vivo in C. trachomatis and that active β-lactamase and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase are expressed. To demonstrate the technology we have isolated chlamydial transformants that express the green fluorescent protein (GFP). As proof of principle, we have shown that manipulation of chlamydial biochemistry is possible by transformation of a plasmid-free C. trachomatis recipient strain. The acquisition of the plasmid restores the ability of the plasmid-free C. trachomatis to synthesise and accumulate glycogen within inclusions. These findings pave the way for a comprehensive genetic study on chlamydial gene function that has hitherto not been possible. Application of this technology avoids the use of therapeutic antibiotics and therefore the procedures do not require high level containment and will allow the analysis of genome function by

  16. Development of a transformation system for Chlamydia trachomatis: restoration of glycogen biosynthesis by acquisition of a plasmid shuttle vector.

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    Yibing Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis remains one of the few major human pathogens for which there is no transformation system. C. trachomatis has a unique obligate intracellular developmental cycle. The extracellular infectious elementary body (EB is an infectious, electron-dense structure that, following host cell infection, differentiates into a non-infectious replicative form known as a reticulate body (RB. Host cells infected by C. trachomatis that are treated with penicillin are not lysed because this antibiotic prevents the maturation of RBs into EBs. Instead the RBs fail to divide although DNA replication continues. We have exploited these observations to develop a transformation protocol based on expression of β-lactamase that utilizes rescue from the penicillin-induced phenotype. We constructed a vector which carries both the chlamydial endogenous plasmid and an E.coli plasmid origin of replication so that it can shuttle between these two bacterial recipients. The vector, when introduced into C. trachomatis L2 under selection conditions, cures the endogenous chlamydial plasmid. We have shown that foreign promoters operate in vivo in C. trachomatis and that active β-lactamase and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase are expressed. To demonstrate the technology we have isolated chlamydial transformants that express the green fluorescent protein (GFP. As proof of principle, we have shown that manipulation of chlamydial biochemistry is possible by transformation of a plasmid-free C. trachomatis recipient strain. The acquisition of the plasmid restores the ability of the plasmid-free C. trachomatis to synthesise and accumulate glycogen within inclusions. These findings pave the way for a comprehensive genetic study on chlamydial gene function that has hitherto not been possible. Application of this technology avoids the use of therapeutic antibiotics and therefore the procedures do not require high level containment and will allow the analysis of genome

  17. Diagnostic Value of PCR and ELISA for Chlamydia trachomatis in a Group of Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Women in Isfahan, Iran

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    Anahita Jenab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent sexually transmittedbacterial infections (STI in the world that lead to a cause of tubal factor infertility in women. Theaim of this study is to determine the presence of C.trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction (PCRand ELISA.Materials and Methods: Endocervical swabs were collected from 80 women; 22 of them wereasymptomatic and 58 symptomatic. Samples were examined by PCR designed to detect Chlamydialplasmid using specific KL1 and KL2 primers. Serum IgG and IgA antibodies to C.trachomatiswere detected by ELISA. Since elevated CRP levels are a marker for inflammation, the presence ofC- Reactive protein (CRP has also been evaluated in all samples.Results: The rate of C.trachomatis infection by PCR was revealed to be 27.2% and 18.9% inasymptomatic and symptomatic women, respectively The χ2 test shows no significant difference(p value= 0.22. Serological screening was done on all samples. The high level of IgG and IgAto C.trachomatis infection was 29.4% and 17.6%, respectively. The presence of high levels ofCRP, as a serological marker of persistence infection, was 31.8% and 34.4% in asymptomaticand symptomatic women, respectively. The high rate of CRP level in the samples indicates acuteinfections in both groups.Conclusion: Genital C.trachomatis infection is the leading cause of tubal factor infertility. Thepresent study shows that C.trachomatis infection could be present in symptomatic as well asasymptomatic women. Therefore, a screening test for C.trachomatis infection is recommended forall women who refer to gynecologic outpatient departments in Isfahan and other parts of Iran.

  18. The role of Surinamese migrants in the transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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    Reinier J M Bom

    Full Text Available The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective was to assess whether the Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands form a bridge population facilitating transmission of C. trachomatis between Suriname and the Netherlands. If so, joint prevention campaigns involving both countries might be required. Between March 2008 and July 2010, participants were recruited at clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were grouped as native Surinamese, native Dutch, Surinamese migrant, Dutch migrant, or Other, based on country of residence and country of birth of the participant and of their parents. Risk behavior, such as sexual mixing between ethnic groups, was recorded and C. trachomatis positive samples were typed through multilocus sequence typing (MLST. A minimum spanning tree of samples from 426 participants showed four MLST clusters. The MLST strain distribution of Surinamese migrants differed significantly from both the native Surinamese and Dutch populations, but was not an intermediate state between these two populations. Sexual mixing between the Surinamese migrants and the Dutch and Surinamese natives occurred frequently. Yet, the MLST cluster distribution did not differ significantly between participants who mixed and those who did not. Sexual mixing occurred between Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam and the native populations of Suriname and the Netherlands. These migrants, however, did not seem to form an effective bridge population for C. trachomatis transmission between the native populations. Although our data do not seem to justify the need for joint campaigns to reduce the transmission of C. trachomatis strains between both countries, intensified preventive

  19. "The rate of Chlamydia Trachomatis, Mycoplasma Hominis and Ureaplasma Urealyticum in females with habitual abortion and its comparison with control group "

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    Salari MH

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Females abortion is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.In this study frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum was studied in 125 females with habitual abortion by direct and indirect immunofluorescence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. The results obtained were as follow: Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 18 (14.4% females with habitual abortion and 18 (7.2% normal population (P=0.0139. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 39(31.2% females with habitual aboration and 48 (19.2% normal population (P=0.0045. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by direct immunofluorescence test in 9 (7.2% of cases and 2 (0.8% of control groups (P=0.0002. the antibody titer against D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis was also measured. The valuable titer of antibody (>1/16 was detected in 15 (12% of cases and 8 (3.2% of control groups (P=0.0004.The results show that chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum may be responsible for some cases of abortion.

  20. Approach to discover T- and B-cell antigens of intracellular pathogens applied to the design of Chlamydia trachomatis vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finco, Oretta; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Buricchi, Francesca; Petracca, Roberto; Galli, Giuliano; Faenzi, Elisa; Meoni, Eva; Bonci, Alessandra; Agnusdei, Mauro; Nardelli, Filomena; Bartolini, Erika; Scarselli, Maria; Caproni, Elena; Laera, Donatello; Zedda, Luisanna; Skibinski, David; Giovinazzi, Serena; Bastone, Riccardo; Ianni, Elvira; Cevenini, Roberto; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

    2011-01-01

    Natural immunity against obligate and/or facultative intracellular pathogens is usually mediated by both humoral and cellular immunity. The identification of those antigens stimulating both arms of the immune system is instrumental for vaccine discovery. Although high-throughput technologies have been applied for the discovery of antibody-inducing antigens, few examples of their application for T-cell antigens have been reported. We describe how the compilation of the immunome, here defined as the pool of immunogenic antigens inducing T- and B-cell responses in vivo, can lead to vaccine candidates against Chlamydia trachomatis. We selected 120 C. trachomatis proteins and assessed their immunogenicity using two parallel high-throughput approaches. Protein arrays were generated and screened with sera from C. trachomatis-infected patients to identify antibody-inducing antigens. Splenocytes from C. trachomatis-infected mice were stimulated with 79 proteins, and the frequency of antigen-specific CD4+/IFN-γ+ T cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. We identified 21 antibody-inducing antigens, 16 CD4+/IFN-γ+–inducing antigens, and five antigens eliciting both types of responses. Assessment of their protective activity in a mouse model of Chlamydia muridarum lung infection led to the identification of seven antigens conferring partial protection when administered with LTK63/CpG adjuvant. Protection was largely the result of cellular immunity as assessed by CD4+ T-cell depletion. The seven antigens provided robust additive protection when combined in four-antigen combinations. This study paves the way for the development of an effective anti-Chlamydia vaccine and provides a general approach for the discovery of vaccines against other intracellular pathogens. PMID:21628568

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Emer

    2009-10-29

    BACKGROUND: There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. METHODS: All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were

  2. Penicillin induced persistence in Chlamydia trachomatis: high quality time lapse video analysis of the developmental cycle.

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    Rachel J Skilton

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen with a unique obligate intracellular developmental cycle that takes place inside a modified cytoplasmic structure known as an inclusion. Following entry into a cell, the infectious elementary body (EB differentiates into a non-infectious replicative form known as a reticulate body (RB. RBs divide by binary fission and at the end of the cycle they redifferentiate into EBs. Treatment of C.trachomatis with penicillin prevents maturation of RBs which survive and enlarge to become aberrant RBs within the inclusion in a non-infective persistent state. Persistently infected individuals may be a reservoir for chlamydial infection. The C.trachomatis genome encodes the enzymes for peptidoglycan (PG biosynthesis but a PG sacculus has never been detected. This coupled to the action of penicillin is known as the chlamydial anomaly. We have applied video microscopy and quantitative DNA assays to the chlamydial developmental cycle to assess the effects of penicillin treatment and establish a framework for investigating penicillin induced chlamydial persistence.Addition of penicillin at the time of cell infection does not prevent uptake and the establishment of an inclusion. EB to RB transition occurs but bacterial cytokinesis is arrested by the second binary fission. RBs continue to enlarge but not divide in the presence of penicillin. The normal developmental cycle can be recovered by the removal of penicillin although the large, aberrant RBs do not revert to the normal smaller size but remain present to the completion of the developmental cycle. Chromosomal and plasmid DNA replication is unaffected by the addition of penicillin but the arrest of bacterial cytokinesis under these conditions results in RBs accumulating multiple copies of the genome.We have applied video time lapse microscopy to the study of the chlamydial developmental cycle. Linked with accurate measures of genome replication this provides a

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis infections and subfertility: opportunities to translate host pathogen genomic data into public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, J A; Malogajski, J; Verweij, S P; de Boer, P; Ambrosino, E; Brand, A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections in women can result in tubal pathology (TP). Worldwide 10-15% of all couples are subfertile, meaning they did not get pregnant after 1 year. Part of the routine subfertility diagnostics is the Chlamydia Antibody Test (CAT) to decide for laparoscopy or not in order to diagnose TP. The CAT positive and negative predictive value is such that many unneeded laparoscopies are done and many TP cases are missed. Addition of host genetic markers related to infection susceptibility and severity could potentially improve the clinical management of couples who suffer from subfertility. In the present study, the potential translational and clinical value of adding diagnostic host genetic marker profiles on the basis of infection and inflammation to the current clinical management of subfertility was investigated. This review provides an overview of the current state of the art of host genetic markers in relation to CT infection, proposes a new clinical diagnostic approach, and investigates how the Learning-Adapting-Leveling model (LAL, a public health genomic (PHG) model) can be of value and provide insight to see whether these host genetic markers can be translated into public health. This review shows that the preliminary basis of adding host genetic marker profiles to the current diagnostic procedures of subfertility is present but has to be further developed before implementation into health care can be achieved. CT infection is an example in the field of PHG with potential diagnostic to be taken up in the future in the field of subfertility diagnosis with a time line for integration to be dependent on enhanced participation of many stakeholders in the field of PHG which could be advanced through the LAL model. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Azithromycin Treatment Failure for Chlamydia trachomatis Among Heterosexual Men With Nongonococcal Urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia J; White, Scott; Manhart, Lisa E; Schwebke, Jane; Taylor, Stephanie N; Mena, Leandro; Khosropour, Christine M; Wilcox, Larissa; Schmidt, Norine; Martin, David H

    2016-10-01

    Three recent prospective studies have suggested that the 1-g dose of azithromycin for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) was less effective than expected, reporting a wide range of treatment failure rates (5.8%-22.6%). Reasons for the disparate results could be attributed to geographic or methodological differences. The purpose of this study was to reexamine the studies and attempt to harmonize methodologies to reduce misclassification as a result of false positives from early test-of-cure (TOC) or reinfection as a result of sexual exposure rather than treatment failure. Men who had sex with women, who received 1-g azithromycin under directly observed therapy for presumptive treatment of nongonococcal urethritis with confirmed Ct were included. Baseline screening was performed on urethral swabs or urine, and TOC screening was performed on urine using nucleic acid amplification tests. Posttreatment vaginal sexual exposure was elicited at TOC. Data from the 3 studies were obtained and reanalyzed. Rates of Ct retest positive were examined for all cases, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to either reclassify potential false positives/reinfections as negative or remove them from the analysis. The crude treatment failure rate was 12.8% (31/242). The rate when potential false positives/reinfections were reclassified as negative was 6.2% (15/242) or when these were excluded from analysis was 10.9% (15/138). In these samples of men who have sex with women with Ct-related nongonococcal urethritis, azithromycin treatment failure was between 6.2% and 12.8%. This range of failure is lower than previously published but higher than the desired World Health Organization's target chlamydia treatment failure rate of < 5%.

  5. Recent acquisitions in the medical treatment of infertility caused by Chlamydia Trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Moushaly, A

    2013-06-15

    The infertility defined as the incapacity of the people to conceive a child in a given period, usually of 1-2 years of sexually unprotected relations, represents a major dysfunction of the genital apparatus. Its frequency is estimated at 10-15% of the couples at the reproductive age. The incidence of sterility is high, a couple out of 10 being sterile. The conjugal sterility is a phenomenon representative for the couple; the woman is responsible for it only in 35-40% of the cases, in 40% of the cases, the male factor is involved. In 20% of the cases, mixed factors are met, both feminine and masculine, and in 5-10% of the cases, the causes cannot be detected. From the multitude of causes of infertility, the infectious factor plays an important role, the Chlamydia infections being lately blamed in the etiology of sterility. The infections due to Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT) represent the most frequent sexually transmitted diseases, which, most of the times lead to sterility. Taking into account the widespread of this bacterium in the sexually active population, the effective treatment of the CT infection is very important. We have selected 200 cases with PID genital infection in the study. All the selected patients had at least 2, 3 and more than 3 inflammation recurrence episodes, this way being considered cases with medium and severe forms of disease. All these selected patients had at least 2, 3 and more than 3 episodes of inflammation recurrence, this way being considered medium and severe disease cases. In conclusion, there is a high clinical efficiency of the azithromycin treatment in PID case.

  6. Plasmid Negative Regulation of CPAF Expression Is Pgp4 Independent and Restricted to Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Biovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael John; Chen, Chih-Yu; Yang, Chunfu; McCorrister, Stuart; Grant, Chris; Westmacott, Garrett; Yuan, Xin-Yong; Ochoa, Estela; Fariss, Robert; Whitmire, William M; Carlson, John H; Caldwell, Harlan D; McClarty, Grant

    2018-01-30

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes blinding trachoma and sexually transmitted disease. C. trachomatis isolates are classified into 2 biovars-lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and trachoma-which are distinguished biologically by their natural host cell infection tropism. LGV biovars infect macrophages and are invasive, whereas trachoma biovars infect oculo-urogenital epithelial cells and are noninvasive. The C. trachomatis plasmid is an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of these infections. Central to its pathogenic role is the transcriptional regulatory function of the plasmid protein Pgp4, which regulates the expression of plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. As many gene regulatory functions are post-transcriptional, we employed a comparative proteomic study of cells infected with plasmid-cured C. trachomatis serovars A and D (trachoma biovar), a L2 serovar (LGV biovar), and the L2 serovar transformed with a plasmid containing a nonsense mutation in pgp4 to more completely elucidate the effects of the plasmid on chlamydial infection biology. Our results show that the Pgp4-dependent elevations in the levels of Pgp3 and a conserved core set of chromosomally encoded proteins are remarkably similar for serovars within both C. trachomatis biovars. Conversely, we found a plasmid-dependent, Pgp4-independent, negative regulation in the expression of the chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) for the L2 serovar but not the A and D serovars. The molecular mechanism of plasmid-dependent negative regulation of CPAF expression in the LGV serovar is not understood but is likely important to understanding its macrophage infection tropism and invasive infection nature. IMPORTANCE The Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid is an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of chlamydial infection. It is known that plasmid protein 4 (Pgp4) functions in the transcriptional regulation of the plasmid virulence protein

  7. Protective immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection: evidence from human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteiger, Byron E; Xu, Fujie; Johnson, Robert E; Rekart, Michael L

    2010-06-15

    Background. Some screening and treatment programs implemented to control Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections and their complications have shown initial reductions in infection prevalence, followed by increases to preprogram levels or higher. One hypothesis is that treatment shortens duration of infection, attenuates development of protective immunity, and thereby, increases risk of reinfection. Methods. A literature review was undertaken to assess evidence supporting the concept of protective immunity,its characteristics, and its laboratory correlates in human chlamydial infection. The discussion is organized around key questions formulated in preparation for the Chlamydia Immunology and Control Expert Advisory Meeting held by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in April 2008. Results. Definitive human studies are not available, but cross-sectional studies show that chlamydia prevalence,organism load, and concordance rates in couples decrease with age, and organism load is lower in those with repeat infections, supporting the concept of protective immunity. The protection appears partial and can be overcome after reexposure, similar to what has been found in rodent models of genital infection. No data are available to define the duration of infection required to confer a degree of immunity or the time course of immunity after resolution of untreated infection. In longitudinal studies involving African sex workers, a group presumed to have frequent and ongoing exposure to chlamydial infection, interferon-g production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to chlamydial heat-shock protein 60 was associated with low risk of incident infection.In cross-sectional studies, relevant T helper 1-type responses were found in infected persons, paralleling the studies in animal models. Conclusions. The data support the concept that some degree of protective immunity against reinfection develops after human genital infection, although it appears, at

  8. IFN-gamma-inducible Irga6 mediates host resistance against Chlamydia trachomatis via autophagy.

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    Munir A Al-Zeer

    Full Text Available Chlamydial infection of the host cell induces Gamma interferon (IFNgamma, a central immunoprotector for humans and mice. The primary defense against Chlamydia infection in the mouse involves the IFNgamma-inducible family of IRG proteins; however, the precise mechanisms mediating the pathogen's elimination are unknown. In this study, we identify Irga6 as an important resistance factor against C. trachomatis, but not C. muridarum, infection in IFNgamma-stimulated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. We show that Irga6, Irgd, Irgm2 and Irgm3 accumulate at bacterial inclusions in MEFs upon stimulation with IFNgamma, whereas Irgb6 colocalized in the presence or absence of the cytokine. This accumulation triggers a rerouting of bacterial inclusions to autophagosomes that subsequently fuse to lysosomes for elimination. Autophagy-deficient Atg5-/- MEFs and lysosomal acidification impaired cells surrender to infection. Irgm2, Irgm3 and Irgd still localize to inclusions in IFNgamma-induced Atg5-/- cells, but Irga6 localization is disrupted indicating its pivotal role in pathogen resistance. Irga6-deficient (Irga6-/- MEFs, in which chlamydial growth is enhanced, do not respond to IFNgamma even though Irgb6, Irgd, Irgm2 and Irgm3 still localize to inclusions. Taken together, we identify Irga6 as a necessary factor in conferring host resistance by remodelling a classically nonfusogenic intracellular pathogen to stimulate fusion with autophagosomes, thereby rerouting the intruder to the lysosomal compartment for destruction.

  9. [Risk behaviours and Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in prisoners by length of stay in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Corbeto, Evelin; Humet, Victoria; Leal, M Jesús; Teixidó, Nuria; Quiroga, Teresa; Casabona, Jordi

    2014-11-18

    Young prisoners have high-risk behaviors and socio-economic insecurity that increases vulnerability for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) acquisition. Monitoring its prevalence will help to reduce infection rates. Cross-sectional study from a convenience sample of prisoners aged 18-25 years. Urine samples were obtained to determine CT. A standardized and anonymous questionnaire was used to collect the study variables. The overall CT prevalence was 11%, significantly higher in those with less than one year in prison, who also presented higher frequencies in risk behaviors, while these were reduced in those who had been imprisoned for more than a year. The prevalence values obtained give an idea of the concentration of the population vulnerable to this disease in prisons and underscore the need to continue programs for the prevention and control of sexual transmitted infections (STIs). Being imprisoned longer decreased risk behaviors; therefore, it is important to screen for STIs upon admission because they are more likely to be infected and it would be thus possible to influence at that time in sex education because, at that time, risk behaviors occur more commonly, which are most likely done when they were free. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in non-urban pregnant women in Vellore, S. India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjyot K Vidwan

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection in pregnant women and the rate of transmission of CT to infants.Pregnant women (≥28 weeks gestation in Vellore, South India were approached for enrollment from April 2009 to January 2010. After informed consent was obtained, women completed a socio-demographic, prenatal, and sexual history questionnaire. Endocervical samples collected at delivery were examined for CT by a rapid enzyme test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. Neonatal nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs were collected for NAAT testing.Overall, 1198 women were enrolled and 799 (67% endocervical samples were collected at birth. Analyses were completed on 784 participants with available rapid and NAAT results. The mean age of women was 25.8 years (range 18-39 yrs and 22% (95% CI: 19.7-24.4% were primigravida. All women enrolled were married; one reported >one sexual partner; and six reported prior STI. We found 71 positive rapid CT tests and 1/784 (0.1%; 95% CI: 0-0.38% true positive CT infection using NAAT.To our knowledge, this is the largest study on CT prevalence amongst healthy pregnant mothers in southern India, and it documents a very low prevalence with NAAT. Many false positive results were noted using the rapid test. These data suggest that universal CT screening is not indicated in this population.

  11. Distribution of Chlamydia Trachomatis Genotypes in Infective Diseases of the Female Lower Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujie; Chen, Jing; Yang, Lan; Jiang, Yanming; Li, Li; Yi, Wenjuan; Lan, Lifang; Zhang, Liuhong

    2017-09-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) genotypes in infective diseases of the female lower genital tract, especially in cervical diseases. This study included 128 CT-positive women. DNA was extracted from cervical swabs. Omp1 gene PCR-RFLP and sequencing were used to confirm the subtypes of CT. The association of subtypes with age, clinical symptoms, cervical cytology, and biopsy results was further analyzed. Omp1 gene PCR-RFLP and sequencing showed that the order of prevalent CT genotypes in the female lower genital tract was D (n=38, 29.69%), followed by E (n=28, 21.88%), G (n=21, 16.41%), and F (n=16,12.50%). Genotypes J, H, and K were comparatively rare. Genotype I was not identified in our samples. Further analysis showed that patients with genotype G were more frequently co-infected with other bacteria. Genotype G was also associated with mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Patients with genotype E were commonly co-infected with HR-HPV. Although genotype D was the most prevalent, it was a relatively low-risk type. These results provide information on distribution of CT genotypes in infective diseases of the female lower genital tract, which is instrumental to developing a vaccine for CT.

  12. The prevalences of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among female sex workers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiang-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have become a major public health problem among female sex workers (FSWs in China. There have been many studies on prevalences of HIV and syphilis but the data about Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infections are limited in this population in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among FSWs recruited from different types of venues in 8 cities in China. An interview with questionnaire was conducted, followed by collection of a blood and cervical swab specimens for tests of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT infections. Results A total of 3,099 FSWs were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT were 0.26%, 6.45%, 5.91% and 17.30%, respectively. Being a FSW from low-tier venue (adjusted odds ratios [AOR]=1.39 had higher risk and being age of ≥ 21 years (AOR=0.60 for 21–25 years; AOR=0.29 for 26–30 years; AOR=0.35 for 31 years or above had lower risk for CT infection; and having CT infection was significantly associated with NG infection. Conclusions The high STI prevalence rates found among FSWs, especially among FSWs in low-tier sex work venues, suggest that the comprehensive prevention and control programs including not only behavioral interventions but also screening and medical care are needed to meet the needs of this population.

  13. A Systematic Review of Point of Care Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Herbst de Cortina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Systematic review of point of care (POC diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV. Methods. Literature search on PubMed for articles from January 2010 to August 2015, including original research in English on POC diagnostics for sexually transmitted CT, NG, and/or TV. Results. We identified 33 publications with original research on POC diagnostics for CT, NG, and/or TV. Thirteen articles evaluated test performance, yielding at least one test for each infection with sensitivity and specificity ≥90%. Each infection also had currently available tests with sensitivities <60%. Three articles analyzed cost effectiveness, and five publications discussed acceptability and feasibility. POC testing was acceptable to both providers and patients and was also demonstrated to be cost effective. Fourteen proof of concept articles introduced new tests. Conclusions. Highly sensitive and specific POC tests are available for CT, NG, and TV, but improvement is possible. Future research should focus on acceptability, feasibility, and cost of POC testing. While pregnant women specifically have not been studied, the results available in nonpregnant populations are encouraging for the ability to test and treat women in antenatal care to prevent adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes.

  14. VACCINES. A mucosal vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis generates two waves of protective memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stary, Georg; Olive, Andrew; Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Gondek, David; Alvarez, David; Basto, Pamela A; Perro, Mario; Vrbanac, Vladimir D; Tager, Andrew M; Shi, Jinjun; Yethon, Jeremy A; Farokhzad, Omid C; Langer, Robert; Starnbach, Michael N; von Andrian, Ulrich H

    2015-06-19

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection induces protective immunity that depends on interferon-γ-producing CD4 T cells. By contrast, we report that mucosal exposure to ultraviolet light (UV)-inactivated Ct (UV-Ct) generated regulatory T cells that exacerbated subsequent Ct infection. We show that mucosal immunization with UV-Ct complexed with charge-switching synthetic adjuvant particles (cSAPs) elicited long-lived protection in conventional and humanized mice. UV-Ct-cSAP targeted immunogenic uterine CD11b(+)CD103(-) dendritic cells (DCs), whereas UV-Ct accumulated in tolerogenic CD11b(-)CD103(+) DCs. Regardless of vaccination route, UV-Ct-cSAP induced systemic memory T cells, but only mucosal vaccination induced effector T cells that rapidly seeded uterine mucosa with resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells). Optimal Ct clearance required both T(RM) seeding and subsequent infection-induced recruitment of circulating memory T cells. Thus, UV-Ct-cSAP vaccination generated two synergistic memory T cell subsets with distinct migratory properties. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women by the Papanicolaou technique, enzyme immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos Pánuco, C A; Deleón Rodríguez, I; Hernández Méndez, J T; Martínez Guzmán, L A; Akle Fierro, D; Miranda Murillo, J; Reyes Maldonado, E

    2000-01-01

    To compare Papanicolaou staining, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women. Endocervical specimens were taken randomly from 125 pregnant women with or without symptoms. These women attended their first medical consultation at the Regional General Ignacio Zaragoza Hospital. Samples were analyzed for detection of C trachomatis. When results differed between tests, specimens were evaluated by direct immunofluorescence staining. The prevalence of chlamydial infection was 2.4%. The characteristics of patients positive for Chlamydia were: average age, 24 years; first sexual encounter at age 21 years, one partner and six to nine months of gestation. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive values and negative predictive values were 100%, 99.18%, 99.20%, 75% and 100%, respectively, for Papanicolaou staining; 100%, 92.62%, 92%, 25% and 100% for EIA; and 100%, 100%, 100% and 100% for PCR. Both Papanicolaou staining and PCR were adequate for diagnosis of C trachomatis infection. EIA was not reliable and therefore is not recommended for use as a diagnostic technique in a pregnant population with low risk and low prevalence.

  16. Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en usuarias de dos clínicas de planificación familiar Chlamydia trachomatis infection in users of two family planning clinics

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    Thelma Canto-de Cetina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en mujeres que acuden a dos clínicas de planificación familiar. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en 1 100 mujeres sexualmente activas, aparentemente sanas, de Mérida, Yucatán, México, quienes acudieron a dos clínicas de planificación familiar en el periodo comprendido de enero a diciembre de 1998. Las mujeres incluidas en el estudio tuvieron entre 15 y 45 años de edad, y habían estado libres de tratamiento antibacteriano al menos durante el mes previo a su inclusión. Se obtuvieron muestras endocervicales y datos epidemiológicos. La detección de bacterias fue realizada por el método inmunoenzimático de marca Wellcozyme. Los datos fueron procesados en el programa EPI Info. Como métodos estadísticos se utilizaron la prueba de Z, ji cuadrada y como medida de asociación, la razón de prevalencias. RESULTADOS: Setenta y cuatro mujeres (6.7 % fueron positivas a infección por Chlamydia trachomatis. Cerca de 50% de las mujeres estuvo asintomática. No se encontró diferencia estadística entre la proporción de mujeres con y sin Chlamydia que tuvieron síntomas vulvovaginales; por el contrario, los cambios relacionados con cervicitis fueron más frecuentes en las pacientes infectadas. C trachomatis fue más frecuente en usuarias de anticonceptivos orales (8.3% comparadas con mujeres que no tenían método anticonceptivo (5.4%. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados de este estudio confirman la alta prevalencia de infecciones asintomáticas y pone énfasis en la importancia de un diagnóstico oportuno para evitar secuelas.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending two family planning clinics in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January to December 1998, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 100 sexually active women between 15 and 45 years of age. Study subjects had not received

  17. [Chlamydia trachomatis infection in mother and child; the importance of a complete history and efficient interdisciplinary communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naafs, Jolanda C; Kleinhout, Mirjam Y

    2016-01-01

    General practitioners and paediatricians are frequently confronted with coughing infants. The age of the infant, the history of both mother and child, as well as the current maternal condition may provide important diagnostic information. A 4-week-old male infant was referred to the paediatrician with a persistent cough. He was admitted to hospital with dyspnoea and need for supplemental oxygen. Meanwhile, his mother was admitted with unexplained abdominal pain and elevated laboratory inflammation markers. Her history revealed an ectopic pregnancy. The infant's condition, for which the initial differential diagnosis was viral bronchiolitis or whooping cough, deteriorated. His medical history revealed a purulent conjunctivitis. Chlamydia trachomatis PCR turned out to be positive in both mother and child. C. trachomatis pneumonia is a common, yet often overlooked cause of cough in infants. This clinical lesson emphasises the importance of a complete history and efficient communication between medical specialists.

  18. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model...... with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high......-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital Ig...

  19. Comparison of the Becton Dickinson strand displacement amplification and Cobas Amplicor Roche PCR for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis: pooling versus individual tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D; Angelsø, Lene; Schirakow, Bente

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the influence of pooling Chlamydia trachomatis specimens. We compared Becton Dickinson ProbeTec strand displacement amplification (SDA) with Cobas Amplicor Roche (PCR). With PCR as the standard, SDA performed equally well in single-sample testing. For poo......The objective of the study was to examine the influence of pooling Chlamydia trachomatis specimens. We compared Becton Dickinson ProbeTec strand displacement amplification (SDA) with Cobas Amplicor Roche (PCR). With PCR as the standard, SDA performed equally well in single-sample testing...

  20. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in adolescents in Northern Italy: an observational school-based study

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    Alberto Matteelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We carried out a study to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae genital infections in school-based adolescents in Northern Italy. Methods Systematic screening for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae genital infection was performed in 13th grade students in the province of Brescia, an industrialized area in Northern Italy. Student filled in a questionnaire on sexual behaviour and provided a urine sample for microbiological testing. Results A total of 2,718 students (mean age: 18.4 years; 59.1 % females provided complete data (62.2 % of those eligible. Overall 2,059 students (75.8 % were sexually active (i.e. had had at least one partner, and the mean age at sexual debut was 16.1 years (SD: 1.4. Only 27.5 % of the sexually active students reported regular condom use during the previous 6 months, with higher frequency in males than in females (33.8 % vs 24.2 %. No case of N. gonorrhoeae infection was detected, while C. trachomatis was found in 36 adolescents, with a prevalence of 1.7 % (95 % CI: 1.2–2.4 among sexually active students, and no statistical difference between females and males (1.9 and 1.4 %, respectively. Inconsistent condom use (odds ratio, OR = 5.5 and having had more than one sexual partner during the previous 6 months (OR = 6.8 were associated with an increased risk of Chlamydia infection at multivariate analysis. Conclusion The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among sexually active adolescents in Northern Italy was low, despite a high proportion of students who engage in risky sexual behaviour. No cases of N. gonorrhoeae infection were identified.

  1. Expression of TLR 2, TLR 4 and iNOS in cervical monocytes of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected women and their role in host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Tanvi; Bhengraj, Apurb R; Vats, Vikas; Salhan, Sudha; Mittal, Aruna

    2011-12-01

    To study the innate immune response -TLR2 TLR 4 and iNOS expression in female genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. TLR 2, TLR 4, and iNOS expression was evaluated by real-time PCR in C. trachomatis-infected asymptomatic, mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC), and fertility disorders (FD) women. Expression of TLR signaling pathway genes was checked in vivo in C. trachomatis-infected cervical monocytes. Further, inos gene expression and nitric oxide release was assessed in vitro in THP-1 cell line upon chlamydial infection. TLR2, TLR4, and iNOS expression was significantly (P cervical monocytes upon chlamydial infection. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. An iterative strategy combining biophysical criteria and duration hidden Markov models for structural predictions of Chlamydia trachomatis σ66 promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojcius David M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoter identification is a first step in the quest to explain gene regulation in bacteria. It has been demonstrated that the initiation of bacterial transcription depends upon the stability and topology of DNA in the promoter region as well as the binding affinity between the RNA polymerase σ-factor and promoter. However, promoter prediction algorithms to date have not explicitly used an ensemble of these factors as predictors. In addition, most promoter models have been trained on data from Escherichia coli. Although it has been shown that transcriptional mechanisms are similar among various bacteria, it is quite possible that the differences between Escherichia coli and Chlamydia trachomatis are large enough to recommend an organism-specific modeling effort. Results Here we present an iterative stochastic model building procedure that combines such biophysical metrics as DNA stability, curvature, twist and stress-induced DNA duplex destabilization along with duration hidden Markov model parameters to model Chlamydia trachomatis σ66 promoters from 29 experimentally verified sequences. Initially, iterative duration hidden Markov modeling of the training set sequences provides a scoring algorithm for Chlamydia trachomatis RNA polymerase σ66/DNA binding. Subsequently, an iterative application of Stepwise Binary Logistic Regression selects multiple promoter predictors and deletes/replaces training set sequences to determine an optimal training set. The resulting model predicts the final training set with a high degree of accuracy and provides insights into the structure of the promoter region. Model based genome-wide predictions are provided so that optimal promoter candidates can be experimentally evaluated, and refined models developed. Co-predictions with three other algorithms are also supplied to enhance reliability. Conclusion This strategy and resulting model support the conjecture that DNA biophysical properties

  3. Susceptibilities of Chlamydia trachomatis isolates causing uncomplicated female genital tract infections and pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R J; Bhullar, V; Mitchell, S H; Bullard, J; Knapp, J S

    1995-03-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 45 recent clinical isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis obtained from women with asymptomatic genital tract infection, mucopurulent cervicitis, or pelvic inflammatory disease to doxycycline, azithromycin, ofloxacin, and clindamycin were determined. In addition, susceptibilities of 12 isolates to amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were also determined. Isolates also were serotyped with a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific for chlamydial major outer membrane protein; 24 of 45 (53%) belonged to serovars Ia and E. For all isolates, the MIC range of doxycycline was 0.008 to 0.06 micrograms/ml, for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole it was 0.03 to 0.25 micrograms/ml, for azithromycin it was 0.125 to 2.0 micrograms/ml, for ofloxacin it was 0.5 to 1.0 micrograms/ml, for clindamycin it was 0.25 to 2.0 micrograms/ml, and for amoxicillin it was 0.25 to 4.0 microgram/ml. The ranges of minimum chlamydiacidal concentrations were generally 1 to 4 dilutions above the MICs of most agents, with a rank order similar to those of the MICs. Comparing the minimum chlamydiacidal concentrations for 90% of isolates tested, isolates causing asymptomatic infection belonged to a greater variety of serovars and were relatively more susceptible to doxycycline and azithromycin than isolates causing mucopurulent cervicitis or pelvic inflammatory disease; these differences in susceptibility were not detected among the other study agents. These data indicate that additional studies are needed to better define the apparent association of certain chlamydial serovars with the clinical severity of disease and the in vitro susceptibilities to certain antimicrobial agents.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in undocumented migrants undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irion Olivier

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CTI is the most frequent sexual transmitted disease (STI in Switzerland but its prevalence in undocumented migrants is unknown. We aimed to compare CTI prevalence among undocumented migrants undergoing termination of pregnancy (ToP to the prevalence among women with residency permit. Methods This prospective cohort study included all pregnant, undocumented women presenting from March 2005 to October 2006 to the University hospital for ToP. The control group consisted of a systematic sample of pregnant women with legal residency permit coming to the same hospital during the same time period for ToP Results One hundred seventy five undocumented women and 208 women with residency permit (controls were included in the study. Mean ages were 28.0 y (SD 5.5 and 28.2 y (SD 7.5, respectively (p = 0.77. Undocumented women came primarily from Latin-America (78%. Frequently, they lacked contraception (23%, controls 15%, OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.04;2.9. Thirteen percent of undocumented migrants were found to have CTI (compared to 4.4% of controls; OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4;7.3. Conclusion This population of undocumented, pregnant migrants consisted primarily of young, Latino-American women. Compared to control women, undocumented migrants showed higher prevalence rates of genital CTI, which indicates that health professionals should consider systematic screening for STI in this population. There is a need to design programs providing better access to treatment and education and to increase migrants' awareness of the importance of contraception and transmission of STI.

  5. Genome-wide codon usage profiling of ocular infective Chlamydia trachomatis serovars and drug target identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhasivam, Anupriya; Vetrivel, Umashankar

    2017-07-04

    Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t) is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria and is a major causative of infectious blindness and sexually transmitted diseases. Among the varied serovars of this organism, A, B and C are reported as prominent ocular pathogens. Genomic studies of these strains shall aid in deciphering potential drug targets and genomic influence on pathogenesis. Hence, in this study we performed deep statistical profiling of codon usage in these serovars. The overall base composition analysis reveals that these serovars are over biased to AU than GC. Similarly, relative synonymous codon usage also showed preference towards A/U ending codons. Parity Rule 2 analysis inferred unequal distribution of AT and GC, indicative of other unknown factors acting along with mutational pressure to influence codon usage bias (CUB). Moreover, absolute quantification of CUB also revealed lower bias across these serovars. The effect of natural selection on CUB was also confirmed by neutrality plot, reinforcing natural selection under mutational pressure turned to be a pivotal role in shaping the CUB in the strains studied. Correspondence analysis (COA) clarified that, C.t C/TW-3 to show a unique trend in codon usage variation. Host influence analysis on shaping the codon usage pattern also inferred some speculative relativity. In a nutshell, our finding suggests that mutational pressure is the dominating factor in shaping CUB in the strains studied, followed by natural selection. We also propose potential drug targets based on cumulative analysis of strand bias, CUB and human non-homologue screening.

  6. Lifetime interpersonal violence and self-reported chlamydia trachomatis diagnosis among California women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Mack, Katelyn P; Chow, Joan M; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    To examine the relationship between cumulative exposure to various types of interpersonal violence throughout the life span and self-reported history of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) diagnosis in a population-based sample of California women. This was a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based survey of California women aged 18-44 years (n = 3521). Participants reported their experience of multiple types of interpersonal violence: physical or sexual abuse in childhood or adulthood and intimate partner violence (IPV) in the past 12 months. Current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms were also reported. Separate logistic regression models assessed the association between experiencing each type of interpersonal violence, as well as women's cumulative exposure to violence, and past CT diagnosis, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and poverty, as well as mental health problems. Six percent of women reported a past diagnosis of CT, and 40.8% reported experiencing at least one type of interpersonal violence in their lifetime. All types of violence were significantly associated with higher odds of having a past CT diagnosis even after controlling for sociodemographics. Women who reported experiencing four or more types of violence experiences had over five times the odds of reporting a lifetime CT diagnosis compared with women who never experienced interpersonal violence (adjusted odds ratio = 5.71, 95% CI 3.27-9.58). Current PTSD and depressive symptoms did not significantly affect the relationship between a woman's cumulative experience of violence and her risk of past CT diagnosis. There is a robust association between experiencing multiple forms of violence and having been diagnosed with CT. Women who seek treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), such as CT, should be assessed for their lifetime history of violence, especially violence in their current intimate relationships. Sexual risk reduction counseling may also be important

  7. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women, heterosexual men and MSM visiting HIV counselling institutions in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany - should Chlamydia testing be scaled up?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lallemand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients asking for a free anonymous HIV test may have contracted other sexually transmitted infections (STIs such as Chlamydia trachomatis, yet Chlamydia prevalence in that population is unknown. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with Chlamydia infection in patients seeking HIV testing at local public health authorities (LPHA in order to evaluate whether Chlamydia testing should be routinely offered to them. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among patients (≥18 years attending 18 LPHA in North Rhine-Westphalia from November 2012 to September 2013. LPHA collected information on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, sexual and HIV testing behaviours, previous STI history and clinical symptoms. Self-collected vaginal swabs and urine (men were analysed by Transcription-Mediated Amplification. We assessed overall and age-stratified Chlamydia prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI. Using univariate and multivariable binomial regression, we estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR to identify factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Results The study population comprised 1144 (40.5 % women, 1134 (40.1 % heterosexual men and 549 (19.4 % men who have sex with men (MSM; median age was 30 years. Chlamydia prevalence was 5.3 % (95 % CI: 4.1–6.8 % among women, 3.2 % (95 % CI: 2.2–4.4 in heterosexual men and 3.5 % (95 % CI: 2.1–5.4 in MSM. Prevalence was highest among 18–24 year-old women (9 %; 95 % CI: 5.8–13 and heterosexual men (5.7 %; 95 % CI: 3.0–9.8 %, respectively. Among MSM, the prevalence was highest among 30–39 year-olds (4.4 %; 95 % CI: 1.9–8.5 %. Among those who tested positive, 76.7 % of women, 75.0 % of heterosexual men and 84.2 % of MSM were asymptomatic. Among women, factors associated with Chlamydia infection were young age (18–24 years versus ≥ 40 years, aPR: 3.0, 95 % CI: 1.2–7.8, having had more than 2

  8. Active trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in two Gambian regions: on course for elimination by 2020?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Harding-Esch

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma has been endemic in The Gambia for decades. National trachoma control activities have been in place since the mid-1980's, but with no mass antibiotic treatment campaign. We aimed to assess the prevalence of active trachoma and of actual ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection as measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the two Gambian regions that had had the highest prevalence of trachoma in the last national survey in 1996 prior to planned national mass antibiotic treatment distribution in 2006.Two stage random sampling survey in 61 randomly selected Enumeration Areas (EAs in North Bank Region (NBR and Lower River Region (LRR. Fifty randomly selected children aged under 10 years were examined per EA for clinical signs of trachoma. In LRR, swabs were taken to test for ocular C. trachomatis infection. Unadjusted prevalences of active trachoma were calculated, as would be done in a trachoma control programme. The prevalence of trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF in the 2777 children aged 1-9 years was 12.3% (95% CI 8.8%-17.0% in LRR and 10.0% (95% CI 7.7%-13.0% in NBR, with significant variation within divisions (p<0.01, and a design effect of 3.474. Infection with C. trachomatis was found in only 0.3% (3/940 of children in LRR.This study shows a large discrepancy between the prevalence of trachoma clinical signs and ocular C. trachomatis infection in two Gambian regions. Assessment of trachoma based on clinical signs alone may lead to unnecessary treatment, since the prevalence of active trachoma remains high but C. trachomatis infection has all but disappeared. Assuming that repeated infection is required for progression to blinding sequelae, blinding trachoma is on course for elimination by 2020 in The Gambia.

  9. The Role of Chlamydia trachomatis IgG Antibody Testing in Predicting Tubal Factor Infertility in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Ajami

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Chlamydia serology as ascreening test for tubal infertility and to compare the results with hysterosalpingography (HSGand laparoscopic findings.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study undertaken on 110 infertile womentreated in the IVF Ward, at Emam Khomeini Hospital, Sari, Iran who underwent laparoscopy andHSG as part of their infertility workup.Prior to laparoscopy, 5 ml of venous blood was drawn for measurement of serum ChlamydiaIgG antibody titer (CAT. Patients’ tubal status and pelvic findings were compared with CAT, asmeasured by microimmunofluorescence.Results: Tuboperitoneal abnormalities were seen in 81.4% of seropositive patients versus 13.2%of women who were seronegative. In women with tubal damage, the numbers of positive CATs(≥1:32 were significantly more than in those who had a normal pelvis (66.6% vs. 6.5%, p<0.001.CAT levels were higher in patients who had bilateral hydrosalpinges, bilateral tubal occlusion andpelvic adhesions (severe damage, than those with tubal distortion and unilateral occlusion (milddamage (p<0.05. The positive likelihood ratio for C. trachomatis antibody testing was 10.28 ascompared with HSG, which had a positive likelihood ratio of 3.03.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that C. trachomatis serology is an inexpensive andnon-invasive test for tubal factor infertility screening.

  10. Unusual Self-Assembly of the Recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis Major Outer Membrane Protein-Based Fusion Antigen CTH522 Into Protein Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Fabrice; Karlsen, Kasper; Jensen, Pernille

    2018-01-01

    but is a challenging vaccine candidate by being an integral membrane protein, and the immunogenicity depends on a correctly folded structure. We investigated the biophysical properties of the recombinant MOMP-based fusion antigen CTH522, which is tested in early human clinical trials. It consists of a truncated......Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infects more than 100 million people annually, and untreated chlamydia infections can cause severe complications. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a chlamydia vaccine. The Ct major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is highly immunogenic...

  11. Opportunistische screening op genitale infecties met Chlamydia trachomatis onder de seksueel actieve bevolking in Amsterdam. II. Kosteneffectiviteitsanalyse van screening bij vrouwen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, M.J.; Welte, R.; Van Den Hoek, J.A.R.; Van Doornum, G.J.J.; Coutinho, R.A.; Jager, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To estimate the cost effectiveness of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening of young women visiting general practitioners. Design. Economic model analysis. Methods. Data on the health care needs for CT complications were derived from various sources; costing was done using estimated cost

  12. The Cervicovaginal Microbiota in Women Notified for Chlamydia trachomatis Infection: A Case-Control Study at the Sexually Transmitted Infection Outpatient Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Charlotte; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; van der Helm, Jannie J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; van Houdt, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Background. Increasing evidence suggests that the cervicovaginal microbiota (CVM) plays an important role in acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Here we study the CVM in a population of women notified by a sex partner for Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Methods. We included 98 women

  13. Design of the FemCure study: prospective multicentre study on the transmission of genital and extra-genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women receiving routine care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Wolffs, Petra F. G.; Eppings, Lisanne; Götz, Hannelore M.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Janssen, Kevin; Lucchesi, Mayk; Heijman, Titia; van Benthem, Birgit H.; van Bergen, Jan E.; Morre, Servaas A.; Herbergs, Jos; Kok, Gerjo; Steenbakkers, Mieke; Hogewoning, Arjan A.; de Vries, Henry J.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2016-01-01

    In women, anorectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are about as common as genital CT, yet the anorectal site remains largely untested in routine care. Anorectal CT frequently co-occurs with genital CT and may thus often be treated co-incidentally. Nevertheless, post-treatment detection

  14. Value of self-reportable screening criteria to identify asymptomatic individuals in the general population for urogential Chlamydia trachomatis infection screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, Berit; van Valkengoed, Irene; Olesen, Frede; Møller, Jens K.; Østergaard, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Submission of samples from the home allows screening for Chlamydia trachomatis without preceding professional assessment of clinical risk factors. Therefore, a validation of self-reportable information for use as selective screening criteria is needed. We asked a total of 1175 women and 1033 men who

  15. Cost effectiveness analysis of a population based screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women by means of home obtained urine specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, I.G.M.; Postma, M.J.; Morre, S.A.; van den Brule, A.J.C.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Boeke, A.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a systematic screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in a female inner city population. To determine the sensitivity of the cost effectiveness analysis to variation in the probability of developing sequelae. Methods: A

  16. Normal IncA expression and fusogenicity of inclusions in Chlamydia trachomatis isolates with the incA I47T mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Y.; van der Ende, A.; Eijk, P. P.; van Marle, J.; de Witte, M. A.; Ossewaarde, J. M.; van den Brule, A. J.; Morré, S. A.; Dankert, J.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the incA I47T mutation in Chlamydia trachomatis and the nonfusogenic phenotype, the incA genes of 25 isolates were sequenced. Four major sequence types were identified. Seven isolates (28%) had the I47T mutation. Isolates representing the four sequence types

  17. Interrelationship between Polymorphisms of incA, fusogenic properties of Chlamydia trachomatis strains, and clinical manifestations in patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Spaargaren, Joke; Langerak, Ankie A. J.; Merks, Judith; Morré, Servaas A.; van der Ende, Arie

    2005-01-01

    IncA variation among Dutch Chlamydia trachomatis isolates was investigated. Of 98 strains, two carried an incA with a premature stop codon, lacked IncA, and were nonfusogenic, while 96 contained an intact incA, expressed IncA, and were fasogenic. Among these 96 strains, nine IncA sequence types were

  18. Cost effectiveness analysis of a population based screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women by means of home obtained urine specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, IGM; Postma, MJ; Morre, SA; van den Brule, AJC; Meijer, CJLM; Bouter, LM; Boeke, AJP

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a systematic screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia, trachomatis infections in a female inner city population. To determine the sensitivity of the cost effectiveness analysis to variation in the probability of developing sequelae. Methods: A

  19. Cost effectiveness analysis of a population based screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women by means of home obtained urine specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, I. G.; Postma, M. J.; Morré, S. A.; van den Brule, A. J.; Meijer, C. J.; Bouter, L. M.; Boeke, A. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a systematic screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in a female inner city population. To determine the sensitivity of the cost effectiveness analysis to variation in the probability of developing sequelae. METHODS: A

  20. A Web-Based Respondent Driven Sampling Pilot Targeting Young People at Risk for Chlamydia Trachomatis in Social and Sexual Networks with Testing: A Use Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Kevin; Hoebe, Christian; Kok, Gerjo; Crutzen, Rik; Kara-Zaïtri, Chakib; de Vries, Nanne; van Bergen, Jan; Hamilton, Robert; van der Sande, Marianne; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of targeting high-risk hidden heterosexual young people for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing, an innovative web-based screening strategy using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) and home-based CT testing, was developed, piloted and evaluated. Two STI clinic nurses encouraged 37 CT

  1. Seroprevalences of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2, Five Oncogenic Human Papillomaviruses, and Chlamydia trachomatis in Katowice, Poland▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görander, Staffan; Lagergård, Teresa; Romanik, Malgorzata; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Martirosian, Gayane; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), human papillomaviruses (HPVs), and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common pathogens causing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). There is limited information about the prevalences of these STIs in Poland. Here, we estimated the occurrence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against HSV-2, HPV, and C. trachomatis in 199 blood donors and 110 patients of both genders attending an STI clinic in Katowice in southern Poland. The seroprevalences of HSV-2 were 5% for blood donors and 14% in the STI cohort. The seroprevalences of the five potentially oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 31, 35, and 51 were 15%, 7%, 5%, 5%, and 17%, respectively, in blood donors and 37%, 8%, 12%, 5%, and 21%, respectively, in the STI cohort. The majority of HPV-infected individuals showed antibodies against more than one type, i.e., had been infected with multiple HPV types. Anti-C. trachomatis IgG antibodies were detected in 6% of blood donors and 13% of individuals attending the STI clinic. The relatively high prevalence of HPV-51 may have implications for future vaccine programs, as the newly introduced HPV vaccines are based on the potentially oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18. PMID:18287578

  2. Seroprevalences of herpes simplex virus type 2, five oncogenic human papillomaviruses, and Chlamydia trachomatis in Katowice, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görander, Staffan; Lagergård, Teresa; Romanik, Malgorzata; Viscidi, Raphael P; Martirosian, Gayane; Liljeqvist, Jan-Ake

    2008-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), human papillomaviruses (HPVs), and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common pathogens causing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). There is limited information about the prevalences of these STIs in Poland. Here, we estimated the occurrence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against HSV-2, HPV, and C. trachomatis in 199 blood donors and 110 patients of both genders attending an STI clinic in Katowice in southern Poland. The seroprevalences of HSV-2 were 5% for blood donors and 14% in the STI cohort. The seroprevalences of the five potentially oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 31, 35, and 51 were 15%, 7%, 5%, 5%, and 17%, respectively, in blood donors and 37%, 8%, 12%, 5%, and 21%, respectively, in the STI cohort. The majority of HPV-infected individuals showed antibodies against more than one type, i.e., had been infected with multiple HPV types. Anti-C. trachomatis IgG antibodies were detected in 6% of blood donors and 13% of individuals attending the STI clinic. The relatively high prevalence of HPV-51 may have implications for future vaccine programs, as the newly introduced HPV vaccines are based on the potentially oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18.

  3. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States as determined by the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginocchio, C C; Chapin, K; Smith, J S; Aslanzadeh, J; Snook, J; Hill, C S; Gaydos, C A

    2012-08-01

    Our aim was to determine Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence using the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis assay (ATV; Gen-Probe) and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfections in U.S. women undergoing screening for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae. Discarded urogenital samples from 7,593 women (18 to 89 years old) undergoing C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae screening using the Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe) in various clinical settings were tested with ATV. Overall, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae prevalences were 8.7%, 6.7%, and 1.7%, respectively. T. vaginalis was more prevalent than C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae in all age groups except the 18- to 19-year-old group. The highest T. vaginalis prevalence was in women ≥ 40 years old (>11%), while the highest C. trachomatis prevalence (9.2%) and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence (2.2%) were in women 40 years, while C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence is lowest in that age group. Higher T. vaginalis prevalence in women of >40 years is probably attributed to the reason for testing, i.e., symptomatic status versus routine screening in younger women. Coinfections were relatively low. High T. vaginalis prevalence in all age groups suggests that women screened for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae, whether asymptomatic or symptomatic, should be screened for T. vaginalis.

  4. Prevalence of plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women who visited obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Tee Cian; Wong, Won Fen; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Sulaiman, Sofiah; Shahhosseini, Fatemeh; Tan, Grace Min Yi; Movahed, Elaheh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Shankar, Esaki M; Gupta, Rishien; Arulanandam, Bernard P; Hassan, Jamiyah; Abu Bakar, Sazaly

    2016-03-18

    The 7.5 kb cryptic plasmid of Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to be a virulence factor in animal models, but its significance in humans still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and potential involvement of the C. trachomatis cryptic plasmid in causing various clinical manifestations; including infertility, reproductive tract disintegrity, menstrual disorder, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) among genital C. trachomatis-infected patients. A total of 180 female patients of child bearing age (mean 30.9 years old, IQR:27-35) with gynecological complications and subfertility issues, who visited Obstetrics and Gynecology clinics in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were recruited for the study. Prevalence of genital chlamydial infection among these patients was alarmingly high at 51.1% (92/180). Of the 92 chlamydia-infected patients, 93.5% (86/92) were infected with plasmid-bearing (+) C. trachomatis while the remaining 6.5% (6/92) were caused by the plasmid-free (-) variant. Our data showed that genital C. trachomatis infection was associated with infertility issues, inflammation in the reproductive tract (mucopurulent cervicitis or endometriosis), irregular menstrual cycles and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). However, no statistical significance was detected among patients with plasmid (+) versus plasmid (-) C. trachomatis infection. Interestingly, plasmid (+) C. trachomatis was detected in all patients with PCOS, and the plasmid copy numbers were significantly higher among PCOS patients, relative to non-PCOS patients. Our findings show a high incidence of C. trachomatis infection among women with infertility or gynecological problems in Malaysia. However, due to the low number of plasmid (-) C. trachomatis cases, a significant role of the plasmid in causing virulence in human requires further investigation of a larger cohort.

  5. A novel gel-based method for self-collection and ambient temperature postal transport of urine for PCR detection of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialasiewicz, S; Whiley, D M; Buhrer-Skinner, M; Bautista, C; Barker, K; Aitken, S; Gordon, R; Muller, R; Lambert, S B; Debattista, J; Nissen, M D; Sloots, T P

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel urine transport method to be used in self-collection-based screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. The method needed to be suitable for C trachomatis PCR detection, be economical and suitable for transport by standard envelope mailing. An anhydrous gel composed of super-absorbent polymer and buffering agent was used to desiccate urine into a dry granulous state, which could subsequently be reconstituted upon arrival at a laboratory. DNA was then extracted from the reconstituted solution using the Roche MagNA Pure protocol for the detection of C trachomatis by PCR. Collections of urine specimens from three populations with widely differing chlamydia prevalence (100%,n = 56; 47%, n = 70; 3%, n = 97) were used. We determined the gel method's impact on C trachomatis PCR sensitivity and specificity using neat and gel-processed urine specimens. An equine herpes virus PCR was used to test for assay inhibition. Overall, the sensitivity of the gel-based method ranged from 94.6-100% compared with neat urine, with a specificity of 100%. No PCR inhibition or decrease in analytical sensitivity was observed using the gel-processed extracts. The gel-based method was found to be suitable for the detection of C trachomatis by PCR. In addition, its ease of use, effectiveness at ambient temperature and low cost makes it well-suited for self-collection kits used in population-based C trachomatis screening, particularly for geographically and socially isolated individuals.

  6. The Cervicovaginal Microbiota in Women Notified for Chlamydia trachomatis Infection: A Case-Control Study at the Sexually Transmitted Infection Outpatient Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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    van der Veer, Charlotte; Bruisten, Sylvia M; van der Helm, Jannie J; de Vries, Henry J C; van Houdt, Robin

    2017-01-01

     Increasing evidence suggests that the cervicovaginal microbiota (CVM) plays an important role in acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Here we study the CVM in a population of women notified by a sex partner for Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  We included 98 women who were contact-traced by C. trachomatis-positive sex partners at the STI outpatient clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and analyzed their cervicovaginal samples and clinical data. CVMs were characterized by sequencing the V3/V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and by hierarchical clustering. Characteristics associating with C. trachomatis infection were examined using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis.  The CVM was characterized for 93 women, of whom 52 tested C. trachomatis positive and 41 C. trachomatis negative. We identified 3 major CVM clusters. Clustered CVM predominantly comprised either diverse anaerobic bacteria (n = 39 [42%]), Lactobacillus iners (n = 32 [34%]), or Lactobacillus crispatus (n = 22 [24%]). In multivariable analysis, we found that CVM was significantly associated with C. trachomatis infection (odds ratio [OR], 4.2 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2-15.4] for women with diverse anaerobic CVM and OR, 4.4 [95% CI, 1.3-15.6], for women with L. iners-dominated CVM, compared with women with L. crispatus-dominated CVM), as was younger age (OR, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.1-8.7] for those ≤21 years old) and reporting a steady sex partner (OR, 3.6 [95% CI, 1.4-9.4]).  Women who tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection after having been contact-traced by a chlamydia-positive partner were more likely to have CVM dominated by L. iners or by diverse anaerobic bacteria, than by L. crispatus. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Intravaginal Chlamydia trachomatis Challenge Infection Elicits TH1 and TH17 Immune Responses in Mice That Promote Pathogen Clearance and Genital Tract Damage.

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    Rodolfo D Vicetti Miguel

    Full Text Available While ascension of Chlamydia trachomatis into the upper genital tract of women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and Fallopian tube damage, most infections elicit no symptoms or overt upper genital tract pathology. Consistent with this asymptomatic clinical presentation, genital C. trachomatis infection of women generates robust TH2 immunity. As an animal model that modeled this response would be invaluable for delineating bacterial pathogenesis and human host defenses, herein we explored if pathogen-specific TH2 immunity is similarly elicited by intravaginal (ivag infection of mice with oculogenital C. trachomatis serovars. Analogous to clinical infection, ascension of primary C. trachomatis infection into the mouse upper genital tract produced no obvious tissue damage. Clearance of ivag challenge infection was mediated by interferon (IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, while IFN-γ signaling blockade concomitant with a single ivag challenge promoted tissue damage by enhancing Chlamydia-specific TH17 immunity. Likewise, IFN-γ and IL-17 signaling blockade or CD4+ T cell depletion eliminated the genital pathology produced in untreated controls by multiple ivag challenge infections. Conversely, we were unable to detect formation of pathogen-specific TH2 immunity in C. trachomatis-infected mice. Together, our work revealed C. trachomatis infection of mice generates TH1 and TH17 immune responses that promote pathogen clearance and immunopathological tissue damage. Absence of Chlamydia-specific TH2 immunity in these mice newly highlights the need to identify experimental models of C. trachomatis genital infection that more closely recapitulate the human host response.

  8. Intravaginal Chlamydia trachomatis Challenge Infection Elicits TH1 and TH17 Immune Responses in Mice That Promote Pathogen Clearance and Genital Tract Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D; Quispe Calla, Nirk E; Pavelko, Stephen D; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    While ascension of Chlamydia trachomatis into the upper genital tract of women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and Fallopian tube damage, most infections elicit no symptoms or overt upper genital tract pathology. Consistent with this asymptomatic clinical presentation, genital C. trachomatis infection of women generates robust TH2 immunity. As an animal model that modeled this response would be invaluable for delineating bacterial pathogenesis and human host defenses, herein we explored if pathogen-specific TH2 immunity is similarly elicited by intravaginal (ivag) infection of mice with oculogenital C. trachomatis serovars. Analogous to clinical infection, ascension of primary C. trachomatis infection into the mouse upper genital tract produced no obvious tissue damage. Clearance of ivag challenge infection was mediated by interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, while IFN-γ signaling blockade concomitant with a single ivag challenge promoted tissue damage by enhancing Chlamydia-specific TH17 immunity. Likewise, IFN-γ and IL-17 signaling blockade or CD4+ T cell depletion eliminated the genital pathology produced in untreated controls by multiple ivag challenge infections. Conversely, we were unable to detect formation of pathogen-specific TH2 immunity in C. trachomatis-infected mice. Together, our work revealed C. trachomatis infection of mice generates TH1 and TH17 immune responses that promote pathogen clearance and immunopathological tissue damage. Absence of Chlamydia-specific TH2 immunity in these mice newly highlights the need to identify experimental models of C. trachomatis genital infection that more closely recapitulate the human host response.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in a cross-sectional study of urogenital samples from remote Northern and Central Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, Philip M; Brenner, Nicole C; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Holt, Deborah C; Andersson, Patiyan; Lilliebridge, Rachael A; Tong, Steven Y C; Karimi, Mahdad; Boylan, Prudence; Ryder, Nathan; Johns, Tracy; Singh, Gurmeet

    2016-01-06

    The objective was to determine the frequency of trachoma genotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis-positive urogenital tract (UGT) specimens from remote areas of the Australian Northern Territory (NT). The setting was analysis of remnants of C. trachomatis positive primarily UGT specimens obtained in the course of clinical practice. The specimens were obtained from two pathology service providers. From 3356 C. trachomatis specimens collected during May 2012-April 2013, 439 were selected for genotyping, with a focus on specimens from postpubescent patients, in remote Aboriginal communities where ocular trachoma is potentially present. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of successfully genotyped UGT specimens that were trachoma genotypes. The secondary outcome measures were the distribution of genotypes, and the frequencies of different classes of specimens able to be genotyped. Zero of 217 successfully genotyped UGT specimens yielded trachoma genotypes (95% CI for frequency=0-0.017). For UGT specimens, the genotypes were E (41%), F (22%), D (21%) and K (7%), with J, H and G and mixed genotypes each at 1-4%. Four of the five genotyped eye swabs yielded trachoma genotype Ba, and the other genotype J. Two hundred twenty-two specimens (50.6%) were successfully genotyped. Urine specimens were less likely to be typable than vaginal swabs (pinfections in young children in areas where trachoma genotypes may continue to circulate, and continued surveillance of UGT C. trachomatis genotypes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Evaluation of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis among young women in primary health care services in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Dária; Sabidó, Meritxell; Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Benzaken, Nina Schwartz; Jardim, Lucília; Ferreira, Cynthia; Leturiondo, André; Santos, Camila Gurgel Dos; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2016-10-20

    Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is not routinely offered to young asymptomatic women in Brazil. This study evaluated the performance, usefulness, and operational suitability of the Digene Hybrid Capture II (HCII) CT-ID DNA-test as an opportunistic screening tool to detect C. trachomatis in the public health system in Manaus, Amazonas State. Women aged 14-25 years who attended primary health care services were interviewed and one cervical specimen was collected during cytological screening. The HCII CT test was evaluated for its ability to detect the presence of C. trachomatis and against real-time PCR (q-PCR) in a subset of samples. Operational performance was assessed through interviews with providers and patients. Overall, 1,187 women were screened, and 1,169 had a HCII CT-ID test result (292 of these were also tested by q-PCR). Of those, 13.1% (n = 153) were positive. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of HCII CT were 72.3% (95%CI: 65.4-78.6), 91.3% (95%CI: 84.1-95.9), 93.8% (95%CI: 88.5-97.1), and 64.4% (95%CI: 56.0-72.1), respectively. Sample collection caused discomfort in 19.7% of women. Among health professionals (n = 52), the main barriers reported included positive cases who did not return for results (56.4%), unwillingness to screen without an appointment (45.1%), and increase in their workload (38.8%). HCII CT-ID identified a high proportion of C. trachomatis cases among young women in Manaus. However, its moderate sensitivity limits its use as an opportunistic screening tool in primary health care settings in Manaus. Screening was well accepted although the barriers we identified, especially among health professionals, challenge screening detection and treatment efforts.

  11. Low Prevalence of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Active Trachoma in the Western Division of Fiji.

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    Colin K Macleod

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct. While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. This finding is at odds with the clinical experience of local healthcare workers who do not consider trachoma to be highly prevalent. We aimed to determine whether conjunctival infection with Ct could be detected in one administrative division of Fiji.A population-based survey of 2306 individuals was conducted using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. Population prevalence of active trachoma in children and trichiasis in adults was estimated using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 1009 children aged 1-9 years. DNA from swabs was tested for the presence of the Ct plasmid and human endogenous control.The prevalence of active trachoma in 1-9 year olds was 3.4%. The age-adjusted prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI: 1.4-4.3%. The unadjusted prevalence of ocular Ct infection in 1-9 year-olds was 1.9% (19/1009, and the age-adjusted infection prevalence was 2.3% (95% CI: 0.4-2.5%. The median DNA load was 41 Ct plasmid copies per swab (min 20, first quartile 32, mean 6665, third quartile 161, max 86354. There was no association between current infection and follicular trachoma. No cases of trachomatous trichiasis were identified.The Western Division of Fiji has a low prevalence of clinical trachoma. Ocular Ct infections were observed, but they were predominantly low load infections and were not correlated with clinical signs. Our study data suggest that trachoma does not meet the WHO definition of a public health problem in this Division of Fiji, but the

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis Strain Types Have Diversified Regionally and Globally with Evidence for Recombination across Geographic Divides

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    Vitaly Smelov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The Ct Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST scheme is effective in differentiating strain types (ST, deciphering transmission patterns and treatment failure, and identifying recombinant strains. Here, we analyzed 323 reference and clinical samples, including 58 samples from Russia, an area that has not previously been represented in Ct typing schemes, to expand our knowledge of the global diversification of Ct STs. The 323 samples resolved into 84 unique STs, a 3.23 higher typing resolution compared to the gold standard single locus ompA genotyping. Our MLST scheme showed a high discriminatory index, D, of 0.98 (95% CI 0.97–0.99 confirming the validity of this method for typing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed distinct branches for the phenotypic diseases of lymphogranuloma venereum, urethritis and cervicitis, and a sub-branch for ocular trachoma. Consistent with these findings, single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified that significantly correlated with each phenotype. While the overall number of unique STs per region was comparable across geographies, the number of STs was greater for Russia with a significantly higher ST/sample ratio of 0.45 (95% CI: 0.35–0.53 compared to Europe or the Americas (p < 0.009, which may reflect a higher level of sexual mixing with the introduction of STs from other regions and/or reassortment of alleles. Four STs were found to be significantly associated with a particular geographic region. ST23 [p = 0.032 (95% CI: 1–23], ST34 [p = 0.019 (95% CI: 1.1–25]; and ST19 [p = 0.001 (95% CI: 1.7–34.7] were significantly associated with Netherlands compared to Russia or the Americas, while ST 30 [p = 0.031 (95% CI: 1.1–17.8] was significantly associated with the Americas. ST19 was significantly associated with Netherlands and Russia compared with the Americans [p = 0.001 (95% CI: 1.7–34.7 and p = 0.006 (95

  13. Low Prevalence of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Active Trachoma in the Western Division of Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Colin K; Butcher, Robert; Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Pavluck, Alexandre L; Willis, Rebecca; Alexander, Neal; Mabey, David C W; Cikamatana, Luisa; Kama, Mike; Rafai, Eric; Roberts, Chrissy H; Solomon, Anthony W

    2016-07-01

    Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. This finding is at odds with the clinical experience of local healthcare workers who do not consider trachoma to be highly prevalent. We aimed to determine whether conjunctival infection with Ct could be detected in one administrative division of Fiji. A population-based survey of 2306 individuals was conducted using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. Population prevalence of active trachoma in children and trichiasis in adults was estimated using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 1009 children aged 1-9 years. DNA from swabs was tested for the presence of the Ct plasmid and human endogenous control. The prevalence of active trachoma in 1-9 year olds was 3.4%. The age-adjusted prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI: 1.4-4.3%). The unadjusted prevalence of ocular Ct infection in 1-9 year-olds was 1.9% (19/1009), and the age-adjusted infection prevalence was 2.3% (95% CI: 0.4-2.5%). The median DNA load was 41 Ct plasmid copies per swab (min 20, first quartile 32, mean 6665, third quartile 161, max 86354). There was no association between current infection and follicular trachoma. No cases of trachomatous trichiasis were identified. The Western Division of Fiji has a low prevalence of clinical trachoma. Ocular Ct infections were observed, but they were predominantly low load infections and were not correlated with clinical signs. Our study data suggest that trachoma does not meet the WHO definition of a public health problem in this Division of Fiji, but the inconsistency with

  14. A novel co-infection model with Toxoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis highlights the importance of host cell manipulation for nutrient scavenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Julia D.; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A.; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Coppens, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Summary Toxoplasmaand Chlamydia trachomatis are obligate intracellular pathogens that have evolved analogous strategies to replicate within mammalian cells. Both pathogens are known to extensively remodel the cytoskeleton, and to recruit endocytic and exocytic organelles to their respective vacuoles. However, how important these activities are for infectivity by either pathogen remains elusive. Here, we have developed a novel co-infection system to gain insights into the developmental cycles of Toxoplasma and C. trachomatis by infecting human cells with both pathogens, and examining their respective ability to replicate and scavenge nutrients. We hypothesize that the common strategies used by Toxoplasma and Chlamydia to achieve development results in direct competition of the two pathogens for the same pool of nutrients. We show that a single human cell can harbor Chlamydia and Toxoplasma. In co-infected cells, Toxoplasma is able to divert the content of host organelles, such as cholesterol. Consequently, the infectious cycle of Toxoplasma progresses unimpeded. In contrast, Chlamydia’s ability to scavenge selected nutrients is diminished, and the bacterium shifts to a stress-induced persistent growth. Parasite killing engenders an ordered return to normal chlamydial development. We demonstrate that C. trachomatis enters a stress-induced persistence phenotype as a direct result from being barred from its normal nutrient supplies as addition of excess nutrients, e.g., amino acids, leads to substantial recovery of Chlamydia growth and infectivity. Co-infection of C. trachomatis with slow growing strains of Toxoplasma or a mutant impaired in nutrient acquisition does not restrict chlamydial development. Conversely, Toxoplasma growth is halted in cells infected with the highly virulent Chlamydia psittaci. This study illustrates the key role that cellular remodeling plays in the exploitation of host intracellular resources by Toxoplasma and Chlamydia. It further

  15. Caspase-1 contributes to Chlamydia trachomatis-induced upper urogenital tract inflammatory pathologies without affecting the course of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen; Shivshankar, Pooja; Li, Zhongyu; Chen, Lili; Yeh, I-Tien; Zhong, Guangming

    2008-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection induces inflammatory pathologies in the upper genital tract, potentially leading to ectopic pregnancy and infertility in the affected women. Caspase-1 is required for processing and release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-18, and possibly IL-33. In the present study, we evaluated the role of caspase-1 in chlamydial infection and pathogenesis. Although chlamydial infection induced caspase-1 activation and processing of IL-1beta, mice competent and mice deficient in caspase-1 experienced similar courses of chlamydial infection in their urogenital tracts, suggesting that Chlamydia-activated caspase-1 did not play a significant role in resolution of chlamydial infection. However, when genital tract tissue pathologies were examined, the caspase-1-deficient mice displayed much reduced inflammatory damage. The reduction in inflammation was most obvious in the fallopian tube tissue. These observations demonstrated that although caspase-1 is not required for controlling chlamydial infection, caspase-1-mediated responses can exacerbate the Chlamydia-induced inflammatory pathologies in the upper genital tract, suggesting that the host caspase-1 may be targeted for selectively attenuating chlamydial pathogenicity without affecting the host defense against chlamydial infection.

  16. Two coiled-coil domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA affect membrane fusion events during infection.

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    Erik Ronzone

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA's fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection.

  17. Two coiled-coil domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA affect membrane fusion events during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzone, Erik; Paumet, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A) appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA's fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection.

  18. [Human papilloma virus and Chlamydia trachomatis by number of sexual partners and time of sexual activity on university students in the Region of La Araucanía, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Angélica; Lagos, Nicole; Montenegro, Sonia; Orellana, Juan José; Vásquez, Ana María; Moreno, Sergio; Liempi, Sandra; Guzmán, Pablo; Fonseca-Salamanca, Flery

    2016-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STIs), among teenagers and young people, with risk factors: active sex life and multiple partners. Chlamydia trachomatis infection may favor HPV infection and this, the development of cervical cancer. Both infections can lead to consequences on sexual and reproductive health. To determine frequency of HPV and C. trachomatis in asymptomatic university women less than 25 years, associating them with number of sexual partners (n°SxP) and time of sexual activity (TSxA). Material andMethods: 151 cervical samples for HPV and C. trachomatis, were processed by conventional and in real time reaction polymerase chain. HPV 21, 8%, C. trachomatis 11, 2% and co-infection (HPV/C.trachomatis), 4.6%. Aimong HPV +, 80, 6% showed high risk HPV. The n°SxP was strongly associated with HPV. Aimong young coinfected HPV/C. trachomatis, 71.4% had 3 or more PSx. Chlamydia trachomatis was more frequent (64,7%) that HPV within range of 3-5 years according to the TSxA, Discussion: A high prevalence of HPV and C. trachomatis was observed. Young women with coinfection HPV/C. trachomatis could be a high-risk group need to monitor their infections. It suggests the implementation of university programs in education, counseling and prevention in sexual health.

  19. Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis in Ureaplasma-positive healthy women attending their first prenatal visit in a community hospital in Sapporo, Japan

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    Yamazaki Tomohiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported pathogen that causes urogenital infection such as urethritis or cervicitis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum, which are commensals in the genital tract, have also now been recognized as contributors to urogenital infection. However, whether the presence of either U. parvum or U. urealyticum is related to that of C. trachomatis in the urogenital tract remains unknown. We therefore attempted to estimate by PCR the prevalence of C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum in endocervical samples obtained from healthy women attending their first prenatal visit in Sapporo, Japan. Methods The samples were taken from 303 apparently healthy women, and the extracted DNAs (n = 280 were used for PCR detection targeting C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by Fisher's exact test. Results PCR detection revealed that the prevalence of C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum was 14.3% (40/280, 41.7% (117/280 and 8.9% (25/280, respectively. C. trachomatis ompA genotype D was most frequently identified. Surprisingly, either C. trachomatis or Ureaplasma spp. was detected in almost half of the healthy women. Mixed infection of C. trachomatis with either U. parvum or U. urealyticum was also observed in 9.2% (26/280 of the women. There was a significant association between C. trachomatis and either U. parvum (p = 0.023 or Ureaplasma total (p = 0.013, but not U. urealyticum (p = 0.275. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the presence of Ureaplasma had a significant effect on the presence of C. trachomatis in the genital tract of healthy women, suggesting that mixed infection is an important factor in bacterial pathogenesis in the genital tract.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men treated at a referral hospital for sexually transmitted diseases in the Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkh, Alex Panizza; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Hurtado-Guerreiro, Jose Camilo; Ramos, Lorena Angelica Castano; Figliuolo, Guiseppe; Maia, Jussimara; Costa, Cintia Mara; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; de Lima Ferreira, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and to identify the demographic, behavioural and clinical factors associated with C. trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus infected men. This was a cross-sectional study of C. trachomatis prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men enrolled at the Outpatient clinic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome of the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. C. trachomatis deoxyribonucleic acid from urethral samples was purified and submitted to real time polymerase chain reaction to identify the presence of C. trachomatis. A total of 276 human immunodeficiency virus-infected men were included in the study. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 12% (95% confidence interval 8.1%-15.7%). The mean age of the participants was 34.63 (standard deviation 10.80) years. Of the 276 human immunodeficiency virus-infected men, 93 (56.2%) had more than one sexual partner in the past year and 105 (38.0%) reported having their first sexual intercourse under the age of 15 years. Men having sex with men and bisexuals amounted to 61.2% of the studied population. A total of 71.7% had received human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis in the last three years and 55.1% were using antiretroviral therapy. Factors associated with C. trachomatis infection in the logistic model were being single (p<0.034), men having sex with men (p<0.021), and having previous sexually transmitted diseases (p<0.001). The high prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men highlights that screening human immunodeficiency virus-infected men for C. trachomatis, especially among men having sex with men, is paramount to control the spread of C. trachomatis infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in blood samples as a diagnostic method for complicated and persistent forms of urogenital chlamydia infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultanakhmedov E.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goal: the study of the effectiveness of the method for laboratory diagnostics of urogenital chlamydial infection in patients with chronic form of the disease. Material and methods. The presence of DNAof C. trachomatis was detected by PCR in either genital or extragenital (blood sites in eighth patients (four men and four women. Results. It is established that in biological material taken from extragenital (blood sites, C. trachomatis was detected in all patients examined (in 100% of cases, while in clinical samples obtained from genital sites, in seven patients only (87.5%. Conclusion. We found that specific chlamydial DNAcan be detected in extragenital (blood site, despite the negative reaction in the clinical material from the genital tract of patients with genital chlamydial infection.

  2. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis among Danish patients requesting abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Hvid, Malene; Lamy, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    . There was no correlation between the presence of genital infection with C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas and no correlation between the presence of antibodies to these bacteria. In conclusion, in Danish patients it is not necessary to test for M. genitalium before abortion since less than 1% were found positive....... The prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infections was high among the abortion-seeking patients....

  3. Clinic-based evaluation of Clearview Chlamydia MF for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in vaginal and cervical specimens from women at high risk in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y-P; Peeling, R W; Chen, X-S; Gong, K-L; Zhou, H; Gu, W-M; Zheng, H-P; Wang, Z-S; Yong, G; Cao, W-L; Shi, M-Q; Wei, W-H; Dai, X-Q; Gao, X; Chen, Q; Mabey, D

    2006-12-01

    To determine the performance of a rapid Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) test (Clearview Chlamydia MF) compared to the current "gold standard" (Roche Amplicor CT assay) test, and to assess acceptability of the tests to patients. A total of 1497 women at sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinics or re-education centres in six urban cities (Shanghai, Nanjing, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Fuzhou) in China participated in the study. Three vaginal and three cervical swabs were collected from each participant. Rapid CT tests were performed locally on the first vaginal and cervical swabs and the results were read independently by two staff members. The second and third swabs were randomised for performing the Roche CT assay at the National STD Reference Laboratory. Acceptability of the rapid tests to patients was determined by asking patients in clinics about their willingness to wait for the results. The prevalence of CT was 13.2% (197/1497), as determined by the Roche assay with cervical specimens. CT was detected in 78 vaginal and 127 cervical specimens by the rapid test and the positive rates determined with cervical specimens were significantly higher than those with vaginal specimens (pgood agreement between the results read by two independent staff for either vaginal or cervical specimens (both kappa = 0.98, p<0.001). Sensitivities for vaginal and cervical specimens were 32.8% and 49.7%, respectively, and specificities were 99.2% and 97.9%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 85.7% for vaginal and 78.4% for cervical specimens. The vast majority of the patients (99.1%) were willing to wait up to two hours for the results. Clearview Chlamydia MF, while yielding a rapid result and requiring minimal laboratory facilities, had unacceptably low sensitivity compared to a nucleic acid amplification test. Rapid tests yielding results within one hour are generally accepted by the clients.

  4. Survey, Culture, and Genome Analysis of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in Tibetan Boarding Primary Schools in Qinghai Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Le; Lu, Xinxin; Yu, Yonghui; Wang, Tao; Luo, Shengdong; Sun, Zhihui; Duan, Qing; Wang, Ningli; Song, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide, is an ancient human disease. Its existence in China can be traced back to as early as the twenty-seventh century BC. In modern China, the overall prevalence of trachoma has dramatically reduced, but trachoma is still endemic in many areas of the country. Here, we report that 26 (8%) of 322 students from two rural boarding schools of Qinghai province, west China, were identified as having ocular C. trachomatis infection; and 15 ocular C. trachomatis strains were isolated from these trachoma patients. Chlamydiae in 37 clinical samples were genotyped as type B based on ompA gene analyses. Three ompA variants with one or two in-between SNP differences in the second or fourth variable domain were found. C. trachomatis strains QH111L and QH111R were from the same patient's left and right conjunctival swabs, respectively, but their ompA genes have a non-synonymous base difference in the second variable domain. Moreover, this SNP only exists in this single sample, suggesting QH111L is a newly emerged ompA variant. Interestingly, chromosomal phylogeny analysis found QH111L clusters between a branch of two type B strains and a branch of both A and C strains, but is significantly divergent from both branches. Comparative chromosome analysis found that compared to sequences of reference B/TZ1A828/OT strain, 12 of 22 QH111L's chromosomal genes exhibiting more than nine SNPs have the best homology with reciprocal genes of UGT strains while 9 of 22 genes are closest to those of type C strains. Consistent with findings of UGT-type genetic features in the chromosome, the QH111L plasmid appears to be intermediate between UGT and classical ocular plasmids due to the existence of UGT-type SNPs in the QH111L plasmid. Moreover, the QH111L strain has a unique evolutionarily older cytotoxin region compared to cytotoxin regions of other C. trachomatis strains. The genome analyses suggest that the QH111L strain is derived from

  5. Characterization and identification of early proteins in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend; Larsen, PM

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of early proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. By pulse-label experiments, the synthesis of seven proteins was observed at 2 to 8 h postinfection before the major outer membrane protein was detected at 8 to 10 h after...... infection. The early proteins were synthesized throughout the 30-h period investigated, but the synthesis of three proteins of 75, 62, and 45 kilodaltons decreased from 26 to 30 h postinfection. Pulse-chase analysis showed that the signals from the same three proteins declined 26 to 30 h after infection....... Three of the early proteins were identified as the S1 ribosomal protein, the GroEL-like protein, and DnaK-like protein, respectively....

  6. A Chlamydia trachomatis OmcB C-Terminal Fragment Is Released into the Host Cell Cytoplasm and Is Immunogenic in Humans ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Manli; Gong, Siqi; Lei, Lei; Liu, Quanzhong; Zhong, Guangming

    2011-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) is an antigen with diagnostic and vaccine relevance. To further characterize OmcB, we generated antibodies against OmcB C-terminal (OmcBc) and N-terminal (OmcBn) fragments. Surprisingly, the anti-OmcBc antibody detected dominant signals in the host cell cytosol, while the anti-OmcBn antibody exclusively labeled intrainclusion signals in C. trachomatis-infected cells permeabilized with saponin. Western blot analyses revealed tha...

  7. Do host genetic traits in the bacterial sensing system play a role in the development of Chlamydia trachomatis-associated tubal pathology in subfertile women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito James I

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In women, Chlamydia (C. trachomatis upper genital tract infection can cause distal tubal damage and occlusion, increasing the risk of tubal factor subfertility and ectopic pregnancy. Variations, like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, in immunologically important host genes are assumed to play a role in the course and outcome of a C. trachomatis infection. We studied whether genetic traits (carrying multiple SNPs in different genes in the bacterial sensing system are associated with an aberrant immune response and subsequently with tubal pathology following a C. trachomatis infection. The genes studied all encode for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs involved in sensing bacterial components. Methods Of 227 subfertile women, serum was available for C. trachomatis IgG antibody testing and genotyping (common versus rare allele of the PRR genes TLR9, TLR4, CD14 and CARD15/NOD2. In all women, a laparoscopy was performed to assess the grade of tubal pathology. Tubal pathology was defined as extensive peri-adnexal adhesions and/or distal occlusion of at least one tube. Results Following a C. trachomatis infection (i.e. C. trachomatis IgG positive, subfertile women carrying two or more SNPs in C. trachomatis PRR genes were at increased risk of tubal pathology compared to women carrying less than two SNPs (73% vs 33% risk. The differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.15, but a trend was observed. Conclusion Carrying multiple SNPs in C. trachomatis PRR genes tends to result in an aberrant immune response and a higher risk of tubal pathology following a C. trachomatis infection. Larger studies are needed to confirm our preliminary findings.

  8. Detección de Chlamydia trachomatis en muestras de exudado endocervical por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in samples of endocervical exudate by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maydelín Frontela Noda

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se procesaron 59 muestras de exudado endocervical, de mujeres que asistieron a 2 clínicas de infertilidad y a consulta de regulación menstrual de Ciudad de La Habana, para evaluar el desempeño de un método de detección de Chlamydia trachomatis, basado en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con cebadores KL1 y KL2, específicos para el plásmido. Las muestras se ensayaron por PCR-plásmido, por cultivo de células y por otro método de PCR basado en la amplificación de una región de la proteína principal de la membrana externa (MOMP de la Chlamydia, este se utilizó como ensayo confirmatorio. Se comprobó que en 43 muestras los resultados coincidían entre el cultivo y el PCR-plásmido: 4 positivas y 39 negativas. Las 16 restantes brindaron resultados discordantes. Se les realizó un estudio de inhibición a las 8 muestras cultivo positivas/PCR-plásmido negativas y se comprobó que 2 de ellas presentaban inhibidores, cuya acción fue revertida al adicionar BSA a la mezcla de reacción. De las 8 discordantes, cultivo negativo/PCR-plásmido positivas, 5 se confirmaron como positivas después del procesamiento por PCR-MOMP. Tomando como criterio de verdadero positivo la coincidencia de al menos 2 de los 3 métodos ensayados, se obtuvo sensibilidad del 100 % y especificidad del 94% para el PCR-plásmido en comparación con el 54 y 87 %, respectivamente para el cultivo. El PCR-plásmido presentó un valor predictivo positivo de 79 % y negativo de 100 %, mientras que para el cultivo fue de 50 y 89%, respectivamente. Se demostró que el PCR- plásmido, en nuestras condiciones de laboratorio, brinda resultados confiables en el diagnóstico de la Chlamydia en muestras de exudado endocervical.59 samples of endocervical exudate from women that were seen at infertility clinics and at the consultation room of menstrual regulation, in Havana City, were processed to evaluate the performance of a method to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, based on

  9. Measuring Trachomatous Inflammation-Intense (TI) When Prevalence Is Low Provides Data on Infection With Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Andrea I; Muñoz, Beatriz E; Mkocha, Harran; Dize, Laura; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Quinn, Thomas; West, Sheila K

    2017-02-01

    Clinical trachoma is the current measure of effectiveness of antibiotic and environmental improvements in trachoma endemic communities. Impact assessments measure only trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF). Trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) is not used for decisions on stopping mass drug administration (MDA) or achieving intervention goals. We tested the supposition that TI was not associated with Chlamydia trachomatis when disease prevalence is low. In 35 communities undergoing MDA as part of a larger project, 110 children ages 1 to 9 years were randomly selected in each community for surveys at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Both eyelids were graded for TF and TI, and a swab for detection of C. trachomatis infection was taken. Overall TF prevalence was 5% at baseline. Cases of TI alone constituted 15% of trachoma; 37% of TI cases had infection. At 6 and 12 months, the proportion of trachoma cases that had TI only was 13% and 20%; infection rates were similar to the rates in cases with TF alone. Despite low prevalence of trachoma, infection rates for TF alone and TI alone were similar at each time point. The exclusion of cases of TI alone when reporting trachoma prevalence discards additional information on infection. Trachomatous inflammation-intense could be considered as part of impact surveys.

  10. Discovering and differentiating new and emerging clonal populations of Chlamydia trachomatis with a novel shotgun cell culture harvest assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonna, Naraporn; Mead, Sally; Liu, Jessica; Dean, Deborah

    2008-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of preventable blindness and bacterial sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Plaque assays have been used to clonally segregate laboratory-adapted C. trachomatis strains from mixed infections, but no assays have been reported to segregate clones from recent clinical samples. We developed a novel shotgun cell culture harvest assay for this purpose because we found that recent clinical samples do not form plaques. Clones were strain-typed by using outer membrane protein A and 16S rRNA sequences. Surprisingly, ocular trachoma reference strain A/SA-1 contained clones of Chlamydophila abortus. C. abortus primarily infects ruminants and pigs and has never been identified in populations where trachoma is endemic. Three clonal variants of reference strain Ba/Apache-2 were also identified. Our findings reflect the importance of clonal isolation in identifying constituents of mixed infections containing new or emerging strains and of viable clones for research to more fully understand the dynamics of in vivo strain-mixing, evolution, and disease pathogenesis.

  11. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Pkn1, a Novel Potential Immunogen, in Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Macaca nemestrina and Human Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achchhe L. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is an important cause of sexually transmitted genital tract infections (STIs and trachoma. Despite major research into chlamydial pathogenesis and host immune responses, immunoprotection has been hampered by the incomplete understanding of protective immunity in the genital tract. Characterized vaccine candidates have shown variable efficacy ranging from no protection to partial protection in vivo. It is therefore a research priority to identify novel chlamydial antigens that may elicit protective immune responses against CT infection. In the present study we assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies against protein kinase1 (Pkn1, DNA ligaseA (LigA, and major outer membrane protein A (OmpA following natural CT infection in humans and in experimentally induced CT infection in Macaca nemestrina. Antigenic stretches of Pkn1, LigA, and OmpA were identified using bioinformatic tools. Pkn1, LigA, and OmpA genes were cloned in bacterial expression vector and purified by affinity chromatography. Our results demonstrate significantly high seroprevalence of antibodies against purified Pkn1 and OmpA in sera obtained from the macaque animal model and human patients infected with CT. In contrast no significant seroreactivity was observed for LigA. The seroprevalence of antibodies against Pkn1 suggest that nonsurface chlamydial proteins could also be important for developing vaccines for C. trachomatis.

  12. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among women in sub-Saharan Africa: A structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbink, Jan Henk; Verweij, Stephan P; Struthers, Helen E; Ouburg, Sander; McIntyre, James A; Morré, Servaas A; Peters, Remco Ph

    2018-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae constitute major public health problems among women, but the burden of infection in sub-Saharan Africa is poorly documented. We conducted a structured review of the prevalence and incidence of genital, oral and anal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection in women in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science over a 10-year period for studies on epidemiology of genital, oral and anal chlamydial infection and gonorrhoea in women in all countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed geographic and demographic differences in prevalence and incidence of infection; weighted mean prevalence estimates were calculated with a random-effect model. A total of 102 study results were included, with data available for 24/49 of sub-Saharan countries. The weighted prevalence of chlamydial infection was lower among women in community-based studies (3.9%; 95% CI: 2.9-5.1%) than for women recruited at primary healthcare facilities (6.0%; 95% CI: 4.2-8.4%, p sub-Saharan Africa. Better control strategies are warranted to reduce the burden of infection and to prevent long-term complications of these infections.

  13. A characteristic of polymorphic membrane protein F of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from male urogenital tracts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Junji; Takahashi, Satoshi; Kumagai, Shouta; Shimoda, Tomoko; Abe, Kiyotaka; Minami, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Although sexually transmitted disease due to Chlamydia trachomatis occurs similarly in both men and women, the female urogenital tract differs from that of males anatomically and physiologically, possibly leading to specific polymorphisms of the bacterial surface molecules. In the present study, we therefore characterized polymorphic features in a high-definition phylogenetic marker, polymorphic outer membrane protein (Pmp) F of C. trachomatis strains isolated from male urogenital tracts in Japan (Category: Japan-males, n = 12), when compared with those isolated from female cervical ducts in Japan (Category: Japan-females, n = 11), female cervical ducts in the other country (Category: Ref-females, n = 12) or homosexual male rectums in the other country (Category: Ref-males, n = 7), by general bioinformatics analysis tool with MAFFT software. As a result, phylogenetic reconstruction of the PmpF amino acid sequences showing three distinct clusters revealed that the Japan-males were limited into cluster 1 and 2, although there were only four clusters even though including an outgroup. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic distance values of PmpF passenger domain without hinge region, but not its full-length sequence, showed that the Japan-males were more stable and displayed less diversity when compared with the other categories, supported by the sequence conservation features. Thus, PmpF passenger domain is a useful phylogenetic maker, and the phylogenic features indicate that C. trachomatis strains isolated from male urogenital tracts in Japan may be unique, suggesting an adaptation depending on selective pressure, such as the presence or absence of microbial flora, furthermore possibly connecting to sexual differentiation. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Site-specific, insertional inactivation of incA in Chlamydia trachomatis using a group II intron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayla M Johnson

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate, intracellular bacterial pathogen that has until more recently remained recalcitrant to genetic manipulation. However, the field still remains hindered by the absence of tools to create selectable, targeted chromosomal mutations. Previous work with mobile group II introns demonstrated that they can be retargeted by altering DNA sequences within the intron's substrate recognition region to create site-specific gene insertions. This platform (marketed as TargeTron™, Sigma has been successfully employed in a variety of bacteria. We subsequently modified TargeTron™ for use in C. trachomatis and as proof of principle used our system to insertionally inactivate incA, a chromosomal gene encoding a protein required for homotypic fusion of chlamydial inclusions. C. trachomatis incA::GII(bla mutants were selected with ampicillin and plaque purified clones were then isolated for genotypic and phenotypic analysis. PCR, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing verified proper GII(bla insertion, while continuous passaging in the absence of selection demonstrated that the insertion was stable. As seen with naturally occurring IncA(- mutants, light and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the presence of non-fusogenic inclusions in cells infected with the incA::GII(bla mutants at a multiplicity of infection greater than one. Lack of IncA production by mutant clones was further confirmed by Western blotting. Ultimately, the ease of retargeting the intron, ability to select for mutants, and intron stability in the absence of selection makes this method a powerful addition to the growing chlamydial molecular toolbox.

  15. Site-specific, insertional inactivation of incA in Chlamydia trachomatis using a group II intron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cayla M; Fisher, Derek J

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate, intracellular bacterial pathogen that has until more recently remained recalcitrant to genetic manipulation. However, the field still remains hindered by the absence of tools to create selectable, targeted chromosomal mutations. Previous work with mobile group II introns demonstrated that they can be retargeted by altering DNA sequences within the intron's substrate recognition region to create site-specific gene insertions. This platform (marketed as TargeTron™, Sigma) has been successfully employed in a variety of bacteria. We subsequently modified TargeTron™ for use in C. trachomatis and as proof of principle used our system to insertionally inactivate incA, a chromosomal gene encoding a protein required for homotypic fusion of chlamydial inclusions. C. trachomatis incA::GII(bla) mutants were selected with ampicillin and plaque purified clones were then isolated for genotypic and phenotypic analysis. PCR, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing verified proper GII(bla) insertion, while continuous passaging in the absence of selection demonstrated that the insertion was stable. As seen with naturally occurring IncA(-) mutants, light and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the presence of non-fusogenic inclusions in cells infected with the incA::GII(bla) mutants at a multiplicity of infection greater than one. Lack of IncA production by mutant clones was further confirmed by Western blotting. Ultimately, the ease of retargeting the intron, ability to select for mutants, and intron stability in the absence of selection makes this method a powerful addition to the growing chlamydial molecular toolbox.

  16. In silico scrutiny of genes revealing phylogenetic congruence with clinical prevalence or tropism properties of Chlamydia trachomatis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rita; Antelo, Minia; Nunes, Alexandra; Borges, Vítor; Damião, Vera; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, João Paulo

    2014-11-05

    Microbes possess a multiplicity of virulence factors that confer them the ability to specifically infect distinct biological niches. Contrary to what is known for other bacteria, for the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying serovars' tissue specificity is scarce. We examined all ~900 genes to evaluate the association between individual phylogenies and cell-appetence or ecological success of C. trachomatis strains. Only ~1% of the genes presented a tree topology showing the segregation of all three disease groups (ocular, urogenital, and lymphatic) into three well-supported clades. Approximately 28% of the genes, which include the majority of the genes encoding putative type III secretion system effectors and Inc proteins, present a phylogenetic tree where only lymphogranuloma venereum strains form a clade. Similarly, an exclusive phylogenetic segregation of the most prevalent genital serovars was observed for 61 proteins. Curiously, these serovars are phylogenetically cosegregated with the lymphogranuloma venereum serovars for ~20% of the genes. Some clade-specific pseudogenes were identified (novel findings include the conserved hypothetical protein CT037 and the predicted α-hemolysin CT473), suggesting their putative expendability for the infection of particular niches. Approximately 3.5% of the genes revealed a significant overrepresentation of nonsynonymous mutations, and the majority encode proteins that directly interact with the host. Overall, this in silico scrutiny of genes whose phylogeny is congruent with clinical prevalence or tissue specificity of C. trachomatis strains may constitute an important database of putative targets for future functional studies to evaluate their biological role in chlamydial infections. Copyright © 2015 Ferreira et al.

  17. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment: Systematic review and retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M E; Leung, Stella; Yu, B Nancy; Frølund, Maria; Benfield, Thomas; Blanchard, James; Westh, Henrik; Ward, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment <10% of PID at 12-months was attributable to treated (baseline) chlamydia infections (Manitoba: 8.86%(95%CI 7.15-10.75); Denmark: 3.84%(3.26-4.45); screened-arm POPI-RCT: 0.99%(0.00-29.06)). In the absence of active chlamydia treatment 26.44%(11.57-46.32) of PID at 12-months was attributable to untreated (baseline) chlamydia infections (deferred-arm POPI-RCT). The PEFs suggest that eradicating baseline chlamydia infections could prevent 484 cases of PID at 12-months per 100,000 women in the untreated setting and 13-184 cases of PID per 100,000 tested women in the presence of testing and treatment. Testing and treating chlamydia reduced the PEF of chlamydia on PID by 65% compared to the untreated setting. But in the presence of testing and treatment over 90% of PID could not be attributed to a baseline chlamydia infection. More information is needed about the aetiology of PID to develop effective strategies for improving the reproductive health of women.

  18. Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis testing among heterosexual STI outpatient clinic visitors in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maartje; van Aar, Fleur; Koedijk, Femke D H; Kampman, Carolina J G; Heijne, Janneke C M

    2017-12-20

    Chlamydia infections are common in both men and women, are often asymptomatic and can cause serious complications. Repeat testing in high-risk groups is therefore indicated. In the Netherlands, guidelines on repeat chlamydia testing differ between testing facilities, and knowledge on repeat testing behaviour is limited. Here, we analyse the current repeat testing behaviour of heterosexual STI clinic visitors, and aim to identify groups for which repeat testing advice could be advantageous. Longitudinal surveillance data from all Dutch STI outpatient clinics were used, which included all STI clinic consultations carried out among heterosexual men and women between June 2014 and December 2015. Repeat testing was defined as returning to the same STI clinic between 35 days and 12 months after initial consultation. We calculated chlamydia positivity at repeat test stratified by initial test result and time between consultations. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of repeat testing, and predictors of having a chlamydia positive repeat test. In total, 140,486 consultations in 75,487 women and 46,286 men were available for analyses. Overall, 15.4% of women and 11.1% of men returned to the STI clinic within the study period. Highest chlamydia positivity at repeat test was seen 3-5 months after initial positive test. Among both women and men, repeat testing was associated with non-Western ethnicity, having had more than two sex partners in the past 6 months, reporting STI symptoms, having a history of STI, and having a chlamydia positive initial test. Among repeat testers, chlamydia positive repeat test was most strongly associated with younger age, followed by a chlamydia positive initial test. Repeat testing most often resulted in a positive test result among young heterosexuals (<25) and heterosexuals of any age with a chlamydia infection at the initial consultation. Further efforts are needed to determine optimal repeat testing strategies.

  19. Reporting detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in tissues of neonatal death cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hernandez Trejo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine whether C. trachomatis was present in neonates with infection, but without an isolated pathogen, who died during the first week of life. METHODS: early neonatal death cases whose causes of death had been previously adjudicated by the institutional mortality committee were randomly selected. End-point and real-time polymerase chain reaction of the C. trachomatis omp1 gene was used to blindly identify the presence of chlamydial DNA in the paraffinized samples of five organs (from authorized autopsies of each of the dead neonates. Additionally, differential diagnoses were conducted by amplifying a fragment of the 16S rRNA of Mycoplasma spp. RESULTS: in five cases (35.7%, C. trachomatis DNA was found in one or more organs. Severe neonatal infection was present in three cases; one of them corresponded to genotype D of C. trachomatis. Interestingly, another case fulfilled the same criteria but had a positive polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma hominis, a pathogen known to produce sepsis in newborns. CONCLUSION: the use of molecular biology techniques in these cases of early infant mortality demonstrated that C. trachomatis could play a role in the development of severe infection and in early neonatal death, similarly to that observed with Mycoplasma hominis. Further study is required to determine the pathogenesis of this perinatal infection.

  20. High-throughput multistrain polymerase chain reaction quantification of Chlamydia trachomatis from clinical and preclinical urogenital specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowin, Chris L; Whitlock, Gregory C; Pyles, Richard B

    2009-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide and causes severe reproductive tract infections. Currently, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the gold standard for clinical diagnosis, but most NAATs are labor intensive and limited to specific CT serovars. We developed and validated a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay that reproducibly detected CT serovars D, E, F, Ia, and Chlamydia muridarum over a linear range of 2 log(10) to 10 log(10) genomes with low coefficients of variation from both experimental and human urine samples. CT DNA loads from human vaginal, endocervical, and male urethral swabs correlated well with the BD ProbeTec ET assay (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ) run in parallel. In a preclinical microbicide evaluation, C. muridarum DNA loads in mouse swabs and tissues correlated well with an immunofluorescence assay. The optimized qPCR system provided enhanced sensitivity and facilitated the quantitative evaluation of clinical and experimental preclinical samples for anti-CT therapeutic and microbicide evaluation.

  1. IL-10 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, H.; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    background. To study a relationship between interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter -1082 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response during C trachomatis infection in vitro, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine (IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5) secretion were analysed in subjects with different...... IL-10 genotypes. Enhanced IL-10 secretion and reduced antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative and IFN-gamma responses were found in subjects with IL-10 -1082 GG genotype when compared to those with -1082 AA genotype. CD14+ monocytes were main source of IL-10 indicating that these cells...... are important regulators of the antigen-specific cell-mediated responses during active C trachomatis infection. We conclude that impaired cell-mediated response to C trachomatis is associated with IL-10 genotype in subjects with high IL-10 producing capacity. A comparison of immune markers between subjects...

  2. Human antibody and antigen response to IncA antibody of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, P Y; Hsu, M C; Huang, C T; Li, S Y

    2007-01-01

    The high prevalence of C. trachomatis worldwide has underscored the importance of identifying specific immunogenic antigens in facilitating diagnosis as well as vaccine development. The aim of this study is to evaluate IncA antibody and antigen production in natural human infections. Our temporal expression study showed that IncA transcription and protein expression could be detected as early as 4 hours after the start of infection. Antibody responses could be detected in urine and genital swab samples from C. trachomatis-positive patients. It is especially interesting to note that the IncA antigen could be detected in urine. In conclusion, we have identified IncA as an important antigen in human. The potential applicability of the IncA antibody or antigen in the diagnosis as well as to vaccine development for C. trachomatis is also discussed.

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Pregnancy: The Global Challenge of Preventing Adverse Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Adachi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs in pregnancy represents an overlooked opportunity to improve the health outcomes of women and infants worldwide. Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common treatable bacterial STI, few countries have routine pregnancy screening and treatment programs. We reviewed the current literature surrounding Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy, particularly focusing on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We discuss possible chlamydial adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, neonatal conjunctivitis, neonatal pneumonia, and other potential effects including HIV perinatal transmission and review studies of chlamydial screening and treatment in pregnancy, while simultaneously highlighting research from resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.

  4. Statistics on gene-based laser speckles with a small number of scatterers: implications for the detection of polymorphism in the Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Ulianova, Onega V.; Zaytsev, Sergey S.; Saltykov, Yury V.; Feodorova, Valentina A.

    2018-04-01

    The transformation mechanism for a nucleotide sequence of the Chlamydia trachomatis gene into a speckle pattern has been considered. The first and second-order statistics of gene-based speckles have been analyzed. It has been demonstrated that gene-based speckles do not obey Gaussian statistics and belong to the class of speckles with a small number of scatterers. It has been shown that gene polymorphism can be easily detected through analysis of the statistical characteristics of gene-based speckles.

  5. Normal IncA Expression and Fusogenicity of Inclusions in Chlamydia trachomatis Isolates with the incA I47T Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; van der Ende, Arie; Eijk, Paul P.; van Marle, Jan; de Witte, Moniek A.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.; van den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Dankert, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the incA I47T mutation in Chlamydia trachomatis and the nonfusogenic phenotype, the incA genes of 25 isolates were sequenced. Four major sequence types were identified. Seven isolates (28%) had the I47T mutation. Isolates representing the four sequence types expressed IncA in the membrane of one large single inclusion. In conclusion, the incA I47T mutation is not associated with the nonfusogenic phenotype.

  6. Evaluation of a Chlamydia trachomatis-specific, commercial, real-time PCR for use with ocular swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Harry; Holland, Martin J; Last, Anna R; Burton, Matthew J; Burr, Sarah E

    2018-02-20

    Trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide, is caused by conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Trachoma is diagnosed clinically by observation of conjunctival inflammation and/or scarring; however, there is evidence that monitoring C. trachomatis infection may be required for elimination programmes. There are many commercial and 'in-house' nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of C. trachomatis DNA, but the majority have not been validated for use with ocular swabs. This study evaluated a commercial assay, the Fast-Track Vaginal swab kit, using conjunctival samples from trachoma-endemic areas. An objective, biostatistical-based method for binary classification of continuous PCR data was developed, to limit potential user-bias in diagnostic settings. The Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay was run on 210 ocular swab samples from Guinea-Bissau and Tanzania. Fit of individual amplification curves to exponential or sigmoid models, derivative and second derivative of the curves and final fluorescence value were examined for utility in thresholding for determining positivity. The results from the Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay were evaluated against a commercial test (Amplicor CT/NG) and a non-commercial test (in-house droplet digital PCR), both of whose performance has previously been evaluated. Significant evidence of exponential amplification (R 2  > 0.99) and final fluorescence > 0.15 were combined for thresholding. This objective approach identified a population of positive samples, however there were a subset of samples that amplified towards the end of the cycling protocol (at or later than 35 cycles), which were less clearly defined. The Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay showed good sensitivity against the commercial (95.71) and non-commercial (97.18) tests. Specificity was lower against both (90.00 and 96.55, respectively). This study defined a simple, automated protocol for binary classification of continuous, real-time q

  7. Biodegradable PLGA85/15 nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP-187 peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Murtada A.; Singh, Shree R.; Dennis, Vida A.

    2012-08-01

    Development of a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine has been a formidable task partly because of an ineffective delivery system. Our laboratory has generated a recombinant peptide of C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) (rMOMP-187) and demonstrated that it induced at 20 μg ml-1 maximal interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12p40 Th1 cytokines in mouse J774 macrophages. In a continuous pursuit of a C. trachomatis effective vaccine-delivery system, we encapsulated rMOMP-187 in poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, 85:15 PLA/PGA ratio) to serve as a nanovaccine candidate. Physiochemical characterizations were assessed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Zetasizer, Zeta potential, transmission electron microcopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The encapsulated rMOMP-187 was small (˜200 nm) with an apparently smooth uniform oval structure, thermally stable (54 °C), negatively charged ( - 27.00 mV) and exhibited minimal toxicity at concentrations 95% viable cells) over a 24-72 h period. We achieved a high encapsulation efficiency of rMOMP-187 (˜98%) in PLGA, a loading peptide capacity of 2.7% and a slow release of the encapsulated peptide. Stimulation of J774 macrophages with a concentration as low as 1 μg ml -1 of encapsulated rMOMP-187 evoked high production levels of the Th1 cytokines IL-6 (874 pg ml-1) and IL-12p40 (674 pg ml-1) as well as nitric oxide (8 μM) at 24 h post-stimulation, and in a dose-response and time-kinetics manner. Our data indicate the successful encapsulation and characterization of rMOMP-187 in PLGA and, more importantly, that PLGA enhanced the capacity of the peptide to induce Th1 cytokines and NO in vitro. These findings make this nanovaccine an attractive candidate in pursuit of an efficacious vaccine against C. trachomatis.

  8. Biodegradable PLGA85/15 nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP-187 peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Murtada A; Singh, Shree R; Dennis, Vida A

    2012-01-01

    Development of a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine has been a formidable task partly because of an ineffective delivery system. Our laboratory has generated a recombinant peptide of C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) (rMOMP-187) and demonstrated that it induced at 20 μg ml −1 maximal interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12p40 Th1 cytokines in mouse J774 macrophages. In a continuous pursuit of a C. trachomatis effective vaccine-delivery system, we encapsulated rMOMP-187 in poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, 85:15 PLA/PGA ratio) to serve as a nanovaccine candidate. Physiochemical characterizations were assessed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Zetasizer, Zeta potential, transmission electron microcopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The encapsulated rMOMP-187 was small (∼200 nm) with an apparently smooth uniform oval structure, thermally stable (54 °C), negatively charged ( − 27.00 mV) and exhibited minimal toxicity at concentrations −1 to eukaryotic cells (>95% viable cells) over a 24–72 h period. We achieved a high encapsulation efficiency of rMOMP-187 (∼98%) in PLGA, a loading peptide capacity of 2.7% and a slow release of the encapsulated peptide. Stimulation of J774 macrophages with a concentration as low as 1 μg ml −1 of encapsulated rMOMP-187 evoked high production levels of the Th1 cytokines IL-6 (874 pg ml −1 ) and IL-12p40 (674 pg ml −1 ) as well as nitric oxide (8 μM) at 24 h post-stimulation, and in a dose-response and time-kinetics manner. Our data indicate the successful encapsulation and characterization of rMOMP-187 in PLGA and, more importantly, that PLGA enhanced the capacity of the peptide to induce Th1 cytokines and NO in vitro. These findings make this nanovaccine an attractive candidate in pursuit of an efficacious vaccine against C. trachomatis. (paper)

  9. Molecular tests for human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cytology specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigliotti Veronica S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimens is now based on identification of the DNA sequences unique to these infectious agents. However, current commercial test kits rely on nucleotide probe hybridization to determine DNA sequences, which may lead to diagnostic errors due to cross-reactivity. The aim of this study was to find a practical approach to perform automated Sanger DNA sequencing in clinical laboratories for validation of the DNA tests for these three infectious agents. Methods A crude proteinase K digestate of 5% of the cells collected in a liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimen was used for the detection of DNA molecules specific for HPV, C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae, and for preparation of materials suitable for direct automated DNA sequencing. Several sets of commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers were used to prepare nested PCR amplicons for direct DNA sequencing. Results Some variants of HPV-16 and HPV-31 were found to share an at least 34-base long sequence homology downstream of the GP5+ binding site, and all HPV-6 and HPV-11 variants shared an upstream 34-base sequence including part of the GP5+ primer. Accurate HPV genotyping frequently required more than 34-bases for sequence alignments to distinguish some of the HPV genotype variants with closely related sequences in this L1 gene hypervariable region. Using the automated Sanger DNA sequencing method for parallel comparative studies on split samples and to retest the residues of samples previously tested positive for C trachomatis and/or for N gonorrhoeae, we also found false-negative and false-positive results as reported by two commercial nucleic acid test kits. Conclusion Identification of a signature DNA sequence by the automated Sanger method is useful for validation of HPV genotyping and for molecular testing of

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila abortus induce the expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in cells of the human female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelhouse, Nick; Wattegedera, Sean; Fleming, Diana; Fitch, Paul; Kelly, Rodney; Entrican, Gary

    2008-09-01

    C. trachomatis and C. abortus are related Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that cause reproductive failure due to infertility (C. trachomatis) or abortion (C. abortus). These organisms target epithelial cells in the reproductive tract and/or placenta, but the innate immune mechanisms that lead to protection or pathology and disease are poorly understood. SLPI is an innate immune molecule which protects mucosal surfaces from infection and injury. C. trachomatis and C. abortus were found to induce SLPI mRNA and peptide expression in HeLa (cervical epithelium) and JEG-3 cells (trophoblast) respectively. Both cell lines constitutively expressed SLPI and, although infection enhanced this expression, killed organisms did not. These data demonstrate that Chlamydia/Chlamydophila grow in cells that express SLPI, suggesting that SLPI does not exert antimicrobial effects against these organisms. However, SLPI has multiple functions, and we speculate that it may play a role in controlling tissue inflammation and pathology.

  11. Comparative proteome analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A, D and L2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Gevaert, Kris; Demol, Hans

    2002-01-01

    generated novel data on genetic variability as indicated by electrophoretic variation and potentially important examples of serovar specific differences in protein abundance. The availability of the complete genome made it feasible to map and to identify proteins of C. trachomatis on a large scale...

  12. Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, and tubal factor infertility--a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Helle Friis; Fedder, Jens; Kristoffersen, Sven Erik

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of M. genitalium and C. trachomatis in women attending fertility clinics and to follow these women for the effects of previous infections or tubal damage on pregnancy rate and outcome. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Fertility clinics and university. PATIE...

  13. Infección genital por Chlamydia trachomatis y otros microorganismos en dos grupos de mujeres en Cartagena Frequency of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis and other microorganisms in two groups of women in Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Pulido

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades asociadas a la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y la vaginosis bacteriana son de importancia en la población sexual mente activa, por lo que amerita estudiarlas. Con la finalidad de conocer su frecuencia en Cartagena se estudiaron, entre 1988 y 1990, 431 mujeres que acudieron a la consulta ginecológica del Hospital Universitario de Cartagena o al Centro Venereológico de la misma ciudad (167 pacientes en el primero y 264 en el segundo; su edad promedio era 28 años. Utilizando el inmunoensayo enzimático en fase sólida (ELISA se buscó la C. trachomatis y se hallaron frecuencias de infección de 5.4 y 17.4% en el primero y el segundo grupos, respectivamente; tal diferencia fue significativa (p < 0.005. Mediante exámenes directos y cultivos se demostraron las siguientes frecuencias de infección en las pacientes de consulta ginecológica y en las del Centro Venereológico, en su orden: Gardenerella vaginalis en 33.5% y 39%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae en 0.6 y 2.3%, Trichomonas vaginalis en 5.4 y 4.5%, Candida spp. en 13.2 y 10.2%. No hubo entre estas tasas diferencias significativas. Se observó relación entre la positividad para C. trachomatis y las entidades usualmente asociadas con ella: en las pacientes del Centro Venereológico la frecuencia de cervicitis fue 39% en las infectadas por C. trachomatis y 11.5% en las no Infectadas (p < 0.01; en las de la consulta ginecológica hubo Enfermedad Pélvica inflamatoria en 4 de las 9 Infectadas (44.4% y en sólo 11 de las 158 no infectadas (7% (Prueba de Fisher p = 0.004. El uso de anticonceptivos orales tuvo asociación significativa (p < 0.01 con la infección por Chlamydia en las pacientes del Centro Venereológico pero no en las de la consulta ginecológica; en efecto: 28.8% de las mujeres del Centro que utilizaban estos anticonceptivos y ninguna de las que no recurran a ellos resultaron positivas para esta bacteria. Gardnerella vaginalis fue la bacteria más frecuentemente

  14. Unusual Self-Assembly of the Recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis Major Outer Membrane Protein-Based Fusion Antigen CTH522 Into Protein Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Fabrice; Karlsen, Kasper; Jensen, Pernille

    2018-01-01

    but is a challenging vaccine candidate by being an integral membrane protein, and the immunogenicity depends on a correctly folded structure. We investigated the biophysical properties of the recombinant MOMP-based fusion antigen CTH522, which is tested in early human clinical trials. It consists of a truncated......Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infects more than 100 million people annually, and untreated chlamydia infections can cause severe complications. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a chlamydia vaccine. The Ct major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is highly immunogenic......-defined secondary structural elements, and no thermal transitions were measurable. Chemical unfolding resulted monomers that upon removal of the denaturant self-assembled into higher order structures, comparable to the structure of the native protein. The conformation of CTH522 in nanoparticles is thus not entirely...

  15. Mixture-of-exponentials models to explain heterogeneity in studies of the duration of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Malcolm J; Ades, A E; Angelis, Daniela De; Welton, Nicky J; Macleod, John; Soldan, Kate; Turner, Katy; Simms, Ian; Horner, Paddy J

    2013-04-30

    Published studies of the duration of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women have produced diverse estimates, and most reviewers have not attempted an evidence synthesis. We review the designs of duration studies, distinguishing between the incident cases presenting soon after infection in clinic-based studies and prevalent cases ascertained in population screening studies. We combine evidence from all studies under fixed-effect (single clearance rate), random-effect (study-specific clearance rate), and mixture-of-exponentials models, in which there are either two or three classes of infection that clear at different rates. We can identify classes as 'passive' infection and fast-clearing and slow-clearing infections. We estimate models by Bayesian MCMC and compared them using posterior mean residual deviance and the deviance information criterion. The single fixed-effect clearance rate model fitted very poorly. The random-effect model was adequate but inferior to the two-class and three-class mixture of exponentials. According to the two-class model, the proportion in the first class was 23% (95% CI: 16-31%), and the mean duration of C. trachomatis infection is 1.36 years (95% CI: 1.13-1.63 years). With the three-rate model, duration was similar, but identification of the proportions in each class (19%, 31%, and 49%) was poor. Although the random-effect model was descriptively adequate, the extreme degree of between-study variation in the clearance rate it predicted lacked biological plausibility. Differences in study recruitment and sampling mechanisms, acting through a mixture-of-exponentials model, better explains the apparent heterogeneity in duration. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Impact of the Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System on the Progression of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in a Baboon Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Alison J; Bergin, Ingrid L; Chai, Daniel; Bassis, Christine M; LeBar, William; Oluoch, George O; Liechty, Emma R; Nyachieo, Atunga; Young, Vincent B; Aronoff, David M; Patton, Dorothy L; Bell, Jason D

    2018-01-30

    Understanding the relationship between the levonorgestrel (LNG)-releasing intrauterine system (IUS) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is increasingly important as use of the LNG-IUS grows to include women at higher risk for STIs. This study assessed the impact of the LNG-IUS on development of Chlamydia trachomatis pelvic inflammatory disease, using a baboon model. Baboons with and those without the LNG-IUS were cervically inoculated with C. trachomatis and monitored daily, and cervical and fallopian tube swab specimens were collected weekly for C. trachomatis quantitation by nucleic acid amplification testing and culture. Vaginal swab specimens were collected for cytokine analysis, and serum samples were obtained for detection of C. trachomatis antibodies. The LNG-IUS resulted in an increased C. trachomatis burden in the cervix, with the bacterial burden in the LNG-IUS group diverging from that in the non-LNG-IUS group by 6 weeks after infection. One of 7 baboons in the non-LNG-IUS group and 2 of 6 in the LNG-IUS group developed pelvic inflammatory disease, while 3 animals in each group met criteria suggestive of pelvic inflammatory disease. LNG-IUS increased baseline interleukin 8 levels but failed to further upregulate interleukin 8 during infection. In LNG-IUS recipients, early perturbations in the interleukin 1β axis corresponded to decreased C. trachomatis clearance and increased T-helper type 2 immune responses. LNG-IUS use results in delayed clearance of C. trachomatis and might alter the reproductive tract immune environment. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Inhibition of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity by Levo-1-Methyl Tryptophan Blocks Gamma Interferon-Induced Chlamydia trachomatis Persistence in Human Epithelial Cells ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibana, Joyce A.; Belland, Robert J.; Zea, Arnold H.; Schust, Danny J.; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; AbdelRahman, Yasser M.; Tate, David J.; Beatty, Wandy L.; Aiyar, Ashok A.; Quayle, Alison J.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) induces expression of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) in human epithelial cells, the permissive cells for the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. IDO1 depletes tryptophan by catabolizing it to kynurenine with consequences for C. trachomatis, which is a tryptophan auxotroph. In vitro studies reveal that tryptophan depletion can result in the formation of persistent (viable but noncultivable) chlamydial forms. Here, we tested the effects of the IDO1 inhibitor, levo-1-methyl-tryptophan (L-1MT), on IFN-γ-induced C. trachomatis persistence. We found that addition of 0.2 mM L-1MT to IFN-γ-exposed infected HeLa cell cultures restricted IDO1 activity at the mid-stage (20 h postinfection [hpi]) of the chlamydial developmental cycle. This delayed tryptophan depletion until the late stage (38 hpi) of the cycle. Parallel morphological and gene expression studies indicated a consequence of the delay was a block in the induction of C. trachomatis persistence by IFN-γ. Furthermore, L-1MT addition allowed C. trachomatis to undergo secondary differentiation, albeit with limited productive multiplication of the bacterium. IFN-γ-induced persistent infections in epithelial cells have been previously reported to be more resistant to doxycycline than normal productive infections in vitro. Pertinent to this observation, we found that L-1MT significantly improved the efficacy of doxycycline in clearing persistent C. trachomatis forms. It has been postulated that persistent forms of C. trachomatis may contribute to chronic chlamydial disease. Our findings suggest that IDO1 inhibitors such as L-1MT might provide a novel means to investigate, and potentially target, persistent chlamydial forms, particularly in conjunction with conventional therapeutics. PMID:21911470

  18. Detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection in Female Partners of Infertile Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Kalantar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of infertility is about 10-15% among the couples overally. Several factors can affect fertility ability of men and women. Chlamydia is a non-motile gram negative obligatory interacellular pathogenic organism. It can cause infections in females as cervicitis, urethritis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease also prostatitis and epidydidimitis in male as well. The aim of this survey is to mention the frequency of infection with Chlamydia in infertile female who were treated in Yazd Research & Clinical Center for Infertility.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing some demographic information and clinical features related to the infection was completed for each infertile woman. Specimen of vaginal discharge was collected by well trained nurses using sterile cotton swap from 91 women. Elisa test was done on blood serum. DNA extraction for Chlamydia was carried out using low salt method and PCR was done using MOMP and plasmid primers. DNA sequencing was performed on two PCR products using Chromas LITE ver.2.01 and analyzed by BLAST.Results: Of 91 blood samples collected in this survey, none of them was positive by ELISA. Also there was no positive PCR result. Four PCR products showed a questionable band which was not in the range of Chlamydia. The products underwent DNA sequencing and there were not any finding related to any other micro-organism.Conclusion: However, it is well known that Chlamydia as an infection plays a role in infertility. Nevertheless, there was not evidence of this organism in these infertile patients. It is necessary to design such a survey in larger populations of infertile patients especially on infertile women with tubal infertility and their husbands as well.

  19. Prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Chlamydia trachomatis y anti-Neisseria gonorrhoeae en grupos de individuos de la población mexicana Prevalence of antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Mexican populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Cravioto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis (CT y Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG en grupos de individuos con diferente riesgo para infecciones de transmisión sexual. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal multicéntrico efectuado en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, de la Ciudad de México, de enero de 1992 a diciembre de 1993, en el que se estudiaron 945 individuos en edad reproductiva, 585 mujeres y 360 hombres. Según su riesgo para infecciones de transmisión sexual se clasificaron en grupos de alto y bajo riesgo. Los de alto riesgo incluyeron mujeres infértiles con daño tubario, mujeres con embarazo ectópico o aborto, hombres infértiles, pacientes con VIH/SIDA, hombres homo o bisexuales y trabajadoras del sexo comercial (TSC. Los de bajo riesgo: mujeres primigestas, hombres fértiles y mujeres infértiles sin daño tubario. Se determinó en duplicado IgG e IgA anti-NG y anti-CT en suero, por análisis inmunoenzimático, utilizando como antígeno el pili de NG y la fracción L1 de CT. Se calcularon porcentajes. RESULTADOS: En mujeres la prevalencia para NG fue IgG 13.7% e IgA 14.3%, y para CT fue IgG 11.4% e IgA 4.4%. En hombres, NG 3.3% y 13.3%, respectivamente, y para CT 7.2% y 5.5%, respectivamente. En TSC se encontró NG en 31.2 % y 28.4%, respectivamente, y para CT 25.0% y 5.7%, respectivamente. En mujeres con infertilidad por daño tubario, NG 5.6% y 9.8%, respectivamente, y CT 8.4% y 1.4%, respectivamente. En 110 primigestas jóvenes, NG 4.5% y 10.0%, respectivamente, y CT 3.6% y 9.1%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Estos datos confirman la prevalencia elevada de Neisseria gonorrhoeae y Chlamydia trachomatis en trabajadoras del sexo comercial y en hombres homo/bisexuales, pero no en otros grupos de alto riesgo como las mujeres infértiles, con aborto o embarazo ectópico.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

  20. Structure and Protein-Protein Interaction Studies on Chlamydia trachomatis Protein CT670 (YscO Homolog)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzini, Emily; Singer, Alexander; Singh, Bhag; Lam, Robert; Skarina, Tatiana; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y.; Savchenko, Alexei; Gupta, Radhey S. (Toronto); (McMaster U.); (OCI)

    2010-07-28

    Comparative genomic studies have identified many proteins that are found only in various Chlamydiae species and exhibit no significant sequence similarity to any protein in organisms that do not belong to this group. The CT670 protein of Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the proteins whose genes are in one of the type III secretion gene clusters but whose cellular functions are not known. CT670 shares several characteristics with the YscO protein of Yersinia pestis, including the neighboring genes, size, charge, and secondary structure, but the structures and/or functions of these proteins remain to be determined. Although a BLAST search with CT670 did not identify YscO as a related protein, our analysis indicated that these two proteins exhibit significant sequence similarity. In this paper, we report that the CT670 crystal, solved at a resolution of 2 {angstrom}, consists of a single coiled coil containing just two long helices. Gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation studies showed that in solution CT670 exists in both monomeric and dimeric forms and that the monomer predominates at lower protein concentrations. We examined the interaction of CT670 with many type III secretion system-related proteins (viz., CT091, CT665, CT666, CT667, CT668, CT669, CT671, CT672, and CT673) by performing bacterial two-hybrid assays. In these experiments, CT670 was found to interact only with the CT671 protein (YscP homolog), whose gene is immediately downstream of ct670. A specific interaction between CT670 and CT671 was also observed when affinity chromatography pull-down experiments were performed. These results suggest that CT670 and CT671 are putative homologs of the YcoO and YscP proteins, respectively, and that they likely form a chaperone-effector pair.

  1. Evaluation of sexual history-based screening of anatomic sites for chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in men having sex with men in routine practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Casper L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI screening programmes are implemented in many countries to decrease burden of STI and to improve sexual health. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae has a prominent role in these protocols. Most of the screening programmes concerning men having sex with men (MSM are based on opportunistic urethral testing. In The Netherlands, a history-based approach is used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protocol of screening anatomic sites for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection based on sexual history in MSM in routine practice in The Netherlands. Methods All MSM visiting the clinic for STI in The Hague are routinely asked about their sexual practice during consulting. As per protocol, tests for urogenital, oropharyngeal and anorectal infection are obtained based on reported site(s of sexual contact. All consultations are entered into a database as part of the national STI monitoring system. Data of an 18 months period were retrieved from this database and analysed. Results A total of 1455 consultations in MSM were registered during the study period. The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae per anatomic site was: urethral infection 4.0% respectively and 2.8%, oropharynx 1.5% and 4.2%, and anorectum 8.2% and 6.0%. The majority of chlamydia cases (72% involved a single anatomic site, which was especially manifest for anorectal infections (79%, while 42% of gonorrhoea cases were single site. Twenty-six percent of MSM with anorectal chlamydia and 17% with anorectal gonorrhoea reported symptoms of proctitis; none of the oropharyngeal infections were symptomatic. Most cases of anorectal infection (83% and oropharyngeal infection (100% would have remained undiagnosed with a symptom-based protocol. Conclusions The current strategy of sexual-history based screening of multiple anatomic sites for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in MSM is a useful and valid guideline

  2. Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach

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    Davood Mehrabani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16–80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15–30 (group I, 31–40 (group II, and ≥41 years old (group III. A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs, their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary.

  3. Should urologists care for the pharyngeal infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis when we treat male urethritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Uehara, Shinya; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2012-06-01

    Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) or Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) from the pharynx of women or men is not uncommon. However, there is no recommendation how urologists should care for the pharyngeal infection of men with urethritis in Japan. The aim of this study is to clarify the prevalence of NG or CT infection in the pharynx of men and to show a recommendation for urologists. The Japanese reports about the detection of NG or CT from the pharynx or the oral cavity of men in Japan are reviewed in the literature from 1990 to 2011. The prevalence of NG or CT in the pharynx was 4% or 6% in men who attended clinics, and 20% or 6% in men who were positive for NG or CT from genital specimens, respectively. Single 1-g dose ceftriaxone was recommended to treat pharyngeal NG, but no evidence was found for pharyngeal CT. There was not enough evidence for recommendation. However, when men with urethritis only caused by NG or CT are treated through the guideline of the Japanese Society of Sexually Transmitted Infection, we do not think additional tests or treatment for the pharynx are needed when a single 1-g dose ceftriaxone for gonococcal urethritis or a single 1- or 2- g dose azithromycin is prescribed for chlamydial urethritis in Japan.

  4. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infection in a college gynecology clinic: relationship to other infections and clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinker, M L; Young, S A; Cleavenger, R L; Neely, J L; Palmer, J E

    1988-01-01

    A total of 479 sexually active college women presenting for routine gynecologic care were screened for gonorrheal and chlamydial infection of the cervix. Most of these women were asymptomatic; those with symptoms had minor complaints related to the lower genital tract. A direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA) showed the prevalence of chlamydial infection to be 8.1%, while culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae indicated that the prevalence of gonorrhea was 1.5%. DFA-positive women had some minor alterations in the appearance of their cervix, but only 10% had overt mucopurulent cervicitis. The presence of purulent cervical discharge was four times more common in DFA-positive women, but only one-fourth of positive women had this finding. The use of an endocervical gram stain showing ten or more white cells per oil immersion field (x970) did not appear to be clinically useful in diagnosing suspected chlamydial infection because there was no significant difference in the number of white cells seen in specimens from DFA-positive (16 polymorphonuclear leukocytes) and DFA-negative women (ten polymorphonuclear leukocytes). Thus, use of the gram stain as an initial screening mechanism would not markedly reduce the number of women to be tested for Chlamydia trachomatis; half of all women met the gram-stain criterion, and nearly a quarter of the DFA-positive women would be overlooked.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis Infections in Men With Nongonococcal Urethritis: Predictors and Persistence After Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seña, Arlene C.; Lensing, Shelly; Rompalo, Anne; Taylor, Stephanie N.; Martin, David H.; Lopez, Laureen M.; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Schwebke, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). We assessed their predictors and persistence after treatment. Methods. We analyzed data from an NGU treatment trial among symptomatic heterosexual men aged 16–45 years from STI clinics. Nucleic acid amplification tests detected CT, MG, and TV at baseline and at 1 and 4 weeks after therapy. Associations between variables and STI detection were investigated. Results. Among 293 participants, 44% had CT, 31% had MG, and 13% had TV at baseline. In multivariate analysis, CT infection was associated with young age and STI contact. Young age was also associated with MG, and having ≥1 new partner was negatively associated with TV. We detected persistent CT in 12% and MG in 44% of participants at 4 weeks after therapy, which were associated with signs and symptoms of NGU. Persistent CT was detected in 23% of participants after azithromycin treatment vs 5% after doxycycline treatment (P = .011); persistent MG was detected in 68% of participants after doxycycline vs 33% after azithromycin (P = .001). All but 1 TV infection cleared after tinidazole. Conclusions. Persistent CT and MG after treatment of NGU are common, and were associated with clinical findings and drug regimen. PMID:22615318

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis screening and treatment of pregnant women in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Mathelier, Patricia; Ocheretina, Oksana; Benoit, Daphne; Pape, Jean W; Wynn, Adriane; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-10-01

    In Haiti, routine screening for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among pregnant women is not conducted; yet these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with adverse birth and newborn health outcomes. We aimed to assess the acceptability and feasibility of screening and the prevalence of STIs among pregnant women in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Pregnant women of at least 18 years of age who attend Haitian Study Group for Kaposi's sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO) clinics in Port-au-Prince, Haiti provided self-collected vaginal swab specimens. Laboratory testing was done with Xpert® CT/NG and Xpert® TV. The results of this study showed that of the 322 pregnant women who visited GHESKIO for their regular scheduled appointments, 300 (93.2%) consented for CT, NG, and TV testing. Of those, 107 women (35.7%) tested positive for at least one STI. There were 42 (14.7%) cases of CT, 8 (2.8%) NG, and 83 (29.0%) TV infections. Most infections were treated - 122 of 133 (91.7%). In summary, we found that it was highly acceptable and feasible to implement CT, NG, and TV screening among pregnant women in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. We found high prevalence of STIs among pregnant women, which suggest that STI screening in this population may be warranted.

  7. Prevalence of human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections in Amazonian women with normal and abnormal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Lira, E; Jacinto, A H V L; Silva, L M; Napoleão, P F R; Barbosa-Filho, R A A; Cruz, G J S; Astolfi-Filho, S; Borborema-Santos, C M

    2017-04-28

    Sexually transmitted infections are an important cause of morbidity among sexually active women worldwide, and have been implicated as cofactors in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. We investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), and accessed the diversity of HPV in women with normal and abnormal cytology in Manaus, Brazil. We used polymerase chain reaction and HPV genotyping by direct sequencing. The chi-square test was used to calculate the absolute and relative frequencies of the categorical variables, and Fisher's test was used when P TV and CT DNA were 18.04 and 9.02% in the normal group, respectively. The percentages of HPV/TV and HPV/CT coinfection were 12.5% each in women with normal cytology. These findings improve our understanding of HPV, CT, and TV, and the distribution of HPV types, which may be relevant to vaccination strategies for protecting women from the north of Brazil from cervical cancers and precancerous lesions.

  8. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  9. "One-night stands" - risky trips between lust and trust: qualitative interviews with Chlamydia trachomatis infected youth in North Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Monica; Johansson, Eva; Emmelin, Maria; Westman, Göran

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to get a deeper understanding of sexual risk-taking, by interviewing young people diagnosed with Chlamydia trachomatis. This qualitative study was conducted at a youth clinic in Umeå, Sweden. Five young women and four men, aged 18-22, participated. In-depth interviews were performed. Open questions around certain themes were posed, such as thoughts about getting CT, sexual encounters, and attitudes towards condoms. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed according to grounded theory. Norms, events, and emotions were explored. The goal was to develop credible and applicable concepts concerning sexual relationships, risk-taking, and experiences of CT. Informants revealed that behind their sexual risk-taking was a drive to "go steady". Lust and trust were the guidelines if sex was going to take place. When discussing "one-night stands" gender stereotypes occurred. Females were expected to be less forward compared with males. We found an uneven distribution of responsibility concerning condoms. Males expected females to be "condom promoters". By catching CT, females experienced guilt, while males felt content through knowing "the source of contamination". An important public health issue is to implement how males should play an equal part in reproductive health. General CT screening of males is one suggestion.

  10. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) from Chlamydia trachomatis versus PID from Neisseria gonorrhea: from clinical suspicion to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Seta, F; Banco, R; Turrisi, A; Airoud, M; De Leo, R; Stabile, G; Ceccarello, M; Restaino, S; De Santo, D

    2012-10-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the most significant complication of sexually transmitted infections in childbearing-age women and it represents an important public health problem because of its long-term sequelae (chronic pelvic pain, tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy). Prior to the mid 1970s PID was considered a monoetiologic infection, due primarily to Neisseria gonorrhea. Now it is well documented as a polymicrobial process, with a great number of microrganisms involved. In addition to Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis, other vaginal microrganisms (anaerobes, Gardnerella vaginalis, Haemophilus influenzae, enteric Gram negative rods, Streptococco agalactie, Mycoplasma genitalium) also have been associated with PID. There is a wide variation in PID clinical features; the type and severity of symptoms vary by microbiologic etiology. Women who have chlamydial PID seem more likely than women who have gonococcal PID to be asymptomatic. Since clinical diagnosis is imprecise, the suspicion of PID should be confirmed by genital assessment for signs of inflammation or infection, blood test and imaging evaluation. Laparoscopic approach is considered the gold standard. According to the polymicrobial etiology of PID, antibiotic treatment must provide broad spectrum coverage of likely pathogens. Early administration of antibiotics is necessary to reduce the risk of long-term sequelae.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis infection among HIV-infected women attending an AIDS clinic in the city of Manaus, Brazil

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    Leila Cristina Ferreira Silva

    Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of and to identify risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected women attending the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS clinic in the city of Manaus, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Participants answered a questionnaire containing demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data. A genital specimen was collected during examination to detect CT-DNA by hybrid capture, and blood samples were taken to determine CD4+T and HIV viral load. There were 329 women included in the study. Median age was 32 years (IQR = 27-38 and median schooling was nine years (IQR = 4-11. The prevalence of CT was 4.3% (95%CI: 2.1-6.5. Logistic regression analysis showed that age between 18-29 years [OR = 4.1(95%CI: 1.2-13.4] and complaint of pelvic pain [OR = 3.7 (95%CI: 1.2-12.8] were independently associated with CT. The use of condom was inversely associated with CT [OR = 0.39 (95%CI: 0.1-0.9]. The results showed that younger women who did not use condoms are at a higher risk for CT. Screening for sexually transmitted infections must be done routinely and safe sexual practices should be promoted among this population.

  12. Exploring short-term responses to changes in the control strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, James; White, K A Jane; Turner, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia has a significant impact on public health provision in the developed world. Using pair approximation equations we investigate the efficacy of control programmes for chlamydia on short time scales that are relevant to policy makers. We use output from the model to estimate critical measures, namely, prevalence, incidence, and positivity in those screened and their partners. We combine these measures with a costing tool to estimate the economic impact of different public health strategies. Increasing screening coverage significantly increases the annual programme costs whereas an increase in tracing efficiency initially increases annual costs but over time reduces costs below baseline, with tracing accounting for around 10% of intervention costs. We found that partner positivity is insensitive to changes in prevalence due to screening, remaining at around 33%. Whether increases occur in screening or tracing levels, the cost per treated infection increases from the baseline because of reduced prevalence.

  13. In vitro rescue of genital strains of Chlamydia trachomatis from interferon-γ and tryptophan depletion with indole-positive, but not indole-negative Prevotella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziklo, Noa; Huston, Wilhelmina M; Taing, Kuong; Katouli, Mohammad; Timms, Peter

    2016-12-03

    The natural course of sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis varies between individuals. In addition to parasite and host effects, the vaginal microbiota might play a key role in the outcome of C. trachomatis infections. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), known for its anti-chlamydial properties, activates the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) in epithelial cells, an enzyme that catabolizes the amino acid L- tryptophan into N-formylkynurenine, depleting the host cell's pool of tryptophan. Although C. trachomatis is a tryptophan auxotroph, urogenital strains (but not ocular strains) have been shown in vitro to have the ability to produce tryptophan from indole using the tryptophan synthase (trpBA) gene. It has been suggested that indole producing bacteria from the vaginal microbiota could influence the outcome of Chlamydia infection. We used two in vitro models (treatment with IFN-γ or direct limitation of tryptophan), to study the effects of direct rescue by the addition of exogenous indole, or by the addition of culture supernatant from indole-positive versus indole-negative Prevotella strains, on the growth and infectivity of C. trachomatis. We found that only supernatants from the indole-positive strains, P. intermedia and P. nigrescens, were able to rescue tryptophan-starved C. trachomatis. In addition, we analyzed vaginal secretion samples to determine physiological indole concentrations. In spite of the complexity of vaginal secretions, we demonstrated that for some vaginal specimens with higher indole levels, there was a link to higher recovery of the Chlamydia under tryptophan-starved conditions, lending preliminary support to the critical role of the IFN-γ-tryptophan-indole axis in vivo. Our data provide evidence for the ability of both exogenous indole as well as supernatant from indole producing bacteria such as Prevotella, to rescue genital C. trachomatis from tryptophan starvation. This adds weight to the hypothesis

  14. Comparison among performances of a ligase chain reaction-based assay and two enzyme immunoassays in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens from men with nongonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, T; Yasuda, M; Uno, M; Tada, K; Iwata, H; Komeda, H; Maeda, S; Latila, V; Saito, I; Kawada, Y

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the performances of a ligase chain reaction (LCR)-based assay and two enzyme immunoassays (Chlamydiazyme and IDEIA) in the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens. We compared the results of testing urine specimens by these assays with those of urethral swab culture by examining samples from 131 men with nongonococcal urethritis. Discrepant results were analyzed by testing urethral swab specimens for C. trachomatis by a PCR-based assay. After the resolution of discrepant results, the sensitivity of urethral swab culture was 85.3%, whereas those of the LCR assay, Chlamydiazyme, and IDEIA with urine specimens were 94.1, 82.4, and 94.1%, respectively. The LCR assay and IDEIA were more sensitive than was urethral swab culture. In addition, the LCR assay, with a sensitivity equal to that of IDEIA, was more specific. Overall, the LCR assay proved to be superior to the enzyme immunoassays in detecting C. trachomatis in urine specimens. Testing urine specimens by LCR assay should be a helpful alternative method for diagnosing C. trachomatis urethral infection in men with nongonococcal urethritis. PMID:8784574

  15. Utility of Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and its detection in male patients with non gonococcal urethritis in New Delhi

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    Agrawal S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was assessment of prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and utility of Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA test for its detection in male patients with non gonococcal urethritis in New Delhi , India Thirty male patients with symptoms of dysuria showing polymorphs in their gram stained urethral smears with no evidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and negative for Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans by wet mount were subjected to DFA test for detection of C. trachomatis in urethral samples. Microscopic examination of gram stained urethral smears revealed 5-7 polymorphs / HPF in 90% of the patients. Evidence of C. trachomatis with DFA (MicroTrak was detected in 11 cases (36.67% when a cut off of 10 elementary bodies was considered essential. It is concluded that C. trachomatis is an important cause of non gonococcal urethritis in male patients in New Delhi and DFA test is a useful diagnostic tool in its detection. Where facilities are not available for its detection antichlamydial therapy should be recommended emperically.

  16. Lymphogranuloma venereum rates increased and Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes changed among men who have sex with men in Sweden 2004-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Jenny; Carlsson, Ola; Airell, Åsa; Strömdahl, Susanne; Bratt, Göran; Herrmann, Björn

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in Sweden since 2004 and to study in detail a consecutive number of Chlamydia trachomatis cases in men who have sex with men (MSM) during a 10 month period (September 2014 to July 2015). LGV increased from sporadic import cases in 2004 to comprise a spread within Sweden in 2016. Initially, only the L2b ompA genotype was detected, but in 2015 half of the genotyped LGV cases were L2 genotype. The changing genotype distribution in Sweden is linked to increased LGV spread in Europe. High-resolution multilocus sequence typing of 168 C. trachomatis cases from MSM in 2015 resulted in 29 sequence types, of which 3 accounted for 49 % of cases. The increased rates and different genotypes of LGV indicate that more concern for high-risk taking MSM is needed to avoid further spread of this invasive infection.

  17. Infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis e Neisseria gonorrhoeae em mulheres atendidas em serviço de planejamento familiar Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among women in a family planning clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete Maria dos Santos Fernandes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a prevalência de infecções por Chlamydia trachomatis (CT e Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG entre mulheres adolescentes e jovens em ambulatório de planejamento familiar. MÉTODOS: um total de 230 mulheres com idade menor ou igual a 24 anos e antecedente de até quatro parceiros sexuais foram acompanhadas por até 48 meses, com coletas de urina para pesquisa de CT e NG pelo método da reação em cadeia da polimerase nos meses 1, 12, 24, 36 e 48. As variáveis estudadas foram faixa etária, escolaridade, estado marital, número de gestações, abortos e filhos vivos, idade de início da vida sexual, uso anterior e atual de condom, uso anterior de dispositivo intrauterino, número de parceiros nos últimos seis meses e tempo de seguimento. Realizou-se análise bivariada das variáveis segundo os testes positivos para CT e NG e análise múltipla por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: a frequência de infecções por CT foi de 13,5% e por NG de 3%, duas mulheres apresentaram ambos os testes positivos. O antecedente de uso de dispositivo intrauterino foi associado aos testes positivos para NG. CONCLUSÕES: as prevalências de infecção por CT e NG foram altas na faixa etária estudada e o rastreamento de mulheres jovens deve ser considerado em nossos serviços para controle da disseminação e prevenção de sequelas das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.PURPOSE: to study infection prevalence by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, among adolescent and young women in a family planning outpatient clinic. METHODS: a total of 230 women up to 24 years old and history of up to four sexual partners have been followed-up for 48 months, with urine collection to search CT and NG, by the polymerase chain reaction method at the 1st, 12nd, 24th, 36th and 48th months. The variables studied were age group, schooling, marital status, number of gestations, abortions and children alive, age at the onset of sexual life, previous

  18. Impact of improved laboratory compliance on notification of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S C; MacEachern, A; Stevenson, E

    1997-02-01

    Although regulations in Victoria require notification of chlamydia infection by both clinician and laboratory, review found many reports that were notified only by one source (i.e., were unmatched). To identify problems with the notification system and to improve the quality of surveillance for this disease. All notified cases of chlamydia diagnosed in January or February 1995 were followed up by contacting diagnosing doctors. Identified noncompliant laboratories were asked to provide a list of all diagnoses for the period and institute ongoing reporting. Notification data were reviewed for timeliness and completeness. Clinicians never notified without laboratory confirmation. Soliciting laboratory reports increased total notifications by 30%, and there was a highly significant improvement in reporting by both clinicians and laboratories. Reasons for failure to notify by clinicians included an assumption by some clinicians that laboratories would notify and ignorance that notification was required. Notified cases generally are now accompanied by a laboratory report, and although nonnotification by clinicians continues, notification has improved. Further improvements in clinician notification may depend on doctors knowing that public health action results from reporting. An alternative to requiring doctors' time to be spent in duplicate notification would be to strengthen laboratory reporting and then check that adequate treatment and partner notification has occurred through contact with the diagnosing doctor.

  19. Prevalencia de Chlamydia Trachomatis como agente causal de Leucorrea único o en asociación con otros agentes en Mujeres Embarazadas

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, María Dolores; Téllez, Aleyda; Matus, Gregorio; Baltodano Martínez, Yubelka Susana; Centeno Cárdenas, Nora María

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue, identificar la prevalencia de Chlamydia Trachomatis como agente causal único o en asociación con otros agentes causales de Leucorrea en mujeres embarazadas ingresadas en el servicio de ARO del HEODRA, en el período de Agosto de 2007 a Enero de 2008. El estudio es descriptivo, de corte transversal. Se trabajó con fuentes primarias, a través de la entrevista y exploración ginecológica de las pacientes, y secundarias, a través de la revisión de los resultado...

  20. A strong adjuvant based on glycol-chitosan-coated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles potentiates mucosal immune responses against the recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis fusion antigen CTH522

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Fabrice; Erbo Wern, Jeanette; Gavins, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Induction of mucosal immunity with vaccines is attractive for the immunological protection against pathogen entrance directly at the site of infection. An example is infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), which is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world......)-modified LPNs were engineered using an oil-in-water single emulsion solvent evaporation method. The nanoparticle design was optimized in a highly systematic way by using a quality-by-design approach to define the optimal operating space and to gain maximal mechanistic information about the GC coating...

  1. Co-infections with Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis in a human immunodeficiency virus positive woman with vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Dhawan, Benu

    2013-01-01

    A 30-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected woman presented with vaginal discharge and associated vulval irritation. The vaginal swabs tested positive for Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma hominis by both culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The specimen also tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by cryptic plasmid and omp1 gene PCR assays. The patient was successfully treated with azithromycin based on the antibiotic susceptibility testing results of U. parvum and M. hominis by microbroth dilution. Since sexually transmitted infections enhance the transmission of HIV, HIV-positive patients should be screened routinely for these pathogens.

  2. Immunofibrogenic Gene Expression Patterns in Tanzanian Children with Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection, Active Trachoma and Scarring: Baseline Results of a 4-Year Longitudinal Study

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    Athumani M. Ramadhani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is the world's leading infectious cause of blindness and remains a significant public health problem. Much of trachomatous disease pathology is thought to be caused indirectly by host cellular and immune responses, however the immune response during active trachoma and how this initiates progressive scarring is not clearly understood. Defining protective vs. pathogenic immune response to C. trachomatis is important for vaccine design and evaluation. This study reports the baseline results of a longitudinal cohort of Tanzanian children, who were monitored for 4 years in order to determine the immunofibrogenic and infectious correlates of progressive scarring trachoma. In this cohort baseline, 506 children aged 6–10 years were assessed for clinical signs, infection status and the expression of 91 genes of interest prior to mass azithromycin administration for trachoma control. C. trachomatis was detected using droplet digital PCR and gene expression was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The prevalence of follicles, papillary inflammation and scarring were 33.6, 31.6, and 28.5%, respectively. C. trachomatis was detected in 78/506 (15.4% individuals, 62/78 of whom also had follicles. C. trachomatis infection was associated with a strong upregulation of IFNG and IL22, the enrichment of Th1 and NK cell pathways and Th17 cell-associated cytokines. In individuals with inflammation in the absence of infection the IFNG/IL22 and NK cell response was reduced, however, pro-inflammatory, growth and matrix factors remained upregulated and mucins were downregulated. Our data suggest that, strong IFNG/IL22 responses, probably related to Th1 and NK cell involvement, is important for clearance of C. trachomatis and that the residual pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic phenotype that persists after infection might contribute to pathological scarring. Interestingly, females appear more susceptible to developing

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis: um importante agente de infecções respiratórias em lactentes de famílias de baixa renda

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    Edna Lucia Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência de infecção do trato respiratório inferior (ITRI por Chlamydia trachomatis em lactentes internados e descrever as características clínicas, laboratoriais e radiológicas da doença. MÉTODOS: Este foi um estudo do tipo corte transversal, realizado durante um período de 12 meses. Foram incluídos todos os lactentes de até 6 meses internados consecutivamente no Centro Pediátrico Professor Hosannah de Oliveira da Universidade Federal da Bahia, em Salvador, BA, com diagnóstico clínico ou clínico-radiológico de ITRI. O diagnóstico de infecção por C. trachomatis foi realizado através da pesquisa de anticorpos da classe IgM, utilizando-se o ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA. A prevalência de ITRI por C. trachomatis foi determinada, e foram calculadas as razões de prevalência para essa infecção e variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais. RESULTADOS: Cento e cinquenta e um lactentes realizaram sorologia para C. trachomatis, das quais 15 (9,9% foram positivas. A infecção por C. trachomatis ocorreu unicamente entre os menores de 5 meses, principalmente naqueles menores de 2 meses. Três crianças com infecção por C. trachomatis nasceram de parto cesáreo. Conjuntivite e eosinofilia ocorreram em 33,3% dos casos. As radiografias de tórax se mostraram alteradas em 92% dos casos. Demonstrou-se associação da infecção por C. trachomatis com duração de internação superior a 15 dias (p = 0,0398 e com oxigenoterapia (p = 0,0484. CONCLUSÕES: Houve alta prevalência de ITRI por C. trachomatis na população estudada. A infecção por esta bactéria foi associada a uma forma mais grave da doença, demonstrando a importância de se investigar essa infecção na gestante de forma a evitar o adoecimento de recém-nascidos.

  4. Efficacy of cytology for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women

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    Maria da Conceição de Mesquita Cornetta

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of Papanicolaou staining for the initial diagnosis of Chlamydial infection in pregnant women. A hundred thirteen patients were examined with a Papanicolaou test, independent of gestational age, parity or maternal age. Three endocervical samples were collected; the first two were collected with a brush (Cytobrush plus, Mediscand, Sweden and the third with Ayre's spatula. The first specimen was used for McCoy cell culture and the other two were examined cytologically. Chlamydial infection was detected in 9 (7.9% patients. Only one (0.8% was diagnosed by cytological exam. The sensitivity and specificity of the cytological examination were 10 and 98%, respectively. The estimated positive predictive value was 33.3% and the negative predictive value was 92.7%. When Papanicolaou stain diagnosis suggests Chlamydia, a more specific complementary exam should be added to confirm infection; subsequently adequate treatment can be implemented, thereby preventing the frequent complications of untreated subclinical infections.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV distribution and sexual behaviors across gender and age group in an African setting.

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    Joel Fleury Djoba Siawaya

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to (1 describe the distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV cases across gender and age groups in Libreville (Gabon; (2 examine Gabonese Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs-related risk behaviour. METHODS: The sampled population was people attending the "Laboratoire National de Santé Plublique". Between 2007 and 2011, 14 667 and 9 542 people respectively, were tested for CT and HIV infections. 1 854 of them were tested for both infections. We calculated CT and HIV rates across gender and age groups. Also analysed was the groups' contribution to the general CT and HIV epidemiology. STIs-related risk behaviours were assessed in 224 men and 795 women (between July 2011 and March 2013 who agreed and answered a questionnaire including questions on their marital status, number of sex partners, sexual practices, history of STIs, sex frequency and condom use. RESULTS: Data showed a 24% dropped in the CT infection rate between 2007 and 2010, followed by a 14% increase in 2011. The HIV infection rates for the same period were between 15% and 16%. The risk of a CT-positive subject getting HIV is about 0.71 times the risk of a CT-negative subject. Young adult aged between 18 and 35 years old represented 65.2% of people who had STIs. 80% of women and 66% of men confessed to an inconsistent use of condoms. 11.6% of women and 48% of men declared having multiple sex partners. 61% of questioned women and 67% of men declared knowing their HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: In this Gabonese setting, the population-aged from 18 to 35 years is the most affected by STIs. Other matters of concern are the inconsistent use of protection and sex with non-spousal or non-life partners.

  6. Comparison of clinical performance of antigen basedenzyme immunoassay (EIA and major outer membrane protein (MOMP-PCR for detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

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    Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications. Objective: Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA and major outer membrane protein (MOMP-polymerase chain reaction (PCR for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 37 (7.14% cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMPPCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48. Conclusion: C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed.

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis induces an upregulation of molecular biomarkers podoplanin, Wilms' tumour gene 1, osteopontin and inflammatory cytokines in human mesothelial cells.

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    De Filippis, Anna; Buommino, Elisabetta; Domenico, Marina Di; Feola, Antonia; Brunetti-Pierri, Raffaella; Rizzo, Antonietta

    2017-05-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent infection of the genital tract in women worldwide. C. trachomatis has a tendency to cause persistent infection and induce a state of chronic inflammation, which has been reported to play a role in carcinogenesis. We report that persistent C. trachomatis infection increases the expression of inflammatory tumour cytokines and upregulates molecular biomarkers such as podoplanin, Wilms' tumour gene 1 and osteopontin in primary cultures of mesothelial cells (Mes1) and human mesothelioma cells (NCI). Infection experiments showed that Mes1 and NCI supported the growth of C. trachomatisin vitro, and at an m.o.i. of 4, the inclusion-forming units/cell showed many intracellular inclusion bodies after 3 days of infection. However, after 7 days of incubation, increased proliferative and invasive activity was also observed in Mes1 cells, which was more evident after 14 days of incubation. ELISA analysis revealed an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α release in Mes1 cells infected for a longer period (14 days). Finally, real-time PCR analysis revealed a strong induction of podoplanin, Wilms' tumour gene 1 and osteopontin gene expression in infected Mes1 cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inflammatory response elicited by C. trachomatis persistent infection and the role played by inflammation in cell proliferation, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and molecular biomarkers of cancer. The results of this study suggest that increased molecular biomarkers of cancer by persistent inflammation from C. trachomatis infection might support cellular transformation, thus increasing the risk of cancer.

  8. The Chlamydia trachomatis type III secretion substrates CT142, CT143, and CT144 are secreted into the lumen of the inclusion.

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    Maria da Cunha

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is a human bacterial pathogen causing ocular and genital infections. It multiplies exclusively within an intracellular membrane-bound vacuole, the inclusion, and uses a type III secretion system to manipulate host cells by injecting them with bacterially-encoded effector proteins. In this work, we characterized the expression and subcellular localization in infected host cells of the C. trachomatis CT142, CT143, and CT144 proteins, which we previously showed to be type III secretion substrates. Transcriptional analyses in C. trachomatis confirmed the prediction that ct142, ct143 and ct144 are organized in an operon and revealed that their expression is likely driven by the main σ factor, σ66. In host cells infected by C. trachomatis, production of CT142 and CT143 could be detected by immunoblotting from 20-26 h post-infection. Immunofluorescence microscopy of infected cells revealed that from 20 h post-infection CT143 appeared mostly as globular structures outside of the bacterial cells but within the lumen of the inclusion. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy of cells infected by C. trachomatis strains carrying plasmids producing CT142, CT143, or CT144 under the control of the ct142 promoter and with a C-terminal double hemagglutinin (2HA epitope tag revealed that CT142-2HA, CT143-2HA or CT144-2HA showed an identical localization to chromosomally-encoded CT143. Moreover, CT142-2HA or CT144-2HA and CT143 produced by the same bacteria co-localized in the lumen of the inclusion. Overall, these data suggest that the CT142, CT143, and CT144 type III secretion substrates are secreted into the lumen of the inclusion where they might form a protein complex.

  9. Differential profiles of immune mediators and in vitro HIV infectivity between endocervical and vaginal secretions from women with Chlamydia trachomatis infection: a pilot study.

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    Sperling, Rhoda; Kraus, Thomas A; Ding, Jian; Veretennikova, Alina; Lorde-Rollins, Elizabeth; Singh, Tricia; Lo, Yungtai; Quayle, Alison J; Chang, Theresa L

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most prevalent bacterial STIs in the USA and worldwide, and women with C. trachomatis infection are at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Because immune activation at the genital mucosa facilitates HIV/SIV infection, C. trachomatis-mediated cytokine induction may contribute to increased HIV transmission in asymptomatic women. To begin to elucidate the mechanisms, we longitudinally analyzed profiles of innate immune factors and HIV infectivity in genital secretions from anatomically specific sites in asymptomatic women during C. trachomatis infection and post-antibiotic treatment. We found higher levels of cytokines and chemokines in endocervical secretions than vaginal secretions. Compared with the convalescent state, G-CSF, IL-1α, and RANTES were elevated in endocervical secretions, IFN-γ and TNF-α were elevated in vaginal secretions, and IFNγ, IL-1β, and MIP1-α were elevated in cervicolavage fluid (CVL), before adjustment of multiple comparisons. Elevated endocervical levels of IP-10 and MCP-1 were associated with the use of hormonal contraception in infected women after successful treatment, suggesting the role of hormonal contraception in inflammation independent of STIs. Importantly, soluble factors found in endocervical secretions during infection enhanced HIV infectivity while no difference in HIV infectivity was found with vaginal secretions or CVL during infection or at convalescence. Taken together, the profiles of immune mediators and in vitro HIV infectivity indicate that the endocervical and vaginal mucosa are immunologically distinct. Our results underscore the importance of considering anatomical site and local sampling methodology when measuring mucosal responses, particularly in the presence of C. trachomatis infection. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Early sexual behaviour and Chlamydia trachomatis infection – a population based cross-sectional study on gender differences among adolescents in Norway

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    Gravningen Kirsten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early sexual behaviour has been shown to differ significantly between genders, but few studies have addressed this topic to explain the commonly observed differences in chlamydia rates between adolescent girls and boys. Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15–20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years. Crude and multivariable logistic regression models were applied with chlamydia test result as dependent variable. Results Prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 4.4–7.3%. Girls were twice as likely to be infected as boys (7.3%, 5.3–9.7 vs 3.9%, 2.3–6.0. Girls reported earlier sexual debut, older partners, higher lifetime number of partners, and were poorer condom users. In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.4, ≥2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8–7.3, and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1–22.7 increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. In boys, condom use at first intercourse (OR 0.06, 0.01–0.42 decreased the odds of infection, while having an older last sexual partner (OR 3.7, 1.3–11.0 increased the odds. In all participants, the risk of infection increased if residence outside the family home during school year (OR 2.0, 1.2–3.6, and decreased if condom was used at last intercourse (OR 0.2, 0.1–0.8. Conclusions We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia

  11. Prevalence of infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis in acute mucopurulent cervicitis.

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    Ujević, Boris; Habek, Jasna Cerkez; Habek, Dubravko

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of N. gonorrhoae (NG) and/or C. trachomatis (CT) in acute mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC). The study included 617 non-pregnant women with MPC, who had not been receiving any antimicrobial treatment. The average age of patients was 22.2 years. There were no statistically significant differences according to place of residence, education, and marital status. Samples for laboratory analysis were collected using a routine procedure; NG was identified using the cytochrome oxidase test and Gram staining. CT was isolated on McCoy cell culture and stained with Lugol solution. NG was isolated in three women (0.8%) and CT in 58 women (9.4%). Fifty-six of the CT-positive patients were nullipara and only two were unipara. All NG-positive patients were also nullipara. The mean number of sexual partners was 2.2 in all study subjects, 2.4 in CT-positive subjects, and 2.9 in NG-positive subjects. Vaginal discharge purity according to Schröder was significantly deteriorated in CT-positive patients (p=0.011). When asked about the use of contraceptives, as many as 32.7% patients answered that they did not use any protection, 39% women used the rhythm method and coitus interruptus, 20% were taking oral contraceptives, 6.1% used mechanical devices, and 1.9% used chemical protection. Previous acute and chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases correlated with MPC (p>0.01). Our statistical analysis suggests that chlamydial infection significantly reduces the purity of vaginal discharge, which is more pronounced in nulliparae. Pap smear was not specific enough to demonstrate chlamydial infection. In view of the MPC findings, the prevalence of CT and NG infection is low.

  12. Performance of the multitarget Mikrogen Chlamydia trachomatis IgG ELISA in the prediction of tubal factor infertility (TFI) in subfertile women : Comparison with the Medac MOMP IgG ELISA plus

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    van Ess, Eleanne F.; Ouburg, Sander; Spaargaren, Joke; Land, Jolande A.; Morre, Servaas A.

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for more accurate Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG antibody tests for tubal factor infertility (TFI) diagnostics. We evaluated the predictive value for TFI of Medac ELISA plus (MOMP) and multitarget Mikrogen ELISA (MOMP-CPAF-TARP). Based on Medac ELISA plus results, 183 subfertile

  13. Who tests whom? A comprehensive overview of Chlamydia trachomatis test practices in a Dutch region among different STI care providers for urogenital, anorectal and oropharyngeal sites in young people: a cross-sectional study

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    den Heijer, Casper D. J.; van Liere, G. A. F. S.; Hoebe, C. J. P. A.; van Bergen, J. E. A. M.; Cals, J. W. L.; Stals, F. S.; Dukers-Muijrers, N. H. T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate and compare Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) diagnostic test practices of different sexually transmitted infection (STI) care providers in 16-29 year olds from one defined geographic Dutch region (280 000 inhabitants). Both number and proportion of positive CT tests (ie, test

  14. Acceptability of self-taken vaginal swabs and first-catch urine samples for the diagnosis of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae with an amplified DNA assay in young women attending a public health sexually transmitted disease clinic

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    Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; Rademaker, Christiaan W.; Brouwers, Elfi E. H. G.; ter Waarbeek, Henriëtte L. G.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Public health efforts are needed to encourage young women to get tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). To assess the acceptability and feasibility of 2 noninvasive diagnostic approaches. Participants of this cross-sectional survey were 413 young women (age 16-35) who

  15. In situ detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and cytokines among cardiovascular diseased patients from the Amazon region of Brazil

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    Freitas LS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Larissa S Freitas,1 Núbia Caroline C Almeida,1 Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz,1 Marcelo M Zaninotto,2 Hellen T Fuzii,3 Alfredo Ribeiro-Silva,4 Antonio CR Vallinoto,1 Marluísa OG Ishak,1 Juarez AS Quaresma,3 Ricardo Ishak1 1Virus Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Para, 2Hospital of Clinic Gaspar Viana, 3Laboratory of Immunopathology, Nucleus of Tropical Medicine, Federal University of Para, Belém, 4Departament of Pathology, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Chronic coronary artery disease has been associated, as a consequence of the local inflammatory reaction with previous or persistent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, which led to the investigation of the association of cardiovascular disease and previous infection with C. trachomatis and the role of cytokine profile (in situ markers in the vascular system tissues. Methods: Sixty-nine biopsies were collected for immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and IL-10, in 16 fragments from atheromatous plaques, 32 aorta fragments, and 21 valve fragments, using a tissue microarray technique for paraffin embedded tissues. Results: Most patients undergoing revascularization surgery were men >50 years, while those undergoing valve replacement were mostly women <50 years. TNF-α was the most prevalent marker, detected in 91.7% (55/60 of the samples. The mean percent area stained was greater in patients infected with C. pneumoniae (3.81% vs 1.92%; p=0.0115 and specifically in the aorta (4.83% vs 2.25%; p=0.0025; C. trachomatis infection was higher in valves, and C. pneumoniae in plaques, both without statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the cytokine staining profile between patients previously infected with both species and uninfected patients. Conclusion: Although there was no difference in the cytokine profile between patients previously

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles triggers primarily T helper 1 cellular and antibody immune responses in mice: a desirable candidate nanovaccine

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    Fairley SJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stacie J Fairley, Shree R Singh, Abebayehu N Yilma, Alain B Waffo, Praseetha Subbarayan, Saurabh Dixit, Murtada A Taha, Chino D Cambridge, Vida A Dennis Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA Abstract: We recently demonstrated by in vitro experiments that PLGA (poly D, L-lactide-co-glycolide potentiates T helper 1 (Th1 immune responses induced by a peptide derived from the recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP of Chlamydia trachomatis, and may be a promising vaccine delivery system. Herein we evaluated the immune-potentiating potential of PLGA by encapsulating the full-length rMOMP (PLGA-rMOMP, characterizing it in vitro, and investigating its immunogenicity in vivo. Our hypothesis was that PLGA-rMOMP triggers Th1 immune responses in mice, which are desirable prerequisites for a C. trachomatis candidate nanovaccine. Physical-structural characterizations of PLGA-rMOMP revealed its size (approximately 272 nm, zeta potential (−14.30 mV, apparent spherical smooth morphology, and continuous slow release pattern. PLGA potentiated the ability of encapsulated rMOMP to trigger production of cytokines and chemokines by mouse J774 macrophages. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with PLGA-rMOMP had elevated numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, and secreted more rMOMP-specific interferon-gamma (Th1 and interleukin (IL-12p40 (Th1/Th17 than IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines. PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice produced higher serum immunoglobulin (IgG and IgG2a (Th1 than IgG1 (Th2 rMOMP-specific antibodies. Notably, sera from PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice had a 64-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, whereas mice immunized with rMOMP in Freund's adjuvant had only a four-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, suggesting primarily induction of a Th1 antibody response in PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice. Our data underscore PLGA as an effective delivery system for a C

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of a prototype point-of-care test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis under field conditions in The Gambia and Senegal.

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    Emma M Harding-Esch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The clinical signs of active trachoma are often present in the absence of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in low prevalence and mass treated settings. Treatment decisions are currently based on the prevalence of clinical signs, and this may result in the unnecessary distribution of mass antibiotic treatment. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a prototype point-of-care (POC test, developed for field diagnosis of ocular C. trachomatis, in low prevalence settings of The Gambia and Senegal.Three studies were conducted, two in The Gambia and one in Senegal. Children under the age of 10 years were screened for the clinical signs of trachoma. Two ocular swabs were taken from the right eye. The first swab was tested by the POC test in the field and the result independently graded by two readers. The second swab was tested for the presence of C. trachomatis by Amplicor Polymerase Chain Reaction. In Senegal, measurements of humidity and temperature in the field were taken. A total of 3734 children were screened, 950 in the first and 1171 in the second Gambian study, and 1613 in Senegal. The sensitivity of the prototype POC test ranged between 33.3-67.9%, the specificity between 92.4-99.0%, the positive predictive value between 4.3-21.0%, and the negative predictive value between 98.0-99.8%. The rate of false-positives increased markedly at temperatures above 31.4°C and relative humidities below 11.4%.In its present format, this prototype POC test is not suitable for field diagnosis of ocular C. trachomatis as its specificity decreases in hot and dry conditions: the environment in which trachoma is predominantly found. In the absence of a suitable test for infection, trachoma diagnosis remains dependent on clinical signs. Under current WHO recommendations, this is likely resulting in the continued mass treatment of non-infected communities.

  18. Inverse relationship between microRNA-155 and -184 expression with increasing conjunctival inflammation during ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

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    Derrick, Tamsyn; Last, Anna R; Burr, Sarah E; Roberts, Chrissy H; Nabicassa, Meno; Cassama, Eunice; Bailey, Robin L; Mabey, David C W; Burton, Matthew J; Holland, Martin J

    2016-02-03

    Trachoma, a preventable blinding eye disease, is initiated by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). We previously showed that microRNAs (miR) -147b and miR-1285 were up-regulated in inflammatory trachomatous scarring. During the initial stage of disease, follicular trachoma with current Ct infection, the differential expression of miR has not yet been investigated. Conjunctival samples were collected from 163 children aged 1-9 years old living in a trachoma-endemic region of Guinea Bissau, West Africa. Small RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was carried out on samples from five children with follicular trachoma and current Ct infection and five children with healthy conjunctivae and no Ct infection. Small RNAseq was also carried out on human epithelial cell lines infected with ocular Ct strains A2497 and isogenic plasmid-free A2497 in vitro. Results were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 163 clinical samples. Differential expression of RNAseq data identified 12 miR with changes in relative expression during follicular trachoma, of which 9 were confirmed as differentially expressed by qPCR (miR-155, miR-150, miR-142, miR-181b, miR-181a, miR-342, miR-132, miR-4728 and miR-184). MiR-155 and miR-184 expression had a direct relationship with the degree of clinical inflammation. MiR-155 was up-regulated (OR = 2.533 ((95 % CI = 1.291-4.971); P = 0.0069) and miR-184 was down-regulated (OR = 0.416 ((95 % CI = 0.300-0.578); P = 1.61*10(-7)) as the severity of clinical inflammation increased. Differential miR expression was not detected in HEp-2 or HCjE epithelial cells 48 h post infection with Ct in vitro. HCjE cells, a conjunctival epithelial cell line, had a markedly different miR background expression compared to HEp-2 cells. In follicular trachoma, expression of miR-155 and miR-184 is correlated with the severity of inflammation. This likely reflects host regulation of the immune response and a prolonged period of wound healing following the clearance of Ct

  19. Prevalence and treatment outcomes of routine Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis testing during antenatal care, Gaborone, Botswana.

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    Wynn, Adriane; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Gaolebale, Ponatshego; Moshashane, Neo; Sickboy, Ontiretse; Duque, Sofia; Williams, Elizabeth; Doherty, Klara; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Morroni, Chelsea

    2017-11-02

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) , Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are curable, mostly asymptomatic, STIs that cause adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Most countries do not test for those infections during antenatal care. We implemented a CT, NG and TV testing and treatment programme in an antenatal clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. We conducted a prospective study in the antenatal clinic at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. We offered pregnant women who were 18 years or older and less than 35 weeks of gestation, CT, NG and TV testing using self-collected vaginal swabs. Testing was conducted using a GeneXpert® CT/NG and TV system. Those who tested positive were given directly observed antibiotic therapy and asked to return for a test of cure. We determined the prevalence of infections, uptake of treatment and proportion cured. The relationships between positive STI test and participant characteristics were assessed. We enrolled 400 pregnant women. Fifty-four (13.5%) tested positive for CT, NG and/or TV: 31 (8%) for CT, 5 (1.3%) for NG and 21 (5%) for TV. Among those who tested positive, 74% (40) received same-day, in person results and treatment. Among those who received delayed results (6), 67% (4) were treated. Statistical comparisons showed that being unmarried and HIV infected were positively association CT, NG and/or TV infection. Self-reported STI symptoms were not associated with CT, NG and/or TV infection. The prevalence of CT, NG and/or TV was high, particularly among women with HIV infection. Among women with CT, NG and/or TV infection, those who received same-day results were more likely to be treated than those who received delayed results. More research is needed on the costs and benefits of integrating highly sensitive and specific STI testing into antenatal care in Southern Africa. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  20. Actin re-organization induced by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D--evidence for a critical role of the effector protein CT166 targeting Rac.

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    Jessica Thalmann

    Full Text Available The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes infections of urogenital tract, eyes or lungs. Alignment reveals homology of CT166, a putative effector protein of urogenital C. trachomatis serovars, with the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain of clostridial glucosylating toxins (CGTs. CGTs contain an essential DXD-motif and mono-glucosylate GTP-binding proteins of the Rho/Ras families, the master regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. CT166 is preformed in elementary bodies of C. trachomatis D and is detected in the host-cell shortly after infection. Infection with high MOI of C. trachomatis serovar D containing the CT166 ORF induces actin re-organization resulting in cell rounding and a decreased cell diameter. A comparable phenotype was observed in HeLa cells treated with the Rho-GTPase-glucosylating Toxin B from Clostridium difficile (TcdB or HeLa cells ectopically expressing CT166. CT166 with a mutated DXD-motif (CT166-mut exhibited almost unchanged actin dynamics, suggesting that CT166-induced actin re-organization depends on the glucosyltransferase motif of CT166. The cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1 from E. coli deamidates and thereby activates Rho-GTPases and transiently protects them against TcdB-induced glucosylation. CNF1-treated cells were found to be protected from TcdB- and CT166-induced actin re-organization. CNF1 treatment as well as ectopic expression of non-glucosylable Rac1-G12V, but not RhoA-G14A, reverted CT166-induced actin re-organization, suggesting that CT166-induced actin re-organization depends on the glucosylation of Rac1. In accordance, over-expression of CT166-mut diminished TcdB induced cell rounding, suggesting shared substrates. Cell rounding induced by high MOI infection with C. trachomatis D was reduced in cells expressing CT166-mut or Rac1-G12V, and in CNF1 treated cells. These observations indicate that the cytopathic effect of C. trachomatis D is mediated by CT166 induced Rac1 glucosylation

  1. Improvement of laboratory diagnostics of urogenital chlamydial infection in patients with impaired reproductive functions found to be infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominant role in human infertility has been attributed to sexually transmitted infections (STIs with a leading contribution of urogenital chlamydial infection (UGCI caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT. the two variants of this pathogen are represented by the wild-type (wtCT and new Swedish (nvCT strains containing 377 bp deletion within the cryptic plasmid orf1 gene. Objective. The purpose of the study was investigation of the clinical specimens obtained from the urogenital tract of couples coping with infertility for the presence of genetic material of wtCT and nvCT. Material and methods. Clinical samples (scrapings from the urethra and cervix obtained from 25 to 41 years old couples (n = 14 were tested for the presence of identifiable wtCT and nvCT chlamydia DNA by monoplex and duplex PCR, specific antigens C. trachomatis in elementary bodies by using immunofluorescence analysis (IFA, while detection of anti-chlamydia antibodies in sera was determined by immunoenzymatic assay (IEA. Results. The nvCT variant with typical deletion of 377 bp within the orf1 gene that belongs to the genovar e subtype E1 was detected in 100% of couples with infertility. The negative results of DNA testing for wtcT were registered in 87.5% of patients from this group, while one individual (12.5% was likely coinfected with nvCT and wtCT of E1 and D genovars, respectively. The wtCT strains of genovar E (subtypes E1, E2, E6, g (subtypes G1, G2, F (subtypes F1, and K were identified in control group among patients with UGCI. The study revealed difficulties in detection of nvCT by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT, IFA, and IEA; data on comparison of the efficacy of these methods are presented. Conclusion. Chronic UGCI in patients with reproductive dysfunctions can be caused by nvCT alone or as result of co-infection with nvCT and wtCT. The negative results in NAAT may not 100% correlate with the absence of UGCI that requires further confirmation in tests

  2. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infektion hos abortsøgende. Undersøgelses- og behandlingsstrategi for at mindske infektionssequelae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E

    1992-01-01

    analysed Chlamydia infection in connection with sexual behaviour and association between Chlamydia infection and the number of sexual partners has been demonstrated. Direct immune fluorescent microscopic examination or enzyme immune examination of material from the cervix and urethra may be employed...... in women applying for termination of pregnancy on account of the rapid results. Tetracyclines and erythromycin may be employed for treatment of demonstrated Chlamydia infection. Completion of treatment prior to abortion is probably not necessary. The sexual partners should be treated....

  3. Etude séro-epidémiologique de trois infections sexuellement transmissibles (Chlamydia Trachomatis, Hépatite B, Syphilis): cas de l’Hôpital de District de Nkoldongo à Yaoundé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essome, Marie Chantal Ngonde; Nsawir, Bonglaisin Julius; Nana, Rodrigue Dongang; Molu, Patrick; Mohamadou, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Les infections sexuellement transmissibles sévissent toujours dans les pays en voie de développement et particulièrement au Cameroun. Le but de notre étude est de déterminer la distribution des infections sexuellement transmissibles suivantes: l’hépatite virale B, le Chlamydia trachomatis et de la syphilis dans une population de femmes venant consulter spontanément à l’Hôpital de District de Nkoldongo à Yaoundé, d’évaluer d’éventuelles coïnfections entre ces trois affections et de ressortir les connaissances de ces femmes sur leur mode de transmission sexuelle. Méthodes Notre étude prospective et descriptive a porté sur 182 femmes dont l’âge variait entre 18 et 48 ans. Les femmes ont été testées sérologiquement pour le Chlamydia trachomatis par une méthode ELISA (kit des laboratoires General Biological Corp). L’hépatite virale B a été dépistée par une méthode immunochromatographique (kit des laboratoires Human) et la syphilis par une méthode d’agglutination en ce qui concerne le RPR (Kit des laboratoires Biocentric) et le TPHA (kit des laboratoires Human). Résultats Nos résultats ont montré que: la distribution du Chlamydia trachomatis, de l’hépatite virale B et la syphilis a été respectivement de 22,52%, 4,39%, 0,54%.De plus, nous avons observé une coinfection Chlamydia trachomatis hépatite virale B avec un taux de 2,74%. Par ailleurs la réinfection au Chlamydia trachomatis a été rencontrée dans 4,94% de cas. S’agissant du mode de transmission de ces affections 67,57% et 70,87% de femmes ne connaissaient pas la voie de transmission sexuelle pour le Chlamydia trachomatis et pour l’hépatite virale B respectivement, tandis que 91,2 % des femmes connaissaient la voie de transmission sexuelle pour la syphilis. Conclusion Le diagnostic d’une infection à Chlamydia trachomatis chez une patiente doit susciter le dépistage de l’hépatite virale B. Introduction Sexually transmitted infections

  4. In-house polymerase chain reaction for affordable and sustainable Chlamydia trachomatis detection in Trinidad and Tobago Sistema autóctono para la detección asequible y sustentable de Chlamydia trachomatis por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en Trinidad y Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Rampersad

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To provide a preliminary assessment of in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR as an alternative to the more costly commercial test for detection of asymptomatic infection by Chlamydia trachomatis and to provide much needed demographic data on infection indicators within the Trinidad and Tobago public health care system. METHODS: An inexpensive in-house nested-PCR with an Internal Amplification Control was used to detect C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine samples collected from 273 apparently healthy, pregnant women from March-September 2004 in Trinidad, West Indies. Demographic information on participants was collected and subjected to statistical analyses. RESULTS: C. trachomatis was detected in 57/273 (21% samples, of which 5 (2% were also positive for N. gonorrhoeae. Infection correlated well with certain demographic parameters, with the highest incidence of C. trachomatis infection found among pregnant women that were single or of African descent. CONCLUSIONS: Given the lack of commercial tests in Trinidad, in-house PCR is an inexpensive alternative that can be used to detect asymptomatic infections of C. trachomatis and to provide demographic information needed for interventions by the public health care system.OBJETIVOS: Hacer una evaluación preliminar de un sistema autóctono para la detección de la infección asintomática por Chlamydia trachomatis mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RCP, como alternativa a los costosos sistemas comerciales, y ofrecer datos demográficos muy necesarios relacionados con los indicadores de esta infección en el sistema de salud pública de Trinidad y Tobago. MÉTODOS: Se empleó un sistema autóctono y económico de RCP anidada con control interno de la amplificación para la detección de C. trachomatis y Neisseria gonorrhoeae en muestras de orina de 273 mujeres embarazadas asintomáticas, entre marzo y septiembre de 2004 en Trinidad y Tobago, Indias

  5. Prevalencia de la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y factores de riesgo de infecciones transmisibles sexualmente en estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Occhionero

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La infección genital por Chlamydia trachomatis es considerada en la actualidad una de las causas más frecuentes de infecciones transmisibles sexualmente (ITS a nivel mundial y afecta principalmente al grupo de jóvenes menores de 25 años. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de la infección por C. trachomatis en alumnos ingresantes a la Universidad Nacional del Sur (Bahía Blanca, Argentina y evaluar los factores de riesgo para la adquisición de ITS. Participaron en el estudio 204 jóvenes de edad media de 19 años, que remitieron una muestra de orina de primera micción y respondieron a una encuesta anónima. La investigación de C. trachomatis se realizó sobre 114 muestras válidas mediante una técnica de amplificación génica, cuyo blanco molecular es el gen ompA. Se detectaron 4 casos de infección por C. trachomatis, lo que implicó una prevalencia del 3,5 %. Los factores de riesgo que demostraron estar asociados con la adquisición de esta ITS fueron un historial de 7 o más parejas desde el comienzo de las relaciones sexuales y el contacto con una nueva pareja sexual en los últimos 4 meses. La prevalencia de infección por C. trachomatis reflejó una moderada circulación de este microorganismo en la población estudiada. Si bien algunos aspectos revelados en las encuestas sugieren una población de bajo riesgo para la adquisición de ITS en general, otros datos evidencian lo contrario y alertan sobre la necesidad de incrementar la vigilancia y desarrollar acciones de concienciación y prevención en esta población.

  6. Interaction of the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) with DNA and RNA causes repression of transcription and translation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, LB; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    The 18 kDa histone H1-like protein from Chlamydia trachomatis (Hc1) is a DNA-binding protein thought to be involved in condensation of the chlamydial chromosome during late stages in the chlamydial life cycle. Expression of Hc1 in Escherichia coli results in an overall relaxation of DNA and sever...... concentrations. These results were found to coincide with the formation of condensed Hc1-DNA and Hc1-RNA complexes as revealed by agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The implications of these results for possible functions of Hc1 in vivo are discussed....... and severely affects DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. We have analysed the interaction of Hc1 with single-stranded DNA and RNA by Southwestern and Northwestern blotting. Furthermore, we show that purified, recombinant Hc1 dramatically affects transcription and translation in vitro at physiologically relevant...

  7. Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection and upper genital tract pathological changes by vaccine-promoted neutralizing antibodies directed to the VD4 of the major outer membrane protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja W.; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin Susanne

    2015-01-01

    bacterial numbers in vagina and prevention of pathological changes in the upper genital tract. Adoptive transfer of serumand T-cell depletion experiments demonstrated a dominant role for antibodies and CD4+ T cells in the protective immune response. Integrating a multivalent VD4 construct into the sequence......The VD4 region from the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein contains important neutralizing B-cell epitopes of relevance for antibody-mediated protection against genital tract infection. We developed a multivalent vaccine construct based on VD4s and their surrounding constant...... segments from serovars D, E, and F. Adjuvanted with cationic liposomes, this construct promoted strong immune responses to serovar-specific epitopes, the conserved LNPTIAG epitope and neutralized serovars D, E, and F. Vaccinated mice were protected against challenge, with protection defined as reduced...

  8. Mapping of Chlamydia trachomatis proteins by immobiline-polyacrylamide two-dimensional electrophoresis: spot identification by N-terminal sequencing and immunoblotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bini, L; Sanchez-Campillo, M; Santucci, A

    1996-01-01

    Proteins from purified elementary bodies of Chlamydia trachomatis were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis on nonlinear wide-range immobilized pH gradients in the first dimension and polyacrylamide gradient gels in the second dimension. The maps obtained with this system are highly...... reproducible and resolve ca. 600 spots. By using immunoblot analysis with specific antibodies and/or N-terminal amino acid sequencing, we established the map positions of a number of described chlamydial proteins, such as the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) the 60 kDa cystein-rich outer membrane protein...... (OMP2), the DnaK-like, GroEL-like, and macrophage infectivity potentiator (MIP)-like proteins, the plasmid-encoded pgp3 protein, two ribosomal proteins (S1 and L7/L12), and the protein-elongation factor EF-Tu. Other proteins, for which gene assignment was not possible, have been identified by three...

  9. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis among outpatients in central Greece: absence of tetracycline resistance gene tet(M over a 4-year period study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ikonomidis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 301 men and women attending local urologists and gynaecologists in the state of Thessaly, central Greece, were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis DNA. Investigation of the tet(M gene, which confers tetracycline resistance in these genera, was also performed. Low incidence of C. trachomatis and Mycoplasma spp. as well as high prevalence of Ureaplasma spp., especially among women, were found. The tet(M gene was absent in all cases, notably in a region where doxycycline administration remains the first therapeutic option unless special medical conditions direct otherwise.

  10. [Diagnosis of chlamydia trachomatis infections in women: urinary PCR compared to cervical culture and PCR on cervical swabs in high risk females.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, J H; Davidsson, S; Karlsson, S M; Palsdottir, R; Steingrimsson, O

    1995-07-01

    Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women has traditionally depended on cell culture or enzyme linked immunoassay. Recently Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has been shown to be more sensitive than these methods when performed on endocervical swabs. A total of 203 high risk females were enrolled in a comparative study of three methods for diagnosing C. trachomatis infections: McCoy cell culture and Amplicor(R) PCR on endocervical swabs and urine. Thirty four had positive cultures, 38 positive PCR from cervix and 37 had positive PCR on urine specimens. When discrepancy occurred, the leftover Amplicor(R) specimen was retested by Roche with Amplicor(R) and a primer for the Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) gene. None was false positive in cell culture or in urinary PCR but two were false positive in cervical PCR. In all three tests, 32 were positive. The sensitivity of culture was 87%, 92% in cervical PCR and 95% in urinary PCR. The specificity was 100% in both culture and urinary PCR but 98% in cervical PCR. The results show that Amplicor(R) PCR performed on female urine is more sensitive and as specific as cell culture.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis ompA genotypes in male patients with urethritis in Greece: conservation of the serovar distribution and evidence for mixed infections with Chlamydophila abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarrakos, Panagiotis; Papadogeorgakis, Eleni; Sachse, Konrad; Vretou, Evangelia

    2011-08-01

    PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the ompA gene of Chlamydia trachomatis were used to determine the prevalence and distribution of genotypes in 51 urine and urethral specimens from Greek male patients with urethritis, that were positive by the COBAS Amplicor test. A single C. trachomatis serovar was identified in 43 of the 51 amplified samples. Serovars F and E were the most prevalent (both 12, 28%), followed by D (9, 21%), G (4, 9%), B and K (both 2, 5%) and H and J (both 1, 2%). Over one third of the samples bared a variant ompA genotype that had been previously identified in other areas worldwide. Two results in this study, both observed for the first time, were of particular interest. First, the emergence of the unique variant genotype D/Ep6 (X77364.2) identified in 3 urethral samples. Second, the ompA genotype OCLH196 of the animal pathogen Chlamydophila abortus as well as a 23S rRNA gene fragment of this species detected by the assay ArrayTube™ was found in 7 urethral samples. The implications resulting from this observation for the health of the general population are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Asociación de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis con el diagnóstico de cervicitis aguda

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    Angélica Lorena Castillo Gutiérrez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sra. Editora: Las infecciones de transmisión sexual se consideran un problema de salud pública en el mundo debido a su creciente incidencia y elevada morbimortalidad. Las infecciones por Chlamydia trachomatis son las más comunes y costosas de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual bacterianas. En los estudios llevados a cabo en diferentes países se han encontrado prevalencias de C. trachomatis entre 1.7% y 25%, siendo más alta en la población menor de 25 años. La infección por clamidia genital causa cervicitis y salpingitis en mujeres, y uretritis y conjuntivitis tanto en hombres como en mujeres. Sin embargo, las infecciones por clamidia suelen producir pocos o ningún síntoma (en aproximadamente el 70% de las mujeres y el 50% de los hombres y pueden permanecer sin ser detectadas y sin tratamiento. Si no se trata, esta infección de transmisión sexual puede progresar y causar complicaciones con graves consecuencias sobre la salud reproductiva de las mujeres, incluida la enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica (EPI que puede conducir al embarazo ectópico y a la infertilidad de las trompas.

  13. Identification of concomitant infection with Chlamydia trachomatis IncA-negative mutant and wild-type strains by genomic, transcriptional, and biological characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchland, Robert J; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Xia, Minsheng; Bhatia, Ajay; Chu, Hencelyn G; Rockey, Daniel D; Stamm, Walter E

    2008-12-01

    Clinical isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis that lack IncA on their inclusion membrane form nonfusogenic inclusions and have been associated with milder, subclinical infections in patients. The molecular events associated with the generation of IncA-negative strains and their roles in chlamydial sexually transmitted infections are not clear. We explored the biology of the IncA-negative strains by analyzing their genomic structure, transcription, and growth characteristics in vitro and in vivo in comparison with IncA-positive C. trachomatis strains. Three clinical samples were identified that contained a mixture of IncA-positive and -negative same-serovar C. trachomatis populations, and two more such pairs were found in serial isolates from persistently infected individuals. Genomic sequence analysis of individual strains from each of two serovar-matched pairs showed that these pairs were very similar genetically. In contrast, the genome sequence of an unmatched IncA-negative strain contained over 5,000 nucleotide polymorphisms relative to the genome sequence of a serovar-matched but otherwise unlinked strain. Transcriptional analysis, in vitro culture kinetics, and animal modeling demonstrated that IncA-negative strains isolated in the presence of a serovar-matched wild-type strain are phenotypically more similar to the wild-type strain than are IncA-negative strains isolated in the absence of a serovar-matched wild-type strain. These studies support a model suggesting that a change from an IncA-positive strain to the previously described IncA-negative phenotype may involve multiple steps, the first of which involves a translational inactivation of incA, associated with subsequent unidentified steps that lead to the observed decrease in transcript level, differences in growth rate, and differences in mouse infectivity.

  14. Quantitative culture of Chlamydia trachomatis: relationship of inclusion-forming units produced in culture to clinical manifestations and acute inflammation in urogenital disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, W M; Suchland, R J; Whittington, W L; Stamm, W E

    2001-11-15

    The relationship of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion-forming units in quantitative culture to clinical manifestations and inflammation in urogenital disease was assessed in 1179 patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. In women, greater inclusion-forming unit counts were associated with cervical mucopus (3000 vs. 450 ifu), amount and character of cervical discharge, > or =30 polymorphonuclear cells (PMNL) per high-power field (hpf) on Gram stain (2050 vs. 320 ifu), and diagnoses of mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC; 2550 vs. 300 ifu) and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID; 3000 vs. 578 ifu). In men, greater inclusion-forming unit counts were associated with urethral discharge (85 vs. 44 ifu), amount and character of discharge, and > or =10 PMNL/hpf (95 vs. 50 ifu). These associations persisted on multivariate analysis. Thus, chlamydial replication is associated with MPC and PID in women, urethritis in men, and inflammation in both. Since infections with high inclusion counts may be the most transmissible, identification and treatment of patients with these chlamydia-associated syndromes is important in control programs.

  15. Mass media as a population-level intervention tool for Chlamydia trachomatis screening: report of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, M Kim; Grimley, Diane M; Merchant, Jeanne S; Brown, Pernell R; Cecil, Heather; Hook, Edward W

    2002-07-01

    To determine the feasibility and affect of mass media use in a population-level intervention for chlamydia screening promotion. A population-level chlamydia intervention protocol was field tested. The intervention, targeting 15-25-year-old individuals, was designed to: (a) increase awareness of personal risk for chlamydial infection; (b) facilitate dissemination of chlamydia knowledge by use of a telephone hot line; and (c) promote care-seeking behavior (report for a chlamydia screening program). The intervention activities included: (a) mail outreach, (b) a television and radio campaign, (c) a prerecorded Check-It-Out chlamydia hot line, (d) a staffed chlamydia Options information line, and (e) a free confidential urine ligase chain reaction (LCR) test for chlamydia. Mass mailings were scheduled at intervals, starting two-weeks before the beginning of the television advertisement. The 30-second television advertisement was aired on local television stations 130 times in a 6-week period. The outcome measures were quantity and characteristics of incoming calls to the automated hot line and staffed chlamydia information phone line in response to the chlamydia campaign, and response to the urine screening program. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to evaluate the outcomes. The hot line was called 642 times during the monitoring period (November 1, 1999 to March 8, 2000), the majority (92%) during the 6 weeks of television advertisement, with an average of 99 calls per week, compared with an average of 9 calls per week after the commercial ended. Each bulk mailing was accompanied by a boost in the incoming hot line calls. The research staff triaged 133 calls to the "Options" phone line, 81% in the 6 weeks of the TV ad. The mean age of the 133 callers was 23.9 +/- 7.7 years (range 14-49 years). A majority called for screening information; 67% of callers were females and 84% of female callers were under age 26 years. Five percent of callers identified

  16. Prevalence of chlamydia infection using chlamydia antigen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background and Objectives: Tubal disease is often associated with persistent chlamydia trachomatis infection. The objective detection of this infection depends on tissue culture which is time consuming and expensive. Serologic techniques for chlamydia detection have been documented. While this may be rapid, ...

  17. Age and sex correlation of Chlamydia trachomatis infections evaluated by the culture technique and by an enzyme immunosorbent assay, IDEIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend

    1990-01-01

    tested by the tissue-culture technique, and the results were confirmed by the IDEIA (Boots-Celltech) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (EIA) for detection of C. trachomatis. The original smear was used for both culture and EIA. The EIA test was evaluated to have a sensitivity of 90...

  18. Antibody signature of spontaneous clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis ocular infection and partial resistance against re-challenge in a nonhuman primate trachoma model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo Kari

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of trachoma the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. Here, we investigate whether protracted clearance of a primary infection in nonhuman primates is attributable to antigenic variation or related to the maturation of the anti-chlamydial humoral immune response specific to chlamydial antigens.Genomic sequencing of organisms isolated throughout the protracted primary infection revealed that antigenic variation was not related to the inability of monkeys to efficiently resolve their infection. To explore the maturation of the humoral immune response as a possible reason for delayed clearance, sera were analyzed by radioimmunoprecipitation using intrinsically radio-labeled antigens prepared under non-denaturing conditions. Antibody recognition was restricted to the antigenically variable major outer membrane protein (MOMP and a few antigenically conserved antigens. Recognition of MOMP occurred early post-infection and correlated with reduction in infectious ocular burdens but not with infection eradication. In contrast, antibody recognition of conserved antigens, identified as PmpD, Hsp60, CPAF and Pgp3, appeared late and correlated with infection eradication. Partial immunity to re-challenge was associated with a discernible antibody recall response against all antigens. Antibody recognition of PmpD and CPAF was destroyed by heat treatment while MOMP and Pgp3 were partially affected, indicating that antibody specific to conformational epitopes on these proteins may be important to protective immunity.Our findings suggest that delayed clearance of chlamydial infection in NHP is not the result of antigenic variation but rather a consequence of the gradual maturation of the C. trachomatis antigen-specific humoral immune response. However, we cannot conclude that antibodies specific for these proteins play the primary role in host protective immunity as they could be surrogate markers of T cell

  19. Early screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in young women for primary prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease (i-Predict): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarelle, Jeanne; Thiébaut, Anne C M; Sabin, Bénédicte; Bébéar, Cécile; Judlin, Philippe; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Rahib, Delphine; Méaude-Roufai, Layidé; Ravel, Jacques; Morré, Servaas A; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Delarocque-Astagneau, Elisabeth

    2017-11-13

    Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection, especially among young women. Mostly asymptomatic, it can lead, if untreated, to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Recent data suggest that Ct infections are not controlled in France and in Europe. The effectiveness of a systematic strategy for Ct screening in under-25 women remains controversial. The main objective of the i-Predict trial (Prevention of Diseases Induced by Chlamydia trachomatis) is to determine whether early screening and treatment of 18- to-24-year-old women for genital Ct infection reduces the incidence of PID over 24 months. This is a randomised prevention trial including 4000 eighteen- to twenty-four-year-old sexually active female students enrolled at five universities. The participants will provide a self-collected vaginal swab sample and fill in an electronic questionnaire at baseline and at 6, 12 and 18 months after recruitment. Vaginal swabs in the intervention arm will be analysed immediately for Ct positivity, and participants will be referred for treatment if they have a positive test result. Vaginal swabs from the control arm will be analysed at the end of the study. All visits to general practitioners, gynaecologists or gynaecology emergency departments for pelvic pain or other gynaecological symptoms will be recorded to evaluate the incidence of PID, and all participants will attend a final visit in a hospital gynaecology department. The primary endpoint measure will be the incidence of PID over 24 months. The outcome status (confirmed, probable or no PID) will be assessed by two independent experts blinded to group assignment and Ct status. This trial is expected to largely contribute to the development of recommendations for Ct screening in young women in France to prevent PID and related complications. It is part of a comprehensive approach to gathering data to

  20. Analysis of laboratory testing results for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in an STI clinic in India: Need for extragenital screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazneen Arif

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Prevalence of extragenital Chlamydia is increasing in men as well as women. What needs to be stressed on is the sexual behaviour of an individual and not the sexual identity. Further studies are needed to help formulate guidelines and recommendations for extragenital screening in a population.

  1. Synthetic positive controls for ELISA test kits for detection of IgA and IgM antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Galkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is the most informative and versatile method of serological diagnostics. The possibility of detecting by ELISA specific antibodies of different classes allow to differentiate primary infectious process and its remission, exacerbation and chronic disease (holding of differential diagnosis. This approach is implemented in the methodology for evaluation of patients for presence of humoral immune response against the causative agent of urogenital chlamydiosis. As with other infections immediately after Chlamydia trachomatis infection the specific IgM antibodies are formed, and subsequently basic projective antibodies of IgG class are synthesized. However, at exacerbation of chronic urogenital chlamydiosis specific IgA antibodies can be synthesized. That is why comprehensive evaluation of patients for presence of humoral immune response to Ch. trachomatis involves plasma testing of specific antibodies of all three classes. The essential problem in the production of ELISA diagnostic kits is obtaining of positive control. The classic version of positive control is human blood plasma containing specific antibodies. But specific IgM- and IgA-positive sera are deficit raw materials. This fact can significantly limit the production of diagnostic kits, especially in case of large-scale manufacture. We have suggested methodological approach to use of synthetic positive controls in indirect ELISA kits based on conjugate of normal human IgM (IgA and monoclonal antibodies against major outer membrane protein of Ch. trachomatis. It was found that it’s possible to realize such task by means of NHS ester-maleimide-mediated conjugation (by sulfosuccinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethylcyclohexane-1-carboxylate and reductive amination-mediated conjugation (by sodium periodate. It was found that synthetic positive controls obtained by different methods are characterized by higher titer compared to IgM- and IgA-positive high

  2. Randomised controlled trial of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease: the POPI (prevention of pelvic infection) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakeshott, Pippa; Kerry, Sally; Aghaizu, Adamma; Atherton, Helen; Hay, Sima; Taylor-Robinson, David; Simms, Ian; Hay, Phillip

    2010-04-08

    To determine whether screening and treating women for chlamydial infection reduces the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease over the subsequent 12 months. Randomised controlled trial. Common rooms, lecture theatres, and student bars at universities and further education colleges in London. 2529 sexually active female students, mean age 21 years (range 16-27). Participants completed a questionnaire and provided self taken vaginal swabs, with follow-up after one year. Samples were randomly allocated to immediate testing and treatment for chlamydial infection, or storage and analysis after a year (deferred screening controls). Incidence of clinical pelvic inflammatory disease over 12 months. Baseline prevalence of chlamydia was 5.4% (68/1254) in screened women and 5.9% (75/1265) in controls. 94% (2377/2529) of women were followed up after 12 months. The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease was 1.3% (15/1191) in screened women compared with 1.9% (23/1186) in controls (relative risk 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 1.22). Seven of 74 control women (9.5%, 95% confidence interval 4.7% to 18.3%) who tested positive for chlamydial infection at baseline developed pelvic inflammatory disease over 12 months compared with one of 63 (1.6%) screened women (relative risk 0.17, 0.03 to 1.01). However, most episodes of pelvic inflammatory disease occurred in women who tested negative for chlamydia at baseline (79%, 30/38). 22% (527/2377) of women reported being tested independently for chlamydia during the trial. Although some evidence suggests that screening for chlamydia reduces rates of pelvic inflammatory disease, especially in women with chlamydial infection at baseline, the effectiveness of a single chlamydia test in preventing pelvic inflammatory disease over 12 months may have been overestimated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00115388.

  3. Ab initio structural modeling of and experimental validation for Chlamydia trachomatis protein CT296 reveal structural similarity to Fe(II) 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemege, Kyle E.; Hickey, John M.; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Zhang, Yang; Hefty, P. Scott (Michigan); (Kansas); (HWMRI)

    2012-02-13

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a medically important pathogen that encodes a relatively high percentage of proteins with unknown function. The three-dimensional structure of a protein can be very informative regarding the protein's functional characteristics; however, determining protein structures experimentally can be very challenging. Computational methods that model protein structures with sufficient accuracy to facilitate functional studies have had notable successes. To evaluate the accuracy and potential impact of computational protein structure modeling of hypothetical proteins encoded by Chlamydia, a successful computational method termed I-TASSER was utilized to model the three-dimensional structure of a hypothetical protein encoded by open reading frame (ORF) CT296. CT296 has been reported to exhibit functional properties of a divalent cation transcription repressor (DcrA), with similarity to the Escherichia coli iron-responsive transcriptional repressor, Fur. Unexpectedly, the I-TASSER model of CT296 exhibited no structural similarity to any DNA-interacting proteins or motifs. To validate the I-TASSER-generated model, the structure of CT296 was solved experimentally using X-ray crystallography. Impressively, the ab initio I-TASSER-generated model closely matched (2.72-{angstrom} C{alpha} root mean square deviation [RMSD]) the high-resolution (1.8-{angstrom}) crystal structure of CT296. Modeled and experimentally determined structures of CT296 share structural characteristics of non-heme Fe(II) 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes, although key enzymatic residues are not conserved, suggesting a unique biochemical process is likely associated with CT296 function. Additionally, functional analyses did not support prior reports that CT296 has properties shared with divalent cation repressors such as Fur.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and associated risk factors in a low-income marginalized urban population in coastal Peru Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y factores de riesgo asociados en una población marginal urbana de bajos ingresos de la costa peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo R. León

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection prevalence and associated risk factors among a low-income marginalized urban population in Peru. METHODS: Between April 2003 and April 2005, men and women at high-risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs were recruited from low-income urban areas in three coastal cities in Peru (Chiclayo, Lima, and Trujillo. Consenting participants were studied using a sero-epidemiologic survey. Urine and vaginal swabs collected from men and women were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR (COBAS® AMPLICOR (CT/NG Test, Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Branchburg, NJ, USA for CT. RESULTS: Among the 2 440 participants recruited for the study (2 145 men and 295 women, overall prevalence of CT infection was 6.6% (95% CI, 5.6-7.6%: 5.5% (95% CI, 4.5-6.5% in men and 14.9% (95% CI, 11.7-27.1% in women. Chlamydial infection was inversely associated with age and positively associated with HIV infection and dysuria in men. Among women, chlamydial infection was inversely associated with age and positively associated with number of sex partners. CONCLUSIONS: CT infection was common among high-risk men and women in urban coastal Peru. Because chlamydial infection is associated with complications related to female reproduction, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, interventions to prevent and treat infection and studies to determine the feasibility of population-based screening for CT should be conducted among the high-risk female population.OBJETIVOS: Estimar la prevalencia de la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y los factores de riesgo asociados en una población marginal urbana de bajos ingresos de Perú. MÉTODOS: Entre abril de 2003 y abril de 2005 se captaron hombres y mujeres con alto riesgo de contraer infecciones de transmisión sexual, en áreas urbanas de bajos ingresos de tres ciudades costeras de Perú (Chiclayo, Lima y Trujillo. Los participantes que aceptaron colaborar

  5. Prevalence of asymptomatic urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and associated risk factors among males living with HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives The increase in HIV transmissibility in non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infection is already well-established. It is estimated that symptomatic carriers of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis have a relative risk of 4.8-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively, for the sexual acquisition of HIV. This type of evaluation for asymptomatic urethritis is necessary to reinforce strategies to combat HIV transmission. This study aims to assess the prevalence of patients with asymptomatic urethritis among men diagnosed with HIV-1 and determine the risk factors associated with this infection. Methods We enrolled a total of 115 male patients aged 18 years or older who have been diagnosed with HIV infection and have no symptoms of urethritis or other sexually transmitted infections and who have been evaluated between May and August 2015 in a follow-up visit at the Immunology Outpatient Clinic of a Brazilian University Hospital. Results Four asymptomatic patients were positive for C. trachomatis and were considered asymptomatic carriers of urethritis. Prevalence was 3.47%. Patients who were positive for C. trachomatis urethritis had a lower mean age (p = 0.015. Conclusion The presence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection is a challenge in clinical practice. We recommend that, in outpatient practice, the habit of inquiring on previous sexual behavior to obtain more information about risks and associations with asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection, a routine physical examination and complementary tests to detect STI pathogens should be performed to discard these conditions. The development of rapid tests for this purpose should also be encouraged.

  6. Prevalence of asymptomatic urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and associated risk factors among males living with HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da; Motta, Heloisa Loureiro de Sá Neves; Souza, Erik Friedrich Alex de; Cardoso, Pedro Afonso Nogueira Moises; Pilotto, José Henrique; Eyer-Silva, Walter Araujo; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio Pereira; Santos, Mônica Soares Dos; Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes de; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida

    2018-03-08

    The increase in HIV transmissibility in non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infection is already well-established. It is estimated that symptomatic carriers of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis have a relative risk of 4.8-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively, for the sexual acquisition of HIV. This type of evaluation for asymptomatic urethritis is necessary to reinforce strategies to combat HIV transmission. This study aims to assess the prevalence of patients with asymptomatic urethritis among men diagnosed with HIV-1 and determine the risk factors associated with this infection. We enrolled a total of 115 male patients aged 18 years or older who have been diagnosed with HIV infection and have no symptoms of urethritis or other sexually transmitted infections and who have been evaluated between May and August 2015 in a follow-up visit at the Immunology Outpatient Clinic of a Brazilian University Hospital. Four asymptomatic patients were positive for C. trachomatis and were considered asymptomatic carriers of urethritis. Prevalence was 3.47%. Patients who were positive for C. trachomatis urethritis had a lower mean age (p = 0.015). The presence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection is a challenge in clinical practice. We recommend that, in outpatient practice, the habit of inquiring on previous sexual behavior to obtain more information about risks and associations with asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection, a routine physical examination and complementary tests to detect STI pathogens should be performed to discard these conditions. The development of rapid tests for this purpose should also be encouraged.

  7. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sexually transmitted disease clinic: comparison of diagnostic tests with clinical and historical risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G P; Harrison, H R; Berman, S M; Keenlyside, R A

    1988-01-01

    Of 212 consecutive male patients and 212 consecutive female patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, 36 (17%) men and 28 (13%) women had urethral or cervical cultures positive for Chlamydia trachomatis. When compared with culture, the direct fluorescent antibody test (MicroTrak, Syva Co., Palo Alto, CA) had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 97% in men; for women the sensitivity and specificity were 68% and 82%, respectively. One percent of test slides from men and 11% of slides from women were uninterpretable. Designation of high-risk patients for presumptive treatment, i.e., those with suggestive clinical syndromes, gonococcal infection, or exposure to others considered at high risk for chlamydial infection, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control, proved to be 94% sensitive, 22% specific in men, and 82% sensitive, 35% specific in women when compared with results of culture. Three different screening methods using mucopurulent cervicitis, a cervicitis score, and a series of key risk factors were less sensitive than presumptive treatment and performed worse in our study than in those published previously. Our findings suggest that use of presumptive treatment guidelines appears to be effective in directing treatment to STD clinic patients with chlamydial infection.

  8. Duration of polymerase chain reaction-detectable DNA after treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James A; Ofner, Susan; Batteiger, Byron E; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    To avoid positive results attributable to residual DNA, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends avoiding repeat testing with nucleic-acid based tests within 3 weeks after treatment of chlamydial (Chlamydia trachomatis [CT]) or gonococcal (Neisseria gonorrhoeae [GC]) infection. We retrospectively analyzed the duration of detectable DNA from a longitudinal cohort of adolescent women after diagnosis and treatment of infection with CT, GC, or Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Vaginal swabs were obtained weekly from young women for up to 12 weeks (observation period) after treatment of CT, GC and TV infections. Swabs were tested using a commercially available first generation nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for CT and GC, and a laboratory developed NAAT for TV. Kaplan-Meier statistics were used to estimate median time to the first negative DNA-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result. Observation periods were available for analysis for 195, 82 and 102 treatments for CT, GC, and TV infection, respectively. Median time to a first negative PCR result for CT, GC, and TV was 9 (range 0-84), 6 (0-76), and 7 (0-84) days, and by day 21, 89%, 95%, and 85% were negative, respectively. Data from this retrospective analysis indicate that greater than 85% of these young women did not have detectable CT, GC, or TV DNA by day 21 post-treatment. This data may be useful to clinicians for patient management and post-treatment testing purposes.

  9. In vitro inactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis and of a panel of DNA (HSV-2, CMV, adenovirus, BK virus) and RNA (RSV, enterovirus) viruses by the spermicide benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélec, L; Tevi-Benissan, C; Bianchi, A; Cotigny, S; Beumont-Mauviel, M; Si-Mohamed, A; Malkin, J E

    2000-11-01

    Kinetics of inactivation by the detergent spermicide benzalkonium chloride (BZK) of Chlamydia trachomatis and of a panel of DNA viruses [herpes simplex virus hominis type 2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), adenovirus (ADV) and BK virus (BKV)] and RNA [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and enterovirus (ENV)] were established in accordance with a standardized in vitro protocol. After a 5 min incubation, inactivation of >95% of HSV-2 and CMV was obtained at a concentration of 0.0025% (w/v) (25 Ig/L); concentrations as low as 0.0005%, 0.0050% and 0.0125%, induced a 3.0 log10 reduction in infectivity of HSV-2 and CMV, RSV and ADV, respectively. After a 60 min incubation, concentrations of 0.0125% and 0.050% provided a 3.0 log10 reduction in infectivity of ENV and BKV, respectively. These features indicate that sensitivity to BZK was very high (HSV-2 and CMV) or high (RSV) for enveloped viruses, intermediate (ADV) or low (ENV and BKV) for non-enveloped viruses. Furthermore, BZK had marked antichlamydial activity, showing >99% killing after only a 1 min incubation at a concentration of 0.00125%. BZK demonstrates potent in vitro activity against the majority of microorganisms causing sexually transmitted infectious diseases, including those acting as major genital cofactors of human immunodeficiency virus transmission. These attributes qualify BZK as a particularly attractive candidate for microbicide development.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis infection positivity rates determined by nucleic acid amplification test in patients of hospitals in the northeastern region of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozorov, Alexei; Fedets, Olga; Chastii, Tatjana; Milutina, Elena; Sokol, Oksana; Grigorova, Ritsa; Unuchko, Sergey

    2017-12-01

    There are no accurate data regarding the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Ukraine. This study aims to estimate the prevalence in the northeastern region of the country through reviewing nucleic acid amplification test results in patients of medical institutions in the Kharkov region during 2014-2016. Samples from 6920 patients (5028 women and 1892 men) aged 12-76 years were tested. The overall positivity rate was 4.5% (95% CI 4.0-5.0): 3.9% (95% CI 3.4-4.5) in women and 6.1% (95% CI 5.1-7.3) in men. The highest prevalence was found in the 16-20 (8.5%, CI 6.3-11.4) and 21-25 (8.0%, CI 6.7-9.4) year age groups. The prevalence in men was higher than in women in all investigated groups. The results show the need for more attention to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chlamydial infection in these age groups of women and men in this region.

  11. Gardnerella, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the genital discharge of symptomatic fertile and asymptomatic infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, Erminia; Ferrario, Antonella; Morenghi, Emanuela; Montanelli, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the different prevalence of the microorganisms investigated in the two groups considered: fertile women with symptoms and asymptomatic women with infertility problems. The data from women (n= 952) investigated for two years for quality of genital discharge and the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida species, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyiticum and Chlamydia trachomatis were retrospectively analyzed. In the population of fertile women with symptoms the microrganisms most frequently involved are Gardnerella vaginalis (26.6%), Candida species (12.1%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (9.2%). The genital discharges of asymptomatic women with infertility problems are characterized by a prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis (19.7%), Enterobacteriaceae or Enterococci (12.1%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (8.6%). The reduction of vaginal lactobacilli flora and the presence of an elevated number of polymorphonucleates in the vaginal discharge are important parameters to consider for the evaluation of the health status of the human female urogenital tract. Our results indicate that is important to culture the vaginal discharge for Streptococcus agalactiae and for prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococci. Lastly, the reasons for the prevalence of some microorganisms (Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococci, Streptococcus agalactiae) in the population of infertile asymptomatic women need to be better analyzed especially after the recent studies correlating idiopathic infertility with the presence of cervical cytokines in women with an abnormal vaginal flora.

  12. Multi Locus Sequence Typing of Chlamydia Reveals an Association between Chlamydia psittaci Genotypes and Host Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Y.; Dickx, V.; Beeckman, D.S.A.; Jolley, K.A.; Keijzers, W.C.; Vretou, E.; Maiden, M.C.J.; Vanrompay, D.; van den Ende, A.

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity.

  13. Effects of interferon gamma on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A and L2 protein expression investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1999-01-01

    ]methionine and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradients in order to investigate changes in the protein expression of C. trachomatis serovar A and L2 caused by treatment with IFN-gamma. In contrast to what was observed in C. trachomatis L2, our results showed that, in C. trachomatis A, down...

  14. prevalence of genital chlamydia and gonococcal infec

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonor- rhoeae, at-risk women, Kumasi metropolis. INTRODUCTION. Chlamydia trachomatis is a small obligate intracellular bacterium transmitted by sexual intercourse. It is a cause of endocervicitis and also pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women.1,2,3 Chlamydial infection ...

  15. Chlamyweb Study II: a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an online offer of home-based Chlamydia trachomatis sampling in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersaudy-Rahib, Delphine; Lydié, Nathalie; Leroy, Chloé; March, Laura; Bébéar, Cécile; Arwidson, Pierre; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2017-05-01

    The number of cases of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) diagnosed has increased in the past 15 years in France as well as in other European countries. This paper reports a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate whether the offer of home-based testing over the internet increased the number of young people tested for chlamydia compared with the current testing strategy and to estimate the number and risks factors of the infected population. This RCT took place as an element of the Chlamyweb Study-a study aiming to evaluate an intervention (the Chlamyweb Intervention) involving the offer of a free self-sampling kit online to sexually active men and women aged 18-24 years in France. Participants in the Chlamyweb RCT (n=11 075) received either an offer of a free self-sampling kit (intervention group) or were invited to be screened in primary care settings (control group). Risks ratios were used to compare screening rates between the intervention and control groups. Risk factors were analysed for infected people in the intervention group. The screening frequency was about three times higher among young people who received a self-sampling kit than those who only received a tailored recommendation to be screened (29.2% vs 8.7%). Although rates of screening among men were lower than among women (23.9% vs 33.9%), the intervention effect was greater among men (adjusted risk ratios (aRR)=4.55 vs aRR=2.94). Ct positivity (6.8%) was similar to that observed in STI clinics. It was higher in women (8.3%) than in men (4.4%). These results invite us to consider the establishment of a large home-based screening programme, although additional studies including economic assessments are needed to evaluate the most appropriate combination of strategies in the French context. AFFSAPS n° IDRCB 0211-A01000-41; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis-DNA in synovial fluid: evaluation of the sensitivity of different DNA extraction methods and amplification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freise, Julia; Bernau, Iris; Meier, Sabine; Zeidler, Henning; Kuipers, Jens G

    2009-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligase chain reaction (LCR) are used in research for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. tr.) in synovial fluid (SF). However there is no standardized system for diagnostic use in clinical practice, therefore this study aimed at determining the molecular biology method best suited to detect C. tr. from SF. SF samples were spiked with C. tr. elementary bodies (EB) and human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMo) persistently infected with C. tr. in vitro to evaluate the sensitivity of different molecular biology methods and assays. Five different DNA-extraction methods were tested: 1) Alkaline lysis, 2) QIAex II Gel Extraction Kit+ CTAB, 3) Chelex-extraction, 4) QIAmp Tissue Kit and 5) QIAmp DNA Stool Kit. All DNA extracts were subjected to 5 different DNA amplification systems to detect C. tr.- DNA in the spiked SF samples: two C. tr. -omp1-- directed PCR, one C. tr.-plasmid-PCR, one C. tr. -16s RNA directed PCR, and one commercially available LCR (LCX), Abbott laboratories). In SF samples spiked with C. tr.-EB and with C. tr.-PBMo, alkaline lysis, detecting 1 C. tr.-EB/ml SF, 0,1 C. tr.-PBMo/ml SF and QIAmp gel extraction kit+ CTAB detecting 0,1 C. tr. -EB/ml SF, 1 C. tr.-PBMo/ml, respectively, allowed most sensitive detection of the organism in combination with the C. tr.- omp1-(152 bp) PCR. Sensitivity decreased in all methods after storage of the DNA of C. tr.- dilution series at -20 degrees C for 4 months by at least one log phase. The sensitivity to detect C. tr.- DNA from SF is highly dependent on the DNA extraction method and the detection system applied. Alkaline lysis as well as the QIAmp Gel extraction kit + CTAB in combination with C. tr.- omp1 - (152 bp) PCR evolved as the most sensitive methods to identify C. tr. in serial dilutions.

  17. DNA plasmid vaccine carrying Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) major outer membrane and human papillomavirus 16L2 proteins for anti-Ct infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ledan; Cai, Yiqi; Xiong, Yirong; Du, Wangqi; Cen, Danwei; Zhang, Chanqiong; Song, Yiling; Zhu, Shanli; Xue, Xiangyang; Zhang, Lifang

    2017-05-16

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is one of the most frequently encountered sexual infection all over the world, yielding tremendous reproductive problems (e.g. infertility and ectopic pregnancy) in the women. This work described the design of a plasmid vaccine that protect mice from Ct infection, and reduce productive tract damage by generating effective antibody and cytotoxic T cell immunity. The vaccine, s was composed of MOMP multi-epitope and HPV16L2 genes carried in pcDNA plasmid (i.e. pcDNA3.1/MOMP/HPV16L). In transfection, the vaccine expressed the chimeric genes (i.e. MOMP and HPV16L2), as demonstrated via western blot, RT-PCR and fluorescence imaging. In vitro, the vaccine transfected COS-7 cells and expressed the proteins corresponding to the genes carried in the vaccine. Through intramuscular immunization in BALB/c mice, the vaccine induced higher levels of anti-Ct IgG titer, anti-HPV16L2 IgG titer in serum and IgA titer in local mucosal secretions, compared to plasmid vaccines that carry only Ct MOMP multi-epitope or HPV16L2 chimeric component only. In mice intravaginally challenged with Ct, the vaccines pcDNA3.1/MOMP/HPV16L2 generated a higher level of genital protection compared to other vaccine formulations. Additionally, histochemical staining indicated that pcDNA3.1/MOMP/HPV16L2 eliminated mouse genital tract tissue pathologies induced by Ct infection. This work demonstrated that pcDNA/MOMP/HPV16L2 vaccine can protect against Ct infection by regulating antibody production, cytotoxic T cell killing functions and reducing pathological damage in mice genital tract. This work can potentially offer us a new vaccine platform against Ct infection.

  18. Population-based genetic epidemiologic analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes and lack of association between ompA polymorphisms and clinical phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Kim; Black, Carolyn M; Stamm, Walter E; Jones, Robert B; Hook, Edward W; Martin, David H; Bolan, Gail; Tavaré, Simon; Dean, Deborah

    2006-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Urogenital strains are classified into serotypes and genotypes based on the major outer membrane protein and its gene, ompA, respectively. Studies of the association of serotypes with clinical signs and symptoms have produced conflicting results while no studies have evaluated associations with ompA polymorphisms. We designed a population-based cross-sectional study of 344 men and women with urogenital chlamydial infections (excluding co-pathogen infections) presenting to clinics serving five U.S. cities from 1995 to 1997. Signs, symptoms and sequelae of chlamydial infection (mucopurulent cervicitis, vaginal or urethral discharge; dysuria; lower abdominal pain; abnormal vaginal bleeding; and pelvic inflammatory disease) were analyzed for associations with serotype and ompA polymorphisms. One hundred and fifty-three (44.5%) of 344 patients had symptoms consistent with urogenital chlamydial infection. Gender, reason for visit and city were significant independent predictors of symptom status. Men were 2.2 times more likely than women to report any symptoms (P=0.03) and 2.8 times more likely to report a urethral discharge than women were to report a vaginal discharge in adjusted analyses (P=0.007). Differences in serotype or ompA were not predictive except for an association between serotype F and pelvic inflammatory disease (P=0.046); however, the number of these cases was small. While there was no clinically prognostic value associated with serotype or ompA polymorphism for urogenital chlamydial infections except for serotype F, future studies might utilize multilocus genomic typing to identify chlamydial strains associated with clinical phenotypes.

  19. Comparison of M4 and M4RT media for transporting cervical swab samples for PCR detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Jones, Mathew

    2002-01-01

    In a prospective study, M4RT medium was compared to the traditional M4 medium to transport cervical swab specimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae/Chlamydia trachomatis (NG/CT) PCR testing using the Roche COBAS Amplicor. Two cervical swab samples were collected from 270 consecutive patients screened for NG/CT in a satellite facility. The swabs were placed individually in M4RT and M4 medium and were immediately refrigerated, transported to the laboratory on wet ice, and stored at 2 to 8 degrees C until the PCR testing was performed within 7 da of collection. Seven of the cervical swab samples transported in M4 or M4RT were PCR positive for CT. Two additional samples transported in M4RT and a third swab transported in M4 were CT PCR positive. These samples were PCR negative in the alternative medium. Similarly, 12 of the cervical swabs transported in M4 or M4RT were NG PCR positive. Three additional swabs transported in M4 media were NG PCR positive. Initially, 2 of these samples when transported in M4RT were NG PCR equivocal and were considered NG PCR positive on repeat testing. Similarly, 2 additional swab samples transported in M4 RT media were NG PCR positive. These samples, when transported in M4 media, were NG PCR equivocal or negative. However, on repeat testing the equivocal sample was considered NG PCR positive. We conclude M4 and M4RT transport media are equally reliable for transporting cervical swab samples for NG/CT PCR testing. M4RT medium is more convenient to use, as it did not require refrigeration until it was inoculated with the clinical sample.

  20. Prevalência de Chlamydia trachomathis em amostras endocervicais de mulheres em São Paulo e Santa Catarina pela PCR Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical samples by PCR in São Paulo and Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Edgar Herkenhoff

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Nenhuma outra doença sexualmente transmissível (DST tem mostrado frequência tão elevada quanto a infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis (CT. É frequente a detecção de mulheres portadoras de danos tubários causados por esse agente, determinando infertilidade permanente e as intervenções cirúrgicas não têm demonstrado sucesso em reparar esses danos. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR se mostrou mais sensível do que a cultura para a identificação de CT, principalmente em cervicite clamidiana nas mulheres. A PCR promove a detecção de sequências específicas de nucleotídeos para a CT. OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência de infecções causadas pela CT em mulheres nos estados de São Paulo e Santa Catarina utilizando amostras endocervicais. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS Utilizaram-se para o presente trabalho amostras enviadas pelos laboratórios conveniados ao Genolab, pertencentes aos estados de São Paulo e de Santa Catarina. Foram consultados os resultados dos laudos de exames para CT oriundos do banco de dados do Genolab no ano de 2010. Para a obtenção e o isolamento do ácido desoxirribonucleico (DNA, utilizou-se a técnica de fenol-clorofórmio e para a amplificação do material genético, a técnica de PCR. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se uma amostra de 287 indivíduos, e desse total 56,45% das mulheres eram positivas. A amostra que obteve o maior número de positivos foi o swab endocervical, com 75%. CONCLUSÃO: As amostras biológicas provenientes do endocérvix apresentaram detecção eficiente da CT na população feminina. A alta prevalência salienta a importância no emprego do diagnóstico molecular, principalmente por este trabalho apontar esse aspecto.INTRODUCTION: No other sexually transmitted disease (STD has been as frequent as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection. Tubal damage caused by this agent has been frequently detected among women. This infection causes permanent infertility. Furthermore, surgical

  1. [Chlamydiae. 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piano, M; Nicosia, R; Pustorino, R; Santino, I; Sessa, R

    1989-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom the Chlamydiae are among the most common and ancient pathogens, but only in the 1966 they were classified by Page in the same genus because of different nosological pictures that they cause, while more recently were identified as bacteria. Chlamydiae have been divided into two species: C. trachomatis and C. psittaci. In 1986 Grayston et al. proved the etiological role of a "new chlamydial strain", named TWAR (Taiwan-Acute Respiratory), in human pneumonia and bronchitis; TWAR is distinguishable from other Chlamydiae and possibly represents a new entity. The Chlamydiae are non-motile, metabolically poor bacteria, completely lacking of any enzimatic system for energy production (ATP) and for this reason are obligate intracellular parasites; they poses group-specific, species-specific and type-specific antigens. Four series of surface proteins were identified as responsible for their pathogenic properties, while many Authors consider a particular lipopolysaccharidical acid, group antigen, as a real LPS. These bacteria poses an unique developmental cycle with production of two type of particles different for metabolic and infecting characters: elementary body and reticulate body. The Chlamydiae have a broad spectrum of host. They cause persistent or chronic infections and their survival is insured by the elementary body. The Chlamydiae stimulate the humoral and the cellular-mediate immunity system and are capable of survival in the monocytes and macrophages.

  2. Detailed molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis in the population of Southampton attending the genitourinary medicine clinic in 2012-13 reveals the presence of long established genotypes and transitory sexual networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiran, Clare; Rowen, David; Clarke, Ian Nicholas; Marsh, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in England. Our objective was to perform a detailed survey of the molecular epidemiology of C. trachomatis in the population of Southampton UK attending the genitourinary medicine clinic (GUM) to seek evidence of sexual network activity. Our hypothesis was that certain genotypes can be associated with specific demographic determinants. 380 positive samples were collected from 375 C. trachomatis positive GUM attendees out of the 3118 who consented to be part of the survey. 302 of the positive samples were fully genotyped. All six of the predominant genotypes possessed ompA locus type E. One ward of Southampton known to contain a large proportion of students had a different profile of genotypes compared to other areas of the city. Some genotypes appeared embedded in the city population whilst others appeared transient. Predominant circulating genotypes remain stable within a city population whereas others are sporadic. Sexual networks could be inferred but not conclusively identified using the data from this survey.

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody Testing in Vaginal Mucosal Material versus Blood Samples of Women Attending a Fertility Clinic and an STI Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; Land, Jolande A.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Morré, Servaas A.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia infections often follow an asymptomatic course but may damage the reproductive tract. Chlamydia antibodies in serum are used as markers for past infections and can relate to tubal pathology and infertility. This "proof of principle" study aimed to assess whether Chlamydia

  4. Design and results of the USA-Mexico Border Human Papillomavirus (HPV, Cervical Dysplasia, and Chlamydia trachomatis Study Diseño y resultados del estudio sobre los papilomavirus humanos (PVH, la displasia cervical y Chlamydia trachomatis en la frontera de Estados Unidos y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Giuliano

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mexico has one of the highest mortality rates of invasive cervical cancer in the world. This is particularly true for the states in northern Mexico that border on the United States of America. In addition, Hispanics in the United States have higher rates than do non-Hispanics in the country. Therefore, a binational team was formed to focus on this problem and to determine the risk factors and prevalence of cervical dysplasia and human papillomavirus (HPV infection, the sexually transmitted disease (STD known to cause cervical cancer. Chlamydia trachomatis infection, a common STD and potential HPV cofactor, was also assessed. Methods. Research was conducted in 1997 and 1998 in the border region of two states, Arizona in the United States and Sonora in Mexico, applying a cross-sectional study of women attending clinics for routine gynecologic care. Clinical measurements included Pap smears, HPV infection by both polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Hybrid Capture (HC, and C. trachomatis status by HC and enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA. A total of 2 436 women were enrolled (mean age 33.3 years ± 10.3 years. Results. The overall prevalence of abnormal cytology was 9.3%, with a significant difference in the prevalence in Mexico (11.4% vs. the United States (6.6%. Of the participants, 14.5% of them tested positive for HPV by PCR, with no significant difference between the two countries, in spite of a lower behavioral risk profile for the Mexican women. Overall prevalence of C. trachomatis was found to be greater by HC than by EIA (8.2% vs. 3.0%, and in Mexico higher by both methods. Conclusions. An important accomplishment of the project was the implementation of a quality control program for Pap smear collection, which resulted in a significant reduction in inadequate smears in Mexico. Despite numerous potential logistical barriers, the binational team successfully conducted a large-scale study in the border area and developed an

  5. Clinical signs of trachoma are prevalent among Solomon Islanders who have no persistent markers of prior infection with Chlamydia trachomatis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Robert Butcher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The low population-prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis and high prevalence of trachomatous inflammation–follicular (TF provide contradictory estimates of the magnitude of the public health threat from trachoma in the Solomon Islands. Improved characterisation of the biology of trachoma in the region may support policy makers as they decide what interventions are required. Here, age-specific profiles of anti-Pgp3 antibodies and conjunctival scarring were examined to determine whether there is evidence of ongoing transmission and pathology from ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct infection. Methods: A total of 1511 individuals aged ≥1 year were enrolled from randomly selected households in 13 villages in which >10% of children aged 1–9 years had TF prior to a single round of azithromycin mass drug administration undertaken six months previously. Blood was collected to be screened for antibodies to the Ct antigen Pgp3. Tarsal conjunctival photographs were collected for analysis of scarring severity. Results: Anti-Pgp3 seropositivity was 18% in 1–9 year olds, sharply increasing around the age of sexual debut to reach 69% in those over 25 years. Anti-Pgp3 seropositivity did not increase significantly between the ages of 1–9 years and was not associated with TF (p=0.581 or scarring in children (p=0.472. Conjunctival scars were visible in 13.1% of photographs. Mild (p<0.0001 but not severe (p=0.149 scars increased in prevalence with age. Conclusions: Neither conjunctival scars nor lymphoid follicles were associated with antibodies to Ct, suggesting that they are unlikely to be a direct result of ocular Ct infection. Clinical signs of trachoma were prevalent in this population but were not indicative of the underlying rates of Ct infection. The current World Health Organization guidelines for trachoma elimination indicated that this population should receive intervention with mass distribution of antibiotics, but the data

  6. Evidence That the [beta] Subunit of Chlamydia trachomatis Ribonucleotide Reductase Is Active with the Manganese Ion of Its Manganese(IV)/Iron(III) Cofactor in Site 1

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    Dassama, Laura M.K.; Boal, Amie K.; Krebs, Carsten; Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Bollinger, Jr., J. Martin (NWU); (Penn)

    2014-10-02

    The reaction of a class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) begins when a cofactor in the {beta} subunit oxidizes a cysteine residue {approx}35 {angstrom} away in the {alpha} subunit, generating a thiyl radical. In the class Ic enzyme from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), the cysteine oxidant is the Mn{sup IV} ion of a Mn{sup IV}/Fe{sup III} cluster, which assembles in a reaction between O{sub 2} and the Mn{sup II}/Fe{sup II} complex of {beta}. The heterodinuclear nature of the cofactor raises the question of which site, 1 or 2, contains the Mn{sup IV} ion. Because site 1 is closer to the conserved location of the cysteine-oxidizing tyrosyl radical of class Ia and Ib RNRs, we suggested that the Mn{sup IV} ion most likely resides in this site (i.e., {sup 1}Mn{sup IV}/{sup 2}Fe{sup III}), but a subsequent computational study favored its occupation of site 2 ({sup 1}Fe{sup III}/{sup 2}Mn{sup IV}). In this work, we have sought to resolve the location of the Mn{sup IV} ion in Ct RNR-{beta} by correlating X-ray crystallographic anomalous scattering intensities with catalytic activity for samples of the protein reconstituted in vitro by two different procedures. In samples containing primarily Mn{sup IV}/Fe{sup III} clusters, Mn preferentially occupies site 1, but some anomalous scattering from site 2 is observed, implying that both {sup 1}Mn{sup II}/{sup 2}Fe{sup II} and {sup 1}Fe{sup II}/{sup 2}Mn{sup II} complexes are competent to react with O{sub 2} to produce the corresponding oxidized states. However, with diminished Mn{sup II} loading in the reconstitution, there is no evidence for Mn occupancy of site 2, and the greater activity of these 'low-Mn' samples on a per-Mn basis implies that the {sup 1}Mn{sup IV}/{sup 2}Fe{sup III}-{beta} is at least the more active of the two oxidized forms and may be the only active form.

  7. Low Prevalence of Conjunctival Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in a Treatment-Naïve Trachoma-Endemic Region of the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Robert M. R.; Sokana, Oliver; Jack, Kelvin; Macleod, Colin K.; Marks, Michael E.; Kalae, Eric; Sui, Leslie; Russell, Charles; Tutill, Helena J.; Williams, Rachel J.; Breuer, Judith; Willis, Rebecca; Le Mesurier, Richard T.; Mabey, David C. W.; Solomon, Anthony W.; Roberts, Chrissy h.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is endemic in several Pacific Island states. Recent surveys across the Solomon Islands indicated that whilst trachomatous inflammation—follicular (TF) was present at levels warranting intervention, the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was low. We set out to determine the relationship between chlamydial infection and trachoma in this population. Methods We conducted a population-based trachoma prevalence survey of 3674 individuals from two Solomon Islands provinces. Participants were examined for clinical signs of trachoma. Conjunctival swabs were collected from all children aged 1–9 years. We tested swabs for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) DNA using droplet digital PCR. Chlamydial DNA from positive swabs was enriched and sequenced for use in phylogenetic analysis. Results We observed a moderate prevalence of TF in children aged 1–9 years (n = 296/1135, 26.1%) but low prevalence of trachomatous inflammation—intense (TI) (n = 2/1135, 0.2%) and current Ct infection (n = 13/1002, 1.3%) in children aged 1–9 years, and TT in those aged 15+ years (n = 2/2061, 0.1%). Ten of 13 (76.9%) cases of infection were in persons with TF or TI (p = 0.0005). Sequence analysis of the Ct-positive samples yielded 5/13 (38%) complete (>95% coverage of reference) genome sequences, and 8/13 complete plasmid sequences. Complete sequences all aligned most closely to ocular serovar reference strains. Discussion The low prevalence of TT, TI and Ct infection that we observed are incongruent with the high proportion of children exhibiting signs of TF. TF is present at levels that apparently warrant intervention, but the scarcity of other signs of trachoma indicates the phenotype is mild and may not pose a significant public health threat. Our data suggest that, whilst conjunctival Ct infection appears to be present in the region, it is present at levels that are unlikely to be the dominant driving force for TF in the population. This could be one reason for the

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes in Men Who Have Sex with Men and Men Who Have Sex with Women Using Multilocus VNTR Analysis-ompA Typing in Guangzhou, China.

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    Xiaolin Qin

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in China. Although C. trachomatis genotypes can be discriminated by outer membrane protein gene (ompA sequencing, currently available methods have limited resolutions. This study used a high-resolution genotyping method, namely, multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis with ompA sequencing (MLVA-ompA, to investigate the local epidemiology of C. trachomatis infections among men who have sex with men (MSM and men who have sex with women (MSW attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD clinic in Guangzhou, China.Rectal specimens from MSM and urethral specimens from MSW were collected between January 2013 and July 2014 at the Guangdong Provincial Center STD clinic. The specimens were sent to the laboratory for analyses. All specimens that were tested positive for C. trachomatis by the commercial nucleic acid amplification tests were genotyped by MLVA-ompA.Fifty-one rectal specimens from MSM and 96 urethral specimens from MSW were identified with C. trachomatis. One hundred and forty-four of the 147 specimens were fully genotyped by MLVA-ompA. Rectal specimens from MSM were divided into four ompA genotypes and urethral specimens from MSW into nine genotypes. No mixed infections were found among all specimens. The most frequent genotypes were D, G, J, E and F. All specimens were further divided into 46 types after ompA genotyping was combined with MLVA. Genotypes D-8.7.1 and G-3.4a.3 were the most frequent among MSM, whereas genotypes D-3.4a.4, E-8.5.1, F-8.5.1, and J-3.4a.2 were the most frequent subtypes among MSW. The discriminatory index D was 0.90 for MLVA, 0.85 for ompA, and 0.95 for MLVA-ompA.The most prevalent MLVA-ompA genotypes were significantly different between MSM and MSW from Guangzhou, China. Moreover, MLVA-ompA represented a more favorable degree of discrimination than ompA and could be a reliable complement for ompA for the routine

  9. Early- and late-onset pelvic inflammatory disease among women with cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection at the time of induced abortion--a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I; Hoff, G

    1994-01-01

    in order to detect an early- and late-onset pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). For statistical analysis survival analysis by Kaplan-Meir estimates and Mantel-Cox test were carried out. Untreated women with C. trachomatis infection at the time of abortion had a cumulative risk of 72% of developing early and....../or late PID, if observed for 24 months. This cumulative risk was significantly reduced to 8% if the C. trachomatis infection was treated at the time of the abortion. Screening for and treatment of C. trachomatis is warranted, especially in women PID after...

  10. Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men attending STD clinics in Brazil Prevalência de Neisseria gonorrhoeae e infecção pela Chlamydia trachomatis em homens atendidos em clínicas de DST no Brasil

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    Marcelo Joaquim Barbosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections and identify demographic, behavioral and clinical factors correlated withsuch infections in men attending six sexually transmitted disease clinics in Brazil. METHODS: Multicentric, cross-sectional study performed among men attending STD clinics in Brazil. The study included STD clinics in six cities distributed throughout the five geographic regions of Brazil in 2005. Patients provided 20 ml of first catch urine for testing for NG and CT by DNA-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 767 (92.9% men were included in the study. The mean age was 26.5 (SD 8.3 years-old. Prevalence of Chlamydia infection was 13.1% (95%CI 10.7%-15.5% and gonorrhea was 18.4% (95%CI 15.7%-21.1%. Coinfection prevalence was 4.4% (95%CI 2.95%-5.85% in men who sought attendance in STI clinics. Factors identified as associated with C. trachomatis were younger age (15-24 [OR=1.4 (95%CI 1.01-1.91], present urethral discharge [OR=4.8 (95%CI 1.52-15.05], genital warts [OR=3.0 (95%CI 1.49-5.92] and previous history of urethral discharge [OR=2.4 (95%CI 1.11-5.18]. Variables associated with gonorrhea were younger age (15 to 24 [OR=1.5 (95%CI 1.09-2.05], presence of urethral discharge [OR=9.9 (95%CI 5.53-17.79], genital warts [OR=18.3 (95%CI 8.03-41.60] and ulcer present upon clinical examination [OR=4.9 (95%CI 1.06-22.73]. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have important implications for education and prevention actions directed toward men at risk of HIV/STD. A venue-based approach to offer routine screening for young men in STD clinics should be stimulated.INTRODUÇÃO: Nosso objetivo foi acessar a prevalência de Neisseria gonorrhoeae e Chlamydia trachomatis e identificar fatores demográficos, comportamentais e clínicos correlacionados a essas infecções em homens atendidos em clínicas de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo multicêntrico, transversal

  11. Association between visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid examination and high-risk human papillomavirus infection, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Andrew J; Toliman, Pamela J; Ryan, Claire; Rai, Glennis; Wapling, Johanna; Gabuzzi, Josephine; Kumbia, Antonia; Kombuk, Benny; Kombati, Zure; Vallely, Lisa M; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Wand, Handan; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Mola, Glen D L; Kaldor, John M

    2018-01-30

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has among the highest estimated burdens of cervical cancer globally but currently has no national cervical screening program. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) is a low-cost screening strategy endorsed by the World Health Organization that has been adopted in many low-resource settings but not previously evaluated in PNG. To evaluate the association between VIA examination findings and high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection; and the impact of concomitant genital Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis on the interpretation of VIA findings. A prospective clinical cohort study among women aged 30-59 years attending Well Woman Clinics in PNG. Main outcome measures were VIA examination findings and laboratory-confirmed hrHPV, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis. A total of 614 women were enrolled, of whom 87.5% (537/614) underwent VIA, and 12.5% (77/614) did not due to pre-existing cervicitis or inability to visualise the transformation zone. Among the 537 women who underwent VIA, 21.6% were VIA positive, 63.7% VIA negative, and 14.7% had indeterminate findings. The prevalence of hrHPV infection (n = 614) was 14.7%; C. trachomatis, 7.5%; N. gonorrhoeae, 8.0%; and T. vaginalis, 15.0%. VIA positive women were more likely to have HPV16 (odds ratio: 5.0; 95%CI: 1.6-15.6; P = 0.006) but there was no association between HPV18/45, all hrHPV types (combined), C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae or T. vaginalis. VIA positivity was associated with HPV16, but not with other hrHPV infections, nor with genital C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae or T. vaginalis in this setting. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Should Female Partners of Men With Non-Gonococcal Urethritis, Negative for Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, Be Informed and Treated? Clinical Outcomes From a Partner Study of Heterosexual Men With NGU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason J; Sarumpaet, Angela; Chow, Eric P F; Bradshaw, Catriona; Chen, Marcus; Read, Tim; Fairley, Christopher K

    2017-02-01

    To determine if female partners of men with pathogen-negative non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) are at risk of genital infection. Secondary data analysis using health records from a large sexually transmitted disease clinic in Melbourne of 1710 men and their female partners attending on the same day from January 2006 to April 2015. Proportions of female partners with symptoms suggesting genital infection or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were determined for: (1) men with NGU and no Chlamydia trachomatis or Mycoplasma genitalium (referred to as pathogen-negative NGU) (n = 91); 2) men with urethral C. trachomatis (n = 176); 3) men with urethral M. genitalium (n = 26); and 4) asymptomatic men (n = 652). Female partners of men with pathogen-negative NGU experienced deep pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-4.4), post coital bleeding (AOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9), and dysuria (AOR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.6) more commonly and were diagnosed with PID more commonly (AOR, 4.8; 95% CI, 2.1-11.3) than the female partners of asymptomatic men. Pelvic inflammatory disease was not more likely to be diagnosed in the female partners of men with genital warts (AOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.5-4.4) or candidiasis (AOR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.4-3.5) than the female partners of asymptomatic men. The female partners of men with chlamydia experienced post coital bleeding more (AOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.6) and were more likely to be diagnosed with PID (AOR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.6-8.0). The female partners of men with pathogen-negative NGU may be at increased risk of genital infection, even if a recognised pathogen is not identified in the man.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody Testing in Vaginal Mucosal Material versus Blood Samples of Women Attending a Fertility Clinic and an STI Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; Land, Jolande A.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Morré, Servaas A.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia infections often follow an asymptomatic course but may damage the reproductive tract. Chlamydia antibodies in serum are used as markers for past infections and can relate to tubal pathology and infertility. This “proof of principle” study aimed to assess whether Chlamydia antibodies are detectable in easier to obtain, noninvasive, vaginal mucosa samples and relate to current or past infection. Methods. We compared outcomes of Chlamydia IgG and IgA antibody tests in serum and vaginal mucosal swabs in (a) 77 women attending a fertility clinic, of whom 25 tested positive for serum-IgG and (b) 107 women visiting an STI centre, including 30 Chlamydia PCR-positive subjects. Results. In the STI clinic, active Chlamydia infections were linked to serum-IgG and serum-IgA (P < 0.001) and mucosa-IgA (P < 0.001), but not mucosa-IgG. In the fertility clinic, mucosa-IgG had stronger correlations with serum-IgG (P = 0.02) than mucosa-IgA (P = 0.06). Women with tubal pathology or Chlamydia history more commonly had serum-IgG and mucosa-IgA (both P < 0.001), whereas this link was weaker for mucosa-IgG (P = 0.03). Conclusion. Chlamydia IgG and IgA are detectable in vaginal mucosal material. Serum-IgG had stronger associations with current or past infections. Mucosa-IgA also showed associations with (past) infection and complications. IgA presence in vaginal mucosa warrants further epidemiological studies. PMID:24757446

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody Testing in Vaginal Mucosal Material versus Blood Samples of Women Attending a Fertility Clinic and an STI Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Land, Jolande A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Morré, Servaas A; van der Sande, Marianne A B

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia infections often follow an asymptomatic course but may damage the reproductive tract. Chlamydia antibodies in serum are used as markers for past infections and can relate to tubal pathology and infertility. This "proof of principle" study aimed to assess whether Chlamydia antibodies are detectable in easier to obtain, noninvasive, vaginal mucosa samples and relate to current or past infection. Methods. We compared outcomes of Chlamydia IgG and IgA antibody tests in serum and vaginal mucosal swabs in (a) 77 women attending a fertility clinic, of whom 25 tested positive for serum-IgG and (b) 107 women visiting an STI centre, including 30 Chlamydia PCR-positive subjects. Results. In the STI clinic, active Chlamydia infections were linked to serum-IgG and serum-IgA (P material. Serum-IgG had stronger associations with current or past infections. Mucosa-IgA also showed associations with (past) infection and complications. IgA presence in vaginal mucosa warrants further epidemiological studies.

  15. Early- and late-onset pelvic inflammatory disease among women with cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection at the time of induced abortion--a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I; Hoff, G

    1994-01-01

    in order to detect an early- and late-onset pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). For statistical analysis survival analysis by Kaplan-Meir estimates and Mantel-Cox test were carried out. Untreated women with C. trachomatis infection at the time of abortion had a cumulative risk of 72% of developing early and...

  16. Genetic transformation of a clinical (genital tract, plasmid-free isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: engineering the plasmid as a cloning vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Wang

    Full Text Available Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide "proof of principle" that it is possible to "knock out" selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP- was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb β-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed β-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active β-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without

  17. Can We Use Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis as a Surveillance Tool for National Trachoma Control Programs? Results from a District Survey.

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    Sheila K West

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma is targeted for elimination by 2020. World Health Organization advises districts to undertake surveillance when follicular trachoma (TF <5% in children 1-9 years and mass antibiotic administration has ceased. There is a question if other tools could be used for surveillance as well. We report data from a test for antibodies to C. trachomatis antigen pgp3 as a possible tool.We randomly sampled 30 hamlets in Kilosa district, Tanzania, and randomly selected 50 children ages 1-9 per hamlet. The tarsal conjunctivae were graded for trachoma (TF, tested for C. trachomatis infection (Aptima Combo2 assay: Hologic, San Diego, CA, and a dried blood spot processed for antibodies to C. trachomatis pgp3 using a multiplex bead assay on a Luminex 100 platform.The prevalence of trachoma (TF was 0.4%, well below the <5% indicator for re-starting a program. Infection was also low, 1.1%. Of the 30 hamlets, 22 had neither infection nor TF. Antibody positivity overall was low, 7.5% and increased with age from 5.2% in 1-3 year olds, to 9.3% in 7-9 year olds (p = 0.015. In 16 of the 30 hamlets, no children ages 1-3 years had antibodies to pgp3.The antibody status of the 1-3 year olds indicates low cumulative exposure to infection during the surveillance period. Four years post MDA, there is no evidence for re-emergence of follicular trachoma.

  18. Structural Analysis of the Mn(IV)/Fe(III) Cofactor of Chlamydia Trachomatis Ribonucleotide Reductase By Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy And Density Functional Theory Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, J.M.; Krest, C.M.; Jiang, W.; Krebs, C.; Bollinger, J.M.Jr.; Green, M.T.

    2009-05-28

    The class Ic ribonucleotide reductase from Chlamydia trachomatis (C{bar A}) uses a stable Mn(lV)/ Fe(lll) cofactor to initiate nucleotide reduction by a free-radical mechanism. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to postulate a structure for this cofactor. Fe and Mn K-edge EXAFS data yield an intermetallic distance of -2.92 {angstrom}. The Mn data also suggest the presence of a short 1.74 {angstrom} Mn-O bond. These metrics are compared to the results of DFT calculations on 12 cofactor models derived from the crystal structure of the inactive Fe2(lll/ III) form of the protein. Models are differentiated by the protonation states of their bridging and terminal OH{sub x} ligands as well as the location of the Mn(lV) ion (site 1 or 2). The models that agree best with experimental observation feature a{mu}-1, 3-carboxylate bridge (E120), terminal solvent (H{sub 2}O/OH) to site 1, one {mu}-O bridge, and one {mu}-OH bridge. The site-placement of the metal ions cannot be discerned from the available data.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Is Associated with E-Cadherin Promoter Methylation, Downregulation of E-Cadherin Expression, and Increased Expression of Fibronectin and α-SMA—Implications for Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Rajić

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct can induce scarring disease of the ocular mucosa, known as trachoma, the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We hypothesized that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT contributes to the fibrotic process in trachomatous scarring. Infection of human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCjE with Ct activated signaling pathways involved in EMT induction, which was correlated with decreased expression of E-cadherin, guardian of the epithelial phenotype. In addition, Ct infection was associated with increased expression of two mesenchymal cell markers: fibronectin and α-SMA. The DNA methylation statuses of selected regions of E-cadherin, fibronectin, and α-SMA genes revealed that Ct infection was accompanied with changes in DNA methylation of the E-cadherin promoter, while the expression of the two mesenchymal markers was not related with this epigenetic event. Our data suggest that Ct infection of conjunctival epithelial cells induces EMT-like changes that go along with modification of the methylation profile of the E-cadherin promoter and could, as one of the earliest events, contribute to processes triggering conjunctival scarring.

  20. Prevalencia de infecciones por Chlamydia trachomatis y Neisseria gonorrhoeae en adolescentes de colegios de la provincia de Sabana Centro, Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Paredes

    2015-09-01

    Conclusiones. La prevalencia de infecciones por C. trachomatis fue inferior a la reportada en grupos similares y se presentaron menos casos asintomáticos en comparación con la tendencia general. Se recomienda implementar en el país un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica para estas dos infecciones de transmisión sexual mediante la tamización con técnicas moleculares no invasivas, para priorizar estrategias preventivas en las poblaciones de mayor riesgo.

  1. Concurrent sexual partners-A predictor of Chlamydia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Olesen, Frede; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2013-01-01

    Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis, but the signifi......Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis...

  2. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redmond, Shelagh M.; Alexander-Kisslig, Karin; Woodhall, Sarah C.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Uusküla, Anneli; Herrmann, Björn; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore M.; Sfetcu, Otilia; Low, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is needed to assess national prevention and control measures. Methods We systematically reviewed population-based cross-sectional studies that estimated chlamydia prevalence in European Union/European Economic Area

  3. Community-based trial of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease: the POPI (prevention of pelvic infection trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor-Robinson David

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID is common and can lead to tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy or chronic pelvic pain. Despite major UK government investment in the National Chlamydia Screening Programme, evidence of benefit remains controversial. The main aim of this trial was to investigate whether screening and treatment of chlamydial infection reduced the incidence of PID over 12 months. Secondary aims were to conduct exploratory studies of the role of bacterial vaginosis (BV in the development of PID and of the natural history of chlamydial infection. Design Randomised controlled trial with follow up after 12 months. Setting non-healthcare Common rooms and lecture theatres at 20 universities and further education colleges in Greater London. Participants 2500 sexually active female students were asked to complete a questionnaire on sexual health and provide self-administered vaginal swabs and smears. Intervention Vaginal swabs from intervention women were tested for chlamydia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and those infected referred for treatment. Vaginal swabs from control women were stored and analysed after a year. Vaginal smears were Gram stained and analysed for BV. Main outcome measure Incidence of clinical PID over 12 months in intervention and control groups. Possible cases of PID will be identified from questionnaires and record searches. Confirmation of the diagnosis will be done by detailed review of medical records by three independent researchers blind to whether the woman is in intervention or control group. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT 00115388

  4. Performance of syndromic management for the detection and treatment of genital Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis among women attending antenatal, well woman and sexual health clinics in Papua New Guinea: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M; Toliman, Pamela; Ryan, Claire; Rai, Glennis; Wapling, Johanna; Gabuzzi, Josephine; Allen, Joyce; Opa, Christine; Munnull, Gloria; Kaima, Petronia; Kombuk, Benny; Kumbia, Antonia; Kombati, Zure; Law, Greg; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Wand, Handan; Siba, Peter M; Mola, Glen D L; Kaldor, John M; Vallely, Andrew J

    2017-12-29

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has among the highest estimated prevalences of genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) of any country in the Asia-Pacific region. Diagnosis and treatment of these infections have relied on the WHO-endorsed syndromic management strategy that uses clinical presentation without laboratory confirmation to make treatment decisions. We evaluated the performance of this strategy in clinical settings in PNG. Women attending antenatal (ANC), well woman (WWC) and sexual health (SHC) clinics in four provinces were invited to participate, completed a face-to-face interview and clinical examination, and provided genital specimens for laboratory testing. We estimated the performance characteristics of syndromic diagnoses against combined laboratory diagnoses. 1764 women were enrolled (ANC=765; WWC=614; SHC=385). The prevalences of CT, NG and TV were highest among women attending ANC and SHC. Among antenatal women, syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infection had low sensitivity (9%-21%) and positive predictive value (PPV) (7%-37%), but high specificity (76%-89%) and moderate negative predictive value (NPV) (55%-86%) for the combined endpoint of laboratory-confirmed CT, NG or TV. Among women attending WWC and SHC, 'vaginal discharge syndrome' had moderate to high sensitivity (72%-78%) and NPV (62%-94%), but low specificity (26%-33%) and PPV (8%-38%). 'Lower abdominal pain syndrome' had low sensitivity (26%-41%) and PPV (8%-23%) but moderate specificity (66%-68%) and high NPV (74%-93%) among women attending WWC, and moderate-high sensitivity (67%-79%) and NPV (62%-86%) but low specificity (26%-28%) and PPV (14%-33%) among SHC attendees. The performance of syndromic management for the detection and treatment of genital chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomonas was poor among women in different clinical settings in PNG. New diagnostic strategies are needed to control these infections and to prevent

  5. Syndromic management of sexually transmissible infections in resource-poor settings: a systematic review with meta-analysis of the abnormal vaginal discharge flowchart for Neisseria gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Caroline; Hellard, Margaret; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fowkes, Freya J I; Agius, Paul A; Stoove, Mark; Bennett, Catherine M

    2018-02-01

    Syndromic management of sexually transmissible infections is commonly used in resource-poor settings for the management of common STIs; abnormal vaginal discharge (AVD) flowcharts are used to identify and treat cervical infection including Neisseria gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to measure the diagnostic test performance of AVD flowcharts, including both World Health Organization (WHO)- and locally-adapted AVD flowcharts. A systematic search of multiple electronic databases was conducted to locate eligible studies published between 1991 and 2014. Flowcharts were categorised into one of 14 types based on: 1) use of WHO guidelines or locally-adapted versions; 2) use of risk assessment, clinical examination or both; and 3) symptomatic entry. Summary diagnostic performance measures calculated included summary sensitivity, summary specificity and diagnostic odds ratio. Thirty-six studies, including data on 99 flowcharts, were included in the review. Summary sensitivity estimates for WHO flowcharts ranged from 41.2 to 43.6%, and for locally adapted flowcharts from 39.5 to 74.8%. Locally adapted flowcharts performed slightly better than the WHO flowcharts. A difference in performance was not observed between use of risk assessment or clinical examination. The AVD flowchart performed slightly better when it was not restricted to symptomatic women only. There was considerable variation in the performance of the AVD flowchart but overall it was a poor diagnostic tool regardless of whether risk assessment or clinical examination was included, or whether the flowchart was WHO or locally developed. Many women were treated unnecessarily and many women with cervical infection were not detected. We caution against their continued use for management of cervical infection.

  6. Test of cure, retesting and extragenital testing practices for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among general practitioners in different socioeconomic status areas: A retrospective cohort study, 2011-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Liere, Geneviève A. F. S.; Cals, Jochen W. L.; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background For Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), a test of cure (TOC) within 3–5 weeks is not recommended. International guidelines differ in advising a Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) TOC. Retesting CT and NG positives within 3–12 months is recommended in international guidelines. We assessed TOC and retesting practices including extragenital testing in general practitioner (GP) practices located in different socioeconomic status (SES) areas to inform and optimize local test practices. Methods Laboratory data of 48 Dutch GP practices between January 2011 and July 2016 were used. Based on a patient’s first positive CT or NG test, the proportion of TOC (TOC and 24% had a retest at the GP practice. GP practices in low SES areas were more likely to perform a CT TOC (OR:1.8;95%CI:1.1–3.1). Younger patients (TOC (OR:1.6;95%CI:1.0–2.4). For CT (n = 622), 2.4% had a TOC and 6.1% had a retest at another STI care provider. For NG (n = 73), 25% had a TOC and 15% had a retest at the GP practice. For NG (n = 73), 2.7% had a TOC and 12.3% had a retest at another STI care provider. In only 0.3% of the consultations patients were tested on extragenital sites. Conclusion Almost 20% of the patients returned for a CT TOC, especially at GP practices in low SES areas. For NG, 1 out of 4 patients returned for a TOC. Retesting rates were low for both CT (24%) and NG (15%), (re)infections including extragenital infections may be missed. Efforts are required to focus TOC and increase retesting practices of GPs in order to improve CT/NG control. PMID:29538469

  7. The added value of chlamydia screening between 2008-2010 in reaching young people in addition to chlamydia testing in regular care; an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liere, Geneviève; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole; van Bergen, Jan; Götz, Hannelore M.; Stals, Frans; Hoebe, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Internet-based Chlamydia Screening Implementation (chlamydia screening programme) was introduced in the Netherlands in 2008-2010 to detect and treat asymptomatic infections and to limit ongoing transmission through annual testing and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis in young people

  8. Chlamydia Peritonitis and Ascites Mimicking Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anar Gojayev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID rarely results in diffuse ascites. Severe adhesive disease secondary to PID may lead to the formation of inclusion cysts and even pelvic peritoneal nodularity due to postinflammatory scarring and cause an elevation of serum CA-125 levels. The constellation of these findings may mimic an ovarian neoplasm. Case. We report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with multiple pelvic cysts and diffuse ascites due to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The initial gynecologic exam did not reveal obvious evidence of PID; however, a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test, pathologic findings, and the exclusion of other etiologies facilitated the diagnosis. Conclusion. Chlamydia trachomatis and other infectious agents should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a young sexually active female with abdominal pain, ascites, and pelvic cystic masses. Thorough workup in such a population may reduce the number of more invasive procedures as well as unnecessary repeat surgical procedures.

  9. Human papillomavirus in young women with Chlamydia trachomatis infection 7 years after the Australian human papillomavirus vaccination programme: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric P F; Danielewski, Jennifer A; Fehler, Glenda; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Law, Matthew G; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Garland, Suzanne M; Chen, Marcus Y; Fairley, Christopher K

    2015-11-01

    The national quadrivalent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccination programme was launched in Australia in April, 2007. In this study, we aimed to explore the prevalence of vaccine-targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) types contained in the 4vHPV and nine-valent HPV (9vHPV) vaccines detected in young women diagnosed with chlamydia. In this cross-sectional study, we identified specimens from women aged 25 years or younger who attended the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (Melbourne, VIC, Australia) diagnosed with chlamydia. We calculated the prevalence of 4vHPV types (6, 11, 16, and 18) and the extra five 9vHPV types (31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 alone) excluding 4vHPV types, stratified by Australian financial year (and according to the prevaccination and postvaccination periods) and self-reported vaccination status, for all women, Australian-born women, Australian-born women aged 21 years and younger, and overseas-born women. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios using binomial log linear regression. Between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2014, we included 1202 women. The prevalence of 4vHPV types in Australian-born women decreased during this period (HPV 6 and 11: 2004-05 nine [16%, 95% CI 8-28] of 56 vs 2013-14 one [2%, 0-9] of 57, ptypes from 66 (41%, 95% CI 34-49) of 160 in the prevaccination period (from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2007) to five (19%, 6-38) of 27 in the postvaccination period (July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2014; p=0·031), but not in the 9vHPV types, excluding 4vHPV (36 [23%, 95% CI 16-30] vs seven [26%, 11-46]; p=0·805). The three-dose vaccination coverage was sufficient for the 4vHPV types to almost disappear in Australian-born women aged 21 years or younger within 3 years of introduction of the national HPV vaccination programme. We noted strong herd protection, with a significant decrease in the prevalence of 4vHPV in unvaccinated women. The 4vHPV vaccination programme in Australia has been successful at protecting women against 4vHPV types. Australian

  10. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  11. Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such ...

  12. Prevalence of chlamydia in patients attending gynecological clinics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the cultured samples 230 were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis and 99 positive to Chlamydia pneumoniae. Statistical analysis using the student\\'s t test at 95% confidence interval shows that there was no significant difference between the number of females and males that presented themselves for screening.

  13. Characterization of a secreted Chlamydia protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A.C.; Vandahl, B.B.; Larsen, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that are important human pathogens. The Chlamydia genomes contain orthologues to secretion apparatus proteins from other intracellular bacteria, but only a few secreted proteins have been identified. Most likely, effector proteins are secreted in order...... to promote infection. Effector proteins cannot be identified by motif or similarity searches. As a new strategy for identification of secreted proteins we have compared 2D-PAGE profiles of [35S]-labelled Chlamydia proteins from whole lysates of infected cells to 2D-PAGE profiles of proteins from purified...... Chlamydia. Several secretion candidates from Chlamydia trachomatis D and Chlamydia pneumoniae were detected by this method. Two protein spots were identified among the candidates. These represent fragments of the 'chlamydial protease- or proteasome-like activity factor' (CPAF) and were clearly present in 2D...

  14. Prevalência da infecção por Chlamydia Trachomatis e Neisseria Gonorrhoea em mulheres jovens sexualmente ativas em uma cidade do Sul do Brasil Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoea infections in sexual actives young women at a Southern Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celi Passagnolo Sérgio Piazzetta

    2011-11-01

    gonorreia poderia ter sido maior na população estudada.PURPOSE: to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea in a sample of women from Curitiba. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study with a sample of sexually active non-pregnant women aged between 16 and 23 years-old, with an intact uterus, with up to four sexual partners, without evidence of fever or purulent cervicitis, submitted to pelvic examination and PCR-based urine- testing for Chlamydia and gonorrhea. Exclusion criteria included: vaccination for HPV, vaccination history for the past 21 days, previous abnormal cytology, history of genital warts, splenectomy, immune disorders, and use of immunosuppressive drugs. An interview regarding sociodemographic and obstetric data and gynecological risk behavior for sexual transmitted diseases was applied. For statistical analysis, we used the c2 or Fisher’s exact test to assess the association between variables. RESULTS: the prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection in the study group was 10.7 and 1.5%, respectively, and the rate of coinfection was 0.9%. No correlation was found between the age range of the volunteers, the onset of sexual activity, the number of sexual partners and of new sexual partners in the last six months, and the presence of Chlamydia or gonorrhea. In women who had vaginal discharge or ectropion, the prevalence of Chlamydia infection was two times higher than in those without such signs. CONCLUSIONS: the results of this study were similar to national studies using PCR in urine samples for the detection of Chlamydia and gonorrhea in samples of non-pregnant women of the same age groups and with the same background. Since the volunteers with more than four sexual partners and those who had purulent endocervicitis were excluded, it is believed that the prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection could have been greater in this population.

  15. Prevalence of chlamydia in patients attending gynecological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOMCS2

    can also cause post gonococcal urethritis. Chlamydia trachomatis can cause pelvic inflammatory diseases resulting in infertility and ectopic pregnancy9. Hence the screening of women with infertility cases, though they were asymptomatic. It has been found from studies reported in Italy, Sweden and USA that about 60% of.

  16. Incidence of repeat testing and diagnoses of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea in swingers, homosexual and heterosexual men and women at two large Dutch STI clinics, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; van Rooijen, Martijn S; Hogewoning, Arjan; van Liere, Genevieve A F S; Steenbakkers, Mieke; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2017-09-01

    Swingers, that is, heterosexuals who as a couple have sex with others, including group sex and bisexual behaviour, are an older-aged risk group for STIs. Here, we report on their repeat testing (reattendance) and STI yield compared with other heterosexuals and men who have sex with men (MSM, homosexual men) at two Dutch STI clinics. Swingers are routinely (since 2006, South Limburg, registration-completeness: 99%) or partially (since 2010, Amsterdam, registration-completeness: 20%) included in the clinic patient registries. Data (retrospective cohort) are analysed to assess incidence (per 100 person-years (PY)) of reattendance and STI ( Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and/or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)) and associated factors calculating HRs. In South Limburg 7714 and in Amsterdam 2070 swinger consultations were identified. Since 2010, swingers' incidence of reattendance was 48-57/100 PY. Incidence was lower in MSM (30-39/100 PY, HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.61, South Limburg; HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.96, Amsterdam), heterosexual men (8-14/100 PY, HR 0.16; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.17, South Limburg; HR 0.33; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.36, Amsterdam) and women (13-20/100 PY, HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.61, South Limburg; HR 0.46; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.51, Amsterdam). Swingers' STI incidence at reattendance was 11-12/100 PY. Incidence was similar in heterosexual men (14-15/100 PY; HR 1.19; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.57, South Limburg; HR 1.20; 95% CI 0.91 to 1.59, Amsterdam) and women (12-14/100 PY; HR 1.14; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.49, South Limburg; HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.29, Amsterdam) and higher in MSM (18-22/100 PY; HR 1.59; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.12, South Limburg; HR 1.80; 95% CI 1.36 to 2.37, Amsterdam). Risk factors for STI incidence were partner-notified (contact-tracing), symptoms and previous STI. Swingers' positivity at any clinic attendance was 3-4% for NG (ie, higher than other heterosexuals) and 6-8% for CT (ie, lower than heterosexuals overall but higher than older heterosexuals

  17. Behavioural characteristics, prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    microbial resistance. This study emphasises the need to integrate alternative care providers and particularly traditional healers in STI control activities, and to encourage their role in promoting safer sexual behaviour. In patients presenting with ...

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...... to demonstrate surface-exposed epitopes on infectious elementary bodies or reproductive reticulate body forms either by immunofluorescence or immuno-gold electron microscopy. However, a complement-dependent inhibition of up to 91% of infectivity for cell cultures was observed with antibodies to the N...

  19. Lysine acetylation of major Chlamydia trachomatis antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mihailovic

    2016-03-01

    Our data show that important Ct antigens could be post-translationally modified by acetylation of lysine residues at multiple sites. Further studies are needed to investigate total acetylome of Ct and the impact PTMs might have on Ct biology and pathogenicity.

  20. Infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis no período neonatal: aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais. Experiência de uma década: 1987-1998

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz,F.A.C.; Ceccon,M.E.J.; Diniz,E.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    A infecção por C. trachomatis é adquirida pelo recém-nascido (RN) principalmente durante sua passagem pelo canal do parto; 25% a 50% destes deverão desenvolver conjuntivite e 10% a 20% pneumonia. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a incidência de infecção ocular por C. trachomatis nos RN internados com diagnóstico de conjuntivite, num período de 10 anos. - Observar a associação entre infecção ocular é pneumonia intersticial - Estudar os aspectos epidemiológicos e os métodos utilizados para o diagnóstico la...

  1. Infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis no período neonatal: aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais. Experiência de uma década: 1987-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz F.A.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A infecção por C. trachomatis é adquirida pelo recém-nascido (RN principalmente durante sua passagem pelo canal do parto; 25% a 50% destes deverão desenvolver conjuntivite e 10% a 20% pneumonia. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a incidência de infecção ocular por C. trachomatis nos RN internados com diagnóstico de conjuntivite, num período de 10 anos. - Observar a associação entre infecção ocular é pneumonia intersticial - Estudar os aspectos epidemiológicos e os métodos utilizados para o diagnóstico laboratorial. CASUÍSTICA E METODOLOGIA: Foram analisados os RN internados com diagnóstico de conjuntivite e/ou pneumonia intersticial internados na UCINE no período de 1987-1998. Os métodos de diagnóstico utilizados foram: a pesquisa direta do agente etiológico em raspado de conjuntiva, radiografia de tórax, sorologia para C. trachomatis no sangue pelo método de imunofluorescência para anticorpos IgG e IgM. RESULTADOS: Estudamos as características de 20 RN que apresentaram infecção por C. trachomatis : 15 eram de termo (75% e cinco, pré-termos (25%; houve predominância da infecção no sexo feminino (60%; a pneumonia