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Sample records for irradiated animals showed

  1. Irradiation of laboratory animal diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiker, D.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing demand for well-defined, standardized laboratory animals fr use in experimental research has led to the development of many new methods aimed at keeping the animals free of pathogenic micro-organisms. In this respect the problem of contaminated feeds has become more and more widely recognized. Chemial treatments and heat-treatments, which are the methods most commonly used at present, do have many disadvantages and this has led to an increasing interest in the application of irradiation for sterilizing animal feeds. The author reviews in some detail the various feeding studies which have been performed to date to establish whether or not irradiated feeds are safe for consumption. Much attention is now being given to feed irradiation throughout the world; it is estimated, for example, that approximately 700 tons of feed are already being irradiated per year and that this amount is likely to increase steadily in the future. These activities and recent developments are also briefly reviewed. (author)

  2. Irradiation effect on animal feeds and feedstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    1983-10-01

    Aiming to secure the safety of animal feeds and develop the new resources, the effect of γ-irradiation on disinfection and the changes in components were investigated. Salmonellae and coliforms contaminating in animal feeds and feedstuffs were eliminated by 0.5 -- 0.6 Mrad and 0.5 -- 0.8 Mrad, and osmophilic moulds were sterilized by 0.7 -- 0.75 Mrad. From these results, it is concluded that the dose for disinfection of animal feeds is 0.8 Mrad. The main components were hardly changed by irradiation up to 5 Mrad, and the component changes in irradiated samples could be suppressed during storage while the components in unirradiated samples were markedly changed with the growth of osmophilic moulds. Histamine and lysinoalanine, which may cause the feed poisoning, were never accumulated in feedstuffs by irradiation. The nutritional value of chick feeds was not changed by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. From these results, it is considered that no problem for wholesomeness of animal feeds occurs by irradiation. Therefore, the irradiation is effective for disinfection and keeping the nutritional value of animal feeds during storage. Irradiation promotes the recovery of proteins in the wastewater by coagulation of proteins and improves the property of coagulants due to the degradation of polysaccharides. These results indicate that irradiation is effective to develop the new resources for animal feeds. (author)

  3. Radioresistance of immunized animals in internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal'nitskij, S.A.; Ponomareva, T.V.; Shubik, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of an immunization with bacterial vaccines and antimeasles-gamma-globulin on the radioresistance of raceless white mice was studied. In the vaccinated animals a higher survival rate and duration of life, a better general condition and a better curve of weight and stronger physical stamina were stated compared to the merely irradiated mice. The higher radioresistance is ascribed to the stimulation of cellular and humoral factors of the unspecific protection against infection, to the repair of the lymphoid tissue of the immunized animals and to the decrease in autosensibilization. (author)

  4. Dosimetry of an animal irradiation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Nelson M.; Funari, Ana P.; Miranda, Jurandir T.; Napolitano, Celia M.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Bueno, Carmen C.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: nelsonnininho@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radiation therapy uses ionizing radiation for cancer treatment, but its effectiveness may be limited by the consequent appearance of radiodermatitis. This problem may present several degrees: the highest among them is radionecrosis. Therefore, a model of study for the animal irradiation system (AIS) was built, generating radionecrosis on rat backs. The AIS is comprised by: a) a shield between the {sup 60}Co irradiator metallic guide and the animal immobilizer (AI), with holes exposing the rat skin; b) a shield on the AI posterior part and (c) the AIS angle. The doses were measured with alanine pellets in seven positions (two external and five internal) and different heights, in axial planes along the AI, and irradiated with 85 Gy. The similarity in the geometry of the AIs made it possible to relate the doses of positions 1-7 with the same height among the AISs. The AISs equidistance to the source allowed simultaneous animal exposure. Minimizing the shielding and maximizing the angles among the AISs provided average doses almost identical in position 1. A small variation among the mean doses for each of the AISs enabled to replace them by the average doses of the three AISs at position 1. Shields allowed the attenuation of the uncertainties in the alanine pellet in the AI, reduction of the exposure time without compromising rat security and the rise of the dose in measurement positions 1 and 2. The maximization of the angles among the AISs reduced the shielding secondary radiation contribution. (author)

  5. Dosimetry of an animal irradiation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Nelson M.; Funari, Ana P.; Miranda, Jurandir T.; Napolitano, Celia M.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Bueno, Carmen C.; Mathor, Monica B.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy uses ionizing radiation for cancer treatment, but its effectiveness may be limited by the consequent appearance of radiodermatitis. This problem may present several degrees: the highest among them is radionecrosis. Therefore, a model of study for the animal irradiation system (AIS) was built, generating radionecrosis on rat backs. The AIS is comprised by: a) a shield between the 60 Co irradiator metallic guide and the animal immobilizer (AI), with holes exposing the rat skin; b) a shield on the AI posterior part and (c) the AIS angle. The doses were measured with alanine pellets in seven positions (two external and five internal) and different heights, in axial planes along the AI, and irradiated with 85 Gy. The similarity in the geometry of the AIs made it possible to relate the doses of positions 1-7 with the same height among the AISs. The AISs equidistance to the source allowed simultaneous animal exposure. Minimizing the shielding and maximizing the angles among the AISs provided average doses almost identical in position 1. A small variation among the mean doses for each of the AISs enabled to replace them by the average doses of the three AISs at position 1. Shields allowed the attenuation of the uncertainties in the alanine pellet in the AI, reduction of the exposure time without compromising rat security and the rise of the dose in measurement positions 1 and 2. The maximization of the angles among the AISs reduced the shielding secondary radiation contribution. (author)

  6. Late radiation effects in animals surviving lethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, L.A.

    1974-01-01

    Animals (rats, mice, dogs) survived lethal irradiation by means of prophylactic-therapeutic treatments or previously irradiated, were studied for late radiation effects: life span, cachexia and fat growing of hypophysical type, tissue or organ hypoplasia manifested by disturbed hemopoiesis, suppressed function of adrenal gland, etc., suppressed immune reactivity of the irradiated organism, atypical biochemical changes in DNA and protein metabolism, epilation, chronic dermatitis, ulcerations, reduced reproductivity or full sterility, damage of kidneys leading to nephrosclerosis, dishormonal states, cataracts, diffuse sclerotic processes, various kinds of malignant and non-malignant tumors. In these cases hemopoiesis compensated for a definite time peripheral blood composition, but during the late period it showed features of incompleteness: shorter life survival of erythrocytes and thrombocytes manifested by a decreased binding of labelled methionine in these blood elements, anemia and relative thrombocytopenia sometimes with an increased number of polychromatic erythrocytes in peripheral blood and a decreased number of reticulocytes at the same time; lymphopenia and relative leucopenia with an increased number of hypersegmented neutrophils. Decreased reproductivity and atypical biochemical changes available in the first generation of the irradiated animals showed the probable role of mutagenic factors in the emergence of some late radiation effects. A significant part of late radiation sequences were due to neuro-endocrine desintegrations which lead to a disturbed supply of the vessels and afterwards to their sclerosis. Some of the described late radiation effects were also observed in biological controls as festures of ageing while in irradiated animals they were manifested in an earlier period. After application of optimal amounts radioprotectors (AET, cysteamine, serotonin) a more marked protective effect is demonstrated in the early reactions (time survival

  7. Life span of animals under acute and chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.; Borisova, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The study has been designed to see to what extent a single and long-term external and internal irradiations shorten the life span of animals. LDsub(50/30) for certain radionuclides whose absorbed doses show different spatiotemporal distributions are considered. It has been found that as far as the average life span is concerned, 137 Cs and 90 Sr have approximately the same effect whether they enter the body on a single occasion or repeatedly. With chronic total-body external gamma-irradiation, the decrease in life span is 5 times smaller than than with single-occasion irradiation. The main reason for the observed differences are found to be differences in the rates with which the absorbed doses are formed

  8. Late radiation effects in animals surviving lethal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, L A

    1974-01-01

    Animals (rats, mice, dogs) survived lethal irradiation by means of prophylactic-therapeutic treatments or previously irradiated, were studied for late radiation effects: life span, cachexia and fat growing of hypophysical type, tissue or organ hypoplasia manifested by disturbed hemopoiesis, suppressed function of adrenal gland, etc., suppressed immune reactivity of the irradiated organism, atypical biochemical changes in DNA and protein metabolism, epilation, chronic dermatitis, ulcerations, reduced reproductivity or full sterility, damage of kidneys leading to nephrosclerosis, dishormonal states, cataracts, diffuse sclerotic processes, various kinds of malignant and non-malignant tumors. In these cases hemopoiesis compensated for a definite time peripheral blood composition, but during the late period it showed features of incompleteness: shorter life survival of erythrocytes and thrombocytes manifested by a decreased binding of labelled methionine in these blood elements, anemia and relative thrombocytopenia sometimes with an increased number of polychromatic erythrocytes in peripheral blood and a decreased number of reticulocytes at the same time; lymphopenia and relative leucopenia with an increased number of hypersegmented neutrophils. Decreased reproductivity and atypical biochemical changes available in the first generation of the irradiated animals showed the probable role of mutagenic factors in the emergency of some late radiation effects. A significant part of late radiation sequences were due to neuro-endocrine disintegrations. Some of the described late radiation effects were also observed in biological controls as features of ageing. After application of radioprotectors (AET, cysteamine, serotonin) a more marked protective effect is demonstrated in the early reactions (time survival till 30th day, DNA and protein metabolism, immune reactions) of the lethally irradiated animals.

  9. Irradiation of foods of animal origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkarevic, A.

    1985-01-01

    A system is suggested which permits the irradiation of liquid and semi-solid materials, using wasted radiation in conventional package irradiation plants. Various appliances control the flow parameters, temperature, and environment during irradiation. As possible materials, various derivatives of the meat industry are suggested

  10. A device for external γ-irradiation of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanitskaya, N.F.; Talakin, Yu.N.; Lekakh, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    A device was developed for external gamma-irradiation of experimental animals including a radiation source, a device for fixation of the total animal or a segment of its body in the focus of irradiation, and a shilding screen. To widen the sphere of this device application by making possible a simultaneous radiation exposure of a group of animals under various radiation schedules, the device involves two discs with a common axis. The lower disc is provided with an electric drive and containers with animals are placed on it, and the upper disc is for the shielding screen. The device is supplied with an operation block

  11. Nutritional Value of Irradiated Animal Feed By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din Farag, M.D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Animal feed by-products, widely used in animal diets, are sources of disease organisms for animals and for human beings. Salmonella is the principal genus of concern.Radiation treatment (radicidation, radurization) is a promising method of decontamination of feed ingredients. Commercial samples of fish, meat, and blood meals were sealed by heat in polyethylene bags and irradiated at dose levels of 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Their chemical analysis were carried out according to A. O. A.C [1] and the total protein efficiency (TPE) of the three animal feed by-products was determined according to Wood ham (2) by using one day old Dokki-4 chicks. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical constituent of meals. Also, the same trend was observed with TPE of both fish and meat meals. However, irradiation treatments improved TPE values of irradiated blood meal samples. From the results, it could be concluded that irradiation of animal feed by-products up to a dose level of 50 Gy has no adverse effects on the nutritional value of animal feed by-products

  12. Sterilization by irradiation of feed for axenic or heteroxenic laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Sterilization by irradiation of animal feeds is promising. The objective of experiments presented is to determine if integrated dose (44 kGy) has an influence on breeding performances and on animal behavior. Results show that not only nothing abnormal is constated but performances are better than those obtained with an autoclave in an important breeding center in conditions perfectly analyzed [fr

  13. SU-E-T-124: Anthropomorphic Phantoms for Confirmation of Linear Accelerator Based Small Animal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perks, J; Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lucero, S [UC Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To document the support of radiobiological small animal research by a modern radiation oncology facility. This study confirms that a standard, human use linear accelerator can cover the range of experiments called for by researchers performing animal irradiation. A number of representative, anthropomorphic murine phantoms were made. The phantoms confirmed the small field photon and electron beams dosimetry validated the use of the linear accelerator for rodents. Methods: Laser scanning a model, CAD design and 3D printing produced the phantoms. The phantoms were weighed and CT scanned to judge their compatibility to real animals. Phantoms were produced to specifically mimic lung, gut, brain, and othotopic lesion irradiations. Each phantom was irradiated with the same protocol as prescribed to the live animals. Delivered dose was measured with small field ion chambers, MOS/FETs or TLDs. Results: The density of the phantom material compared to density range across the real mice showed that the printed material would yield sufficiently accurate measurements when irradiated. The whole body, lung and gut irradiations were measured within 2% of prescribed doses with A1SL ion chamber. MOSFET measurements of electron irradiations for the orthotopic lesions allowed refinement of the measured small field output factor to better than 2% and validated the immunology experiment of irradiating one lesion and sparing another. Conclusion: Linacs are still useful tools in small animal bio-radiation research. This work demonstrated a strong role for the clinical accelerator in small animal research, facilitating standard whole body dosing as well as conformal treatments down to 1cm field. The accuracy of measured dose, was always within 5%. The electron irradiations of the phantom brain and flank tumors needed adjustment; the anthropomorphic phantoms allowed refinement of the initial output factor measurements for these fields which were made in a large block of solid water.

  14. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''5 1 Cr, 32 P and 35 S) and stable ( 15 N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases

  15. Histologic alterations of the normal bladder wall following to variably fractionated irradiation - an experimentation on animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueller, J.; Fritzsche, V.; Kob, D.; Arndt, J.; Kriester, A.; Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena

    1986-01-01

    The histopathologic alterations of the bladder wall were investigated in 180 rabbits irradiated with different fractionations and total focal doses. Animals sacrified one week after the end of irradiation showed alterations of the urothelium (desquamation, increased polymorphism of nuclei vacuolizations) as well as oedematous and hyperemic reactions in submucosa and muscularis. These alterations became stronger when the single and total focal dose and the ret values were increased. Animals sacrified three to six months after the end of irradiation showed dystrophic-sclerotic processes as well as vascular obliterations in the submucosa and muscularis. The alterations were only clearly visible in case of a total focal dose of at least 30 Gy. With regard to a minimization of histopathologic alterations of the bladder wall, a fractionation of 1.5 Gy per day has to be considered as favorable in radiotherapy of the carcinoma of the urinary bladder. (orig.) [de

  16. Practical experiences with irradiation of laboratory animals' feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiker, D.

    1979-01-01

    The increasing need for well-defined, standardized experimental animals for research has led to the development of many new methods of keeping the animals free from pathogenic microorganisms. In this connection the problem of contaminated food has taken on ever greater significance. The methods most commonly used today, namely chemical treatment and heat treatment of the fodder, have many disadvantages and interest in the use of radiation sterilization has accordingly increased. The author discusses the various aspects of this method in relation to SPF animals and reports on the three years' experience of the Research Institute for Experimental Animal Breeding (University of Vienna) in Himberg with the use of exclusively radiation-treated diets in the rearing of rats and mice. The ease of handling irradiated fodder, the reliability of the method from the microbiological point of view and the excellent breeding results already obtained make this process - despite its somewhat higher cost - the best possible method of pasteurizing the feed of experimental animals. (author)

  17. Integration of optical imaging with a small animal irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weersink, Robert A.; Ansell, Steve; Wang, An; Wilson, Graham; Shah, Duoaud; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe the integration of optical imaging with a targeted small animal irradiator device, focusing on design, instrumentation, 2D to 3D image registration, 2D targeting, and the accuracy of recovering and mapping the optical signal to a 3D surface generated from the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The integration of optical imaging will improve targeting of the radiation treatment and offer longitudinal tracking of tumor response of small animal models treated using the system. Methods: The existing image-guided small animal irradiator consists of a variable kilovolt (peak) x-ray tube mounted opposite an aSi flat panel detector, both mounted on a c-arm gantry. The tube is used for both CBCT imaging and targeted irradiation. The optical component employs a CCD camera perpendicular to the x-ray treatment/imaging axis with a computer controlled filter for spectral decomposition. Multiple optical images can be acquired at any angle as the gantry rotates. The optical to CBCT registration, which uses a standard pinhole camera model, was modeled and tested using phantoms with markers visible in both optical and CBCT images. Optically guided 2D targeting in the anterior/posterior direction was tested on an anthropomorphic mouse phantom with embedded light sources. The accuracy of the mapping of optical signal to the CBCT surface was tested using the same mouse phantom. A surface mesh of the phantom was generated based on the CBCT image and optical intensities projected onto the surface. The measured surface intensity was compared to calculated surface for a point source at the actual source position. The point-source position was also optimized to provide the closest match between measured and calculated intensities, and the distance between the optimized and actual source positions was then calculated. This process was repeated for multiple wavelengths and sources. Results: The optical to CBCT registration error was 0.8 mm. Two

  18. Economic Feasibility Study for Using Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Animalism Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return

  19. Biological X-ray irradiator characterization for use with small animals and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, A Colello; Mazaro, S J; Amaral, L L; Rego, E M; Oliveira, H F; Pavoni, J F

    2017-03-02

    This study presents the characterization of an X-ray irradiator through dosimetric tests, which confirms the actual dose rate that small animals and cells will be exposed to during radiobiological experiments. We evaluated the linearity, consistency, repeatability, and dose distribution in the positions in which the animals or cells are placed during irradiation. In addition, we evaluated the performance of the X-ray tube (voltage and tube operating current), the radiometric survey (leakage radiation) and safety devices. The irradiator default setting was established as 160 kV and 25 mA. Tests showed that the dose rate was linear overtime (R2=1) and remained stable for long (constant) and short (repeatability) intervals between readings. The mean dose rate inside the animal cages was 1.27±0.06 Gy/min with a uniform beam of 95.40% (above the minimum threshold guaranteed by the manufacturer). The mean dose rate inside the cell plates was 0.92±0.19 Gy/min. The dose rate dependence with tube voltage and current presented a quadratic and linear relationship, respectively. There was no observed mechanical failure during evaluation of the irradiator safety devices and the radiometric survey obtained a maximum ambient equivalent dose rate of 0.26 mSv/h, which exempts it from the radiological protection requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The irradiator characterization enables us to perform radiobiological experiments, and assists or even replaces traditional therapy equipment (e.g., linear accelerators) for cells and small animal irradiation, especially in early research stages.

  20. Biological X-ray irradiator characterization for use with small animals and cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colello Bruno

    Full Text Available This study presents the characterization of an X-ray irradiator through dosimetric tests, which confirms the actual dose rate that small animals and cells will be exposed to during radiobiological experiments. We evaluated the linearity, consistency, repeatability, and dose distribution in the positions in which the animals or cells are placed during irradiation. In addition, we evaluated the performance of the X-ray tube (voltage and tube operating current, the radiometric survey (leakage radiation and safety devices. The irradiator default setting was established as 160 kV and 25 mA. Tests showed that the dose rate was linear overtime (R2=1 and remained stable for long (constant and short (repeatability intervals between readings. The mean dose rate inside the animal cages was 1.27±0.06 Gy/min with a uniform beam of 95.40% (above the minimum threshold guaranteed by the manufacturer. The mean dose rate inside the cell plates was 0.92±0.19 Gy/min. The dose rate dependence with tube voltage and current presented a quadratic and linear relationship, respectively. There was no observed mechanical failure during evaluation of the irradiator safety devices and the radiometric survey obtained a maximum ambient equivalent dose rate of 0.26 mSv/h, which exempts it from the radiological protection requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The irradiator characterization enables us to perform radiobiological experiments, and assists or even replaces traditional therapy equipment (e.g., linear accelerators for cells and small animal irradiation, especially in early research stages.

  1. Partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals with an industrial X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas; Grohmann, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated precise small laboratory animal irradiation sources are needed for basic cancer research and to meet this need expensive high precision radiation devices have been developed. To avoid such expenses a cost efficient way is presented to construct a device for partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals by adding specific components to an industrial X-ray tube. A custom made radiation field tube was added to an industrial 200 kV X-ray tube. A light field display as well as a monitor ionization chamber were implemented. The field size can rapidly be changed by individual inserts of MCP96 that are used for secondary collimation of the beam. Depth dose curves and cross sectional profiles were determined with the use of a custom made water phantom. More components like positioning lasers, a custom made treatment couch, and a commercial isoflurane anesthesia unit were added to complete the system. With the accessories described secondary small field sizes down to 10 by 10 mm 2 (secondary collimator size) could be achieved. The dosimetry of the beam was constructed like those for conventional stereotactical clinical linear accelerators. The water phantom created showed an accuracy of 1 mm and was well suited for all measurements. With the anesthesia unit attached to the custom made treatment couch the system is ideal for the radiation treatment of small laboratory animals like mice. It was feasible to shrink the field size of an industrial X-ray tube from whole animal irradiation to precise partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals. Even smaller secondary collimator sizes than 10 by 10 mm 2 are feasible with adequate secondary collimator inserts. Our custom made water phantom was well suited for the basic dosimetry of the X-ray tube.

  2. Investigations on the development of an irradiated vaccine for animal schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.F.; Bushara, H.O.

    1976-01-01

    The results are summarized of preliminary experiments on the development of an irradiated larval vaccine for Schistosoma bovis, an important trematode of domestic ruminants in the Sudan. Initial studies on mice demonstrated the inhibitory effects of irradiation on the development of S. bovis, S. mansoni and S. mattheei, and also suggested that irradiated cercariae were highly immunogenic. In calves, it was shown that a single exposure to irradiated S. mansoni cercariae induced a strong partial resistance against S. bovis, even though no adult parasites of the former were produced. The experiment also showed that a stronger immunity occurred at 24 weeks than at 8 weeks post-immunization, indicating the long duration of the immunity produced by these short-lived cercariae. Another experiment, involving sheep, was made using irradiated S. bovis cercariae as the immunizing agents. Marked reduction in worm and especially in tissue egg counts were also reported following challenge infections 37 weeks later with normal S. bovis cercariae. Because of the fragility of the cercariae and difficulties in their administration and storage, trials are being carried out using another larval stage, the schistosomule, as an immunizing agent. In these trials various methods for the transformation of cercariae into schistosomules were evaluated, and the immunogenicity of irradiated schistosomules administered intra-muscularly into animals is now being investigated. At the same time, attempts are in progress to maintain the schistosomules by cryopreservation techniques for a period long enough to ensure an adequate shelf-life before conducting a field test on naturally infected animals in the Sudan. (author)

  3. The effect of animal feed from irradiated palm oil sludge on antibody forming of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharni Sadi; Umar, Hasibuan; Jenny, M.; Adria, P.M.; Murni Indrawatmi

    1998-01-01

    In this experiment, 3 kinds of animal feed were, e.q. control (commercial product), non irradiated and irradiated palm oil sludge by using 6 0Co source with a 4 kGy dose. BALB-C mice of 3 months old were used, each group contains 5 animals. Before conducting the experiment the animals were injected with antibiotic to free them from Enterobacteriaceae. The animals were observed every 2 weeks by weighting them, blood were analyzed and after 10 weeks their antibody were analyzed. Animal feed were in the form of pellets and each animal was feed 5 g of pellets. The results were as follows, antibody formed by C (control), N (non irradiated sludge) and, R (irradiated sludge) were 37; 36.5; and 36.2 mg/nl, respectively. Apparently pellets which were made of palm oil sludge and commercial product produced not significantly different level of antibody. (author)

  4. The extinct animal show: the paleoimagery tradition and computer generated imagery in factual television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Vincent

    2009-03-01

    Extinct animals have always been popular subjects for the media, in both fiction, and factual output. In recent years, a distinctive new type of factual television program has emerged in which computer generated imagery is used extensively to bring extinct animals back to life. Such has been the commercial audience success of these programs that they have generated some public and academic debates about their relative status as science, documentary, and entertainment, as well as about their reflection of trends in factual television production, and the aesthetic tensions in the application of new media technologies. Such discussions ignore a crucial contextual feature of computer generated extinct animal programs, namely the established tradition of paleoimagery. This paper examines a selection of extinct animal shows in terms of the dominant frames of the paleoimagery genre. The paper suggests that such an examination has two consequences. First, it allows for a more context-sensitive evaluation of extinct animal programs, acknowledging rather than ignoring relevant representational traditions. Second, it allows for an appraisal and evaluation of public and critical reception of extinct animal programs above and beyond the traditional debates about tensions between science, documentary, entertainment, and public understanding.

  5. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Wong, John; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal (‘tubular’ geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal (‘pancake’ geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry

  6. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John

    2015-07-07

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal ('tubular' geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal ('pancake' geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry, respectively.

  7. Effect of laser irradiation for healing of the skin-muscle wounds of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapina, Victoria A.; Veremei, Eduard I.; Pancovets, Evgeniy A.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to study the medical effect of low-intensity laser influence on healing of skin- muscle wounds of agricultural animals. We used the laser radiation of low intensity for cub's therapy: to sucking-pigs after herniotomy and castration, to cattle cubs after skin- muscle wounds. The animals were kept under clinical observation up to their recovery. The recuperation dynamic was observed by changing of blood quotients, leukograms, sizes of inflammatory edema, general behavior of animals. The positive dynamic of blood quotients of the experimental animal groups was really higher than that in control. The analysis of wound healing after laser influence shows that wound surface of experimental group was to a great extent smaller in comparison with control group of animals. So, these facts testify about anti-inflammatory action of laser radiation, which hastens regenerative and rehabilitative processes. Analysis of the obtained experimental data has revealed the positive influence of laser irradiation on the dynamics of wound adhesion of agricultural animals.

  8. PBI creams: a spontaneously mutated mouse strain showing wild animal-type reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, C A; Van Driel, K S; Talling, J C; Inglis, I R

    2001-01-01

    PBI creams are mice derived from warfarin-resistant wild stock that has been maintained under laboratory conditions since the 1970s. This study compares their behaviour to that of laboratory mice and wild house and wood mice. Animals were tested in a black/white box and a 2.64x1.4 m runway. In the black/white box, the behaviour of PBI creams was not significantly different from that of house mice and differed most from that of laboratory mice. Notably, the PBI creams showed the greatest activity and escape-orientated behaviours. When animals were approached by the experimenter in the open runway test, the PBI creams had higher flight speeds than both house and wood mice, whilst laboratory mice failed to respond. In the closed runway test where the animals could not escape, the PBI creams, house mice and wood mice all turned and attempted to run past the approaching experimenter, whilst the laboratory mice again failed to react. At the end of this test session, the time taken to catch each animal was recorded. It took less than 5 s to catch laboratory mice but significantly longer to catch the wild strains and the PBI creams (90-100 s for the latter). In these tests, the PBI creams showed wild animal-type reactivity, and as this behaviour has been retained in the laboratory colony for over 30 years, these animals may be useful in the study of the physiological and genetic basis of fear/anxiety in mice.

  9. The changes in drug binding activity of GABA receptor and animal neural-behavior after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hui; Zhen Rong; Zhao Naikun; Xue Hong; Wang Zihui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation on gamma-aminobutyric-acid receptor (GABA-R) as well as behavioral changes after brain 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: The mice were irradiated with gamma rays (20 Gy; 10 Gy and 5 Gy) . The drug binding activity of GABA receptor in brain receptor was measured by fluorescence anisotropy (FA) and equilibrium dissociation constants. The behavioral changes were observed by the locomotor activity test, elevated plus-maze test and hole-board test at 1, 10, 24 and 48 hr after irradiation. Results: 1. The drug binding activity of the GABA receptor was decreased and the equilibrium dissociation constant (K d ) was significantly increased compared with the negative control group 2 hr after irradiation, and a spike value appeared at 24 hr. It showed that the irradiation might damage or decrease the binding activity and the bio-activity of GABA receptor. 2. The animal experiment confirmed that the irradiated animal model showed neural-behavioral changes of anxiety or depression. 3. The decreased binding activity of GABA receptor and changes in behavior of irradiated animal were dependent on radiation intensity. 4. The changes of behavior was similar to the blocked GABA receptor group. It suggests the relationship of radiation and GABA receptor. Conclusion: These results suggest that GABA receptor may be involved in radiation injury. The functional changes of GABA receptor may be an induction factor of behavioral disorder. The article also discussed the effect of anxiety and results obtained from the point of view of GABA receptor system involvement in the changes observed after irradiation. (authors)

  10. Nutritional evaluation of irradiated animal protein by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hakeim, N.F.; Hilali, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Blood, fish and meat-bone meals were irradiated at dose levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical composition of meals. Available lysine in irradiated fish meals was reduced by 8,04%. Losses occurred in some amino acids especially the essential ones of the irradiated protein by-products. Isoleucine, phenylalanine and valine were the limiting amino acids in the irradiated blood, fish and meat-bone meal, respectively. At dose levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kGy essential amino acids index (EAAI) was 48,24%, 42,89%, 48,38%, 53% and 55,95% for blood meal 37,91%, 39,71%, 41,18% and 37,90% for fish meal and 37,07%, 36,01%, 27,61%, 38,21% and 38,45% for meat-bone meal, respectively. (orig.) [de

  11. Biological changes in experimental animals after irradiation with sublethal doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dae Seong; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Byun, Myung Woo; Jeong, Il Yun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The objective of the present study was to investigate general clinical aspects such as weekly body weight and blood changes, and weekly food intake in gamma-irradiated C57BL/6j male mice fed AIN-76A purified rodent diet for 14 weeks. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 0, 2, 4 and 6 Gy of gamma-rays (Gammacell 40 Exactor, {sup 137}Cs, MDS Nordion) at a dose rate of 1.8 {sub c}Gy per second. The mean body weight change of 6 Gy-irradiated mice significantly decreased when compared to that of the non-irradiated control mice. Moreover, high dose of radiation resulted in decreased levels of AST, ALT, but in increased levels of total cholersterol, triglyceride, HDL-C in mice.

  12. SU-E-T-481: In Vivo and Post Mortem Animal Irradiation: Measured Vs. Calculated Doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, P [Univ New Mexico Radiology Dept., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heintz, B [Texas Oncology, PA, Southlake, TX (United States); Sandoval, D [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W; Melo, D; Guilmette, R [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Computerized radiation therapy treatment planning is performed on almost all patients today. However it is seldom used for laboratory irradiations. The first objective is to assess whether modern radiation therapy treatment planning (RTP) systems accurately predict the subject dose by comparing in vivo and decedent dose measurements to calculated doses. The other objective is determine the importance of using a RTP system for laboratory irradiations. Methods: 5 MOSFET radiation dosimeters were placed enterically in each subject (2 sedated Rhesus Macaques) to measure the absorbed dose at 5 levels (carina, lung, heart, liver and rectum) during whole body irradiation. The subjects were treated with large opposed lateral fields and extended distances to cover the entire subject using a Varian 600C linac. CT simulation was performed ante-mortem (AM) and post-mortem (PM). To compare AM and PM doses, calculation points were placed at the location of each dosimeter in the treatment plan. The measured results were compared to the results using Varian Eclipse and Prowess Panther RTP systems. Results: The Varian and Prowess treatment planning system agreed to within in +1.5% for both subjects. However there were significant differences between the measured and calculated doses. For both animals the calculated central axis dose was higher than prescribed by 3–5%. This was caused in part by inaccurate measurement of animal thickness at the time of irradiation. For one subject the doses ranged from 4% to 7% high and the other subject the doses ranged 7% to 14% high when compared to the RTP doses. Conclusions: Our results suggest that using proper CT RTP system can more accurately deliver the prescribed dose to laboratory subjects. It also shows that there is significant dose variation in such subjects when inhomogeneities are not considered in the planning process.

  13. Skin allografts in lethally irradiated animals repopulated with syngeneic hemopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwadron, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Total body irradiation and repopulation with syngeneic hemopoietic cells can be used to induce tolerance to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) mismatched heart and kidney grafts in rats and mice. However, this protocol does not work for MHC mismatched skin grafts in rats or mice. Furthermore, LEW rats that accept WF cardiac allografts after irradiation and repopulation reject subsequent WF skin grafts. Treatment of skin allograft donors with methotrexate prior to grafting onto irradiated and reconstituted mice resulted in doubling of the mean survival time. Analysis of which antigens provoked skin graft rejection by irradiation and reconstituted animals revealed the importance of I region antigens. Cardiac allograft acceptance by irradiated and reconstituted animals is mediated by suppressor cells found in the spleen. Adoptively tolerant LEW rats accepted WF skin grafts in 50% of grafted animals. Analysis of this phenomenon revealed that the adoptive transfer procedure itself was important in achieving skin allograft acceptance by these animals. In general, it seems that the lack of ability of irradiated and reconstituted animals to accept fully MHC disparate skin grafts results from the inability of these animals to suppress lymph node effector cells against I region antigen seen on highly immunogenic allogeneic Langerhans cells in the skin

  14. Glucorticoids/insulin ratio in irradiated animal blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizina, T.Yu.

    1990-01-01

    Similar changes in blood levels of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and glucocorticoids (GC) were observed in rats, mice and dogs after X-irradiation with lethal doses. The use of the blood GC/IRI ratio indices in estimating the functional status of the exposed organism is discussed

  15. Irradiation of animal products. Aspects and applications [sterilizing - preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavaro, E.; Bentley, S.; Maggi, E.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997, FDA finally approved irradiation of bovine ground meat as a mean of controlling pathogenic microorganisms; this acknowledgement probably preludes a widespread employment of this technology. The Authors take into account the various aspects of this controversal process, that still has difficulty in becoming popular, due to a substantial lack of information in public opinion [it

  16. Effect of x irradiation on the vascularization of experimental animal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, Y; Ogawa, F; Nishiguchi, H; Tanaka, N; Murakami, K [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1975-03-01

    The authors studied the effect of ionizing radiation on blood vessels and tumor growth in two animal tumor systems: a third generation isoplants of a mammary cancer and a spontaneously arising squamous cell carcinoma. Single cell suspensions were transplanted into a C3H and a C3Hf mouse respectively. They were irradiated once with 2000 rad when the tumors reached about 8 mm in diameter. Microangiography was performed at a constant temperature and pressure, and a contrast medium containing lead-oxide and gelatin was flushed the vena cava for 10 min. at 120 mmHg. Tumor shrinkage was followed by continuous regrowth. The basic vasculature of the mammary carcinoma consisted of abundant large and fine blood vessels corkscrewed or stretched from the periphery of the tumor to its center in complex reticular networks. One day after irradiation there were small scattered avascular areas which, by the third day formed a large central necrosis. Supervascularization was also observed, indicating that some hypoxic tumor cells could be reoxygenized. In 5 days vascularization was similar to that of a nonirradiated tumor. Conversely, The squamous cell carcinoma showed peripheral and central vascularization with abundant vascular and avascular areas and extravasion in the large avascular area. Two days after irradiation the vessels were dilated. At 3 days peripheral fine vessels were damaged but the central vasculature remained intact. Unlike the mammary carcinoma, supervascularization was not the typical finding. At 5 days, vascularization was similar to that of a nonirradiated tumor.

  17. Population-animating on self protection of over irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, I.

    1994-01-01

    Decrease of over irradiation of the population, by X-rays examinations and from radon, can be helped by self protection of the population. This one must previously have sufficiently information about the radiation and about the prevention of the radiation. The author has organised and continually carried out health education of the population, in such a manner as it was desired upon an asking of the population. After eight years of activity in this manner the radiation exposition of the population was a third lesser. The health education about the prevention and protection of the radiation exposition must be organized systematically and continually by the leading of responsible experts and corresponding institutions

  18. Radiation Effect on Secondary Cancerization by Tumour Cell Grafts. Take of Irradiated Tumour Cells in Irradiated and Non-Irradiated Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costachel, O.; Sandru, Gh.; Kitzulescu, I. [Oncological Institute, Bucharest (Romania)

    1969-11-15

    This study was designed to determine the ability of haemocytoblastoma, SME and Jensen tumours, which had been irradiated in vitro, to take in C{sub 57}BL/6 mice or Wistar rats that were whole-body irradiated at 0.4 kR and 0.6 kR respectively. It was found-that the take of tumour cell grafts irradiated in vitro increased in whole-body irradiated mice and rats but not in non-irradiated ones. When Wistar rats, that had been whole-body irradiated with 0.7 and 0.8 kR 1 - 7 months earlier and survived after treatment, were grafted with Jensen tumour cells irradiated in vitro with 3 kR they were found to develop tumours and lung metastases (in contrast to non-irradiated rats). A cross resistance against non-irradiated Jensen tumour cells was obtained in non- irradiated Wistar rats by grafting irradiated Jensen tumour cells. Chromosomal analysis showed two supplementary giant markers in the Jensen tumour cells that had been irradiated in vitro before grafting. (author)

  19. Inactivation by gamma irradiation of animal viruses in simulated laboratory effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, F.C.; Ouwerkerk, T.; McKercher, P.

    1982-01-01

    Several animal viruses were treated with gamma radiation from a 60 Co source under conditions which might be found in effluent from an animal disease laboratory. Swine vesicular disease virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and blue-tongue virus were irradiated in tissues from experimentally infected animals. Pseudorabies virus, fowl plague virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus were irradiated in liquid animal feces. All were tested in animals and in vitro. The D 10 values, that is, the doses required to reduce infectivity by 1 log 10 , were not apparently different from those expected from predictions based on other data and theoretical considerations. The existence of the viruses in pieces of tissues or in liquid feces made no differences in the efficacy of the gamma radiation for inactivating them. Under the ''worst case'' conditions (most protective for virus) simulated in this study, no infectious agents would survive 4.0 Mrads

  20. Influence of radioprotectors on total body weight evolution and on oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.; Martine, G.; Bargy, E.; Andrieu, L.

    Comparison of total body weight evolution and oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals, protected by various well known radioprotective substances, isolated or in mixture, with evolution and consumption of non protected animals irradiated at the same dose and with these of check animals [fr

  1. ICP-AES analysis of trace elements in serum from animals fed with irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi

    1986-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by ICP-AES in serum from animals fed with irradiated food is described. In order to demonstrate that irradiated food is suitable for human consumption, it is necessary to perform an experiment of animal feeding with these food before use for human. Trace element analysis in animal serum could provide an actual evidence for further human consumption study. 53 serum samples of the rats fed with irradiated food were obtained. After ashed and solved, ICP-AES analysis has been used for determining 20 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitation is in the range of 10 -2 -10 -3 ppm for different elements. The recovery of elements is from 70.08% to 98.28%. The relative standard deviation is found to be 0.71% to 11.52%

  2. Enuresis, Firesetting, and Cruelty to Animals: Does the Ego Triad Show Predictive Validity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, Michael Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    The hypothesis tested in this study was that the presence of enuresis and cruelty to animals in juvenile firesetters would be significantly related to recidivistic firesetting. No relationship was found between firesetting recidivism and enuresis. However, juveniles who were identified as being cruel to animals were more likely to engage in…

  3. Evaluation of the analgesic activity and safety of ketorolac in whole body fractionated gamma irradiated animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic activity and the toxicity of ketorolac in normal and fractionated (1.5 Gy/day/4 days γ-irradiated animals. Determination of brain serotonin content and serum prostaglandin level were also undertaken. The analgesic activity was tested using formalin test, at three dose levels (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg after 1 and 7 days post radiation exposure. LD50 determinations and assessment of liver and kidney function tests were performed. Our results indicated marked analgesic effects on the early and late phases of nociception. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation increased brain serotonin content. The acute LD50 of ketorolac was decreased in irradiated animals as compared to the LD50 of normal animals. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation induced an elevation of gastric mucin content, urea and BUN levels on the 1st day post irradiation, whereas, albumin level was lowered and globulin level was elevated after 7 days post irradiation. Depending on this study the dose of ketorolac used for treating cancer patients addressed to radiotherapy should be reduced, however, this requires further clinical confirmation.

  4. [Animal experiment study of anastomosis healing after partial resection of the pre-irradiated thoracic esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C; Nilles-Schendera, A; Frommhold, H

    2000-01-01

    Multimodal therapeutic concepts in cases of neoplasms of the intestinal tract entail the risk of undesirable complications with respect to healing of wounds and anastomoses. The separate steps of a combined treatment consisting radiation therapy and partial resection of the thoracic esophagus were performed in animal experiments to study the effect of radiation therapy on the healing of anastomoses. Adult non-purebred dogs were irradiated in a defined thoracic field with a Betatron (42 MeV) and subsequently underwent esophagectomy. After resection of a 2 cm segment of the esophagus end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Different methods of irradiation and postoperative observation times resulted in a total of 8 groups of 3 animals each. Fractionated irradiation was definitely better tolerated than irradiation with a high single doses. The temporary delay of the anastomotic healing was documented histologically. Only one case of anastomotic leakage occurred, and impaired wound healing was observed in only one animal. The mode of irradiation must be regarded as important for the clinical course. Fractionated preoperative irradiation in the area of the thoracic esophagus does not lead to any relevant disturbance of wound and anastomotic healing with meticulous surgical technique and adequate intensive postoperative care. The basic feasibility of surgical therapy combined with preoperative radiotherapy in tumors of the upper digestive tract was confirmed by our experimental work.

  5. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  6. Effect of ceruloplasmin on some cellular and humoral immunity indices in irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdyins'kikh, N.K.; Savtsova, Z.D.; Yindik, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    The ceruloplasmin (CD) in animals being permanently under combined external and internal low-intensity ionizing irradiation is shown to increase the level of cellular immunity reactions, including antiviral ones, and of natural resistance reactions, to decrease probability of derangement of biosynthetic processes during the development of immune response, and to increase resistance of animals to influenza infection. The influence of C P on humoral antiviral immunity was not observed

  7. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

  8. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, 252 Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by 60 Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use

  9. Pencilbeam irradiation technique for whole brain radiotherapy: technical and biological challenges in a small animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schültke, Elisabeth; Trippel, Michael; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Renier, Michel; Bartzsch, Stefan; Requardt, Herwig; Döbrössy, Máté D; Nikkhah, Guido

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted the first in-vivo experiments in pencilbeam irradiation, a new synchrotron radiation technique based on the principle of microbeam irradiation, a concept of spatially fractionated high-dose irradiation. In an animal model of adult C57 BL/6J mice we have determined technical and physiological limitations with the present technical setup of the technique. Fifty-eight animals were distributed in eleven experimental groups, ten groups receiving whole brain radiotherapy with arrays of 50 µm wide beams. We have tested peak doses ranging between 172 Gy and 2,298 Gy at 3 mm depth. Animals in five groups received whole brain radiotherapy with a center-to-center (ctc) distance of 200 µm and a peak-to-valley ratio (PVDR) of ∼ 100, in the other five groups the ctc was 400 µm (PVDR ∼ 400). Motor and memory abilities were assessed during a six months observation period following irradiation. The lower dose limit, determined by the technical equipment, was at 172 Gy. The LD50 was about 1,164 Gy for a ctc of 200 µm and higher than 2,298 Gy for a ctc of 400 µm. Age-dependent loss in motor and memory performance was seen in all groups. Better overall performance (close to that of healthy controls) was seen in the groups irradiated with a ctc of 400 µm.

  10. Irradiated T. cruzi and resistant consomic animals can be useful in Chagas disease studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti; Passos, Luiz Augusto Correa; Salgado, Andreia Ruis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Multidisciplinar para a Investigacao Biologica (CEMIB/UNICAMP)], e-mail: viviliotti@cemib.unicamp.br; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Human Chagas disease is considered the most significant parasitic disease in Latin America. It is estimated that 16-18 million people are infected by T. cruzi. As a consequence, approximately 50,000 deaths occur every year. The acute infection usually goes unrecognized and enters into a chronic stage that persists throughout the host's life span. However, roughly 30% of infected individuals eventually will develop disease with an array of possible manifestations affecting the heart, the digestive tract, and/or the peripheral nervous system. This disease is commonly modeled in inbred mice even though mouse strains used to simulate experimental infection vary considerably. In this way, Wrightsman and Trischmann showed that chromosome 17 was directly involved in a T. cruzi resistance, showing the influence of host's genetic constitution on disease severity. Additionally, in 2003, Passos and Graefe, working separately, quantified parasite burdens in resistant and susceptible strains and applied a backcross strategy to map the genomic loci linked to susceptibility and resistance in inbred mice. The genomes of the animals were scanned with microsatellite markers and the results found by these authors showed that the resistance mechanism is polygenic and is under the control of a complex network. In the particular case of Y strain, in vivo assays indicated that survival was related to the chromosomes 7,11,14,17 and 19. In order to evaluate the influence of each isolated chromosome as well as their interactions, we employed susceptible isogenic mice to construct consomic lineages for each one of those chromosomes. The consomic strains were injected with irradiated and native forms of Y strain T. cruzi, and the infectivity parameters were evaluated by quantitative methods. Radiation caused inability of trypanosomes to infect and kill mice, when these parasites were irradiated with 1 kGy of gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. In this experiment we used 10{sup 1

  11. Irradiated T. cruzi and resistant consomic animals can be useful in Chagas disease studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti; Passos, Luiz Augusto Correa; Salgado, Andreia Ruis; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2009-01-01

    Human Chagas disease is considered the most significant parasitic disease in Latin America. It is estimated that 16-18 million people are infected by T. cruzi. As a consequence, approximately 50,000 deaths occur every year. The acute infection usually goes unrecognized and enters into a chronic stage that persists throughout the host's life span. However, roughly 30% of infected individuals eventually will develop disease with an array of possible manifestations affecting the heart, the digestive tract, and/or the peripheral nervous system. This disease is commonly modeled in inbred mice even though mouse strains used to simulate experimental infection vary considerably. In this way, Wrightsman and Trischmann showed that chromosome 17 was directly involved in a T. cruzi resistance, showing the influence of host's genetic constitution on disease severity. Additionally, in 2003, Passos and Graefe, working separately, quantified parasite burdens in resistant and susceptible strains and applied a backcross strategy to map the genomic loci linked to susceptibility and resistance in inbred mice. The genomes of the animals were scanned with microsatellite markers and the results found by these authors showed that the resistance mechanism is polygenic and is under the control of a complex network. In the particular case of Y strain, in vivo assays indicated that survival was related to the chromosomes 7,11,14,17 and 19. In order to evaluate the influence of each isolated chromosome as well as their interactions, we employed susceptible isogenic mice to construct consomic lineages for each one of those chromosomes. The consomic strains were injected with irradiated and native forms of Y strain T. cruzi, and the infectivity parameters were evaluated by quantitative methods. Radiation caused inability of trypanosomes to infect and kill mice, when these parasites were irradiated with 1 kGy of gamma rays from a 60 Co source. In this experiment we used 10 1 , 10 2 , 10 3 , 10 4

  12. Influence of coamide on the morphological status of pancreatic islands of irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejfullin, F.Kh.; Atabekov, T.A.; Iskhanbekov, B.I.; Salikhodzhaev, Z.; Rakhimov, T.T.

    1986-01-01

    X-irradiation of animals with a dose of 6 Gy brings about fatty degeneration of the liver and a concurrent destruction of the morphologic status in functional activity of the insular apparatus. The administration of coamide promotes the recovery of the morphological and physiological status of the pancreas

  13. Whole-body γ-irradiation effects on catecholamine concentration in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makashev, Zh.K.; Uteshev, T.A.; Abylaev, Zh. A.; Zhurnist, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    On the whole-body gamma-radiation activity in the exchanges of catecholamines (adrenalin and non-adrenalin) and their predecessors (dopamine and DOPA) in the rats tissue organism, indicate the infringement of irradiated animals in different links of biological synthesis the bio-gen amines in different phases of the radiation: DOPA→dopamine, dopamine→adrenalin, adrenalin→non-adrenalin. (author)

  14. Body composition changes following the supplementation of different food additives to irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that deposition of fat and / or protein in animal's body before irradiation or using radio - protector material such as soyabean oil may reduce the hazard effects of radiation on life span, body weight and body compartments. Therefore, 286 mice ( 144 males and 142 females) after chemical maturity were used in this study. The animals were divided to 4 major groups. The first group was fed on chow diet, the second group was fed on radioprotector diet ( basel diet), the third group was fed on high energy diet and the forth group fed on high protein diet, for 7 weeks before the exposure to gamma-rays. At the exposure day each nutritional group was divided to 3 exposure treatments ( non-irradiated, 800 and 1200 rads). The previous hypothesis was studied for 42 days after irradiation

  15. Spirogyra varians mutant generated by high dose gamma-irradiation shows increased antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak-Jyung; Yoon, Minchul; Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant (Mut) produced by gamma irradiation. Methanol extracts were prepared from Spirogyra varians wild-type and Mut plants, and their antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. Antioxidant parameters, including the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, were higher in the Mut extract. Moreover, the TPC level was higher (P<0.05) in the Mut methanol extract. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation-induced S. varians Mut has superior antioxidant properties. - Highlights: ► The antioxidative properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant produced by gamma-irradiation was investiated. ► The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content levels were higher in mutant strain. ► These results suggest that gamma-irradiation induced algae mutant with superior antioxidant properties.

  16. The influence of chronic gamma-irradiation on the structure of follicular system of animal ovaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banetskaya, N.B.; Amvros'ev, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of a chronic gamma - irradiation in a low doze (0.5 Gy, capacity of a doze 1.8 * 10 -7 Gy / s) on follicular apparatus of ovary of young white female rats was investigated. Quantity of the follicles on the all stages of development was calculated. It is detected that the chronic irradiation by a low doze of young rats causes to morphological changes in ovaries. At once after an irradiation is marked the ovulation stimulation, it can be connected with change of the hormone balance in a body of the animals. In one month after an irradiation quantity of follicles on the all stages of development is reduced and number of atretic bodies is increased. The similar disorders can be connected as with direct influence of ionizing radiation on oocytes and them follicular cells, and also with action through change in bodies of the endocrine system. 14 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Determination of bacterial endotoxins in blood of animals and humans subjected to irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, P N; Shchul' s, T S [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR)

    1981-01-01

    The content of Gram-negative bacterium endotoxins in the irradiated organism was determined by the use of actinomycin D sensitizing the organism to the effect of such toxins. Regularities in the accumulation of Gram-negative bacterium endotoxins in the irradiated organism were studied as well as the dependence of animal sensitization on the actinomycin D dose. Possibilities for the development of endotoxemia in oncologic patients in the process of radiotheraphy were traced. It is shown that the radiotherapy of the intestine containing large quantaties of bacteria and their toxins is accompanied by endotoxemia; in the first part of the radiotherapy course its manifestation depends on the irradiation dose; having reached a specific level, endotoxemia retains its symptoms till the end of irradiation. It is indicated that the determination of bacterium endotoxins is of interest when studying not only the development of endotoxemia in the organism exposed to radiation, hut also many other toxemic states.

  18. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...-0178] Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron... electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. This action... CFR part 579) to provide for the safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of...

  19. Design of small-animal thermal neutron irradiation facility at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.B.

    1996-01-01

    The broad beam facility (BBF) at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) can provide a thermal neutron beam with flux intensity and quality comparable to the beam currently used for research on neutron capture therapy using cell-culture and small-animal irradiations. Monte Carlo computations were made, first, to compare with the dosimetric measurements at the existing BBF and, second, to calculate the neutron and gamma fluxes and doses expected at the proposed BBF. Multiple cell cultures or small animals could be irradiated simultaneously at the so-modified BBF under conditions similar to or better than those individual animals irradiated at the existing thermal neutron irradiation Facility (TNIF) of the BMRR. The flux intensity of the collimated thermal neutron beam at the proposed BBF would be 1.7 x 10 10 n/cm 2 ·s at 3-MW reactor power, the same as at the TNIF. However, the proposed collimated beam would have much lower gamma (0.89 x 10 -11 cGy·cm 2 /n th ) and fast neutron (0.58 x 10 -11 cGy·cm 2 /n th ) contaminations, 64 and 19% of those at the TNIF, respectively. The feasibility of remodeling the facility is discussed

  20. Two-stage implant placement technique for the management of irradiated jaws: An animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Arnaout, Mohamed A; Elsafi, Mohamed H; Kassem, Youssef M

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy results in diminished bone remodeling capacity and an elevated risk of osteoradionecrosis, which can negatively influence the survival rate of dental implants. Patients receiving radiotherapy are advised not to receive dental implants during or soon after completing their radiotherapy. The purpose of this animal study was to investigate a 2-stage implant placement technique designed to diminish applied trauma on irradiated bone. Two groups of white New Zealand rabbits received radiotherapy in ascending doses (2, 4, 8 Gy), while a nonirradiated group served as control. Three weeks after completion of the last radiotherapy session, one of the irradiated groups and the control group received titanium dental implants bilaterally in the femur head. For the second irradiated group, an osteotomy was performed, and the surgical wound was left to heal for 2 weeks before implant placement. All animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after implant placement, and histomorphometric analysis was used to study bone-implant contact (n=14, α=.05). Statistical analysis revealed significantly higher (F=159, P<.001) bone-implant contact in the 2-stage (40.2 ±1.9) implant placement technique than in the immediately placed implants (21.2 ±2.3) in irradiated bone. Both of the groups had a significantly lower bone-to-implant contact ratio than the non-irradiated control (64.2 ±3.8). Within the limitations of this animal study, the 2-stage implant placement technique could be used to reduce trauma in irradiated bone and to improve wound healing around dental implants. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Pasteurization on the Nutritive Composition of Commercially Available Animal Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Catherine D; Cassidy, Joseph P; Kelly, John P

    2008-01-01

    Gamma radiation is used to sterilize diets for specific pathogen-free (SPF) animals. Because a gamma-irradiated diet was linked to leukoencephalomyelopathy in SPF cats, we investigated the effects of ‘typical’ (28.9–34.3 kGy) and ‘high-end’ (38.4–48.7 kGy) doses of gamma irradiation and of pasteurization (at 107 °C for 15 min) on the amounts of fat; protein; carbohydrate (and taurine in cat diet); vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, and B12; and peroxide in commercially available dry cat, dog, and rodent diets. The only treatment-related changes occurred with vitamin A and peroxide. The typical and high-end doses of gamma irradiation reduced the vitamin A level of the cat diet to 42% and 30% of the untreated value, respectively—levels below recommended allowances for growth and reproduction. Only the higher irradiation dose reduced vitamin A in the rodent diet, and neither dose altered the canine diet. Pasteurization reduced the vitamin A content of the cat diet to 50% of its original level, which was within the recommended level for this species. Irradiation increased the peroxide content of all 3 animal diets: by approximately 11-fold with the typical dose and by 14- to 25-fold with the high-end dose. Therefore gamma irradiation can have profound, selective effects on the vitamin A and peroxide contents of dry diets, and caution is advised when feeding such diets long-term and exclusively to SPF animals, particularly cats. Furthermore, pasteurization (with its fewer deleterious effects) may represent an alternative method of decontaminating diets for rodents, dogs, and cats. PMID:19049256

  2. Precise image-guided irradiation of small animals: a flexible non-profit platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Löck, Steffen; Dietrich, Antje; Fursov, Andriy; Haase, Robert; Lukas, Mathias; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Bütof, Rebecca; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Rimarzig, Bernd; Sobiella, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical in vivo studies using small animals are essential to develop new therapeutic options in radiation oncology. Of particular interest are orthotopic tumour models, which better reflect the clinical situation in terms of growth patterns and microenvironmental parameters of the tumour as well as the interplay of tumours with the surrounding normal tissues. Such orthotopic models increase the technical demands and the complexity of preclinical studies as local irradiation with therapeutically relevant doses requires image-guided target localisation and accurate beam application. Moreover, advanced imaging techniques are needed for monitoring treatment outcome. We present a novel small animal image-guided radiation therapy (SAIGRT) system, which allows for precise and accurate, conformal irradiation and x-ray imaging of small animals. High accuracy is achieved by its robust construction, the precise movement of its components and a fast high-resolution flat-panel detector. Field forming and x-ray imaging is accomplished close to the animal resulting in a small penumbra and a high image quality. Feasibility for irradiating orthotopic models has been proven using lung tumour and glioblastoma models in mice. The SAIGRT system provides a flexible, non-profit academic research platform which can be adapted to specific experimental needs and therefore enables systematic preclinical trials in multicentre research networks. (paper)

  3. A small animal image guided irradiation system study using 3D dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xin; Wuu, Cheng-Shie; Admovics, John

    2015-01-01

    In a high resolution image-guided small animal irradiation platform, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is integrated with an irradiation unit for precise targeting. Precise quality assurance is essential for both imaging and irradiation components. The conventional commissioning techniques with films face major challenges due to alignment uncertainty and labour intensive film preparation and scanning. In addition, due to the novel design of this platform the mouse stage rotation for CBCT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for irradiation. Because these two rotations are associated with different mechanical systems, discrepancy between rotation isocenters exists. In order to deliver x-ray precisely, it is essential to verify coincidence of the imaging and the irradiation isocenters. A 3D PRESAGE dosimeter can provide an excellent tool for checking dosimetry and verifying coincidence of irradiation and imaging coordinates in one system. Dosimetric measurements were performed to obtain beam profiles and percent depth dose (PDD). Isocentricity and coincidence of the mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated with starshots acquired using PRESAGE dosimeters. A single PRESAGE dosimeter can provide 3 -D information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies

  4. Hemopoiesis recovery of irradiated rats conjugated with normo- and poly- cythemic animal by aortic anastomoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Yuji

    1980-01-01

    The experiment was designed to observe the possible relation between myelopoietic and erythropoietic activities of circulating nucleated cells. Wistar rats were lethally irradiated with 60 Co, 1000 r once. Two days after irradiation the bone marrow cells had faded completely. At this stage animals were conjugated with normocythemic or polycythemic rats by aortic anastomoses. After conjugation the aplastic bone marrow of the irradiated animal rapidly regained its hemopoietic activity in cases having normocythemic and polycythemic partners. Active erythropoiesis and myelopoiesis were found 96 h after parabiosis in those having normocythemic partners. In animals having polycythemic partners, however, erythropoiesis was successfully suppressed. An increase in lymphoid cell numbers was found in place of decreased erythroid cells, but there was no change in the myeloid cell proliferation rate. No hemopoietic precursor cells or immature cells were found in circulating blood all through the experimental period before and after parabiosis. The data suggest that circulating nucleated cells have marked erythropoietic activity. Erythropoietic cells may be somehow related to lymphoid cells independent of myelopoietic activity. (author)

  5. Endonuclease α from Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows increased activity on ultraviolet irradiated native DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.W.; Haynes, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Endonuclease α isolated from the nucleus of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a DNA endonuclease which has been shown to act preferentially on denatured T7 DNA. The purified enzyme is more active with UV-irradiated native T7 DNA than with unirradiated substrate. The relation between damage, measured by pyrimidine dimer concentration, and excess endonuclease activity is most readily explained by local denaturation caused by the presence of pyrimidine dimers. When three radiation sensitive mutants of yeast were tested for the level of endonuclease α present, none were found lacking the enzyme. However, nuclei of strain rad 1-1, a mutant that may be defective in heteroduplex repair as well as excision repair, were found to contain reduced levels of the endonuclease. (orig./AJ) [de

  6. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-26

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects.We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model.Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males.

  7. Laser irradiation effects and its possible mechanisms of action on spermatozoa functions in domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Lone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review pertains the laser irradiation effects and its possible mechanisms of action on spermatozoa functions in domestic animals. To improve artificial insemination, laser is sensitive and cost effective technique, when compared to other conventional methods. Laser may have both positive and negative effects on spermatozoa functions. Since the effects of light are mediated by reactive oxygen species, and the levels of these reactive oxygen species following irradiating spermatozoa with laser may be responsible for determining the effects of laser on sperm. Dose of laser may be regarded as of great significance and this dosage of laser may be responsible for determining its effects on spermatozoa. Optimum dosage of laser for improving seminal attributes may vary among various species and this need to be standardized in each of them. The beneficial effects include improving sperm livability, acrosomal integrity, hypo-osmotic swelling response, mitochondrial function and computer-aided sperm analysis parameters. The increase in cytochrome c oxidase activity, ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential, in laser irradiated cells may be responsible for enhanced sperm quality parameters. Improving fertility with laser irradiated spermatozoa has been reported in few species like boar and need to be elaborated in other species. In conclusion laser may be regarded as an easy, cheap and time saving technology for improving artificial insemination; in addition, laser may have various potential applications in the field of reproductive biotechnology as well as in livestock farms and veterinary polyclinics.

  8. Studies on a possible using of penicillin and specific globulin for treatment of Siberia ulcer infection in irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nikov, V.A.; Mal'tsev, V.N.

    1975-01-01

    The efficiency of anti-anthracic globulin and penicillin for treating infectious anthrax was compared in experiments on 160 guinea pigs and 400 white mice irradiated with sub-lethal doses of cobalt-60 gamma rays. It was found that penicillin retained its effectiveness in the irradiated animals whereas anti-anthracic globulin lost much of its therapeutic efficiency. (auth.)

  9. SU-E-T-457: Design and Characterization of An Economical 192Ir Hemi-Brain Small Animal Irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, M; Wilson, Z; Sio, T; Beltran, C; Tryggestad, E; Gupta, S; Blackwell, C; McCollough, K; Sarkaria, J; Furutani, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the design and dosimetric characterization of a simple and economical small animal irradiator. Methods: A high dose rate 192Ir brachytherapy source from a commercially available afterloader was used with a 1.3 centimeter thick tungsten collimator to provide sharp beam penumbra suitable for hemi-brain irradiation of mice. The unit is equipped with continuous gas anesthesia to allow robust animal immobilization. Dosimetric characterization of the device was performed with Gafchromic film. The penumbra from the small animal irradiator was compared under similar collimating conditions to the penumbra from 6 MV photons, 6 MeV electrons, and 20 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator as well as 300 kVp photons from an orthovoltage unit and Monte Carlo simulated 90 MeV protons. Results: The tungsten collimator provides a sharp penumbra suitable for hemi-brain irradiation, and dose rates on the order of 200 cGy/minute were achieved. The sharpness of the penumbra attainable with this device compares favorably to those measured experimentally for 6 MV photons, and 6 and 20 MeV electron beams from a linear accelerator. Additionally, the penumbra was comparable to those measured for a 300 kVp orthovoltage beam and a Monte Carlo simulated 90 MeV proton beam. Conclusions: The small animal irradiator described here can be built for under $1,000 and used in conjunction with any commercial brachytherapy afterloader to provide a convenient and cost-effective option for small animal irradiation experiments. The unit offers high dose rate delivery and sharp penumbra, which is ideal for hemi-brain irradiation of mice. With slight modifications to the design, irradiation of sites other than the brain could be accomplished easily. Due to its simplicity and low cost, the apparatus described is an attractive alternative for small animal irradiation experiments requiring a sharp penumbra

  10. A Preliminary Study of the Application of a Model Animal-Caenorhabidity elegans' Exposure to a Low-Energy Ion Irradiation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuelan; Cai Kezhou; Feng Huiyun; Xu An; Yuan Hang; Yu Zengliang

    2007-01-01

    Because of the lack of suitable animal models adapted to high vacuum stress in the low-energy ion implantation system, the bio-effects ion irradiation with an energy less than 50 keV on multi-cellular animal individuals have never been investigated so far. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proved to be an excellent animal model used for the study of a broad spectrum of biological issues. The purpose of this work was to investigate the viability of this animal under ion irradiation. We studied the protection effects of glycerol and trehalose on the enhancement of nematodes' ability to bear the vacuum stress. The results showed that the survival of the nematodes was enhanced remarkably under long and slow desiccation, even without glycerol and trehalose. 15% glycerol showed a better anti-vacuum stress effect on the nematodes than trehalose did under short-time desiccation. Low-temperature pre-treatment or post-treatment of the samples had no obvious effect on the survival scored after argon ion irradiation. Moreover, little effect was induced by 15% glycerol- and vacuum-exposure on germ cell apoptosis, compared to the untreated control sample. It issuggested that such treatment would provide relatively low background for genotoxic evaluations with ion irradiation

  11. Possible nature and specificity of a protein factor favoringsolubilization of chromatin from irradiated animal thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldatenkov, V.A.; Trebenok, Z.A.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that activation of endonucleolysis of thymocyte nuclear chromatin by protein factor from the cells of irradiated animals is not conditioned by its nuclease activity or ability to activate Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ - dependent lymphocyte endonuclease. DNA degradation character and kinetics of accumulation of the forming products doesn't change in autolysis of thymocyte nucleus. It is assumed that protein factor doesn't participate in starting mechanisms of postirradiation chromatin degradation but can be of significance at delayed stages of the process. The discovered effect is characterized by tissue and specific characteristic

  12. Part 1. Effect of pyralgine on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in irradiated animals (600 R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaryn, I.; Wojciak, Z.; Godlewski, J.; Nowakowska, E.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to check the influence of pyralgine (40 mg/kg i.p.) on the hypnotic activity of phenobarbital (70 mg/kg i.p.) in rats after whole-body irradiation (600 R). Premedication with pyralgine produced statistically significant prolongation of animals sleep and shortened the time necessary for falling asleep after phenobarbital. The results seem to be connected with more rapid absorption of phenobarbital and its higher level in plasma and, first of all, in the brain tissue after premedication with pyralgine. We suggest that pharmacodynamical interaction between phenobarbital and pyralgine also exists. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  13. Improving the reliability of GUB-20000 gamma unit for large laboratory animals irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videnskij, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    GUB-20000 gamma unit for large laboratory animals irradiation is described and results of investigation into its reliability improvement are considered. Cables of superstrength high-modular (SSHM) polymer fibre and capron fiber were tested to establish their applicability in the above unit. Samples were exposed to gamma-radiation and fast electrons and were tested for tensile properties. Application of SSHM-fiber cables to modernize the GUB-20000 unit was found to be perspective due to superhigh radiation strength. 5 refs., 1 tab

  14. Determination of ionizing irradiation summary dose for animals of West Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'tsev, V.E.; Nasirov, R.N.; Gal'tseva, E.V.; Lebedev, Ya.S.; Bubnov, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    By mean of tooth enamel EPR dosimetry the accumulated radiation doses received animals near Azgyr and Tajsojgan nuclear test sites (West Kazakstan) were determined . In the work camel's two teeth (Tajsojgan) and cow's two teeth (from Azgyr and Tajsojgan test sites - accordingly) were used. Registration of EPR spectrum has been carried out on production-type EPR-spectrometer ESR-300 of Bruker firm under temperature 77 K. SHF power level is 5 MW. Constant magnetic field's modulation frequency was equal to 100 k Hz and modulation amplitude was equal to 3,2 Gs. Received data allow to make conclusion that all tested animals have got summary dose exceeded significantly a natural background radiation dose (1-1,5 μGy/y. Comparison of irradiation dose accumulated in both the front and back tooth walls testifies about predominance of hard γ-rays in the spectrum. 4 refs., 2 figs

  15. A study of the behaviour of irradiated or unirradiated grafts in the camera aquosa of irradiated and unirradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djalali-Behzad, G.

    1969-06-01

    Following grafts of new born mice spinal ganglia in the 'camera aquosa' of adult mice, the authors tried hematopoietic tissue grafts in the same conditions. The growth of iso-logous and hetero-logous bone marrow in the 'camera aquosa' showed that this tissue, even after exposure to supralethal doses, was capable of survival and growth. A counter-experiment with non irradiated bone marrow grafts in the 'camera aquosa' of rats delivered 700 rads led to the conclusion that the environment, intoxicated by exposure, acted on the graft so that after vascularization it became unable to grow. (author) [fr

  16. Multi-institutional MicroCT image comparison of image-guided small animal irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Chris D.; Lindsay, Patricia; E Graves, Edward; Wong, Eugene; Perez, Jessica R.; Poirier, Yannick; Ben-Bouchta, Youssef; Kanesalingam, Thilakshan; Chen, Haijian; E Rubinstein, Ashley; Sheng, Ke; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    To recommend imaging protocols and establish tolerance levels for microCT image quality assurance (QA) performed on conformal image-guided small animal irradiators. A fully automated QA software SAPA (small animal phantom analyzer) for image analysis of the commercial Shelley micro-CT MCTP 610 phantom was developed, in which quantitative analyses of CT number linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity and noise, geometric accuracy, spatial resolution by means of modulation transfer function (MTF), and CT contrast were performed. Phantom microCT scans from eleven institutions acquired with four image-guided small animal irradiator units (including the commercial PXi X-RAD SmART and Xstrahl SARRP systems) with varying parameters used for routine small animal imaging were analyzed. Multi-institutional data sets were compared using SAPA, based on which tolerance levels for each QA test were established and imaging protocols for QA were recommended. By analyzing microCT data from 11 institutions, we established image QA tolerance levels for all image quality tests. CT number linearity set to R 2  >  0.990 was acceptable in microCT data acquired at all but three institutions. Acceptable SNR  >  36 and noise levels  1.5 lp mm-1 for MTF  =  0.2) was obtained at all but four institutions due to their large image voxel size used (>0.275 mm). Ten of the eleven institutions passed the set QA tolerance for geometric accuracy (2000 HU for 30 mgI ml-1). We recommend performing imaging QA with 70 kVp, 1.5 mA, 120 s imaging time, 0.20 mm voxel size, and a frame rate of 5 fps for the PXi X-RAD SmART. For the Xstrahl SARRP, we recommend using 60 kVp, 1.0 mA, 240 s imaging time, 0.20 mm voxel size, and 6 fps. These imaging protocols should result in high quality images that pass the set tolerance levels on all systems. Average SAPA computation time for complete QA analysis for a 0.20 mm voxel, 400 slice Shelley phantom microCT data set

  17. Feasibility of small animal cranial irradiation with the microRT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiehl, Erich L.; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Malinowski, Kathleen T.; Limbrick, David; Jost, Sarah C.; Garbow, Joel R.; Rubin, Joshua B.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Khullar, Divya; Izaguirre, Enrique W.; Parikh, Parag J.; Low, Daniel A.; Hope, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate methods for small-animal CNS radiotherapy using the microRT system. Materials and Methods: A custom head immobilizer was designed and built to integrate with a pre-existing microRT animal couch. The Delrin couch-immobilizer assembly, compatible with multiple imaging modalities (CT, microCT, microMR, microPET, microSPECT, optical), was first imaged via CT in order to verify the safety and reproducibility of the immobilization method. Once verified, the subject animals were CT-scanned while positioned within the couch-immobilizer assembly for treatment planning purposes. The resultant images were then imported into CERR, an in-house-developed research treatment planning system, and registered to the microRTP treatment planning space using rigid registration. The targeted brain was then contoured and conformal radiotherapy plans were constructed for two separate studies: (1) a whole-brain irradiation comprised of two lateral beams at the 90 degree sign and 270 degree sign microRT treatment positions and (2) a hemispheric (left-brain) irradiation comprised of a single A-P vertex beam at the 0 degree sign microRT treatment position. During treatment, subject animals (n=48) were positioned to the CERR-generated treatment coordinates using the three-axis microRT motor positioning system and were irradiated using a clinical Ir-192 high-dose-rate remote after-loading system. The radiation treatment course consisted of 5 Gy fractions, 3 days per week. 90% of the subjects received a total dose of 30 Gy and 10% received a dose of 60 Gy. Results: Image analysis verified the safety and reproducibility of the immobilizer. CT scans generated from repeated reloading and repositioning of the same subject animal in the couch-immobilizer assembly were fused to a baseline CT. The resultant analysis revealed a 0.09 mm average, center-of-mass translocation and negligible volumetric error in the contoured, murine brain. The experimental use of the head

  18. Selection and adaptation in irradiated plant and animal populations: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.

    1981-03-01

    Available literature on the effects of ionizing radiation on mutation rates, variability and adaptive responses to selection in exposed plant and animal populations is reviewed. Accumulated variability, and hence potential selection differentials, may be increased by many times due to induced mutation. The radiation dose that maximizes induced mutation varies greatly among species, strains and genetic systems. Induced variability tends to enhance the respose to selection, but this effect may be delayed or prevented by an initial reduction in the heritability of induced variation. Significantly, the detrimental effects of harmful mutations in irradiated populations may exceed the beneficial effects of selection for adaptive characteristics. Selection for radioresistance may occur at lethal or sub-lethal radiation doses but dose relationships are highly variable. (author)

  19. Investigation of the diagnostic value of taurineuria status early after irradiation of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezkrovnaya, L.A.; Kostesha, N.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the features of taurine excretion early after irradiation of animals in comparison with the peripheral blood level of leukocytes is necessary for the development of methods of early diagnosis and prediction of an outcome of radiation disease. The paper is concerned with a study of the correlation between a dose of ionizing radiation and enhanced taurine excretion with urine in rats and dogs as compared to the time course of the blood level of leukocytes, an indicator used for the diagnosis of radiation disease. The doses were 2-10 Gy for rats and 5-15 Gy for dogs. Intensive taurine excretion was shown to be an early (recorded in the first hours after radiation exposure), stable and dose-dependent body reaction. The authors discussed the problem of the appropriateness of the use of this test for the diagnosis and prognosis of an outcome of acute radiation disease in combination with common indices

  20. Characterization and standardized radiation qualities deployment - NBR IEC 61225 - in a animal irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Samara; Magalhaes, Luis Alexandre Goncalves

    2015-01-01

    The present work consisted in the determination of additional aluminum filters, so that the Animal Irradiator of the Laboratory of Radiological Sciences-UERJ can operate in accordance with standard IEC 61267: 2005. In order to perform the measurements necessary for the determination of these filters, it was developed an additional filter positioning system coupled to the X-ray tube. The determination of these filters was performed to obtain the first half value layer (HVL) according to the window with the values given by the IEC 61267: 2005. It was used IPEN SRS-78 (Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine) software for the estimation of the total amount of the additional filtration through the measurements values of the first HVL. (author)

  1. Drug Interactions between some antiepileptic and certain hypocholesterolaemic drugs in irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, D.M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Drug Interactions between antiepileptic drug such as phenytoin and certain hypercholesterolaemia drug namely rosuvastatin were investigated on several biological parameters. Phenytoin (60 mg/kg i.p) and rosuvastatin (1.25 mg/kg i.p) were given either alone and in combination to normal and irradiated animals to investigate drug interactions between the test drugs. Anticonvulsant activity was evaluated using pentylenetetrazole in a dose (80 mg/kg i.p) in normal and irradiated mice. Brain neurotransmitters (glutamate and GABA) were investigated. Lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C) were determined. Liver functions such as serum Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) were also estimated. Oxidative stress bio markers namely serum malondialdehyde (MDA), serum nitric oxide (NO) and blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) were studied. Histopathological examinations of brain and liver tissues were performed. Administration of phenytoin concurrently with rosuvastatin is not recommended in patients receiving radiotherapy as dangerous side effects on liver functions and lipid profile may occur. The interactions between the two drugs in normal rats improve liver functions and lipid peroxidation. Apart from the action of the combination on total cholesterol, it improves lipid profile pattern. Rosuvastatin administration in combination with phenytoin may have additive anticonvulsant activity.

  2. Experimental Platform for Ultra-high Dose Rate FLASH Irradiation of Small Animals Using a Clinical Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schüler, Emil; Trovati, Stefania; King, Gregory; Lartey, Frederick; Rafat, Marjan; Villegas, Manuel; Praxel, A. Joe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G., E-mail: PMaxim@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A key factor limiting the effectiveness of radiation therapy is normal tissue toxicity, and recent preclinical data have shown that ultra-high dose rate irradiation (>50 Gy/s, “FLASH”) potentially mitigates this effect. However, research in this field has been strongly limited by the availability of FLASH irradiators suitable for small animal experiments. We present a simple methodologic approach for FLASH electron small animal irradiation with a clinically available linear accelerator (LINAC). Methods and Materials: We investigated the FLASH irradiation potential of a Varian Clinac 21EX in both clinical mode and after tuning of the LINAC. We performed detailed FLUKA Monte Carlo and experimental dosimetric characterization at multiple experimental locations within the LINAC head. Results: Average dose rates of ≤74 Gy/s were achieved in clinical mode, and the dose rate after tuning exceeded 900 Gy/s. We obtained 220 Gy/s at 1-cm depth for a >4-cm field size with 90% homogeneity throughout a 2-cm-thick volume. Conclusions: We present an approach for using a clinical LINAC for FLASH irradiation. We obtained dose rates exceeding 200 Gy/s after simple tuning of the LINAC, with excellent dosimetric properties for small animal experiments. This will allow for increased availability of FLASH irradiation to the general research community.

  3. Experimental Platform for Ultra-high Dose Rate FLASH Irradiation of Small Animals Using a Clinical Linear Accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Emil; Trovati, Stefania; King, Gregory; Lartey, Frederick; Rafat, Marjan; Villegas, Manuel; Praxel, A Joe; Loo, Billy W; Maxim, Peter G

    2017-01-01

    A key factor limiting the effectiveness of radiation therapy is normal tissue toxicity, and recent preclinical data have shown that ultra-high dose rate irradiation (>50 Gy/s, "FLASH") potentially mitigates this effect. However, research in this field has been strongly limited by the availability of FLASH irradiators suitable for small animal experiments. We present a simple methodologic approach for FLASH electron small animal irradiation with a clinically available linear accelerator (LINAC). We investigated the FLASH irradiation potential of a Varian Clinac 21EX in both clinical mode and after tuning of the LINAC. We performed detailed FLUKA Monte Carlo and experimental dosimetric characterization at multiple experimental locations within the LINAC head. Average dose rates of ≤74 Gy/s were achieved in clinical mode, and the dose rate after tuning exceeded 900 Gy/s. We obtained 220 Gy/s at 1-cm depth for a >4-cm field size with 90% homogeneity throughout a 2-cm-thick volume. We present an approach for using a clinical LINAC for FLASH irradiation. We obtained dose rates exceeding 200 Gy/s after simple tuning of the LINAC, with excellent dosimetric properties for small animal experiments. This will allow for increased availability of FLASH irradiation to the general research community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Animal experiments with rats as a contribution to the question of whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraub, A.; Doell, G.; Jonas, H.; Kindt, A.; Sattler, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    Recovery after sublethal radiation damage was studied in the white blood count which shows a fast reaction to attacks caused by radiation. The so-called 'fractionated-dose method' was used. This method detrmines to what extent the total dose must be raised for two partial doses given at different times to produce the same amount of damage as a single irradiation. The second dose was applied after 7. days. A dose reduction by protraction of the first dose over 2 days was only found after doses of 300 to 400 rad. Regarding the anorexia connected with the radiation syndrome, no differences were found at low doses between protracted and one-time irradiation. This suggests that there is no repair. (MG) [de

  5. An orally available, small-molecule polymerase inhibitor shows efficacy against a lethal morbillivirus infection in a large animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Stefanie A; Yan, Dan; Hovingh, Elise S; Evers, Taylor J; Enkirch, Theresa; Reddy, G Prabhakar; Sun, Aiming; Saindane, Manohar T; Arrendale, Richard F; Painter, George; Liotta, Dennis C; Natchus, Michael G; von Messling, Veronika; Plemper, Richard K

    2014-04-16

    Measles virus is a highly infectious morbillivirus responsible for major morbidity and mortality in unvaccinated humans. The related, zoonotic canine distemper virus (CDV) induces morbillivirus disease in ferrets with 100% lethality. We report an orally available, shelf-stable pan-morbillivirus inhibitor that targets the viral RNA polymerase. Prophylactic oral treatment of ferrets infected intranasally with a lethal CDV dose reduced viremia and prolonged survival. Ferrets infected with the same dose of virus that received post-infection treatment at the onset of viremia showed low-grade viral loads, remained asymptomatic, and recovered from infection, whereas control animals succumbed to the disease. Animals that recovered also mounted a robust immune response and were protected against rechallenge with a lethal CDV dose. Drug-resistant viral recombinants were generated and found to be attenuated and transmission-impaired compared to the genetic parent virus. These findings may pioneer a path toward an effective morbillivirus therapy that could aid measles eradication by synergizing with vaccination to close gaps in herd immunity due to vaccine refusal.

  6. PIXE analysis showed that the preirradiation enhanced recovery of bone marrow elements after challenging irradiation in C57BL/6N Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Yonezawa, M.; Nishiyama, F.

    2000-01-01

    Priming X-irradiation with 0.3-0.5 Gy induces radio-resistance in C57BL/6 strain of mice 2 weeks afterward. Elements in the bone marrow, sampled 11 days after challenging exposure to 5.0 Gy, were determined by PIXE. The challenging irradiation decreased Mg, P, S, K, Ca and Zn as well as dried bone marrow weight. The pre-irradiation enhanced recovery of these levels, indicating stimulated recovery of the metabolism int he tissue. Fe in both control (without pre-irradiation) and experimental groups increased to about twice the original value, showing elevated hemoglobin synthesis after challenging exposure. In previous studies we have reported that recovery of peripheral blood cell counts after sub-lethal irradiation was enhanced by the pre-irradiation. Further, study on accumulation of p53 and Bax proteins, which lead to apoptotic cell death, revealed that the pre-irradiation significantly suppressed accumulation of these proteins in the spleen after challenging irradiation with 3 Gy. These results and our present study suggest that the pre-irradiation decreased the spleen cell death, and favored re-growth of the spleen cells, resulting in stimulated recovery of metabolism for hematopoiesis in the bone marrow as well as in the spleen after challenging high dose irradiation. Stimulated recovery of Mg, P, S, K, Ca and Zn levels might indicate the importance of these elements in hematopoiesis. (author)

  7. Prevention of lung metastases by irradiation alone or combined with chemotherapy in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, J.; Haveman, J.

    1986-01-01

    Clinical observations indicate that the results of elective radiotherapy are disappointing when the subclinical metastases supposedly contain a large number of tumor cells. Experimental data confirm this indication: a rapid decrease in the effectiveness of radiation treatment of experimental metastases was observed with increasing number of tumor cells in the lung. Apart from the increase in cell number also the development of hypoxia during growth of subclinical metastases might explain part of the decrease in the effectiveness of elective radiation treatment. Experiments with the hypoxic cell sensitizer misonidazole in transplantable tumors in rodents indicate that this latter possibility might be relevant too for the clinical situation. Improvement of the results of an elective treatment might either be obtained by a reduction of the cell number to be treated with radiation, by prior treatment with a cytostatic drug or be dealing with the problem of hypoxia. Therefore in the present study the authors investigate the effectiveness of thorax irradiation combined with the treatment with cytostatic drugs (Actinomycin-D or 5-Fluorouracil) or the hypoxic cell sensitizer misonidazole in a mouse model with artificial lung metastases. The artificial lung metastases were obtained by intravenous injection of tumor cells in the tail vein of mice. The influence of thorax irradiation on the development of lung metastases was evaluated not only by recording the number of mice dying from lung metastases as parameter but also registered the pattern of lung metastases found at autopsy of animals which died from their disease. The response of lung tissue following combined therapy was also investigated

  8. The Small Heat Shock Protein α-Crystallin B Shows Neuroprotective Properties in a Glaucoma Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Anders

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to irreversible retinal ganglion cell (RGC loss and is one of the main causes of blindness worldwide. The pathogenesis of glaucoma remains unclear, and novel approaches for neuroprotective treatments are urgently needed. Previous studies have revealed significant down-regulation of α-crystallin B as an initial reaction to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP, followed by a clear but delayed up-regulation, suggesting that this small heat-shock protein plays a pathophysiological role in the disease. This study analyzed the neuroprotective effect of α-crystallin B in an experimental animal model of glaucoma. Significant IOP elevation induced by episcleral vein cauterization resulted in a considerable impairment of the RGCs and the retinal nerve fiber layer. An intravitreal injection of α-crystallin B at the time of the IOP increase was able to rescue the RGCs, as measured in a functional photopic electroretinogram, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and RGC counts. Mass-spectrometry-based proteomics and antibody-microarray measurements indicated that a α-crystallin injection distinctly up-regulated all of the subclasses (α, β, and γ of the crystallin protein family. The creation of an interactive protein network revealed clear correlations between individual proteins, which showed a regulatory shift resulting from the crystallin injection. The neuroprotective properties of α-crystallin B further demonstrate the potential importance of crystallin proteins in developing therapeutic options for glaucoma.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of small field electron beams for small animal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chung-Chi; Chen, Ai-Mei; Tung, Chuan-Jong; Chao, Tsi-Chian

    2011-01-01

    The volume effect of detectors in the dosimetry of small fields for photon beams has been well studied due to interests in radiosurgery and small beamlets used in IMRT treatments; but there is still an unexplored research field for small electron beams used in small animal irradiation. This study proposes to use the BEAM Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to assess characteristics of small electron beams (4, 6, 14, 30 mm in diameter) with the kinetic energies of 6 and 18 MeV. Three factors influencing beam characteristics were studied (1) AE and ECUT settings, (2) photon jaw settings and (3) simulation pixel sizes. Study results reveal that AE/ECUT settings at 0.7 MeV are adequate for linear accelerator treatment head simulation, while 0.521 MeV is more favorable to be used for the phantom study. It is also demonstrated that voxel size setting at 1/4 of the simulation field width in all directions is sufficient to achieve accurate results. As for the photon jaw setting, it has great impact on the absolute output of different field size setting (i.e. output factor) but with minimum effect on the relative lateral distribution.

  10. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  11. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  12. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  13. Animal experimental examinations concerning the application of ozone to non-irradiated and to irradiated tumours. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundner, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements in vitro were carried out concerning the effect of ozone either by itself or combined with X-ray therapy (single dose of 2,000 R) on the reproductive capacity of Ehrlich-ascites cancer cells. The strongest combination effect is stated when ozone is administered after irradiation. The findings and results of this study are compared with hypotheses and results described in the corresponding literature. (orig.) [de

  14. Evaluating the Effect of Electron-Beam Irradiation on Linguatula serrata Destroy Isolated from Animal Products and Determining its Effective Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khalatbari-limaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Foodborne parasitic diseases are considered common in most parts of the world, which can cause significant health problems. Linguatula serrata is a zoonotic parasite causing human linguatulosis due to consumption of raw and semi-cooked animal offal infected with nymphs of this parasite. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the effect of Electron beam irradiation on death of the Linguatula serrata nymphs isolated from animal products. Methods: Linguatula serrata nymphs were irradiated with E-beam irradiation of 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy doses 15 nymphs were classified into three groups of 5 for each dose. Death time of the nymphs was recorded by examining their movement under a stereomicroscope and then was compared with that of the control group stored at 4 °C. In order to analyze the study data, T-test and ANOVA were utilized setting the significance level at 0.05. Results: The comparison between treatment and control groups demonstrated a statistically significant difference in death time of the nymphs (P 0.05. Moreover, there was a statistically significant difference between the doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy with dose of 5 kGy (P 0.05 in regard with their lethality speed. The results showed that minimum destruction dose of Linguatula serrata nymphs was 1 kGy and 5 KGy , resulted in a more rapidly death within the nymphs. Conclusion: Regarding the high sensitivity of Linguatula serrata nymphs to E-beam irradiation, this method can be used to enhance the safety of animal products in future.

  15. Response of some Citrus Rootstock Seedlings to Fertilization by the Aqueous Extract of some Irradiated Animal Manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out during two consecutive seasons i.e. 2001 and 2002 on two citrus rootstocks namely Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings two-month-old planted in a sandy soil under greenhouse to study the feasibility of using the aqueous extract of some animal manures i.e. poultry, sheep and cattle treated by gamma irradiation at 10 kGay to keep the manure free from pathogenic organisms, pests and weed seeds and as a natural source of nutrients instead of mineral fertilizers, and it's effect on growth and leaf nutrients content of seedlings. Generally, results showed that all the tested treatments enhanced most of growth parameters such as seedling height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves/seedling, number of roots/seedling, and dry weight for both of stem, leaves, root and total dry weight/plant. Moreover, such treatments improved leaf nutrient content of both of Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings. Meanwhile, seedlings fertilized by the aqueous extract of poultry manure achieved the highest values of growth parameters and leaf nutrients content as well as mineral fertilizer followed by those treated by the aqueous extract of both sheep and cattle manures

  16. Use of irradiation to assure the hygienic quality of animal origin foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna Carbajal, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation process for food preservation is a physical method comparable to heat or refrigeration and consist on the exposure of products packed or in bulk to gamma rays comming from Cobalt-60 or Cesium-137 or accelerated electrons and X rays produced by electric machines known as accelerators. Foods are exposed to this form of energy during a pre-stablished period in facilities named irradiators. At industrial level, the irradiation process requires a well stablished control to reach a good quality in the product. This quality control is carry out by means of dosimetry, a system which assures that the energy amount received by food is correct. Benefits derived of irradiation process in meat products as chicken, beef and pork as well as implications in matter of health and economics are presented in this work. Different aspects of irradiation process as a control to assure the hygienic quality, costs, different option of irradiators at industrial level, its advantages upon other processes, and its benefits at social level, are presented in this work. With respect to wholesomeness of irradiated food, main studies to strenghten that an irradiated food is safe, non toxic, do not imply microbian risks. it has the better nutritional quality, it has no radioactive remains and it is not a radioactivity inductor, in a word is an inocuous food, are presented in this study (Author)

  17. Genetic effects of prolonged combined irradiation of laboratory animals in Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savtsova, Z.D.; Vojejkova, Yi.M.; Dzhaman, N.Yi.; Yudyina, O.Yu.; Yindik, V.M.; Kovbasyuk, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Prolonged combined (external and internal) irradiation of mice in the r zone of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant caused hereditary disturbances physiological defects in the posterity irrespective of the fact if one or both parents were irradiated. The most favourable indices were observed in F2 posterity of the both exposed parents

  18. Studies on the Chromatin Isolated from the Organs of Animals Received Whole-body X-ray Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Su Nam [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-09-15

    Within experimental chromatin, the total protein: DNA ratio did not vary in the same organs of control and irradiated rats. However, the amount of RNA and total protein associated with the DNA varied considerably among the different types of chromatin. In particular, the content of chromatin was the highest in the irradiated tissue, and the lowest in the chromatin control tissue. RNA and total protein ratio of chromatins from brain, liver, testis and spleen declined with experimental organs. 2) There was the same quantitative relationship between the amount of RNA and the amount histone-protein associated with DNA in each chromatin. 3) RNA:DNA ratio of chromatin showed a 1.5-2 times increase in the irradiated organs except brain. However, RNA:DNA ratio was decreased in chromatin by irradiation. 4) Histone-protein: Residual protein ratio was greatly varied among the organs. However, the effect was not found by irradiation. 5) Priming activity of chromatins showed a higher value in testis and the activity was greater in organs with higher metabolic activity. 6) Inhibition of Actinomycin D observable in chromatin for testis, liver, spleen and brain declined without relationship between irradiated and non-irradiated conditions. Ammonium sulfate in DNA of chromatin from histone showed increased priming activity with dissociation by Electrostatics. It may give different effect of ammonium sulfate on stimulation by property of chromatins. 7) It is suggested that the results support a proposal that the higher sensitivity of radioactive in testis, spleen by irradiated showed a increase and decrease lower-sensitivity of radioactive from brain, liver than did priming activity under the radioactive conditions.

  19. Studies on the Chromatin Isolated from the Organs of Animals Received Whole-body X-ray Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Su Nam

    1967-01-01

    Within experimental chromatin, the total protein: DNA ratio did not vary in the same organs of control and irradiated rats. However, the amount of RNA and total protein associated with the DNA varied considerably among the different types of chromatin. In particular, the content of chromatin was the highest in the irradiated tissue, and the lowest in the chromatin control tissue. RNA and total protein ratio of chromatins from brain, liver, testis and spleen declined with experimental organs. 2) There was the same quantitative relationship between the amount of RNA and the amount histone-protein associated with DNA in each chromatin. 3) RNA:DNA ratio of chromatin showed a 1.5-2 times increase in the irradiated organs except brain. However, RNA:DNA ratio was decreased in chromatin by irradiation. 4) Histone-protein: Residual protein ratio was greatly varied among the organs. However, the effect was not found by irradiation. 5) Priming activity of chromatins showed a higher value in testis and the activity was greater in organs with higher metabolic activity. 6) Inhibition of Actinomycin D observable in chromatin for testis, liver, spleen and brain declined without relationship between irradiated and non-irradiated conditions. Ammonium sulfate in DNA of chromatin from histone showed increased priming activity with dissociation by Electrostatics. It may give different effect of ammonium sulfate on stimulation by property of chromatins. 7) It is suggested that the results support a proposal that the higher sensitivity of radioactive in testis, spleen by irradiated showed a increase and decrease lower-sensitivity of radioactive from brain, liver than did priming activity under the radioactive conditions.

  20. Improvement in irradiation pasteurization on sugarcane bagasse for its fungal bioconversion to animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duy Lam

    2002-01-01

    Goals of this study were to reduce radiation dose required for bagase pasteurization and to convert the pasteurized bagasse into animal feed by using fungal fermentation. Comparative study on the effectiveness of radiation decontamination on moisturized and dried bagasse showed different doses required for pasteurization. Radiation treatment on wetted substratum bags required 20 kGy, while dried bagasse needed only 10 kGy for pasteurization. In comparison with wetted bagasse substratum, the pasteurized dry bagasse has more dominant advantages because it can be kept for storage, transportation and distribution to household producers. Moisturizing substratum with tap water can be done just before inoculation with mycelial seed. Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse to ruminant feed by using fungal fermentation was investigated. The in sacco digestibility of fermented substratum increased with incubation period and it was higher than that of paddy rice straw and comparable to Pangola grass after 35 days of fermentation. As the digestibility of mushroom-harvested residue was still higher than that of non-fermented bagasse, the fermentation by using Pleurotus spp. could simultaneously provide edible mushroom and animal feed as well. (Author)

  1. Dosimetry of a Small-Animal Irradiation Model using a 6 MV Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, F. Moran; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    A custom made rat-like phantom was used to measure dose distributions using a 6 MV linear accelerator. The phantom has air cavities that simulate the lungs and cylindrical inserts that simulate the backbone. The calculated dose distributions were obtained with the BrainScan v.5.31 TPS software. For the irradiation two cases were considered: (a) near the region where the phantom has two air cavities that simulate the lungs, and (b) with an entirely uniform phantom. The treatment plan consisted of two circular cone arcs that imparted a 500 cGy dose to a simulated lesion in the backbone. We measured dose distributions using EBT2 GafChromic film and an Epson Perfection V750 scanner working in transmission mode. Vertical and horizontal profiles, isodose curves from 50 to 450 cGy, dose and distance to agreement (DTA) histograms and Gamma index were obtained to compare the dose distributions using DoseLab v4.11. As a result, these calculations show very good agreement between calculated and measured dose distribution in both cases. With a 2% 2 mm criteria 100% of the points pass the Gamma test for the uniform case, while 98.9% of the points do it for the lungs case.

  2. Model animal experiments on UV-c irradiation of blood and isolated cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, H.; Scherf, H.P.; Wiesner, S.

    1984-01-01

    The cellular and molecular basis of the therapeutically used effect of reinjected ultraviolet (UVC) irradiated blood is unknown. First approaches to that problem were made in this study by aid of model experiments. Neither the spontaneous degranulation nor the antigen-induced histamine release from rat connective tissue mast cells (in vivo) was influenced by the injection (i.v.) of UV-irradiated blood or blood lymphocytes. By comparison of the effect of UV light on blood lymphocytes (number of dead cells, strength of chemoluminescence) after irradiation of the isolated cells and the unfractionated blood, respectively, it was shown that the strong light absorption within the blood sample prevents damage or functional alterations of the blood lymphocytes. The compound 48/80 - induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells can be completely inhibited by UV irradiation (0.6 mJ/cm 2 ) without increasing the spontaneous histamine release. (author)

  3. Petitioning process for irradiated foods and animal feeds in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcotte, M.; Kunstadt, P.

    1993-01-01

    The lack of sufficient regulatory approvals continues to delay the commercial application of food irradiation in several countries. Often, the regulatory approval process itself appears too challenging and approvals are not even requested. The objective of this paper is to review petition requirements so that researchers and companies in other countries will be able to prepare petitions requesting approval for the import and sale of irradiated foods into North America. (author)

  4. Murine scid cells complement ataxia-telangiectasia cells and show a normal port-irradiation response of DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, K.; Yoshida, M.; Okumura, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The murine severe combined immunodeficient mutation (scid) is characterized by a lack of both B and T cells, due to a deficit in lymphoid variable-(diversity)-joining (V(D)J) rearrangement. Scid cells are highly sensitive to both radiation-induced killing and chromosomal aberrations. Significantly reduced D 0 and n values were demonstrated in scid cells and were similar to ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) cells (a unique human disease conferring whole body radiosensitivity). However, the kinetics of DNA synthesis after irradiation were different between the two cell types. In contrast with the radioresistant DNA synthesis of AT cells, DNA synthesis of scid cells was markedly inhibited after irradiation. The existence of different mutations was also supported by evidence of complementation in somatic cell hybrids between scid cells and AT cells. Results indicate that the radiobiological character of scid is similar to AT but is presumably caused by different mechanisms. (author)

  5. Potentiality of Melatonin as a Radiation Protector against Hemoglobin Damage in the Experimental Animals Due to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; Hassan, R. A.; Mohamed, Sh.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes serious damage in biological system. Some drugs and antioxidants are used to prevent such damage. In the present study two doses of melatonin (10 mg⁄kg and 30 mg⁄kg) were selected to be used for such purpose. The radioprotective effects of melatonin on hemoglobin of red blood cells from female mice was studied through UV absorption spectrum, ESR spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and relative viscosity .The results of Hemoglobin absorption indicate that a pronounced increase in the average value of peak position and width at half maximum W hmax followed by a decrease in the absorbance of sort band, decrease in absorption ratio A 578 / A 540 in addition to disappearance of globin band at 275 nm. The free radicals which are expected to be formed after exposing to γ-irradiation are detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The results indicate that the intensity of ESR signal for hemoglobin extracted from animals exposed to γ- irradiation is greater as compared with normal hemoglobin. Dielectric measurements indicate that there is an increase in dielectric permittivity (ε‵), the dielectric loss (ε‶) and the a.c conductivity (σ ac ) while some decrease is noticed in the viscosity measurements after exposing to irradiation. The data obtained from the whole studied parameters after treating animals with melatonin become closer to those for unirradiated samples.

  6. Assessment of indices of LP-AOS-system in blood of animals after gamma-irradiation and administration of veshenka extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milevich, T.I.; Malash, A.L.; Gerasimenia, V.P.; Zakharov, S.V.; Putyrskij, Y.L.

    2012-01-01

    The administration of veshenka extracts promotes quite high level of antioxidant activity, protects the fermentative link of antioxidant protection and prevent activation of lipid peroxidation process in blood of animals after gamma-irradiation. (authors)

  7. Investigation of productivity in a south Indian Malabari goat herd shows opportunities for planned animal health management to improve food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargison, N D; Ivil, S A J; Abraham, J; Abubaker, S P S; Hopker, A M; Mazeri, S; Otter, I A; Otter, N

    2017-03-18

    Here the authors report the objective veterinary clinical measurement of productivity in a representative south Indian Malabari goat herd. The authors show failure to meet pragmatic production targets that are commensurate with the animals' genetic potential or adequate to meet the demands of global food security. The authors suggest that this situation may have arisen as a consequence of animal husbandry constraints and protein undernutrition and imply the involvement of nematode parasitism. Benzimidazole resistance was detected in Haemonchus species, showing the need for better understanding of the principles of sustainable helminth parasite control within the southern Indian context. This study highlights the need to understand the true costs of goat production in seasonally resource-poor environments, while also considering its impact on the overall ecosystem in which the animals are placed. They conclude that pragmatic opportunities for improvements in goat production efficiency lie in the development of problem-focused planned animal health and nutrition management. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Human and Animal Isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica Show Significant Serotype-Specific Colonization and Host-Specific Immune Defense Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaake, Julia; Kronshage, Malte; Uliczka, Frank; Rohde, Manfred; Knuuti, Tobias; Strauch, Eckhard; Fruth, Angelika; Wos-Oxley, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a human pathogen that is ubiquitous in livestock, especially pigs. The bacteria are able to colonize the intestinal tract of a variety of mammalian hosts, but the severity of induced gut-associated diseases (yersiniosis) differs significantly between hosts. To gain more information about the individual virulence determinants that contribute to colonization and induction of immune responses in different hosts, we analyzed and compared the interactions of different human- and animal-derived isolates of serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8, and O:9 with murine, porcine, and human intestinal cells and macrophages. The examined strains exhibited significant serotype-specific cell binding and entry characteristics, but adhesion and uptake into different host cells were not host specific and were independent of the source of the isolate. In contrast, survival and replication within macrophages and the induced proinflammatory response differed between murine, porcine, and human macrophages, suggesting a host-specific immune response. In fact, similar levels of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) were secreted by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with all tested isolates, but the equivalent interleukin-8 (IL-8) response of porcine bone marrow-derived macrophages was strongly serotype specific and considerably lower in O:3 than in O:8 strains. In addition, all tested Y. enterocolitica strains caused a considerably higher level of secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by porcine than by murine macrophages. This could contribute to limiting the severity of the infection (in particular of serotype O:3 strains) in pigs, which are the primary reservoir of Y. enterocolitica strains pathogenic to humans. PMID:23959720

  9. Analysis of DNA vulnerability to damage, repair and degradation in tissues of irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, N.I.; Ivannik, B.P.

    1982-01-01

    Single-strand and paired ruptures of DNA were found to result in appearance of locally denaturated areas in its secondary structure and to disordered protein-DNA interaction. It was shown with the use of the viscosimeter method of measuring the molecular mass of single stranded high-polymeric DNA that cells of various tissues by the intensity of DNA repair can be divided into two groups, rapid- and slow-repair ones. Tissue specificity of enzyme function of the repair systems and systems responsible for post-irradiation DNA degradation depends on the activity of endonucleases synthesized by the cells both in health and in their irradiation-induced synthesis

  10. Minocycline ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by whole-brain irradiation: an animal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liyuan; Li, Kun; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, JianFeng; Huang, Peigeng; Yang, Hongying; Tian, Ye

    2014-01-01

    It has been long recognized that cranial irradiation used for the treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumor often causes neurological side-effects such as intellectual impairment, memory loss and dementia, especially in children patients. Our previous study has demonstrated that whole-brain irradiation (WBI) can cause cognitive decline in rats. Minocycline is an antibiotic that has shown neuroprotective properties in a variety of experimental models of neurological diseases. However, whether minocycline can ameliorate cognitive impairment induced by ionizing radiation (IR) has not been tested. Thus this study aimed to demonstrate the potential implication of minocycline in the treatment of WBI-induced cognitive deficits by using a rat model. Sprague Dawley rats were cranial irradiated with electron beams delivered by a linear accelerator with a single dose of 20 Gy. Minocycline was administered via oral gavages directly into the stomach before and after irradiation. The open field test was used to assess the anxiety level of rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess the spatial learning and memory of rats. The level of apoptosis in hippocampal neurons was measured using immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and relative markers for mature neurons (NeuN) or for newborn neurons (Doublecortin (DCX)). Neurogenesis was determined by BrdU incorporation method. Neither WBI nor minocycline affected the locomotor activity and anxiety level of rats. However, compared with the sham-irradiated controls, WBI caused a significant loss of learning and memory manifest as longer latency to reach the hidden platform in the MWM task. Minocycline intervention significantly improved the memory retention of irradiated rats. Although minocycline did not rescue neurogenesis deficit caused by WBI 2 months post-IR, it did significantly decreased WBI-induced apoptosis in the DCX positive neurons, thereby resulting in less newborn neuron depletion 12 h after irradiation

  11. Sci-Thur AM: YIS – 08: Automated Imaging Quality Assurance for Image-Guided Small Animal Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, Chris; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena [University of Victoria (Australia)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To develop quality assurance (QA) standards and tolerance levels for image quality of small animal irradiators. Methods: A fully automated in-house QA software for image analysis of a commercial microCT phantom was created. Quantitative analyses of CT linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity and noise, geometric accuracy, modulation transfer function (MTF), and CT number evaluation was performed. Phantom microCT scans from seven institutions acquired with varying parameters (kVp, mA, time, voxel size, and frame rate) and five irradiator units (Xstrahl SARRP, PXI X-RAD 225Cx, PXI X-RAD SmART, GE explore CT/RT 140, and GE Explore CT 120) were analyzed. Multi-institutional data sets were compared using our in-house software to establish pass/fail criteria for each QA test. Results: CT linearity (R2>0.996) was excellent at all but Institution 2. Acceptable SNR (>35) and noise levels (<55HU) were obtained at four of the seven institutions, where failing scans were acquired with less than 120mAs. Acceptable MTF (>1.5 lp/mm for MTF=0.2) was obtained at all but Institution 6 due to the largest scan voxel size (0.35mm). The geometric accuracy passed (<1.5%) at five of the seven institutions. Conclusion: Our QA software can be used to rapidly perform quantitative imaging QA for small animal irradiators, accumulate results over time, and display possible changes in imaging functionality from its original performance and/or from the recommended tolerance levels. This tool will aid researchers in maintaining high image quality, enabling precise conformal dose delivery to small animals.

  12. Sci-Thur AM: YIS – 08: Automated Imaging Quality Assurance for Image-Guided Small Animal Irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, Chris; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop quality assurance (QA) standards and tolerance levels for image quality of small animal irradiators. Methods: A fully automated in-house QA software for image analysis of a commercial microCT phantom was created. Quantitative analyses of CT linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity and noise, geometric accuracy, modulation transfer function (MTF), and CT number evaluation was performed. Phantom microCT scans from seven institutions acquired with varying parameters (kVp, mA, time, voxel size, and frame rate) and five irradiator units (Xstrahl SARRP, PXI X-RAD 225Cx, PXI X-RAD SmART, GE explore CT/RT 140, and GE Explore CT 120) were analyzed. Multi-institutional data sets were compared using our in-house software to establish pass/fail criteria for each QA test. Results: CT linearity (R2>0.996) was excellent at all but Institution 2. Acceptable SNR (>35) and noise levels (<55HU) were obtained at four of the seven institutions, where failing scans were acquired with less than 120mAs. Acceptable MTF (>1.5 lp/mm for MTF=0.2) was obtained at all but Institution 6 due to the largest scan voxel size (0.35mm). The geometric accuracy passed (<1.5%) at five of the seven institutions. Conclusion: Our QA software can be used to rapidly perform quantitative imaging QA for small animal irradiators, accumulate results over time, and display possible changes in imaging functionality from its original performance and/or from the recommended tolerance levels. This tool will aid researchers in maintaining high image quality, enabling precise conformal dose delivery to small animals.

  13. Interface between technical physics and technological irradiation with reference to applications in vegetal and animal radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peteu, G.; Opris, M.

    1994-01-01

    The main goals of vegetal and animal radiobiology in a specific correlation with technical physics are the stimulation of germination and induced mutations; vegetal and animal food conservation, sterilization techniques, and modifications in the radiosensitivity of biological systems. The existing correlation between the effects of exposed and absorbed doses, and the behaviour of the 'microflora' (microbes, fungi), are discussed. (Author)

  14. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of rabbit corneal endothelium to show effects of UV-visible irradiation in the presence of chlorpromazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, P.J.; Hollenberg, M.J.; Menon, I.A.; Temkin, R.J.; Persad, S.D.; Basu, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of rabbit cornea endothelial cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in freeze-cleaved corneas using a Hitachi S-570 scanning electron microscope in the high resolution mode (HRSEM). In order to study phototoxic effects in vitro, rabbit corneas (experimental) were cultured as organ culture in the presence of 5 micrograms/ml chlorpromazine (CPZ) and irradiated. For comparison, control 1 corneas were not irradiated but incubated in the dark without CPZ in the medium; control 2 corneas were also kept in the dark but in the presence of CPZ; control 3 corneas were irradiated with no CPZ in the medium. Cellular damage was not seen in the three types of control corneas, but in the experimental corneas the endothelial cells showed extensive disruption of the cell membrane and some deterioration of the intracellular components. Our study confirmed that HRSEM is a satisfactory new technique for visualizing damage of the intracellular organelles of corneal endothelium

  15. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of rabbit corneal endothelium to show effects of UV-visible irradiation in the presence of chlorpromazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, P.J.; Hollenberg, M.J.; Menon, I.A.; Temkin, R.J.; Persad, S.D.; Basu, P.K. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of rabbit cornea endothelial cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in freeze-cleaved corneas using a Hitachi S-570 scanning electron microscope in the high resolution mode (HRSEM). In order to study phototoxic effects in vitro, rabbit corneas (experimental) were cultured as organ culture in the presence of 5 micrograms/ml chlorpromazine (CPZ) and irradiated. For comparison, control 1 corneas were not irradiated but incubated in the dark without CPZ in the medium; control 2 corneas were also kept in the dark but in the presence of CPZ; control 3 corneas were irradiated with no CPZ in the medium. Cellular damage was not seen in the three types of control corneas, but in the experimental corneas the endothelial cells showed extensive disruption of the cell membrane and some deterioration of the intracellular components. Our study confirmed that HRSEM is a satisfactory new technique for visualizing damage of the intracellular organelles of corneal endothelium.

  16. Effect of irradiation on protozoa and helminths in animal originated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabay, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Ionizing radiations have a deleterious effect on protozoa and helminths. Some of the variables affecting radiosensitivity are the stage of development of the organism, the temperature at which irradiation carried out and variation in the susceptibility of individuals of a species. The introduction of meat inspection and chemotherapy, general education of the public as to sanitation and proper food preparation and certain food pretreatments such as salting and freezing have done much to control or alleviate the spread of parasitic infections. Nevertheless, parasitism of humans and livestock persists in some degree in all parts of the world. There is need to develop other methods of controlling parasites. One such alternative is the use of ionizing radiation to treat foods so as to render any parasites they contain noninfectious or nonpathogenic. This paper concentrates on the general effects of radiation on protozoa and helminths and covers the literature on food irradiation applications including the research carried out on the inhibition of viability and infectivity of Cysticercus bovis by irradiation of meat. Viability of Taenia saginata cysticerci was studied in vitro by exposing them to gamma radiation. It was round that a minimum of 3.7 kGy is required to devitalize C. bovis cysts. However, for complete de-vitalization, 6 kGy of irradiation was needed. Inhibition of infectivity of C. bovis by irradiation of meat was also investigated. It was concluded that 0.3 kGy could be accepted as the minimal effective dose to inhibit the development of C. bovis larvae into adult tapeworm

  17. Andrographis Paniculata shows anti-nociceptive effects in an animal model of sensory hypersensitivity associated with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Rosaria; Siani, Francesca; Demartini, Chiara; Zanaboni, Annamaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) to rats induces a hyperalgesic condition and neuronal activation of central structures involved in migraine pain. In order to identify therapeutic strategies for migraine pain, we evaluated the anti-nociceptive activity of Andrographis Paniculata (AP), a herbaceous plant, in the hyperalgesia induced by NTG administration in the formalin test. We also analyzed mRNA expression of cytokines in specific brain areas after AP treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with AP extract 30 minutes before NTG or vehicle injection. The data show that AP extract significantly reduced NTG-induced hyperalgesia in phase II of the test, 4 hours after NTG injection. In addition, AP extract reduced IL-6 mRNA expression in the medulla and mesencephalon and also mRNA levels of TNFalpha in the mesencephalic region. These findings suggest that AP extract may be a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of general pain, and possibly of migraine.

  18. Microbiological control of a gamma-irradiated feed for laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.V.G. de

    1979-01-01

    A special feed for laboratory animals was prepared, that meets or surpasses the FAO requirements. Experiments were undertaken to determine the γ-radiation dose necessary to sterilize the feed, to free it from enterobacteria which grow abundantly in the rich medium and cause digestive disorders in the laboratory animals. Methods of identifying the various bacteria and fungi are given. The results are tabulated. (U.K.)

  19. Anthropomorphic Phantoms for Confirmation of Linear Accelerator-Based Small Animal Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Julian R; Lucero, Steven; Monjazeb, Arta M; Li, Jian Jian

    2015-03-01

    Three dimensional (3D) scanning and printing technology is utilized to create phantom models of mice in order to assess the accuracy of ionizing radiation dosing from a clinical, human-based linear accelerator. Phantoms are designed to simulate a range of research questions, including irradiation of lung tumors and primary subcutaneous or orthotopic tumors for immunotherapy experimentation. The phantoms are used to measure the accuracy of dose delivery and then refine it to within 1% of the prescribed dose.

  20. Increase of survival of x-irradiated mice by postirradiation injections of a splenic extract prepared from vaccine or endotoxin-treated syngeneic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuneoka, K; Takagi, Y; Shikita, M [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1977-05-01

    Spleens of mice which had been treated with E. coli endotoxin or typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine were extracted with isotonic saline. The extract was filtered through an asbestos filter and chromatographed on a Sephadex G-200 column. The fraction which was excluded at around 2.5-void volume (molecular weight, about 20,000) was significantly effective in increasing survival of animals when it was repeatedly injected in mice after x irradiation (600 R). The injection caused an increase of the weight of spleen of the animals with an increased number of endogenous spleen colonies. The result suggests that the life-saving effect of the spleen extract is based on its effect of stimulating repopulation of autochthonous hematopoietic cells in the x-irradiated animals. A similar splenic extract prepared from normal mice had an ambiguous effect on the survival of x-irradiated animals.

  1. Studies on food in experimental animal and possible role of irradiation detoxification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shennawy, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the important oilseed crops in the far east and in the northern parts of europe and north america (daun and bushuk 1983). It was introduce to egypt during 1980 by the agriculture research center, ministry of agriculture, egypt (moharam et al., 1982). rapeseed is mainly used as a source of oil and its meal used as animal feed and it could be used as a potential source of a protein. The oil content ranges from 33.2 to 476% and protein content from 29.5 to 57.5% (Anjou et al., 1977). Rapeseed contains some biologically active substances, which act as anti nutritional factors glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products have presented a major obstacle to the utilization of rapeseed meal in animal or human nutrition. They have been implicated in several physiological disorders in animal including goiter and haemorrhagic liver syndrome

  2. Histopathological studies show protective efficacy of Hippophae leaf extract against damage to jejunum in whole body 60Co-a-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Manish; Prasad, Jagdish; Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ionizing radiation affect living tissue by causing majority of in vivo damage by free radical production. Earlier we reported that our preparation from Hippophae leaf offered survival benefit to >90% mice population which was whole body irradiated ( 60 Co-a-rays, 10 Gy). Objective: This study was planned to examine the protective effects of our drug (from Hippophae leaf) on ( 60 Co-a-ray induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in jejunum. Methods: Around 2 months old adult male Strain 'A' mice were irradiated (10 Gy). Drug was administered intraperitoneally (-30 mm.). Histological parameters were studied after staining the sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Malondialdehyde formation (index of lipid peroxidation), alkaline phosphatase activity, and total thiol content were determined by biochemical techniques. The data was obtained at different time interval upto 30 days. Results: Biochemical studies showed that in comparison to the untreated controls, in the irradiated (10 Gy) mice, there was significant increase in the alkaline phosphatase activity and level of malondialdehyde whereas decrease in total thiol content within 2 days. Histological studies showed that whole body irradiation (10 Gy), damaged the jejunam crypt cells and decreased the villi height within 2 days. Intra-peritoneal administration of drug, 30 mm prior to irradiation, protected the crypt cells and villi height, countered the radiation induced increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and lipid peroxidation and values were comparable to the level of control in 30 days. Conclusions: These biochemical and histopathological studies suggested that our drug can offer effective radioprotection against the oxidative damage to jejunum in vivo. (author)

  3. Minibeam radiotherapy with small animal irradiators; in vitro and in vivo feasibility studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Soha; Inscoe, Christina R.; O'Brian, E. Timothy; Zhou, Otto; Lee, Yueh Z.

    2017-12-01

    Minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT) delivers an ultrahigh dose of x-ray (⩾100 Gy) in 200-1000 µm beams (peaks), separated by wider non-irradiated regions (valleys) usually as a single temporal fraction. Preclinical studies performed at synchrotron facilities revealed that MBRT is able to ablate tumors while maintaining normal tissue integrity. The main purpose of the present study was to develop an efficient and accessible method to perform MBRT using a conventional x-ray irradiator. We then tested this new method both in vitro and in vivo. Using commercially available lead ribbon and polyethylene sheets, we constructed a collimator that converted the cone beam of an industrial irradiator to 44 identical beams (collimator size  ≈  4  ×  10 cm). The dosimetry characteristics of the generated beams were evaluated using two different radiochromic films (beam FWHM  =  246  ±  32 µm center-to-center  =  926  ±  23 µm peak-to-valley dose ratio  =  24.35  ±  2.10 collimator relative output factor  =  0.84  ±  0.04). Clonogenic assays demonstrated the ability of our method to induce radiobiological cell death in two radioresistant murine tumor cell lines (TRP  =  glioblastoma B16-F10  =  melanoma). A radiobiological equivalent dose (RBE) was calculated by evaluating the acute skin response to graded doses of MBRT and conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Normal mouse skin demonstrated resistance to doses up to 150 Gy on peak. MBRT significantly extended the survival of mice with flank melanoma tumors compared to CRT when RBE were applied (overall p  film. In conclusion, the initial dosimetric, in vitro and in vivo evaluations confirmed the utility of this affordable and easy-to-replicate minibeam collimator for future preclinical studies.

  4. Regularity of mortality and life span of the experimental animals under the exposure of protracted internal irradiation with radionuclides of 137Cs and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yindik, V.M.; Serkyiz, Ya.Yi.; Lips'ka, A.Yi.; Alyistratov, O.V.; Drozd, Yi.P.; Gerasimova, T.B.; Dudchenko, T.M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that exposure to protracted low intense irradiation with low doses, caused by radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) has negative influence on survival indices and expected life span in different groups according to age. Mortality of irradiated animals is mainly caused by development of pathological processes of tumor origin. The frequency of radiation induced tumors is the same with intact control

  5. Anticonvulsant action of gamma-irradiated diazepam with correlation to certain brain amino acids and electrocorticogram activity in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, S.F.; Roushdy, H.M.; Hassan, S.H.M.; Elkashef, H.S.; Mahdy, A.M.; Elsayeh, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of sterilization by gamma irradiation (215 KGy) of diazepam on is anticonvulsant action, on norma and depleted cerebral gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), on glutamic acid, as well as electrocorticogram activity (ECOG) was determined in the experimental animals. For the evaluation of the anticonvulsant action of either diazepam (D) or irradiated diazepam (ID), pentyl ene tetrazole seizure test, was used and the protective dose 50 (PD50) was determined in adult male mice. GABA, the main central inhibitory transmitter which is implicated in the mechanism of the anticonvulsant action of D and its precursor glutamic acid, were electrophoretically separated and spectrophotometrical evaluated. Moreover, brain electrical activity was recorded using an electroencephalograph apparatus. Although the PD50 of ID as well the effect on normal brain cerebral GABA and glutamic acids did not differ significantly from that of D, yet there was certain variabilities. Thus, the effect of D was about 4 times more potent than the ID on elevating depleted cerebral GABA. Also, electrocorticogram records demonstrated that D produced a slight inhibition while ID induced a decrease in B rhythm with remarkable in the amplitude of ECOG waves. The same pattern of effects were obtained when D or ID were used in combination with INH (250 mg kg-1). 1 tab. 1 fig

  6. Ecology-genetic consequences of the chronic irradiation of animals in Chernobyl alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazko, V.I.; Grodzinskij, D.M.; Glazko, T.T.

    2006-01-01

    The investigation with the use of different molecular-genetic markers and the cytogenetic analysis of genetic-population consequences in different species of voles and experimental cattle herd reproduced in Chernobyl's alienation zone is carried out. The decrease in the number of animals with cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells in voles, was revealed, that testified to the selection by the radioresistance. The obtained data allow us to make conclusion that the increase of ionizing radiation is a particular case of ecological changes leading to the microevolution events connected with the selection by the stability to new conditions of the reproduction of populations

  7. Modeling of combined effect of alcohol, tobacco smokes and internal irradiation of laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukal'skaya, S.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    Concentration of 90 Sr and 20 Po in kidneys and bone tissues was measured both separately and in combination with ethanol introduction. Carbon oxide (CO), which content was measured by a gas analyser, served as an index of tobacco smokes in a chamber with test animals. It is shown that ethanol had no noticeable effect either on the character or the levels of radionuclide accumulation in kidneys and bone tissues. Under experimental conditions quantitative characteristics of studied factors (intensity, the effect time and levels) remained stable within the specified limits independent on their combination

  8. Some biochemical characteristics of a toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated animals in the course of the intestinal syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meter, J D; Sirota, N S [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR)

    1976-05-01

    A toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated (1300 rads) animals in the period when intestinal syndrome has developed is classified according to the parameters under study (namely, the molecular weight, UV-absorption curve, extinction coefficient, specific monosaccharides, the presence and percentage of KDA, etc.) as lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, the main inhabitant of the gastroenteric tract of mice. That endotoxins (sensitivity to which is increased in this period of radiation sickness) are detected in the blood and organs of lethally irradiated animals, might indicate their participation in the pathogenesis of the intestinal syndrome.

  9. Some biochemical characteristics of a toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated animals in the course of the intestinal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meter, J.D.; Sirota, N.S.

    1976-01-01

    A toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated (1300 rads) animals in the period when intestinal syndrome has developed is classified according to the parameters under study (namely, the molecular weight, UV-absorption curve, extinction coefficient, specific monosaccharides, the presence and percentage of KDA, etc.) as lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, the main inhabitant of the gastroenteric tract of mice. That endotoxins (sensitivity to which is increased in this period of radiation sickness) are detected in the blood and organs of lethally irradiated animals, might indicate their participation in the pathogenesis of the intestinal syndrome

  10. Controlling of bacterial flora contaminating animal diet and its components by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Helal, G.A.; El-Hady, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    The total bacterial counts in complete diets were found to range between 10 3 -10 5 cells/g, which they ranged between 10 2 and 10 6 in the main components. One hundred and sixteen bacterial colonies were isolated from the animal diet samples and found to be gram positive belonging to three genera: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus. The most radioresistant bacteria isolated at 7.5 KGy were identified as B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B.circulans and B.laterosporus. The D 1 0 values for the bacteria contaminated the diet samples ranged between 928 Gy and 2199 Gy. Meanwhile, the D 1 0 values of staph.aureus and Strapt.faecalis artificially contaminated the diet were 400 Gy and 1136 Gy, respectively. It could be recommended from obtained results that dose level of 10 KGy is quite sufficient to eliminate all pathogens from animal diets or their components. In addition, it decreases the microbial count to minimum counts and hence increases the diet shelf life.1 fig.,4 tab

  11. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, C.; Oslapas, R.; Nayyar, R.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-01-01

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats

  12. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NV< IrV). There was no significant difference (p<5%) for biochemical tests, complete blood count, and animals weight between the three groups tested. The group immunized with irradiated venom showed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  13. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S. E-mail: rseabra@cevap.org.br

    2005-07-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NVanimals weight between the three groups tested. The group immunized with irradiated venom showed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  14. Genotoxic and reprotoxic effects of tritium and external gamma irradiation on aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Pereira, Sandrine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Hinton, Tom; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    .Because several calculated EDR10 values are ten times lower than background levels of γ irradiation the results of some studies either markedly call into question the adequacy of the benchmark value of 0.24 mGy/day for aquatic ecosystems that was recommended by Garnier-Laplace et al. (2006), or the dose rate estimates made in the original research, from which our EDR(10) values were derived, were under estimated, or were inadequate. For γ irradiation, the effects of several different dose rates on aquatic organisms were reviewed, and these ranged from 1 mGy/day to 18 Gy/day. DNA damage from exposure to y irradiation was studied more often than for tritium, but the major part of the literature addressed effects on reproduction and development. These data sets support the benchmark value of 0.24 mGy/day, which is recommended to protect aquatic ecosystems. RBEs, that describe the relative effectiveness of different radiation types to produce the same biological effect, were calculated using the available datasets. These RBE values ranged from 0.06 to 14.9, depending on the biological effect studied, and they had a mean of 3.1 ± 3.7 (standard deviation). This value is similar to the RBE factors of 2-3 recommended by international organizations responsible for providing guidance on radiation safety. Many knowledge gaps remain relative to the biological effects produced from exposure to tritium and y emitters. Among these are: Dose calculations: this review highlights several EDR(10) values that are below the normal range of background radiation. One explanation for this result is that dose rates were underestimated from uncertainties linked to the heterogenous distribution of tritium in cells. Therefore, the reliability of the concept of average dose to organisms must be addressed. Mechanisms of DNA DBS repair: very few studies address the most deleterious form of DNA damage, which are DNA DBSs. Future studies should focus on identifying impaired DNA DBS repair pathways and

  15. A study of the behaviour of irradiated or unirradiated grafts in the camera aquosa of irradiated and unirradiated animals; Etude du comportement d'un greffon irradie ou non, transplante dans la chambre anterieure de l'oeil d'un animal irradie ou non

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djalali-Behzad, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    Following grafts of new born mice spinal ganglia in the 'camera aquosa' of adult mice, the authors tried hematopoietic tissue grafts in the same conditions. The growth of iso-logous and hetero-logous bone marrow in the 'camera aquosa' showed that this tissue, even after exposure to supralethal doses, was capable of survival and growth. A counter-experiment with non irradiated bone marrow grafts in the 'camera aquosa' of rats delivered 700 rads led to the conclusion that the environment, intoxicated by exposure, acted on the graft so that after vascularization it became unable to grow. (author) [French] Apres avoir greffe des ganglions rachidiens de souriceaux nouveaux-nes dans la chambre anterieure de l'oeil de souris adultes, l'auteur a tente de greffer du tissu hematopoietique de la meme facon. La proliferation de la moelle osseuse isologue et heterologue, dans la chambre anterieure de l'oeil, lui a permis de mettre en evidence une certaine capacite de survie et de proliferation de ce tissu irradie meme a dose supraletale. Par une contre-experimentation, c'est-a-dire par la greffe de moelle non irradiee dans la chambre anterieure de rats irradies a 700 rads, il conclut que le milieu ambiant, intoxique par l'irradiation, agit sur le greffon de telle sorte que ce dernier, apres s'etre vascularise, devient depourvu de son aptitude de proliferation. (auteur)

  16. A study of the behaviour of irradiated or unirradiated grafts in the camera aquosa of irradiated and unirradiated animals; Etude du comportement d'un greffon irradie ou non, transplante dans la chambre anterieure de l'oeil d'un animal irradie ou non

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djalali-Behzad, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    Following grafts of new born mice spinal ganglia in the 'camera aquosa' of adult mice, the authors tried hematopoietic tissue grafts in the same conditions. The growth of iso-logous and hetero-logous bone marrow in the 'camera aquosa' showed that this tissue, even after exposure to supralethal doses, was capable of survival and growth. A counter-experiment with non irradiated bone marrow grafts in the 'camera aquosa' of rats delivered 700 rads led to the conclusion that the environment, intoxicated by exposure, acted on the graft so that after vascularization it became unable to grow. (author) [French] Apres avoir greffe des ganglions rachidiens de souriceaux nouveaux-nes dans la chambre anterieure de l'oeil de souris adultes, l'auteur a tente de greffer du tissu hematopoietique de la meme facon. La proliferation de la moelle osseuse isologue et heterologue, dans la chambre anterieure de l'oeil, lui a permis de mettre en evidence une certaine capacite de survie et de proliferation de ce tissu irradie meme a dose supraletale. Par une contre-experimentation, c'est-a-dire par la greffe de moelle non irradiee dans la chambre anterieure de rats irradies a 700 rads, il conclut que le milieu ambiant, intoxique par l'irradiation, agit sur le greffon de telle sorte que ce dernier, apres s'etre vascularise, devient depourvu de son aptitude de proliferation. (auteur)

  17. SU-E-T-296: Dosimetric Analysis of Small Animal Image-Guided Irradiator Using High Resolution Optical CT Imaging of 3D Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Y; Qian, X; Wuu, C; Adamovics, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator using a high-resolution of optical CT imaging of 3D dosimeters. Methods: PRESAEGE 3D dosimeters were used to determine dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator and compared with EBT2 films. Cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters with 7cm height and 6cm diameter were placed along the central axis of the beam. The films were positioned between 6×6cm 2 cubed plastic water phantoms perpendicular to the beam direction with multiple depths. PRESAGE dosimeters and EBT2 films were then irradiated with the irradiator beams at 220kVp and 13mA. Each of irradiated PRESAGE dosimeters named PA1, PA2, PB1, and PB2, was independently scanned using a high-resolution single laser beam optical CT scanner. The transverse images were reconstructed with a 0.1mm high-resolution pixel. A commercial Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was used for readout of irradiated EBT2 films at a 0.4mm pixel resolution. PDD curves and beam profiles were measured for the irradiated PRESAGE dosimeters and EBT2 films. Results: The PDD agreements between the irradiated PRESAGE dosimeter PA1, PA2, PB1, PB2 and the EB2 films were 1.7, 2.3, 1.9, and 1.9% for the multiple depths at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50mm, respectively. The FWHM measurements for each PRESAEGE dosimeter and film agreed with 0.5, 1.1, 0.4, and 1.7%, respectively, at 30mm depth. Both PDD and FWHM measurements for the PRESAGE dosimeters and the films agreed overall within 2%. The 20%–80% penumbral widths of each PRESAGE dosimeter and the film at a given depth were respectively found to be 0.97, 0.91, 0.79, 0.88, and 0.37mm. Conclusion: Dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator have been demonstrated with the measurements of PRESAGE dosimeter and EB2 film. With the high resolution and accuracy obtained from this 3D dosimetry system, precise targeting small animal irradiation can be achieved

  18. Long-lived radicals produced by γ-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein solution: their observation and inhomogeneous decay dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Morikawa, Akiyuki; Kumagai, Jun; Ikehata, Masateru; Koana, Takao; Kikuchi, Shoshi

    2002-01-01

    Long-lived radicals produced by γ-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein (albumin) solution were studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Long-lived radicals produced by vital activity exist in biological systems, such as plants, animals, and cells, in the range of 0.1-20 nmol g -1 . Since vital organs keep the radicals at a constant concentration, the radicals are probably related to life conservation. Long-lived radicals are also produced by γ-irradiation of cells or protein solution. The radicals decay after death of living things or after γ-irradiation. We found that the decay dynamics in all biological systems can be expressed by the same kinetic equation of an inhomogeneous reaction

  19. Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott; Fabien, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yiran; Yuan, Jake; Brindle, James; Yao, Min; Lo, Simon; Wessels, Barry; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W.; Sloan, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, with radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning system—MultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 × 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was “printed” using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm). A

  20. Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Fabien, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yiran; Yuan, Jake; Brindle, James; Yao, Min; Lo, Simon; Wessels, Barry; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W., E-mail: jason.sohn@case.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and University Hospitals of Cleveland, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Sloan, Andrew [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, with radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning system—MultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 × 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was “printed” using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm

  1. Regeneration of blood-forming organs after autologous leukocyte transfusion in lethally irradiated dogs. II. Distribution and cellularity of the marrow in irradiated and transfused animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Herbst, E.; Huegl, E.; Bruch, C.

    1976-01-01

    Dogs were given transfusions of cryopreserved autologous mononuclear blood leukocytes after 1200 roentgens (R) (midline dose) whole-body x-irradiation. Bone marrow repopulation was studied by means of histomorphological methods at days 9 and 10 after transfusion of an average of 3 x 10 9 , 7 x 10 9 , 13 x 10 9 , and 31 x 10 9 cells. The return of marrow cellularity to normal values was related to the number of cells transfused. With low cell doses (3 x 10 9 and 7 x 10 9 ), the marrow regeneration at 10 days was focal. There were groups of cells (colonies) showing either erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis, or megakaryocytopoiesis in the osteal niches of the trabecular bones. Frequently such niches were seen showing complete cellular recovery next to niches with complete aplasia. With higher cell doses, all niches showed hemopoietic regeneration, and the cellularity approached normal values. No hemopoietic regeneration was observed in those skeletal parts that do not show hemopoiesis, even under normal circumstances

  2. Answers to the questions about food irradiation. Concerning results of animal experiments in the specified integrated research. Data carrying a problem in human health were obtained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Experts of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/ World Health Organization (WHO) committee obtained their conclusion in 1980 that food irradiated with <10 kGy of radiation is safe for human health, which is now globally approved. However, in Japan, there have been still opposite opinions based on the doubt in the title on the safety of irradiated food. In this paper, the author answers those questions as he was a member to arrange the Research in the title for food irradiation. Described are data presentation and explanation about results of toxicity studies of diets added with irradiated materials of: weight reductions in rat ovary by irradiated potato (ip) in chronic studies, and in mouse testicle and ovary of F3 generation from the ancestor mice kept on diet with irradiated onion (io); bone malformation in mice by io; and reduction of body weight gain in female rats by ip and increase of mortality of male rats by ip. These are analyzed on the aspects of radiation dose-response, sustained tendency of results throughout the living period or generation, and apparent abnormality by other factors; and normal variation due to individual difference is pointed out to contribute to these findings. The safety test of irradiated food has been conducted valid not only in animal experiments but also other tests like genotoxicity and analysis of radiation-degraded products. (R.T.)

  3. Test of mutagenicity of an irradiated standard diet for laboratory animals in the host-mediated assay with salmonella typhimurium TA 1530

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenzner, R.; Renner, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Feed irradiated at a dose of 3 Mrad was tested for mutagenic activity in the host-mediated assay with the mouse as host and Salmonella typhimurium TA 1530 as indicator organism. In the in vivo and in the in vitro comparative test the irradiated feed showed no mutagenic effect. (orig.) [de

  4. Evaluating learning and attitudes on tissue engineering: a study of children viewing animated digital dome shows detailing the biomedicine of tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna C; Gonzalez, Laura L; Pollock, John A

    2012-03-01

    Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art-science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show made

  5. Physical and biological dosimetry at the RA-3 facility for small animal irradiation: preliminary BNCT studies in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, Emiliano; Miller, Marcelo; Thorp, Silvia I.; Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Zarza, Leandro; Estryk, Guillermo; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality based on the capture reaction that occurs between thermal neutrons and boron-10 atoms that accumulate selectively in tumor tissue, emitting high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (5-9 microns) particles (alpha y 7 Li). Thus, BNCT would potentially target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Herein we evaluated the feasibility of treating experimental oral mucosa tumors with BNCT at RA-3 (CAE) employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and characterized the irradiation field at the RA-3 facility. We evaluated the therapeutic effect on tumor of BNCT mediated by BPA in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and the potential radio toxic effects in normal tissue. We evidenced a moderate biological response in tumor, with no radio toxic effects in normal tissue following irradiations with no shielding for the animal body. Given the sub-optimal therapeutic response, we designed and built a 6 Li 2 CO 3 shielding for the body of the animal to increase the irradiation dose to tumor, without exceeding normal tissue radio tolerance. The measured absolute magnitude of thermal neutron flux and the characterization of the beam with and without the shielding in place, suggest that the irradiation facility in the thermal column of RA-3 would afford an excellent platform to perform BNCT studies in vitro and in vivo in small experimental animals. The present findings must be confirmed and extended by performing in vivo BNCT radiobiological studies in small experimental animals, employing the shielding device for the animal body. (author) [es

  6. Research Advances. Image Pinpoints All 5 Million Atoms in Viral Coat; Bilirubin, "Animals-Only" Pigment, Found in Plants; New Evidence Shows Humans Make Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2009-08-01

    Recent "firsts" in chemical research: image of a viral capsid pinpointing 5 million atoms; isolation and identification of an "animal" pigment, bilirubin, from a plant source; evidence that humans make salicylic acid.

  7. Use of studies with laboratory animals to assess the potential early health effects of combined internal alpha and beta irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    The potential health impacts of radionuclides released in nuclear accidents are of major concern to the public and to regulatory and other governmental agencies. One mode of potential exposure is by inhalation of airborne radionuclides, which could lead to combined internal irradiation by high (alpha) and low (beta) linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Epidemiological data for health effects of human inhalation exposure are too limited to derive reliable estimates of risks of potential health effects. However, results of studies in which beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to insoluble radioactive aerosols can be used to estimate expected effects in humans. Data for mortality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis caused by internal irradiation of dog lungs by alpha or beta radiations are used to derive the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha irradiation compared to beta irradiation; predict the expected combined effects of alpha and beta irradiation of dog lungs; and extrapolate the results to humans. The extrapolation to humans assumed that, for similar ages at exposure, dog and human lungs have similar sensitivities to lung irradiation. Results of theoretical calculations related to mortality from early effects indicated that the synergistic effects of high- and low-LET radiations should depend on the percentages of the total dose contributed by high- and low-LET radiations, and for very low or very high doses, synergistic effects should be negligible. 23 refs., 8 figs

  8. Economics of gamma irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Toshio

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-ray irradiation business started at the Takasaki Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The irradiation facilities were constructed thereafter at various sites. The facilities must accept various types of irradiation, and must be constructed as multi-purpose facilities. The cost of irradiation consists of the cost of gamma sources, construction expense, personnel expense, management expense, and bank interest. Most of the expenses are considered to be fixed expense, and the amount of irradiation treatment decides the original costs of work. The relation between the irradiation dose and the construction expense shows the larger facility is more economical. The increase of amount of treatment reduces the original cost. The utilization efficiency becomes important when the amount of treatment and the source intensity exceed some values. The principal subjects of gamma-ray irradiation business are the sterilization of medical tools and foods for aseptic animals, the improvement of quality of plastic goods, and the irradiation of foods. Among them, the most important subject is the sterilization of medical tools. The cost of gamma irradiation per m 3 in still more expensive than that by ethylene oxide gas sterilization. However, the demand of gamma-ray irradiation is increasing. For the improvement of quality of plastic goods, electron irradiation is more favourable than the gamma irradiation. In near future, the economical balance of gamma irradiation can be achieved. (Kato, T.)

  9. Effect of acute sup(60)Co-gamma-irradiation on the in vivo lipid peroxidation in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronai, Eva; Benkoe, Gy.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of sublethal (6.0 Gy) and LDsub(50/30) (9.0 Gy) doses of sup(60)Co-gamma-irradiation on malondialdehyde (MDA) level was studied in rats. The findings suggest that in the organs investigated (brain, liver, spleen, kidneys, testicles, stomach, small intestines) acute sup(60)Co gamma-irradiation increased the formation of MDA, the main product of lipid peroxidation, in a time-related manner to an extent characteristic of the organ investigated. Differences in the degree and temporal development of the changes allow some conclusions as to the radiosensitivity of individual organs. On this basis it can be assumed that the increase in MDA level caused by irradiation considerably contributes to the development of certain symptoms of radiation sickness. (author)

  10. Determination of the stem cell number by the amount of nondifferentiated cell colonies in the bone marrow of irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbova, E.N.; Gruzdev, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    A method is proposed for determination of the amout of haemopoietic stem cells in different mammalian species according to the number of nondifferentiated cell colonies (NCC) formed in the bone marrow on days 3 or 4 after irradiation. A quantitative similarity of NCC and haemopoietic stem cells, and also sameness of their reaction to irradiation were demonstated by determining the NCC number in histological preparations of the bone marrow and by the use of the Till and McCulloch method. A method is proposed for the deter-- mination and calculation of the number of NCC in the bone marrow

  11. Determination of the stem cell number by the amount of nondifferentiated cell colonies in the bone marrow of irradiated animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbova, E.N.; Gruzdev, G.P.

    A method is proposed for determination of the amout of haemopoietic stem cells in different mammalian species according to the number of nondifferentiated cell colonies (NCC) formed in the bone marrow on days 3 or 4 after irradiation. A quantitative similarity of NCC and haemopoietic stem cells, and also sameness of their reaction to irradiation were demonstated by determining the NCC number in histological preparations of the bone marrow and by the use of the Till and McCulloch method. A method is proposed for the determination and calculation of the number of NCC in the bone marrow.

  12. Intravenous injection of artificial red cells and subsequent dye laser irradiation causes deep vessel impairment in an animal model of port-wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikihisa, Naoaki; Tominaga, Mai; Watanabe, Shoji; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saito, Yoshiaki; Sakai, Hiromi

    2018-03-15

    Our previous study proposed using artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment for port-wine stains (PWSs). Dye laser photons are absorbed by red blood cells (RBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) mixture, which potentially produce more heat and photocoagulation and effectively destroy endothelial cells. Hb-Vs combination therapy will improve clinical outcomes of dye laser treatment for PWSs because very small vessels do not contain sufficient RBCs and they are poor absorbers/heaters of lasers. In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between vessel depth from the skin surface and vessel distraction through dye laser irradiation following intravenous Hb-Vs injection using a chicken wattle model. Hb-Vs were administered and chicken wattles underwent high-energy irradiation at energy higher than in the previous experiments. Hb-Vs location in the vessel lumen was identified to explain its photosensitizer effect using human Hb immunostaining of the irradiated wattles. Laser irradiation with Hb-Vs can effectively destroy deep vessels in animal models. Hb-Vs tend to flow in the marginal zone of both small and large vessels. Increasing laser power combined with Hb-Vs injection contributed for deep vessel impairment because of the synergetic effect of both methods. Newly added Hb tended to flow near the target endothelial cells of the laser treatment. In Hb-Vs and RBC mixture, heat transfer to endothelial cells from absorbers/heater may increase. Hb-Vs function as photosensitizers to destroy deep vessels within a restricted distance that the photon can reach.

  13. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... style for the strength units describing radiation sources. This correction is being made to improve the...). That document used incorrect style for the strength units describing radiation sources. This correction... HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 579 continues to read as...

  14. Spared pre-irradiated area in pustular lesions induced by icotinib showing decreased expressions of CD1a+ langerhans cells and FGFR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiong; Wang Yi Na; Wang Bo

    2013-01-01

    Icotinib hydrochloride, a novel inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Up to date, cutaneous response to icotinib is largely unknown. Here we report an uncommon lesional phenomenon in a 56-year-old Chinese male with non-small-cell lung cancer, who received icotinib as a second-line treatment. Characteristic papulopustular rash on the chest and back was observed 4 days later. Interestingly, the rash completely spares a pre-irradiated area. The immunohistochemical study in the lesional skin area and spared skin area revealed a significant decrease in CD1a + Langerhans cells, Ki-67 as well as FGFR2 in the spared area than in the lesional area. Thus, the present case indicated that loss of the basal layer of proliferative cells and antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cell), as well as the down-regulation of FGFR2 signaling in the pre-irradiated skin area, may join forces in inhibiting icotinib-associated cutaneous reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both lesional area and lesion-spared area in a Chinese male receiving treatment with a new epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (icotinib). The immunohistochemical reactions described here also provide new insight into the pathogenesis of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related skin toxicities, and the role that other tyrosine kinase receptors (including FGFR) played in non-small-cell lung cancer. (author)

  15. Spared pre-irradiated area in pustular lesions induced by icotinib showing decreased expressions of CD1a+ langerhans cells and FGFR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiong; Wang, Yi Na; Wang, Bo

    2013-02-01

    Icotinib hydrochloride, a novel inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Up to date, cutaneous response to icotinib is largely unknown. Here we report an uncommon lesional phenomenon in a 56-year-old Chinese male with non-small-cell lung cancer, who received icotinib as a second-line treatment. Characteristic papulopustular rash on the chest and back was observed 4 days later. Interestingly, the rash completely spares a pre-irradiated area. The immunohistochemical study in the lesional skin area and spared skin area revealed a significant decrease in CD1a(+) Langerhans cells, Ki-67 as well as FGFR2 in the spared area than in the lesional area. Thus, the present case indicated that loss of the basal layer of proliferative cells and antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cell), as well as the down-regulation of FGFR2 signaling in the pre-irradiated skin area, may join forces in inhibiting icotinib-associated cutaneous reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both lesional area and lesion-spared area in a Chinese male receiving treatment with a new epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (icotinib). The immunohistochemical reactions described here also provide new insight into the pathogenesis of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related skin toxicities, and the role that other tyrosine kinase receptors (including FGFR) played in non-small-cell lung cancer.

  16. Assessment of the radiomodifying effect of the herbal preparation 'Elixir-3' in laboratory animals exposed to external whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenchova, V.; Topalova, S.; Stefanova, D.; Kuzova, K.

    2002-01-01

    The study of preparations obtained from natural products, free of any toxic effects on the organism, has important practical implications on the prophylaxis against and correction of eventual sequelae of ionizing radiation. It is the purpose of the study to assay the radiomodifying action of the herbal preparation 'Elixir-3' (E-3) on mice exposed to acute whole-body irradiation with 3 and 7 Gy gamma-rays, using a prophylactic-therapeutic scheme of application over 30 days. E-3 represents alcohol-water extract of basil, hops, briar, nettle, walnut and peppermint. Bone marrow femoral and spleen cellularity, endogenous spleen colony-forming units (E-CFUs), overall plasma oxidation activity and phagocytic activity of neutrophils are evaluated. E-3, administered in a prophylactic-therapeutic scheme, promotes post-radiation recovery of hematopoiesis in mice irradiated with non-lethal and median-lethal gamma ray doses, and exerts a favourable effect on the anti-oxidation status and phagocytic activity of neutrophils in laboratory animals.(authors)

  17. Facts about food irradiation: Chemical changes in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet addresses the safety of irradiated food. The irradiation process produces very little chemical change in food, and laboratory experiments have shown no harmful effects in animals fed with irradiated milk powder. 3 refs

  18. Animal experimental model of a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction after allogenic transplantation of bone marrow in lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, H.; Muench, S.; Haubold, S.; Weber, B.

    1977-01-01

    The graft-versus-host (GVH) disease represents a serious still unsolved problem in the human allogenic transplantation of bone marrow. An experimental model of GVH reaction after an allogenic transplantation of bone marrow in the adult mouse has been worked out as a prerequisite for further studies on the therapeutic influence of this syndrome. 3 groups have been formed out of 82 lethally X-irradiated C57 Bl mice. The non-transplanted control group died to a hundred per cent within 12 days. While out of the 2nd group treated with syngenic bone marrow 55 per cent survived from the 22nd day, 30 per cent of the third animal group, allogenicly transplanted with histoincompatible AKR donor marrow developed a chronic GVH syndrome. The following symptoms were observed: retardation, alterations of the skin, diarrhea, edemas of the legs, failing increase of leukocytes in blood and proliferation of lymphocytes in bone marrow of about 60 per cent (18 per cent in syngenically transplanted animals), in lacking proliferation of hematopoiesis. The increase of liver and especially spleen index is not characteristic in comparison with the syngenically transplanted group, since in the latter there is also an increase of the values on account of a strong hematopoetic proliferation. The model is suitable and sufficiently well characterized for the performance of further experimental studies. (author)

  19. Radiation tumorigenesis in inbred laboratory animals and cancer risks in irradiated human populations. Two widely different problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1978-01-01

    The mammal has efficient defence mechanisms against the development of tumours. These mechanisms are successively deteriorated by ionizing radiation when the dose increases beyond certain 'borderline levels'. Consequently, most animal strains demonstrate a bi-phasic dose-tumour relationship with a low-dose limb, the slope of which cannot be distinguished from zero, and a high-dose limb that increases with increasing doses. There are four or five exceptions to this 'rule' but in most of these cases the probable reasons for the deviations are known. Some human tumours as observed in epidemiological investigations do not demonstrate a similar clearly bi-phasic dose response. In all probability, this discrepancy does not reflect a higher susceptibility to radiation-induced tumours in man compared with other mammals. It is rather a consequence of a greater statistical variation in radiosensitivity in heterogeneous human populations than among inbred animals living standardized conditions. Accordingly, when maximum permissible dose levels are to be determined one should extrapolate from epidemiological data. Furthermore, these extrapolations should be linear if the data do not clearly deviate from a straight line, and if there are no scientific reasons to assume that a threshold exists. This formal method would not produce a biological description of what may happen in the low-dose area but rather an upper risk limit for the population studied. The real low-dose risk cannot be known. For the same pragmatic reason other radiological or non-radiological risks should be determined in the same manner, particularly when risks are to be compared. (author)

  20. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on appearance of osteoclasts during wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Likinobu; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Yajima, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing. (author)

  1. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on appearance of osteoclasts during wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Likinobu; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Yajima, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Masayuki

    2007-07-01

    We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing.

  2. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    During the course of external radiation exposures of burros to establish a dose-response curve for acute mortality after total irradiation, some of the animals at the three lowest exposures to gamma photons survived. These groups of 10, 9, and 10 burros were exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively. There were 10 unirradiated controls. In 1953, 20 burros were exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/week increments without acute mortality and were added to the life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros were exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons, and 14 controls were added. The total number of irradiated burros in the study was increased to 88 by the addition of 6 animals irradiated with 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a Godiva-type reactor in 1959. In this experiment two acute deaths occurred which were not included in the analysis. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures, there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia, obviously related to radiation-induced bone-marrow damage. After that period, however, deaths were from common equine diseases; no death has resulted from a malignant neoplasm. Of the original 112 burros, 15 survive (10 irradiated and 5 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma- and gamma-irradiated burros showed significant differences. The mean survival times were: controls, 28 years; gamma irradiation only, 26 years; and neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 years. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Dose Distribution of Gamma Irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Woo; Shin, Sang Hun; Son, Ki Hong; Lee, Chang Yeol; Kim, Kum Bae; Jung, Hai Jo; Ji, Young Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Gamma irradiator using Cs-137 have been widely utilized to the irradiation of cell, blood, and animal, and the dose measurement and education. The Gamma cell 3000 Elan (Nordion International, Kanata, Ontario, Canada) irradiator was installed in 2003 with Cs-137 and dose rate of 3.2 Gy/min. And the BioBeam 8000 (Gamma-Service Medical GmbH, Leipzig, Germany) irradiator was installed in 2008 with Cs-137 and dose rate of 3.5 Gy/min. Our purpose was to evaluate the practical dosimetric problems associated with inhomogeneous dose distribution within the irradiated volume in open air state using glass dosimeter and Gafchromic EBT film dosimeter for routine Gamma irradiator dosimetry applications at the KIRAMS and the measurements were compared with each other. In addition, an user guideline for useful utilization of the device based on practical dosimetry will be prepared. The measurement results of uniformity of delivered dose within the device showed variation more than 14% between middle point and the lowest position at central axis. Therefore, to maintain dose variation within 10%, the criteria of useful dose distribution, for research radiation effects, the irradiated specimen located at central axis of the container should be placed within 30 mm from top and bottom surface, respectively. In addition, for measurements using the film, the variations of dose distribution were more then 50% for the case of less than 10 second irradiation, mostly within 20% for the case of more than 20 second irradiation, respectively. Therefore, the irradiation experiments using the BioBeam 8000 irradiator are recommended to be used for specimen required at least more than 20 second irradiation time.

  4. Immune reactivity after high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, W.; Wottge, H.U.; von Kolzynski, M.; Mueller-Ruchholtz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Immune reactivity after total-body irradiation was investigated in rats using skin graft rejection as the indicator system. After sublethal irradiation with 10.5 Gy (approximately 50% lethality/6 weeks) the rejection of major histocompatibility complex allogeneic skin grafts was delayed significantly compared with nonirradiated control animals (28 versus 6.5 days). In contrast, skin grafts were rejected after 7.5 days in sublethally irradiated animals and 7 days in lethally irradiated animals if additional skin donor type alloantigens--namely, irradiated bone marrow cells--were given i.v. either simultaneously or with a delay of not more than 24 hr after the above conditioning regimen. These reactions were alloantigen-specific. They were observed in six different strain combinations with varying donors and recipients. Starting on day 2 after irradiation, i.v. injection of bone marrow gradually lost its effectivity and skin grafts were no longer rejected with uniform rapidity; skin donor marrow given on days 4 or 8 did not accelerate skin graft rejection at all. These data show that for approximately 1-2 days after high-dose total-body irradiation rats are still capable of starting a vigorous immune reaction against i.v.-injected alloantigens. The phenomenon of impaired rejection of skin grafted immediately after high-dose irradiation appears to result from the poor accessibility of skin graft alloantigens during the early postirradiation phase when vascularization of the grafted skin is insufficient

  5. Animal experiments in radiotherapy. II. Large animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probert, J C; Hughes, D B

    1975-03-01

    A review has been made of factors of importance when using large animals for organ or partial body irradiation research. The problem has been considered from the viewpoint of the clinician. The rabbit, cat, dog, pig and monkey have been examined in detail for suitability as laboratory animals. Dosimetric and volume features have been reviewed.

  6. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The unique radioresistance of burros has resulted in a large-animal life-span study that began in 1951. During the course of radiation exposures, some animals at three low exposures to gamma photons survived (10, 10, and 9 exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively). In 1953, 20 burros exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/wk increments were added to this life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons were added. Six burros exposed to 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a ''Godiva-type'' reactor were added in 1959 along with 22 controls. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures (320-545 R), there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia). Afterward, however, all deaths have been attributable to common equine diseases; none from malignancies. Today, 20 of the original 112 burros in these studies survive (13 irradiated and 7 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma and gamma-only irradiated burros show significant differences. Median survival time: controls, 28 yrs; gamma irradiation, 26 yrs; neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 yrs. A Weibull probability analysis predicts maximum life-span to be 42 yrs

  7. Irradiated vaccines against bovine babesiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weilgama, D.J.; Weerasinghe, H.M.C.; Perera, P.S.G.; Perera, J.M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on non-splenectomized Bos taurus calves to determine the immunogenicity of blood vaccines containing either Babesia bigemina or Babesia bovis parasites irradiated in a 60 Co source. Groups of calves between 6 and 10 months of age, found to be free of previous babesial infections by serodiagnosis, were inoculated with B. bigemina ('G' isolate) irradiated at rates ranging from 350 to 500 Gy. These vaccines caused low to moderate reactions on primary inoculation which subsided without treatment. Parasites irradiated at 350 Gy produced a strong immunity against virulent homologous challenge. Vaccinated calves also withstood virulent heterologous B. bigemina ('H' isolate) and B. bovis ('A' isolate) challenges made 85 and 129 days later. It also became evident that the use of babesicides to control reactions should be avoided since early treatment of 'reactor' animals caused breakdown of immunity among vaccinates. B. bovis ('A' isolate) parasites irradiated at dose rates of either 300 Gy or 350 Gy caused mild to moderate reactions in immunized calves, with the reactions in the 300 Gy group being slightly more severe. On challenge with homologous parasites, animals that had previously been inoculated with organisms irradiated at 300 Gy showed better protection than those that had received parasites irradiated at 350 Gy. (author). 28 refs, 5 tabs

  8. INAA of human and animal whole blood samples by short term reactor irradiation. [Au, Br, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mn, Na, P, Sc, Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samudralwar, D L; Garg, A N

    1986-11-03

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of 15 major, minor and trace elements in human and animal blood samples. Dry whole blood samples along with NBS and IAEA standards were irradiated for 5 min, 1 h, 5 h and 10 h with reactor thermal neutrons and counted using high resolution ..gamma..-spectrometry at successive intervals. Data for a new IAEA proposed CRM Mixed Human Diet (H-9) is reported. 28 references, 4 tables.

  9. Structural and functional changes in the intenstine of irradiated and hypothermic irradiated rats : a scanning and transmission electron microscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Chaudhuri, Swapna; Roy, Bijon

    1982-01-01

    Severe destructive changes in the intestine of rats following whole body exposure to gamma rays (832 rads) were observed by light microscope, scanning and transmission electron microscope studies. Hypothermia (15deg C rectal temperature) induced prior to irradiation protected the intestinal mucosa from destruction. A simultaneous study showed that glucose absorption decreased significantly in irradiated rats, whereas it was increased in hypothermic irradiated animals. (author)

  10. Influence of Gamma-Irradiation On the Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Myco toxigenic Moulds in Cereals and Animal Feed stuffs in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar, Z.A.; Mahrous, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    During the period 2003-2005. 370 samples of cereals and animal feed stuffs were examined for toxigenic moulds and mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B 1 showed the highest incidence rate, it occurred in 26.5% of all samples analyzed, the highest levels being found in peanut meal at 3000-5000 μg/Kg. Ochratoxin A and citrinin were detected in commodities at low rate. The most prevalent fungi were Aspergillus spp. which were found in 63.8% of all samples, whereas, Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. identified in 25.7 and 22.4%. respectively. Also, the present study revealed that aflatoxin B 1 was detected at low level 95μg/kg after treatment of samples with 20 kGy and there was no detectives of aflatoxin B 1 at 40 kGy. Application of radiation at 25 kGy was sufficient for complete destruction of citrinin, whereas application of radiation at 30 kGy reduced the levels of ochratoxin A by 97% in the animal feed stuffs

  11. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Angerman, J.M.; Keenan, W.G.; Linsley, J.G.; Poole, C.M.; Sallese, A.; Simkins, R.C.; Tolle, D.

    1981-01-01

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60 Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60 Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  12. The influence of blood plasma of irradiated animals on activity of Ca2+ - ATPase and Mg2+ - ATPase in plasma membrane of thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreval', V.I.

    1994-01-01

    Rats were irradiated at doses 1.5, 4.0, 7.0 and 10 Gy. After 1, 8, 15, 22 and 30 days the effect of blood plasma on activity of Ca 2+ -ATPase and Mg 2+ -ATPase in plasma membrane of thymocytes was investigated. It was found that the raise of irradiation dose leads to increasing of blood plasma effect on membrane-bound enzymes

  13. Histochemical changes of capillaries in rat brain cortex after irradiation with supralethal doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarad, V.; Dosoudilova, M.

    1987-01-01

    Changes were studied in the activities of alkaline phosphatase, ATP-splitting enzyme, thiaminepyrophosphatase, acetylcholinesterase, and of butyrylcholinesterase in the capillary sheet of the rat brain cortex of the laterobasal section of a parietal lobe following irradiation with 150 and 300 Gy. The animals were exposed to local irradiation of the head with gamma radiation using 60 Co at a dose rate of 6.9 Gy per min. The material was removed at the intervals of 30 and 60 mins after irradiation. All the studied enzymes, except the ATP-splitting enzyme, showed identical reaction to irradiation. At both intervals, the reaction after irradiation with 300 Gy was lower when compared to that after irradiation with 150 Gy. 30 mins after irradiation with 150 Gy an increased enzyme activity was shown followed by a marked decrease in the activity 60 mins after irradiation, compared with findings obtained from control animals. No similar time dependence was observed after irradiation with 300 Gy. The ATP-splitting enzyme showed a significant decrease in the activity 30 mins after irradiation with 150 Gy. On the other hand, 60 mins after irradiation with 150 Gy and at both time intervals after irradiation with 300 Gy, the activity was higher than that in control animals. (author). 6 figs., 14 refs

  14. Wholesomeness and safety of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation with gamma-rays, X-rays or fast electrons can be used to change foodstuffs in beneficial ways or to destroy harmful organisms. Gamma rays do not induce radioactivity in foods, but X-rays and fast electrons can induce short lived radioactivity if sufficiently energetic. This imposes limitations on the energies which can be used, and a short wait between irradiation and consumption may be advisable. Irradiation produces chemical changes in foodstuffs, and some foods are unsuitable for irradiation. With appropriate foods, trials with animals and human volunteers generally show that the product is safe. Some loss in nutritional quality can take place, which could be significant for some individuals, but are unlikely to be important for those on a balanced diet. Irradiation does not eliminate all risk from microbial contamination. Foods to be irradiated should be good quality, and need to be kept under proper conditions after irradiation. Irradiated foods should be appropriately labelled. Tests for radiation would help to enforce necessary controls. If the process is properly carried out on appropriate foods, and all due precautions are taken, irradiated foods are wholesome and safe. 52 references

  15. Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.; Noell, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available

  16. Modifications of animal response to Partial Body Hyperthermia (PBH) as a potent radioprotector: Relationships with animal age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alya, G.

    2002-04-01

    Currently available radio protectors are poorly tolerated in man. Thus, the use of the most promising agent, WR 2721 [S-2 (3-aminoprophylamino) ethylphosphoro thioic acid] has been limited due to its poor clinical tolerance. In a search for less toxic and/or without side effects agents, radioprotective effects of partial body hyperthermia (PBH) have been tested on Wistar rats of both sexes at different ages. Groups of male and female rats were irradiated [Total Body Irradiation (TBI)] in a perforated plexi-glass boxes using a 60 Co source. The irradiation dose was 9 Gy which is considered as a lethal dose of 100% of animals (LD 1 00) (the dose rate was = 80-85 rad.min -1 ). Irradiated animals were monitored for 2 weeks at least, and percentage of survival was calculated on the control groups. Partial Body Hyperthermia was carried out 20 hours prior to irradiation of 200-250 gr rats (by immersion of lower parts and legs of rats, in water bath at 43 centigrade for 1 h). Irradiated PBH treated animals were monitored for 30 days after irradiation and the survival percentage was calculated. Our results showed that PBH treatment, can be considered as a radioprotector. Moreover, the results of the undertaken study showed that this response changes as a function of animal age and sex. Thus, PBH was more effective on young rats (males and females), However, after 30 days of irradiation, PBH was more effective on males than females. The conclusion reached by this study is that animal response to PBH decreases with aging. Despite that the precise mechanism by which PBH induces retardation of death and enhance survival of rats is still obscure, Hyperthermia is known to enhance the immune response. Literature reveals that the productions of cytokines such as interferons and interleukins as well as natural killer cell activity are enhanced after hyperthermia. (author)

  17. Natural β-carotene and whole body irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Amotz, A.; Rachmilevich, B.; Greenberg, S.; Sela, M.; Weshler, Z.

    1996-01-01

    β-Carotene and other carotenoids are reported to be potent free radical quenchers, singlet oxygen scavengers, and lipid antioxidants. Whole-body irradiation is known to cause an immunosuppression effect in mammals through the possible initiation and production of reactive oxygen species. We decided to test the possible antioxidative effect against whole-body irradiation of a natural β-carotene, composed of equal amounts of the all-trans and 9-cis isomers, obtained from the unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil. Rats were fed on ground commercial food enriched with natural β-carotene (50 mg/kg diet). On completion of 1 week with β-carotene, the rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 Gy whole-body irradiation, after which their livers and blood were removed for β-carotene and retinol analysis in comparison with control livers of animals irradiated or not, or supplemented with β-carotene after irradiation. A normal increase in body weight with no ill effects was noted in the groups of rats whose diet was supplemented by β-carotene before and after irradiation, compared with the reduction in the specific growth rate in the group of rats irradiated without β-carotene. Liver β-carotene and retinol decreased significantly after irradiation compared with the rats which were not irradiated. This decrease was not shown in rats fed β-carotene prior to irradiation, and the effect of irradiation was partially cured by supplementation with β-carotene after irradiation. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the irradiated animals showed a selective decline in 9-cis β-carotene and in retinol over all-trans β-carotene and retinyl esters. These results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene and retinol protect in vivo against the cellular damage by free radicals induced after whole-body irradiation. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  19. Attenuation measurements show that the presence of a TachoSil surgical patch will not compromise target irradiation in intra-operative electron radiation therapy or high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Sandra; Costa, Filipa; Pereira, Alexandre; Lencart, Joana; Dias, Anabela; Cunha, Luís; Sousa, Olga; Silva, José Pedro; Santos, Lúcio

    2015-01-09

    Surgery of locally advanced and/or recurrent rectal cancer can be complemented with intra-operative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) to deliver a single dose of radiation directly to the unresectable margins, while sparing nearby sensitive organs/structures. Haemorrhages may occur and can affect the dose distribution, leading to an incorrect target irradiation. The TachoSil (TS) surgical patch, when activated, creates a fibrin clot at the surgical site to achieve haemostasis. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of TS on the dose distribution, and ascertain whether it could be used in combination with IOERT. This characterization was extended to include high dose rate (HDR) intraoperative brachytherapy, which is sometimes used at other institutions instead of IOERT. CT images of the TS patch were acquired for initial characterization. Dosimetric measurements were performed in a water tank phantom, using a conventional LINAC with a hard-docking system of cylindrical applicators. Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curves were obtained, and measurements made at the depth of dose maximum for the three clinically used electron energies (6, 9 and 12MeV), first without any attenuator and then with the activated patch of TS completely covering the tip of the IOERT applicator. For HDR brachytherapy, a measurement setup was improvised using a solid water phantom and a Farmer ionization chamber. Our measurements show that the attenuation of a TachoSil patch is negligible, both for high energy electron beams (6 to 12MeV), and for a HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy source. Our results cannot be extrapolated to lower beam energies such as 50 kVp X-rays, which are sometimes used for breast IORT. The TachoSil surgical patch can be used in IORT procedures using 6MeV electron energies or higher, or HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy.

  20. Attenuation measurements show that the presence of a TachoSil surgical patch will not compromise target irradiation in intra-operative electron radiation therapy or high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, Sandra; Costa, Filipa; Pereira, Alexandre; Lencart, Joana; Dias, Anabela; Cunha, Luís; Sousa, Olga; Silva, José Pedro; Santos, Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    Surgery of locally advanced and/or recurrent rectal cancer can be complemented with intra-operative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) to deliver a single dose of radiation directly to the unresectable margins, while sparing nearby sensitive organs/structures. Haemorrhages may occur and can affect the dose distribution, leading to an incorrect target irradiation. The TachoSil (TS) surgical patch, when activated, creates a fibrin clot at the surgical site to achieve haemostasis. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of TS on the dose distribution, and ascertain whether it could be used in combination with IOERT. This characterization was extended to include high dose rate (HDR) intraoperative brachytherapy, which is sometimes used at other institutions instead of IOERT. CT images of the TS patch were acquired for initial characterization. Dosimetric measurements were performed in a water tank phantom, using a conventional LINAC with a hard-docking system of cylindrical applicators. Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curves were obtained, and measurements made at the depth of dose maximum for the three clinically used electron energies (6, 9 and 12MeV), first without any attenuator and then with the activated patch of TS completely covering the tip of the IOERT applicator. For HDR brachytherapy, a measurement setup was improvised using a solid water phantom and a Farmer ionization chamber. Our measurements show that the attenuation of a TachoSil patch is negligible, both for high energy electron beams (6 to 12MeV), and for a HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy source. Our results cannot be extrapolated to lower beam energies such as 50 kVp X-rays, which are sometimes used for breast IORT. The TachoSil surgical patch can be used in IORT procedures using 6MeV electron energies or higher, or HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy

  1. Functional State of Haemopoietic Stem Cells in the Irradiated Mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silini, G.; Pozzi, Laura V. [Laboratorio di Radiobiologica Animale, Centro Studi Nucleari, Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    1968-08-15

    The repopulation kinetics of bone marrow in irradiated (C3H x C57BL) F{sub 1} hybrid mice were followed at different time intervals after a single whole-body dose of 150 rad X -rays. The changes in the number of total nucleated cells and of colony-forming cells were estimated and expressed as number of cells per femur shaft of fixed length. For the evaluation of the progenitor cell compartment an exogenous test of transplantation into heavily irradiated hosts followed by spleen colony counts was employed. In an attempt to distinguish between cycling and dormant cells in the progenitor pool, vinblastine was also administered under various schedules of treatment with respect to time and dosage to follow the changes induced by this drug in the irradiated recovering marrow. The depopulation of total bone-m arrow cells caused by vinblastine proceeded at a comparable rate in both the irradiated and the normal mouse. On the other hand, depopulation of the colony-formers is faster in animals irradiated 1 -2 days previously as compared with normal animals or mice irradiated 1 week or 2 weeks earlier. The data were interpreted to show that in the marrow of a newly-irradiated animal more cells are in a fast cycle than in a normal or a recovering animal. Data are finally presented and discussed concerning the use of vinblastine for studies of stem cell kinetics in haemopoietic tissues. (author)

  2. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Effects of neonatal thymic exposure to high doses of X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, G.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1979-01-01

    The thymic region of neonatal Swiss mice was exposed to doses varying from 1000 R to 2000 R of X-irradiation. The animals did not show any signs of wasting syndrome up to 6 months after irradiation. At this time hyperplasia of the thymus with an associated lymphocytosis was evident in irradiated animals. Antibody production to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was not affected. However, at 12 months post-irradiation the animals showed signs of wasting disease with a progressive increase in their numbers at 18 and 24 months of age. The percentage incidence of animals with wasting disease was dose dependent. At this stage in the majority of the animals with the disease the thymus showed varying degrees of atrophy along with splenomegaly. There were no significant differences in the number of lymphocytes but the number of granulocytes showed a substantial increase. This was more evident in animals exposed to 2000 R to the thymic region. Though one observed a lowered ability to form antibodies to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with advancing age, the thymic irradiation did not affect the immune response to BSA even in animals manifesting wasting disease. An interesting observation has been the development of a severe loss of muscle power and tone in the hind limbs in a large majority of animals. (author)

  4. Response of irradiated diet fed rats to whole body X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Kushwaha, A.K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The response to whole body X irradiation has been studied in the brain of rats fed both on a normal diet (consisting of equal parts of wheat and gram flour) and on a low protein irradiated diet (consisting of a part of normal diet and three parts of wheat). The activity of enzymes related to the glucose metabolism (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose diphosphate aldolase) is reduced, while that of peroxidant enzymes (catalase and lipid peroxidase) increased in the brain of rats that received a diet poor in proteins and irradiated diets (normal or hypoproteic). DNA and RNA levels and protein content show a significant reduction in the brain of rats with hypoproteic and irradiated diets. The total body irradiation causes serious alterations in the brain in animals with a hypoproteic malnutritions due both to a low protein and an irradiated diet. The brain of rats fed on a low protein and irradiated diet exhibits after whole body irradiation damages more severe than those in rats fed on a normal irradiated diet

  5. The ageing kidney: biochemical and morphological study after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franciolini, F.; Becciolini, A.; Torcini, G.; Lanini, A.

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of some activities of the kidney was studied both in young-adult and in adult rats exposed to an 8-Gy dose of γ-rays and killed at various intervals after irradiation (both in the morning and in the evening). Brush border and lysosomal enzymes did not show marked differences among control rats of the same age even if adult animals showed levels of maltase, alkaline phosphatase and LAP activities higher than the young-adult group. Moreover, irradiation did not induce typical modifications of the same enzyme activities in young-adult and adult rats. Adult animals showed a reduction in the brush border enzyme activities at 120 hours after irradiation while, at the same interval, lysosomal activities underwent an increase both in young and in adult animals. (orig.) [de

  6. State of the hormonal status at animals, taking place in conditions of long action of irradiation low intensity in zone of alienation Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gun'kova, N.V.; Gorokh, G.A.; Konoplya, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    The study of levels of steroid (corticosterone, testosterone) and thyroid (thyroxine, triiodothyronine) hormones and 5'-deiodinase activity of a liver tissue at white male rats after their stay in zone of alienation Chernobyl NPP is carried out. After staying during four months in zone the animals exhibit rising of levels of hormones and downstroke 5'-deiodinase activity. (authors)

  7. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  8. Effects of X-irradiation and thymectomy on the immune response of the marine teleost, Sebastiscus marmoratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Effects of X-irradiation and thymectomy on the immune response of the rock fish, S. marmoratus were studied. Animals were thymectomized and irradiated at the dose of 2000 R. In non-thymectomized and irradiated fish, injected with SRBC one week after irradiation, antibody production was completely suppressed and they required twice the time for rejection of scales allografted three days after irradiation. On the other hand, fish which were irradiated four days after thymectomy and injected one week after irradiation, showed a fairly high level of antibody, although, in the allograft rejection, no significant difference was observed when compared to the irradiated fish. Furthermore, animals thymectomized, irradiated and autoimplanted showed higher production of antibody when immunized three months after irradiation compared to matched controls. In the same manner, in the allograft rejection, a slight restoration was found in fish reconstituted with a non-irradiated thymus. From these results, it is considered that, as in mammals, the adult thymus of fish plays an important role in recovery from the damage to the immune system caused by irradiation. Furthermore, a combination of X-irradiation and thymectomy suggests that suppressor T-cells which are resistant to X-rays exist in the fish thymus

  9. Antioxidant tolerance of kidney after irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukan, Neslihan; Güney, Yildiz; Hiçsönmez, Ayşe; Bilgihan, Ayşe

    2003-03-01

    Different doses of irradiation were performed in which group 1 (non-irradiated), group 2 (8 Gy/single dose/whole body) and group 3 (15 Gy/single dose/whole body) were formed of guinea pigs. After 24 hr of radiation exposure the levels of lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured in the whole kidney. The MDA content increased in animals irradiated with 8 and 15 Gy. And group 3 showed an increase the level of MDA. GSH contents of kidney in group 2 and 3 increased. The activity of SOD decreased markedly in group 3 when compared with control group. The activity of GSH-Px decreased significantly in group 2 and group 3 in comparison to controls. It may be concluded that a high dose of ionizing irradiation cause excessive oxidative stress in kidney.

  10. Argon laser irradiation of the otolithic organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, T.; Nomura, Y.; Young, Y.H.; Hara, M. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    An argon laser was used to irradiate the otolithic organs of guinea pigs and cynomolgus monkeys. After stapedectomy, the argon laser (1.5 W x 0.5 sec/shot) irradiated the utricle or saccule without touching the sensory organs. The stapes was replaced over the oval window after irradiation. The animals used for acute observation were killed immediately for morphologic studies; those used for long-term observation were kept alive for 2, 4, or 10 weeks. Acute observation revealed that sensory and supporting cells were elevated from the basement membrane only in the irradiated area. No rupture of the membranous labyrinth was observed. Long-term observation revealed that the otolith of the macula utriculi had disappeared in 2-week specimens. The entire macula utricili had disappeared in 10-week specimens. No morphologic changes were observed in cochlea, semicircular canals, or membranous labyrinth. The saccule showed similar changes.

  11. Feasibility of internal irradiation of a lobe of the lung with P-32 loaded microspheres: I. stability of microspheres in animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llaurado, J.G.; Brewer, L.A. III; Elam, D.A.; Zielinski, F.W.; Hirst, A.E.; Ing, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Surgical removal, the preferred treatment for lung cancer, is not tolerated by many patients. To test feasibility of treating these cases with high dose isotope irradiation, an occlusion balloon catheter was introduced into a branch of the pulmonary artery in dogs. Ten million (1 g) ion exchange resin microspheres (d. 53-63 μm) labelled with 10-20 mCi P-32 (and 5-10 mCi Tc-99m for imaging) were delivered into the selected lobar artery. After 60 minutes the catheter was withdrawn and a lung scintigraph obtained. Microspheres were prepared by converting cation exchange resin beads to the chromic form, labelling with P-32 phosphate at pH 2 to 4 and stabilizing at pH 9. Quality control testing in boiling physiologic saline confirmed in vitro stability. Since the radiation dose (rad) from total P-32 decay is 733 times the tissue concentration (μCi/g), the injected P-32 distributed in one lobe (ca. 100 g) of canine lung delivers ca. 75,000-150,000 rad. Serial lung scintigraphs were obtained for 8 weeks. Blood level of P-32 was negligible throughout. Following an anesthetic overdoes, dramatic necrosis of the irradiated lobe was observed. Microspheres were visualized histologically in the precapillary beds and never in alveoli or bronchi. Radioactive levels were negligible and no major alterations were discernible in adjacent lung lobes and organs. Thus, large doses of radiation to a selected pulmonary lobe may be delivered without systemic leakage of radioactivity or damage to other organs. This procedure may be useful to destroy inoperable cancer of the lung and other organs

  12. Decree No. 70-392 of 8 May 1970 laying down administrative measures in implementation of the Act of 1 August 1905 with respect to repression of fraudulent trading in irradiated food intended for human and animal consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Decree provides for the conditions of trade in irradiated food and lays down that food irradiation may be undertaken only in accordance with an Order specifying the irradiation limits and conditions. (NEA) [fr

  13. Pulmonary collagen metabolism in irradiated hamsters and those treated with corticosteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, J.A.; Straus, F.C.; Halliwell, W.H.; Jones, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    Syrian hamsters were exposed to 90 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles to produce pulmonary fibrosis. Irradiated hamsters and contols were treated with Depomedrol, arresting the developing fibrosis. All hamsters receiving steroid showed a reduced incorporation of 14 C-proline into noncollagen protein during the 3-19 wk period after exposure. Collagen synthesis relative to noncollagen protein synthesis was decreased five-fold in these animals at early times after exposure and during high steroid dosage, but had returned to control levels after considerable time at lower steroid dosage. Collagen synthesis in irradiated animals not receiving steroids was elevated during the same time period and collagen synthesis in irradiated hamsters treated with steroid was intermediate between that in radiation animals and in control or steroid animals. Collagen breakdown was elevated to the same level as in irradiated animals, and collagen content was normal and well below that of irradiated animals. These and previous data indicate that steroid treatment delays development of pulmonary fibrosis in animals irradiated with fibrogenic doses of 90 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles. Experiments incubating BAPN or Depomedrol with L-929 or WI-38 fibroblasts in vitro were performed to note any effect of these agents upon fibroblast proliferation, cellular collagen processing or collagen synthesis. Steroids frequently reduced fibroblast proliferation and altered cellular collagen processings to reflect an increased proportion of collagen breakdown products. These changes reflect the importance of fibroblast proliferation in developing pulmonary fibrosis

  14. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  15. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  16. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  17. A history of studies on safety of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    This report explained a history of studies on safety of irradiated foods in the United States. The army of USA had begun an experiment of irradiated foods in 1953. The toxic tests consisted of three phase, the phase I (1954 to 1959), phase II (1956 to 1965) and phase III (1971 to 1978). In the phase I, the short period toxic tests (90days) of 54 kinds of foods were carried out using high and low irradiation. The Swift and Company Laboratories reported detailed animal tests of 2685 albino rat, chickens and human. The animal tests showed many kinds of nutrition disorder, but the human test no problem. On phase II, 22 kinds of foods were tested for long period using rat, dog and mouse. Dog showed many kinds of symptom, for example, low birthrate, short life time, low growth rate, increasing spleen weight and thyroid disease. On phase III, two companies carried out the toxic test and Ralston Purina Company report is only data to be used now. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) (1960 to 1970), Department of Commerce (1965 to 1976) and Department of Agriculture (1961 to 1966) studied safety of irradiated foods. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determined that the irradiated foods belonged to under the category of food additive in 1958. FDA tests safety of irradiated foods using the determination tree and permitted many kinds of irradiated foods. (S.Y.)

  18. The hematological effects of irradiation on the Indian desert gerbil (Meriones hurrianae Jerdon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, N.; Srivastava, P.N.

    1975-01-01

    Male adult gerbils were irradiated with a whole-body dose of 600 R with gamma-rays. The animals were studied for their hematological response on days, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 28 post irradiation. No significant change was noted in erythrocyte number after irradiation. There was a slight fall in hemoglobin and hematocrit values in the early post-irradiation periods. A transient leukocytosis was observed on day 1 after irradiation followed by a sharp fall on day 2 which continued up to day 3. A recovery in leukocyte value was noted after a week of irradiation. Abnormal leukocytes were noted in the peripheral blood on day 2 after irradiation. The results show that the gerbil is radioresistent and is comparable to the rabbit at this doselevel. (orig.) [de

  19. Effect of low dose x irradiation on the succinate dehydrogenase activity of guinea pig, rat and mouse tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, V C; Bhatavdekar, J M; Aravinda Babu, K [Gujarat Univ., Ahmedabad (India). Dept. of Zoology

    1976-07-01

    The histochemical changes in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) were investigated in pectoralis major muscle of guinea pig, rat and mouse after level X-irradiation (72 R and 240 R) and compared with control animals. Biochemical studies were carried out on liver, kidney, muscle (pectoralis major), adrenal and spleen of these animals after low dose local X-irradiation and compared with control animals. Changes in SDH activity were studied up to 72-h post-irradiation, which shows that low dose local X-irradiation leads to increased enzymic activity. The increase in enzymic activity was remarkable in mouse tissues as compared with guinea pig and rat. Adrenals of all the three animals showed significant activation after all the doses of radiation studied. The significance of these results, with special reference to oxidative metabolism, has been discussed.

  20. Reinterpreting the best biomarker of oxidative stress: The 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α/prostaglandin F2α ratio shows complex origins of lipid peroxidation biomarkers in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Erve, Thomas J; Lih, Fred B; Jelsema, Casey; Deterding, Leesa J; Eling, Thomas E; Mason, Ronald P; Kadiiska, Maria B

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress is elevated in numerous environmental exposures and diseases. Millions of dollars have been spent to try to ameliorate this damaging process using anti-oxidant therapies. Currently, the best accepted biomarker of oxidative stress is the lipid oxidation product 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), which has been measured in over a thousand human and animal studies. 8-iso-PGF2α generation has been exclusively attributed to nonenzymatic chemical lipid peroxidation (CLP). However, 8-iso-PGF2α can also be produced enzymatically by prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases (PGHS) in vivo. When failing to account for PGHS-dependent generation, 8-iso-PGF2α cannot be interpreted as a selective biomarker of oxidative stress. We investigated the formation of 8-iso-PGF2α in rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using the 8-iso-PGF2α/PGF2α ratio to quantitatively determine the source(s) of 8-iso-PGF2α. Upon exposure to a 120mg/kg dose of CCl4, the contribution of CLP accounted for only 55.6±19.4% of measured 8-iso-PGF2α, whereas in the 1200mg/kg dose, CLP was the predominant source of 8-iso-PGF2α (86.6±8.0% of total). In contrast to CCl4, exposure to 0.5mg/kg LPS was characterized by a significant increase in both the contribution of PGHS (59.5±7.0) and CLP (40.5±14.0%). In conclusion, significant generation of 8-iso-PGF2α occurs through enzymatic as well as chemical lipid peroxidation. The distribution of the contribution is dependent on the exposure agent as well as the dose. The 8-iso-PGF2α/PGF2α ratio accurately determines the source of 8-iso-PGF2α and provides an absolute measure of oxidative stress in vivo. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Fully portable blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    A fully portable blood irradiator was developed using the beta emitter thulium-170 as the radiation source and vitreous carbon as the body of the irradiator, matrix for isotope encapsulation, and blood interface material. These units were placed in exteriorized arteriovenous shunts in goats, sheep, and dogs and the effects on circulating lymphocytes and on skin allograft retention times measured. The present work extends these studies by establishing baseline data for skin graft rejection times in untreated animals

  2. Food irradiation: Activities and potentialities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

    After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. The new principle of bulk-cargo irradiation allows the integration of this technology into the usual harvest technology for onions on the way from field to storage. Scientific and applied research work has been carried out in the past 3 yr on the irradiation of spices, potatoes, eviscerated chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. In connection with the irradiation of eviscerated chicken, fodder yeast and animal feeds the basis of an antisalmonella programme has been discussed. Germ-count-reduced spices were employed for the production of test charges of preserves and tinned products. The results have led to the decision to design and build a new multipurpose irradiator for food irradiation. In order to cover the legal aspects of food irradiation the Ministry of Health issued regulations concerning the recommendation of irradiated food in the G.D.R.

  3. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  4. Anaplasma marginale attenuated by irradiation, its potential use as vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, A.; Pupiales, N.; Castro, J.; Higuera, B.; Orrego, J.

    1986-01-01

    Five groups of 5 calves each were inoculated: group 1 (control) with 5 x 10 8 non-irradiated parasites (day 0) and group 2 with the same dose of irradiated (900 Gy) parasites on day 0. Both groups showed clinical signs of the infection, although group 2 was less severely affected. On day 41 group 3 was inoculated with blood (1 x 10 9 parasites) from an animal in group 2. These parasites were irradiated again (900 Gy) prior to inoculation. On day 59 group 4 was inoculated with blood (1 x 10 9 parasites) from the same animal in group 2. This inoculum was irradiated a second time (900 Gy) and the cells were washed and culture ''IN VITRO'' for 4 days prior to inoculation. Parasitaemia increased abruptly in group 3 (peak = 25%) concomitant with a sudden drop in hematocrit. Two animals died, the others required treatment. Group 4 had a transient and low parasitaemia (peak = 2%) and normal hematocrit values. On day 201 all animals including a new control (group 5) of 5 animals, were inoculated with 2 x 10 9 heterologous parasites. All 5 control animals reached 20% parasitaemia and averaged a -40% hematocrit decrease when treated. In contrast, the remaining animals had from -20% to normal hematocrit values and from 5.6% to non-detectable parasitaemias. All inoculated calves showed high antibody titers which increased once the parasitaemia was overcome, and after challenge. It appears that two (900 Gy) irradiations effectively attenuated A. marginale, conferring an active and long lasting protection. However, inoculum cells had to be washed and cultured to prevent hemolitic shock

  5. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  6. Features of aseptic granulomatous imflammation in rats subjected to the chronic action of gamma irradiation in small doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranov, I; Krushkov, I; Statelov, V; Bratanov, M; Nacheva, V; Gospodinova, D; Serafimov, A

    1976-04-01

    Wistar rats were given a Co-60 dose of 2 r/day over a period of 8 months, or a total dose of 400 r. Two sterile sponge scraps of the same size and form were introduced subcutaneously into the intracapsular space of rats in the control and irradiated groups. Cuts were made in the subcutaneous tissue near the implanted foreign bodies. A vigorous inflammatory reaction developed in the unirradiated animals. The skin granulated normally. The irradiated animals showed a general bleeding of the tissues at the implantation site. A number of deviations were noted during the tissue granulation of the irradiated rats. The migration of leucocytes into the infected site was decreased. The formation of macrophage elements and their activity was lower in the irradiated animals. The reaction of the connective tissue turned out to be a rather sensitive test of the disruptive effects of long-term irradiation. 11 refs.

  7. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  8. Effects of intraoperative electron irradiation in the dog on cell turnover in intact and surgically-anastomosed aorta and intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, W.F.; Morrow, B.M.; Travis, E.L.; Tepper, J.; Merkel, A.B.; Kranda, K.; Terrill, R.

    1983-01-01

    Adults dogs were subjected to laparotomy and intraoperative electron irradiation after division and reanastomosis of aorta or after construction of a blind loop of small intestine having a transverse suture line and an end-to-side anastomosis. Dogs received intraoperative irradiation of both intact and anastomosed aorta or intestine in doses of 0, 2000, 3000, or 4500 rad. Animals were sacrificed at seven days or three months following treatment. At 24 hours prior to sacrifice, dogs received 5 mCi tritiated thymidine intravenously. Irradiated and non-irradiated segments of aorta and small intestine, including intact and anastomotic regions, were analyzed for tritiated thymidine incorporation and were subjected to autoradiography. Incorporation studies showed diminution in tritiated thymidine uptake by irradiated portions of aorta and small intestine, in both intact and anastomotic regions. Autoradiograms revealed that irradiated areas of intact or anastomotic aorta or intestine had diminished labeling of stromal cells, suggesting a lowered cell proliferative capacity of irradiated tissue compared to non-irradiated portions. Inflammatory cells showed similar labeling indices in irradiated and non-irradiated tissues, both intact and surgically-manipulated, suggesting that irradiation does not significantly affect a subsequent local inflammatory response. Radiation-induced decreases in tritiated thymidine incoporation in irradiated aorta and small intestine were generally more marked at seven days than at three months following irradiation, suggesting that radiation-induced depression of cell turnover rates decreases with time

  9. RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF LYCOPENE IN GAMMA IRRADIATED ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOHAMED, M.I.; ALI, S.E.; HAGGAG, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the radioprotective potential of lycopene in gamma irradiated male rats. Four groups, each of sixteen rats, were assigned as follows: the first was untreated (control group), the second fed on chow diet mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg diet (lycopene group), the third exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated group) and the fourth fed on chow mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg and exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated and treated group). Animals exposed to ionizing radiation experienced decline in their body weights, increased ALT and AST enzymes and decreased serum albumin level. The study also showed decline in hemoglobin, total white blood cells count and blood platelets count. Bone marrow examination revealed profound hypoplasis and reduction of the cellular elements. Histological examination of liver, spleen, testis and intestine showed disruption of normal architecture of these organs. Irradiated and treated animals maintained a more or less steady body weight, and improved serum ALT, AST and albumin in comparison with those irradiated. The results also showed increased hemoglobin, total white blood cells, platelets count and partial improvement of bone marrow cellularity. Lycopene was also capable of partial preservation of normal architecture of liver, spleen, intestine and testis in gamma irradiated group.In conclusion, lycopene seems to be a useful radioprotector probably because of its potent antioxidant property

  10. Detection of irradiated meat, fish and their products by measuring 2-alkylcyclobutanones levels after frozen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obana, H.; Furuta, M.; Tanaka, Y.

    2007-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones, such as 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone, were analyzed to assess the irradiation history of irradiated meats or fish, and cooked foods with irradiated ingredients, which had been stored frozen for up to one year. The purpose of the study was to show that irradiated meats could be detected even after having been stored in the distribution system. 2-Alkylcyclobutanones showed a small decrease in irradiated raw meats that had been stored frozen for one year. Cooked foods, such as pancake and fried chicken made with irradiated eggs and chicken, respectively, contained detectable levels of 2-alkylcyclobutanones after storage frozen for one year. The 2-alkylcyclobutanones became undetectable in highly dried samples, such as feed for lab animals, during the same period

  11. Novel antiseptic compound OPB-2045G shows potent bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus both in vitro and in vivo: a pilot study in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuhide; Hagi, Akifumi; Nii, Takuya; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Nakata, Hikaru; Iwata, Koushi

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for new compounds to effectively treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). The novel monobiguanide compound 1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate (OPB-2045G) has potential bactericidal activity. We sought to elucidate the potency of OPB-2045G bactericidal activity against MRSA and VRE compared to those of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) and povidone iodine (PVP-I). In vitro bactericidal activity was analysed using minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) as the index. The in vivo bactericidal efficacy of OPB-2045G was examined by determining MRSA and VRE contamination of the normal dorsal skin of mice following removal of hair. After a 3 min treatment period, the MBC of OPB-2045G was lower than that of CHG and PVP-I against standard strains and clinical isolates. Additionally, in our in vivo mouse model, the in vivo bactericidal activity of 1.5 % OPB-2045G (a clinically relevant dose) was higher than that of 0.5 % CHG and equivalent to that of 10 % PVP-I against MRSA. Similarly, the in vivo bactericidal activity of OPB-2045G was higher than that of 0.5 % CHG and 10 % PVP-I against VRE. OPB-2045G showed more potent bactericidal activity against MRSA and VRE both in vitro and in vivo compared to CHG and PVP-I, indicating that OPB-2045G may provide better protection against health care-associated infections caused by these pathogens. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Endolymphatic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, M.M.; Ianhez, L.E.; Sabbaga, E.

    1982-01-01

    The authors analysed the clinical evolution and the result of renal transplantation some years after irradiation in 24 patients (group I) who received endolymphatic 131 I as a pre-transplantation immunesuppresive measure. The control group (group II) consisted of 24 non-irradiated patients comparable to group I in age, sex, primary disease, type of donor and immunesuppressive therapy. Significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding such factors a incidence and reversibility of rejection crises in the first 60 post-transplantation days, loss of kidney due to rejection, and dosage of azathioprine. The authors conclude that this method, besides being harmless, has prolonged immunesuppressive action, its administration being advised for receptores of cadaver kidneys, mainly those who show positive cross-match against HLA antigens for painel. (Author) [pt

  13. Irradiated produce reaches Midwest market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszczola, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    In March 1992, the Chicago-area store gave its shoppers a choice between purchasing irradiated and nonirradiated fruits. The irradiated fruits were treated at Vindicator Inc., the first U.S. food irradiation facility (starting up on January 10, 1992). The plant, located in Mulberry, Fla., then shipped the fruits in trucks to the store where they were displayed under a hand-lettered sign describing the irradiated fruits and showing the irradiation logo

  14. : acquired resistance in mice by implantation of young irradiated worms into the portal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Z. Coelho

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available In two distinct experiments, immature S. mansoni worms (LE strain, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, aged 20 days, obtained from the portal system of white outbred mice, were irradiated with 14 and 4 Krad, respectively. Afterwards, the worms were directly inoculated into the portal vein of normal mice. Inoculation was performed with 20 irradiated worms per animal. Fifty days after inoculation, the mice that received 4 and 14 Krad-irradiated worms and their respective controls were infected with S. mansoni cercariae (LE strain, by transcutaneous route. Twenty days after this challenge infection, the animals were sacrificed and perfused for mature irradiated (90-day-old and immature (20-day-old worm counts. Analysis of the results showed that statistically significant protection against cercariae occurred in both groups with irradiated worms.

  15. High doses of ionizing radiation on bone repair: is there effect outside the irradiated site?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Flaviana Soares; Dias, Pâmella Coelho; Limirio, Pedro Henrique Justino Oliveira; Lara, Vitor Carvalho; Batista, Jonas Dantas; Dechichi, Paula

    2017-03-01

    Local ionizing radiation causes damage to bone metabolism, it reduces blood supply and cellularity over time. Recent studies indicate that radiation promotes biological response outside the treatment field. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on bone repair outside the irradiated field. Ten healthy male Wistar rats were used; and five animals were submitted to radiotherapy on the left femur. After 4 weeks, in all animals were created bone defects in the right and left femurs. Seven days after surgery, animals were euthanized. The femurs were removed and randomly divided into 3 groups (n=5): Control (C) (right femur of the non-irradiated animals); Local ionizing radiation (IR) (left femur of the irradiated animals); Contralateral ionizing radiation (CIR) (right femur of the irradiated animals). The femurs were processed and embedded in paraffin; and bone histologic sections were evaluated to quantify the bone neoformation. Histomorphometric analysis showed that there was no significant difference between groups C (24.6±7.04) and CIR (25.3±4.31); and IR group not showed bone neoformation. The results suggest that ionizing radiation affects bone repair, but does not interfere in bone repair distant from the primary irradiated site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Who likes circus animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Zanola, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample based on 268 questionnaires submitted to people attending the Acquatico Bellucci circus, Italy, this paper analyzes the circusgoers's preferences for circus animals. Results show that higher preferences for circus animals are related to frequency of consumption. However, differently from what commonly expected, more educated and younger people seem to be less sensitive to the claims of animal welfare organizations.

  17. Detection of irradiated spice in blend of irradiated and un-irradiated spices using thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Yamazaki, Masao; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyahara, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Five blended spice sample were prepared by mixing irradiated and un-irradiated black pepper and paprika at different ratios. Blended black pepper containing 2%(w/w) of 5.4 kGy-irradiated black pepper showed no maximum at glow1. Irradiated black pepper samples, mixed to 5 or 10%(w/w), were identified as 'irradiated' or 'partially irradiated' or 'un-irradiated'. All samples with un-irradiated pepper up to 20%(w/w) were identified as irradiated'. In the case 5.0 kGy-irradiated paprika were mixed with un-irradiated paprika up to 5%(w/w), all samples were identified as irradiated'. The glow1 curves of samples, including irradiated paprika at 0.2%(w/w) or higher, exhibited a maximum between 150 and 250degC. The results suggest the existence of different critical mixing ratio for the detection of irradiation among each spices. Temperature range for integration of the TL glow intensity were compared between 70-400degC and approximate 150-250degC, and revealed that the latter temperature range was determined based on the measurement of TLD100. Although TL glow ratio in 150-250degC was lower than that of 70-400degC range, identification of irradiation was not affected. Treatment of un-irradiated black pepper and paprika with ultraviolet rays had no effect on the detection of irradiation. (author)

  18. Strain Improvement of Fungi by Induced Mutation through Gamma Irradiation and Selection for Animal Feed Enzymes Production and its Fermentation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konsue, Parichart; Piadang, Nattayana; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2006-09-01

    Ten from eighty-nine strains of thermophilic fungi Thermomyces lanuginosus produced high level insoluble xylan degrading enzyme when cultured in submerge condition using untreated corncob as a substrate. Strain of T. lanuginosus THKU56 produced high level of insoluble xylan degrading enzyme with the most stable which was remained 28.2 and 58.9 % after treated at pH 3.5 and 70 o C for 1 h, respectively. To improve xylanase production, the strain was subjected to mutate using gamma ray at 0.4 - 1.6 kGy. The result showed the mutant strains produced insoluble xylanase activity lesser than wild type. Thus wild type strain THKU56 was then selected as potent strains for enzyme production and medium optimization was investigated using a central composite design. The four components, corncobs, yeast extract, KH 2 PO 4 and Tween 8 0, were parameters of this study. It was found that corncobs and yeast extract were discovered to affect on the xylanase production. The optimal concentration of the active nutrients for xylanase production were 41 g/l of corncobs and 24 g/l of yeast extract, which gave a predicted yield of 526.7 units/ml after 5 days culture at a temperature of 50 o C. The xylanase activity obtained from the experiment was 541 units/ml that was close to the predicted value

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  1. Physico-chemical characterization of gamma rays irradiated crotamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: kcorleto@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. It has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine, a toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed the characterization of irradiated crotamine using Circular Dichroism (CD), Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques. We used size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography to purify it from Cdt crude venom. The pure crotamine was irradiated with 2.0 kGy from a {sup 60}Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were analyzed in a fluorescence spectrophotometer (Hitachi F-4500), under excitation wavelength at 275 nm and the emission was scanned from 300 to 500 nm. The analysis of fluorescence quenching showed that the irradiated form displayed a lower quantum yield when compared to the native form. CD spectra, obtained from a Jasco, J-180 spectropolarimeter, of native and irradiated crotamine solutions, showed a discrete change between the samples, from apparently ordered conformation to a random coil. Finally, the thermodynamics analysis, realized in a calorimeter METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e, showed that irradiation promoted changes in the calorimetric profile. Our results indicate that irradiation leads to progressive changes in the structure of the toxin, which could explain the decrease in myotoxic activity. (author)

  2. Physico-chemical characterization of gamma rays irradiated crotamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. It has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine, a toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed the characterization of irradiated crotamine using Circular Dichroism (CD), Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques. We used size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography to purify it from Cdt crude venom. The pure crotamine was irradiated with 2.0 kGy from a 60 Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were analyzed in a fluorescence spectrophotometer (Hitachi F-4500), under excitation wavelength at 275 nm and the emission was scanned from 300 to 500 nm. The analysis of fluorescence quenching showed that the irradiated form displayed a lower quantum yield when compared to the native form. CD spectra, obtained from a Jasco, J-180 spectropolarimeter, of native and irradiated crotamine solutions, showed a discrete change between the samples, from apparently ordered conformation to a random coil. Finally, the thermodynamics analysis, realized in a calorimeter METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e, showed that irradiation promoted changes in the calorimetric profile. Our results indicate that irradiation leads to progressive changes in the structure of the toxin, which could explain the decrease in myotoxic activity. (author)

  3. Physiologic consequences of local heart irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, B.J.; Lauk, S.; Bornhausen, M.; Trott, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    Noninvasive methods have been used to study the long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary functional changes at rest and after exercise in adult rats following local heart irradiation with single x-ray doses of 15, 17.5 or 20 Gy, and in non-irradiated control animals. Rats that had undergone a chronic exercise program were compared with untrained cohorts. The earliest dysfunction detected was an increased respiratory rate (f) at 10 weeks after irradiation in the highest dose group. In contrast, both telemetric heart-rate (HR) and rhythm and indirect systolic blood pressure measurements performed at rest only revealed changes starting at 43 weeks after irradiation with 20 Gy, up to which point the rats showed no clinical signs of heart failure. However, the number of minutes required for the recovery of the HR to pre-exercise levels following the implementation of a standardized exercise challenge was elevated in untrained rats compared with their trained cohorts at 18 weeks after irradiation with 20 Gy. Increases in recovery times were required in the two lowest dose groups, starting at 26 weeks after irradiation. It was concluded that the reserve capacity of the cardiopulmonary system masks functional decrements at rest for many months following local heart irradiation, necessitating the use of techniques which reveal reductions in reserve capacities. Further, the influence of local irradiation to the heart and lungs deserves closer scrutiny due to mutual interactions

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and nutritive value of sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Sorghum grains were gamma irradiated at 0, 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. Irradiated and unirradiated sorghum samples were analyzed for crude fiber contents, total nitrogen, fat, ash and tannic acid. Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were also determined. In addition, digestibility coefficient received special attention. The irradiated sorghum grains were incorporated into basal diets and fed to rats during the digestion trials. The results indicated that gamma irradiation had no effects on total nitrogen, fat and ash contents of sorghum grains. Irradiation treatments of sorghum did not cause a pronounced effect on tannic acid content even those received the highest irradiation dose (200 kGy). Moreover, the irradiation treatments decreased the NDF content of sorghum especially those subjected to 100 or 200 kGy. On the other hand, the ADF and ADL values did not show a remarkable change due to irradiation treatments. Hemicellulose content was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose levels. Also, it was noticed that feeding rats on basal diets enriched with irradiated sorghum grains had a beneficial effects on digestibility coefficient. This trend was obvious with animals supplemented with sorghum grains subjected to the relatively high irradiation dose levels. 4 tabs

  5. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.P.; Dhar, D.N.

    1988-06-01

    In vitro and in vivo effects of varying levels of gamma irradiation on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin were studied. Radiation doses of 100 Gy onwards caused a decrease in the viability of protoscoleces in vitro. However, infectivity of protoscoleces was not affected at radiation doses of 300 Gy in golden hamsters and 200 Gy in mice although number and size of cysts developing from infections with irradiated protoscoleces in these animals was small in comparison to cysts developing from infections with normal protoscoleces. Four hundred E. granulosus protoscoleces, normal or 100 Gy irradiated, proved fatal for mice. A significant progressive decline in worm establishment was observed in pups given an infection of E. granulosus protoscoleces exposed to increasing levels of gamma irradiation from 100 to 600 Gy. No worms established in pups infected with protoscoleces irradiated at 400 and 600 Gy, respectively. Worms developing from irradiated infections in pups were stunted and showed developmental abnormalities.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.P.; Dhar, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo effects of varying levels of gamma irradiation on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin were studied. Radiation doses of 100 Gy onwards caused a decrease in the viability of protoscoleces in vitro. However, infectivity of protoscoleces was not affected at radiation doses of 300 Gy in golden hamsters and 200 Gy in mice although number and size of cysts developing from infections with irradiated protoscoleces in these animals was small in comparison to cysts developing from infections with normal protoscoleces. Four hundred E. granulosus protoscoleces, normal or 100 Gy irradiated, proved fatal for mice. A significant progressive decline in worm establishment was observed in pups given an infection of E. granulosus protoscoleces exposed to increasing levels of gamma irradiation from 100 to 600 Gy. No worms established in pups infected with protoscoleces irradiated at 400 and 600 Gy, respectively. Worms developing from irradiated infections in pups were stunted and showed developmental abnormalities. (author)

  8. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  9. Changes in hypothalamus in continuously irradiated sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendarcik, J.; Stanikova, A.; Rajtova, V.; Molnarova, M.

    1983-01-01

    Neurosecretion, PAS-positive mucopolysaccharides and the Nissl substance were studied in the neurons of the rostral, medial and caudal hypothalamus of continuously irradiated ewes. The study was performed on 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed of a live weight of 34 kg. The animals were in the period of physiological anoestrus and their age was two to three years. The first group of six ewes was the control. The second group included 15 sheep irradiated with a total dose of 6.7 Gy (700 R) for seven days. Co 60 was used as the source of irradiation. The animals of this group were killed seven days following treatment. The ewes in the third group were left for the study of mortality. The brains were perfused with 2% buffered paraformaldehyde immediately after the bleeding of the sheep; then the brains were removed from the skulls and fixed in buffered picroformol. Paraffin slices were stained with haematoxylin-eosine, aldehyde-fuchsine and alcian blue for neurosecretion, by the PAS reaction for mucopolysaccharides and with cresyl violet for the Nissl substance. It was found that irradiation of the whole body inhibited the activity of neurosecretory cells in the rostral and medial hypothalamus, thus reducing neurosecretion. These regions also showed a reduced activity of the PAS reaction used for the demonstration of mucopolysaccharides. The observed changes also included damage of the endothelium of blood vessels with the occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates and with haemorrhages. In this way, the trophism of neurosecretory cells was affected, which is ascribed to the decrease in the amount of neurosecretory material. In the caudal hypothalamus, neurosecretion and PAS-positivity were slightly stimulated by irradiation. The Nissl substance disappeared as a result of irradiation. (author)

  10. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  11. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  12. In vivo evaluation of expression of TGFβ1 in the irradiated heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affonso Junior, Renato Jose; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Kimura, Edna Teruko; Egami, Mizue Imoto; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the latent and active TGFβ1 localization in the heart, to evaluate whether or not radiation induces latent TGFβ1 activation, and to study the distribution of collagen fibers in the irradiated heart. Thirty-two C 57 BL mice were randomly assigned in two groups: GI (non irradiated animals) and GII (irradiated animals). The mice from G II received a single whole-body radiation dose of 7 Gy, using a 60 Co source at a dose rate of 0.97 Gy/min. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 1, 14, 30 and 90 days after irradiation. The irradiated hearts showed: nuclear changes and muscle cells with decreased striations; significant increase in the collagen deposition 90 days after irradiation; latent TGFβ1 activation in the cardio myocytes and connective tissue cells after irradiation. Our results show the importance of TGFβ1 protein in the process of radiation-induced heart fibrosis and suggest that cardio myocytes and connective cells may play a role in this mechanism acting as cellular sources of active TGFβ1. (author)

  13. Effect of head x-irradiation on adrenal medullary secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieno, Masahiro

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiments was to investigate an immediate effect of head x-irradiation on the secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline by the adrenal medulla. When the dogs were irradiated with 200 or 800 R of x-rays to their heads under pentobarbital anesthesia, the majority of the animals showed no stimulation of the adrenal medulla but the minority showed a slight but definite increase in the secretion of adrenaline, the peak being attained within 60 min after exposure. (auth.)

  14. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  15. L-arginine and glycine supplementation in the repair of the irradiated colonic wall of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar Picanço, Etiene; Lopes-Paulo, Francisco; Marques, Ruy G; Diestel, Cristina F; Caetano, Carlos Eduardo R; de Souza, Mônica Vieira Mano; Moscoso, Gabriela Mendes; Pazos, Helena Maria F

    2011-05-01

    Radiotherapy is widely used for cancer treatment but has harmful effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of L-arginine and glycine supplementation on the colon wall of rats submitted to abdominal irradiation. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: I-healthy, II-irradiated with no amino acid supplementation, III-irradiated and supplemented with L-arginine, and IV-irradiated and supplemented with glycine. The animals received supplementation for 14 days, with irradiation being applied on the eighth day of the experiment. All animals underwent laparotomy on the 15th day for resection of a colonic segment for stereologic analysis. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at p ≤0.05. Stereologic analysis showed that irradiation induced a reduction of the total volume of the colon wall of group II and III animals compared to healthy controls, but not of group IV animals supplemented with glycine. The mucosal layer of the irradiated animals of all groups was reduced compared to healthy group I animals, but supplementation with L-arginine and glycine was effective in maintaining the epithelial surface of the mucosal layer. The present results suggest that glycine supplementation had a superior effect on the irradiated colon wall compared to L-arginine supplementation since it was able to maintain the thickness of the wall and the epithelial surface of the mucosa, whereas L-arginine maintained the partial volume of the epithelium and the epithelial surface, but not the total volume of the intestinal wall.

  16. Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch; Eamsiri, Jarurut; Pongpat, Suchada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

  17. Lipid Peroxidation and Electrolytes in Irradiated Rats Treated with Caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gawad, I.I.; Ahmed, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    This Study was conducted to elarify the potential role of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl xanthine), a major component of coffee, against damages induced by gamma rays. Thirty adult female albino rats (130+10) were divided into three groups, each of ten animals. The first group acted as control animals. The second was sujected to a single dose of (7) Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The third group was injected intraperitoneally with a single dose (80mg/kg body weight) of caffeine one-hour prior irradiation. Blood samples were collected five time intervals 1,3,7,15 and 30 days post-irradiation. The content of serum lipid peroxides was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Electrolytes as calcium (Ca2 + ), sodium (Na + ) and potassium (K + ) and levels were estimated and Na + /K + ratio was calculated. Also serum enzymes as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminotransaminases (AST and ALT) activity levels were measured. The data revealed significant increase in TBARS, AST and ALT levels in serum due to irradiation exposure. While, radiation induced significant decrease in serum level of ALP, level of electrolytes Ca 2+ , Ma + , and Na + /K + ratio. On the other hand, group injected intraperitoneally with caffeine pre-irradiation exhibited reduction in the changes produced by gamma-radiation with variable degree. The data showed that this antioxidant confers protection damage inflicted by radiation when given prior to irradiation exposure on the examined parameters

  18. Effect of irradiation and of cysteamine on rat liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braquet, Monique.

    1979-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine: the effects of a cobalt 60 gamma irradiation received by an animal, the biological repercussions of the preliminary administration of cysteamine to the animal exposed. To this end the amount of damage caused by in vivo irradiation of rats was estimated at three levels: on the whole body; on an important organ, the liver; on a specific organite, the mitochondrion. The methods of investigation used fall mainly within the province of biochemical technology. Studies on the effects of ionizing radiations on rats irradiated for ten days at 900 roentgens showed a generalized attack on the whole system, known as the ''Acute Irradiation Syndrome'' and divisible into three phases: stage one, initial phase involving loss of weight and destruction of the liver. These symptoms appear early and reach a paroxysm on the 4th day after irradiation. Stage two, remission phase (from the 5th to the 8th day) when the weight variations become stabilised. Stage three, last phase, often leading to the death between the 9th and 10th days. During the same 10-day period, on the same irradiated rats, the changes in enzymatic systems were followed in order to estimate the magnitude of peroxidative phenomena within a subcellular particle such as the mitochondrion. The results obtained prove a strong disorganisation of the mitochondrial function [fr

  19. Irradiation's promise: fewer foodborne illnesses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.

    1986-01-01

    Food irradiation offers a variety of potential benefits to the food supply. It can delay ripening and sprouting of fruits and vegetables, and substitute for chemical fumigants to kill insects. However, one of the most important benefits of food irradiation is its potential use for destroying microbial pathogens that enter the food supply, including the two most common disease causing bacteria: salmonella and campylobacter. Animal products are one of the primary carriers of pathogens. Food borne illnesses are on the rise, and irradiation of red meats and poultry could significantly reduce their occurrence. Food irradiation should be examined more closely to determine its possible benefits in curtailing microbial diseases

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  1. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  4. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, John A.; Olson, Dennis G.

    1998-01-01

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  5. EPR measurements in irradiated polyacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hola, O.; Foeldesova, M.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of γ-irradiation on the paramagnetic properties of polyacetylene, and the dependence of the EPR spectra on the radiation dose in samples of irradiated polyacetylene were studied. The measurements show that no essential changes of the spin mobility occurred during irradiation. (author) 3 refs.; 2 figs

  6. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Tryggestad, Erik, E-mail: frank.verhaegen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2011-06-21

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  7. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  8. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  9. Evaluation of the role of both irradiation and albenazole in the control of hydatidosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, M.A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The present study mainly aims to evaluate the role of irradiated hydatid cysts and treatment by albendazole on the control of hydatidosis. Eighty male mice were divided equally into four groups. The first group was infected with normal non-irradiated viable particular's. The second group was infected with non-irradiated particular's then treated with al bendazole at a dose of 0.52 mg/kg body weight. The third and fourth groups were infected with 45 Krad and 65 Krad irradiated protoscolices, respectively. Each animal was received 2000 protoscolices by intraperitoneal injection. After 12 and 16 weeks post-infection, parasitological and enzymatic aspects of the mice were examined. The group infected with irradiated protoscolices and the group infected with non-irradiated protoscolices then treated with albendazole showed significant decrease in the number of the developing cysts in both of the liver and omentum. Such decrease was more pronounced with higher dose level of gamma irradiation as compared to the control group (non-irradiated protoscolices). Furthermore, there were significant decreases in the enzyme levels of the liver of mice (y-GT, ALP, ALT and AST) in groups given irradiated viable protoscolices and group given albendazole drug after infection compared to groups given non-irradiated viable protoscolices (control group)

  10. Independent Laboratory for Detection of Irradiated Foods. Detection of the irradiated food in the INCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowicz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows different methods applied for detection of irradiated foods. Structure and equipment of the Independent Laboratory for Detection of Irradiated Foods operating in the INCT is described. Several examples of detection of food irradiation are given in details

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  13. Irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrington, Hugh

    1988-06-01

    This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

  14. Irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugyaki, L.

    1977-01-01

    The author studies the criteria for the harmlessness of irradiation as a food-preservation process. The glucose and proteins of bacto-tryptone, irradiated at 5 Mrads, do not increase the Escherichia Coli C 600 lysogenous bacteriophages, compared to the induction produced by direct irradiation of the strain or to the exposition to nitrogenous yperite. The possible mutagenic effect is therefore different. Wheat flour freshly irradiated at 5 Mrads shows physico-chemical changes. When given to mice as 50% of their ration, it leads to a higher incidence of tumours and a greater number of meiotic chromosome alteration (besides some discreet physio-pathological changes in fertility and longevity). Immunoelectrophoresis in agar or agarose gel does not allow any detection of irradiation of meat, fish or eggs. A vertical electrophoresis in starch gel can lead to a differentiation between frozen or chilled meat and the one that is irradiated at 0.5 or 5 Mrads, but the same thing can't be said for fish or eggs. Lastly an irradiated mushroom shows every sign of freshness but, when planted in a suitable medium, its cuttings do not present any cell proliferation which could give a rapid and simple method of detecting the irradiation. (G.C.)

  15. Reproductive function in mice exposed to ancestral and direct irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.J.; Sprackling, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    Reproduction was studied in 13 inbred strains of mice that had been exposed continuously to 60 Co gamma radiation for varying numbers of generations. At weaning the mice were removed from the irradiation chamber and were tested for reproductive performance. Ancestral and direct levels of irradiation were determined for each animal. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile, and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the 10th day of pregnancy. The number of resorptions, dead embryos, and live embryos were counted, and the ratio of living embryos to the total number of embryos was determined for each litter. The overall fertility curves were sigmoid in the range of doses below those which caused complete sterility, which indicated some sort of cumulative damage. In 11 of the 13 strains studied, an increase in ancestral and/or direct irradiation led to significant decreases in fertility. The means of the number alive in the litters for the control and irradiated mice in each strain showed a definite trend toward fewer live mice in utero after irradiation. Least-squares analyses of variance were made to detect possible effects of any of six irradiation variables (ancestral linear, ancestral quadratic, ancestral cubic, direct linear, direct quadratic, or direct cubic) or of strain differences on total litter size and on ratio. Strain effects were significant in each instance. Litter size was more likely to be affected by radiation variables than ratios were

  16. Study on innocent irradiation treatment of Trichinella spiralis pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guang; Guo Anxi; Xu Zhaomei

    1992-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co gamma rays on pork Trichinella spiralis and nutritional hygiene evaluation of irradiated Trichinella spiralis pork were studied by using animal infestation test and artificial gastric juice digestion method. The results showed that when mouse was infested by Trichinella spiralis pork irradiated with a dose of 0.04 kGy, the number of the second generation larvae and the parasitism in the muscle were reduced. 0.08 kGy irradiation could render the intestine Trichinella spiralis sterile. 0.1 kGy blocked the growth of Trichinella spiralis, which were excreted from the body four days after infestation. 0.2-0.8 kGy irradiation could severely block the growth of Trichinella spiralis, which were excreted completely from the body within forth-eight hours when irradiated with 7 kGy and 8 kGy, the Trichinella spiralis body was not found in the intestine within twenty-four hours. 0.3 kGy and 1 kGy irradiation had no harmful effect on nutrition and wholesomeness of Trichinella spiralis pork. Innocent irradiation treatment of Trichinella spiralis pork is practicable, and the lowest dose should be 0.3 kGy

  17. Inflammatory response and abscopal effects in the lungs after abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Meeren, A.; Monti, P.; Squiban, C.; Wysocki, J.; Vandamme, M.; Griffiths, N.

    2003-01-01

    Abscopal effects can be defined as biological effects observed in a tissue outside of the field of irradiation. Elucidating such mechanisms might help in the understanding of the radiation-induced multi organ failure. However, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In the present study, C57BL6/J mice were irradiated in the abdominal region using an ORION accelerator, at the dose of 15 Gy. Inflammatory response was evaluated by measuring with ELISA, TNF-α, IL-6 and KC in the plasma of irradiated mice as well as in the jejunum and in the lungs. In addition, immunohistochemistry was used to determine PECAM-1 expression in the lungs. Results show the radiation-induced increase in the concentrations of IL-6 and KC measured in the plasma 3 and 6 days after exposure, although TNF-α remained undetectable. In the jejunum, KC content was greatly enhanced in irradiated animals, but IL-6 and TNF-α enhancements were only moderate. KC was also increased in the lungs of irradiated animals as compared to sham irradiated mice. In addition, PECAM-1 expression on lung endothelial cells was enhanced 3 and 6 days post-exposure. Our results show that the lungs, outside of the field of irradiation, show an inflammatory response with enhanced chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells. This effect could be mediated through the release and circulation of inflammatory mediators in the blood and possibly in the lymphatic system

  18. Inflammatory response and abscopal effects in the lungs after abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Meeren, A.; Monti, P.; Squiban, C.; Wysocki, J.; Vandamme, M.; Griffiths, N.

    2003-01-01

    Abscopal effects can be defined as biological effects observed in a tissue outside of the field of irradiation. Elucidating such mechanisms might help in the understanding of the radiation-induced multi organ failure. However, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In the present study, C57BL6/J mice were irradiated in the abdominal region using an ORION accelerator, at the dose of 15 Gy. Inflammatory response was evaluated by measuring with ELISA TNF-α , IL-6 and KC in the plasma of irradiated mice as well as in the jejunum and in the lungs. In addition, immunohistochemistry was used to determine PECAM-1 expression in the lungs. Results show the radiation-induced increase Three and 6 days after exposure in the concentrations of IL-6 and KC measured in the plasma, although TNF-α remained undetectable. In the jejunum, KC content was greatly enhanced in irradiated animals, but IL-6 and TNF-α enhancements were only moderate. KC was also increased in the lungs of irradiated animals as compared to sham irradiated mice. In addition, PECAM-1 expression on lung endothelial cells was enhanced 3 and 6 days post-exposure. Our results show that the lungs, outside of the field of irradiation, show an inflammatory response with enhanced chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells. This effect could be mediated through the release and circulation of inflammatory mediators in the blood and possibly in the lymphatic fluid

  19. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  20. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  1. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  2. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  3. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  4. The acute toxicity of ethanol extract from irradiated Temulawak (curcuma xanthorrizha roxb.) which have anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin Katrin; Susanto; Hendig Winarno

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurization of herbs and herbal medicinal products have been carried out by several herbal industries, but information about the safety of irradiated herbal medicine is still a little, even the influence of gamma irradiation for pasteurization purpose on the toxicity of crude Temulawak has never been investigated. The ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha Roxb. has cytotoxic activity which potential as an anticancer. In this research, the acute toxicity tests were carried out to the ethanol extract from Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The acute toxicity tests of ethanol extract were conducted in mice by observing the effect of extracts on animal behavior (pharmacologic profile) after a single dose of test material, the development of animal body weight and death every day for 14 days and observed several organ weights on day 14. Acute toxicity test results after administration of extracts on male and female mice a dose up to 7500 mg/kg body weight (BW) showed that no deaths and no significant toxic effect, so that the ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy can be declared safe. Thus LD 50 from ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated (5 and 10 kGY) in mice was greater than 7500 mg/kg body weight. (author)

  5. The Irradiation Effect Against To The Infectivity Of Metacercaria Of Fasciola Gigantica On Goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifin, M.; Boky, J.T.; Tarmizi

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of irradiation against to the infectivity of F.gigantica by using observation the exchange of goat bodies condition. Four groups of experiment animals were inoculated by irradiated meta cercaria of F. gigantica at a doses of 0, 45, 55 and 65Gy, and the other one is the negative control. Each experiment animal received 350 lives meta cercaria. The infectivity of irradiated meta cercaria in goat has been followed in the development of body weight, blood value described as the number of red blood cells (RBC), level of haemoglobin (Hb), percentages of packed cell volume (PCV), eosinofil and the last is pathology anatomic inspection. The results obtained showed that 45 Gy is the optimal dose of irradiation for decreasing infectivity of metacercariae of F.gigantica which have the ability to stimulate the good immune response in the goat

  6. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...... bodies. By using animation as a learning tool we can explore the world of emotions and question beliefs, feelings and actions in order to express our voices and enhance our communication, and well-being, both, internally and with others. Animation can be the visual expression of the emotions in movement...

  7. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  8. Impairments of learning and memory in the rats after brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Nobuhiko

    2002-01-01

    Clinical trials of hadrontherapy have been carried out world wide at several facilities including National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Cerebral dysfunction is one of the major concerns associated with radiotherapy of brain tumors. However, little is known about the neurochemical basis of brain dysfunction induced by proton irradiation. We investigated and reported here the early consequences of brain damages caused by proton beam. The animals that had memorized the location of the standard position were locally irradiated to brain with either 70 MeV protons or 290 MeV carbon ions. At 24 hr after irradiation, impairment of the long-term memory was not observed in the irradiated rats compared to control. Irradiated animals, however, required substantially longer time finding out the standard position than control rats when the standard platform displaced to a position different from memorized position. This follows that a single doses of 30 Gy, either protons or carbon ions, impairs the working memory of animals. Function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was analyzed by an in vivo binding assay using radioligand quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB). Irradiated rats were intravenously injected with 5.5 MBq of 3 H-QNB 24 hr after the irradiation, and decapitated 60 min after tracer injection. The autoradiographic studies showed an transitional increase of 3 H-QNB in vivo binding in the early phase after proton irradiation, even though no change in in-vitro 3 H-QNB binding was see in brain autoradiograms of irradiated rats. The cerebral blood flow and the histrogical features of brain were also changed at 3 months post-irradiation. These results indicate that the memory impairment caused by radiation is closely related to the early change of acetylcholine receptor in vivo. (author)

  9. Impairments of learning and memory in the rats after brain irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takai, Nobuhiko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Clinical trials of hadrontherapy have been carried out world wide at several facilities including National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Cerebral dysfunction is one of the major concerns associated with radiotherapy of brain tumors. However, little is known about the neurochemical basis of brain dysfunction induced by proton irradiation. We investigated and reported here the early consequences of brain damages caused by proton beam. The animals that had memorized the location of the standard position were locally irradiated to brain with either 70 MeV protons or 290 MeV carbon ions. At 24 hr after irradiation, impairment of the long-term memory was not observed in the irradiated rats compared to control. Irradiated animals, however, required substantially longer time finding out the standard position than control rats when the standard platform displaced to a position different from memorized position. This follows that a single doses of 30 Gy, either protons or carbon ions, impairs the working memory of animals. Function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was analyzed by an in vivo binding assay using radioligand quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB). Irradiated rats were intravenously injected with 5.5 MBq of {sup 3}H-QNB 24 hr after the irradiation, and decapitated 60 min after tracer injection. The autoradiographic studies showed an transitional increase of {sup 3}H-QNB in vivo binding in the early phase after proton irradiation, even though no change in in-vitro {sup 3}H-QNB binding was see in brain autoradiograms of irradiated rats. The cerebral blood flow and the histrogical features of brain were also changed at 3 months post-irradiation. These results indicate that the memory impairment caused by radiation is closely related to the early change of acetylcholine receptor in vivo. (author)

  10. DNA-repair and mutations in immuncompetent cells from patients with rheumatic diseases and corresponding animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, H.

    1977-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was investigated in lymphocytes of patients with different inflammatory rheumatic diseases. After γ-irradiation H 3 -thymidin incorporation in DNA and DNA rejoining was reduced. After UV-irradiation the first step (90 min) of unscheduled DNA synthesis was above the controls. Some animal models for human diseases showed the same trend. An infectious ethiology was discussed for some of these diseases. (author)

  11. On the development of neoplasma in dogs after chronic gamma-irradiation at a low dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovleva, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    In order to estimate end effects of chronic prolonged gamma irradiation of dogs, an exposure of 80 animals to irradiation was terminated and they were followed up closely. Out of 80 animals 30 dogs (Ist series) were irradiated for 3 years and 50 dogs (2 series) for 6 years. The dogs were exposed to irradiation at doses of 21 to 190 rad per year. Out of the total number of animals 22 dogs died. Post-mortem examinations showed neoplasms in 13 animals (7 malignant and 12 benign neoplasms). The highest number of tumors developed in dogs of the 2 series (10 out of 11) one-two years after irradiation (6 malignant tumors-malignant pheochro--mocytoma of adrenals; malignant adenoma of the hypophysis: polymorphocellular sarcoma of the liver; leucomyosarcoma of the uterus; blader cancer; breast cancer; and 10 benign tumors-pancreatic adenoma; liver angioma; 2 papillary adenomas of the prostate; 3 renal adenomas; lipoma; polyps of the gall-bladder). Animals of the 1-st series displayed 3 neoplasms (1 malignant tumor-bladder tumor and 2 benign tumors-liver hepatoma and spleen angioma) 4-5 years after irradiation

  12. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of committees to oversee the conduct of animal experimentation and the conditions of animal confinement. This controversy has necessitated a closer look at the questions of animal experimentation and animal rights against the backdrop of human experimentation and human rights. Physicians and specialists in animal care seek to alleviate suffering and anxiety, and, as moderates, they may be able to bring both sides of the animal rights controversy together in a spirit of mutual tolerance and in the common cause of promoting both human and animal welfare. PMID:1949772

  13. Alteration in adenylate cyclase response to aminergic stimulation following neonatal x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronister, R.B.; Palmer, G.C.; Gerbrandt, L.

    1980-01-01

    X-irradiation of the rat neonatal hippocampus produces severe alterations in the architectonic features of the mature hippocampus. The most prominent alteration is a marked depletion of the granule cells of the dentate gyrus, with a subsequent realignment of CA 4 cells. The present data also show that norepinephrine (NE), dopamine and histamine stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity is severely attenuated in the hippocampi of irradiated animals. This failure suggests that the NE fibers of irradiated subjects, although normal in content of NE, are not functional in some of their NE-effector actions

  14. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  15. Laser-enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound heating in an in vivo small animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2016-11-01

    The enhanced heating effect during the combination of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and low-optical-fluence laser illumination was investigated by using an in vivo murine animal model. The thighs of murine animals were synergistically irradiated by HIFU and pulsed nano-second laser light. The temperature increases in the target region were measured by a thermocouple under different HIFU pressures, which were 6.2, 7.9, and 9.8 MPa, in combination with 20 mJ/cm2 laser exposures at 532 nm wavelength. In comparison with conventional laser therapies, the laser fluence used here is at least one order of magnitude lower. The results showed that laser illumination could enhance temperature during HIFU applications. Additionally, cavitation activity was enhanced when laser and HIFU irradiation were concurrently used. Further, a theoretical simulation showed that the inertial cavitation threshold was indeed decreased when laser and HIFU irradiation were utilized concurrently.

  16. Meiotic chromosomal translocations in male mice induced by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savkovic, N.; Pecevski; Vuksanovic, L.; Radivojevic, D.; Alavantic, D.

    1983-01-01

    The dose-response curve for reciprocal translocations induced by acute exposure of spermatogonial stem cells to X-rays in treated mice and their F-1 sons was examined. Male mice were totally irradiated with doses of 1Gy;5x1Gy and 5Gy. The obtained results show that frequency of the chromosomal translocations in directly treated animals is dose dependent. The percentage of animals irradiated with 1Gy which had the chromosomal translocations was 60, while this percentage in animals irradiated with single and fractionated dose of 5Gy was 100. The frequency of chromosomal translocations varies from 1.5% to 8.0%. Multivalent configurations in F-1 males were observed after exposure to 5Gy only. The incidence of F-1 translocated males was 17.5%.

  17. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  18. Present status of radiation treatment of animal feeds in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Iizuka, H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the studies in Japan on the irradiation of laboratory animal diets and farm animal feedstuffs. From the microbiological inactivation curve of laboratory animal diets, the irradiation doses of 2.5 approximately 3.5 Mrad seem to be suitable for sterilization of animal diets. The absence of toxic effects on animals can be demonstrated by feeding studies. The elimination of salmonellae and other species of Enterobacteriaceae in feedstuffs could be achieved by irradiation with 0.5 approximately 0.6 Mrad. The growth of moulds in feeds would not occur at this dose level. However, an adverse effect is observed on chicks fed with fatty diet irradiated at 3 and 6 Mrad. It is suggested that a promising application of radiation treatment to the feeding of farm animals is irradiation at low dose levels of 0.5 approximately 0.6 Mrad. (author)

  19. Peculiarities of lipid metabolism after intrauterine low dosed irradiation in experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogov, Yu.I.; Danil'chik, V.S.; Zubovskaya, E.T.; Korosteleva, L.B.; Cpivak, L.V.; Rubenya, I.N.; Amvros'eva, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Four months old female rates (mass 200 gr) were divided into the control and the experimental groups, ten animals in each group, after cupping and pregnancy station. The experimental animals were exposed to irradiation during the entire period of pregnancy. The reduced levels of choline phospholipids (CP), of the CP/Ch and NEFA/FC rations and the increased levels 4-αm-δ7-Cl and the the EC/Ch ratio were determined to be sensitive to irradiation. In addition the analysis showed that in male rates changes were more pronounced in the erythrocytes and in female rates - in the blood plasma (authors)

  20. Cranial irradiation alters dendritic spine density and morphology in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanabha Chakraborti

    Full Text Available Therapeutic irradiation of the brain is a common treatment modality for brain tumors, but can lead to impairment of cognitive function. Dendritic spines are sites of excitatory synaptic transmission and changes in spine structure and number are thought to represent a morphological correlate of altered brain functions associated with hippocampal dependent learning and memory. To gain some insight into the temporal and sub region specific cellular changes in the hippocampus following brain irradiation, we investigated the effects of 10 Gy cranial irradiation on dendritic spines in young adult mice. One week or 1 month post irradiation, changes in spine density and morphology in dentate gyrus (DG granule and CA1 pyramidal neurons were quantified using Golgi staining. Our results showed that in the DG, there were significant reductions in spine density at both 1 week (11.9% and 1 month (26.9% after irradiation. In contrast, in the basal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, irradiation resulted in a significant reduction (18.7% in spine density only at 1 week post irradiation. Analysis of spine morphology showed that irradiation led to significant decreases in the proportion of mushroom spines at both time points in the DG as well as CA1 basal dendrites. The proportions of stubby spines were significantly increased in both the areas at 1 month post irradiation. Irradiation did not alter spine density in the CA1 apical dendrites, but there were significant changes in the proportion of thin and mushroom spines at both time points post irradiation. Although the mechanisms involved are not clear, these findings are the first to show that brain irradiation of young adult animals leads to alterations in dendritic spine density and morphology in the hippocampus in a time dependent and region specific manner.

  1. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  2. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  3. Foodstuff irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Report written on behalf of the Danish Food Institute summarizes national and international rules and developments within food irradiation technology, chemical changes in irradiated foodstuffs, microbiological and health-related aspects of irradiation and finally technological prospects of this conservation form. Food irradiatin has not been hitherto applied in Denmark. Radiation sources and secondary radiation doses in processed food are characterized. Chemical changes due to irradiation are compared to those due to p.ex. food heating. Toxicological and microbiological tests and their results give no unequivocal answer to the problem whether a foodstuff has been irradiated. The most likely application fields in Denmark are for low radiation dosis inhibition of germination, riping delay and insecticide. Medium dosis (1-10 kGy) can reduce bacteria number while high dosis (10-50 kGy) will enable total elimination of microorganisms and viruses. Food irradiation can be acceptable as technological possibility with reservation, that further studies follow. (EG)

  4. Late effects of x-irradiation in rats, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic-Stejin, V.D.; Kanazir, D.T.

    1978-01-01

    The present cytogenetic study was made on the bone marrow cells of 48 male rats killed after 9 to 17 months following acute whole-body x-irradiation. We found that exposure to a dose of 700 rads of x-rays, delivered to animals at a high dose-rate (100 rads/min) resulted in a widespread karyotype variability. The number of cell types were existing independently in the haemopoietic tissue within the first week after irradiation, decreased with time. The selection process of persisting abnormalities as well a further evolution of the cells with new karyotypes to clones, were evident after a month following irradiation. Consequently, the analysis of haemopoietic tissue revealed, in 92% of the late survivors, a genetically heterogeneous cell population in which the number of normal diploid cells decreased to a considerable extent. Clones increased in size with elapsing time from exposure to radiation. Thus, the mean clone cell frequency for animals killed after 9 to 17 months following irradiation ranged from 20.6 +- 3.42% to 61.6 +- 4.26%. Analysis of the data showed a significant positive correlation between development of clones in vivo and the survival time after irradiation (r = 0.820; P<0.01). For such a finding, the occurrence of large clones especially in the bone marrow of rats with growing tumors was of the great influence. Relationship between the degree of mutagenesis on the chromosome level and the process of tumor advancement is discussed. (auth.)

  5. Immunological aspect of the electron-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    1978-05-01

    In the present study, sciatic nerve tissues of the cat were emulsified with the complete Freund's adjuvant and injected into the foot-pads of the guinea pig. Frozen and frozen-irradiated feline sciatic nerve tissues were treated in the similar manner, and their encephalitogenicity was comparatively studied. Affected animals became skinny, weak in the hind limbs and sometimes solid their tails. Antigenic mixtures of the fresh peripheral nerves with adjuvant have sensitized 75% (15 out of 20) of guinea pigs, whereas none of the 41 animals manifested any sign of experimental allergic neuritis (EAN) after intradermal Frozen-preserved peripheral nerve-adjuvant mixtures gave rise to EAN in 29% (6 out of 21) of guinea pigs. The present results appear to show that the electron-beam irradiation might have modified the specific chemical structures of the myelin basic protein to completely suppress the encephalitogenicity of the peripheral nerve-tissues. High-voltage cathode irradiations would be capable of depressing the antigenicity of the transplantation immunology when the antigenic determinants have the chemical structures in common with the encephalitogenic antigens. Excessive amount of the irradiation used to result in severe tissue damages, therefore, an optimum dosis of electron-beams should be determined for each tissue destined for grafting. As the frozen peripheral nerve-adjuvant mixtures have been less encephalitogenic, freezing alone might well be considered partially to improve the acceptability of the grafts. Cryopreservation of the irradiated allografts would be worth further studying.

  6. Immunological aspect of the electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kimiyuki

    1978-01-01

    In the present study, sciatic nerve tissues of the cat were emulsified with the complete Freund's adjuvant and injected into the foot-pads of the guinea pig. Frozen and frozen-irradiated feline sciatic nerve tissues were treated in the similar manner, and their encephalitogenicity was comparatively studied. Affected animals became skinny, weak in the hind limbs and sometimes solid their tails. Antigenic mixtures of the fresh peripheral nerves with adjuvant have sensitized 75% (15 out of 20) of guinea pigs, whereas none of the 41 animals manifested any sign of experimental allergic neuritis (EAN) after intradermal Frozen-preserved peripheral nerve-adjuvant mixtures gave rise to EAN in 29% (6 out of 21) of guinea pigs. The present results appear to show that the electron-beam irradiation might have modified the specific chemical structures of the myelin basic protein to completely suppress the encephalitogenicity of the peripheral nerve-tissues. High-voltage cathode irradiations would be capable of depressing the antigenicity of the transplantation immunology when the antigenic determinants have the chemical structures in common with the encephalitogenic antigens. Excessive amount of the irradiation used to result in severe tissue damages, therefore, an optimum dosis of electron-beams should be determined for each tissue destined for grafting. As the frozen peripheral nerve-adjuvant mixtures have been less encephalitogenic, freezing alone might well be considered partially to improve the acceptability of the grafts. Cryopreservation of the irradiated allografts would be worth further studying. (author)

  7. Effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP low-level laser irradiation on experimental wound healing in healthy and diabetic Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, L M G; Matheus, R L; Santos, G M T; Esquisatto, M A M; Amaral, M E C; Mendonça, F A S

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP laser irradiation on wound healing in healthy and alloxan diabetic rats. The animals were divided into eight groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy treated with microcurrent (HMC); diabetic treated with microcurrent (DMC); healthy irradiated with laser (HL); diabetic irradiated with laser (DL); healthy receiving laser and microcurrent application (HLMC) and diabetic receiving laser and microcurrent application (DLMC). Wound samples were collected on days 2, 6, 10 and 14 of treatment for structural analysis, morphometry, and Western blotting to quantify the expression of TGF-β1 and VEGF. Comparison of animals receiving laser and microcurrent therapy showed a reduction in the number of inflammatory cells in diabetic animals, as well as an increase of fibroblasts in healthy animals and of newly formed vessels in healthy and diabetic animals. Expression of TGF-β1 was increased on day 6 in all groups, especially diabetic animals. A reduction in the expression of this protein was observed on day 10 in all groups. VEGF expression was higher on day 6 in treated and control diabetic animals when compared to healthy animals. Analysis of VEGF expression in the laser- and microcurrent-treated groups on day 10 showed a decrease in diabetic animals and an increase in healthy animals. In conclusion, laser therapy and microcurrent stimulation exert beneficial effects on wound healing in both healthy and diabetic animals. (paper)

  8. Hemibody irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schen, B.C.; Mella, O.; Dahl, O.

    1992-01-01

    In a large number of cancer patients, extensive skeletal metastases or myelomatosis induce vast suffering, such as intolerable pain and local complications of neoplastic bone destruction. Analgetic drugs frequently do not yield sufficient palliation. Irradiation of local fields often has to be repeated, because of tumour growth outside previously irradiated volumes. Wide field irradiation of the lower or upper half of the body causes significant relief of pain in most patients. Adequate pretreatment handling of patients, method of irradiation, and follow-up are of importance to reduce side effects, and are described as they are carried out at the Department of Oncology, Haukeland Hospital, Norway. 16 refs., 2 figs

  9. Radiation response of the rat cervical spinal cord after irradiation at different ages: Tolerance, latency and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruifrok, A.C.C.; Van Der Kogel, A.J.; Stephens, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    Investigation of the age dependent single-dose radiation tolerance, latency to radiation myelopathy, and the histopathological changes after irradiation of the rat cervical spinal cord is presented. Rats were irradiated with graded single doses of 4 MV photons to the cervical spinal cord. When the rats showed definite signs of paresis of the forelegs, they were killed and processed for histological examination. The radiation dose resulting in paresis due to white matter damage in 50% of the animals (ED 50 ) after single dose irradiation was about 21.5 Gy at all ages ≥ 2 weeks. Only the Ed 50 at 1 week was significantly lower. The latency to the development of paresis clearly changed with the age at irradiation, from about 2 weeks after irradiation at 1 week to 6-8 months after irradiation at age ≥ 8 weeks. The white matter damage was similar in all symptomatic animals studied. The most prominent were areas with diffuse demyelination and swollen axons, often with focal necrosis, accompanied by glial reaction. This was observed in all symptomatic animals, irrespective of the age at irradiation. Expression of vascular damage appeared to depend on the age at irradiation. Although the latency to myelopathy is clearly age dependent, single dose tolerance is not age dependent at age ≥ 2 weeks in the rat cervical spinal cord. The white matter damage is similar in all symptomatic animals studied, but the vasculopathies appear to be influenced by the age at irradiation. It is concluded that white matter damage and vascular damage are separate phenomena contributing to the development of radiation myelopathy, expression of which may depend on the radiation dose applied and the age at irradiation. 28 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. High-voltage irradiation of xenotransplanted human ovarial, endometrial, and cervical carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleine, W.; Wrzodek, W.; Stange, S.; Ladner, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    High-voltage irradiation of four ovarial carcinomas, four endometrial carcinomas and two carcinomas of the cervix is reported on which were transplanted subcutaneously to nu/nu mice. In all cases, the growth was stopped and the tumour receded under irradiation; in 8 cases, after stopping the irradiation with a dose of 30 to 60 Gy the growth went on. Of two carcinomas with decrease in the size and a stopped growth over 20 weeks, in one case no vital cells could be found any more while in the other one there were still numerous vital cells. These showed also after irradiation an unchanged radionucleotid incorporation in the single cell suspension. The effect of a high-voltage irradiation seems to be independent on the histologic picture, but dependent on the dose and the fractioning. The incorporation rates of 3 H-thymidine and 3 H-uridine in the single cell suspension reamined inchanged both before and after irradiation. Irradiation of the xenotransplantate of one side showed the exclusively local effect of this measure. This is confirmed by comparative examinations of the same tumours with a chemotherapy. Thus the nude mouse model offers the possibility of observing the effects of a high-voltage irradiation of human tissue in vivo without involving the total organism of the tumourous animal like in chemotherapy. This shows another field for future questions with nude mice. (orig.) [de

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complex. This video was designed to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to ... audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how ...

  12. Commercial food irradiation in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemhorst, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Dutch research showed great interest in the potential of food irradiation at an early stage. The positive research results and the potential applications for industry encouraged the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries to construct a Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation. In 1967 the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation in Wageningen came into operation. The objectives of the plant were: research into applications of irradiation technology in the food industry and agricultural industry; testing irradiated products and test marketing; information transfer to the public. (author)

  13. Radiation stability of animate nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, G.N.; Spirin, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The main principles of radiation safety for animate nature including provisions for biological species protection and main requirement for animate nature radiation protection, which is the guarantee of any ecosystem integrity, are discussed. Ecosystem should be taken as the objective unit for animate nature radiation protection. The maximum dose of biot irradiation may amount to 0.5 Gy/year, which is 20-fold lower than the main dose limit for animate nature and 40-fold lower than ecological dose limits for conifers as the weakest radiostable member in ecosystem, at environment radioactive contamination determined by radiation safety standards. The radiation protection of animate nature is guaranteed at such levels of environment radioactive contamination

  14. Late effects of irradiation in mouse jejunum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, A.; Travis, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The response of mouse jejunum at intervals up to 1 year after single 'priming' doses of X-rays has been assessed by crypt survival after retreatment with single doses of X-rays and morphometric analysis of changes in the intestinal submucosa. The crypt dose-survival curves in mice re-irradiated at 2, 6, or 12 months after priming irradiation were displaced to higher doses in pre-treated than in non-pre-treated mice and were characterized by higher D 0 values. Misonidazole given before the test exposure reversed this effect so that the dose survival curve for crypts in pre-treated mice were superimposed on that for mice not previously irradiated, suggesting that the increase in isoeffect dose and the change in the D 0 in previously exposed mice was due to crypt hypoxia. Quantifications of the area of the submucosa showed that its area was increased at all three times after the priming doses and was a result of collagen deposition and oedema. Thus, the hypoxia in the crypts was probably secondary to these changes. Deaths began at 6-7 months after priming irradiation and were due to intestinal obstruction and stenosis. Thus, as in other tissues, two phases of injury can be assayed in the intestine of experimental animals. (author)

  15. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  16. The protective role of damsissa (Ambroosia Maritima) against gamma irradiation in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, O.A.; Mohamed, Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present work was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) for thirty consecutive days pre- irradiation exposure in controlling the post-irradiation hazards in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (Spraue Dowley strain) weighing about 120+- 10 g were used and blood samples were collected from tails of animals thirty days after treatment with damsissa and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysis such as liver functions, kidney function and lipid profile. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant decrease in the contents of total proteins accompanied by significant increase of urea level as recorded on the 7th days post irradiation. Data obtained in this study revealed that whole body gamma irradiation induced significant elevation in all tested blood lipid functions. There was significant increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) whole alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Damisissa (Ambrosia maritima) treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of damsissa may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  17. Behavioral changes in rats prenatally irradiated with low dose of gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiskova, J.; Smajda, B.; Capicikova, M.; Lievajova, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the effects of prenatal gamma-irradiation on behavior in adult Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Four months old female rats were irradiated with a dose of 1 Gy of gamma-rays on day 15 of gestation. The offspring of irradiated mothers (n=26) and that of control, non-irradiated mothers (n=36) of both sexes at the age of 3 month were tested in Morris's water maze and in open field test. All experimental groups showed a tendency to shortening the time needed to reach the platform in each trial in Morris water maze. Statistically significant difference between irradiated and control rats was detected only in males on 3 rd experimental day. The ability to remember the position of the platform was not altered in irradiated animals after a 4 day pause. In open field test, statistically significant differences in comparison with controls were detected in number of squares entered and in crossings of the central square (P ≤ 0.05) in males. These findings suggest, when comparing with results of other authors, that irradiation effects on postnatal behavior in rats are extremely dependent on the time point of irradiation and that a correlation exist between the developmental stage of the individual brain structures at time of irradiation and the late behavioral effects. (authors)

  18. Animated Reconstruction of Forensic Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Hala, Albert; Unver, Ertu

    1998-01-01

    An animated accident display in court can be significant evidentiary tool. Computer graphics animation reconstructions which can be shown in court are cost effective, save valuable time and illustrate complex and technical issues, are realistic and can prove or disprove arguments or theories with reference to the perplexing newtonian physics involved in many accidents: this technology may well revolutionise accident reconstruction, thus enabling prosecution and defence to be more effective in...

  19. Multigeneration feeding studies with an irradiated whole diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravindakshan, M.; Chaubey, R.C.; Chauhan, P.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1978-01-01

    Multigeneration feeding studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of an irradiated whole diet in Wistar rats. The parent and the four successive generations were fed on a nutritionally adequate test diet exposed to either 0.2 or 2.5Mrad gamma radiation and the effects, if any, on various parameters of animal health were assessed. In addition to an unirradiated test control, a historical control group fed on stock laboratory rations was also employed for comparison. The test diet consisted of various components including some of the basic ingredients of human diet in India. Exposure of the test diet to 0.2 or 2.5Mrad did not affect the food efficiency ratio and there were no significant differences in the growth rates of animals fed on unirradiated or irradiated diets. Reproductive performance of the rats fed on irradiated or unirradiated diets belonging to the parent, first, second or third generations were also comparable. Mortality rates and reproductive function in relation to age were also not altered due to feeding of irradiated whole diets. The haematological profile and the serum enzymes of the animals of all the generations fed irradiated diets were within normal limits. Though some differences were observed in the relative weights of some organs, these effects were limited to a particular generation, did not show any definite pattern and could not be related to the ingestion of irradiated diets. First-generation rats examined at 100-104 weeks for gross pathological manifestations including tumour incidence also did not indicate any significant differences among groups. (author)

  20. Fetal hypothalamic transplants into brain irradiated rats: Graft morphometry and host behavioral responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlman, S.H.; Rubin, P.; White, H.C.; Wiegand, S.J.; Gash, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that neural implants can ameliorate or prevent some of the long-term changes associated with CNS irradiation. Using a rat model, the initial study focused on establishing motor, regulatory, and morphological changes associated with brain radiation treatments. Secondly, fetal hypothalamic tissue grafts were placed into the third ventricle of rats which had been previously irradiated. Adult male Long Evans rats received one of three radiation doses (15, 22.5, ampersand 30 Gy) or no radiation. Three days after irradiation, 7 animals in each dose group received an embryonic day 17 hypothalamic graft into the third ventricle while the remaining 8-9 animals in each group received injections of vehicle solution (sham). Few changes were observed in the 15 and 22.5 Gy animals, however rats in the 30 Gy treatment group showed stereotypic and ambulatory behavioral hyperactivity 32 weeks after irradiation. Regulatory changes in the high dose group included decreased growth rate and decreased urine osmolalities, but these measures were extremely variable among animals. Morphological results demonstrated that 30 Gy irradiated animals showed extensive necrosis primarily in the fimbria, which extended into the internal capsule, optic nerve, hippocampus, and thalamus. Hemorrhages were found in the hippocampus, thalamus, and fimbria. Defects in the blood-brain barrier also were evident by entry of intravascularly injected horseradish peroxidase into the parenchyma of the brain. Animals in the 30 Gy grafted group showed fewer behavioral changes and less brain damage than their sham grafted counterparts. Specifically, activity measures were comparable to normal levels, and a dilute urine was not found in the 30 Gy implanted rats. Morphological changes support these behavioral results since only two 30 Gy implanted rats showed necrosis

  1. Effects of methylandrostenediol and a lymphostimulatory thymic factor (leucotrofin) on the reactivity of adrenal cortex of X-irradiated A2G mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, A.D.; Rusu, V.M.; Borsa, M.; Uray, Z.; Banu, C.

    1982-01-01

    Administration of methylandrostenediol alone or with Leucotrofin to whole-body irradiated A2G mice was associated with the diminuation of some enzymatic reactions in the zona fasciculata of the adrenals after 30 days on irradiation in comparison with the irradiated controls. The incorporation rate of (2- 14 C)acetate into free cholesterol and glucocorticoid, de novo synthesized in the adrenals of the protected mice, was decreased compared to the untreated animals. These data showed that late irradiation damage - caused by enhanced synthesis and secretion of catabolic corticosteroids - could be prevented by administration of anabolic steroids and lymphostimulatory thymic factors, which protect the lymphoid system from lymphotoxic agents. (author)

  2. Effects of methylandrostenediol and a lymphostimulatory thymic factor (leucotrofin) on the reactivity of adrenal cortex of X-irradiated A2G mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, A.D.; Rusu, V.M.; Borsa, M.; Uray, Z.; Banu, C. (Biological Research Centre, Cluj (Romania))

    1982-03-01

    Administration of methylandrostenediol alone or with Leucotrofin to whole-body irradiated A2G mice was associated with the diminuation of some enzymatic reactions in the zona fasciculata of the adrenals after 30 days on irradiation in comparison with the irradiated controls. The incorporation rate of (2-/sup 14/C)acetate into free cholesterol and glucocorticoid, de novo synthesized in the adrenals of the protected mice, was decreased compared to the untreated animals. These data showed that late irradiation damage - caused by enhanced synthesis and secretion of catabolic corticosteroids - could be prevented by administration of anabolic steroids and lymphostimulatory thymic factors, which protect the lymphoid system from lymphotoxic agents.

  3. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  4. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  5. Bone cell viability after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.; Kaelebo, P.; Tjellstroem, A.; Turesson, I.; Goeteborg Univ.; Goeteborg Univ.; Goeteborg Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Adult rabbits were irradiated to one proximal tibial metaphysis while the contralateral tibia served as a control. Each animal was thus its own control. Single doses of 15, 25 and 40 Gy 60 Co were used. The follow-up time was 11 to 22 weeks after irradiation. A histochemical method, recording diaphorase (NADH 2 and NADPH 2 ) activity in osteocytes, was employed. This method is regarded as superior to conventional histology. No evidence of osteocyte death was found even after 22 weeks following 40 Gy irradiation. This is interpreted as an indication that the osteocytes, which are end stage cells, are relatively radioresistant. (orig.)

  6. Hematopoiesis Stimulating Role of IL-12 Enabling Bone Marrow Transplantation in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.M.; Abd el Sammad, H.; El Shahat, M.; Abou el Khier, I.

    2012-01-01

    Severe myelosuppression is a common side effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy. As a mean to stimulate the full-lineage blood cell recovery from severe myelosuppression, sublethally irradiated animals were used to evaluate immunological effect of interleukin IL-12 in bone marrow transplanted animals. Isologous bone marrow (BM), from the same inbred strain, were given to male rats, 1 hour post whole body gamma irradiation at a single dose level of 5 Gy and subcutaneous injection of 100 ng/ml IL-12. Irradiation induced a significant drop in haematological values, blood glutathione(GSH) as well as bone marrow viability associated with a significant elevation of serum malondialdehyde (MDA). Related to immunological data, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) also recorded a significant depression. Irradiated animals receiving BM and IL-12 showed significantly elevated body and spleen weights, erythrocytes count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb) and hemotocrit value (Hct %) besides, white blood cells (WBCs)and its differential count, as well as GSH, while MDA was significantly depressed as compared to the irradiated group. Bone marrow viability was significantly increased while IL-6 and TNF-α were normalized. The curative action of IL-12 enforcing significant innate response could trigger and augment adaptive immune response by bone marrow transplantation, hence improving oxidative stress. IL-12 administration is proposed as a complementary strategy to treat radiation-induced path-physiology and trapping free radicals accumulations after irradiation.

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  9. Irradiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira

    1977-01-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures. (Kanao, N.)

  10. Irradiation proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, A [Osaka Kita Tsishin Hospital (Japan)

    1977-06-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures.

  11. Irradiation of chilled lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    Chilled, vacuum-packed New Zealand lamb loins have been irradiated at doses between 1-8 kGy. The report outlines the methods used and provides dosimetry details. An appendix summarises the results of a taste trial conducted on the irradiated meat by the Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand. This showed that, even at 1 kGy, detectable flavours were induced by the radiation treatment

  12. Is food irradiation an alternative to chemical preservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1987-01-01

    The history is presented of food irradiation. The foods irradiated and the doses used are reported. The industrial use of food irradiation is restricted to a single industrial irradiation plant in Japan and several small facilities for irradiating herbs and feeds for special laboratory animal breeds. The limited application of the method is caused by high prices of radiation sources and adverse side effects (potato rotting, bad smell of meat, etc.). (M.D.). 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  15. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  16. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  17. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  18. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  19. Food irradiation 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation principles; its main applications, advantages and limitations; wholesomeness, present activities at Ezeiza Atomic Centre; research coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency; capacity building; and some aspects on national and international regulations, standards and commercialization are briefly described. At present 56 countries authorize the consumption of varied irradiated foods; trade is performed in 32 countries, with about 200 irradiation facilities. Argentina pioneered nuclear energy knowledge and applications in Latin America, food irradiation included. A steady growth of food industrial volumes treated in two gamma facilities can be observed. Food industry and producers show interest towards new facilities construction. However, a 15 years standstill in incorporating new approvals in the Argentine Alimentary Code, in spite of consecutive request performed either by CNEA or some food industries restricts, a wider industrial implementation, which constitute a drawback to future regional commercialization in areas such as MERCOSUR, where Brazil since 2000 freely authorize food irradiation. Besides, important chances in international trade with developed countries will be missed, like the high fresh fruits and vegetables requirements United States has in counter-season, leading to convenient sale prices. The Argentine food irradiation facilities have been designed and built in the country. Argentina produces Cobalt-60. These capacities, unusual in the world and particularly in Latin America, should be protected and enhanced. Being the irradiation facilities scarce and concentrated nearby Buenos Aires city, the possibilities of commercial application and even research and development are strongly limited for most of the country regions. (author) [es

  20. The Effect of Irradiation on the Immunogenity of Brucella Abortus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifin, M.; Tuasikal, Boky J.; Endhang Pudjiastuti; Ernawati Yulia

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of irradiation on the immunogenity of B. abortus. The B. abortus were irradiated by Gamma Cells ( 60 Co). An experiment were divided into four groups. The first group (V1) was inoculated by irradiated B. abortus with the dose of 0.25 kGy. The second group (V2) was inoculated by irradiated B. abortus with the dose of 0.50 kGy. The third group (V3) was inoculated by irradiated B. abortus with the dose of 0.75 kGy. The fourth group (V4) was inoculated by Brucella vaccine 8.19. The observation respectively were included purely test, safety test, RBT serological test, diffusion test, development the colony of B. abortus in lien, and pathology anatomic inspection. The results obtained showed that 0.25 kGy was the expectantly dose of irradiation which could not only decreasing the infectivity of B. abortus but also has the ability to become a good immunogen for stimulating the immune response in the experiment animals. (author)

  1. Mechanism of liver lipid accumulation in X-irradiated rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyar, A.S.; De, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    The incorporation, both in vivo and in vitro, of 14 C-acetate into hepatic lipids, notably the triglyceride and free fatty acid fractions, is greatly reduced following whole-body irradiation and is indicative of significantly reduced lipogenesis. Irradiation results in a several-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation, by the liver in vitro as well as in the whole animal, during the phase of active hepatic lipid accumulation. Small increases in lipoprotein lipase activity of adipose, immediately following irradiation and up to 24 hours, and the attendant marked fall in adipose lipids are suggestive of increased mobilization of peripheral lipids during the early period. However, in view of the fact that maximum lipid accumulations occurs very much later, inflow of extra-hepatic lipid into liver does not appear to be of major etiological significance. There is three-fold experimental evidence in support of an impairment of trigylceride transport from liver being primarily responsible for the build-up of liver lipids: (I) Triton WR-1339 induced hypertriglyceridemia is totally absent in the irradiated rat during the period when liver lipids increase significantly; (II) the rate of disappearance of radioactivity from pre-labeled hepatic lipids is considerably lower in the irradiated rats; and (III) the irradiated rats show decrease in lipoproteins of liver cell-sap and of serum, the latter being more marked and a lowered synthesis of the lipoproteins, as assessed by labeling of the protein moiety. (orig.) [de

  2. Evaluation of irradiation in foods using DNA comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawar, Affaf; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Khan, Q.M.; Ali, T.; Khan, A.I.; Asi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Comet assay is a rapid, inexpensive and sensitive biological technique to detect DNA damage in food stuffs by irradiation. In this study the Comet assay is applied on foods of plant and animal origins. Samples were irradiated by using 60 Co gamma-radiation source. The applied doses were 2, 6 and 10 kGy for food of plant origin and 0.5, 1 and 2 kGy for meat items. The un-irradiated and irradiated samples were clearly differentiated on the basis of DNA fragmentation. During the electrophoresis study, it was found that in un-irradiated cells DNA remained intact and appeared as Comets without tail whereas in irradiated cells Comets with tails were visible due to stretching of fragmented DNA. Moreover, it was also revealed that the DNA tail length was dose dependent. Dry food stuffs (seeds) showed good results as compared to moist foods (meat, fruits and vegetables) due to the absence of background damage. (author)

  3. Mechanism of liver lipid accumulation in X-irradiated rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiyar, A S; De, A K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1978-03-01

    The incorporation, both in vivo and in vitro, of /sup 14/C-acetate into hepatic lipids, notably the triglyceride and free fatty acid fractions, is greatly reduced following whole-body irradiation and is indicative of significantly reduced lipogenesis. Irradiation results in a several-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation, by the liver in vitro as well as in the whole animal, during the phase of active hepatic lipid accumulation. Small increases in lipoprotein lipase activity of adipose, immediately following irradiation and up to 24 hours, and the attendant marked fall in adipose lipids are suggestive of increased mobilization of peripheral lipids during the early period. However, in view of the fact that maximum lipid accumulations occurs very much later, inflow of extra-hepatic lipid into liver does not appear to be of major etiological significance. There is three-fold experimental evidence in support of an impairment of trigylceride transport from liver being primarily responsible for the build-up of liver lipids: (I) Triton WR-1339 induced hypertriglyceridemia is totally absent in the irradiated rat during the period when liver lipids increase significantly; (II) the rate of disappearance of radioactivity from pre-labeled hepatic lipids is considerably lower in the irradiated rats; and (III) the irradiated rats show decrease in lipoproteins of liver cell-sap and of serum, the latter being more marked and a lowered synthesis of the lipoproteins, as assessed by labeling of the protein moiety.

  4. Dietary protein effects on irradiated rat kidney function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, P.A.; Yatuin, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that unilaterally nephrectomized, kidney irradiated young male S-D rats have an increased median survival when placed on a low (4%) protein diet, as compared to a normal (20%) or high (50%) protein diet (200, 103, and 59 days respectively for 14 Gy irradiation). They have expanded these studies to examine the effects of irradiation and dietary protein levels on kidney function, by examining the parameters of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, urine urea nitrogen, urine creatinine, urine osmolarity, urine volume, and water consumption. Irradiated 20% protein diet animals show an increase in water consumption and urine production and also a decrease in urine osmolarity, urine urea concentration and urine creatinine concentration. These changes all support the hypothesis the kidney irradiated rats fed a normal protein diet have a reduced capability to concentrate urine compared to nonirradiated control rats. Evaluation of the same parameters in irradiated rats fed a 4% protein diet does not indicate a similar loss of concentrating capability. Whether this protection is due to the growth inhibition of the 4% protein diet or some other phenomena remains to be determined

  5. Changes of lymphocytes in spleen and liver by local irradiation to the maxilla in mice. Th1/Th2 balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamazawa, Ken; Satoh, Daigo; Yosue, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    This study was to examine changes in cell-mediated immunity by local irradiation, in particular focusing on the Th1/Th2 balance. We investigated influence due to local irradiation (10 Gy) of a portion of the maxilla in mice. The wet-weight of spleen, the percentage and the absolute numbers of the lymphocytes in spleen, wet-weight of the liver, the percentage of lymphocytes in liver were measured using a flow cytometer and values were compared with those obtained from non-irradiated animals. Furthermore, we analysed the percentage and absolute numbers of T helper 1 (Th1) cells, T cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) cells by the intracellular cytokine. The following results were obtained: Wet-weight of the spleen showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. Wet-weight of the liver did not show any significant change after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and one of the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed an extreme increase one and three days after irradiation. The absolute numbers of the Th1-like cells and the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. In liver, the percentage of the Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and the percentage of the Th2-like cells did not show any significant change after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed a significant increase one day after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of the Th1 cells and Tc1 cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, but neither of the absolute numbers showed any significant change after irradiation. These results indicated that the characteristic changes of Th1/Th2 balance shifted to a Th1-dominant status by irradiation, and the ability from irradiation therapy to the

  6. Animal Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  7. Animal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter presents historical x rays of a wide variety of animals taken within 5 years of the discovery of x radiation. Such photos were used as tests or as illustrations for radiographic publications. Numerous historical photographs are included. 10 refs

  8. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  9. An Electron Microscopic Study of the Irradiation Effects on the Striated Duct Cells of the Submandibular Gland in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Chan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of irradiation on the striated duct cells of the rat submandibular gland ductal tissues which control the characteristics of saliva. For this study, the experimental group was composed of 36 irradiated Sprague Dawley strain rats divided into 8 subgroups- 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours after irradiation. 4 non-irradiated rats were used as the control group. The experimental animals were singly irradiated with a dose of 18 Gy gamma ray to their head and neck region by the Co-6-teletherapy unit and sacrificed after each experimental duration. The specimens were examined with a light microscope with an H-E stain and with a transmission electron microscope. The results of this study were as follows. 1. In the light micrograph, a severe atrophic change occurred in the striated duct cells at 2 hours after irradiation and gradual recovery occurred from 6 hours after irradiation. 2. The nuclear chromosomes of the striated duct cells were changed granular at 2 hours after irradiation. Recovery was observed at 6 hours after irradiation. Nuclear bodies were also observed from 3 hours after irradiation. 3. The mitochondria of the striated duct cells had indistinct cristae at 2 hours after irradiation, and were degenerated or swollen at 3 hours after irradiation. They recovered, however, from 6 hours, with an increasing number at 48 hours a regular arrangement was observed at 72 hours after irradiation. 4. The microvilli showed atrophic changes at 2 hours after irradiation and were almost lost at 3 hours after irradiation. They were observed again from 48 hours after irradiation. 5. The rough endoplasmic reticulum and golgi body were not apparent at 1 hours after irradiation and were dilated with degeneration 2 hours after, but intact rough endoplasmic reticulum were observed from 3 hours after irradiation and developed well at 24 hours after irradiation. By the result of this

  10. New multipurpose gamma-irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, G

    1985-01-01

    In the past 3 years much work has been done in the G.D.R. on food irradiation. The experiments have shown that this treatment gives favourable results in many products such as spices, onions, potatoes, chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. Economic aspects of food irradiation require the effective use of an irradiation plant and cobalt-60. Therefore, a new multipurpose irradiation facility was developed, applicable as an onion irradiator with a capacity of about 15 ton/h and for the simultaneous irradiation of different products (spices, animal feed, chicken, etc.) in closed product boxes with a size of 1.2 m x 1.0 m x 1.2 m. A microcomputer controls the transport of product boxes around the gamma sources.

  11. Biochemical and Tissue Studies on Post Irradiation Recovery in Mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.M.

    2004-01-01

    three main studies were performed in this thesis, namely, mortality and survival study, biochemical studies, and studies on tissue alterations cobalt-60 gamma irradiation for low let was used for the external whole body irradiation of the irradiated animal groups. a total number of animals of 722 virgin female adult wister rats of approximately the same age and weight were used for the three studies that were performed, including the control and irradiated animal groups. the animals were housed and kept with special care at fixed temperature, humidity and diet. the study on mortality and survival included 370 animals divided into control and groups irradiated with 4,5,6,7,8 and 9 Gy. this study was followed up for one year to record the number and date of animal deaths for the different irradiated groups. for the 8 and 9 Gy irradiated groups the follow up ended after 12 weeks and 11 days respectively when animal mortality reached 100%. the maximum percent mortality was noted at the second week (3.3,8,14 and 29%) for the 4,5,6 and 7 Gy irradiated groups respectively. for the 8 and 9 Gy irradiated groups, the maximum percent mortality was noted at the first week (42.9 and 90% respectively). regression equations were applied for the percent of mortality of the 5-8 Gy irradiated groups to estimate the LD 50/30, which was found to be 6.4 Gy

  12. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  13. Effects of x-ray irradiation on mast cells and mastocalcergy in the connective tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, H. Y.; Rhee, S. J.; Son, M. H.; Choi, K. C. [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-09-15

    Experiments were performed to observe the influence of x-ray irradiation on mast cells and mastocalcergy in rats. Animals were irradiated single dose of x-ray. X-ray irradiation was applied to the whole body in doses either 100 rads or 150 rads (Cobalt-60 Teletherapy Unit). One day after irradiation the rats were injected lead acetate intravenously, followed by injection of compound 48/80 in the back subcutaneously. Animals were killed by decapitation at intervals, 1 hour, 5 hours, 1 day and 6 day after subcutaneous injection. Specimens of the abdominal and back skin were fixed in alcohol formol solution and stained with the following methods; H-E for observation of pathological changes of tissues, toluidine blue for demonstration of mast cells, von Kossa-azure A for demonstration of carbonate and phosphate, and chloranilic acid for demonstration of calcium. The following conclusions were obtained. Calciphylatic wheals are large size in the control group, medium size in 100 rads irradiation group and small size in 150 rads irradiation group. In x-ray irradiation groups the number of mast cells decreases more in the 150 rads than in the 100 rads irradiation. In the 100 rads x-ray irradiation group, histochemical study of the injection sites showed that calcium impregnated to mast cell granules and connective tissue fibers in 1 days after subcutaneous injection. The morphogenesis of this calcinosis was the same in the rat of 5 hour after subcutaneous injection of the control group. Whereas, 1 day after subcutaneous injection in 150 rads x-ray irradiation group calcium deposited more slightly than other groups.

  14. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitch, J.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the cost competitiveness of the food irradiation process. An analysis of the principal factors--the product, physical plant, irradiation source, and financing--that impact on cost is made. Equations are developed and used to calculate the size of the source for planned product throughput, efficiency factors, power requirements, and operating costs of sources, radionuclides, and accelerators. Methods of financing and capital investment are discussed. A series of tables show cost breakdowns of sources, buildings, equipment, and essential support facilities for both a cobalt-60 and a 10-MeV electron accelerator facility. Additional tables present irradiation costs as functions of a number of parameters--power input, source size, dose, and hours of annual operation. The use of the numbers in the tables are explained by examples of calculations of the irradiation costs for disinfestation of grains and radicidation of feed

  15. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Frias, L.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  16. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecher, O.

    1979-01-01

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  19. Nutritional aspects of irradiated shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1989-11-01

    Data available in the literature on the nutritional aspects of irradiated shrimp are reviewed and the indication is that irradiation of shrimp at doses up to about 3.2 kGy does not significantly affect the levels of its protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash. There are no reports on the effect of irradiation of shrimp above 3.2 kGy on these components. Limited information available indicates that there are some minor changes in the fatty acid composition of shrimp as a result of irradiation. Irradiation also causes some changes in the amino acid composition of shrimp; similar changes occur due to canning and hot-air drying. Some of the vitamins in shrimp, such as thiamine, are lost as a result of irradiation but the loss is less extensive than in thermally processed shrimp. Protein quality of shrimp, based on the growth of rats as well as that of Tetrahymena pyriformis, is not affected by irradiation. No adverse effects attributed to irradiation were found either in short-term or long-term animal feeding tests

  20. Current state of waste and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1979-01-01

    Research and industrial applications are briefly described of irradiation technology in Czechoslovakia and in other countries. Intensive research into the irradiation of meat, grain, fruit and vegetables is going on; it has not, however, been widely applied in practice. The objective of the research into industrial and agricultural waste irradiation is to make the wastes usable as fertilizers or feed additives for farm animals. (M.S.)

  1. Determination Of Irradiation Doses For Fasciola gigantica (Liver Flukes) For Protection In Goat (Capra hircus Linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuasikal, B.J.; Arifin, M.; Tarmizi

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the cange of pathogenicity of 6 O C o-irradiated F. gigantica that give immunological responses in goat. The aim of the study was to see immunity respond of goats against F. gigantica, which at the end to develop a new strategic technique for fluke control in small ruminant. Irradiated and non-irradiated -using y-cell of 6 0 C o -metacercariae (mc.) of F.gigantica were used as the infection material that administered into 18 locally bred goats averagely 10 months of age. These animal are divided into 6 groups of treatment as the following : (I) infection with 0 Gy irradiated mc as positive control; (2) without any infection, as negative contral; (3) infection with 25 Gy inaiiated mc; (4) immunisation with 25 Gy irradiated mc and then challenge by pure infective mc; (5) infection with 35 Gy irradiated mc; and (6) immunisation with 35 Gy irradiated mc an then challenge by pure infective mc. A period of 8 weeks was given to challenge immunisation. Body weight change, blood value (eosinophyl, haemoglobin, PCV, and reticulocyte) and liver anatomical pathology (AP) are observed and recorded. Result of this experiment showed a reduction in body weight change, 130 grams/week, in group I as compare to animal in group 4, which gain body weight of 80 grams/week. The proportion of eosinophyl in group 4 found to re higher as compare to group 6,90.6% and 66.8%, respectively, which indicates that 25Gy mc immunization enables elimination of the mc challenge given. This condition was confirmed by the ''normal'' seen on the anatomical pathology of the liver as compare to animal in- group 1, which found to be more cirrhosis with eosinophyl proportion of 98,6%. Furthermore, results from the observation of PCV and Hb indicate that anaemia was found in animal from group 1 compare to the respective groups: 22.33% and 8.94% vs 25.90% and 10.10% and 27.10% and 10.10%, respectively for PCV and HB in-group animal 1,4 and 6. It can be concluded that mc-irradiated

  2. Property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.J.; Haag, G.

    1979-07-01

    Design data for irradiated graphite are usually presented as families of isothermal curves showing the change in physical property as a function of fast neutron fluence. In this report, procedures for combining isothermal curves to predict behavior under changing irradiation temperatures are compared with experimental data on irradiation-induced changes in dimensions, Young's modulus, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansivity. The suggested procedure fits the data quite well and is physically realistic

  3. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  6. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  7. Radioprotective effects of chlorogenic acid against mortality induced by gamma irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr; Amirhossein Ahmadi; Shahram Akhlaghpoor; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The radioprotective effects of the naturally occurring compound chlorogenic acid has been investigated against mortality induced by gamma irradiation in mice. Chlorogenic acid administrated at single doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg 1 and 24 h prior to lethal dose of gamma irradiation (8.5 Gy). At 30 days after treatment, the percentage of animal survival in each group was: control, 20%; 100 mg/kg, 20% and 15%; 200 mg/kg, 45% and 15%; 400 mg/kg, 25% and 35% for 1 h and 24 h treatment prior gamma irradiation, respectively. Percentage of survival increased in animal treated with this agent at 200 mg/kg at 1 h statistically compared with irradiated alone group. Other doses of chlorogenic acid have not showed any enhanced survival at 1 and 24 h before irradiation. Chlorogenic acid exhibited concentration-dependent activity on 1, 1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl free radical to show strong antioxidant activity. It appeared that chlorogenic acid with antioxidant activity reduced mortality induced by gamma irradiation.

  8. Communication in Animal Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Lysanne; Naguib, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Animal social networks and animal communication networks are key disciplines for understanding animal social behavior, yet these disciplines remain poorly integrated. In this review, we show how communication and social networks are inherently linked, with social signals reflecting and affecting

  9. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  10. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  13. Desinfestation of soybeans by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Prieto, E.; Mesa, J.; Fraga, R.; Fung, V.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irradiation with the doses 0.5 and 1.0 kGy on desinfestation of soy beans and on important chemical compounds of this product was studied in this paper. The results showed the effectiveness of applied doses in the control of insect pests of soy beans during its storage and total proteins, fat and moisture and also the identity and quality characteristics of oil extrated from irradiated product which were not change by irradiation [es

  14. Progress in food irradiation: Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Hungarian contribution describes the radiation-chemical behaviour of tomatopulp and bio-chemical alterations connected with this. The radiation microbiology concerns phytophtora infestans. Results of irradiation of several vegetable sorts and of animal food, as well as tolerance studies with rats are described. Higher attention is paid to legal and economical aspects and consumers' questions. (AJ) [de

  15. THE MODULATION EFFECT OF MELATONIN AGAINST GAMMA IRRADIATION IN BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON MALE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDOU, M.I.; OSMAN, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate the radiomodulatory role of melatonin in the regulation of some biochemical and histopathological damage in case of total body irradiated rats.Male albino rats weighing 120-150 g were divided into four groups, group (I) control animals, group (II) animals received melatonin daily by gavages (3 mg/kg body weight) for two weeks, group (III) animals irradiated with 4 Gy Gamma rays and group (IV) animals irradiated with 4 Gy Gamma rays followed by daily administration with melatonin (3 mg/kg body weight) for two weeks. Rats were sacrificed on the 1st and 2nd week post-irradiation. Blood samples were collected for biochemical investigations. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were determined as biomarkers of liver functions, urea and creatinine contents were measured as markers of kidney functions, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were selected to evaluate heart damage. Alteration in the level of serum glucose was also determined. Tissue specimens from liver, kidney, heart and spleen were collected for the pathological studies.The results indicated that, the levels of liver enzymes, kidney functions and glucose were increased after irradiation of rats and reduced by the treatment with melatonin. These reductions were more noticed during the second weeks except in case of glucose which increased during the second week compared to the first week. On the other hand, heart enzymes levels were reduced by the effect melatonin which may be important for cardiopathological patients.Histopathological results showed that irradiation of rats induced tissue injuries in liver, kidney, heart and spleen.Melatonin treatment reduced these injuries to minimum.It could be concluded that, melatonin could be used as antioxidant to protect vital organs and their functions against irradiation since it works as free radicals

  16. Antioxidant and Hypolipidaemic Effect of Raw Green Snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) on Aged Male Rats Exposed to gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abed EI-Gawad, E.I.; Aiad, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    This Study was established to assess the effect of supplemental dietary raw green snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) for three months to overcome gamma-irradiation induced alterations on some oxidant/ antioxidant parameters (Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , total iron, ferritin, transferrin and ceruloplasmin) and the hyper lipidemic state (triglycerides, cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein (HDL-c and LDL-c) in aged male rats. Raw green snap is an indigenous plant used in Unani and Ayurvedic medicine in India. The study also aimed to estimate the effect of dietary raw green snap on general health through the follow up of body weight and mortality during the course of supplementation. Thirty-two aged male rats (24 months, 370-375 g) were divided equally into four groups. 1- Control group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months. 2- Supplemented group, the animals balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g / kg body wt/ day) for 3 months. 3- Irradiated group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months were then exposed to whole body y-radiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. 4-Supplemented-irradiated group, the animals' balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g/ kg/ day) for three months and then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. The blood samples were taken from orbital venous plexuses after 48 h of stopping green snap supplementation (supplemented group) or after irradiation (irradiated and supplemented gamma-irradiated groups). The results obtained showed reduction in the body wt in green snap supplemented group which increased gradually concomitant with occurrence of animal mortality on week 7 reaching II) maximal values (-32.79 and 33.33 %) respectively, on week 12 of supplementation. Also, the supplemented group showed non significant changes in tested parameters although the level of total iron and triglycerides recorded noticeable changes as compared with controls

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  19. Influence of sap's mixture of the plantain and the burdock on energetic and purine exchange of irradiated organism under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisov, T.K.; Agafonova, I.P.; Zhetpisbaev, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    One of immuno correctors under development of common adaptive syndrome is saps's mixture of the plantain and the burdock. Research of influence of saps's mixture of the plantain and the burdock on enzymes activity of energetic and purine exchange under stress was carried out. There were 2 series of experiments with 120 white rats. Results showed that the irradiated animals on the background phyto therapy had high enzymes activity under stress during all of the investigation periods. The preparations from plantain and burdock biomass increase unspecific resistivity of organism and helps of energetic exchange's rise irradiated organs's sells of animals under stress

  20. The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  1. Estimation of irradiation temperature within the irradiation program Rheinsberg

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, I; Prokert, F; Scholz, A

    2003-01-01

    The temperature monitoring within the irradiation programme Rheinsberg II was performed by diamond powder monitors. The method bases on the effect of temperature on the irradiation-induced increase of the diamond lattice constant. The method is described by a Russian code. In order to determine the irradiation temperature, the lattice constant is measured by means of a X-ray diffractometer after irradiation and subsequent isochronic annealing. The kink of the linearized temperature-lattice constant curves provides a value for the irradiation temperature. It has to be corrected according to the local neutron flux. The results of the lattice constant measurements show strong scatter. Furthermore there is a systematic error. The results of temperature monitoring by diamond powder are not satisfying. The most probable value lays within 255 C and 265 C and is near the value estimated from the thermal condition of the irradiation experiments.

  2. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  3. Humoral immune response against native or 60Co irradiated venom and mucus from stingray Paratrygon aiereba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, Andre Moreira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do; Seibert, Carla Simone

    2015-01-01

    Poisonings and traumas caused by poisonous freshwater fish such as rays are considered a major public health problem and draw attention because of accidents involving these animals cause serious local symptoms and are disabling, keeping the victim away from work. The therapy of these cases is based only on the symptoms of patients, which implies in its low efficiency, causing suffering for the victims. This study aims to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response in animals inoculated with native or 60 Co irradiated Paratrygon aiereba venom and mucus. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool to decrease the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins. The mucus and venom samples of P. aiereba were irradiated using gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Animals models were immunized with the native or irradiated mucus or venom. The assays were conducted to assess the production of antibodies by the immunized animals using enzyme immunoassay and western blotting. Preliminary results show the production of antibodies by the immunized animals. The resulting sera were also checked for antigenic cross- reactivity between venom and mucus, demonstrating the potential of mucus as an antigen for serum production for the specific treatment for accidents by stingrays. However, it is essential to carry out further tests in order to verify the neutralization of the toxin by antibodies formed by animals. (author)

  4. Detection of irradiated potatoes by conductivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherz, H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the author shows that the conductivity of irradiated potatoes measured by a sticking electrode depend on the irradiation dose and is independent on the potato variety. The measured values remain constant over a six month storage period

  5. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  6. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    An outline review is presented of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research. Techniques covered are the qualitative localization of a radioisotope (static and dynamic measurements, detection procedures involving locating concentration sites of labelled toxins, parasites, abnormal blood cells, etc.), quantitative measurement of isotopes (absorption and excretion, transfer across membranes) comparator studies (determination of mass, volume or flow), isotope dilution and related studies (in vivo and in vitro applications, determination of total body red cell or plasma volume), dynamic systems (single compartmental systems such as rumen studies and the suckling lamb or calf, multiple exits from a compartment and multiple doses), stable isotopes and mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the use of internal irradiation (sterile male technique, control of insects and parasites, production of attenuated vaccines etc.). (U.K.)

  7. Modifications of small intestine lysosomal enzymes after irradiation at different times of the day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A; Giache, V; Lanini, A; Cremonini, D; Drighi, E [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1982-01-01

    The modification of lysosomal enzyme activities in animals irradiated with the same sublethal dose at 4 different times of the day is reported. The results confirmed the absence of circadian fluctuations in all the lysosomal enzymes and in protein content. A difference in behaviour between acid ..beta..-galactosidase and ..beta..-glucuronidase on the one hand and between acid phosphatase and cathepsin D on the other was evident in irradiated animals. The results showed that acid ..beta..-galactosidase and ..beta..-glucuronidase increase from the early intervals after irradiation and reach the highest activity between 36 and 48 h. At these intervals autolysis phenomena, heavy cellular alterations and numerous phlogosis cells are present in the epithelium. Only ..beta..-glucuronidase and acid ..beta..-galactosidase indicate the level of radiation injury.

  8. Animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ellen A

    2010-01-01

    As clinical studies reveal that chemotherapeutic agents may impair several different cognitive domains in humans, the development of preclinical animal models is critical to assess the degree of chemotherapy-induced learning and memory deficits and to understand the underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, the effects of various cancer chemotherapeutic agents in rodents on sensory processing, conditioned taste aversion, conditioned emotional response, passive avoidance, spatial learning, cued memory, discrimination learning, delayed-matching-to-sample, novel-object recognition, electrophysiological recordings and autoshaping is reviewed. It appears at first glance that the effects of the cancer chemotherapy agents in these many different models are inconsistent. However, a literature is emerging that reveals subtle or unique changes in sensory processing, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval that are dose- and time-dependent. As more studies examine cancer chemotherapeutic agents alone and in combination during repeated treatment regimens, the animal models will become more predictive tools for the assessment of these impairments and the underlying neural mechanisms. The eventual goal is to collect enough data to enable physicians to make informed choices about therapeutic regimens for their patients and discover new avenues of alternative or complementary therapies that reduce or eliminate chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits.

  9. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu.

    1989-01-01

    In an irradiation device for irradiating radiation rays such as electron beams to pharmaceuticals, etc., since the distribution of scanned electron rays was not monitored, the electron beam intensity could be determined only indirectly and irradiation reliability was not satisfactory. In view of the above, a plurality of monitor wires emitting secondary electrons are disposed in the scanning direction near a beam take-out window of a scanning duct, signals from the monitor wires are inputted into a display device such as a cathode ray tube, as well as signals from the monitor wires at the central portion are inputted into counting rate meters to measure the radiation dose as well. Since secondary electrons are emitted when electron beams pass through the monitor wires and the intensity thereof is in proportion with the intensity of incident electron beams, the distribution of the radiation dose can be monitored by measuring the intensity of the emitted secondary electrons. Further, uneven irradiation, etc. can also be monitored to make the radiation of irradiation rays reliable. (N.H.)

  10. Systematization of the Mechanism by Which Plasma Irradiation Causes Cell Growth and Tumor Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    New methods and technologies have improved minimally invasive surgical treatment and saved numerous patients. Recently, plasma irradiation has been demonstrated that might be useful in medical field and the plasma irradiation device is expected to become practically applicable. Mild plasma coagulator showed some advantages such as hemostasis and adhesion reduction in experimental animal model, but the mechanism of plasma irradiation remains unclear. Our study group aim to clarify the mechanism of plasma irradiation effects, mainly focusing on oxidative stress using cultured cell lines and small animal model. First, a study using cultured cell lines showed that the culture medium that was activated by plasma irradiation (we called this kind of medium as ``PAM'' -plasma activated medium-) induced tumor cell death. Although this effect was mainly found to be due to hydrogen peroxide, the remaining portion was considered as the specific effect of the plasma irradiation and we are now studying focusing on this effect. Second, we established a mouse intra-peritoneal adhesion model and checked biological reaction that occurred in the adhesion part. Histopathological study showed inflammatory cells infiltration into adhesion part and the expression of PTX3 that might involve tissue repair around adhesion part. We also confirmed that cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 might be useful as a marker of adhesion formation in this model. Applying ``PAM'' or mild plasma irradiation in this model, we examine the effects of plasma on inflamed cells. The samples in these experiments would be applied to targeted proteomics analysis, and we aim to demonstrate the systematization of the cell's reaction by plasma irradiation.

  11. Depression of T lymphocyte function in chimpanzees receiving thymectomy and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbertsen, R.B.; Metzgar, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    In studies analogous to those in which the thymus dependency of immune functions in murine systems was determined, three chimpanzees were thymectomized, splenectomized, exposed to lethal doses of whole body x-irradiation with limited bone marrow shielding, and subsequently evaluated for lymphocyte markers and functions over a period of years. In the oldest animal studied (Irena, 7.2 years at surgery), the percentage of peripheral blood T cells decreased to about 60% of control values and remained at that level for approximately 1 1 / 2 years before returning to normal. In the two youngest chimpanzees T cell rosette values dropped to 15 to 40% of control values after irradiation. T cell percentages in one of these young chimpanzees returned to about 75% of the controls 2 1 / 2 years after x-irradiation. Phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A mitogen responses were less affected in the oldest chimpanzee. However, even in the oldest animal, the responses to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A began to show a gradual and consistent decline 1 1 / 2 years after irradiation. Mixed leukocyte culture responsiveness was most affected by the experimental procedures, being greatly reduced in all three chimpanzees during varying time intervals. In general, the effects of the experimental procedures used to produce T cell deficiencies varied with the age of the chimpanzee at surgery, the time after irradiation when the animal was tested, and the lymphocyte marker or function studied

  12. Depression of T lymphocyte function in chimpanzees receiving thymectomy and irradiation. [X Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbertsen, R.B.; Metzgar, R.S.

    1978-03-01

    In studies analogous to those in which the thymus dependency of immune functions in murine systems was determined, three chimpanzees were thymectomized, splenectomized, exposed to lethal doses of whole body x-irradiation with limited bone marrow shielding, and subsequently evaluated for lymphocyte markers and functions over a period of years. In the oldest animal studied (Irena, 7.2 years at surgery), the percentage of peripheral blood T cells decreased to about 60% of control values and remained at that level for approximately 1/sup 1///sub 2/ years before returning to normal. In the two youngest chimpanzees T cell rosette values dropped to 15 to 40% of control values after irradiation. T cell percentages in one of these young chimpanzees returned to about 75% of the controls 2/sup 1///sub 2/ years after x-irradiation. Phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A mitogen responses were less affected in the oldest chimpanzee. However, even in the oldest animal, the responses to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A began to show a gradual and consistent decline 1/sup 1///sub 2/ years after irradiation. Mixed leukocyte culture responsiveness was most affected by the experimental procedures, being greatly reduced in all three chimpanzees during varying time intervals. In general, the effects of the experimental procedures used to produce T cell deficiencies varied with the age of the chimpanzee at surgery, the time after irradiation when the animal was tested, and the lymphocyte marker or function studied.

  13. Nonthermal-plasma-mediated animal cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood.

  14. Nonthermal-plasma-mediated animal cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Kyong-Tai [Department of Life Science, Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja Dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyoo-Cheon, E-mail: ktk@postech.ac.kr [Department of Oral Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-810 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-12

    Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood. (topical review)

  15. Nonthermal-plasma-mediated animal cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon

    2011-01-01

    Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood. (topical review)

  16. Cytotoxic immigration of granulocytes into megakaryocytes as a late consequence of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.; Alabi, R.; Nothdurft, W.; Fliedner, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The immigration of neutrophilic granulocytes into megakaryocyte was studied in the bone marrow of normal and X-irradiated beagle under various exposure conditions. Two groups of dogs received homogeneous total-body irradiation. One group received a dose of 1.6 Gy and the other received a dose of 2.4 Gy (midline tissue). A third group was irradiated from the left side of the body only. This exposure resulted in an inhomogeneous total-body irradiation (entrance dose 3.8 Gy, exit dose 0.9 Gy). A fourth group of animals received partial-body irradiation with a dose of 11.7 Gy delivered to the anterior two-thirds of the body, thereby subjecting about 70% of the hemopoietic marrow to irradiation. Dogs of a fifth group remained unexposed to irradiation and served as controls. The marrow was analyzed in sections of the ribs approximately 1 year after irradiation. The total number of megakaryocytes in one section was evaluated. The number of megakaryocytes showing granulocytes in their cytoplasm was determined and expressed as a percentage. This phenomenon can be explained as cytotoxic immigration of granulocytes into megakaryocytes. It was observed in approximately 1-2 of the megakaryocytes in the marrow of normal dogs. One year after irradiation the value increased of normal dogs. One year after irradiation the value increased to 10-26%. It was observed that neutrophilic granuloytes penetrated only into the large mature megakaryocytes in which the nuclei were most pyknotic. This phenomenon may be considered as a late effect of irradiation. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Changes in Serum Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin Levels of Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.; Shaban, H.A.; El Gohary, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Rats are whole body irradiated with different Gamma radiation doses. Zinc and Copper, two important trace elements in the biological processes and Ceruloplasmin, a protein which carries more than 95% of serum Cu and has important roles in many vital processes are followed up in the irradiated rat sera. This work aimed to determine the changes in the serum levels of the three parameters (Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin) through eight weeks follow up period (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week) post whole body gamma irradiation with three sub-lethal doses (2, 3.5 and 5 Gy) of rats. All the experimental animals did not receive any medical treatment. Zinc and Copper were measured using discrete nebulization flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ceruloplasmin was measured using a colorimetric method. The statistical analyses of the results show that the Zinc levels of the irradiated groups decreased significantly post irradiation and then were recovered at the 6th week post irradiation. The Copper levels of the irradiated groups increased significantly and then were recovered at 6th week post irradiation. The levels of Ceruloplasmin in the same groups increased significantly throughout the whole follow up period. The conclusion is that, Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin levels changed significantly in the irradiated groups compared to the control group with a maximum effect noted in the groups irradiated with the higher doses and that the lower dose irradiated groups recover earlier than the higher ones. Also the correlation between Copper and Zinc is reversible at different doses and that between Copper and Ceruloplasmin is direct

  18. Perspectives of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.K.

    1974-01-01

    Food preservation by means of ionizing radiation has been technically feasible for more than a decade. Its utilization could increase food safety, extend the transport and shell life of foods, cut food losses, and reduce dependence upon chemical additives. The prime obstacles have been the strict safety requirements set by health authorities to this preservation method and the high costs of the long-term animal tests necessary to fulfil these requirements. An International Food Irradiation Project, expected to establish the toxicological safety of 10 foods by about 1976, is described in some detail. (author)

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  20. Vinca irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymery, R.

    1976-10-01

    The development programme of the VINCA radiosterilisation centre involves plans for an irradiator capable of working in several ways. Discontinuous operation. The irradiator is loaded for a certain period then runs automatically until the moment of unloading. This method is suitable as long as the treatment capacity is relatively small. Continuous operation with permanent batch loading and unloading carried out either manually or automatically (by means of equipment to be installed later). Otherwise the design of the apparatus is highly conventional. The source is a vertical panel submersible in a pool. The conveyor is of the 'bucket' type, with 4 tiers to each bucket. The batches pass successively through all possible irradiation positions. Transfert into and out of the cell take place through a maze, which also provides access to the cell when the sources are in storage at the bottom of the pool [fr

  1. Ultraviolet-C irradiation for inactivation of viruses in foetal bovine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Vivek; Dhere, Rajeev; Agnihotri, Snehal; Muley, Ravindra; Patil, Sanjay; Pawar, Amit

    2018-07-05

    Foetal Bovine Serum (FBS) and porcine trypsin are one of the essential raw materials used in the manufacturing of cell culture based viral vaccines. Being from animal origin, these raw materials can potentially contaminate the final product by known or unknown adventitious agents. The issue is more serious in case of live attenuated viral vaccines, where there is no inactivation step which can take care of such adventitious agents. It is essential to design production processes which can offer maximum viral clearance potential for animal origin products. Ultraviolet-C irradiation is known to inactivate various adventitious viral agents; however there are limited studies on ultraviolet inactivation of viruses in liquid media. We obtained a recently developed UVivatec ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation based viral clearance system for evaluating its efficacy to inactivate selected model viruses. This system has a unique design with spiral path of liquid allowing maximum exposure to UV-C light of a short wavelength of 254 nm. Five live attenuated vaccine viruses and four other model viruses were spiked in tissue culture media and exposed to UV-C irradiation. The pre and post UV-C irradiation samples were analyzed for virus content to find out the extent of inactivation of various viruses. These experiments showed substantial log reduction for the majority of the viruses with few exceptions based on the characteristics of these viruses. Having known the effect of UV irradiation on protein structure, we also evaluated the post irradiation samples of culture media for growth promoting properties using one of the most fastidious human diploid cells (MRC-5). UV-C exposure did not show any notable impact on the nutritional properties of culture media. The use of an UV-C irradiation based system is considered to be promising approach to mitigate the risk of adventitious agents in cell culture media arising through animal derived products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Mucosal pathology of an experimental otitis media with effusion after X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Ikeoka, H.; Esaki, Y.; Koshimo, H.; Onoyama, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Ten guinea pigs were irradiated with 30 Gy of x-radiation. Five were killed on the eighth day after irradiation, and the remainder were killed at the sixteenth day after irradiation. At the time of death, examination was made of the ciliary activity and the fine structure of the middle ear mucosa. Serous effusion was found in each tympanic cavity of all animals. It was shown also that the guinea pig, when irradiated with 30 Gy of x-radiation, exhibits pathologic abnormalities similar to those in humans with otitis media with effusion: degeneration of cilia or ciliated cells and changes in the vascular system (capillary injury and increased capillary permeability). Functional examinations showed that x-ray irradiation has delayed effects on ciliary activity, and the effects are much greater at the sixteenth day than at the eighth day. We speculate that the accumulation of effusion can be, at least partially, a consequence of ciliary dysfunction. The induction of sterile effusion by the use of x-ray irradiation provides a unique animal model for chronic otitis media with effusion of the serous type

  3. Melatonin, a potential effective protector in whole body γ-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S; El-Nashar, D.E; Ahmed, M.M; Hanafy, Z.E

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the chief hormone of pineal gland, is widely distributed in animal kingdom. It is claimed for its antioxidant and free radical properties. The present study aimed to examine the radio protective potentiality and efficacy of melatonin against damages induced in whole body γ-irradiated rats. Animals received melatonin (10 mg/ kg body wt/ day) for 10 successive days pre-exposure to 3 Gy of γ-radiation (acute dose). Rats sacrificed at 10 and 20 days post the irradiation time. The results revealed that the prolonged administration of melatonin has ameliorated the radiation- induced depletion in brain, testis and serum glutathione (GSH) level and a decrease in serum glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity when compared with their matched values in irradiated rats. In addition, remarkable decreases in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (LPO) product; malondialdhyde (MDA) was observed in brain, testis and serum of rats received melatonin pre-radiation exposure. As well as, significant decreases in disulphide glutathione (GSSG) were observed in serum.Histopathological examination of brain and testis showed that administration of melatonin pre-irradiation according to the present regimen has attenuated radiation induced tissue damages and improved tissue architecture. Cytogenetically, the chromosomal aberration (CA) assay in bone marrow pointed out a significant difference between rats received melatonin pre-irradiation and γ-irradiated rats in most CA types. Accordingly, it could be postulated the tissue diversity and cytogenetic impact of the administrated melatonin against acute ion syndrome in rat model.

  4. Study on the inactivation of intracellular enzyme molecules by X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.B.

    1977-01-01

    Inactivation of the glutamic acid dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme molecules in the Ehrlich ascites tumor cells of the mouse were studied. The above mentioned intracellular enzyme molecules were irradiated by the X-ray radiation under the condition of 65 kV, 1 Amp under the atmosphere of nitrogen gases and by 4 0 C. Thereby, irradiation doses were 580 KR/min(error: +-3%). After irradiation, the cell homogentes were prepared through liquid air techniques. There after, the activities of the enzymes were measured with photometric method given by O. Warburg and W. Christian. The dose effect curves of the activities of the two enzymes by the X-ray irradiation showed both exponential and the inactivation doses were 6.5x10 6 and 5.0x10 6 R respectively. These results showed one side that the inactivation process of the intracellular enzyme molecules was one hit reaction after target theory, and the other side that this inactivation process could not be the primary causes of the death through X-ray irradiation of the vertebrate animals, because of the high resistance of the intracellular protein molecules against X-ray irradiation. The one hit reaction by the inactivation process of the irradiated intracellular enzyme molecules was discussed. (author)

  5. Fluctuation in hematology values in gamma irradiated rats subjected to pesticide ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    abdel-Hamid, F M [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Radiation Biology, cairo (Egypt); Roushdy, H M [Department, National Center for Radiation Reasrch and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Girgis, R B; Abu-Ghadir, A R [Atomic Energy Authority, and Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Male albino rats were exposed to gamma irradiation alone or after either oral daily administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane for 3 successive days; or daily administration of 200 mg kelthane mixed with food per kg body weight for 3,6 and 12 weeks. Relative spleen weight and certain hematological values were determined. Significant decrease could be estimated in relative spleen weight due to exposure only to gamma irradiation significant increase was recorded due to treatment with 50 and 100 mg kelthane. The data obtained on hematological levels revealed insignificant changes in erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration due to exposure to gamma irradiation and/.or kelthane treatment. Significant decrease was recorded in hematocrit value either for successive 30 days or due exposure to gamma irradiation after treatment with kelthane for short and long term periods. Leucocyte counts showed significant decrease for all animals groups. 2 tabs.

  6. fluctuation in hematology values in gamma irradiated rats subjected to pesticide ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    abdel-Hamid, F.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Girgis, R.B.; Abu-Ghadir, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    Male albino rats were exposed to gamma irradiation alone or after either oral daily administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane for 3 successive days; or daily administration of 200 mg kelthane mixed with food per kg body weight for 3,6 and 12 weeks. Relative spleen weight and certain hematological values were determined. Significant decrease could be estimated in relative spleen weight due to exposure only to gamma irradiation significant increase was recorded due to treatment with 50 and 100 mg kelthane. The data obtained on hematological levels revealed insignificant changes in erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration due to exposure to gamma irradiation and/.or kelthane treatment. Significant decrease was recorded in hematocrit value either for successive 30 days or due exposure to gamma irradiation after treatment with kelthane for short and long term periods. Leucocyte counts showed significant decrease for all animals groups. 2 tabs

  7. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  8. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Kyoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  9. Influence of x-ray irradiation on the proliferative ability of the germinal layer cells of Echinococcus multilocularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Kenji

    1986-01-01

    Influence of X-ray irradiation on the proliferative ability of the germinal layer cells of larval Echinococcus multilocularis was studied by using small sterile hydatids containing vesicles composed of a non-cellular laminated layer and a cellular germinal layer. The small sterile hydatids were irradiated by X-ray at dose levels of 5,000, 15,000, 25,000, 35,000, 45,000 or 55,000 R and implanted into the peritoneal cavity of Chinese hamsters. Fully developed hydatids were recognized in all cases irradiated at up to 35,000 R, when assessed 113 days after implantation. At 45,000 R, 2 out of 6 animals showed small, fully developed hydatids. No such hydatid was found in the other 4 animals nor in any of the animals implanted with hydatids irradiated at 55,000 R. No structural differences were observed between fully developed hydatids originating from the irradiated and non-irradiated small hydatids. These results indicate that the tolerance limit of the germinal layer cells is between 45,000 R and 55,000 R. (author)

  10. Radiation Effect on Body Weight and Hematological Changes of Hybrid Mice by Conventional Fraction, Large Abdominal Field Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Heon; Shin, Sei One; Kim, Myung Se

    1985-01-01

    Radiation effect on mammals, especially on hematologic changes, has been studied since discovery of x-ray. Various experimental animals were tried for radiobiological studies. 72 hybrid mice with conventional fraction (5X/week), large abdominal field (2 x 3cm, from symphysis pubic to xyphoid process) were used. Body weight was declined gradually by increasing irradiation doses, nadir was about 29.7% in male ; 30.4% in female at 6000 rad irradiation group. Hemoglobin value was nearly normal throughout entire treatment. Significant dropping of WBC count was noted to 40-50% of pretreatment values by only 1000 rad irradiation. Change of differential count was interesting; lymphocyte proportion showed gradual reduction, instead of gradual increasing of segmented neutrophil. Those proportion were reversed after 6000 rad irradiation. Urinary protein tests showed + - +++, showing no correlation with dosage. Application. of our study in clinical combination therapy (radiation + chemotherapy) was discussed

  11. Irradiation probe and laboratory for irradiated material evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutny, S.; Kupca, L.; Beno, P.; Stubna, M.; Mrva, V.; Chmelo, P.

    1975-09-01

    The survey and assessment are given of the tasks carried out in the years 1971 to 1975 within the development of methods for structural materials irradiation and of a probe for the irradiation thereof in the A-1 reactor. The programme and implementation of laboratory tests of the irradiation probe are described. In the actual reactor irradiation, the pulse tube length between the pressure governor and the irradiation probe is approximately 20 m, the diameter is 2.2 mm. Temperature reaches 800 degC while the pressure control system operates at 20 degC. The laboratory tests (carried out at 20 degC) showed that the response time of the pressure control system to a stepwise pressure change in the irradiation probe from 0 to 22 at. is 0.5 s. Pressure changes were also studied in the irradiation probe and in the entire system resulting from temperature changes in the irradiation probe. Temperature distribution in the body of the irradiation probe heating furnace was determined. (B.S.)

  12. Characteristic effects of heavy ion irradiation on the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, X.Z.; Takahashi, S.; Kubota, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Takeda, H.; Zhang, R.; Fukui, Y.

    2005-01-01

    successfully and satisfactorily retained its high-dose localization in the defined region. Histological and neuronal behavioral examinations showed that no obvious behavioral and histological changes before 7 weeks of exposure, but loss of hairs was found in the left brain this time in the irradiated group. The shape and size of depilation were almost same to the left collimation. At 8 weeks after exposure, the distinctive histological changes such as necrosis, vascular dilatation and tissue swelling were observed and almost animals exposed to the heavy ion beams exhibited behavioral changes, either in an abnormal walking pattern or rotation when suspended by their tail. From 16 to 32 weeks after irradiation, necrotic rarefaction became dominant at the center of the irradiated region and enlarged blood vessels were present in the surrounding area. Behavioral changes during this period also became more marked. The rats showed total loss of their balance both in an abnormal walking pattern and rotation from 16 weeks onwards, Major elemental contribution in the brain studied with X-rays fluorescence indicated that a sudden decrease in the concentration of K and Cl appeared as early as 24 hours after ischemia induction in the rat brain, while the concentrations of P, Fe and Zn did not significantly change. A decrease in the concentration of K and P in the region where tissue selling and necrosis was observed. Significant increases in the concentrations of Cl, Fe, Zn were found in the thalamus and surrounding area o f necrosis. These results revealed that levels of inorganic ions in the brain were good indicators for the pathological states of the nervous system.

  13. The effect of the timing of prenatal exposure to x-irradiation on Purkinje cell numbers in rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, T.; Satriotomo, I.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kuma, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Gu

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to X-irradiation is known to cause various deleterious consequences. We have examined the effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the development of the cerebellum. Wistar rats were exposed to 1.5 Gy X-irradiation either on the 14, 15 or 16th day of gestation (E14, E15, E16). Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. At seven postnatal weeks of age, male rats were deeply anesthetized and killed by intracardiac perfusion with 2.5 % glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. The unbiased stereological procedure known as the fractionator method was used to estimate the total number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Body and cerebellar weights from E14 and E15, but not E16 irradiated rats showed significant deficits compared to control animals. Rats irradiated on E16 and control rats had about 285,100 - 304,800 Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. There was no significant difference between these values. However, E14 and E15 irradiated animals had about 117,500 and 196,300 Purkinje cells, respectively. These estimates were significantly different from those observed in both control and E16 irradiated rats. Given that the phase of division of Purkinje cell progenitors is mainly between E14-E15 and the phase of differentiation and migration is between E16-E20, it is concluded that the vulnerable period of the Purkinje cells to X-irradiation closely overlaps the phase of division of progenitors

  14. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  15. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  16. Irradiation effects on the adrenal gland of rats undergoing inanition stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Chaturvedi, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of total body x-irradiation was studied on rats under inanition stress. In response to irradiation an increase in the activity of cortex and medulla was noted in inanition stress administered rats rather than in the normally fed animals. Similarly, rising levels of urinary catecholamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine were observed in the starved animals after irradiation. (author)

  17. Tissue glycogen and blood glucose in irradiated rats. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1980-01-01

    Male rats of the Wistar strain were continuously irradiated with 0.57 Gy (60 R) of gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Irradiation lasted from 1 to 50 days in an experimental field where also control animals shielded from radiation were placed. After a 16 h starvation, the concentration of glucose in the blood and of glycogen in the liver and the heart was determined 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 25, 32, 39 and 50 days after the beginning of irradiation. The concentration of blood glucose in irradiated rats did not practically differ from that of control animals during the whole period of investigation. The concentration of liver glycogen in irradiated animals was higher than that in the controls during all time intervals, except for day 1. The values of glycogen in the heart muscle were approximately identical in the irradiated and control rats, except for day 21 when they sharply increased in the irradiated animals. In addition to the investigation of blood glucose and tissue glycogen during continuous irradiation, these parameters were studied immediately, and 1, 6 and 12 months after continuous irradiation with a daily exposure of 0.57 Gy (60 R) up to a total exposure of 14.35 Gy (1500 R) of gamma rays. Considerably higher values of liver glycogen were detected in the irradiated rats immediately, and 1 and 6 months after the end of irradiation. (author)

  18. Use of synchrotron medical microbeam irradiation to investigate radiation-induced bystander and abscopal effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Laissue, Jean; Vukmirovic, Dusan; Blattmann, Hans; Seymour, Colin; Schültke, Elisabeth; Mothersill, Carmel

    2015-09-01

    The question of whether bystander and abscopal effects are the same is unclear. Our experimental system enables us to address this question by allowing irradiated organisms to partner with unexposed individuals. Organs from both animals and appropriate sham and scatter dose controls are tested for expression of several endpoints such as calcium flux, role of 5HT, reporter assay cell death and proteomic profile. The results show that membrane related functions of calcium and 5HT are critical for true bystander effect expression. Our original inter-animal experiments used fish species whole body irradiated with low doses of X-rays, which prevented us from addressing the abscopal effect question. Data which are much more relevant in radiotherapy are now available for rats which received high dose local irradiation to the implanted right brain glioma. The data were generated using quasi-parallel microbeams at the biomedical beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble France. This means we can directly compare abscopal and "true" bystander effects in a rodent tumour model. Analysis of right brain hemisphere, left brain and urinary bladder in the directly irradiated animals and their unirradiated partners strongly suggests that bystander effects (in partner animals) are not the same as abscopal effects (in the irradiated animal). Furthermore, the presence of a tumour in the right brain alters the magnitude of both abscopal and bystander effects in the tissues from the directly irradiated animal and in the unirradiated partners which did not contain tumours, meaning the type of signal was different. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Radiation Sensitivity of some Food Borne Bacterial Pathogens in Animal Foods and Minced Meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, W.S.; Ali, A.R.; Alexan, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteriological examination of 100 samples of animal food stuffs (fish meal and bone and meat meal; as models of dry food materials) and 50 samples of minced meat (as a model of moist food materials) revealed the isolation of different bacterial pathogens; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus spp., Staph. aureus and Salmonella species, in a decreasing order of occurrence. In the experiment; the dry food stuffs were sterilized in autoclave and the minced meat was sterilized by gamma irradiation at 10 kGy. The efficacy of gamma irradiation against the inoculated bacterial isolates (E coli 0157: H7, Salmonella enteritidis and Staph. aureus) in animal food stuffs and minced meat was investigated. Irradiated samples were stored at room temperature (25 degree C) for 2 weeks. The food borne pathogens used in this study showed a difference in radiation sensitivity. E. coli 0157: H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis were eradicated at 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. Also, inoculated pathogens in minced meat were more sensitive to ionizing radiation than dry animal food stuffs. It could be concluded that low doses of gamma irradiation are effective means of inactivating pathogenic bacteria. This radiation sensitivity is related to the bacterial isolates and the evaluated growth

  20. Study on the cytogenetic activity of freshly irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, A.N.; Osipova, I.N.

    1978-01-01

    Cytogenetic activity of potatoes, subjected to gamma irradiation in the dose of 10 Krad, feeding the animals in a day after irradiation, has been investigated. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice, who obtained newly irradiated raw or baked potatoes, has no substantial difference from the analogous mutageneity index of mice from the control group. The data obtained are of practical importance when considering the problem of using gamma-irradiated potatoes in the people nourishment

  1. Gamma irradiation of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputra, T S; Harsoyo,; Sudarman, H [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1982-07-01

    An experiment has been done to determine the effect of irradiation and reduction of moisture content on the keeping quality of commercial spices, i.e. nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), black and white pepper (Piper ningrum). The results showed that a dose of 5 kGy could reduce the microbial load of spices as much as 2-4 log cycles for the total plate count and 1-3 log cycles for the total mould and yeast counts. The microbial reduction due to the irradiation treatment was found to be lower in more humid products. Prolonged storage enhanced the microbial reduction.

  2. Conditioned instrumental behaviour in the rat: Effects of prenatal irradiation with various low dose-rate doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klug, H.

    1986-01-01

    4 groups of rats of the Wistar-strain were subjected to γ-irradiation on the 16th day of gestation. 5 rats received 0,6 Gy low dose rate irradiation, 5 animals received 0,9 Gy low dose and 6 high dose irradiation, 3 females were shamirradiated. The male offspring of these 3 irradiation groups and 1 control group were tested for locomotor coordination on parallel bars and in a water maze. The female offspring were used in an operant conditioning test. The locomotor test showed slight impairment of locomotor coordination in those animals irradiated with 0,9 Gy high dose rate. Swimming ability was significantly impaired by irradiation with 0,9 Gy high dose rate. Performance in the operant conditioning task was improved by irradiation with 0,9 Gy both low and high dose rate. The 0,9 Gy high dose rate group learned faster than all the other groups. For the dose of 0,9 Gy a significant dose rate effect could be observed. For the dose of 0,6 Gy a similar tendency was observed, differences between 0,6 Gy high and low dose rate and controls not being significant. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  4. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  6. Micro-CT evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the mandibular incisors of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende Barbosa, Gabriella Lopes de; Almeida, Solange Maria de

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a micro computerized tomographic evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the volume of mandibular incisors of irradiated rats. A second aim was to make a quantitative assessment of the effect of x-ray exposure on these dental tissues. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups: control, irradiated control, resveratrol, and irradiated resveratrol. The resveratrol groups received 100 mg/kg of resveratrol, whereas the irradiated groups were exposed to 15 Gy of irradiation. The animals were sacrificed 30 days after the irradiation procedure, and their mandibles were removed and scanned in a micro computerized tomography unit. The images were loaded into Mimics software to allow segmentation of the mandibular incisor and assessment of its volume. The results were compared by One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test, considering a 5% significance level. The irradiated groups showed significantly diminished volumes of the evaluated teeth, as compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The resveratrol group presented higher values than those of the irradiated groups, and volumes similar to those of the control group. High radiation doses significantly affected tooth formation, resulting in alterations in the dental structure, and thus lower volumes. Moreover, resveratrol showed no effective radioprotective impact on dental tissues. Future studies are needed to evaluate different concentrations of this substance, in an endeavor to verify its potential as a radioprotector for these dental tissues. (author)

  7. Micro-CT evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the mandibular incisors of irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende Barbosa, Gabriella Lopes de; Almeida, Solange Maria de, E-mail: gabriellalopes@live.com [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Departmento de Diagnostico Oral; Pimenta, Luiz Andre [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Dentistry, Department of Dental Ecology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a micro computerized tomographic evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the volume of mandibular incisors of irradiated rats. A second aim was to make a quantitative assessment of the effect of x-ray exposure on these dental tissues. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups: control, irradiated control, resveratrol, and irradiated resveratrol. The resveratrol groups received 100 mg/kg of resveratrol, whereas the irradiated groups were exposed to 15 Gy of irradiation. The animals were sacrificed 30 days after the irradiation procedure, and their mandibles were removed and scanned in a micro computerized tomography unit. The images were loaded into Mimics software to allow segmentation of the mandibular incisor and assessment of its volume. The results were compared by One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test, considering a 5% significance level. The irradiated groups showed significantly diminished volumes of the evaluated teeth, as compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The resveratrol group presented higher values than those of the irradiated groups, and volumes similar to those of the control group. High radiation doses significantly affected tooth formation, resulting in alterations in the dental structure, and thus lower volumes. Moreover, resveratrol showed no effective radioprotective impact on dental tissues. Future studies are needed to evaluate different concentrations of this substance, in an endeavor to verify its potential as a radioprotector for these dental tissues. (author)

  8. A study on UV irradiated HDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Haibo; Liu Zimin; Wu Shishan; Shen Jian

    2006-01-01

    The structure and properties of HDPE irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) in ozone atmosphere were studied by FT-IR, XPS, gel, and water contact angle test. The oxygen-containing groups such as C=O, C-O and C(=O)O were introduced onto high density polyethylene (HDPE) chains through ultraviolet irradiation in ozone atmosphere, their content increased with the UV irradiation time. Under the same UV irradiation conditions, amount of the oxygen-containing groups introduced in ozone atmosphere was more than that in air atmosphere, indicating that the speed of oxygen-containing groups introduced through UV irradiation in ozone atmosphere was faster than that in air. Therefore, HDPE could be quickly functionalized through UV irradiation in ozone atmosphere. There was no gel formed in the HDPE irradiated in ozone atmosphere. After UV irradiation, the water contact angle of HDPE decreased, and its hydrophilicity was improved, suggesting that the compatibility between the irradiated HDPE and polar polymer or inorganic fillers may be better. Compared with HDPE, the temperature of initial weight loss for irradiated HDPE decreased. The structure and properties of irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend were also investigated. The results showed that the compatibility and interfacial action of the irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend were improved compared to that of HDPE/CaCO 3 blend. The mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend increased with increasing irradiation time. (authors)

  9. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  10. Fresh-keeping of mushroom by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Xu Hongqing; Wang Hong; Cai Jian

    2003-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co γ irradiation on the preservation of Agaricus bisporus were studied. The results showed that after irradiation the mushroom had lower rates of membrane split, opening of pilei, browning, decomposition and lose of fresh weight. The fresh keeping period of mushroom irradiated with 1.2 kGy and stored at 4 degree C was prolonged to 30 days

  11. Progress in food irradiation: South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1982-01-01

    The report contains irradiation methods for fruit, vegetables, meat and spices in South Africa with the irradiation effect being studied on pathogenic fungi. A large-scale test in super-markets of Johannesburg and Pretoria showed positive acceptance of irradiated potatoes, mangoes, papayas and strawberries by 90% of consumers. (AJ) [de

  12. Progress in food irradiation: South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1982-11-01

    The report contains irradiation methods for fruit, vegetables, meat and spices in South Africa with the irradiation effect being studied on pathogenic fungi. A large-scale test in super-markets of Johannesburg and Pretoria showed positive acceptance of irradiated potatoes, mangoes, papayas and strawberries by 90% of consumers.

  13. National food irradiation programme of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, M.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of studies on feasibility and wholesomeness of irradiated food is presented. Irradiation projects were realized of potatoes, onions, wheat, Vienna sausages, fish-paste products, and mandarine oranges. Mutagenecity tests with Salmonella or E. coli, chromosome aberration tests, dominant lethal tests, fibroblasts and micronucleus tests, and toxicity tests performed in amimals fed with irradiated food showed no positive results

  14. Effects of irradiated Bothropstoxin-1 and Bothrops jararacussu crude venom on the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caproni, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to modify the immunological properties of biomolecules and has been proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venoms toxicity without affecting and even increasing their immunogenic properties. Very promising results were obtained when crude animal venoms, as well as isolated toxins, were treated with 60 Co gamma rays, yielding toxoids with good immunogenicity, however, little is known about the modifications that irradiated molecules undergo and even less about the immunological response that such antigens elicit. At the present work, we have evaluated the effects on immune system of B10.PL and BALB/c mice of Bothrops jararacussu crude venom and isolated bothropstoxin-1 (Bthx-1), before and after gamma radiation exposition. According to our data, irradiation process promoted structural modifications on both isolated toxin and crude venom, characterized by higher molecular weight protein (aggregates and oligomers) formation. Irradiated samples were immunogenic and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native toxin in ELISA. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant modifications in their structures, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties. Also, our data indicate that the irradiated protein induced higher titers of IgG2b, suggesting that Th1 cells were predominantly involved. Results from Western blot assay showed that antibodies raised against irradiated bothropstoxin-1 recognize both native isolated toxin or crude venom. Cytotoxicity assay showed that irradiated toxin and crude venom were less toxic than their native counterpart. Thus, the viability of the macrophages cultured in the presence of irradiated Bthx-1 or crude venom was higher if compared with their native forms. LDH Assay showed that irradiated Bthx-1 promotes less muscular damage than the native form. Our data confirm a potential use of ionizing

  15. PROFOUND AND SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC EFFECTS OF CLINICALLY-RELEVANT LOW DOSE SCATTER IRRADIATION ON THE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKovalchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Irradiated cells can signal damage and distress to both close and distant neighbors that have not been directly exposed to the radiation (naïve bystanders. While studies have shown that such bystander effects occur in the shielded brain of animals upon body irradiation, their mechanism remains unexplored. Observed effects may be caused by some blood-borne factors; however they may also be explained, at least in part, by very small direct doses received by the brain that result from scatter or leakage. In order to establish the roles of low doses of scatter irradiation in the brain response, we developed a new model for scatter irradiation analysis whereby one rat was irradiated directly at the liver and the second rat was placed adjacent to the first and received a scatter dose to its body and brain. This work focuses specifically on the response of the latter rat brain to the low scatter irradiation dose. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that very low, clinically relevant doses of scatter irradiation alter gene expression, induce changes in dendritic morphology, and lead to behavioral deficits in exposed animals. The results showed that exposure to radiation doses as low as 0.115 cGy caused changes in gene expression and reduced spine density, dendritic complexity, and dendritic length in the prefrontal cortex tissues of females, but not males. In the hippocampus, radiation altered neuroanatomical organization in males, but not in females. Moreover, low dose radiation caused behavioral deficits in the exposed animals. This is the first study to show that low dose scatter irradiation influences the brain and behavior in a sex-specific way.

  16. Functional and morphological changes in adenohypophysis of ewes after X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracek, I.; Arendarcik, J.; Tokos, M.; Balun, J.; Stanikova, A.; Praslicka, M.

    1980-01-01

    Qualitative histological and quantitative histocytological changes in the adenohypophysis of ewes of the Slovak Merino breed were studied in the period of physiological anoestrus and in the autumn breeding season. The animals were divided into three groups with four ewes in each. One group served as the control. The ewes in the second group were exposed to X-rays at a dose of 516.5 mC.kg -1 (2000 R), applied to the hypothalamo-hypophysial region. The animals in the third group were exposed to an irradiation dose of 64.4 mC.kg -1 (250 R), applied directly to the ovaries after laparotomy. The 10th day from irradiation the animals were sacrificed and the excised hypophyses were processed. A qualitative microscopic analysis showed a change in the PAS-positive mucopolysaccharides in the adenohypophysial cells, and increased production of PAS-positive intra-acinous colloid, and alterations of blood vessels after irradiation. Quantitative microscopic analysis demonstrated a reduction in the number of PAS-positive cells in the irradiated neurocranium, the hypothalamo-hypophysial region being affected, and a multiplication of PAS-positive cells after the irradiation of the ovaries in the anoestrous period. In the autumn breeding season, PAS-positive cells markedly multiplied after the exposure of the ovaries to X-rays. Irradiation of the head resulted in a significant multiplication of acidophilous cells in the anoestrous period and caused a decrease in the weight of the hypophyses and ovaries. An increase in hypophysis weight was recorded after irradiation of the ovaries. (author)

  17. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Rosanna M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  18. The effect of gamma-rays on the hemoglobin of whole-body irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, H.A.; Selim, N.S.; El-Behay, A.Z.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the UV-visible absorption spectrum of mouse hemoglobin as a result of whole body irradiation were studied. White albino adult mice were exposed to a Cs-137 γ-source at a dose rate of 47.5 Gy/h to different absorbed dose values ranging from 1 to 8 Gy. Blood specimens were taken 24 h after irradiation. The UV-visible absorption spectra of hemoglobin of irradiated and control mice were measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 700 nm. The obtained results showed significant changes in the bands measured at 340 nm, in the Soret band measured at 410 nm, also, the α- and β-bands measured at 537 and 572 nm showed significant decrease in intensity with the absorbed dose increase. The absorbance measured at 630 nm showed no significant changes. The radiation effect on the animal hemoglobin was discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (Author)

  19. Industrial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Production lines for rubber gloves would not appear to have much in common with particle physics laboratories, but they both use accelerators. Electron beam irradiation is often used in industry to improve the quality of manufactured goods or to reduce production cost. Products range from computer disks, shrink packaging, tyres, cables, and plastics to hot water pipes. Some products, such as medical goods, cosmetics and certain foodstuffs, are sterilized in this way. In electron beam irradiation, electrons penetrate materials creating showers of low energy electrons. After many collisions these electrons have the correct energy to create chemically active sites. They may either break molecular bonds or activate a site which promotes a new chemical linkage. This industrial irradiation can be exploited in three ways: breaking down a biological molecule usually renders it useless and kills the organism; breaking an organic molecule can change its toxicity or function; and crosslinking a polymer can strengthen it. In addition to traditional gamma irradiation using isotopes, industrial irradiation uses three accelerator configurations, each type defining an energy range, and consequently the electron penetration depth. For energies up to 750 kV, the accelerator consists of a DC potential applied to a simple wire anode and the electrons extracted through a slot in a coaxially mounted cylindrical cathode. In the 1-5 MeV range, the Cockcroft-Walton or Dynamitron( R ) accelerators are normally used. To achieve the high potentials in these DC accelerators, insulating SF6 gas and large dimension vessels separate the anode and cathode; proprietary techniques distinguish the various commercial models available. Above 5 MeV, the size of DC accelerators render them impractical, and more compact radiofrequency-driven linear accelerators are used. Irradiation electron beams are actually 'sprayed' over the product using a magnetic deflection system. Lower energy beams of

  20. Immunological assessment of mice hyperimmunized with native and Cobalt-60-irradiated Bothrops venoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S.; Meira, D.A.; Martinez, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    ELISA was used to evaluate, accompany, and compare the humoral immune response of Swiss mice during hyperimmunization with native and Cobalt-60-irradiated ( 60 Co) venoms of Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu and Bothrops moojeni. Potency and neutralization were evaluated by in vitro challenges. After hyperimmunization, immunity was observed by in vivo challenge, and the side effects were assessed. The animals immunization with one LD50 of each venom occurred on days 1, 15, 21, 30, and 45, when blood samples were collected; challenges happened on the 60th day. Results showed that ELISA was efficient in evaluating, accompanying and comparing mouse immune response during hyperimmunization. Serum titers produced with natural venom were similar to those produced with irradiated venom. Immunogenic capacity was maintained after 60 Co-irradiation. The sera produced with native venom showed neutralizing potency and capacity similar to those of the sera produced with irradiated venom. All antibodies were able to neutralize five LD50 from these venoms. Clinical alterations were minimum during hyperimmunization with irradiated venom, however, necrosis and death occurred in animals inoculated with native venom. (author)

  1. Low Dietary Protein Status Potentiating Risk of Health Hazard in Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gawish, M.A.M.; Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abdel-Reheem, K.A.; Al-Mossallamy, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations were planned to assess the changes in certain biochemical parameters as affected by the synergistic effect of exposure to fractionated doses of rays and / or feeding on different protein levels. The date showed that animals kept on normal or low protein diet exhibited a significant decrease in serum total protein and glucose. Also , a significant increase was recorded in insulin level in rats exposed at the radiation dose level of 20 Gy. Exposure to cumulative doses of irradiation has aggrevated the hyperglycemic effect of high protein diet with a significant and marked increase of insulin at all the applied doses. Animals fed normal high or low protein diet were found to exert significant decreases in T3, T4 while a significant increase in TSH of high protein group occurred as a result of exposure to cumulative doses of gamma-irradiation. Rats kept on low protein diet exhibited losses in body weight, hypercholesterolemia, low levels of phospholipids and triglycerides as compared with the normal protein diet group. In contrast high protein diet group showed no serious effects. Irradiation has potentiated body weight losses, hypotriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia in animal group fed low protein diet with a significant increase in serum phospholipids due to the higher radiation dose of 20 Gy. Protein deficiency acted synergistically with gamma irradiation and increased the susceptibility of body organs to radiation damage. Such findings contributed to the knowledge which stimulated the decrease of the internationally recognized occupational dose limits from 50 down to 20 m Sv (ICRP 1991)

  2. Effect of irradiation on sweet corn preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie

    2002-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray was used to irradiate newly-harvested sweet corn and the results showed that the effects of irradiation on soluble solids, sucrose, starch and total sugar were not significant. The viscosity of starch decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose. The preservation duration of irradiated sweet corn was 7 days longer than that of CK, and the sweet, smell, taste of sweet corn had no abnormal change

  3. A study of positron irradiated porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuanming; Xue Qing; Zhai Baogai; Xu Aijun; Liu Shewen; Yu Weizhong

    1998-01-01

    The effect of positron irradiation on photoluminescence (PL) of porous silicon has been studied. After four hour positron irradiation, the red PL spectrum of porous silicon blue shifts into greenish spectral region, and a higher energy luminescence band is introduced into this blueshifted spectrum. The fourier transform infrared absorption experiment shows that the positron irradiation can cause further oxidization of porous silicon. A possible mechanism causing this change of PL spectra after positron irradiation is suggested

  4. Hemorrhagic tendency following whole-body irradiation of conventional and decontaminated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemeyer, V.; Hohage, R.

    1974-01-01

    Female SIV 50 rats were irradiated with 700 r, and the blood platelets were counted in blood obtained by aortal puncture. A significant decrease could be observed already after a few days. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation showed only a little increase of the aggregation amplitude and a prolongation of the desaggregation time in irradiated animals. The increase of the collagen-induced platelet aggregation might be due to a reduced release of endogenic ADP rather than to reduced sensitivity to ADP. In order to examine the question whether the haemorrhagic tendency of decontaminated animals is reduced after irradiation, female rats were orally given Bacitracin, Neomycin, and Streptomycin over a period of 10 days. Increasing anaemia could be observed from the 7th day p.t. on. In decontaminated animals, anaemia occurrence was not as high as in conventional ones. The erythrocyte count of the lymph in the conventional animals was remarkably higher than in decontaminated animals, which as also the case in the haemoglobin content in the lymph notes. This proves definitely that rats kept conventionally have a stronger tendency to bleeding than decontaminated rats. (MG) [de

  5. Studies on immunization with irradiated larvae against dictyocaulus filaria in guinea-pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyol, F.; Cerci, H.; Duzgun, A.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, 32 guinea-pigs were immunized orally with two doses of infective D. filaria attenuated by exposure to 40 krad (group I) and 50 krad (group II) of Cs-137 source at 15 days interval. The first dose was administrated as 1000 larvae and the second was 2000 larvae. After 15 days of the second infection they were challenged with 5000 non-irradiated infective larvae. Eight guinea-pigs were used as control (group III). The control group received the challenge only. The controls developed signs of lungworm disease and 3 animals died after 10 days of challenge. The vaccinated animals showed no clinical signs. All of the surviving animals were killed 12 days after challenge and their lungs were carefully examined for detailed parasitological and pathomorphological examinations. At autopsy, an average of 91 worms was recovered from the lungs of control groups. Four worms recovered from animals given larvae irradiated at 40 krad and the pathological changes were the lightest in this group. It was established that gamma rays at 50 krad attenuated infective larvae of D. filaria to such a degree that their administration did not cause any serious pathomorphological effect in the lungs of the animals. A higher degree of protection against challenge with infective D. filaria larvae was confered on the guinea-pigs by double dose of irradiated larvae. (auhtor)

  6. The application dose of irradiation for decontamination of dried marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Min; Ji Ping; Li Lili; Zhu Jiating; Yang Ping; Lin Jiabing; Tang Yuxin; Wang Dening; Liu Chunquan

    2009-01-01

    The effects of irradiation decontamination on golden stripe fish, needle fish and blue whiting fish were studied based on analysis the contents of protein, fat, trace elements, heavy metals etc. before and after irradiation. The irradiation dose of 2.55 ∼ 13.65kGy was applied. The results show that 3kGy is enough to drop the number of total bacteria to less than 10 4 cfu/g; meanwhile, 5kGy is enough to drop the number of coliform bacteria to less than 30MPN/100g, which could meet the requirement of national hygiene standard of marine products of animal origin. Compared with the contents of protein, fat, trace elements, heavy metals, moisture and ash in control, all the contents of these indexes in irradiated samples are not changed significantly, though the content of protein is increased with irradiation dose and the content of moisture is decreased a little, while some trace elements contents are increased if irradiation dose is more than 10.4kGy. It is concluded that, the appropriate irradiation dose range for decontamination application of dried marine fishes is 5 ∼ 10kGy. (authors)

  7. Safety Evaluation of 30 kGy Irradiated Chocolate Ice Cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Y.E.; Yin, X.F.; Chung, C.K.; Kang, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was investigated the potential toxicity of gamma-irradiated chocolate ice cream for its future use in space. Chocolate ice cream was irradiated at a dose of 30 kGy at a temperature of -20°C. For the animal study, AIN-93G was used as a control diet and irradiated and non-irradiated chocolate ice cream diets were administered to male and female ICR mice (ten mice per group) for three months. During the experimental period, the group fed irradiated chocolate ice cream did not show any changes in appearance, behavior, mortality, body weight, organ weight, or food consumption compared to the control. Also, all biochemical parameters, including hematology profiles, erythrocyte counts, and serum biochemical values were in normal ranges. In histopathological examinations of liver and kidney tissues, there were no significant differences between the control group and the group fed irradiated chocolate ice cream. These results indicate that chocolate ice cream irradiated at 30 kGy did not cause any toxic effects and could be applied for the development of safe and hygienic space food

  8. PROGRESSIVE ALTERATION OF SERUM PROTEINS IN RATS SEVERAL MONTHS AFTER AN ACUTE OR PROTRACTED IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghys, R.; Reuter, A.

    1963-06-15

    Delayed changes of the serum proteins in male Sprague Dawley rats that survived the acute radiation syndrome were investigated. Doses of Co/sup 60/ gamma ranging from LD/sub O/ to LD/sub 50/ were given to rats six to eight weeks of age. Paper electrophoreses and microdosage of proteins by the buiret method were performed on plasma proteins for 206 rats: 29 with acute irradiation; 73 chronic irradiation; 44 acute irradiation following cold acclimatization; and 80 normal animals. No significant variations in the total serum proteins were found in andy one group. Alpha globulins were found to be slightly above normal in some irradiated rats, but there was no significant variation in the BETA globulin fraction. Gamma globulins showed a marked and consistent increase following irradiation. Thus for observed protein chandges in irradiated rats have not proven to be dose dependent. It is suggested that the changes may provide a link between early irradiation syndrome and late effects. (H.M.G.)

  9. Radioprotection of mice by lactoferrin against irradiation with sublethal X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Homma-Takeda, Shino; Kim, Hee-Sun; Kakuta, Izuru

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a host defense protein, lactoferrin (LF), contained in exocrine secretions such as milk, on radiation disorder was investigated. A total of 25 C3H/He mice in each of two groups were maintained with 0.1% LF-added and LF-free diets, respectively, for one month. The mice were then treated with single whole-body X-ray irradiation at a sublethal dose (6.8 Gy), and the survival rate after irradiation was investigated. The survival rate at 30 d after irradiation was relatively higher in the LF group than in the control group (LF-free), (85 and 62%, respectively). The body weight 15 d after X-ray irradiation was also significantly greater in the LF group than in the control group. The hemoglobin level and hematocrit value were higher in the LF group at 5 d before X-ray irradiation. Another 52 mice underwent whole-body X-ray irradiation at the sublethal dose (6.8 Gy), and then LF was intraperitoneally injected once at 4 mg/animal to half of them. The survival rate in LF-treated mice 30 d after irradiation was 92%, significantly higher than in mice treated with saline (50%) (P = 0.0012). In addition, LF showed hydroxyl radical scavenger activity in vitro. These findings suggest that LF may inhibit radiation damage. (author)

  10. Protective effect of Hippophae rhamnoides leaf extract on gamma irradiation induced clastogenecity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Anuradha; Prasad, Jagdish; Bala, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides (sea buckthorn) is a plant belonging to Elaeagnaceae family and is distributed worldwide. It has variety of uses from nutritional food to pharmacological application. The study was aimed to analyse the extract from Hippophae rhamnoides leaves for their possible protective effects against the whole body 60 Co-a-irradiation. The study was performed on six groups of male mice i.e. untreated group, H. rhamnoides extract group, irradiated (2Gy), irradiated (3Gy), H. rhamnoides and irradiated (2Gy) and H. rhamnoides and irradiated (3Gy). In each group micronucleus test was performed utilising bone marrow and peripheral blood. The mice were sacrificed 30 hrs after treatment and analysed for the presence of micronuclei. In the present study, there was no significant increase in the frequency of either micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) or normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) in H. rhamnoides extract treated group over the negative control group of animals, indicating its non-clastogenic and non-toxic activity in the erythropoietic system. H. rhamnoides extract showed good anti-clastogenic activity against the a-irradiation induced clastogenecity in both the tissues i.e. bone marrow and peripheral blood by reducing the frequency of micronuclei. Also the administration of H. rhamnoides extract along with irradiation was slightly able to increase the frequency of PCE in bone marrow as well as in peripheral blood in comparison to the irradiated group (2Gy and 3Gy) indicating its ability to reduce the toxicity caused by irradiation in the erythropoietic system. Thus the results indicate the non-clastogenic effect of H. rhamnoides leaf extract and significant protective activity against 60 Co-a-irradiation suggesting its pharmacological significance for development of radioprotector. (author)

  11. Establishment and Study of Dose Fields for the Irradiation of Experimental Animals with High-Energy Protons; Creation et Etude de Champs de Rayonnements pour l'Irradiation d'Animaux de Grande Taille par des Protons de Haute Energie; Sozdanie i issledovanie doznykh polej dlya oblucheniya ehksperimental'nykh zhivotnykh protonami bol'shoj ehnergii; Produccion y Estudio de Campos Radia Torios para la Exposicion de Animales de Laboratorio a Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanas' ev, V. P.; Keirim-Markus, I. B.; Kuznecova, S. S.; Litvinova, Je. G.; Sokolova, I. K.; Stukina, L. E.

    1964-03-15

    Present-day accelerators make it possible to obtain beams of protons which have adequate intensity but are not suitable for the general irradiation of large experimental animals. Using the synchrotron of the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research it has been shown that with the aid of absorbers it is possible to expand a proton beam to the dimensions required, without introducing the accompanying radiations. Dose fields, uniform within {+-} 10%, in which primary protons constitute between 99 and 88% of the tissue dose, were obtained for irradiation of dogs with protons of energy 510, 250 and 120 MeV. The tissue doses and the radiation composition were studied in a dog phantom. Irradiation conditions for ensuring uniform radiation of the dog's body are proposed. Various questions of high-energy proton dosimetry are discussed, and the use of different types of dosimeter are considered in this connection. The paper also describes a method of determining the contribution of cascade neutrons to the proton flux, using activation detectors. (author) [French] Les accelerateurs actuels permettent d'obtenir des faisceaux de protons d'une intensite suffisante mais impropres a l'irradiation generale de grands animaux d'experience. A l'aide du synchrocyclotron OIAI, on a montre que le recours aux absorbants permet d'elargir le faisceau de protons jusqu'aux dimensions voulues sans y introduire de rayonnements secondaires. Pour irradier des chiens par des protons de 510, 250 et 120 MeV, on a pu ainsi realiser des champs de rayonnements uniformes a {+-}10% pres, dans lesquels les protons primaires constituaient 99 a 88% de la dose tissulaire. Les auteurs ont etudie des doses tissulaires et la composition du rayonnement a l'interieur d'un fantome de chien. Ils indiquent dans quelles conditions on assure une irradiation uniforme du corps de l'animal. Les auteurs examinent plusieurs questions relatives a la dosimetrie des neutrons de grande energie. Ils justifient l'emploide divers

  12. Animal Poetry and Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Brüggemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how our ideas of empathy are influenced by the dichotomy of mind versus body, also known as Cartesian dualism. Within the aesthetic field, this dichotomy is seen when researchers define narrative empathy as imaginatively reconstructing the fictional character’s thoughts and feelings. Conversely, the empathy aroused by a non-narrative work of art is seen as an unconscious bodily mirroring of movements, postures or moods. Thinking dualistically does not only have consequences for what we consider human nature; it also affects our view on animals. To show the untenability of dualistic thinking, this article focuses on the animal poetry genre. Using the ideas of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty, I analyze two animal poems: “Inventing a Horse” by Meghan O’Rourke and “Spermaceti” by Les Murray. The analysis of these two poems suggests that the presiding ideas about aesthetic empathy and empathy in general need re-evaluation.

  13. Effects of low-dose fractionated external irradiation on metabolic and structural characteristics of rat thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadolnik, L.; Niatsetskaya, Z. [Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Grodno (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The problem of thyroid radiosensitivity to the effect of low dose external ionizing irradiation presently seems to be the least studied, and the experimental findings - the most contradictory. The aim of the work was to study the effects of long-term low-dose fractionated irradiation on the iodide metabolism and structure of the thyroid. Female Wistar rats weighing 140-160 g were irradiated 20 times (5 times a week, for 4 weeks) using a 60 Co installation. The single absorbed doses were 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 Gy and the total ones - 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 Gy, respectively. The animals were decapitated after 1 day, 4 and 24 weeks following the last irradiation. The thyroid tissue was used to assay for thyro-peroxidase (T.P.O.) activity as well as total, protein -bound and free iodide concentrations. Microscopic and morphometric examination of histologic thyroid preparations was carried out. Blood was assayed for thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations. After a day following the irradiation, the thyroid showed a pronounced increase in the concentration of total iodide (30.0-54.4%) as well in that of free (32.1-60.8%) and protein-bound ones (24.4-37.4%). The most pronounced iodide concentration elevation was noted in the 0.1 -Gy animals, with thyroid T.P.O. activity being raised by 48.0%. Only the 0.5 Gy-group had 1.4-1.5-fold reduced thyroid hormone levels. Four weeks after the irradiation, studied parameters of irradiated rats were brought back to the control values, except for the 0.5 Gy-group. However, after 24-weeks, the 0.5-and 0.25- irradiated rats experienced a 12-20% thyroid weight elevation in comparison with the control. The thyroid of these animals demonstrated reduced contents of total and free iodide as well as T.P.O. activity by 24.5 and 34.8%. The 0.1 Gy-group had a 1.7-fold increased T.P.O. activity. The concentration of the thyroid hormones was maintained diminished only in the 0.5 Gy -irradiated group. However

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  15. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerens, H [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Saint-Lebe, L

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment.

  16. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransohoff, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Carriers, after being loaded with product to be irradiated, are transported by an input-output conveyor system into an irradiation chamber where they are received in a horizontal arrangement on racks which may support different sizes and numbers of carriers. The racks are moved by a chamber conveyor system in an endless rectangular path about a radiation source. Packers shift the carriers on the racks to maintain nearest proximity to the radiation source. The carriers are shifted in position on each rack during successive rack cycles to produce even radiation exposure. The carriers may be loaded singly onto successive racks during a first cycle of movement thereof about the source, with loading of additional carriers, and/or unloading of carriers, onto each rack occurring on subsequent rack cycles of movement

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  19. Radiation effects on the parotid gland of mammals. Pt. 3. Behaviour of enzyme activity after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomassi, I; Balzi, M; Cremonini, D; Becciolini, A; Giannardi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia; Pelu, G [I.N.R.C.A., Florence (Italy). Inst. of Radiology

    1979-08-01

    Modifications of some enzyme activities in parotid tissue homogenates have been studied in animals which were also examined for morphological changes and for plasma and parotid amylase activity. Results from irradiated animals show a certain increase in maltase activity. Alkaline phosphatase and LAP show no significant variations; a similar behaviour is shown by lysosomal enzymes and protein content. A different pattern was seen by comparing the curves of these enzymes with those of the same activity in the small intestine. This result appears to be due to the different radiosensitivity of these tissues.

  20. Heterogeneity in the development of apoptosis in irradiated murine tumours of different histologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, R.E.; Stephens, L.C.; Ang, K.K.; Hunter, N.R.; Brock, W.A.; Milas, L.; Peters, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen murine tumours were evaluated with respect to the degree of apoptosis development that occurs in the tumour tissue in the first few hours following irradiation in vivo. Animals were killed at 3 or 6 h following irradiation with 0, 2.5, 10 or 25 Gy. Apoptotis was scored as percent aberrant nuclei by microscopic examination of histological sections made from tumour specimens. Results showed that three of four mammary adenocarconomas, one ovarian adenocarcinoma, and one lymphoma displayed at least 10% apoptotic cells after 25 Gy, whereas five sarcomas, three squamous cell carcinomas, and a hepatocarcinoma did not. Time courses and dose responses were similar in those tumours that responded. (author)

  1. Heterogeneity in the development of apoptosis in irradiated murine tumours of different histologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyn, R E; Stephens, L C; Ang, K K; Hunter, N R; Brock, W A; Milas, L; Peters, L J [Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Fifteen murine tumours were evaluated with respect to the degree of apoptosis development that occurs in the tumour tissue in the first few hours following irradiation in vivo. Animals were killed at 3 or 6 h following irradiation with 0, 2.5, 10 or 25 Gy. Apoptotis was scored as percent aberrant nuclei by microscopic examination of histological sections made from tumour specimens. Results showed that three of four mammary adenocarconomas, one ovarian adenocarcinoma, and one lymphoma displayed at least 10% apoptotic cells after 25 Gy, whereas five sarcomas, three squamous cell carcinomas, and a hepatocarcinoma did not. Time courses and dose responses were similar in those tumours that responded. (author).

  2. Locomotor damage in rats after x-irradiation in Utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullenix, P.; Norton, S.; Culver, B.

    1975-01-01

    Alterations in gait were found in rats after whole-body irradiation with 125 R on day 14, 15, and 16 of gestation. No effects on locomotion were detected after irradiation on day 17 with 125 R or after irradiation on day 14 with 50 R. A technique was set up for quantitative evaluation of locomotion based on a modification of other methods. Walking patterns of irradiated rats were recorded, when they were adults, by requiring them to walk up a 10 0 incline through a corridor after their feet had been dipped in ink. Rats irradiated on gestational day 14 had an in-phase, hopping gait with the sine of the angle between the hind feet and the direction of progression over 0.9. Rats irradiated on gestational days 15 and 16 had an alternating, waddling gait with wider stance and broader angle than control rats. Histologic examination of serial sections of the brains of these rats showed that the 14-day rats lacked all telencephalic commissures except for a few fibers which crossed in some rats. There was a progressive improvement in the condition of the anterior and ventral hippocampal commissures up to day 17, but the corpus callosum and doral hippocampal commissure were lacking or markedly reduced in all day 17 rats. No animals showed damage to the mesencephalic posterior commissure. Since rats which used the in-phase mode of locomotion were never observed to use alternating gait, the possible causal relationship of the commissural damage to the altered locomotor patterns was considered. In view of the restricted period of damage found for the anterior and ventral hippocampal commissures and the restriction of altered locomotion to damage in the same period, primary involvement of the corpus callosum and dorsal hippocampal commissure could be excluded, but a possible role for the other telencephalic commissures remained

  3. Neuropharmacologic responses of animals to extreme effects: exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlichenko, P.P.; Tikhonchuk, V.S.; Ushakov, I.B.

    1990-01-01

    The functional state of neurochemical structures of male mice was investigated after their gamma-irradiation with 137 Cs (1.9 Gy/min) at a dose of 100 Gy. The animals were treated with the following drugs that produce selective effects on specific receptors: galanthamine, amizyl, arpenal, phenamine, phentolamine and obsidan, haloperidol, apomorphine, phenazepam, phenibut and strychnin. The results point to the development of heterologous desensibilization of receptors at early post-irradiation periods. The high effectiveness of agonists and antagonists of CNS transmitters in the nonirradiated animals and their low effectiveness in the irradiated animals and their low effectiveness in the irradiated animals may be considered as an indicator of post-radiation injury of specific receptors. These neuropharmacological interactions may obviously be modified in response to the combined effects of space flight factors

  4. The wholesomeness of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    The acceptance of food irradiation as a safe process of preservation by national authorities concerned with the safety of foodstuffs has hitherto made slow progress. The technology has existed for some 25 years but the general attitude towards official acceptance of the process has been marred by irrational and unscientific fears. As may have been mentioned by previous speakers,'the basic process of food irradiation does not differ in the physical sense from any other food processing techniques which involve the application of radiation energy to food. The energy level used in food irradiation is too low ever to lead to any production of radioactivity in the irradiated food, hence wholesomeness considerations can totally exclude this aspect. The uniqueness of food irradiation rests inherently on the particular type of energy employed and has aroused special attention because of this fact. The wholesomeness of food treated by heat or microwaves has not been questioned to the same extent, yet the very same question has been raised in relation to treatment by gamma rays and electron beams. Being a new process it requires not only a toxicological but also a microbiological as well as nutritional approach to the assessment of the wholesomeness of irradiated food. Studies on the radiation chemistry of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, the main constituents of foods, when irradiated in the Mrad range, have yielded information which shows that these substances react in a reasonably uniform manner to irradiation. Many of the irradiation-induced compounds identified in irradiated foods can also be found in various non-irradiated foods. For those products that have been identified, the quantities found are in the parts per million range or less. Available data on the structures of radiation chemical products in food and the very low concentrations at which they occur, suggest the general conclusion that the health hazard they might represent is negligible

  5. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  6. An experimental study of the irradiation effects on rat parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Chan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the irradiation effects on the rat parotid gland, applied to the head and neck region. For this experiment, twenty-four rat, feeded under the even condition, were used as experimental animals. Twenty rat were used for experimental group and the rest were assigned to the control group. The experimental group was singly irradiated with 10 Gray through Cobalt-60 radiotherapy device, Pickre model 4M 60 (Field size; 12x5 cm, SSD; 50 cm, Depth; 1 cm). The experimental animals of both group were sacrificed each four animals in 2 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after irradiation. The specimens were examined through the light microscope using the H-E stain and H stain by routine procedure. The other specimens were observed under the fluorescence microscope using the B-O dichroic mirror and Y 45 5 barrier filter after PA-ACH stain. The results of this study were obtained as follows: 1. The parotid acini were severely degenerated and intraacinar space were widened. Within the acini, retained secretory granules and increased fibrosis were observed. Also the shape and the size of the acini showed very irregular atrophic degeneration. 2. The nuclei showed severe pyknosis, displacement and irregular aggregated appearance. 3. The tissue changes of the parotid acini were initiated after 2 days of irradiation and most severely appeared at the second week of irradiation, but almost returned to normal. 4. The salivary ducts of the parotid gland were severely atrophied, discontinued but initiated to regenerated after 3 weeks of irradiation.

  7. Neutron irradiation damage in transition metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hisayuki; Nesaki, Kouji; Kiritani, Michio

    1991-01-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on the physical properties of light transition metal carbides, TiC x , VC x and NbC x , were examined, emphasizing the characterization of irradiation induced defects in the nonstoichiometric composition. TiC x irradiated with 14 MeV (fusion) neutrons showed higher damage rates with increasing C/Ti (x) ratio. A brief discussion is made on 'cascade damage' in TiC x irradiated with fusion neutrons. Two other carbides (VC x and NbC x ) were irradiated with fission reactor neutrons. The irradiation effects on VC x were not so simple, because of the complex irradiation behavior of 'ordered' phases. For instance, complete disordering was revealed in an ordered phase, 'V 8 C 7 ', after an irradiation dose of 10 25 n/m 2 . (orig.)

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  10. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on the appearance of osteoblasts during wound healing in tooth extraction sockets in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Kudo, Kohsei; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Sakakura, Yasunori; Irie, Kazuharu

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation before tooth extraction delays wound healing in the alveolar socket. This study examined the influences of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance of osteoblasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars because bone formation is observed at the initial phase of wound healing. Several osteoblasts were generated 3 days after tooth extraction, and the number of cells increased day by day. Morphological studies showed there were little differences between local irradiation and non-irradiated controls. In contrast, the extraction wound in the whole body irradiation group showed delayed healing, and there was poor granulation tissue and very few osteoblasts at the bottom of the socket. An ultrastructural study showed that the osteoblasts in the extraction socket of whole body irradiation rats were smaller, and had poorly developed organelles. Injection of bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction partially restored the number of osteoblasts. New periosteal bone formations outside of sockets showed little delay in the whole body irradiation group. These findings suggest that bone formation in the wound healing of extraction socket requires bone marrow cells from hematopoietic organs such as the bone marrow as well as local sources around the alveolar socket, during the initial phase of wound healing. (author)

  11. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on the appearance of osteoblasts during wound healing in tooth extraction sockets in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Irie, Kazuharu; Kudo, Kohsei; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation before tooth extraction delays wound healing in the alveolar socket. This study examined the influences of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance of osteoblasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars because bone formation is observed at the initial phase of wound healing. Several osteoblasts were generated 3 days after tooth extraction, and the number of cells increased day by day. Morphological studies showed there were little differences between local irradiation and non-irradiated controls. In contrast, the extraction wound in the whole body irradiation group showed delayed healing, and there was poor granulation tissue and very few osteoblasts at the bottom of the socket. An ultrastructural study showed that the osteoblasts in the extraction socket of whole body irradiation rats were smaller, and had poorly developed organelles. Injection of bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction partially restored the number of osteoblasts. New periosteal bone formations outside of sockets showed little delay in the whole body irradiation group. These findings suggest that bone formation in the wound healing of extraction socket requires bone marrow cells from hematopoietic organs such as the bone marrow as well as local sources around the alveolar socket, during the initial phase of wound healing.

  12. Paralysis following stereotactic spinal irradiation in pigs suggests a tolerance constraint for single-session irradiation of the spinal nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medin, Paul M.; Foster, Ryan D.; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Meyer, Jeffrey; Sayre, James W.; Huang, Hao; Öz, Orhan K.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Paralysis observed during a study of vertebral bone tolerance to single-session irradiation led to further study of the dose-related incidence of motor peripheral neuropathy. Materials and methods: During a bone tolerance study, cervical spinal nerves of 15 minipigs received bilateral irradiation to levels C5–C8 distributed into three dose groups with mean maximum spinal nerve doses of 16.9 ± 0.3 Gy (n = 5), 18.7 ± 0.5 Gy (n = 5), and 24.3 ± 0.8 Gy (n = 5). Changes developing in the gait of the group of pigs receiving a mean maximum dose of 24.3 Gy after 10–15 weeks led to the irradiation of two additional animals. They received mean maximum dose of 24.9 ± 0.2 Gy (n = 2), targeted to the left spinal nerves of C5–C8. The followup period was one year. Histologic sections from spinal cords and available spinal nerves were evaluated. MR imaging was performed on pigs in the 24.9 Gy group. Results: No pig that received a maximum spinal nerve point dose ⩽19.0 Gy experienced a change in gait while all pigs that received ⩾24.1 Gy experienced paralysis. Extensive degeneration and fibrosis were observed in irradiated spinal nerves of the 24.9 Gy animals. All spinal cord sections were normal. Irradiated spinal nerve regions showed increased thickness and hypointensity on MR imaging. Conclusion: The single-session tolerance dose of the cervical spinal nerves lies between 19.0 and 24.1 Gy for this model

  13. Low dose irradiation reduces cancer mortality rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation stimulate development, growth, memory, sensual acuity, fecundity, and immunity (Luckey, T.D., ''Radiation Hormesis'', CRC Press, 1991). Increased immune competence reduces cancer mortality rates and provides increased average lifespan in animals. Decreased cancer mortality rates in atom bomb victims who received low dose irradiation makes it desirable to examine populations exposed to low dose irradiation. Studies with over 300,000 workers and 7 million person-years provide a valid comparison of radiation exposed and control unclear workers (Luckey, T.D., Nurture with Ionizing Radiation, Nutrition and Cancer, 34:1-11, 1999). Careful selection of controls eliminated any ''healthy worker effect''. The person-year corrected average indicated the cancer mortality rate of exposed workers was only 51% that of control workers. Lung cancer mortality rates showed a highly significant negative correlation with radon concentrations in 272,000 U.S. homes (Cohen, B.L., Health Physics 68:157-174, 1995). In contrast, radon concentrations showed no effect on lung cancer rates in miners from different countries (Lubin, J.H. Am. J. Epidemiology 140:323-332, 1994). This provides evidence that excessive lung cancer in miners is caused by particulates (the major factor) or toxic gases. The relative risk for cancer mortality was 3.7% in 10,000 Taiwanese exposed to low level of radiation from 60 Co in their steel supported homes (Luan, Y.C. et al., Am. Nuclear Soc. Trans. Boston, 1999). This remarkable finding needs further study. A major mechanism for reduced cancer mortality rates is increased immune competence; this includes both cell and humoral components. Low dose irradiation increases circulating lymphocytes. Macrophage and ''natural killer'' cells can destroy altered (cancer) cells before the mass becomes too large. Low dose irradiation also kills suppressor T-cells; this allows helper T-cells to activate killer cells and antibody producing cells

  14. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

  15. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey

    2007-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  16. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  17. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  18. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions

  19. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirane, T.

    1982-01-01

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males

  20. Establishment of an animal model of mice with radiation- injured soft tissue blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Daiyou; Yu Dahai; Wu Jiaxiao; Wei Shanliang; Wen Yuming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to establish an animal model of mice with radiation-injured soft tissue blood vessels. Methods: Forty male mice were irradiated with 30 Gy on the right leg. After the irradiation was finished each of the 40 male mice was tested with angiography, and its muscle tissues on the bilateral legs were examined with vessel staining assay and electron microscopy. Results: The results showed that the number of vessels on the right leg was less than that on the left leg, the microvessel density, average diameter and average sectional area of the right leg were all lower than those of the left, and the configuration and ultra-structure of vessels were also different between both sides of legs. Conclusion: In the study authors successfully established an animal model of mice with radiation-injured soft tissue blood vessels

  1. Radioprotective effects of soya and garlic oils in irradiated male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Forty male albino rats were divided equally into four groups, the first group acted as control group, the second group was subjected to 5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation, the third group was injected intraperitoneally daily with soya oil (15 mg/kg b.w. for 14 days) before gamma irradiation and the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally daily with garlic oil (150/kg b.w. for 14 days) before gamma irradiation. Mortality percentage and body weight were recorded. Blood samples were collected one week post-gamma irradiation from all animals for biochemical analysis. Serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Total proteins and albumin were measured using photometric methods. Globulin value was calculated by subtraction of albumin from total protein values. The results showed that gamma irradiation with dose level of 5 Gy induced retardation of live body weight and increased the mortality. The data also showed significant increases in TBARS, total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol levels, whereas the levels of total proteins, albumin and globulin were significantly decreased. The soya oil or garlic oil injected pre-irradiation exerted noticeable amelioration in induced radiation changes on body weight, mortality, TBARS, lipid profiles and protein fractions

  2. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of Co60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms, leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective was to carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 m NaCl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD50), and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labeled with 29.6 MBq of I using chloramine T method and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35 @ 5 g) were injected IP with 0.1 mL (2.4x10 cpm/mouse) of I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10 cpm/mouse) of I irradiated crotamine. The animals were sacrificed by ether inhalation at 0.08, 0.25, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change protein concentration, electrophoretic profile, or protein primary structure, although differences could be seen by spectroscopic techniques. Gamma radiation reduced crotamine toxicity, but did not eliminate bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. Native and irradiated crotamine have an affinity to skeletal muscle and did not cross the blood-brain barrier. (author)

  3. Humoral immune response against native or {sup 60}Co irradiated venom and mucus from stingray Paratrygon aiereba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, Andre Moreira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: 0916@prof.itpacporto.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Seibert, Carla Simone, E-mail: carlaseibert@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Poisonings and traumas caused by poisonous freshwater fish such as rays are considered a major public health problem and draw attention because of accidents involving these animals cause serious local symptoms and are disabling, keeping the victim away from work. The therapy of these cases is based only on the symptoms of patients, which implies in its low efficiency, causing suffering for the victims. This study aims to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response in animals inoculated with native or {sup 60}Co irradiated Paratrygon aiereba venom and mucus. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool to decrease the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins. The mucus and venom samples of P. aiereba were irradiated using gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. Animals models were immunized with the native or irradiated mucus or venom. The assays were conducted to assess the production of antibodies by the immunized animals using enzyme immunoassay and western blotting. Preliminary results show the production of antibodies by the immunized animals. The resulting sera were also checked for antigenic cross- reactivity between venom and mucus, demonstrating the potential of mucus as an antigen for serum production for the specific treatment for accidents by stingrays. However, it is essential to carry out further tests in order to verify the neutralization of the toxin by antibodies formed by animals. (author)

  4. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.

    1968-01-01

    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  5. Progress in food irradiation: Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, D.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the nutritional properties of a number of foodstuffs including potatoes, onions, tomatoes, grapes, dried fruits, carrots, and animal feed is under investigation. The main components investigated are: reducing sugars, total sugars, saccharose, vitamins C and A, niacin, carotenes, free amino acids, total and soluble nitrogen. This research has been the subject of a collaborative work programm. (orig./AJ) [de

  6. Limb regeneration from X-irradiated tails of Ambystoma mexicanum following transplantation of flank skin from region adjacent to hindlimb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, D.K.; Kleinebeckel, D.; Luther, W.

    1978-01-01

    In the experiments performed by W. Luther on young Ambystoma mexicanum, tails of host animals were irradiated with 2000 r. Afterwards a skin cuff was removed from the mid-tail region. From non-irradiated donor animals, square pieces of skin dorsally adjacent to both hindlimbs were grafted (either 90 0 -rotated or unrotated) to both sides of the denuded area of the irradiated host tail. After 3 weeks the tails were amputated across the skin transplants, and the structures which had regenerated from the distal portions of the tails were fixed 6-16 weeks later. Morhological and histological investigation revealed that 4 out of 12 regenerates from rotated grafts showed clear limb characteristics. (orig./AJ) [de

  7. Combined Effect of food deprivation and serotonin injection on plasma prolactin and glucose levels in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, R.B.; Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Khamis, F.I.; Abu Zaid, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the role of serotonin (5-HT) on the homeostasis of plasma prolactin and glucose in rats induced by gamma irradiation and food deprivation. Animals were divided into seven groups; control, irradiated at a dose level of 6 Gy, injected with 500 mg/kg b.wt. 5-HT intra-peritoneally, injected with 5-HT before irradiation food deprived for 48 hrs then irradiated, food deprived then injected with 5-HT, and food deprived then injected with 5-HT before whole body irradiation. Samples were collected at 1,3, 7 and 14 days post irradiation. The results showed that gamma irradiation firstly elevated prolactin (PRL) levels in plasma (1 and 3 days) then the levels decreased after 7 and 14 days as compared to control values. Rats received serotonin before irradiation exhibited an increased level of PRL after 14 days post irradiation compared to control value, while the level decreased after 1, 3, 7 days post irradiation. Food deprivation for 48 hrs altered the effect of serotonin and /or irradiation on PRL levels in plasma. Rats injected with serotonin showed a decreased level of plasma prolactin in food deprived rats, 3 days post injection. The obtained results showed that serotonin causes variable effects on plasma prolactin compared to control values. Glucose plasma levels were increased in both irradiated and serotonin injected rats before irradiation, and also in serotonin injected rats as compared to control values. Irradiation of rats after 48 hrs food deprivation induced an increase in plasma glucose levels measured throughout the different experimental periods. Injection of serotonin to rats after 48 hrs food deprivation before irradiation increased plasma glucose levels after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days compared to control value. Also, injection of serotonin to 48 hrs food deprived rats increased glucose levels during all examined days of experiment.It could be concluded that serotonin may have a variable mechanism controlling prolactin

  8. Repair of potentially lethal and sublethal radiation damage in x-irradiated ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, Atsushi; Okamoto, Mieko; Tsuchiya, Takehiko.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of cells to repair cellular radiation damage during the growth of TMT-3 ascites tumor and the effect of host reaction on the repair ability were examined by using an in vitro assay of cell clonogenicity after in situ irradiation of tumor cells. In single-dose experiments, the repair of potentially lethal radiation damage (PLD) was observed in stationary phase cells (12-day tumor) of the unirradiated host, but not in exponential phase cells (3-day tumor) of the unirradiated host animals. However, if previously irradiated host animals were used, even the exponentially growing tumor cells showed repair of PLD. In two-dose experiments, the ability to repair sublethal radiation damage (SLD) in exponential phase tumor cells was less than that of stationary phase cells in the unirradiated host. In the pre-irradiated host, the extent of the repair in exponential phase cells was somewhat enhanced. These results suggest that irradiation of host animals might suppress a factor that inhibits repair, resulting in enhancement of the repair capability of tumor cells. (author)

  9. Activation of eggs of the frog, Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, after localized UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambuichi, Hajime

    1981-01-01

    To analyze the mode of transmission of the activating stimulus, the change in time course of the 2nd maturation division was examined in eggs of the frog, Rana nigromaculata, which were activated by insemination or by pricking after UV-irradiation at either the animal or the vegetal hemisphere. Irradiation of the animal (UAF) or the vegetal (UVF) hemisphere before insemination retarded the 2nd maturation division in comparison with that in normally fertilized eggs (CF). When the eggs were pricked at the irradiated surface (UAP and UVP, respectively), however, the 2nd maturation division progressed faster than that of CF. The comparison of the velocity of the 2nd maturation division between UAF and UVF, and also between UAP and UVP, showed that the cortical reaction in the vegetal hemisphere was affected by UV-irradiation more severely than that in the animal hemisphere. The results suggested that the quality of the granules or the constituent within the egg cortex might vary according to the regional difference in the egg surface. (author)

  10. Damage of lymphocytes by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.; Moldenhauer, H.; Kehrberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    After a short review, how lymphocytes of the peripheral blood are influenced by radiotherapy, the damage of lymphocytes by whole-body irradiation is pointed out in animal experiments and after in vitro irradiation. The special sensibility of B-cells and their homogeneity in fields of radiobiology are opposed to the heterogeneity of T-cells. The radiosensibility of cytotoxic lymphocytes, suppressor cells, and helper cells are discussed. It appears, that within these functional criteria, there is a different radiosensibility, too. (author)

  11. Polysaccharide prodigiosan therapy of irradiated guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.; Mosina, Z.M.; Khramchenkova, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the experiments with irradiated guinea-pigs, a therapeutic action of prodigiosan has been detected. A parenteral administration of the preparation (125 to 500 μg/kg) within the interval from 15 min to 6 hours after a short-term exposure increased the survival of animals to 50%. Prodigiosan administered to guinea-pigs given prolonged irradiation failed to affect the survival rate

  12. Histomorphological changes in follicular apparatus of ewe ovaries following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halagan, J.; Arendarcik, J.; Molnarova, M.; Stanikova, A.

    1985-01-01

    Histological changes in primary follicles of ewes after a five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays were studied by qualitative and micrometric methods. The experiment was carried out in the anoestrous period with 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed, divided into three groups. The first control group (five ewes) was not irradiated. The second and third groups (each included eight ewes) were irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays for a period of five days to the total dose of 4.8 Gy. All ewes including the control ones were given Ampicillin Spofa 250 mg per head/day during the period of ten days after irradiation. The third group was administered apart from this a mixture of vitamins, Roboran H, at the dose of 10 g per head/day. The animals were slaughtered on the fifth day of irradiation and on the tenth day after the end of irradiation. The ovaries processed by a routine histological method were cut in 7 μm slices in a series of 70 μm and stained with hematoxylin-eosine. By qualitative histomorphological analysis of the oocytes of primary follicles, chromatin aggregation, pycnosis of nuclei, pronounced acidophilia of oocyte cytoplasm, their shrinking and disintegration were determined. In intact primary follicles, mitotic division of follicular cells stopped and the proportion of follicular cells with pycnotic nuclei increased after irradiation. The results show that the five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays to the total dose of 4.8 Gy caused pronounced degenerative changes in the anoestrous period. Administration of antibiotics or vitamins had no significant effect on the stated histomorphological changes. (author)

  13. Membrane potential of mitochondria from the liver of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, B.S.; Kaminin, A.N.; Elfimova, I.A.; Akoev, I.G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the membrane potential of rat liver mitochondria 1 hour after irradiation with 800 R dose showed a decrease of its value. The potential decreased against the background of the activation of the generating mechanisms (the electron transport chain and ATP-ases). During energization of the membranes by the electron transport chain similar effect has been observed with different oxidation substrates (NAD linked substrates and succinate). It suggests that similar causative factors are at the basis of the changes observed. It is quite possible that the increase in the rate of both mitochondria respiration and ATP hydrolysis after the irradiation of animals was a consequence of the radiation-induced decrease in the potential value. (author)

  14. ESR signal changes recorded in γ-irradiated bovine livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    After fresh raw livers of bovine were exposed to γ-rays on ice, radiation-induced radicals in the livers were measured in liquid nitrogen using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. In the magnetic field of 320.5 to 335.5 mT, the signals responsible to absorbed doses were found. The signal intensity from a main peak was increased up to 5 kGy. The side peaks existing both low and high magnetic field of the main peak showed linear responses as increasing absorbed doses. Radiation-induced radicals were found in a tissue without bones from animals. Without complicated sample preparations, the raw bovine livers can be easily measured on ESR at liquid nitrogen temperature. The ESR method may be applicable to distinguish irradiated fresh raw livers within a few days after irradiation. (author)

  15. Irradiation effects on hydrases for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Ohashi, Isao; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    To apply an irradiation technique to sterilize 'Hybrid' biomedical materials including enzymes, we selected papain, a well-characterized plant endopeptidase as a model to examine durability of enzyme activity under the practical irradiation condition in which limited data were available for irradiation inactivation of enzymes. Dry powder and frozen aqueous solution of papain showed significant durability against 60 Co-gamma irradiation suggesting that, the commercial irradiation sterilizing method is applicable without modification. Although irradiation of unfrozen aqueous papain solution showed an unusual change of the enzymatic activity with the increasing doses, and was totally inactivated at 15 kGy, we managed to keep the residual activity more than 50% of initial activity after 30-kGy irradiation, taking such optimum conditions as increasing enzyme concentration from 10 to 100 mg/ml and purging with N 2 gas to suppress the formation of free radicals. (author)

  16. Food irradiation: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandes, N.K.; Vital, H. de C.; Sabaa-Srur, A.U.O.

    2003-01-01

    out on food irradiation in recent years. These studies showed that, if the safety and the benefits of food irradiation were properly explained, the consumers were willing to accept irradiated foods. Considering its potential role in the reduction of post-harvest losses, providing safe supply of food and overcoming quarantine barriers, food irradiation has received wider government approvals during the last decade. There is also a trend towards increased commercialization of irradiated food. Currently, there are 47 irradiation facilities in some 23 countries being used for treating foods for commercial purposes

  17. The treatment of peripheral nerve injuries using irradiated allografts and temporary host immunosuppression (in a rat model)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, K.J.; Trumble, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    Irradiation of allografts prior to transplantation and host immunosuppression with cyclosporin-A were studied separately and in combination as means of lessening the rejection of transplanted peripheral nerve tissue. Lewis and Brown Norway rats were used in the animal model, as they differ at both major and minor histocompatibility loci. Sciatic nerve grafts (2.5 cm) were used and the animals were followed for 16 weeks after nerve grafting. The outcome was studied by functional measurements (sensory testing, gait analysis, joint flexion contracture, and muscle weight), as well as by measurements of biochemical and histologic parameters (hydroxyproline concentration and axon counts, respectively). Sensory testing was not reliable because of crossover innervation by the saphenous nerve. Evaluation by standard gait-testing techniques was found to be unsatisfactory. However, the allografted animals receiving cyclosporin-A had significantly smaller flexion contractures, compared to the allografted animals without immunosuppression (17 degrees +/- 12 degrees vs. 44 degrees +/- 13 degrees and 51 degrees +/- 13 degrees, p less than 0.005). Allografted animals receiving short-term cyclosporin-A had contractures that were not significantly different from those seen in isografted control animals (17 degrees +/- 12 degrees vs. 22 degrees +/- 15 degrees, NS). Muscle hydroxyproline concentration analysis revealed a lower hydroxyproline concentration among the allografted groups that received irradiated allografts, compared to groups receiving nonirradiated allogeneic grafts. The studies of muscle hydroxyproline concentration and muscle weight both showed substantial reinnervation, even in allografted animals without pretreatment of the grafts or immunosuppression of the recipient animal

  18. The treatment of peripheral nerve injuries using irradiated allografts and temporary host immunosuppression (in a rat model)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, K.J.; Trumble, T.E. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Irradiation of allografts prior to transplantation and host immunosuppression with cyclosporin-A were studied separately and in combination as means of lessening the rejection of transplanted peripheral nerve tissue. Lewis and Brown Norway rats were used in the animal model, as they differ at both major and minor histocompatibility loci. Sciatic nerve grafts (2.5 cm) were used and the animals were followed for 16 weeks after nerve grafting. The outcome was studied by functional measurements (sensory testing, gait analysis, joint flexion contracture, and muscle weight), as well as by measurements of biochemical and histologic parameters (hydroxyproline concentration and axon counts, respectively). Sensory testing was not reliable because of crossover innervation by the saphenous nerve. Evaluation by standard gait-testing techniques was found to be unsatisfactory. However, the allografted animals receiving cyclosporin-A had significantly smaller flexion contractures, compared to the allografted animals without immunosuppression (17 degrees +/- 12 degrees vs. 44 degrees +/- 13 degrees and 51 degrees +/- 13 degrees, p less than 0.005). Allografted animals receiving short-term cyclosporin-A had contractures that were not significantly different from those seen in isografted control animals (17 degrees +/- 12 degrees vs. 22 degrees +/- 15 degrees, NS). Muscle hydroxyproline concentration analysis revealed a lower hydroxyproline concentration among the allografted groups that received irradiated allografts, compared to groups receiving nonirradiated allogeneic grafts. The studies of muscle hydroxyproline concentration and muscle weight both showed substantial reinnervation, even in allografted animals without pretreatment of the grafts or immunosuppression of the recipient animal.

  19. Winter wheat stimulation experiment with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozo, J.

    1979-01-01

    With respect to the conclusions drawn from this research it is necessary to emphasize that the results relate to one year, and even the statistically proved positive results are insufficient to establish tendencies without considering the aggregated results of one year and other effects. Tha analysis of crop yield shows that a dose of 500 rad is insufficient to induce higher yield. A dose of 1500 rad gave a definite response, and it would be desirable to observe the effects of larger doses, too. The reduction in internal fusarium infection of the grain yield was striking when the seed had been exposed to a dose of 1500 rad. The internal fusarium infection of the grain is a very important factor for both human nutrition and animal feeding. The maximum irradiation dose provided reliable immunity against fusarium infection. (author)

  20. ESR signals of irradiated insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Kameya, Hiromi; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of irradiated insects using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was reported. The insects were maize weevil, red flour beetle, Indian meal moth and cigarette beetle that are hazardous to crops. The ESR spectra were consisted of a singlet at g=2 and a sextet centered at the similar g-value. The singlet signal is due to an organic free radical. The sextet signal is attributable to the hyperfine interactions from Mn 2+ ions. Upon irradiation, new signals were not detected. The relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , showed no variations before and after irradiation. (author)

  1. Histopathological alterations in neonate after in utero irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Gawad, I.I.

    2000-01-01

    Series of experiments were performed to study the histopathological changes induced in embryonic tissue during various stages of gestation in female rats after gamma irradiation. Pregnant rats were exposed to doses 0.5, 1,2 and 3 Gy on 9 th 12 th and 15 th days of gestation. Histopathological changes were detected in tissues of neonates, namely, liver ileum, kidney, brain, spleen, suprarenal, thymus, lungs and heart. These tissues showed variable degrees of radiation induced tissue changes. For quantifying these changes arbitrary scores were formulated to assess the type and severity of changes observed tissues of thirty six neonates randomly selected after radiation exposure of pregnant animals as scheduled

  2. Immunization of zebu calves against Fasciola gigantica, using irradiated metacercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younis, S.A.; Yagi, A.I.; Haroun, E.M.; Gameel, A.A.; Taylor, M.G.

    1986-06-01

    The pathogenesis of unirradiated, 3 krad-irradiated and 20 krad-irradiated metacercarial infections was compared in zebu calves studied over 10 weeks. Calves exposed to 1000 unirradiated metacercariae (MC) became hypoalbuminaemic, and showed elevated serum concentrations of liver enzymes, whereas neither of the other groups was significantly affected. At slaughter, a mean of 332 flukes was recovered from the 0 krad group, while only 23% and 12% of this number were recovered from the 3 krad and 20 krad groups, respectively. All the worms recovered from the 20 krad group were stunted, but a mean of 13% of the flukes recovered from the 3 krad group were large. Liver lesions typical of acute fascioliasis were present in the 0 krad group, but lesions in the other groups, were far less severe. A single vaccination of calves with 10003 krad-irradiated mc induced partial resistance to a challenge with 1000 normal mc eight weeks later, but the reduction in worm recovery was not statistically significant. There was less evidence of protection when two vaccinating doses of 3 krad mc were given within four weeks, with challenge at week 8, and a single vaccination was ineffective against a challenge four weeks later. However, when the irradiation dose was increased to 20 krad, a high level of resistance was induced by a single vaccination, given eight weeks before challenge, and liver pathology was strikingly reduced in the vaccinated animals.

  3. Immunization of zebu calves against Fasciola gigantica, using irradiated metacercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, S.A.; Yagi, A.I.; Haroun, E.M.; Gameel, A.A.; Taylor, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The pathogenesis of unirradiated, 3 krad-irradiated and 20 krad-irradiated metacercarial infections was compared in zebu calves studied over 10 weeks. Calves exposed to 1000 unirradiated metacercariae (mc) became hypoalbuminaemic, and showed elevated serum concentrations of liver enzymes, whereas neither of the other groups was significantly affected. At slaughter, a mean of 332 flukes was recovered from the 0 krad group, while only 23% and 12% of this number were recovered from the 3 krad and 20 krad groups, respectively. All the worms recovered from the 20 krad group were stunted, but a mean of 13% of the flukes recovered from the 3 krad group were large. Liver lesions typical of acute fascioliasis were present in the 0 krad group, but lesions in the other groups, were far less severe. A single vaccination of calves with 10003 krad-irradiated mc induced partial resistance to a challenge with 1000 normal mc eight weeks later, but the reduction in worm recovery was not statistically significant. There was less evidence of protection when two vaccinating doses of 3 krad mc were given within four weeks, with challenge at week 8, and a single vaccination was ineffective against a challenge four weeks later. However, when the irradiation dose was increased to 20 krad, a high level of resistance was induced by a single vaccination, given eight weeks before challenge, and liver pathology was strikingly reduced in the vaccinated animals. (author)

  4. Stem cell migration after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothdurft, W.; Fliedner, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The survival rate of irradiated rodents could be significantly improved by shielding only the small parts of hemopoietic tissues during the course of irradiation. The populations of circulating stem cells in adult organisms are considered to be of some importance for the homeostasis between the many sites of blood cell formation and for the necessary flexibility of hemopoietic response in the face of fluctuating demands. Pluripotent stem cells are migrating through peripheral blood as has been shown for several mammalian species. Under steady state conditions, the exchange of stem cells between the different sites of blood cell formation appears to be restricted. Their presence in blood and the fact that they are in balance with the extravascular stem cell pool may well be of significance for the surveilance of the integrity of local stem cell populations. Any decrease of stem cell population in blood below a critical size results in the rapid immigration of circulating stem cells in order to restore local stem cell pool size. Blood stem cells are involved in the regeneration after whole-body irradiation if the stem cell population in bone marrows is reduced to less than 10% of the normal state. In the animals subjected to partial-body irradiation, the circulating stem cells appear to be the only source for the repopulation of the heavily irradiated, aplastic sites of hemopoietic organs. (Yamashita, S.)

  5. DAMAGE IN MOLYBDENUM ASSOCIATED WITH NEUTRON IRRADIATION AND SUBSEQUENT POST-IRRADIATION ANNEALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastel, B.

    1963-07-23

    Molybdemum containing carbon was studied in an attempt to establish the combined effect of impurity content and neutron irradiation on the properties and structure of specific metals. Molybdenum foils were punched into discs and heat treated in vacuum. They were then slow-cooled and irradiated. After irradiation and subsequent decay of radioactivity to a low level the foils were subjected to x-ray diffraction measurements. Cold-worked foils with less than 10 ppm carbon showed no change in microstructure due to irradiation. Molybdenum foils that were annealed prior to irradiation showed spot defects. In foils containing up to 500 ppm carbon, it was concluded that the small loops present after irradiation are due to the clustering of point defects at interstitial carbon atoms, followed by collapse to form a dislocation loop. The amount of lattice expansion after irradiation was strongly dependent on impurity content. Neutron irradiation was found to reduce the number of active slip systems. (M.C.G.)

  6. Histological studies in developing brain after 0.5 Gy neutron irradiation in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antal, S.; Fueloep, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Pregnant mice were irradiated with 0.5 Gy neutrons on day 13, 15 or 18 of gestation. There was no significant difference in number of living young born per litter between in neutron irradiated mice and controls. Mortality of irradiated offspings increased in the first 3 days after birth. The brain weight of 21-day old animals after neutron irradiation averaged only 55, 56 and 69% of controls, resp. At six hours after irradiation morphological analysis showed nuclear pyknosis in the central nervous system. On day 13 the telencephalon was severely affected. The 30% cells were pyknotic in the wall of the cerebral hemisphere and 20% of cells in corpus striatum. In the metencephalon marked pyknosis was established in the tectal lamina of mesencephalon (16%) and in the cerebellar anlage (21%). The olfactory plate (24%), the ventricular zone of cerebral hemisphere (30%) and colliculus ganglionaris were damaged mostly (40%) after radiation on day 15 of gestation. The tectum of the mesencephali and in metencephalon the external granular layer of cerebellum and area of the rhombic lip were affected by irradiation (17-20%). The telencephalon found pyknotic but to a less extent in group irradiated on day 18 than it was on day 15. In the olfactory bulb 10% of pyknotic cells were seen and 16% of primary cortex of cerebral hemisphere more over 30% of nucleus caudatus/putamen were affected. In metencephalon 19% of external granular layer of cerebellum and 13% of trigonum cerebelli were pyknotic. In general, lesions of irradiation were rather mild in diencephalon and myelencephalon at all examined ages. Histological examinations support that defined parts of brain are damaged after neutron irradiation in utero and it may lead to the described physiological 18-20 and biochemical consequences 20,23 . (orig.)

  7. Acute myeloid leukemia induction in CBA/H mice by irradiation with fission neutrons as a function of exposure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huiskamp, R.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in male CBA/H mice was used as a model for investigation of the effect of reduced fast fission neutron exposure rates on radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Groups of about 90 male CBA/H mice were irradiated or sham-irradiated at the age of 15-20 weeks. The animals were exposed to 400 mGy fast fission neutrons at exposure rates of 2, 10 or 100 mGy/min. The investigation clearly showed that reducing the exposure rate of high-LET fast fission neutrons had no influence on the incidence of AML or on the survival of the irradiated mice. In contrast, a higher incidence of lymphosarcomas was observed in mice irradiated with higher exposure rates. (orig./MG)

  8. Acute myeloid leukemia induction in CBA/H mice by irradiation with fission neutrons as a function of exposure rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huiskamp, R [Stichting Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland, Petten (Netherlands). Radiobiology and Radio-Ecology Unit

    1991-06-01

    Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in male CBA/H mice was used as a model for investigation of the effect of reduced fast fission neutron exposure rates on radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Groups of about 90 male CBA/H mice were irradiated or sham-irradiated at the age of 15-20 weeks. The animals were exposed to 400 mGy fast fission neutrons at exposure rates of 2, 10 or 100 mGy/min. The investigation clearly showed that reducing the exposure rate of high-LET fast fission neutrons had no influence on the incidence of AML or on the survival of the irradiated mice. In contrast, a higher incidence of lymphosarcomas was observed in mice irradiated with higher exposure rates. (orig./MG).

  9. The effect on infection of irradiated fasciola gigantic (liver flukes) on goats (Capra hircus linn) blood values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuasikal, BJ.; M-Arifin; Yusneti; Dinardi; Suhardono

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to study the effect of infection Fasciola gigantic irradiated by using 60 Co to goat’s blood values. Twenty local male goats, ten to twelve old months, 115-20 kg of body weight were used for this study. The animals were divided into 5 groups consisting of four replications. Three groups received irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola gigantic a using 45, 55 and 65 Gy respectively. One group in the positive control and another one is the negative control. Each goat received 350 metacercariae. The study in was undertaken for 25 weeks. Body weight, Eosinofil, PCV and Hb were measured. These indicated that infectivity reduced on irradiated Fasciola gigantic. In all parameters, among negative control group and three irradiation-groups showed non significant (p>0,05). (author)

  10. Effect of X-ray irradiation on morphophysiological reactions of epidermal melanophor cells in the larvae of Rana temporaria L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.V.; Kalistratova, E.N.; Kaluzhina, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Dynamics of physiological reactions of epidermal melanophors of larvae Rana temporaria L.. adapted to white and black backgrounds and irradiated with a dose of 700 R has been investigated. Ouring the first day after irradiation no day changes of melanophor index characteristic of intact tadpoles were discovered in whitebackground animals; melanophors preserve the aggregation state. Comparison of black background irradiated and control larvae didn't show confident differences in changes of their melanophor indices. Irradiation affects differently epidermal melanophors in the state of pigment dispersion and aggregation. It is suggested that pigment dispersion and aggregation in melanophor is realized at the expense of different cellular structures. It is shown that by the end of the experiment (21-st day) the amount of epidermal melanophor per surface unit is two times larger in black-ground larvae. General biological signaficance of revealed facts from the point of view of ontogenesis evolution is discussed

  11. Production of humoral factors that stimulate spleen colony-forming units in mice irradiated with moderate doses of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, T.; Gonzalez, J.; Tejero, C.; Maganto, G.; Bueren, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The production of humoral factors that stimulate spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) has been studied in irradiated mice using an in vivo diffusion chamber assay. The experiments show that a significant release of factors that stimulate CFU-S takes place in the first few days after irradiation with moderate doses of 1.5 or 5 Gy. In contrast, the release of significant amounts of these humoral factors was not seen in animals irradiated with either low (0.75 Gy) or high (10 Gy) doses of X rays. The correlation observed between the production of factors that stimulate the CFU-S and the hemopoietic regeneration kinetics of the irradiated mice suggests that these factors represent part of the physiological regulators controlling the proliferation of CFU-S

  12. Significance of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Nobuko; Ogami, Koji; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Koga, Kenji; Waki, Norio; Higashi, Hidefumi; Hayashi, Asami; Shibata, Koichiro; Watanabe, Katsuji

    1986-01-01

    From 1978 through 1983, 27 patients were treated with surgery followed by irradiation (irradiated group) and 29 with surery alone (non-irradiated group). In the irradiated group, 10 had stage II and 17 stage III; in the non-irradiated group, 25 had stage II and 4 stage III. The most common histology was medullary tubular carcinoma (MTC). There was no significant difference in survivals at 3 years and 5 years between the groups. Similarly, no significant difference was seen among stage II patients. Patients with MTC tended to have worse survivals in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group, with no statistically significant difference. Among stage II patients, no major differences in local recurrence were seen between the groups; the incidence of distant metastases tended to be high in the irradiated group. The incidence of both local recurrence and distant metastases for stage III patients showed a tendency to be higher in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group. The results indicated no apparent benifit of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. A randomized clinical trial is needed for the evaluation of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Life span, testis damage and immune cell populations of spleen in C57BL mice with neutron irradiation by lying flat pose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki Jung; kim, Myung Sup; Kyung, Yoo Bo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea)

    2003-10-01

    This study deals with the biological effects of black mouse (C57BL) irradiated with neutron irradiation by using Boron Neutron Capture Therapy facility in HANARO reactor. These include mortality, body wt., hair color, testis volume, sperm count and immune cell populations in mouse spleen after 80 days later by thermal neutron irradiation. Six week old C57BL male mice were irradiated with neutron irradiation for 1 hr or 2 hrs (flux : 1.036739E +09). These irradiat ion doses estimated 15Gy and 30Gy, respectively. Survival days and hair color in mice was checked. On day 80 after irradiation, testis were taken for volume and sperm count. Also spleen was taken for FACS and spleen cells were isolatd and discarded RBC by treating with lysising solution. These cells were placed on ice and immunofluorescence staining was performed. Phycoerythrin (PE )-anti-CD3e, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-anti-CD4, and FITC-anti-CD8 were added, then the immunostaining cells were incubated on ice for 40 min. The resulting cells were washed with a PBS buffer 3 times and analyzed using a Flow cytometer. All experimental animals survived over 90 days but in case of 30 Gy neutron irradiation, black mice hair were changed white color on the center of the back. Neutron irradiation of black mice show similar in damage of spleen immune cells by subpopulation of T helper and T cytotoxic cells compared to the control non - irradiated group. These results show that treatment of neutron irradiation without boron compounds for 2 hrs in mice can survive over 90 days with hair color change from black to white. Damaged spleen cells recover after long time by irradiation but testis volume and no. of sperm are not recover compared to the normal group in response to neutron irradiation.

  14. Life span, testis damage and immune cell populations of spleen in C57BL mice with neutron irradiation by lying flat pose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ki Jung; kim, Myung Sup; Kyung, Yoo Bo

    2003-01-01

    This study deals with the biological effects of black mouse (C57BL) irradiated with neutron irradiation by using Boron Neutron Capture Therapy facility in HANARO reactor. These include mortality, body wt., hair color, testis volume, sperm count and immune cell populations in mouse spleen after 80 days later by thermal neutron irradiation. Six week old C57BL male mice were irradiated with neutron irradiation for 1 hr or 2 hrs (flux : 1.036739E +09). These irradiat ion doses estimated 15Gy and 30Gy, respectively. Survival days and hair color in mice was checked. On day 80 after irradiation, testis were taken for volume and sperm count. Also spleen was taken for FACS and spleen cells were isolatd and discarded RBC by treating with lysising solution. These cells were placed on ice and immunofluorescence staining was performed. Phycoerythrin (PE )-anti-CD3e, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-anti-CD4, and FITC-anti-CD8 were added, then the immunostaining cells were incubated on ice for 40 min. The resulting cells were washed with a PBS buffer 3 times and analyzed using a Flow cytometer. All experimental animals survived over 90 days but in case of 30 Gy neutron irradiation, black mice hair were changed white color on the center of the back. Neutron irradiation of black mice show similar in damage of spleen immune cells by subpopulation of T helper and T cytotoxic cells compared to the control non - irradiated group. These results show that treatment of neutron irradiation without boron compounds for 2 hrs in mice can survive over 90 days with hair color change from black to white. Damaged spleen cells recover after long time by irradiation but testis volume and no. of sperm are not recover compared to the normal group in response to neutron irradiation

  15. X-irradiation-induced emesis in Suncus murinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Yoshifumi; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuki, Norio; Shikita, Mikio.

    1993-01-01

    X-irradiation-induced emesis was investigated in Suncus murinus, a house musk shrew. Whole body X-irradiation caused emesis, and the calculated ED 50 value that induced emesis in 50% of animals was 429 cGy. At the irradiation dose of 800 cGy all the animals vomited 10.0±2.4 times with a latency of 20.0±2.9 min. The emetogenic effect of X-irradiation was dependent on the part of the body exposed. Abdominal X-irradiation at 1000 cGy caused emesis in all animals studied, whereas the same dose to the head had no emetogenic effect. We investigated several prophylactic methods against X-irradiation-induced emesis. Surgical vagotomy completely inhibited the emesis induced by 800 cGy X-irradiation. Emesis was also prevented by the subcutaneous administration of tropisetron (ICS 205-930, a selective serotonergic 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist) with an ID 50 value of 29 μg/kg. These results suggest that (1) suncus is a useful experimental animal for the study of radiation-induced emesis and the development of prophylactic drugs, (2) serotonin plays an important role in X-irradiation-induced emesis, and (3) X-irradiation-induced emesis is very similar to that caused by cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (author)

  16. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J

    1990-01-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analog...

  17. Pathogenesis of irradiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abayomi, O.K.

    1996-01-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a common sequela of cranial irradiation that is especially severe in young children. The underlying mechanisms of this disorder have not been described. The present review describes the role of the hippocampus and the anatomically related cortex in memory function and its marked susceptibility to ischemic and hypoxic injury. Based on studies of animal models of human amnesia and histopathological findings in the irradiated brain, the neurocognitive sequela of cranial irradiation can be seen to be mediated through vascular injury, resulting in ischemia and hypoxia in the hippocampal region. Recognition of the site and mechanisms of this injury may lead to the development of techniques to minimize the risks. (orig.)

  18. Startup of the Whiteshell irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.W.; Stanley, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, a 10-MeV, 1-kW electron linear accelerator was installed in a specially designed irradiation facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment. The facility was designed for radiation applications research in the development of new radiation processes up to the pilot scale level. The accelerator is of advanced design. Automatic startup via computer control makes it compatible with industrial processing. It has been operated successfully as a fully integrated electron irradiator for a number of applications including curing of plastics and composites, sterilization of medical disposables and animal feed irradiation. We report here on our experience during the first six months of operation. (orig.)

  19. Food irradiation and Hungarian experiences with it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Jozsef; Kiss, Istvan

    1988-01-01

    Among the different types of food irradiation techniques using ionizing radiations the methods serving - in a direct or indirect way - the purposes of health protection are reviewed. Based on foreign and Hungarian examples radurization of vegetables (potatoes, onions, garlics) by low irradiation doses, radiosterilization of corn, tropic and subtropic fruits, radicidation of dry additivies (spice, medicinal herb) and foodstuffs of animal origin (meat, poultry, egg, fish, shrimp, etc.) are discussed. The general situation of food irradiation in Hungary inlcuding licensing procedures is evaluated. (V.N.) 32 refs.; 3 figs.

  20. Pathogenesis of irradiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abayomi, O.K. [Howard Univ. Hospital, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1996-12-31

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a common sequela of cranial irradiation that is especially severe in young children. The underlying mechanisms of this disorder have not been described. The present review describes the role of the hippocampus and the anatomically related cortex in memory function and its marked susceptibility to ischemic and hypoxic injury. Based on studies of animal models of human amnesia and histopathological findings in the irradiated brain, the neurocognitive sequela of cranial irradiation can be seen to be mediated through vascular injury, resulting in ischemia and hypoxia in the hippocampal region. Recognition of the site and mechanisms of this injury may lead to the development of techniques to minimize the risks. (orig.).