WorldWideScience

Sample records for irradiated animals auth

  1. Irradiation of laboratory animal diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiker, D.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing demand for well-defined, standardized laboratory animals fr use in experimental research has led to the development of many new methods aimed at keeping the animals free of pathogenic micro-organisms. In this respect the problem of contaminated feeds has become more and more widely recognized. Chemial treatments and heat-treatments, which are the methods most commonly used at present, do have many disadvantages and this has led to an increasing interest in the application of irradiation for sterilizing animal feeds. The author reviews in some detail the various feeding studies which have been performed to date to establish whether or not irradiated feeds are safe for consumption. Much attention is now being given to feed irradiation throughout the world; it is estimated, for example, that approximately 700 tons of feed are already being irradiated per year and that this amount is likely to increase steadily in the future. These activities and recent developments are also briefly reviewed. (author)

  2. Studies on a possible using of penicillin and specific globulin for treatment of Siberia ulcer infection in irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nikov, V.A.; Mal'tsev, V.N.

    1975-01-01

    The efficiency of anti-anthracic globulin and penicillin for treating infectious anthrax was compared in experiments on 160 guinea pigs and 400 white mice irradiated with sub-lethal doses of cobalt-60 gamma rays. It was found that penicillin retained its effectiveness in the irradiated animals whereas anti-anthracic globulin lost much of its therapeutic efficiency. (auth.)

  3. Irradiation effect on animal feeds and feedstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    1983-10-01

    Aiming to secure the safety of animal feeds and develop the new resources, the effect of γ-irradiation on disinfection and the changes in components were investigated. Salmonellae and coliforms contaminating in animal feeds and feedstuffs were eliminated by 0.5 -- 0.6 Mrad and 0.5 -- 0.8 Mrad, and osmophilic moulds were sterilized by 0.7 -- 0.75 Mrad. From these results, it is concluded that the dose for disinfection of animal feeds is 0.8 Mrad. The main components were hardly changed by irradiation up to 5 Mrad, and the component changes in irradiated samples could be suppressed during storage while the components in unirradiated samples were markedly changed with the growth of osmophilic moulds. Histamine and lysinoalanine, which may cause the feed poisoning, were never accumulated in feedstuffs by irradiation. The nutritional value of chick feeds was not changed by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. From these results, it is considered that no problem for wholesomeness of animal feeds occurs by irradiation. Therefore, the irradiation is effective for disinfection and keeping the nutritional value of animal feeds during storage. Irradiation promotes the recovery of proteins in the wastewater by coagulation of proteins and improves the property of coagulants due to the degradation of polysaccharides. These results indicate that irradiation is effective to develop the new resources for animal feeds. (author)

  4. Radioresistance of immunized animals in internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal'nitskij, S.A.; Ponomareva, T.V.; Shubik, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of an immunization with bacterial vaccines and antimeasles-gamma-globulin on the radioresistance of raceless white mice was studied. In the vaccinated animals a higher survival rate and duration of life, a better general condition and a better curve of weight and stronger physical stamina were stated compared to the merely irradiated mice. The higher radioresistance is ascribed to the stimulation of cellular and humoral factors of the unspecific protection against infection, to the repair of the lymphoid tissue of the immunized animals and to the decrease in autosensibilization. (author)

  5. Dosimetry of an animal irradiation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Nelson M.; Funari, Ana P.; Miranda, Jurandir T.; Napolitano, Celia M.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Bueno, Carmen C.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: nelsonnininho@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radiation therapy uses ionizing radiation for cancer treatment, but its effectiveness may be limited by the consequent appearance of radiodermatitis. This problem may present several degrees: the highest among them is radionecrosis. Therefore, a model of study for the animal irradiation system (AIS) was built, generating radionecrosis on rat backs. The AIS is comprised by: a) a shield between the {sup 60}Co irradiator metallic guide and the animal immobilizer (AI), with holes exposing the rat skin; b) a shield on the AI posterior part and (c) the AIS angle. The doses were measured with alanine pellets in seven positions (two external and five internal) and different heights, in axial planes along the AI, and irradiated with 85 Gy. The similarity in the geometry of the AIs made it possible to relate the doses of positions 1-7 with the same height among the AISs. The AISs equidistance to the source allowed simultaneous animal exposure. Minimizing the shielding and maximizing the angles among the AISs provided average doses almost identical in position 1. A small variation among the mean doses for each of the AISs enabled to replace them by the average doses of the three AISs at position 1. Shields allowed the attenuation of the uncertainties in the alanine pellet in the AI, reduction of the exposure time without compromising rat security and the rise of the dose in measurement positions 1 and 2. The maximization of the angles among the AISs reduced the shielding secondary radiation contribution. (author)

  6. Dosimetry of an animal irradiation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Nelson M.; Funari, Ana P.; Miranda, Jurandir T.; Napolitano, Celia M.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Bueno, Carmen C.; Mathor, Monica B.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy uses ionizing radiation for cancer treatment, but its effectiveness may be limited by the consequent appearance of radiodermatitis. This problem may present several degrees: the highest among them is radionecrosis. Therefore, a model of study for the animal irradiation system (AIS) was built, generating radionecrosis on rat backs. The AIS is comprised by: a) a shield between the 60 Co irradiator metallic guide and the animal immobilizer (AI), with holes exposing the rat skin; b) a shield on the AI posterior part and (c) the AIS angle. The doses were measured with alanine pellets in seven positions (two external and five internal) and different heights, in axial planes along the AI, and irradiated with 85 Gy. The similarity in the geometry of the AIs made it possible to relate the doses of positions 1-7 with the same height among the AISs. The AISs equidistance to the source allowed simultaneous animal exposure. Minimizing the shielding and maximizing the angles among the AISs provided average doses almost identical in position 1. A small variation among the mean doses for each of the AISs enabled to replace them by the average doses of the three AISs at position 1. Shields allowed the attenuation of the uncertainties in the alanine pellet in the AI, reduction of the exposure time without compromising rat security and the rise of the dose in measurement positions 1 and 2. The maximization of the angles among the AISs reduced the shielding secondary radiation contribution. (author)

  7. Irradiation of foods of animal origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkarevic, A.

    1985-01-01

    A system is suggested which permits the irradiation of liquid and semi-solid materials, using wasted radiation in conventional package irradiation plants. Various appliances control the flow parameters, temperature, and environment during irradiation. As possible materials, various derivatives of the meat industry are suggested

  8. A device for external γ-irradiation of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanitskaya, N.F.; Talakin, Yu.N.; Lekakh, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    A device was developed for external gamma-irradiation of experimental animals including a radiation source, a device for fixation of the total animal or a segment of its body in the focus of irradiation, and a shilding screen. To widen the sphere of this device application by making possible a simultaneous radiation exposure of a group of animals under various radiation schedules, the device involves two discs with a common axis. The lower disc is provided with an electric drive and containers with animals are placed on it, and the upper disc is for the shielding screen. The device is supplied with an operation block

  9. Nutritional Value of Irradiated Animal Feed By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din Farag, M.D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Animal feed by-products, widely used in animal diets, are sources of disease organisms for animals and for human beings. Salmonella is the principal genus of concern.Radiation treatment (radicidation, radurization) is a promising method of decontamination of feed ingredients. Commercial samples of fish, meat, and blood meals were sealed by heat in polyethylene bags and irradiated at dose levels of 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Their chemical analysis were carried out according to A. O. A.C [1] and the total protein efficiency (TPE) of the three animal feed by-products was determined according to Wood ham (2) by using one day old Dokki-4 chicks. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical constituent of meals. Also, the same trend was observed with TPE of both fish and meat meals. However, irradiation treatments improved TPE values of irradiated blood meal samples. From the results, it could be concluded that irradiation of animal feed by-products up to a dose level of 50 Gy has no adverse effects on the nutritional value of animal feed by-products

  10. Late radiation effects in animals surviving lethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, L.A.

    1974-01-01

    Animals (rats, mice, dogs) survived lethal irradiation by means of prophylactic-therapeutic treatments or previously irradiated, were studied for late radiation effects: life span, cachexia and fat growing of hypophysical type, tissue or organ hypoplasia manifested by disturbed hemopoiesis, suppressed function of adrenal gland, etc., suppressed immune reactivity of the irradiated organism, atypical biochemical changes in DNA and protein metabolism, epilation, chronic dermatitis, ulcerations, reduced reproductivity or full sterility, damage of kidneys leading to nephrosclerosis, dishormonal states, cataracts, diffuse sclerotic processes, various kinds of malignant and non-malignant tumors. In these cases hemopoiesis compensated for a definite time peripheral blood composition, but during the late period it showed features of incompleteness: shorter life survival of erythrocytes and thrombocytes manifested by a decreased binding of labelled methionine in these blood elements, anemia and relative thrombocytopenia sometimes with an increased number of polychromatic erythrocytes in peripheral blood and a decreased number of reticulocytes at the same time; lymphopenia and relative leucopenia with an increased number of hypersegmented neutrophils. Decreased reproductivity and atypical biochemical changes available in the first generation of the irradiated animals showed the probable role of mutagenic factors in the emergence of some late radiation effects. A significant part of late radiation sequences were due to neuro-endocrine desintegrations which lead to a disturbed supply of the vessels and afterwards to their sclerosis. Some of the described late radiation effects were also observed in biological controls as festures of ageing while in irradiated animals they were manifested in an earlier period. After application of optimal amounts radioprotectors (AET, cysteamine, serotonin) a more marked protective effect is demonstrated in the early reactions (time survival

  11. Life span of animals under acute and chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.; Borisova, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The study has been designed to see to what extent a single and long-term external and internal irradiations shorten the life span of animals. LDsub(50/30) for certain radionuclides whose absorbed doses show different spatiotemporal distributions are considered. It has been found that as far as the average life span is concerned, 137 Cs and 90 Sr have approximately the same effect whether they enter the body on a single occasion or repeatedly. With chronic total-body external gamma-irradiation, the decrease in life span is 5 times smaller than than with single-occasion irradiation. The main reason for the observed differences are found to be differences in the rates with which the absorbed doses are formed

  12. Late radiation effects in animals surviving lethal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, L A

    1974-01-01

    Animals (rats, mice, dogs) survived lethal irradiation by means of prophylactic-therapeutic treatments or previously irradiated, were studied for late radiation effects: life span, cachexia and fat growing of hypophysical type, tissue or organ hypoplasia manifested by disturbed hemopoiesis, suppressed function of adrenal gland, etc., suppressed immune reactivity of the irradiated organism, atypical biochemical changes in DNA and protein metabolism, epilation, chronic dermatitis, ulcerations, reduced reproductivity or full sterility, damage of kidneys leading to nephrosclerosis, dishormonal states, cataracts, diffuse sclerotic processes, various kinds of malignant and non-malignant tumors. In these cases hemopoiesis compensated for a definite time peripheral blood composition, but during the late period it showed features of incompleteness: shorter life survival of erythrocytes and thrombocytes manifested by a decreased binding of labelled methionine in these blood elements, anemia and relative thrombocytopenia sometimes with an increased number of polychromatic erythrocytes in peripheral blood and a decreased number of reticulocytes at the same time; lymphopenia and relative leucopenia with an increased number of hypersegmented neutrophils. Decreased reproductivity and atypical biochemical changes available in the first generation of the irradiated animals showed the probable role of mutagenic factors in the emergency of some late radiation effects. A significant part of late radiation sequences were due to neuro-endocrine disintegrations. Some of the described late radiation effects were also observed in biological controls as features of ageing. After application of radioprotectors (AET, cysteamine, serotonin) a more marked protective effect is demonstrated in the early reactions (time survival till 30th day, DNA and protein metabolism, immune reactions) of the lethally irradiated animals.

  13. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''5 1 Cr, 32 P and 35 S) and stable ( 15 N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases

  14. Practical experiences with irradiation of laboratory animals' feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiker, D.

    1979-01-01

    The increasing need for well-defined, standardized experimental animals for research has led to the development of many new methods of keeping the animals free from pathogenic microorganisms. In this connection the problem of contaminated food has taken on ever greater significance. The methods most commonly used today, namely chemical treatment and heat treatment of the fodder, have many disadvantages and interest in the use of radiation sterilization has accordingly increased. The author discusses the various aspects of this method in relation to SPF animals and reports on the three years' experience of the Research Institute for Experimental Animal Breeding (University of Vienna) in Himberg with the use of exclusively radiation-treated diets in the rearing of rats and mice. The ease of handling irradiated fodder, the reliability of the method from the microbiological point of view and the excellent breeding results already obtained make this process - despite its somewhat higher cost - the best possible method of pasteurizing the feed of experimental animals. (author)

  15. Integration of optical imaging with a small animal irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weersink, Robert A.; Ansell, Steve; Wang, An; Wilson, Graham; Shah, Duoaud; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe the integration of optical imaging with a targeted small animal irradiator device, focusing on design, instrumentation, 2D to 3D image registration, 2D targeting, and the accuracy of recovering and mapping the optical signal to a 3D surface generated from the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The integration of optical imaging will improve targeting of the radiation treatment and offer longitudinal tracking of tumor response of small animal models treated using the system. Methods: The existing image-guided small animal irradiator consists of a variable kilovolt (peak) x-ray tube mounted opposite an aSi flat panel detector, both mounted on a c-arm gantry. The tube is used for both CBCT imaging and targeted irradiation. The optical component employs a CCD camera perpendicular to the x-ray treatment/imaging axis with a computer controlled filter for spectral decomposition. Multiple optical images can be acquired at any angle as the gantry rotates. The optical to CBCT registration, which uses a standard pinhole camera model, was modeled and tested using phantoms with markers visible in both optical and CBCT images. Optically guided 2D targeting in the anterior/posterior direction was tested on an anthropomorphic mouse phantom with embedded light sources. The accuracy of the mapping of optical signal to the CBCT surface was tested using the same mouse phantom. A surface mesh of the phantom was generated based on the CBCT image and optical intensities projected onto the surface. The measured surface intensity was compared to calculated surface for a point source at the actual source position. The point-source position was also optimized to provide the closest match between measured and calculated intensities, and the distance between the optimized and actual source positions was then calculated. This process was repeated for multiple wavelengths and sources. Results: The optical to CBCT registration error was 0.8 mm. Two

  16. Economic Feasibility Study for Using Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Animalism Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return

  17. The effect of animal feed from irradiated palm oil sludge on antibody forming of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharni Sadi; Umar, Hasibuan; Jenny, M.; Adria, P.M.; Murni Indrawatmi

    1998-01-01

    In this experiment, 3 kinds of animal feed were, e.q. control (commercial product), non irradiated and irradiated palm oil sludge by using 6 0Co source with a 4 kGy dose. BALB-C mice of 3 months old were used, each group contains 5 animals. Before conducting the experiment the animals were injected with antibiotic to free them from Enterobacteriaceae. The animals were observed every 2 weeks by weighting them, blood were analyzed and after 10 weeks their antibody were analyzed. Animal feed were in the form of pellets and each animal was feed 5 g of pellets. The results were as follows, antibody formed by C (control), N (non irradiated sludge) and, R (irradiated sludge) were 37; 36.5; and 36.2 mg/nl, respectively. Apparently pellets which were made of palm oil sludge and commercial product produced not significantly different level of antibody. (author)

  18. Nutritional evaluation of irradiated animal protein by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hakeim, N.F.; Hilali, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Blood, fish and meat-bone meals were irradiated at dose levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical composition of meals. Available lysine in irradiated fish meals was reduced by 8,04%. Losses occurred in some amino acids especially the essential ones of the irradiated protein by-products. Isoleucine, phenylalanine and valine were the limiting amino acids in the irradiated blood, fish and meat-bone meal, respectively. At dose levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kGy essential amino acids index (EAAI) was 48,24%, 42,89%, 48,38%, 53% and 55,95% for blood meal 37,91%, 39,71%, 41,18% and 37,90% for fish meal and 37,07%, 36,01%, 27,61%, 38,21% and 38,45% for meat-bone meal, respectively. (orig.) [de

  19. Biological changes in experimental animals after irradiation with sublethal doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dae Seong; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Byun, Myung Woo; Jeong, Il Yun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The objective of the present study was to investigate general clinical aspects such as weekly body weight and blood changes, and weekly food intake in gamma-irradiated C57BL/6j male mice fed AIN-76A purified rodent diet for 14 weeks. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 0, 2, 4 and 6 Gy of gamma-rays (Gammacell 40 Exactor, {sup 137}Cs, MDS Nordion) at a dose rate of 1.8 {sub c}Gy per second. The mean body weight change of 6 Gy-irradiated mice significantly decreased when compared to that of the non-irradiated control mice. Moreover, high dose of radiation resulted in decreased levels of AST, ALT, but in increased levels of total cholersterol, triglyceride, HDL-C in mice.

  20. Skin allografts in lethally irradiated animals repopulated with syngeneic hemopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwadron, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Total body irradiation and repopulation with syngeneic hemopoietic cells can be used to induce tolerance to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) mismatched heart and kidney grafts in rats and mice. However, this protocol does not work for MHC mismatched skin grafts in rats or mice. Furthermore, LEW rats that accept WF cardiac allografts after irradiation and repopulation reject subsequent WF skin grafts. Treatment of skin allograft donors with methotrexate prior to grafting onto irradiated and reconstituted mice resulted in doubling of the mean survival time. Analysis of which antigens provoked skin graft rejection by irradiation and reconstituted animals revealed the importance of I region antigens. Cardiac allograft acceptance by irradiated and reconstituted animals is mediated by suppressor cells found in the spleen. Adoptively tolerant LEW rats accepted WF skin grafts in 50% of grafted animals. Analysis of this phenomenon revealed that the adoptive transfer procedure itself was important in achieving skin allograft acceptance by these animals. In general, it seems that the lack of ability of irradiated and reconstituted animals to accept fully MHC disparate skin grafts results from the inability of these animals to suppress lymph node effector cells against I region antigen seen on highly immunogenic allogeneic Langerhans cells in the skin

  1. Glucorticoids/insulin ratio in irradiated animal blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizina, T.Yu.

    1990-01-01

    Similar changes in blood levels of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and glucocorticoids (GC) were observed in rats, mice and dogs after X-irradiation with lethal doses. The use of the blood GC/IRI ratio indices in estimating the functional status of the exposed organism is discussed

  2. Irradiation of animal products. Aspects and applications [sterilizing - preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavaro, E.; Bentley, S.; Maggi, E.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997, FDA finally approved irradiation of bovine ground meat as a mean of controlling pathogenic microorganisms; this acknowledgement probably preludes a widespread employment of this technology. The Authors take into account the various aspects of this controversal process, that still has difficulty in becoming popular, due to a substantial lack of information in public opinion [it

  3. Sterilization by irradiation of feed for axenic or heteroxenic laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Sterilization by irradiation of animal feeds is promising. The objective of experiments presented is to determine if integrated dose (44 kGy) has an influence on breeding performances and on animal behavior. Results show that not only nothing abnormal is constated but performances are better than those obtained with an autoclave in an important breeding center in conditions perfectly analyzed [fr

  4. SU-E-T-124: Anthropomorphic Phantoms for Confirmation of Linear Accelerator Based Small Animal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perks, J; Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lucero, S [UC Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To document the support of radiobiological small animal research by a modern radiation oncology facility. This study confirms that a standard, human use linear accelerator can cover the range of experiments called for by researchers performing animal irradiation. A number of representative, anthropomorphic murine phantoms were made. The phantoms confirmed the small field photon and electron beams dosimetry validated the use of the linear accelerator for rodents. Methods: Laser scanning a model, CAD design and 3D printing produced the phantoms. The phantoms were weighed and CT scanned to judge their compatibility to real animals. Phantoms were produced to specifically mimic lung, gut, brain, and othotopic lesion irradiations. Each phantom was irradiated with the same protocol as prescribed to the live animals. Delivered dose was measured with small field ion chambers, MOS/FETs or TLDs. Results: The density of the phantom material compared to density range across the real mice showed that the printed material would yield sufficiently accurate measurements when irradiated. The whole body, lung and gut irradiations were measured within 2% of prescribed doses with A1SL ion chamber. MOSFET measurements of electron irradiations for the orthotopic lesions allowed refinement of the measured small field output factor to better than 2% and validated the immunology experiment of irradiating one lesion and sparing another. Conclusion: Linacs are still useful tools in small animal bio-radiation research. This work demonstrated a strong role for the clinical accelerator in small animal research, facilitating standard whole body dosing as well as conformal treatments down to 1cm field. The accuracy of measured dose, was always within 5%. The electron irradiations of the phantom brain and flank tumors needed adjustment; the anthropomorphic phantoms allowed refinement of the initial output factor measurements for these fields which were made in a large block of solid water.

  5. The effects of radiation on the diseases of aging in experimental animals: gerontological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollander, C.F.; Zwieten, M.J. van; Broerse, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the effect of different types and doses of ionizing radiation on the induction of mammary tumours in rats and the role of ovarian hormones in tumour indication is reported. The occurrence of other diseases in the irradiated animals is also studied and compared to those occurring in non-irradiated controls. (Auth.)

  6. Population-animating on self protection of over irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, I.

    1994-01-01

    Decrease of over irradiation of the population, by X-rays examinations and from radon, can be helped by self protection of the population. This one must previously have sufficiently information about the radiation and about the prevention of the radiation. The author has organised and continually carried out health education of the population, in such a manner as it was desired upon an asking of the population. After eight years of activity in this manner the radiation exposition of the population was a third lesser. The health education about the prevention and protection of the radiation exposition must be organized systematically and continually by the leading of responsible experts and corresponding institutions

  7. Inactivation by gamma irradiation of animal viruses in simulated laboratory effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, F.C.; Ouwerkerk, T.; McKercher, P.

    1982-01-01

    Several animal viruses were treated with gamma radiation from a 60 Co source under conditions which might be found in effluent from an animal disease laboratory. Swine vesicular disease virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and blue-tongue virus were irradiated in tissues from experimentally infected animals. Pseudorabies virus, fowl plague virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus were irradiated in liquid animal feces. All were tested in animals and in vitro. The D 10 values, that is, the doses required to reduce infectivity by 1 log 10 , were not apparently different from those expected from predictions based on other data and theoretical considerations. The existence of the viruses in pieces of tissues or in liquid feces made no differences in the efficacy of the gamma radiation for inactivating them. Under the ''worst case'' conditions (most protective for virus) simulated in this study, no infectious agents would survive 4.0 Mrads

  8. Influence of radioprotectors on total body weight evolution and on oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.; Martine, G.; Bargy, E.; Andrieu, L.

    Comparison of total body weight evolution and oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals, protected by various well known radioprotective substances, isolated or in mixture, with evolution and consumption of non protected animals irradiated at the same dose and with these of check animals [fr

  9. ICP-AES analysis of trace elements in serum from animals fed with irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi

    1986-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by ICP-AES in serum from animals fed with irradiated food is described. In order to demonstrate that irradiated food is suitable for human consumption, it is necessary to perform an experiment of animal feeding with these food before use for human. Trace element analysis in animal serum could provide an actual evidence for further human consumption study. 53 serum samples of the rats fed with irradiated food were obtained. After ashed and solved, ICP-AES analysis has been used for determining 20 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitation is in the range of 10 -2 -10 -3 ppm for different elements. The recovery of elements is from 70.08% to 98.28%. The relative standard deviation is found to be 0.71% to 11.52%

  10. Evaluation of the analgesic activity and safety of ketorolac in whole body fractionated gamma irradiated animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic activity and the toxicity of ketorolac in normal and fractionated (1.5 Gy/day/4 days γ-irradiated animals. Determination of brain serotonin content and serum prostaglandin level were also undertaken. The analgesic activity was tested using formalin test, at three dose levels (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg after 1 and 7 days post radiation exposure. LD50 determinations and assessment of liver and kidney function tests were performed. Our results indicated marked analgesic effects on the early and late phases of nociception. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation increased brain serotonin content. The acute LD50 of ketorolac was decreased in irradiated animals as compared to the LD50 of normal animals. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation induced an elevation of gastric mucin content, urea and BUN levels on the 1st day post irradiation, whereas, albumin level was lowered and globulin level was elevated after 7 days post irradiation. Depending on this study the dose of ketorolac used for treating cancer patients addressed to radiotherapy should be reduced, however, this requires further clinical confirmation.

  11. [Animal experiment study of anastomosis healing after partial resection of the pre-irradiated thoracic esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C; Nilles-Schendera, A; Frommhold, H

    2000-01-01

    Multimodal therapeutic concepts in cases of neoplasms of the intestinal tract entail the risk of undesirable complications with respect to healing of wounds and anastomoses. The separate steps of a combined treatment consisting radiation therapy and partial resection of the thoracic esophagus were performed in animal experiments to study the effect of radiation therapy on the healing of anastomoses. Adult non-purebred dogs were irradiated in a defined thoracic field with a Betatron (42 MeV) and subsequently underwent esophagectomy. After resection of a 2 cm segment of the esophagus end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Different methods of irradiation and postoperative observation times resulted in a total of 8 groups of 3 animals each. Fractionated irradiation was definitely better tolerated than irradiation with a high single doses. The temporary delay of the anastomotic healing was documented histologically. Only one case of anastomotic leakage occurred, and impaired wound healing was observed in only one animal. The mode of irradiation must be regarded as important for the clinical course. Fractionated preoperative irradiation in the area of the thoracic esophagus does not lead to any relevant disturbance of wound and anastomotic healing with meticulous surgical technique and adequate intensive postoperative care. The basic feasibility of surgical therapy combined with preoperative radiotherapy in tumors of the upper digestive tract was confirmed by our experimental work.

  12. Effect of ceruloplasmin on some cellular and humoral immunity indices in irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdyins'kikh, N.K.; Savtsova, Z.D.; Yindik, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    The ceruloplasmin (CD) in animals being permanently under combined external and internal low-intensity ionizing irradiation is shown to increase the level of cellular immunity reactions, including antiviral ones, and of natural resistance reactions, to decrease probability of derangement of biosynthetic processes during the development of immune response, and to increase resistance of animals to influenza infection. The influence of C P on humoral antiviral immunity was not observed

  13. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

  14. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, 252 Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by 60 Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use

  15. Pencilbeam irradiation technique for whole brain radiotherapy: technical and biological challenges in a small animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schültke, Elisabeth; Trippel, Michael; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Renier, Michel; Bartzsch, Stefan; Requardt, Herwig; Döbrössy, Máté D; Nikkhah, Guido

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted the first in-vivo experiments in pencilbeam irradiation, a new synchrotron radiation technique based on the principle of microbeam irradiation, a concept of spatially fractionated high-dose irradiation. In an animal model of adult C57 BL/6J mice we have determined technical and physiological limitations with the present technical setup of the technique. Fifty-eight animals were distributed in eleven experimental groups, ten groups receiving whole brain radiotherapy with arrays of 50 µm wide beams. We have tested peak doses ranging between 172 Gy and 2,298 Gy at 3 mm depth. Animals in five groups received whole brain radiotherapy with a center-to-center (ctc) distance of 200 µm and a peak-to-valley ratio (PVDR) of ∼ 100, in the other five groups the ctc was 400 µm (PVDR ∼ 400). Motor and memory abilities were assessed during a six months observation period following irradiation. The lower dose limit, determined by the technical equipment, was at 172 Gy. The LD50 was about 1,164 Gy for a ctc of 200 µm and higher than 2,298 Gy for a ctc of 400 µm. Age-dependent loss in motor and memory performance was seen in all groups. Better overall performance (close to that of healthy controls) was seen in the groups irradiated with a ctc of 400 µm.

  16. Influence of coamide on the morphological status of pancreatic islands of irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejfullin, F.Kh.; Atabekov, T.A.; Iskhanbekov, B.I.; Salikhodzhaev, Z.; Rakhimov, T.T.

    1986-01-01

    X-irradiation of animals with a dose of 6 Gy brings about fatty degeneration of the liver and a concurrent destruction of the morphologic status in functional activity of the insular apparatus. The administration of coamide promotes the recovery of the morphological and physiological status of the pancreas

  17. Whole-body γ-irradiation effects on catecholamine concentration in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makashev, Zh.K.; Uteshev, T.A.; Abylaev, Zh. A.; Zhurnist, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    On the whole-body gamma-radiation activity in the exchanges of catecholamines (adrenalin and non-adrenalin) and their predecessors (dopamine and DOPA) in the rats tissue organism, indicate the infringement of irradiated animals in different links of biological synthesis the bio-gen amines in different phases of the radiation: DOPA→dopamine, dopamine→adrenalin, adrenalin→non-adrenalin. (author)

  18. Histologic alterations of the normal bladder wall following to variably fractionated irradiation - an experimentation on animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueller, J.; Fritzsche, V.; Kob, D.; Arndt, J.; Kriester, A.; Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena

    1986-01-01

    The histopathologic alterations of the bladder wall were investigated in 180 rabbits irradiated with different fractionations and total focal doses. Animals sacrified one week after the end of irradiation showed alterations of the urothelium (desquamation, increased polymorphism of nuclei vacuolizations) as well as oedematous and hyperemic reactions in submucosa and muscularis. These alterations became stronger when the single and total focal dose and the ret values were increased. Animals sacrified three to six months after the end of irradiation showed dystrophic-sclerotic processes as well as vascular obliterations in the submucosa and muscularis. The alterations were only clearly visible in case of a total focal dose of at least 30 Gy. With regard to a minimization of histopathologic alterations of the bladder wall, a fractionation of 1.5 Gy per day has to be considered as favorable in radiotherapy of the carcinoma of the urinary bladder. (orig.) [de

  19. Body composition changes following the supplementation of different food additives to irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that deposition of fat and / or protein in animal's body before irradiation or using radio - protector material such as soyabean oil may reduce the hazard effects of radiation on life span, body weight and body compartments. Therefore, 286 mice ( 144 males and 142 females) after chemical maturity were used in this study. The animals were divided to 4 major groups. The first group was fed on chow diet, the second group was fed on radioprotector diet ( basel diet), the third group was fed on high energy diet and the forth group fed on high protein diet, for 7 weeks before the exposure to gamma-rays. At the exposure day each nutritional group was divided to 3 exposure treatments ( non-irradiated, 800 and 1200 rads). The previous hypothesis was studied for 42 days after irradiation

  20. Biological X-ray irradiator characterization for use with small animals and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, A Colello; Mazaro, S J; Amaral, L L; Rego, E M; Oliveira, H F; Pavoni, J F

    2017-03-02

    This study presents the characterization of an X-ray irradiator through dosimetric tests, which confirms the actual dose rate that small animals and cells will be exposed to during radiobiological experiments. We evaluated the linearity, consistency, repeatability, and dose distribution in the positions in which the animals or cells are placed during irradiation. In addition, we evaluated the performance of the X-ray tube (voltage and tube operating current), the radiometric survey (leakage radiation) and safety devices. The irradiator default setting was established as 160 kV and 25 mA. Tests showed that the dose rate was linear overtime (R2=1) and remained stable for long (constant) and short (repeatability) intervals between readings. The mean dose rate inside the animal cages was 1.27±0.06 Gy/min with a uniform beam of 95.40% (above the minimum threshold guaranteed by the manufacturer). The mean dose rate inside the cell plates was 0.92±0.19 Gy/min. The dose rate dependence with tube voltage and current presented a quadratic and linear relationship, respectively. There was no observed mechanical failure during evaluation of the irradiator safety devices and the radiometric survey obtained a maximum ambient equivalent dose rate of 0.26 mSv/h, which exempts it from the radiological protection requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The irradiator characterization enables us to perform radiobiological experiments, and assists or even replaces traditional therapy equipment (e.g., linear accelerators) for cells and small animal irradiation, especially in early research stages.

  1. Biological X-ray irradiator characterization for use with small animals and cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colello Bruno

    Full Text Available This study presents the characterization of an X-ray irradiator through dosimetric tests, which confirms the actual dose rate that small animals and cells will be exposed to during radiobiological experiments. We evaluated the linearity, consistency, repeatability, and dose distribution in the positions in which the animals or cells are placed during irradiation. In addition, we evaluated the performance of the X-ray tube (voltage and tube operating current, the radiometric survey (leakage radiation and safety devices. The irradiator default setting was established as 160 kV and 25 mA. Tests showed that the dose rate was linear overtime (R2=1 and remained stable for long (constant and short (repeatability intervals between readings. The mean dose rate inside the animal cages was 1.27±0.06 Gy/min with a uniform beam of 95.40% (above the minimum threshold guaranteed by the manufacturer. The mean dose rate inside the cell plates was 0.92±0.19 Gy/min. The dose rate dependence with tube voltage and current presented a quadratic and linear relationship, respectively. There was no observed mechanical failure during evaluation of the irradiator safety devices and the radiometric survey obtained a maximum ambient equivalent dose rate of 0.26 mSv/h, which exempts it from the radiological protection requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The irradiator characterization enables us to perform radiobiological experiments, and assists or even replaces traditional therapy equipment (e.g., linear accelerators for cells and small animal irradiation, especially in early research stages.

  2. The influence of chronic gamma-irradiation on the structure of follicular system of animal ovaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banetskaya, N.B.; Amvros'ev, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of a chronic gamma - irradiation in a low doze (0.5 Gy, capacity of a doze 1.8 * 10 -7 Gy / s) on follicular apparatus of ovary of young white female rats was investigated. Quantity of the follicles on the all stages of development was calculated. It is detected that the chronic irradiation by a low doze of young rats causes to morphological changes in ovaries. At once after an irradiation is marked the ovulation stimulation, it can be connected with change of the hormone balance in a body of the animals. In one month after an irradiation quantity of follicles on the all stages of development is reduced and number of atretic bodies is increased. The similar disorders can be connected as with direct influence of ionizing radiation on oocytes and them follicular cells, and also with action through change in bodies of the endocrine system. 14 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Determination of bacterial endotoxins in blood of animals and humans subjected to irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, P N; Shchul' s, T S [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR)

    1981-01-01

    The content of Gram-negative bacterium endotoxins in the irradiated organism was determined by the use of actinomycin D sensitizing the organism to the effect of such toxins. Regularities in the accumulation of Gram-negative bacterium endotoxins in the irradiated organism were studied as well as the dependence of animal sensitization on the actinomycin D dose. Possibilities for the development of endotoxemia in oncologic patients in the process of radiotheraphy were traced. It is shown that the radiotherapy of the intestine containing large quantaties of bacteria and their toxins is accompanied by endotoxemia; in the first part of the radiotherapy course its manifestation depends on the irradiation dose; having reached a specific level, endotoxemia retains its symptoms till the end of irradiation. It is indicated that the determination of bacterium endotoxins is of interest when studying not only the development of endotoxemia in the organism exposed to radiation, hut also many other toxemic states.

  4. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...-0178] Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron... electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. This action... CFR part 579) to provide for the safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of...

  5. Design of small-animal thermal neutron irradiation facility at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.B.

    1996-01-01

    The broad beam facility (BBF) at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) can provide a thermal neutron beam with flux intensity and quality comparable to the beam currently used for research on neutron capture therapy using cell-culture and small-animal irradiations. Monte Carlo computations were made, first, to compare with the dosimetric measurements at the existing BBF and, second, to calculate the neutron and gamma fluxes and doses expected at the proposed BBF. Multiple cell cultures or small animals could be irradiated simultaneously at the so-modified BBF under conditions similar to or better than those individual animals irradiated at the existing thermal neutron irradiation Facility (TNIF) of the BMRR. The flux intensity of the collimated thermal neutron beam at the proposed BBF would be 1.7 x 10 10 n/cm 2 ·s at 3-MW reactor power, the same as at the TNIF. However, the proposed collimated beam would have much lower gamma (0.89 x 10 -11 cGy·cm 2 /n th ) and fast neutron (0.58 x 10 -11 cGy·cm 2 /n th ) contaminations, 64 and 19% of those at the TNIF, respectively. The feasibility of remodeling the facility is discussed

  6. Two-stage implant placement technique for the management of irradiated jaws: An animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Arnaout, Mohamed A; Elsafi, Mohamed H; Kassem, Youssef M

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy results in diminished bone remodeling capacity and an elevated risk of osteoradionecrosis, which can negatively influence the survival rate of dental implants. Patients receiving radiotherapy are advised not to receive dental implants during or soon after completing their radiotherapy. The purpose of this animal study was to investigate a 2-stage implant placement technique designed to diminish applied trauma on irradiated bone. Two groups of white New Zealand rabbits received radiotherapy in ascending doses (2, 4, 8 Gy), while a nonirradiated group served as control. Three weeks after completion of the last radiotherapy session, one of the irradiated groups and the control group received titanium dental implants bilaterally in the femur head. For the second irradiated group, an osteotomy was performed, and the surgical wound was left to heal for 2 weeks before implant placement. All animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after implant placement, and histomorphometric analysis was used to study bone-implant contact (n=14, α=.05). Statistical analysis revealed significantly higher (F=159, P<.001) bone-implant contact in the 2-stage (40.2 ±1.9) implant placement technique than in the immediately placed implants (21.2 ±2.3) in irradiated bone. Both of the groups had a significantly lower bone-to-implant contact ratio than the non-irradiated control (64.2 ±3.8). Within the limitations of this animal study, the 2-stage implant placement technique could be used to reduce trauma in irradiated bone and to improve wound healing around dental implants. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Pasteurization on the Nutritive Composition of Commercially Available Animal Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Catherine D; Cassidy, Joseph P; Kelly, John P

    2008-01-01

    Gamma radiation is used to sterilize diets for specific pathogen-free (SPF) animals. Because a gamma-irradiated diet was linked to leukoencephalomyelopathy in SPF cats, we investigated the effects of ‘typical’ (28.9–34.3 kGy) and ‘high-end’ (38.4–48.7 kGy) doses of gamma irradiation and of pasteurization (at 107 °C for 15 min) on the amounts of fat; protein; carbohydrate (and taurine in cat diet); vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, and B12; and peroxide in commercially available dry cat, dog, and rodent diets. The only treatment-related changes occurred with vitamin A and peroxide. The typical and high-end doses of gamma irradiation reduced the vitamin A level of the cat diet to 42% and 30% of the untreated value, respectively—levels below recommended allowances for growth and reproduction. Only the higher irradiation dose reduced vitamin A in the rodent diet, and neither dose altered the canine diet. Pasteurization reduced the vitamin A content of the cat diet to 50% of its original level, which was within the recommended level for this species. Irradiation increased the peroxide content of all 3 animal diets: by approximately 11-fold with the typical dose and by 14- to 25-fold with the high-end dose. Therefore gamma irradiation can have profound, selective effects on the vitamin A and peroxide contents of dry diets, and caution is advised when feeding such diets long-term and exclusively to SPF animals, particularly cats. Furthermore, pasteurization (with its fewer deleterious effects) may represent an alternative method of decontaminating diets for rodents, dogs, and cats. PMID:19049256

  8. Precise image-guided irradiation of small animals: a flexible non-profit platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Löck, Steffen; Dietrich, Antje; Fursov, Andriy; Haase, Robert; Lukas, Mathias; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Bütof, Rebecca; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Rimarzig, Bernd; Sobiella, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical in vivo studies using small animals are essential to develop new therapeutic options in radiation oncology. Of particular interest are orthotopic tumour models, which better reflect the clinical situation in terms of growth patterns and microenvironmental parameters of the tumour as well as the interplay of tumours with the surrounding normal tissues. Such orthotopic models increase the technical demands and the complexity of preclinical studies as local irradiation with therapeutically relevant doses requires image-guided target localisation and accurate beam application. Moreover, advanced imaging techniques are needed for monitoring treatment outcome. We present a novel small animal image-guided radiation therapy (SAIGRT) system, which allows for precise and accurate, conformal irradiation and x-ray imaging of small animals. High accuracy is achieved by its robust construction, the precise movement of its components and a fast high-resolution flat-panel detector. Field forming and x-ray imaging is accomplished close to the animal resulting in a small penumbra and a high image quality. Feasibility for irradiating orthotopic models has been proven using lung tumour and glioblastoma models in mice. The SAIGRT system provides a flexible, non-profit academic research platform which can be adapted to specific experimental needs and therefore enables systematic preclinical trials in multicentre research networks. (paper)

  9. Partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals with an industrial X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas; Grohmann, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated precise small laboratory animal irradiation sources are needed for basic cancer research and to meet this need expensive high precision radiation devices have been developed. To avoid such expenses a cost efficient way is presented to construct a device for partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals by adding specific components to an industrial X-ray tube. A custom made radiation field tube was added to an industrial 200 kV X-ray tube. A light field display as well as a monitor ionization chamber were implemented. The field size can rapidly be changed by individual inserts of MCP96 that are used for secondary collimation of the beam. Depth dose curves and cross sectional profiles were determined with the use of a custom made water phantom. More components like positioning lasers, a custom made treatment couch, and a commercial isoflurane anesthesia unit were added to complete the system. With the accessories described secondary small field sizes down to 10 by 10 mm 2 (secondary collimator size) could be achieved. The dosimetry of the beam was constructed like those for conventional stereotactical clinical linear accelerators. The water phantom created showed an accuracy of 1 mm and was well suited for all measurements. With the anesthesia unit attached to the custom made treatment couch the system is ideal for the radiation treatment of small laboratory animals like mice. It was feasible to shrink the field size of an industrial X-ray tube from whole animal irradiation to precise partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals. Even smaller secondary collimator sizes than 10 by 10 mm 2 are feasible with adequate secondary collimator inserts. Our custom made water phantom was well suited for the basic dosimetry of the X-ray tube.

  10. A small animal image guided irradiation system study using 3D dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xin; Wuu, Cheng-Shie; Admovics, John

    2015-01-01

    In a high resolution image-guided small animal irradiation platform, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is integrated with an irradiation unit for precise targeting. Precise quality assurance is essential for both imaging and irradiation components. The conventional commissioning techniques with films face major challenges due to alignment uncertainty and labour intensive film preparation and scanning. In addition, due to the novel design of this platform the mouse stage rotation for CBCT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for irradiation. Because these two rotations are associated with different mechanical systems, discrepancy between rotation isocenters exists. In order to deliver x-ray precisely, it is essential to verify coincidence of the imaging and the irradiation isocenters. A 3D PRESAGE dosimeter can provide an excellent tool for checking dosimetry and verifying coincidence of irradiation and imaging coordinates in one system. Dosimetric measurements were performed to obtain beam profiles and percent depth dose (PDD). Isocentricity and coincidence of the mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated with starshots acquired using PRESAGE dosimeters. A single PRESAGE dosimeter can provide 3 -D information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies

  11. Investigations on the development of an irradiated vaccine for animal schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.F.; Bushara, H.O.

    1976-01-01

    The results are summarized of preliminary experiments on the development of an irradiated larval vaccine for Schistosoma bovis, an important trematode of domestic ruminants in the Sudan. Initial studies on mice demonstrated the inhibitory effects of irradiation on the development of S. bovis, S. mansoni and S. mattheei, and also suggested that irradiated cercariae were highly immunogenic. In calves, it was shown that a single exposure to irradiated S. mansoni cercariae induced a strong partial resistance against S. bovis, even though no adult parasites of the former were produced. The experiment also showed that a stronger immunity occurred at 24 weeks than at 8 weeks post-immunization, indicating the long duration of the immunity produced by these short-lived cercariae. Another experiment, involving sheep, was made using irradiated S. bovis cercariae as the immunizing agents. Marked reduction in worm and especially in tissue egg counts were also reported following challenge infections 37 weeks later with normal S. bovis cercariae. Because of the fragility of the cercariae and difficulties in their administration and storage, trials are being carried out using another larval stage, the schistosomule, as an immunizing agent. In these trials various methods for the transformation of cercariae into schistosomules were evaluated, and the immunogenicity of irradiated schistosomules administered intra-muscularly into animals is now being investigated. At the same time, attempts are in progress to maintain the schistosomules by cryopreservation techniques for a period long enough to ensure an adequate shelf-life before conducting a field test on naturally infected animals in the Sudan. (author)

  12. Hemopoiesis recovery of irradiated rats conjugated with normo- and poly- cythemic animal by aortic anastomoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Yuji

    1980-01-01

    The experiment was designed to observe the possible relation between myelopoietic and erythropoietic activities of circulating nucleated cells. Wistar rats were lethally irradiated with 60 Co, 1000 r once. Two days after irradiation the bone marrow cells had faded completely. At this stage animals were conjugated with normocythemic or polycythemic rats by aortic anastomoses. After conjugation the aplastic bone marrow of the irradiated animal rapidly regained its hemopoietic activity in cases having normocythemic and polycythemic partners. Active erythropoiesis and myelopoiesis were found 96 h after parabiosis in those having normocythemic partners. In animals having polycythemic partners, however, erythropoiesis was successfully suppressed. An increase in lymphoid cell numbers was found in place of decreased erythroid cells, but there was no change in the myeloid cell proliferation rate. No hemopoietic precursor cells or immature cells were found in circulating blood all through the experimental period before and after parabiosis. The data suggest that circulating nucleated cells have marked erythropoietic activity. Erythropoietic cells may be somehow related to lymphoid cells independent of myelopoietic activity. (author)

  13. Spermatogenesis in adult rhesus monkeys following irradiation with X-rays or fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooij, D.G. de; Sonneveld, P.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    A group of male rhesus monkeys was exposed to total body irradiation followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation. The animals were irradiated in the period between 1965 and 1976 and received a dose of 8.5 Gy of X-rays (300 KVP) or 3.6 Gy of 1 MeV fission neutrons. Of this group, a total of 11 male monkeys proved to be evaluable for studying the effects of irradiation on spermatogenesis. (Auth.)

  14. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Wong, John; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal (‘tubular’ geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal (‘pancake’ geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry

  15. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John

    2015-07-07

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal ('tubular' geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal ('pancake' geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry, respectively.

  16. Effect of laser irradiation for healing of the skin-muscle wounds of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapina, Victoria A.; Veremei, Eduard I.; Pancovets, Evgeniy A.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to study the medical effect of low-intensity laser influence on healing of skin- muscle wounds of agricultural animals. We used the laser radiation of low intensity for cub's therapy: to sucking-pigs after herniotomy and castration, to cattle cubs after skin- muscle wounds. The animals were kept under clinical observation up to their recovery. The recuperation dynamic was observed by changing of blood quotients, leukograms, sizes of inflammatory edema, general behavior of animals. The positive dynamic of blood quotients of the experimental animal groups was really higher than that in control. The analysis of wound healing after laser influence shows that wound surface of experimental group was to a great extent smaller in comparison with control group of animals. So, these facts testify about anti-inflammatory action of laser radiation, which hastens regenerative and rehabilitative processes. Analysis of the obtained experimental data has revealed the positive influence of laser irradiation on the dynamics of wound adhesion of agricultural animals.

  17. Laser irradiation effects and its possible mechanisms of action on spermatozoa functions in domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Lone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review pertains the laser irradiation effects and its possible mechanisms of action on spermatozoa functions in domestic animals. To improve artificial insemination, laser is sensitive and cost effective technique, when compared to other conventional methods. Laser may have both positive and negative effects on spermatozoa functions. Since the effects of light are mediated by reactive oxygen species, and the levels of these reactive oxygen species following irradiating spermatozoa with laser may be responsible for determining the effects of laser on sperm. Dose of laser may be regarded as of great significance and this dosage of laser may be responsible for determining its effects on spermatozoa. Optimum dosage of laser for improving seminal attributes may vary among various species and this need to be standardized in each of them. The beneficial effects include improving sperm livability, acrosomal integrity, hypo-osmotic swelling response, mitochondrial function and computer-aided sperm analysis parameters. The increase in cytochrome c oxidase activity, ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential, in laser irradiated cells may be responsible for enhanced sperm quality parameters. Improving fertility with laser irradiated spermatozoa has been reported in few species like boar and need to be elaborated in other species. In conclusion laser may be regarded as an easy, cheap and time saving technology for improving artificial insemination; in addition, laser may have various potential applications in the field of reproductive biotechnology as well as in livestock farms and veterinary polyclinics.

  18. dLocAuth: a dynamic multifactor authentication scheme for mCommerce applications using independent location-based obfuscation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes a new technique to obfuscate an authentication-challenge program (named LocProg) using randomly generated data together with a client's current location in real-time. LocProg can be used to enable any handsetapplication on mobile-devices (e.g. mCommerce on Smartphones) that requires authentication with a remote authenticator (e.g. bank). The motivation of this novel technique is to a) enhance the security against replay attacks, which is currently based on using real-time nonce(s), and b) add a new security factor, which is location verified by two independent sources, to challenge / response methods for authentication. To assure a secure-live transaction, thus reducing the possibility of replay and other remote attacks, the authors have devised a novel technique to obtain the client's location from two independent sources of GPS on the client's side and the cellular network on authenticator's side. The algorithm of LocProg is based on obfuscating "random elements plus a client's data" with a location-based key, generated on the bank side. LocProg is then sent to the client and is designed so it will automatically integrate into the target application on the client's handset. The client can then de-obfuscate LocProg if s/he is within a certain range around the location calculated by the bank and if the correct personal data is supplied. LocProg also has features to protect against trial/error attacks. Analysis of LocAuth's security (trust, threat and system models) and trials based on a prototype implementation (on Android platform) prove the viability and novelty of LocAuth.

  19. SU-E-T-481: In Vivo and Post Mortem Animal Irradiation: Measured Vs. Calculated Doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, P [Univ New Mexico Radiology Dept., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heintz, B [Texas Oncology, PA, Southlake, TX (United States); Sandoval, D [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W; Melo, D; Guilmette, R [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Computerized radiation therapy treatment planning is performed on almost all patients today. However it is seldom used for laboratory irradiations. The first objective is to assess whether modern radiation therapy treatment planning (RTP) systems accurately predict the subject dose by comparing in vivo and decedent dose measurements to calculated doses. The other objective is determine the importance of using a RTP system for laboratory irradiations. Methods: 5 MOSFET radiation dosimeters were placed enterically in each subject (2 sedated Rhesus Macaques) to measure the absorbed dose at 5 levels (carina, lung, heart, liver and rectum) during whole body irradiation. The subjects were treated with large opposed lateral fields and extended distances to cover the entire subject using a Varian 600C linac. CT simulation was performed ante-mortem (AM) and post-mortem (PM). To compare AM and PM doses, calculation points were placed at the location of each dosimeter in the treatment plan. The measured results were compared to the results using Varian Eclipse and Prowess Panther RTP systems. Results: The Varian and Prowess treatment planning system agreed to within in +1.5% for both subjects. However there were significant differences between the measured and calculated doses. For both animals the calculated central axis dose was higher than prescribed by 3–5%. This was caused in part by inaccurate measurement of animal thickness at the time of irradiation. For one subject the doses ranged from 4% to 7% high and the other subject the doses ranged 7% to 14% high when compared to the RTP doses. Conclusions: Our results suggest that using proper CT RTP system can more accurately deliver the prescribed dose to laboratory subjects. It also shows that there is significant dose variation in such subjects when inhomogeneities are not considered in the planning process.

  20. Tocopherol in irradiation of temporary hypoxic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaagerud, A.; Lund, N.; Peterson, H.I.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of tocopherol on the effect of local irradiation under induced ischaemia by temporary tourniquet of two rat tumours transplanted intramuscularly into one hindleg was evaluated. An impaired retardation of growth rate occurred in tumours irradiated under ischaemia. This effect was eliminated by pretreatment of animals with tocopherol. In separate experiments the method of inducing ischaemia was investigated by MDO-electrode measurements of tumour tissue oxygen pressure. A significant tumour hypoxia was found under tourniquet of the tumour-bearing leg of the animals. Pretreatment with tocopherol did not influence the tumour pO 2 . (Auth.)

  1. SU-E-T-457: Design and Characterization of An Economical 192Ir Hemi-Brain Small Animal Irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, M; Wilson, Z; Sio, T; Beltran, C; Tryggestad, E; Gupta, S; Blackwell, C; McCollough, K; Sarkaria, J; Furutani, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the design and dosimetric characterization of a simple and economical small animal irradiator. Methods: A high dose rate 192Ir brachytherapy source from a commercially available afterloader was used with a 1.3 centimeter thick tungsten collimator to provide sharp beam penumbra suitable for hemi-brain irradiation of mice. The unit is equipped with continuous gas anesthesia to allow robust animal immobilization. Dosimetric characterization of the device was performed with Gafchromic film. The penumbra from the small animal irradiator was compared under similar collimating conditions to the penumbra from 6 MV photons, 6 MeV electrons, and 20 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator as well as 300 kVp photons from an orthovoltage unit and Monte Carlo simulated 90 MeV protons. Results: The tungsten collimator provides a sharp penumbra suitable for hemi-brain irradiation, and dose rates on the order of 200 cGy/minute were achieved. The sharpness of the penumbra attainable with this device compares favorably to those measured experimentally for 6 MV photons, and 6 and 20 MeV electron beams from a linear accelerator. Additionally, the penumbra was comparable to those measured for a 300 kVp orthovoltage beam and a Monte Carlo simulated 90 MeV proton beam. Conclusions: The small animal irradiator described here can be built for under $1,000 and used in conjunction with any commercial brachytherapy afterloader to provide a convenient and cost-effective option for small animal irradiation experiments. The unit offers high dose rate delivery and sharp penumbra, which is ideal for hemi-brain irradiation of mice. With slight modifications to the design, irradiation of sites other than the brain could be accomplished easily. Due to its simplicity and low cost, the apparatus described is an attractive alternative for small animal irradiation experiments requiring a sharp penumbra

  2. Possible nature and specificity of a protein factor favoringsolubilization of chromatin from irradiated animal thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldatenkov, V.A.; Trebenok, Z.A.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that activation of endonucleolysis of thymocyte nuclear chromatin by protein factor from the cells of irradiated animals is not conditioned by its nuclease activity or ability to activate Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ - dependent lymphocyte endonuclease. DNA degradation character and kinetics of accumulation of the forming products doesn't change in autolysis of thymocyte nucleus. It is assumed that protein factor doesn't participate in starting mechanisms of postirradiation chromatin degradation but can be of significance at delayed stages of the process. The discovered effect is characterized by tissue and specific characteristic

  3. Part 1. Effect of pyralgine on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in irradiated animals (600 R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaryn, I.; Wojciak, Z.; Godlewski, J.; Nowakowska, E.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to check the influence of pyralgine (40 mg/kg i.p.) on the hypnotic activity of phenobarbital (70 mg/kg i.p.) in rats after whole-body irradiation (600 R). Premedication with pyralgine produced statistically significant prolongation of animals sleep and shortened the time necessary for falling asleep after phenobarbital. The results seem to be connected with more rapid absorption of phenobarbital and its higher level in plasma and, first of all, in the brain tissue after premedication with pyralgine. We suggest that pharmacodynamical interaction between phenobarbital and pyralgine also exists. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  4. Improving the reliability of GUB-20000 gamma unit for large laboratory animals irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videnskij, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    GUB-20000 gamma unit for large laboratory animals irradiation is described and results of investigation into its reliability improvement are considered. Cables of superstrength high-modular (SSHM) polymer fibre and capron fiber were tested to establish their applicability in the above unit. Samples were exposed to gamma-radiation and fast electrons and were tested for tensile properties. Application of SSHM-fiber cables to modernize the GUB-20000 unit was found to be perspective due to superhigh radiation strength. 5 refs., 1 tab

  5. Determination of ionizing irradiation summary dose for animals of West Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'tsev, V.E.; Nasirov, R.N.; Gal'tseva, E.V.; Lebedev, Ya.S.; Bubnov, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    By mean of tooth enamel EPR dosimetry the accumulated radiation doses received animals near Azgyr and Tajsojgan nuclear test sites (West Kazakstan) were determined . In the work camel's two teeth (Tajsojgan) and cow's two teeth (from Azgyr and Tajsojgan test sites - accordingly) were used. Registration of EPR spectrum has been carried out on production-type EPR-spectrometer ESR-300 of Bruker firm under temperature 77 K. SHF power level is 5 MW. Constant magnetic field's modulation frequency was equal to 100 k Hz and modulation amplitude was equal to 3,2 Gs. Received data allow to make conclusion that all tested animals have got summary dose exceeded significantly a natural background radiation dose (1-1,5 μGy/y. Comparison of irradiation dose accumulated in both the front and back tooth walls testifies about predominance of hard γ-rays in the spectrum. 4 refs., 2 figs

  6. Effect of whole body irradiation on different tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casati, V.; Nardino, A.; Tomassi, I.; Becciolini, A.; Rizzi, M.; Martelli, T.

    1979-01-01

    The uptake and elimination of 14 C leucine were analysed in controls and in rats irradiated 2 h before injection with 8 Gy whole-body irradiation. Plasma, small intestine, kidney and skin were assayed after homogenization for TCA soluble and insoluble activity curves. In highly differentiated tissues with poor proliferative activity and low protein turnover, the uptake and elimination of the tracer did not appear to be affected by irradiation. In the small intestine differences between control and irradiated animals seemed significant. (Auth.)

  7. Effect of x irradiation on the vascularization of experimental animal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, Y; Ogawa, F; Nishiguchi, H; Tanaka, N; Murakami, K [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1975-03-01

    The authors studied the effect of ionizing radiation on blood vessels and tumor growth in two animal tumor systems: a third generation isoplants of a mammary cancer and a spontaneously arising squamous cell carcinoma. Single cell suspensions were transplanted into a C3H and a C3Hf mouse respectively. They were irradiated once with 2000 rad when the tumors reached about 8 mm in diameter. Microangiography was performed at a constant temperature and pressure, and a contrast medium containing lead-oxide and gelatin was flushed the vena cava for 10 min. at 120 mmHg. Tumor shrinkage was followed by continuous regrowth. The basic vasculature of the mammary carcinoma consisted of abundant large and fine blood vessels corkscrewed or stretched from the periphery of the tumor to its center in complex reticular networks. One day after irradiation there were small scattered avascular areas which, by the third day formed a large central necrosis. Supervascularization was also observed, indicating that some hypoxic tumor cells could be reoxygenized. In 5 days vascularization was similar to that of a nonirradiated tumor. Conversely, The squamous cell carcinoma showed peripheral and central vascularization with abundant vascular and avascular areas and extravasion in the large avascular area. Two days after irradiation the vessels were dilated. At 3 days peripheral fine vessels were damaged but the central vasculature remained intact. Unlike the mammary carcinoma, supervascularization was not the typical finding. At 5 days, vascularization was similar to that of a nonirradiated tumor.

  8. A Privacy Protection User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Tailored for the Internet of Things Environment: PriAuth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwen Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a wearable sensor-based deployment, sensors are placed over the patient to monitor their body health parameters. Continuous physiological information monitored by wearable sensors helps doctors have a better diagnostic and a suitable treatment. When doctors want to access the patient’s sensor data remotely via network, the patient will authenticate the identity of the doctor first, and then they will negotiate a key for further communication. Many lightweight schemes have been proposed to enable a mutual authentication and key establishment between the two parties with the help of a gateway node, but most of these schemes cannot enable identity confidentiality. Besides, the shared key is also known by the gateway, which means the patient’s sensor data could be leaked to the gateway. In PriAuth, identities are encrypted to guarantee confidentiality. Additionally, Elliptic Curve Diffie–Hellman (ECDH key exchange protocol has been adopted to ensure the secrecy of the key, avoiding the gateway access to it. Besides, only hash and XOR computations are adopted because of the computability and power constraints of the wearable sensors. The proposed scheme has been validated by BAN logic and AVISPA, and the results show the scheme has been proven as secure.

  9. Multi-institutional MicroCT image comparison of image-guided small animal irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Chris D.; Lindsay, Patricia; E Graves, Edward; Wong, Eugene; Perez, Jessica R.; Poirier, Yannick; Ben-Bouchta, Youssef; Kanesalingam, Thilakshan; Chen, Haijian; E Rubinstein, Ashley; Sheng, Ke; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    To recommend imaging protocols and establish tolerance levels for microCT image quality assurance (QA) performed on conformal image-guided small animal irradiators. A fully automated QA software SAPA (small animal phantom analyzer) for image analysis of the commercial Shelley micro-CT MCTP 610 phantom was developed, in which quantitative analyses of CT number linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity and noise, geometric accuracy, spatial resolution by means of modulation transfer function (MTF), and CT contrast were performed. Phantom microCT scans from eleven institutions acquired with four image-guided small animal irradiator units (including the commercial PXi X-RAD SmART and Xstrahl SARRP systems) with varying parameters used for routine small animal imaging were analyzed. Multi-institutional data sets were compared using SAPA, based on which tolerance levels for each QA test were established and imaging protocols for QA were recommended. By analyzing microCT data from 11 institutions, we established image QA tolerance levels for all image quality tests. CT number linearity set to R 2  >  0.990 was acceptable in microCT data acquired at all but three institutions. Acceptable SNR  >  36 and noise levels  1.5 lp mm-1 for MTF  =  0.2) was obtained at all but four institutions due to their large image voxel size used (>0.275 mm). Ten of the eleven institutions passed the set QA tolerance for geometric accuracy (2000 HU for 30 mgI ml-1). We recommend performing imaging QA with 70 kVp, 1.5 mA, 120 s imaging time, 0.20 mm voxel size, and a frame rate of 5 fps for the PXi X-RAD SmART. For the Xstrahl SARRP, we recommend using 60 kVp, 1.0 mA, 240 s imaging time, 0.20 mm voxel size, and 6 fps. These imaging protocols should result in high quality images that pass the set tolerance levels on all systems. Average SAPA computation time for complete QA analysis for a 0.20 mm voxel, 400 slice Shelley phantom microCT data set

  10. Feasibility of small animal cranial irradiation with the microRT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiehl, Erich L.; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Malinowski, Kathleen T.; Limbrick, David; Jost, Sarah C.; Garbow, Joel R.; Rubin, Joshua B.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Khullar, Divya; Izaguirre, Enrique W.; Parikh, Parag J.; Low, Daniel A.; Hope, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate methods for small-animal CNS radiotherapy using the microRT system. Materials and Methods: A custom head immobilizer was designed and built to integrate with a pre-existing microRT animal couch. The Delrin couch-immobilizer assembly, compatible with multiple imaging modalities (CT, microCT, microMR, microPET, microSPECT, optical), was first imaged via CT in order to verify the safety and reproducibility of the immobilization method. Once verified, the subject animals were CT-scanned while positioned within the couch-immobilizer assembly for treatment planning purposes. The resultant images were then imported into CERR, an in-house-developed research treatment planning system, and registered to the microRTP treatment planning space using rigid registration. The targeted brain was then contoured and conformal radiotherapy plans were constructed for two separate studies: (1) a whole-brain irradiation comprised of two lateral beams at the 90 degree sign and 270 degree sign microRT treatment positions and (2) a hemispheric (left-brain) irradiation comprised of a single A-P vertex beam at the 0 degree sign microRT treatment position. During treatment, subject animals (n=48) were positioned to the CERR-generated treatment coordinates using the three-axis microRT motor positioning system and were irradiated using a clinical Ir-192 high-dose-rate remote after-loading system. The radiation treatment course consisted of 5 Gy fractions, 3 days per week. 90% of the subjects received a total dose of 30 Gy and 10% received a dose of 60 Gy. Results: Image analysis verified the safety and reproducibility of the immobilizer. CT scans generated from repeated reloading and repositioning of the same subject animal in the couch-immobilizer assembly were fused to a baseline CT. The resultant analysis revealed a 0.09 mm average, center-of-mass translocation and negligible volumetric error in the contoured, murine brain. The experimental use of the head

  11. Selection and adaptation in irradiated plant and animal populations: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.

    1981-03-01

    Available literature on the effects of ionizing radiation on mutation rates, variability and adaptive responses to selection in exposed plant and animal populations is reviewed. Accumulated variability, and hence potential selection differentials, may be increased by many times due to induced mutation. The radiation dose that maximizes induced mutation varies greatly among species, strains and genetic systems. Induced variability tends to enhance the respose to selection, but this effect may be delayed or prevented by an initial reduction in the heritability of induced variation. Significantly, the detrimental effects of harmful mutations in irradiated populations may exceed the beneficial effects of selection for adaptive characteristics. Selection for radioresistance may occur at lethal or sub-lethal radiation doses but dose relationships are highly variable. (author)

  12. Investigation of the diagnostic value of taurineuria status early after irradiation of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezkrovnaya, L.A.; Kostesha, N.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the features of taurine excretion early after irradiation of animals in comparison with the peripheral blood level of leukocytes is necessary for the development of methods of early diagnosis and prediction of an outcome of radiation disease. The paper is concerned with a study of the correlation between a dose of ionizing radiation and enhanced taurine excretion with urine in rats and dogs as compared to the time course of the blood level of leukocytes, an indicator used for the diagnosis of radiation disease. The doses were 2-10 Gy for rats and 5-15 Gy for dogs. Intensive taurine excretion was shown to be an early (recorded in the first hours after radiation exposure), stable and dose-dependent body reaction. The authors discussed the problem of the appropriateness of the use of this test for the diagnosis and prognosis of an outcome of acute radiation disease in combination with common indices

  13. Characterization and standardized radiation qualities deployment - NBR IEC 61225 - in a animal irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Samara; Magalhaes, Luis Alexandre Goncalves

    2015-01-01

    The present work consisted in the determination of additional aluminum filters, so that the Animal Irradiator of the Laboratory of Radiological Sciences-UERJ can operate in accordance with standard IEC 61267: 2005. In order to perform the measurements necessary for the determination of these filters, it was developed an additional filter positioning system coupled to the X-ray tube. The determination of these filters was performed to obtain the first half value layer (HVL) according to the window with the values given by the IEC 61267: 2005. It was used IPEN SRS-78 (Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine) software for the estimation of the total amount of the additional filtration through the measurements values of the first HVL. (author)

  14. The changes in drug binding activity of GABA receptor and animal neural-behavior after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hui; Zhen Rong; Zhao Naikun; Xue Hong; Wang Zihui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation on gamma-aminobutyric-acid receptor (GABA-R) as well as behavioral changes after brain 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: The mice were irradiated with gamma rays (20 Gy; 10 Gy and 5 Gy) . The drug binding activity of GABA receptor in brain receptor was measured by fluorescence anisotropy (FA) and equilibrium dissociation constants. The behavioral changes were observed by the locomotor activity test, elevated plus-maze test and hole-board test at 1, 10, 24 and 48 hr after irradiation. Results: 1. The drug binding activity of the GABA receptor was decreased and the equilibrium dissociation constant (K d ) was significantly increased compared with the negative control group 2 hr after irradiation, and a spike value appeared at 24 hr. It showed that the irradiation might damage or decrease the binding activity and the bio-activity of GABA receptor. 2. The animal experiment confirmed that the irradiated animal model showed neural-behavioral changes of anxiety or depression. 3. The decreased binding activity of GABA receptor and changes in behavior of irradiated animal were dependent on radiation intensity. 4. The changes of behavior was similar to the blocked GABA receptor group. It suggests the relationship of radiation and GABA receptor. Conclusion: These results suggest that GABA receptor may be involved in radiation injury. The functional changes of GABA receptor may be an induction factor of behavioral disorder. The article also discussed the effect of anxiety and results obtained from the point of view of GABA receptor system involvement in the changes observed after irradiation. (authors)

  15. Drug Interactions between some antiepileptic and certain hypocholesterolaemic drugs in irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, D.M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Drug Interactions between antiepileptic drug such as phenytoin and certain hypercholesterolaemia drug namely rosuvastatin were investigated on several biological parameters. Phenytoin (60 mg/kg i.p) and rosuvastatin (1.25 mg/kg i.p) were given either alone and in combination to normal and irradiated animals to investigate drug interactions between the test drugs. Anticonvulsant activity was evaluated using pentylenetetrazole in a dose (80 mg/kg i.p) in normal and irradiated mice. Brain neurotransmitters (glutamate and GABA) were investigated. Lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C) were determined. Liver functions such as serum Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) were also estimated. Oxidative stress bio markers namely serum malondialdehyde (MDA), serum nitric oxide (NO) and blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) were studied. Histopathological examinations of brain and liver tissues were performed. Administration of phenytoin concurrently with rosuvastatin is not recommended in patients receiving radiotherapy as dangerous side effects on liver functions and lipid profile may occur. The interactions between the two drugs in normal rats improve liver functions and lipid peroxidation. Apart from the action of the combination on total cholesterol, it improves lipid profile pattern. Rosuvastatin administration in combination with phenytoin may have additive anticonvulsant activity.

  16. Experimental Platform for Ultra-high Dose Rate FLASH Irradiation of Small Animals Using a Clinical Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schüler, Emil; Trovati, Stefania; King, Gregory; Lartey, Frederick; Rafat, Marjan; Villegas, Manuel; Praxel, A. Joe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G., E-mail: PMaxim@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A key factor limiting the effectiveness of radiation therapy is normal tissue toxicity, and recent preclinical data have shown that ultra-high dose rate irradiation (>50 Gy/s, “FLASH”) potentially mitigates this effect. However, research in this field has been strongly limited by the availability of FLASH irradiators suitable for small animal experiments. We present a simple methodologic approach for FLASH electron small animal irradiation with a clinically available linear accelerator (LINAC). Methods and Materials: We investigated the FLASH irradiation potential of a Varian Clinac 21EX in both clinical mode and after tuning of the LINAC. We performed detailed FLUKA Monte Carlo and experimental dosimetric characterization at multiple experimental locations within the LINAC head. Results: Average dose rates of ≤74 Gy/s were achieved in clinical mode, and the dose rate after tuning exceeded 900 Gy/s. We obtained 220 Gy/s at 1-cm depth for a >4-cm field size with 90% homogeneity throughout a 2-cm-thick volume. Conclusions: We present an approach for using a clinical LINAC for FLASH irradiation. We obtained dose rates exceeding 200 Gy/s after simple tuning of the LINAC, with excellent dosimetric properties for small animal experiments. This will allow for increased availability of FLASH irradiation to the general research community.

  17. Experimental Platform for Ultra-high Dose Rate FLASH Irradiation of Small Animals Using a Clinical Linear Accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Emil; Trovati, Stefania; King, Gregory; Lartey, Frederick; Rafat, Marjan; Villegas, Manuel; Praxel, A Joe; Loo, Billy W; Maxim, Peter G

    2017-01-01

    A key factor limiting the effectiveness of radiation therapy is normal tissue toxicity, and recent preclinical data have shown that ultra-high dose rate irradiation (>50 Gy/s, "FLASH") potentially mitigates this effect. However, research in this field has been strongly limited by the availability of FLASH irradiators suitable for small animal experiments. We present a simple methodologic approach for FLASH electron small animal irradiation with a clinically available linear accelerator (LINAC). We investigated the FLASH irradiation potential of a Varian Clinac 21EX in both clinical mode and after tuning of the LINAC. We performed detailed FLUKA Monte Carlo and experimental dosimetric characterization at multiple experimental locations within the LINAC head. Average dose rates of ≤74 Gy/s were achieved in clinical mode, and the dose rate after tuning exceeded 900 Gy/s. We obtained 220 Gy/s at 1-cm depth for a >4-cm field size with 90% homogeneity throughout a 2-cm-thick volume. We present an approach for using a clinical LINAC for FLASH irradiation. We obtained dose rates exceeding 200 Gy/s after simple tuning of the LINAC, with excellent dosimetric properties for small animal experiments. This will allow for increased availability of FLASH irradiation to the general research community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Irradiated T. cruzi and resistant consomic animals can be useful in Chagas disease studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti; Passos, Luiz Augusto Correa; Salgado, Andreia Ruis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Multidisciplinar para a Investigacao Biologica (CEMIB/UNICAMP)], e-mail: viviliotti@cemib.unicamp.br; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Human Chagas disease is considered the most significant parasitic disease in Latin America. It is estimated that 16-18 million people are infected by T. cruzi. As a consequence, approximately 50,000 deaths occur every year. The acute infection usually goes unrecognized and enters into a chronic stage that persists throughout the host's life span. However, roughly 30% of infected individuals eventually will develop disease with an array of possible manifestations affecting the heart, the digestive tract, and/or the peripheral nervous system. This disease is commonly modeled in inbred mice even though mouse strains used to simulate experimental infection vary considerably. In this way, Wrightsman and Trischmann showed that chromosome 17 was directly involved in a T. cruzi resistance, showing the influence of host's genetic constitution on disease severity. Additionally, in 2003, Passos and Graefe, working separately, quantified parasite burdens in resistant and susceptible strains and applied a backcross strategy to map the genomic loci linked to susceptibility and resistance in inbred mice. The genomes of the animals were scanned with microsatellite markers and the results found by these authors showed that the resistance mechanism is polygenic and is under the control of a complex network. In the particular case of Y strain, in vivo assays indicated that survival was related to the chromosomes 7,11,14,17 and 19. In order to evaluate the influence of each isolated chromosome as well as their interactions, we employed susceptible isogenic mice to construct consomic lineages for each one of those chromosomes. The consomic strains were injected with irradiated and native forms of Y strain T. cruzi, and the infectivity parameters were evaluated by quantitative methods. Radiation caused inability of trypanosomes to infect and kill mice, when these parasites were irradiated with 1 kGy of gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. In this experiment we used 10{sup 1

  19. Irradiated T. cruzi and resistant consomic animals can be useful in Chagas disease studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti; Passos, Luiz Augusto Correa; Salgado, Andreia Ruis; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2009-01-01

    Human Chagas disease is considered the most significant parasitic disease in Latin America. It is estimated that 16-18 million people are infected by T. cruzi. As a consequence, approximately 50,000 deaths occur every year. The acute infection usually goes unrecognized and enters into a chronic stage that persists throughout the host's life span. However, roughly 30% of infected individuals eventually will develop disease with an array of possible manifestations affecting the heart, the digestive tract, and/or the peripheral nervous system. This disease is commonly modeled in inbred mice even though mouse strains used to simulate experimental infection vary considerably. In this way, Wrightsman and Trischmann showed that chromosome 17 was directly involved in a T. cruzi resistance, showing the influence of host's genetic constitution on disease severity. Additionally, in 2003, Passos and Graefe, working separately, quantified parasite burdens in resistant and susceptible strains and applied a backcross strategy to map the genomic loci linked to susceptibility and resistance in inbred mice. The genomes of the animals were scanned with microsatellite markers and the results found by these authors showed that the resistance mechanism is polygenic and is under the control of a complex network. In the particular case of Y strain, in vivo assays indicated that survival was related to the chromosomes 7,11,14,17 and 19. In order to evaluate the influence of each isolated chromosome as well as their interactions, we employed susceptible isogenic mice to construct consomic lineages for each one of those chromosomes. The consomic strains were injected with irradiated and native forms of Y strain T. cruzi, and the infectivity parameters were evaluated by quantitative methods. Radiation caused inability of trypanosomes to infect and kill mice, when these parasites were irradiated with 1 kGy of gamma rays from a 60 Co source. In this experiment we used 10 1 , 10 2 , 10 3 , 10 4

  20. Radiation Effect on Secondary Cancerization by Tumour Cell Grafts. Take of Irradiated Tumour Cells in Irradiated and Non-Irradiated Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costachel, O.; Sandru, Gh.; Kitzulescu, I. [Oncological Institute, Bucharest (Romania)

    1969-11-15

    This study was designed to determine the ability of haemocytoblastoma, SME and Jensen tumours, which had been irradiated in vitro, to take in C{sub 57}BL/6 mice or Wistar rats that were whole-body irradiated at 0.4 kR and 0.6 kR respectively. It was found-that the take of tumour cell grafts irradiated in vitro increased in whole-body irradiated mice and rats but not in non-irradiated ones. When Wistar rats, that had been whole-body irradiated with 0.7 and 0.8 kR 1 - 7 months earlier and survived after treatment, were grafted with Jensen tumour cells irradiated in vitro with 3 kR they were found to develop tumours and lung metastases (in contrast to non-irradiated rats). A cross resistance against non-irradiated Jensen tumour cells was obtained in non- irradiated Wistar rats by grafting irradiated Jensen tumour cells. Chromosomal analysis showed two supplementary giant markers in the Jensen tumour cells that had been irradiated in vitro before grafting. (author)

  1. Prevention of lung metastases by irradiation alone or combined with chemotherapy in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, J.; Haveman, J.

    1986-01-01

    Clinical observations indicate that the results of elective radiotherapy are disappointing when the subclinical metastases supposedly contain a large number of tumor cells. Experimental data confirm this indication: a rapid decrease in the effectiveness of radiation treatment of experimental metastases was observed with increasing number of tumor cells in the lung. Apart from the increase in cell number also the development of hypoxia during growth of subclinical metastases might explain part of the decrease in the effectiveness of elective radiation treatment. Experiments with the hypoxic cell sensitizer misonidazole in transplantable tumors in rodents indicate that this latter possibility might be relevant too for the clinical situation. Improvement of the results of an elective treatment might either be obtained by a reduction of the cell number to be treated with radiation, by prior treatment with a cytostatic drug or be dealing with the problem of hypoxia. Therefore in the present study the authors investigate the effectiveness of thorax irradiation combined with the treatment with cytostatic drugs (Actinomycin-D or 5-Fluorouracil) or the hypoxic cell sensitizer misonidazole in a mouse model with artificial lung metastases. The artificial lung metastases were obtained by intravenous injection of tumor cells in the tail vein of mice. The influence of thorax irradiation on the development of lung metastases was evaluated not only by recording the number of mice dying from lung metastases as parameter but also registered the pattern of lung metastases found at autopsy of animals which died from their disease. The response of lung tissue following combined therapy was also investigated

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of small field electron beams for small animal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chung-Chi; Chen, Ai-Mei; Tung, Chuan-Jong; Chao, Tsi-Chian

    2011-01-01

    The volume effect of detectors in the dosimetry of small fields for photon beams has been well studied due to interests in radiosurgery and small beamlets used in IMRT treatments; but there is still an unexplored research field for small electron beams used in small animal irradiation. This study proposes to use the BEAM Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to assess characteristics of small electron beams (4, 6, 14, 30 mm in diameter) with the kinetic energies of 6 and 18 MeV. Three factors influencing beam characteristics were studied (1) AE and ECUT settings, (2) photon jaw settings and (3) simulation pixel sizes. Study results reveal that AE/ECUT settings at 0.7 MeV are adequate for linear accelerator treatment head simulation, while 0.521 MeV is more favorable to be used for the phantom study. It is also demonstrated that voxel size setting at 1/4 of the simulation field width in all directions is sufficient to achieve accurate results. As for the photon jaw setting, it has great impact on the absolute output of different field size setting (i.e. output factor) but with minimum effect on the relative lateral distribution.

  3. Ectopic intestinal glands after segmental small bowel irradiation in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, C.A.; Eriksson, B.; Johnsson, L.

    1983-01-01

    Following segmental irradiation of the small bowel, 5 of 64 cats demonstrated ectopic intestinal glands in the submucosal tissue. In addition, one of these 5 cats had foci of abnormal glands in the muscularis mucosae. In 2 of the 5 animals, cellular polymorphism, nucleolar irregularity and loss of cellular polarity were present in irradiation-induced ectopic intestinal glands. The review of the literature indicates that intestinal irradiation may induce intestinal adenocarcinomas with metastatic growth. The possibility that ectopic intestinal glands are precancerous lesions in the irradiated cat is discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  5. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  6. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  7. Animal experimental examinations concerning the application of ozone to non-irradiated and to irradiated tumours. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundner, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements in vitro were carried out concerning the effect of ozone either by itself or combined with X-ray therapy (single dose of 2,000 R) on the reproductive capacity of Ehrlich-ascites cancer cells. The strongest combination effect is stated when ozone is administered after irradiation. The findings and results of this study are compared with hypotheses and results described in the corresponding literature. (orig.) [de

  8. Use of irradiation to assure the hygienic quality of animal origin foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna Carbajal, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation process for food preservation is a physical method comparable to heat or refrigeration and consist on the exposure of products packed or in bulk to gamma rays comming from Cobalt-60 or Cesium-137 or accelerated electrons and X rays produced by electric machines known as accelerators. Foods are exposed to this form of energy during a pre-stablished period in facilities named irradiators. At industrial level, the irradiation process requires a well stablished control to reach a good quality in the product. This quality control is carry out by means of dosimetry, a system which assures that the energy amount received by food is correct. Benefits derived of irradiation process in meat products as chicken, beef and pork as well as implications in matter of health and economics are presented in this work. Different aspects of irradiation process as a control to assure the hygienic quality, costs, different option of irradiators at industrial level, its advantages upon other processes, and its benefits at social level, are presented in this work. With respect to wholesomeness of irradiated food, main studies to strenghten that an irradiated food is safe, non toxic, do not imply microbian risks. it has the better nutritional quality, it has no radioactive remains and it is not a radioactivity inductor, in a word is an inocuous food, are presented in this study (Author)

  9. Genetic effects of prolonged combined irradiation of laboratory animals in Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savtsova, Z.D.; Vojejkova, Yi.M.; Dzhaman, N.Yi.; Yudyina, O.Yu.; Yindik, V.M.; Kovbasyuk, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Prolonged combined (external and internal) irradiation of mice in the r zone of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant caused hereditary disturbances physiological defects in the posterity irrespective of the fact if one or both parents were irradiated. The most favourable indices were observed in F2 posterity of the both exposed parents

  10. A study of the behaviour of irradiated or unirradiated grafts in the camera aquosa of irradiated and unirradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djalali-Behzad, G.

    1969-06-01

    Following grafts of new born mice spinal ganglia in the 'camera aquosa' of adult mice, the authors tried hematopoietic tissue grafts in the same conditions. The growth of iso-logous and hetero-logous bone marrow in the 'camera aquosa' showed that this tissue, even after exposure to supralethal doses, was capable of survival and growth. A counter-experiment with non irradiated bone marrow grafts in the 'camera aquosa' of rats delivered 700 rads led to the conclusion that the environment, intoxicated by exposure, acted on the graft so that after vascularization it became unable to grow. (author) [fr

  11. Model animal experiments on UV-c irradiation of blood and isolated cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, H.; Scherf, H.P.; Wiesner, S.

    1984-01-01

    The cellular and molecular basis of the therapeutically used effect of reinjected ultraviolet (UVC) irradiated blood is unknown. First approaches to that problem were made in this study by aid of model experiments. Neither the spontaneous degranulation nor the antigen-induced histamine release from rat connective tissue mast cells (in vivo) was influenced by the injection (i.v.) of UV-irradiated blood or blood lymphocytes. By comparison of the effect of UV light on blood lymphocytes (number of dead cells, strength of chemoluminescence) after irradiation of the isolated cells and the unfractionated blood, respectively, it was shown that the strong light absorption within the blood sample prevents damage or functional alterations of the blood lymphocytes. The compound 48/80 - induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells can be completely inhibited by UV irradiation (0.6 mJ/cm 2 ) without increasing the spontaneous histamine release. (author)

  12. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-26

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects.We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model.Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males.

  13. Petitioning process for irradiated foods and animal feeds in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcotte, M.; Kunstadt, P.

    1993-01-01

    The lack of sufficient regulatory approvals continues to delay the commercial application of food irradiation in several countries. Often, the regulatory approval process itself appears too challenging and approvals are not even requested. The objective of this paper is to review petition requirements so that researchers and companies in other countries will be able to prepare petitions requesting approval for the import and sale of irradiated foods into North America. (author)

  14. Potentiality of Melatonin as a Radiation Protector against Hemoglobin Damage in the Experimental Animals Due to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; Hassan, R. A.; Mohamed, Sh.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes serious damage in biological system. Some drugs and antioxidants are used to prevent such damage. In the present study two doses of melatonin (10 mg⁄kg and 30 mg⁄kg) were selected to be used for such purpose. The radioprotective effects of melatonin on hemoglobin of red blood cells from female mice was studied through UV absorption spectrum, ESR spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and relative viscosity .The results of Hemoglobin absorption indicate that a pronounced increase in the average value of peak position and width at half maximum W hmax followed by a decrease in the absorbance of sort band, decrease in absorption ratio A 578 / A 540 in addition to disappearance of globin band at 275 nm. The free radicals which are expected to be formed after exposing to γ-irradiation are detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The results indicate that the intensity of ESR signal for hemoglobin extracted from animals exposed to γ- irradiation is greater as compared with normal hemoglobin. Dielectric measurements indicate that there is an increase in dielectric permittivity (ε‵), the dielectric loss (ε‶) and the a.c conductivity (σ ac ) while some decrease is noticed in the viscosity measurements after exposing to irradiation. The data obtained from the whole studied parameters after treating animals with melatonin become closer to those for unirradiated samples.

  15. Assessment of indices of LP-AOS-system in blood of animals after gamma-irradiation and administration of veshenka extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milevich, T.I.; Malash, A.L.; Gerasimenia, V.P.; Zakharov, S.V.; Putyrskij, Y.L.

    2012-01-01

    The administration of veshenka extracts promotes quite high level of antioxidant activity, protects the fermentative link of antioxidant protection and prevent activation of lipid peroxidation process in blood of animals after gamma-irradiation. (authors)

  16. Effect of head x-irradiation on adrenal medullary secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieno, Masahiro

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiments was to investigate an immediate effect of head x-irradiation on the secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline by the adrenal medulla. When the dogs were irradiated with 200 or 800 R of x-rays to their heads under pentobarbital anesthesia, the majority of the animals showed no stimulation of the adrenal medulla but the minority showed a slight but definite increase in the secretion of adrenaline, the peak being attained within 60 min after exposure. (auth.)

  17. A reliable method for reconstituting thymectomized, lethally irradiated guinea pigs with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terata, N.; Tanio, Y.; Zbar, B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors developed a reliable method for reconstituting thymectomized, lethally irradiated guinea pigs. Injection of 2.5-10 x 10 7 syngeneic bone marrow cells into adult thymectomized, lethally irradiated guinea pigs produced survival of 46-100% of treated animals. Gentamycin sulfate (5 mg/kg of body weight) for 10 days was required for optimal results. Acidified drinking water (pH 2.5) appeared to be required for optimal results. Thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone marrow reconstituted ('B') guinea pigs had impaired ability to develop delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity to mycobacterial antigens and cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity to keyhole limpet hemocyanin; proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin were impaired. (Auth.)

  18. Analysis of DNA vulnerability to damage, repair and degradation in tissues of irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, N.I.; Ivannik, B.P.

    1982-01-01

    Single-strand and paired ruptures of DNA were found to result in appearance of locally denaturated areas in its secondary structure and to disordered protein-DNA interaction. It was shown with the use of the viscosimeter method of measuring the molecular mass of single stranded high-polymeric DNA that cells of various tissues by the intensity of DNA repair can be divided into two groups, rapid- and slow-repair ones. Tissue specificity of enzyme function of the repair systems and systems responsible for post-irradiation DNA degradation depends on the activity of endonucleases synthesized by the cells both in health and in their irradiation-induced synthesis

  19. Minocycline ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by whole-brain irradiation: an animal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liyuan; Li, Kun; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, JianFeng; Huang, Peigeng; Yang, Hongying; Tian, Ye

    2014-01-01

    It has been long recognized that cranial irradiation used for the treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumor often causes neurological side-effects such as intellectual impairment, memory loss and dementia, especially in children patients. Our previous study has demonstrated that whole-brain irradiation (WBI) can cause cognitive decline in rats. Minocycline is an antibiotic that has shown neuroprotective properties in a variety of experimental models of neurological diseases. However, whether minocycline can ameliorate cognitive impairment induced by ionizing radiation (IR) has not been tested. Thus this study aimed to demonstrate the potential implication of minocycline in the treatment of WBI-induced cognitive deficits by using a rat model. Sprague Dawley rats were cranial irradiated with electron beams delivered by a linear accelerator with a single dose of 20 Gy. Minocycline was administered via oral gavages directly into the stomach before and after irradiation. The open field test was used to assess the anxiety level of rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess the spatial learning and memory of rats. The level of apoptosis in hippocampal neurons was measured using immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and relative markers for mature neurons (NeuN) or for newborn neurons (Doublecortin (DCX)). Neurogenesis was determined by BrdU incorporation method. Neither WBI nor minocycline affected the locomotor activity and anxiety level of rats. However, compared with the sham-irradiated controls, WBI caused a significant loss of learning and memory manifest as longer latency to reach the hidden platform in the MWM task. Minocycline intervention significantly improved the memory retention of irradiated rats. Although minocycline did not rescue neurogenesis deficit caused by WBI 2 months post-IR, it did significantly decreased WBI-induced apoptosis in the DCX positive neurons, thereby resulting in less newborn neuron depletion 12 h after irradiation

  20. Sci-Thur AM: YIS – 08: Automated Imaging Quality Assurance for Image-Guided Small Animal Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, Chris; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena [University of Victoria (Australia)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To develop quality assurance (QA) standards and tolerance levels for image quality of small animal irradiators. Methods: A fully automated in-house QA software for image analysis of a commercial microCT phantom was created. Quantitative analyses of CT linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity and noise, geometric accuracy, modulation transfer function (MTF), and CT number evaluation was performed. Phantom microCT scans from seven institutions acquired with varying parameters (kVp, mA, time, voxel size, and frame rate) and five irradiator units (Xstrahl SARRP, PXI X-RAD 225Cx, PXI X-RAD SmART, GE explore CT/RT 140, and GE Explore CT 120) were analyzed. Multi-institutional data sets were compared using our in-house software to establish pass/fail criteria for each QA test. Results: CT linearity (R2>0.996) was excellent at all but Institution 2. Acceptable SNR (>35) and noise levels (<55HU) were obtained at four of the seven institutions, where failing scans were acquired with less than 120mAs. Acceptable MTF (>1.5 lp/mm for MTF=0.2) was obtained at all but Institution 6 due to the largest scan voxel size (0.35mm). The geometric accuracy passed (<1.5%) at five of the seven institutions. Conclusion: Our QA software can be used to rapidly perform quantitative imaging QA for small animal irradiators, accumulate results over time, and display possible changes in imaging functionality from its original performance and/or from the recommended tolerance levels. This tool will aid researchers in maintaining high image quality, enabling precise conformal dose delivery to small animals.

  1. Sci-Thur AM: YIS – 08: Automated Imaging Quality Assurance for Image-Guided Small Animal Irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, Chris; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop quality assurance (QA) standards and tolerance levels for image quality of small animal irradiators. Methods: A fully automated in-house QA software for image analysis of a commercial microCT phantom was created. Quantitative analyses of CT linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity and noise, geometric accuracy, modulation transfer function (MTF), and CT number evaluation was performed. Phantom microCT scans from seven institutions acquired with varying parameters (kVp, mA, time, voxel size, and frame rate) and five irradiator units (Xstrahl SARRP, PXI X-RAD 225Cx, PXI X-RAD SmART, GE explore CT/RT 140, and GE Explore CT 120) were analyzed. Multi-institutional data sets were compared using our in-house software to establish pass/fail criteria for each QA test. Results: CT linearity (R2>0.996) was excellent at all but Institution 2. Acceptable SNR (>35) and noise levels (<55HU) were obtained at four of the seven institutions, where failing scans were acquired with less than 120mAs. Acceptable MTF (>1.5 lp/mm for MTF=0.2) was obtained at all but Institution 6 due to the largest scan voxel size (0.35mm). The geometric accuracy passed (<1.5%) at five of the seven institutions. Conclusion: Our QA software can be used to rapidly perform quantitative imaging QA for small animal irradiators, accumulate results over time, and display possible changes in imaging functionality from its original performance and/or from the recommended tolerance levels. This tool will aid researchers in maintaining high image quality, enabling precise conformal dose delivery to small animals.

  2. Interface between technical physics and technological irradiation with reference to applications in vegetal and animal radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peteu, G.; Opris, M.

    1994-01-01

    The main goals of vegetal and animal radiobiology in a specific correlation with technical physics are the stimulation of germination and induced mutations; vegetal and animal food conservation, sterilization techniques, and modifications in the radiosensitivity of biological systems. The existing correlation between the effects of exposed and absorbed doses, and the behaviour of the 'microflora' (microbes, fungi), are discussed. (Author)

  3. Total lymphoid irradiation in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Maat, B.; Hogeweg, B.

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) consists of three contiguous fields, a mantle, an inverted Y and a spleen field. TLI induces a state of immunosuppression in patients with Hodgkin disease or in small rodents. Infusion of allogeneic bone marrow cells into mice after TLI led to the development split haemopoietic chimerism and indefinite survival of skin grafts from the bone marrow donor. A protocol for TLI was developed for rhesus monkeys to attempt to verify these interesting observations in a pre-clinical animal model. (Auth.)

  4. Effect of irradiation on protozoa and helminths in animal originated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabay, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Ionizing radiations have a deleterious effect on protozoa and helminths. Some of the variables affecting radiosensitivity are the stage of development of the organism, the temperature at which irradiation carried out and variation in the susceptibility of individuals of a species. The introduction of meat inspection and chemotherapy, general education of the public as to sanitation and proper food preparation and certain food pretreatments such as salting and freezing have done much to control or alleviate the spread of parasitic infections. Nevertheless, parasitism of humans and livestock persists in some degree in all parts of the world. There is need to develop other methods of controlling parasites. One such alternative is the use of ionizing radiation to treat foods so as to render any parasites they contain noninfectious or nonpathogenic. This paper concentrates on the general effects of radiation on protozoa and helminths and covers the literature on food irradiation applications including the research carried out on the inhibition of viability and infectivity of Cysticercus bovis by irradiation of meat. Viability of Taenia saginata cysticerci was studied in vitro by exposing them to gamma radiation. It was round that a minimum of 3.7 kGy is required to devitalize C. bovis cysts. However, for complete de-vitalization, 6 kGy of irradiation was needed. Inhibition of infectivity of C. bovis by irradiation of meat was also investigated. It was concluded that 0.3 kGy could be accepted as the minimal effective dose to inhibit the development of C. bovis larvae into adult tapeworm

  5. Microbiological control of a gamma-irradiated feed for laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.V.G. de

    1979-01-01

    A special feed for laboratory animals was prepared, that meets or surpasses the FAO requirements. Experiments were undertaken to determine the γ-radiation dose necessary to sterilize the feed, to free it from enterobacteria which grow abundantly in the rich medium and cause digestive disorders in the laboratory animals. Methods of identifying the various bacteria and fungi are given. The results are tabulated. (U.K.)

  6. Animal experiments with rats as a contribution to the question of whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraub, A.; Doell, G.; Jonas, H.; Kindt, A.; Sattler, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    Recovery after sublethal radiation damage was studied in the white blood count which shows a fast reaction to attacks caused by radiation. The so-called 'fractionated-dose method' was used. This method detrmines to what extent the total dose must be raised for two partial doses given at different times to produce the same amount of damage as a single irradiation. The second dose was applied after 7. days. A dose reduction by protraction of the first dose over 2 days was only found after doses of 300 to 400 rad. Regarding the anorexia connected with the radiation syndrome, no differences were found at low doses between protracted and one-time irradiation. This suggests that there is no repair. (MG) [de

  7. Anthropomorphic Phantoms for Confirmation of Linear Accelerator-Based Small Animal Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Julian R; Lucero, Steven; Monjazeb, Arta M; Li, Jian Jian

    2015-03-01

    Three dimensional (3D) scanning and printing technology is utilized to create phantom models of mice in order to assess the accuracy of ionizing radiation dosing from a clinical, human-based linear accelerator. Phantoms are designed to simulate a range of research questions, including irradiation of lung tumors and primary subcutaneous or orthotopic tumors for immunotherapy experimentation. The phantoms are used to measure the accuracy of dose delivery and then refine it to within 1% of the prescribed dose.

  8. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  9. Increase of survival of x-irradiated mice by postirradiation injections of a splenic extract prepared from vaccine or endotoxin-treated syngeneic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuneoka, K; Takagi, Y; Shikita, M [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1977-05-01

    Spleens of mice which had been treated with E. coli endotoxin or typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine were extracted with isotonic saline. The extract was filtered through an asbestos filter and chromatographed on a Sephadex G-200 column. The fraction which was excluded at around 2.5-void volume (molecular weight, about 20,000) was significantly effective in increasing survival of animals when it was repeatedly injected in mice after x irradiation (600 R). The injection caused an increase of the weight of spleen of the animals with an increased number of endogenous spleen colonies. The result suggests that the life-saving effect of the spleen extract is based on its effect of stimulating repopulation of autochthonous hematopoietic cells in the x-irradiated animals. A similar splenic extract prepared from normal mice had an ambiguous effect on the survival of x-irradiated animals.

  10. The colonization resistance of the digestive tract in experimental animals and its consequences for infection prevention, acquisition of new bacteria and the prevention of spread of bacteria in cage mates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waaij, D. van der

    1979-01-01

    Relevant animal experiments, some of them with sublethally and lethally irradiated animals, have been surveyed. The studies strongly suggest that more attention should be paid to the properties of antibiotics regarding the resistance to colonization. In selecting antibiotics for the treatment of an infection, the activity which antimicrobial drugs may have on the CR in addition to the standard criteria, should be taken into consideration. (Auth./C.F.)

  11. Studies on food in experimental animal and possible role of irradiation detoxification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shennawy, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the important oilseed crops in the far east and in the northern parts of europe and north america (daun and bushuk 1983). It was introduce to egypt during 1980 by the agriculture research center, ministry of agriculture, egypt (moharam et al., 1982). rapeseed is mainly used as a source of oil and its meal used as animal feed and it could be used as a potential source of a protein. The oil content ranges from 33.2 to 476% and protein content from 29.5 to 57.5% (Anjou et al., 1977). Rapeseed contains some biologically active substances, which act as anti nutritional factors glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products have presented a major obstacle to the utilization of rapeseed meal in animal or human nutrition. They have been implicated in several physiological disorders in animal including goiter and haemorrhagic liver syndrome

  12. Minibeam radiotherapy with small animal irradiators; in vitro and in vivo feasibility studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Soha; Inscoe, Christina R.; O'Brian, E. Timothy; Zhou, Otto; Lee, Yueh Z.

    2017-12-01

    Minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT) delivers an ultrahigh dose of x-ray (⩾100 Gy) in 200-1000 µm beams (peaks), separated by wider non-irradiated regions (valleys) usually as a single temporal fraction. Preclinical studies performed at synchrotron facilities revealed that MBRT is able to ablate tumors while maintaining normal tissue integrity. The main purpose of the present study was to develop an efficient and accessible method to perform MBRT using a conventional x-ray irradiator. We then tested this new method both in vitro and in vivo. Using commercially available lead ribbon and polyethylene sheets, we constructed a collimator that converted the cone beam of an industrial irradiator to 44 identical beams (collimator size  ≈  4  ×  10 cm). The dosimetry characteristics of the generated beams were evaluated using two different radiochromic films (beam FWHM  =  246  ±  32 µm center-to-center  =  926  ±  23 µm peak-to-valley dose ratio  =  24.35  ±  2.10 collimator relative output factor  =  0.84  ±  0.04). Clonogenic assays demonstrated the ability of our method to induce radiobiological cell death in two radioresistant murine tumor cell lines (TRP  =  glioblastoma B16-F10  =  melanoma). A radiobiological equivalent dose (RBE) was calculated by evaluating the acute skin response to graded doses of MBRT and conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Normal mouse skin demonstrated resistance to doses up to 150 Gy on peak. MBRT significantly extended the survival of mice with flank melanoma tumors compared to CRT when RBE were applied (overall p  film. In conclusion, the initial dosimetric, in vitro and in vivo evaluations confirmed the utility of this affordable and easy-to-replicate minibeam collimator for future preclinical studies.

  13. Regularity of mortality and life span of the experimental animals under the exposure of protracted internal irradiation with radionuclides of 137Cs and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yindik, V.M.; Serkyiz, Ya.Yi.; Lips'ka, A.Yi.; Alyistratov, O.V.; Drozd, Yi.P.; Gerasimova, T.B.; Dudchenko, T.M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that exposure to protracted low intense irradiation with low doses, caused by radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) has negative influence on survival indices and expected life span in different groups according to age. Mortality of irradiated animals is mainly caused by development of pathological processes of tumor origin. The frequency of radiation induced tumors is the same with intact control

  14. Anticonvulsant action of gamma-irradiated diazepam with correlation to certain brain amino acids and electrocorticogram activity in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, S.F.; Roushdy, H.M.; Hassan, S.H.M.; Elkashef, H.S.; Mahdy, A.M.; Elsayeh, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of sterilization by gamma irradiation (215 KGy) of diazepam on is anticonvulsant action, on norma and depleted cerebral gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), on glutamic acid, as well as electrocorticogram activity (ECOG) was determined in the experimental animals. For the evaluation of the anticonvulsant action of either diazepam (D) or irradiated diazepam (ID), pentyl ene tetrazole seizure test, was used and the protective dose 50 (PD50) was determined in adult male mice. GABA, the main central inhibitory transmitter which is implicated in the mechanism of the anticonvulsant action of D and its precursor glutamic acid, were electrophoretically separated and spectrophotometrical evaluated. Moreover, brain electrical activity was recorded using an electroencephalograph apparatus. Although the PD50 of ID as well the effect on normal brain cerebral GABA and glutamic acids did not differ significantly from that of D, yet there was certain variabilities. Thus, the effect of D was about 4 times more potent than the ID on elevating depleted cerebral GABA. Also, electrocorticogram records demonstrated that D produced a slight inhibition while ID induced a decrease in B rhythm with remarkable in the amplitude of ECOG waves. The same pattern of effects were obtained when D or ID were used in combination with INH (250 mg kg-1). 1 tab. 1 fig

  15. Ecology-genetic consequences of the chronic irradiation of animals in Chernobyl alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazko, V.I.; Grodzinskij, D.M.; Glazko, T.T.

    2006-01-01

    The investigation with the use of different molecular-genetic markers and the cytogenetic analysis of genetic-population consequences in different species of voles and experimental cattle herd reproduced in Chernobyl's alienation zone is carried out. The decrease in the number of animals with cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells in voles, was revealed, that testified to the selection by the radioresistance. The obtained data allow us to make conclusion that the increase of ionizing radiation is a particular case of ecological changes leading to the microevolution events connected with the selection by the stability to new conditions of the reproduction of populations

  16. Modeling of combined effect of alcohol, tobacco smokes and internal irradiation of laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukal'skaya, S.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    Concentration of 90 Sr and 20 Po in kidneys and bone tissues was measured both separately and in combination with ethanol introduction. Carbon oxide (CO), which content was measured by a gas analyser, served as an index of tobacco smokes in a chamber with test animals. It is shown that ethanol had no noticeable effect either on the character or the levels of radionuclide accumulation in kidneys and bone tissues. Under experimental conditions quantitative characteristics of studied factors (intensity, the effect time and levels) remained stable within the specified limits independent on their combination

  17. Tumor control probability after a radiation of animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Muneyasu; Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Nesumi, Naofumi

    1975-01-01

    Tumor control and regrowth probability of animal tumors irradiated with a single x-ray dose were determined, using a spontaneous C3H mouse mammary carcinoma. Cellular radiation sensitivity of tumor cells and tumor control probability of the tumor were examined by the TD 50 and TCD 50 assays respectively. Tumor growth kinetics were measured by counting the percentage of labelled mitosis and by measuring the growth curve. A mathematical analysis of tumor control probability was made from these results. A formula proposed, accounted for cell population kinetics or division probability model, cell sensitivity to radiation and number of tumor cells. (auth.)

  18. Effects of experimental radiotherapy and hyperthermia on tumors and normal tissues in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, J.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments on responses of tumors, implanted subcutaneously in the leg, to irradiation alone or combined with heat are reported. The influence of factors modifying the fraction of hypoxic cells (e.g. anesthesia of the animal and tumor volume) is also discussed. The radiosensitivity of developing lung tumors was examined for spontaneous as well as for artificial lung metastases. Both experimental tumor models were compared with regard to their value in experimental radiotherapy. Data obtained on the response of artificial metastases and lung tissue to combined treatment with irradiation and several drugs are presented. Data on damage of the mouse foot, as a result of heat and/or irradiation treatments are presented. In particular the influence of thermotolerance on thermal enhancement of the radiation induced skin reaction was studied. Tolerance of the skin of previously irradiated mice to retreatment with irradiation, to hyperthermia alone and combined with X-rays was assessed. (Auth.)

  19. Some biochemical characteristics of a toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated animals in the course of the intestinal syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meter, J D; Sirota, N S [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR)

    1976-05-01

    A toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated (1300 rads) animals in the period when intestinal syndrome has developed is classified according to the parameters under study (namely, the molecular weight, UV-absorption curve, extinction coefficient, specific monosaccharides, the presence and percentage of KDA, etc.) as lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, the main inhabitant of the gastroenteric tract of mice. That endotoxins (sensitivity to which is increased in this period of radiation sickness) are detected in the blood and organs of lethally irradiated animals, might indicate their participation in the pathogenesis of the intestinal syndrome.

  20. Some biochemical characteristics of a toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated animals in the course of the intestinal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meter, J.D.; Sirota, N.S.

    1976-01-01

    A toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated (1300 rads) animals in the period when intestinal syndrome has developed is classified according to the parameters under study (namely, the molecular weight, UV-absorption curve, extinction coefficient, specific monosaccharides, the presence and percentage of KDA, etc.) as lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, the main inhabitant of the gastroenteric tract of mice. That endotoxins (sensitivity to which is increased in this period of radiation sickness) are detected in the blood and organs of lethally irradiated animals, might indicate their participation in the pathogenesis of the intestinal syndrome

  1. Improvement in irradiation pasteurization on sugarcane bagasse for its fungal bioconversion to animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duy Lam

    2002-01-01

    Goals of this study were to reduce radiation dose required for bagase pasteurization and to convert the pasteurized bagasse into animal feed by using fungal fermentation. Comparative study on the effectiveness of radiation decontamination on moisturized and dried bagasse showed different doses required for pasteurization. Radiation treatment on wetted substratum bags required 20 kGy, while dried bagasse needed only 10 kGy for pasteurization. In comparison with wetted bagasse substratum, the pasteurized dry bagasse has more dominant advantages because it can be kept for storage, transportation and distribution to household producers. Moisturizing substratum with tap water can be done just before inoculation with mycelial seed. Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse to ruminant feed by using fungal fermentation was investigated. The in sacco digestibility of fermented substratum increased with incubation period and it was higher than that of paddy rice straw and comparable to Pangola grass after 35 days of fermentation. As the digestibility of mushroom-harvested residue was still higher than that of non-fermented bagasse, the fermentation by using Pleurotus spp. could simultaneously provide edible mushroom and animal feed as well. (Author)

  2. Controlling of bacterial flora contaminating animal diet and its components by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Helal, G.A.; El-Hady, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    The total bacterial counts in complete diets were found to range between 10 3 -10 5 cells/g, which they ranged between 10 2 and 10 6 in the main components. One hundred and sixteen bacterial colonies were isolated from the animal diet samples and found to be gram positive belonging to three genera: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus. The most radioresistant bacteria isolated at 7.5 KGy were identified as B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B.circulans and B.laterosporus. The D 1 0 values for the bacteria contaminated the diet samples ranged between 928 Gy and 2199 Gy. Meanwhile, the D 1 0 values of staph.aureus and Strapt.faecalis artificially contaminated the diet were 400 Gy and 1136 Gy, respectively. It could be recommended from obtained results that dose level of 10 KGy is quite sufficient to eliminate all pathogens from animal diets or their components. In addition, it decreases the microbial count to minimum counts and hence increases the diet shelf life.1 fig.,4 tab

  3. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, C.; Oslapas, R.; Nayyar, R.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-01-01

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats

  4. Dosimetry of a Small-Animal Irradiation Model using a 6 MV Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, F. Moran; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    A custom made rat-like phantom was used to measure dose distributions using a 6 MV linear accelerator. The phantom has air cavities that simulate the lungs and cylindrical inserts that simulate the backbone. The calculated dose distributions were obtained with the BrainScan v.5.31 TPS software. For the irradiation two cases were considered: (a) near the region where the phantom has two air cavities that simulate the lungs, and (b) with an entirely uniform phantom. The treatment plan consisted of two circular cone arcs that imparted a 500 cGy dose to a simulated lesion in the backbone. We measured dose distributions using EBT2 GafChromic film and an Epson Perfection V750 scanner working in transmission mode. Vertical and horizontal profiles, isodose curves from 50 to 450 cGy, dose and distance to agreement (DTA) histograms and Gamma index were obtained to compare the dose distributions using DoseLab v4.11. As a result, these calculations show very good agreement between calculated and measured dose distribution in both cases. With a 2% 2 mm criteria 100% of the points pass the Gamma test for the uniform case, while 98.9% of the points do it for the lungs case.

  5. Genotoxic and reprotoxic effects of tritium and external gamma irradiation on aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Pereira, Sandrine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Hinton, Tom; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    .Because several calculated EDR10 values are ten times lower than background levels of γ irradiation the results of some studies either markedly call into question the adequacy of the benchmark value of 0.24 mGy/day for aquatic ecosystems that was recommended by Garnier-Laplace et al. (2006), or the dose rate estimates made in the original research, from which our EDR(10) values were derived, were under estimated, or were inadequate. For γ irradiation, the effects of several different dose rates on aquatic organisms were reviewed, and these ranged from 1 mGy/day to 18 Gy/day. DNA damage from exposure to y irradiation was studied more often than for tritium, but the major part of the literature addressed effects on reproduction and development. These data sets support the benchmark value of 0.24 mGy/day, which is recommended to protect aquatic ecosystems. RBEs, that describe the relative effectiveness of different radiation types to produce the same biological effect, were calculated using the available datasets. These RBE values ranged from 0.06 to 14.9, depending on the biological effect studied, and they had a mean of 3.1 ± 3.7 (standard deviation). This value is similar to the RBE factors of 2-3 recommended by international organizations responsible for providing guidance on radiation safety. Many knowledge gaps remain relative to the biological effects produced from exposure to tritium and y emitters. Among these are: Dose calculations: this review highlights several EDR(10) values that are below the normal range of background radiation. One explanation for this result is that dose rates were underestimated from uncertainties linked to the heterogenous distribution of tritium in cells. Therefore, the reliability of the concept of average dose to organisms must be addressed. Mechanisms of DNA DBS repair: very few studies address the most deleterious form of DNA damage, which are DNA DBSs. Future studies should focus on identifying impaired DNA DBS repair pathways and

  6. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petten, L.E. van; Calkins, J.E.; McConnell, R.F.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    A wholesomeness feeding study was carried out in mice fed equal amounts of cod or redfish, comprising 45% of the diet. Three groups of animals received either irradiated [1.75 kGy (175 krad)] fish, non-irradiated fish or stock ration. A 90-day subchronic study, a multigeneration reproduction, a dominant lethality and a teratology study were carried out together with an 80-week oncogenic study on the F 1 generation. No adverse effects were noted on growth, reproduction and litter behaviour, in relation to dominant lethality, teratogenicity or oncogenicity. (Auth.)

  7. SU-E-T-296: Dosimetric Analysis of Small Animal Image-Guided Irradiator Using High Resolution Optical CT Imaging of 3D Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Y; Qian, X; Wuu, C; Adamovics, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator using a high-resolution of optical CT imaging of 3D dosimeters. Methods: PRESAEGE 3D dosimeters were used to determine dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator and compared with EBT2 films. Cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters with 7cm height and 6cm diameter were placed along the central axis of the beam. The films were positioned between 6×6cm 2 cubed plastic water phantoms perpendicular to the beam direction with multiple depths. PRESAGE dosimeters and EBT2 films were then irradiated with the irradiator beams at 220kVp and 13mA. Each of irradiated PRESAGE dosimeters named PA1, PA2, PB1, and PB2, was independently scanned using a high-resolution single laser beam optical CT scanner. The transverse images were reconstructed with a 0.1mm high-resolution pixel. A commercial Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was used for readout of irradiated EBT2 films at a 0.4mm pixel resolution. PDD curves and beam profiles were measured for the irradiated PRESAGE dosimeters and EBT2 films. Results: The PDD agreements between the irradiated PRESAGE dosimeter PA1, PA2, PB1, PB2 and the EB2 films were 1.7, 2.3, 1.9, and 1.9% for the multiple depths at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50mm, respectively. The FWHM measurements for each PRESAEGE dosimeter and film agreed with 0.5, 1.1, 0.4, and 1.7%, respectively, at 30mm depth. Both PDD and FWHM measurements for the PRESAGE dosimeters and the films agreed overall within 2%. The 20%–80% penumbral widths of each PRESAGE dosimeter and the film at a given depth were respectively found to be 0.97, 0.91, 0.79, 0.88, and 0.37mm. Conclusion: Dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator have been demonstrated with the measurements of PRESAGE dosimeter and EB2 film. With the high resolution and accuracy obtained from this 3D dosimetry system, precise targeting small animal irradiation can be achieved

  8. A Preliminary Study of the Application of a Model Animal-Caenorhabidity elegans' Exposure to a Low-Energy Ion Irradiation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuelan; Cai Kezhou; Feng Huiyun; Xu An; Yuan Hang; Yu Zengliang

    2007-01-01

    Because of the lack of suitable animal models adapted to high vacuum stress in the low-energy ion implantation system, the bio-effects ion irradiation with an energy less than 50 keV on multi-cellular animal individuals have never been investigated so far. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proved to be an excellent animal model used for the study of a broad spectrum of biological issues. The purpose of this work was to investigate the viability of this animal under ion irradiation. We studied the protection effects of glycerol and trehalose on the enhancement of nematodes' ability to bear the vacuum stress. The results showed that the survival of the nematodes was enhanced remarkably under long and slow desiccation, even without glycerol and trehalose. 15% glycerol showed a better anti-vacuum stress effect on the nematodes than trehalose did under short-time desiccation. Low-temperature pre-treatment or post-treatment of the samples had no obvious effect on the survival scored after argon ion irradiation. Moreover, little effect was induced by 15% glycerol- and vacuum-exposure on germ cell apoptosis, compared to the untreated control sample. It issuggested that such treatment would provide relatively low background for genotoxic evaluations with ion irradiation

  9. Long-lived radicals produced by γ-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein solution: their observation and inhomogeneous decay dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Morikawa, Akiyuki; Kumagai, Jun; Ikehata, Masateru; Koana, Takao; Kikuchi, Shoshi

    2002-01-01

    Long-lived radicals produced by γ-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein (albumin) solution were studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Long-lived radicals produced by vital activity exist in biological systems, such as plants, animals, and cells, in the range of 0.1-20 nmol g -1 . Since vital organs keep the radicals at a constant concentration, the radicals are probably related to life conservation. Long-lived radicals are also produced by γ-irradiation of cells or protein solution. The radicals decay after death of living things or after γ-irradiation. We found that the decay dynamics in all biological systems can be expressed by the same kinetic equation of an inhomogeneous reaction

  10. Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott; Fabien, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yiran; Yuan, Jake; Brindle, James; Yao, Min; Lo, Simon; Wessels, Barry; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W.; Sloan, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, with radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning system—MultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 × 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was “printed” using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm). A

  11. Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Fabien, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yiran; Yuan, Jake; Brindle, James; Yao, Min; Lo, Simon; Wessels, Barry; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W., E-mail: jason.sohn@case.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and University Hospitals of Cleveland, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Sloan, Andrew [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, with radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning system—MultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 × 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was “printed” using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm

  12. Answers to the questions about food irradiation. Concerning results of animal experiments in the specified integrated research. Data carrying a problem in human health were obtained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Experts of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/ World Health Organization (WHO) committee obtained their conclusion in 1980 that food irradiated with <10 kGy of radiation is safe for human health, which is now globally approved. However, in Japan, there have been still opposite opinions based on the doubt in the title on the safety of irradiated food. In this paper, the author answers those questions as he was a member to arrange the Research in the title for food irradiation. Described are data presentation and explanation about results of toxicity studies of diets added with irradiated materials of: weight reductions in rat ovary by irradiated potato (ip) in chronic studies, and in mouse testicle and ovary of F3 generation from the ancestor mice kept on diet with irradiated onion (io); bone malformation in mice by io; and reduction of body weight gain in female rats by ip and increase of mortality of male rats by ip. These are analyzed on the aspects of radiation dose-response, sustained tendency of results throughout the living period or generation, and apparent abnormality by other factors; and normal variation due to individual difference is pointed out to contribute to these findings. The safety test of irradiated food has been conducted valid not only in animal experiments but also other tests like genotoxicity and analysis of radiation-degraded products. (R.T.)

  13. Response of some Citrus Rootstock Seedlings to Fertilization by the Aqueous Extract of some Irradiated Animal Manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out during two consecutive seasons i.e. 2001 and 2002 on two citrus rootstocks namely Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings two-month-old planted in a sandy soil under greenhouse to study the feasibility of using the aqueous extract of some animal manures i.e. poultry, sheep and cattle treated by gamma irradiation at 10 kGay to keep the manure free from pathogenic organisms, pests and weed seeds and as a natural source of nutrients instead of mineral fertilizers, and it's effect on growth and leaf nutrients content of seedlings. Generally, results showed that all the tested treatments enhanced most of growth parameters such as seedling height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves/seedling, number of roots/seedling, and dry weight for both of stem, leaves, root and total dry weight/plant. Moreover, such treatments improved leaf nutrient content of both of Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings. Meanwhile, seedlings fertilized by the aqueous extract of poultry manure achieved the highest values of growth parameters and leaf nutrients content as well as mineral fertilizer followed by those treated by the aqueous extract of both sheep and cattle manures

  14. Physical and biological dosimetry at the RA-3 facility for small animal irradiation: preliminary BNCT studies in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, Emiliano; Miller, Marcelo; Thorp, Silvia I.; Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Zarza, Leandro; Estryk, Guillermo; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality based on the capture reaction that occurs between thermal neutrons and boron-10 atoms that accumulate selectively in tumor tissue, emitting high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (5-9 microns) particles (alpha y 7 Li). Thus, BNCT would potentially target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Herein we evaluated the feasibility of treating experimental oral mucosa tumors with BNCT at RA-3 (CAE) employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and characterized the irradiation field at the RA-3 facility. We evaluated the therapeutic effect on tumor of BNCT mediated by BPA in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and the potential radio toxic effects in normal tissue. We evidenced a moderate biological response in tumor, with no radio toxic effects in normal tissue following irradiations with no shielding for the animal body. Given the sub-optimal therapeutic response, we designed and built a 6 Li 2 CO 3 shielding for the body of the animal to increase the irradiation dose to tumor, without exceeding normal tissue radio tolerance. The measured absolute magnitude of thermal neutron flux and the characterization of the beam with and without the shielding in place, suggest that the irradiation facility in the thermal column of RA-3 would afford an excellent platform to perform BNCT studies in vitro and in vivo in small experimental animals. The present findings must be confirmed and extended by performing in vivo BNCT radiobiological studies in small experimental animals, employing the shielding device for the animal body. (author) [es

  15. Selective survival of β1-adenergic receptors in rat cerebellum following neonatal X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minneman, K.P.; Pittman, R.N.; Wolfe, B.B.; Molinoff, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    To investigate the cellular localization of β 1 - and β 2 -adrenergic receptors, the effects of intermittent neonatal X-irradiation focused on the cerebellum were determined on the densities of the two subtypes of β-adrenergic receptor. This treatment destroys the late-maturing cerebellar interneurons including the granule, basket and stellate cells. The total number of β 2 -adrenergic receptors per cerebellum was reduced by 81-83% in 6- and 12-week-old X-irradiated rats. However, the number of β 1 -adrenergic receptors per cerebellum in 6- and 12-week-old X-irradiated rats was not significantly different from that in control animals. The results suggest that β 2 receptors in the rat cerebellum are primarily associated with the small interneurons destroyed by neonatal X-irradiation. The β 1 receptors may be located on a cell population which is unaffected by this treatment, possibly on cerebellar Purkinje cells. (Auth.)

  16. Evaluating the Effect of Electron-Beam Irradiation on Linguatula serrata Destroy Isolated from Animal Products and Determining its Effective Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khalatbari-limaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Foodborne parasitic diseases are considered common in most parts of the world, which can cause significant health problems. Linguatula serrata is a zoonotic parasite causing human linguatulosis due to consumption of raw and semi-cooked animal offal infected with nymphs of this parasite. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the effect of Electron beam irradiation on death of the Linguatula serrata nymphs isolated from animal products. Methods: Linguatula serrata nymphs were irradiated with E-beam irradiation of 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy doses 15 nymphs were classified into three groups of 5 for each dose. Death time of the nymphs was recorded by examining their movement under a stereomicroscope and then was compared with that of the control group stored at 4 °C. In order to analyze the study data, T-test and ANOVA were utilized setting the significance level at 0.05. Results: The comparison between treatment and control groups demonstrated a statistically significant difference in death time of the nymphs (P 0.05. Moreover, there was a statistically significant difference between the doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy with dose of 5 kGy (P 0.05 in regard with their lethality speed. The results showed that minimum destruction dose of Linguatula serrata nymphs was 1 kGy and 5 KGy , resulted in a more rapidly death within the nymphs. Conclusion: Regarding the high sensitivity of Linguatula serrata nymphs to E-beam irradiation, this method can be used to enhance the safety of animal products in future.

  17. UV-C 13-50 ultraviolet irradiation unit for surface sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, R.

    1979-01-01

    Brown Boveri have developed new watertight ultraviolet irradiation units for surface sterilization. Their main application is in packing techniques in the foodstuffs and pharmaceutical industries. This article describes the construction, germicidal effect, and applications of these irradiation units. (Auth.)

  18. Studies on the Chromatin Isolated from the Organs of Animals Received Whole-body X-ray Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Su Nam [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-09-15

    Within experimental chromatin, the total protein: DNA ratio did not vary in the same organs of control and irradiated rats. However, the amount of RNA and total protein associated with the DNA varied considerably among the different types of chromatin. In particular, the content of chromatin was the highest in the irradiated tissue, and the lowest in the chromatin control tissue. RNA and total protein ratio of chromatins from brain, liver, testis and spleen declined with experimental organs. 2) There was the same quantitative relationship between the amount of RNA and the amount histone-protein associated with DNA in each chromatin. 3) RNA:DNA ratio of chromatin showed a 1.5-2 times increase in the irradiated organs except brain. However, RNA:DNA ratio was decreased in chromatin by irradiation. 4) Histone-protein: Residual protein ratio was greatly varied among the organs. However, the effect was not found by irradiation. 5) Priming activity of chromatins showed a higher value in testis and the activity was greater in organs with higher metabolic activity. 6) Inhibition of Actinomycin D observable in chromatin for testis, liver, spleen and brain declined without relationship between irradiated and non-irradiated conditions. Ammonium sulfate in DNA of chromatin from histone showed increased priming activity with dissociation by Electrostatics. It may give different effect of ammonium sulfate on stimulation by property of chromatins. 7) It is suggested that the results support a proposal that the higher sensitivity of radioactive in testis, spleen by irradiated showed a increase and decrease lower-sensitivity of radioactive from brain, liver than did priming activity under the radioactive conditions.

  19. Studies on the Chromatin Isolated from the Organs of Animals Received Whole-body X-ray Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Su Nam

    1967-01-01

    Within experimental chromatin, the total protein: DNA ratio did not vary in the same organs of control and irradiated rats. However, the amount of RNA and total protein associated with the DNA varied considerably among the different types of chromatin. In particular, the content of chromatin was the highest in the irradiated tissue, and the lowest in the chromatin control tissue. RNA and total protein ratio of chromatins from brain, liver, testis and spleen declined with experimental organs. 2) There was the same quantitative relationship between the amount of RNA and the amount histone-protein associated with DNA in each chromatin. 3) RNA:DNA ratio of chromatin showed a 1.5-2 times increase in the irradiated organs except brain. However, RNA:DNA ratio was decreased in chromatin by irradiation. 4) Histone-protein: Residual protein ratio was greatly varied among the organs. However, the effect was not found by irradiation. 5) Priming activity of chromatins showed a higher value in testis and the activity was greater in organs with higher metabolic activity. 6) Inhibition of Actinomycin D observable in chromatin for testis, liver, spleen and brain declined without relationship between irradiated and non-irradiated conditions. Ammonium sulfate in DNA of chromatin from histone showed increased priming activity with dissociation by Electrostatics. It may give different effect of ammonium sulfate on stimulation by property of chromatins. 7) It is suggested that the results support a proposal that the higher sensitivity of radioactive in testis, spleen by irradiated showed a increase and decrease lower-sensitivity of radioactive from brain, liver than did priming activity under the radioactive conditions.

  20. Use of studies with laboratory animals to assess the potential early health effects of combined internal alpha and beta irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    The potential health impacts of radionuclides released in nuclear accidents are of major concern to the public and to regulatory and other governmental agencies. One mode of potential exposure is by inhalation of airborne radionuclides, which could lead to combined internal irradiation by high (alpha) and low (beta) linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Epidemiological data for health effects of human inhalation exposure are too limited to derive reliable estimates of risks of potential health effects. However, results of studies in which beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to insoluble radioactive aerosols can be used to estimate expected effects in humans. Data for mortality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis caused by internal irradiation of dog lungs by alpha or beta radiations are used to derive the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha irradiation compared to beta irradiation; predict the expected combined effects of alpha and beta irradiation of dog lungs; and extrapolate the results to humans. The extrapolation to humans assumed that, for similar ages at exposure, dog and human lungs have similar sensitivities to lung irradiation. Results of theoretical calculations related to mortality from early effects indicated that the synergistic effects of high- and low-LET radiations should depend on the percentages of the total dose contributed by high- and low-LET radiations, and for very low or very high doses, synergistic effects should be negligible. 23 refs., 8 figs

  1. Comparative study on the effect of RES-stimulating and blockading agents on the immunological response after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhiro; Seto, Akira; Ito, Yohei

    1975-01-01

    The effects of carbon particles and bacterial endotoxins on immunological recovery after irradiation were compared in relation to the radioprotective effects of the agents. When mice were injected with 10 mg of carbon particles (sufficient to protect the animals from radiation-induced death) 24 hrs prior to the administration of sheep red blood cells, the recovery of their immune response to the antigen was not significantly affected. Administration of 1 mg of carbon particles caused a slight enhancement of immune response. Previous treatment of animals with endotoxin resulted in a significant suppression of the immune response regardless of irradiation, the degree of suppression depending on the dose given. These results strongly suggest that the radioprotective effect of carbon- or endotoxin-treatment is attributable to the apparent RES-blockade and to the enhancement of hemopoietic recovery rather than to the enhancement of immunological recovery after irradiation. (auth.)

  2. Late effects of x-irradiation in rats, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic-Stejin, V.D.; Kanazir, D.T.

    1978-01-01

    The present cytogenetic study was made on the bone marrow cells of 48 male rats killed after 9 to 17 months following acute whole-body x-irradiation. We found that exposure to a dose of 700 rads of x-rays, delivered to animals at a high dose-rate (100 rads/min) resulted in a widespread karyotype variability. The number of cell types were existing independently in the haemopoietic tissue within the first week after irradiation, decreased with time. The selection process of persisting abnormalities as well a further evolution of the cells with new karyotypes to clones, were evident after a month following irradiation. Consequently, the analysis of haemopoietic tissue revealed, in 92% of the late survivors, a genetically heterogeneous cell population in which the number of normal diploid cells decreased to a considerable extent. Clones increased in size with elapsing time from exposure to radiation. Thus, the mean clone cell frequency for animals killed after 9 to 17 months following irradiation ranged from 20.6 +- 3.42% to 61.6 +- 4.26%. Analysis of the data showed a significant positive correlation between development of clones in vivo and the survival time after irradiation (r = 0.820; P<0.01). For such a finding, the occurrence of large clones especially in the bone marrow of rats with growing tumors was of the great influence. Relationship between the degree of mutagenesis on the chromosome level and the process of tumor advancement is discussed. (auth.)

  3. Gastrointestinal decontamination in healthy and lethally irradiated monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, W.D.H.

    1980-01-01

    In periods of extreme immunosuppression, infections which are often life-threatening, frequently occur. In an attempt to prevent such infections in lethally irradiated rhesus monkeys, the animals were subjected to strict reverse isolation prior to irradiation and administrated orally with nonabsorbable antibiotics in order to eliminate their microflora. The antibiotic combination was selected on the basis of a sensitivity test and was added to the liquid food supply. To rapidly achieve a high bactericidal concentration in the intestine, the same antibiotics were additionally given orally for 5 days. The microflora was reduced rapidly; within a few days sterile cultures were obtained. Particularly after discontinuation of the administration of the additional antibiotics were colonizations found. In contrast to colonizations persisting from the first day of treatment on, the first were rather easy to suppress. (Auth.)

  4. Effect of acute sup(60)Co-gamma-irradiation on the in vivo lipid peroxidation in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronai, Eva; Benkoe, Gy.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of sublethal (6.0 Gy) and LDsub(50/30) (9.0 Gy) doses of sup(60)Co-gamma-irradiation on malondialdehyde (MDA) level was studied in rats. The findings suggest that in the organs investigated (brain, liver, spleen, kidneys, testicles, stomach, small intestines) acute sup(60)Co gamma-irradiation increased the formation of MDA, the main product of lipid peroxidation, in a time-related manner to an extent characteristic of the organ investigated. Differences in the degree and temporal development of the changes allow some conclusions as to the radiosensitivity of individual organs. On this basis it can be assumed that the increase in MDA level caused by irradiation considerably contributes to the development of certain symptoms of radiation sickness. (author)

  5. Response of developing mouse liver irradiated in utero and its modification by 2-mercaptopropionylglycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareek, B.P.; Mehta, G.; Bhartiya, H.C.; Dev, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice were exposed at gestation days 14.25, 16.25 and 18.25 to 1.5 Gy gamma radiation from 60 Co in the presence or absence of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG). Liver was taken from the litters born to these mothers at different post-partum intervals. The maximum sensitivity was found in 4-week-old animals irradiated at gestation day 14.25. In the MPG treated groups, the number of total cells was higher than in the controls but less than in normals. The increase in pyknotic nuclei and necrotic and binucleate cells was significantly lowered by MPG. (Auth.)

  6. Determination of the stem cell number by the amount of nondifferentiated cell colonies in the bone marrow of irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbova, E.N.; Gruzdev, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    A method is proposed for determination of the amout of haemopoietic stem cells in different mammalian species according to the number of nondifferentiated cell colonies (NCC) formed in the bone marrow on days 3 or 4 after irradiation. A quantitative similarity of NCC and haemopoietic stem cells, and also sameness of their reaction to irradiation were demonstated by determining the NCC number in histological preparations of the bone marrow and by the use of the Till and McCulloch method. A method is proposed for the deter-- mination and calculation of the number of NCC in the bone marrow

  7. Determination of the stem cell number by the amount of nondifferentiated cell colonies in the bone marrow of irradiated animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbova, E.N.; Gruzdev, G.P.

    A method is proposed for determination of the amout of haemopoietic stem cells in different mammalian species according to the number of nondifferentiated cell colonies (NCC) formed in the bone marrow on days 3 or 4 after irradiation. A quantitative similarity of NCC and haemopoietic stem cells, and also sameness of their reaction to irradiation were demonstated by determining the NCC number in histological preparations of the bone marrow and by the use of the Till and McCulloch method. A method is proposed for the determination and calculation of the number of NCC in the bone marrow.

  8. Irradiation of liquid manure for the purpose of utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Gleria, M. di; Szemeredi, Gy.

    1980-01-01

    The authors give an account of the use of ionizing radiation for disinfection of swine liquid manure. The most common representatives of pathogenic and facultative pathogenic microorganisms of swine liquid manure have been irradiated and their sensitivity to different doses of 60 Co has been examined. The microorganisms proved to be more resistant to irradiation in culture media than in swine liquid manure, where most of the studied bacteria were killed by radiation dose of 4 kGy. However, a very high resistance has been found at the saprophytic and pathogenic mycobacteria and at the spore containing Clostridium perfringens having required a lethal dose of 10 and 15 kGy respectively. After radiation-treatment the liquid manure can be used in agriculture for irrigation and it can be recycled to the stall cleaning procedures. The use of irradiated liquid manure as a possible animal food is also discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Intravenous injection of artificial red cells and subsequent dye laser irradiation causes deep vessel impairment in an animal model of port-wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikihisa, Naoaki; Tominaga, Mai; Watanabe, Shoji; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saito, Yoshiaki; Sakai, Hiromi

    2018-03-15

    Our previous study proposed using artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment for port-wine stains (PWSs). Dye laser photons are absorbed by red blood cells (RBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) mixture, which potentially produce more heat and photocoagulation and effectively destroy endothelial cells. Hb-Vs combination therapy will improve clinical outcomes of dye laser treatment for PWSs because very small vessels do not contain sufficient RBCs and they are poor absorbers/heaters of lasers. In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between vessel depth from the skin surface and vessel distraction through dye laser irradiation following intravenous Hb-Vs injection using a chicken wattle model. Hb-Vs were administered and chicken wattles underwent high-energy irradiation at energy higher than in the previous experiments. Hb-Vs location in the vessel lumen was identified to explain its photosensitizer effect using human Hb immunostaining of the irradiated wattles. Laser irradiation with Hb-Vs can effectively destroy deep vessels in animal models. Hb-Vs tend to flow in the marginal zone of both small and large vessels. Increasing laser power combined with Hb-Vs injection contributed for deep vessel impairment because of the synergetic effect of both methods. Newly added Hb tended to flow near the target endothelial cells of the laser treatment. In Hb-Vs and RBC mixture, heat transfer to endothelial cells from absorbers/heater may increase. Hb-Vs function as photosensitizers to destroy deep vessels within a restricted distance that the photon can reach.

  10. Regeneration of blood-forming organs after autologous leukocyte transfusion in lethally irradiated dogs. II. Distribution and cellularity of the marrow in irradiated and transfused animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Herbst, E.; Huegl, E.; Bruch, C.

    1976-01-01

    Dogs were given transfusions of cryopreserved autologous mononuclear blood leukocytes after 1200 roentgens (R) (midline dose) whole-body x-irradiation. Bone marrow repopulation was studied by means of histomorphological methods at days 9 and 10 after transfusion of an average of 3 x 10 9 , 7 x 10 9 , 13 x 10 9 , and 31 x 10 9 cells. The return of marrow cellularity to normal values was related to the number of cells transfused. With low cell doses (3 x 10 9 and 7 x 10 9 ), the marrow regeneration at 10 days was focal. There were groups of cells (colonies) showing either erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis, or megakaryocytopoiesis in the osteal niches of the trabecular bones. Frequently such niches were seen showing complete cellular recovery next to niches with complete aplasia. With higher cell doses, all niches showed hemopoietic regeneration, and the cellularity approached normal values. No hemopoietic regeneration was observed in those skeletal parts that do not show hemopoiesis, even under normal circumstances

  11. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Potatoes were used to study the metabolic stress effects in irradiated vegetable products. The changes of the contents of specific target compounds (glycoalkaloids, phenolic acids and coumarins) in alcoholic extracts of gamma irradiated potatoes were studied for metabolic irradiation stress. Doses of up to 3 kGy were applied to potatoes of several varieties. (Auth.)

  12. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... style for the strength units describing radiation sources. This correction is being made to improve the...). That document used incorrect style for the strength units describing radiation sources. This correction... HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 579 continues to read as...

  13. Babesia divergens: protection of intact calves against heterologous challenge by the injection of irradiated piroplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.; Purnell, R.E.; Brocklesby, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Blood from a splenectomized calf infected with Babesia divergens was divided into 20 ml aliquots which were γ-irradiated at doses of 0, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 krad and then inoculated into groups of three intact calves. Animals receiving non-irradiated blood had typical mild B. divergens reactions, but those receiving irradiated blood had either very mild reactions or no overt reaction. When the calves were challenged with a similar number (7.5 X 10 9 ) of heterologous parasites of a recently-isolated field strain, those which had received blood irradiated at 0, 24, 28 and 32 krad were all immune whereas four of the five surviving animals which had received blood irradiated at 36 or 40 krad were susceptible. The immune status of individual cattle was reflected accurately in the results of the micro-ELISA test, which detected a significant rise in serum antibody titre of the four susceptible animals by day 21 after challenge. (Auth.)

  14. A study of the behaviour of irradiated or unirradiated grafts in the camera aquosa of irradiated and unirradiated animals; Etude du comportement d'un greffon irradie ou non, transplante dans la chambre anterieure de l'oeil d'un animal irradie ou non

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djalali-Behzad, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    Following grafts of new born mice spinal ganglia in the 'camera aquosa' of adult mice, the authors tried hematopoietic tissue grafts in the same conditions. The growth of iso-logous and hetero-logous bone marrow in the 'camera aquosa' showed that this tissue, even after exposure to supralethal doses, was capable of survival and growth. A counter-experiment with non irradiated bone marrow grafts in the 'camera aquosa' of rats delivered 700 rads led to the conclusion that the environment, intoxicated by exposure, acted on the graft so that after vascularization it became unable to grow. (author) [French] Apres avoir greffe des ganglions rachidiens de souriceaux nouveaux-nes dans la chambre anterieure de l'oeil de souris adultes, l'auteur a tente de greffer du tissu hematopoietique de la meme facon. La proliferation de la moelle osseuse isologue et heterologue, dans la chambre anterieure de l'oeil, lui a permis de mettre en evidence une certaine capacite de survie et de proliferation de ce tissu irradie meme a dose supraletale. Par une contre-experimentation, c'est-a-dire par la greffe de moelle non irradiee dans la chambre anterieure de rats irradies a 700 rads, il conclut que le milieu ambiant, intoxique par l'irradiation, agit sur le greffon de telle sorte que ce dernier, apres s'etre vascularise, devient depourvu de son aptitude de proliferation. (auteur)

  15. A study of the behaviour of irradiated or unirradiated grafts in the camera aquosa of irradiated and unirradiated animals; Etude du comportement d'un greffon irradie ou non, transplante dans la chambre anterieure de l'oeil d'un animal irradie ou non

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djalali-Behzad, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    Following grafts of new born mice spinal ganglia in the 'camera aquosa' of adult mice, the authors tried hematopoietic tissue grafts in the same conditions. The growth of iso-logous and hetero-logous bone marrow in the 'camera aquosa' showed that this tissue, even after exposure to supralethal doses, was capable of survival and growth. A counter-experiment with non irradiated bone marrow grafts in the 'camera aquosa' of rats delivered 700 rads led to the conclusion that the environment, intoxicated by exposure, acted on the graft so that after vascularization it became unable to grow. (author) [French] Apres avoir greffe des ganglions rachidiens de souriceaux nouveaux-nes dans la chambre anterieure de l'oeil de souris adultes, l'auteur a tente de greffer du tissu hematopoietique de la meme facon. La proliferation de la moelle osseuse isologue et heterologue, dans la chambre anterieure de l'oeil, lui a permis de mettre en evidence une certaine capacite de survie et de proliferation de ce tissu irradie meme a dose supraletale. Par une contre-experimentation, c'est-a-dire par la greffe de moelle non irradiee dans la chambre anterieure de rats irradies a 700 rads, il conclut que le milieu ambiant, intoxique par l'irradiation, agit sur le greffon de telle sorte que ce dernier, apres s'etre vascularise, devient depourvu de son aptitude de proliferation. (auteur)

  16. Assessment of the radiomodifying effect of the herbal preparation 'Elixir-3' in laboratory animals exposed to external whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenchova, V.; Topalova, S.; Stefanova, D.; Kuzova, K.

    2002-01-01

    The study of preparations obtained from natural products, free of any toxic effects on the organism, has important practical implications on the prophylaxis against and correction of eventual sequelae of ionizing radiation. It is the purpose of the study to assay the radiomodifying action of the herbal preparation 'Elixir-3' (E-3) on mice exposed to acute whole-body irradiation with 3 and 7 Gy gamma-rays, using a prophylactic-therapeutic scheme of application over 30 days. E-3 represents alcohol-water extract of basil, hops, briar, nettle, walnut and peppermint. Bone marrow femoral and spleen cellularity, endogenous spleen colony-forming units (E-CFUs), overall plasma oxidation activity and phagocytic activity of neutrophils are evaluated. E-3, administered in a prophylactic-therapeutic scheme, promotes post-radiation recovery of hematopoiesis in mice irradiated with non-lethal and median-lethal gamma ray doses, and exerts a favourable effect on the anti-oxidation status and phagocytic activity of neutrophils in laboratory animals.(authors)

  17. Facts about food irradiation: Chemical changes in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet addresses the safety of irradiated food. The irradiation process produces very little chemical change in food, and laboratory experiments have shown no harmful effects in animals fed with irradiated milk powder. 3 refs

  18. Animal experimental model of a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction after allogenic transplantation of bone marrow in lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, H.; Muench, S.; Haubold, S.; Weber, B.

    1977-01-01

    The graft-versus-host (GVH) disease represents a serious still unsolved problem in the human allogenic transplantation of bone marrow. An experimental model of GVH reaction after an allogenic transplantation of bone marrow in the adult mouse has been worked out as a prerequisite for further studies on the therapeutic influence of this syndrome. 3 groups have been formed out of 82 lethally X-irradiated C57 Bl mice. The non-transplanted control group died to a hundred per cent within 12 days. While out of the 2nd group treated with syngenic bone marrow 55 per cent survived from the 22nd day, 30 per cent of the third animal group, allogenicly transplanted with histoincompatible AKR donor marrow developed a chronic GVH syndrome. The following symptoms were observed: retardation, alterations of the skin, diarrhea, edemas of the legs, failing increase of leukocytes in blood and proliferation of lymphocytes in bone marrow of about 60 per cent (18 per cent in syngenically transplanted animals), in lacking proliferation of hematopoiesis. The increase of liver and especially spleen index is not characteristic in comparison with the syngenically transplanted group, since in the latter there is also an increase of the values on account of a strong hematopoetic proliferation. The model is suitable and sufficiently well characterized for the performance of further experimental studies. (author)

  19. Radiation tumorigenesis in inbred laboratory animals and cancer risks in irradiated human populations. Two widely different problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1978-01-01

    The mammal has efficient defence mechanisms against the development of tumours. These mechanisms are successively deteriorated by ionizing radiation when the dose increases beyond certain 'borderline levels'. Consequently, most animal strains demonstrate a bi-phasic dose-tumour relationship with a low-dose limb, the slope of which cannot be distinguished from zero, and a high-dose limb that increases with increasing doses. There are four or five exceptions to this 'rule' but in most of these cases the probable reasons for the deviations are known. Some human tumours as observed in epidemiological investigations do not demonstrate a similar clearly bi-phasic dose response. In all probability, this discrepancy does not reflect a higher susceptibility to radiation-induced tumours in man compared with other mammals. It is rather a consequence of a greater statistical variation in radiosensitivity in heterogeneous human populations than among inbred animals living standardized conditions. Accordingly, when maximum permissible dose levels are to be determined one should extrapolate from epidemiological data. Furthermore, these extrapolations should be linear if the data do not clearly deviate from a straight line, and if there are no scientific reasons to assume that a threshold exists. This formal method would not produce a biological description of what may happen in the low-dose area but rather an upper risk limit for the population studied. The real low-dose risk cannot be known. For the same pragmatic reason other radiological or non-radiological risks should be determined in the same manner, particularly when risks are to be compared. (author)

  20. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Sewage solids were collected as 'primary settled solids' and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using 60 Co or 177 Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one magarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no supplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottenseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type. (Auth.)

  1. The post irradiation examination of a sphere-pac (UPu)C fuel pin irradiated in the BR-2 reactor (MFBS 7 experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.; Aerne, E.T.; Buergisser, B.; Flueckiger, U.; Hofer, R.; Petrik, F.

    1979-09-01

    A pin fuelled with Swiss made (UPu)C microspheres has been successfully irradiated to a peak burn-up of 6% fima in the Belgian BR2 Reactor. The pin, rated up to 95 kW/m, was intact after irradiation and exhibited a peak strain of just over 0.5%. The results of the post irradiation examination are reported. (Auth.)

  2. Response of growing bones to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, D.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of ionizing radiations on growing bones. The epiphyseal disc of growing mouse tibia was selected as a model for the experiments. An attempt has been made to obtain clinical data from irradiated bones during the childhood and to quantitate this information. Within the range of possibilities correlations have been established between the experimental and clinical data. (Auth.)

  3. Tocopherol in irradiation of experimental neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaagerud, A.; Peterson, H.-I.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of tocopherol, administered intramuscularly in different single doses, on the effect of local irradiation of a transplanted rat sarcoma was investigated. Tocopherol in doses of 5, 25 or 50 mg/100 g body weight enhanced significantly the tumour growth retardation induced by irradiation. Tocopherol in a dose of 100 mg/100 g body weight as a placebo preparation had no similar effect. The influence of tocopherol administered intramuscularly or orally in identical doses was similar. (Auth.)

  4. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampelmacher, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    The author debates public health aspects of food irradiation. The effect of food irradiation as a convenience to the consumer is discussed, i.e. the prevention of food deterioration and also the prevention of disease that could be passed on to the consumer by ingestion. On the other hand, the effects that could possibly be created by the application of radiation are also evaluated using toxicological and microbiological considerations. (Auth.)

  5. Animal experiments in radiotherapy. II. Large animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probert, J C; Hughes, D B

    1975-03-01

    A review has been made of factors of importance when using large animals for organ or partial body irradiation research. The problem has been considered from the viewpoint of the clinician. The rabbit, cat, dog, pig and monkey have been examined in detail for suitability as laboratory animals. Dosimetric and volume features have been reviewed.

  6. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NV< IrV). There was no significant difference (p<5%) for biochemical tests, complete blood count, and animals weight between the three groups tested. The group immunized with irradiated venom showed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  7. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S. E-mail: rseabra@cevap.org.br

    2005-07-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NVanimals weight between the three groups tested. The group immunized with irradiated venom showed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  8. INAA of human and animal whole blood samples by short term reactor irradiation. [Au, Br, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mn, Na, P, Sc, Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samudralwar, D L; Garg, A N

    1986-11-03

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of 15 major, minor and trace elements in human and animal blood samples. Dry whole blood samples along with NBS and IAEA standards were irradiated for 5 min, 1 h, 5 h and 10 h with reactor thermal neutrons and counted using high resolution ..gamma..-spectrometry at successive intervals. Data for a new IAEA proposed CRM Mixed Human Diet (H-9) is reported. 28 references, 4 tables.

  9. Test of mutagenicity of an irradiated standard diet for laboratory animals in the host-mediated assay with salmonella typhimurium TA 1530

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenzner, R.; Renner, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Feed irradiated at a dose of 3 Mrad was tested for mutagenic activity in the host-mediated assay with the mouse as host and Salmonella typhimurium TA 1530 as indicator organism. In the in vivo and in the in vitro comparative test the irradiated feed showed no mutagenic effect. (orig.) [de

  10. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Angerman, J.M.; Keenan, W.G.; Linsley, J.G.; Poole, C.M.; Sallese, A.; Simkins, R.C.; Tolle, D.

    1981-01-01

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60 Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60 Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  11. The influence of blood plasma of irradiated animals on activity of Ca2+ - ATPase and Mg2+ - ATPase in plasma membrane of thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreval', V.I.

    1994-01-01

    Rats were irradiated at doses 1.5, 4.0, 7.0 and 10 Gy. After 1, 8, 15, 22 and 30 days the effect of blood plasma on activity of Ca 2+ -ATPase and Mg 2+ -ATPase in plasma membrane of thymocytes was investigated. It was found that the raise of irradiation dose leads to increasing of blood plasma effect on membrane-bound enzymes

  12. Post-irradiation diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerwaldt, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    In radiotherapy of pelvic cancers, the X-ray dose to be delivered to the tumour is limited by the tolerance of healthy surrounding tissue. In recent years, a number of serious complications of irradiation of pelvic organs were encountered. Modern radiotherapy necessitates the acceptance of a calculated risk of complications in order to achieve a better cure rate. To calculate these risks, one has to know the radiation dose-effect relationship of normal tissues. Of the normal tissues most at risk when treating pelvic tumours only the bowel is studied. In the literature regarding post-irradiation bowel complications, severe and mild complications are often mixed. In the present investigation the author concentrated on the group of patients with relatively mild symptoms. He studied the incidence and course of post-irradiation diarrhea in 196 patients treated for carcinoma of the uterine cervix or endometrium. The aims of the present study were: 1) to determine the incidence, course and prognostic significance of post-irradiation diarrhea; 2) to assess the influence of radiotherapy factors; 3) to study the relation of bile acid metabolism to post-irradiation diarrhea; 4) to investigate whether local factors (reservoir function) were primarily responsible. (Auth.)

  13. Fabrication, irradiation and post-irradiation examinations of MO2 and UO2 sphere-pac and UO2 pellet fuel pins irradiated in a PWR loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A. van der; Lucas Luijckx, H.J.B.; Verheugen, J.H.N.

    1981-04-01

    Three fuel pin bundles, R-109/1, 2 and 3, were irradiated in a PWR loop in the HFR at Petten during respectively 131, 57 and 57 effective full power days at average powers of approximately 39 kW.m -1 and at peak powers of approximately 60 kW.m -1 . The results of the post-irradiation examinations of these fuel bundles are presented. (Auth.)

  14. Ionic conductivity in irradiated KCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignolo Rubio, J.

    1979-01-01

    The ionic conductivity of X and gamma irradiated KCl single crystals has been studied between room temperature and 600 deg C. The radiation induced damage resulting in a decrease of the conductivity heals by thermal annealing in two steps which are at about 350 and 550 deg C respectively. It has been found that the radiation induced colour centres are not involved in the observed decrease of the ionic conductivity. Howewer, it has been observed that the effects of quenching and plastic deformation on the conductivity of the samples are very similar to the effect induced by irradiation. It is suggested that small radiation induced dislocation loops might cause the ionic conductivity decrease observed in irradiated samples. (auth)

  15. Successful trial of irradiated vaccine against Dictyocaulus filaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabir, M.H.; Suresh Singh, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    Awasi male lambs, 2-3 months old, were given a double dose of vaccine containing Dictyocaulus filaria larvae irradiated at 40 kR (group A) and 50 kR (group B). The vaccinates and the control lambs (group C) were challenged about 10 weeks following the second vaccination. On an average 198 parasites, both mature and immature, were recovered from the lungs of group A, 28.3 from group B and 935.6 from group C. At 6 weeks post-challenge the average LPG was 17 for group A, 2.6 for group B and 64 for group C. Post-challenge average gain in body weight was 0.5 kg for group A; animals of group B lost 0.16 kg and those of group C 1.71 kg. Over the entire period animals of groups A, B and C gained 33.01, 39.24 and 22.37% respectively of their initial body weight. In all vaccinates the lungs were normal but those of the controls were seriously damaged. At 40 kR the vaccine gives very good protection and at 50 kR excellent results. (auth.)

  16. (100) faceted anion voids in electron irradiated fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1979-01-01

    High fluence electron irradiation of fluorite crystals in the temperature range 150 to 320 K results in formation of a simple cubic anion void superlattice. Above 320 K the damage structure changes to a random distribution of large [001] faceted anion voids. This voidage behaviour, similar to that observed in a range of irradiated metals, is discussed in terms points defect rather than conventional colour centre terminology. (Auth.)

  17. Tolerance of the central nervous system to photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigg, D.R.; Murray, R.M.L.; Koschel, K.

    1982-01-01

    Dose-response isoeffect equations have been determined for hypothalamic pituitary insufficiency following cranial irradiation. Of particular importance is the occurrence of complications at doses substantially less than those commonly used for the treatment of central nervous system tumors. Such complications may be severe and potentially life threatening. These complications occur when a small midline 'target' volume containing the pituitary gland, infundibulum and adjacent inferior hypothalamic structures is irradiated. Direct pituitary irradiation is unlikely to be a factor, at least in some cases. The possible role of incidental hypothalamic irradiation in the control of acromegaly and pituitary dependent Cushing's syndrome is discussed. (Auth.)

  18. State of the hormonal status at animals, taking place in conditions of long action of irradiation low intensity in zone of alienation Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gun'kova, N.V.; Gorokh, G.A.; Konoplya, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    The study of levels of steroid (corticosterone, testosterone) and thyroid (thyroxine, triiodothyronine) hormones and 5'-deiodinase activity of a liver tissue at white male rats after their stay in zone of alienation Chernobyl NPP is carried out. After staying during four months in zone the animals exhibit rising of levels of hormones and downstroke 5'-deiodinase activity. (authors)

  19. Studies with normal and gamma irradiated third stage larvae of Oesophagostomum columbianum in lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.L.; Dhar, D.N.

    1979-01-01

    Results of work on the host-parasite relationship of Oesophagostomum columbianum in sheep, carried out at the Regional Centre, Srinagar, are presented. Primary infections with small numbers of O. columbianum third larvae in lambs caused establishment of more adult worms in the intestine. As the number of larvae administered to lambs in primary infections was increased, a significant decrease in the establishment of adult worms in the intestine was observed. Higher levels of primary infections in lambs resulted in stunting of both male and female adult worms in intestine but this did not affect the resultant egg production by the worms. The severity of the disease in lambs was directly related to the number of larvae administered in primary infections. Attenuation of the third stage larvae of O.columbianum was obtained when they were irradiated at 40 and 50 Krad doses from a gamma source. Whereas it was possible to stimulate only a partial protection in young lambs to O. columbianum with a single dose of 2000, 40 Krad irradiated larvae. Vaccination with the same numbers of larvae, but irradiated at 50 Krad failed to protect the animals. The presence of adult worms of O.columbianum in sites outside the intestine in lambs has been reported for the first time. (auth.)

  20. Effects of prior stress history on the irradiation creep of 20% cold-worked AISI 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, B.A.; Straalsund, J.L.; Wire, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    The following conclusions resulted from this study: An in-reactor transient component of creep is found to occur whenever the stress level is increased. The transient is principally a thermal process, short in duration, and only weakly dependent on flux. The observed irradiation component of in-reactor creep is independent of prior stress history. Microstructural development during irradiation is influenced predominantly by the irradiation flux and temperature variables, and only to a minor extent by the irradiation stress history. (Auth.)

  1. Biliary and pancreatic secretions in abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becciolini, A.; Cionini, L.; Cappellini, M.; Atzeni, G.

    1979-01-01

    The biliary and pancreatic secretions have been determined in patients given pelvic or para-aortic irradiation, with a dose of 50 Gy in the former group and between 36 and 40 Gy in the latter. A test meal containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) as reference substance was used. Each sample of the duodenal content was assayed for volume, PEG content, amylase and trypsin activity, pH and biliary secretion. No significant modifications of biliary and pancreatic secretions were demonstrated after irradiation, suggesting that these functions are not involved in the pathogenesis of the malabsorption radiation syndrome. (Auth.)

  2. Feasibility of internal irradiation of a lobe of the lung with P-32 loaded microspheres: I. stability of microspheres in animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llaurado, J.G.; Brewer, L.A. III; Elam, D.A.; Zielinski, F.W.; Hirst, A.E.; Ing, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Surgical removal, the preferred treatment for lung cancer, is not tolerated by many patients. To test feasibility of treating these cases with high dose isotope irradiation, an occlusion balloon catheter was introduced into a branch of the pulmonary artery in dogs. Ten million (1 g) ion exchange resin microspheres (d. 53-63 μm) labelled with 10-20 mCi P-32 (and 5-10 mCi Tc-99m for imaging) were delivered into the selected lobar artery. After 60 minutes the catheter was withdrawn and a lung scintigraph obtained. Microspheres were prepared by converting cation exchange resin beads to the chromic form, labelling with P-32 phosphate at pH 2 to 4 and stabilizing at pH 9. Quality control testing in boiling physiologic saline confirmed in vitro stability. Since the radiation dose (rad) from total P-32 decay is 733 times the tissue concentration (μCi/g), the injected P-32 distributed in one lobe (ca. 100 g) of canine lung delivers ca. 75,000-150,000 rad. Serial lung scintigraphs were obtained for 8 weeks. Blood level of P-32 was negligible throughout. Following an anesthetic overdoes, dramatic necrosis of the irradiated lobe was observed. Microspheres were visualized histologically in the precapillary beds and never in alveoli or bronchi. Radioactive levels were negligible and no major alterations were discernible in adjacent lung lobes and organs. Thus, large doses of radiation to a selected pulmonary lobe may be delivered without systemic leakage of radioactivity or damage to other organs. This procedure may be useful to destroy inoperable cancer of the lung and other organs

  3. Decree No. 70-392 of 8 May 1970 laying down administrative measures in implementation of the Act of 1 August 1905 with respect to repression of fraudulent trading in irradiated food intended for human and animal consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Decree provides for the conditions of trade in irradiated food and lays down that food irradiation may be undertaken only in accordance with an Order specifying the irradiation limits and conditions. (NEA) [fr

  4. Influence of Gamma-Irradiation On the Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Myco toxigenic Moulds in Cereals and Animal Feed stuffs in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar, Z.A.; Mahrous, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    During the period 2003-2005. 370 samples of cereals and animal feed stuffs were examined for toxigenic moulds and mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B 1 showed the highest incidence rate, it occurred in 26.5% of all samples analyzed, the highest levels being found in peanut meal at 3000-5000 μg/Kg. Ochratoxin A and citrinin were detected in commodities at low rate. The most prevalent fungi were Aspergillus spp. which were found in 63.8% of all samples, whereas, Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. identified in 25.7 and 22.4%. respectively. Also, the present study revealed that aflatoxin B 1 was detected at low level 95μg/kg after treatment of samples with 20 kGy and there was no detectives of aflatoxin B 1 at 40 kGy. Application of radiation at 25 kGy was sufficient for complete destruction of citrinin, whereas application of radiation at 30 kGy reduced the levels of ochratoxin A by 97% in the animal feed stuffs

  5. Gamma ray irradiation to semi-purified diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigawa, Akihiro; Danbara, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Yoshinobu

    1976-01-01

    Semi-purified diet containing 10% soybean oil was irradiated with gamma rays at levels of 0.6, 3 and 6 Mrad and was fed to chicks. Crude fat contents of the diets decreased and a considerable amount of peroxide was formed with high doses of irradiation. Feed consumption and feed efficiency of the highly irradiated diets were less than those of control. Metabolizable energy and digestibility of the diets, especially of fat, were decreased with the irradiation. The chicks fed with irradiated diets showed marked dilatation of the small intestine and the liver, and their erythrocytes were more fragile than those of control. The same phenomena were found with the chicks fed the diet containing the oil highly oxidized by autoxidation. Irradiation of the diet excluding oil showed little effect on the growth of chicks. It was considered that these phenomena were caused by the peroxide or other oxidation products of fat which were formed with gamma ray irradiation. (auth.)

  6. Experimental study associated to irradiation of FBR structural material, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The study presents one of the bases to evaluate the results of the post-irradiation tests to conduct the thermal control tests related to the second JMTR irradiation (70M-61P) of the demestic austenitic stainless steels for the structural material of the FBR performed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The thermal control specimens were given the temperature history which simulated that of the irradiation temperature in vacuum by the electrical furnance, and then the tensile, fatigue and Charpy impact tests were performed. The changes of the material properties caused by the thermal history were investigated. (auth.)

  7. Potential for irradiation of marine foods in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The potential for treatment of fish with ionising radiation to extend the useful shelf life lies with low dose pasteurization methods. A practical extension of 1 week or more under optimal refrigeration conditions can be achieved although a background loss of quality due to autolysis continues throughout storage. Of New Zealands markets for fish products only Australia could be serviced by sea freight with irradiated fresh fish. Two difficulties are forseen: firstly a market advantage for fresh over frozen fish is unproven; secondly the industry is dispersed and does not lend itself to a central irradiation facility. Some possibilities for irradiation may arise in future. (auth.)

  8. A disposal centre for irradiated nuclear fuel: conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    This report describes a conceptual design of a disposal centre for irradiated nuclear fuel. The surface facilities consist of plants for the preparation of steel cylinders containing irradiated nuclear fuel immobilized in lead, shaft headframe buildings, and all necessary support facilities. The undergound disposal vault is located on one level at a depth of 1000 metres. The cylinders containing the irradiated fuel are emplaced on a one-metre thick layer of backfill material and then completely covered with backfill. All surface and subsurface facilities are described, operations and schedules are summarized, and cost estimates and manpower requirements are given. (auth)

  9. Fully portable blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    A fully portable blood irradiator was developed using the beta emitter thulium-170 as the radiation source and vitreous carbon as the body of the irradiator, matrix for isotope encapsulation, and blood interface material. These units were placed in exteriorized arteriovenous shunts in goats, sheep, and dogs and the effects on circulating lymphocytes and on skin allograft retention times measured. The present work extends these studies by establishing baseline data for skin graft rejection times in untreated animals

  10. Annealing of dislocation loops in neutron-irradiated copper investigated by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauster, W.B.; Mantl, S.; Schober, T.; Triftshauser, W.

    1975-01-01

    Positron annihilation angular correlation measurements were carried out on neutron-irradiated copper as a function of annealing temperature. Two types of specimens were used: single crystals irradiated with fast neutrons, and 10 B-doped polycrystalline samples irradiated with thermal neutrons. All irradiations were at approximately 320 0 K. A structure in the annealing curve, not previously observed by other techniques, indicates that between 460 and 600 0 K the dislocation loops present after irradiation dissociate and more effective positron trapping sites are formed. (auth)

  11. Food irradiation: Activities and potentialities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

    After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. The new principle of bulk-cargo irradiation allows the integration of this technology into the usual harvest technology for onions on the way from field to storage. Scientific and applied research work has been carried out in the past 3 yr on the irradiation of spices, potatoes, eviscerated chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. In connection with the irradiation of eviscerated chicken, fodder yeast and animal feeds the basis of an antisalmonella programme has been discussed. Germ-count-reduced spices were employed for the production of test charges of preserves and tinned products. The results have led to the decision to design and build a new multipurpose irradiator for food irradiation. In order to cover the legal aspects of food irradiation the Ministry of Health issued regulations concerning the recommendation of irradiated food in the G.D.R.

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  13. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  14. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  15. Shallow irradiation of Citrus Unshiu by cathod ray, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Koji; Umeda, Keiji

    1978-01-01

    The effect of 150 Krad cathode ray irradiation on the shelf life and quality of ''Citrus Unshiu'' was investigated. Citrus Unshiu (Japanese mandarin orange ''Satsuma'') were kept at 5 0 C for 2 months without pretreatment and irradiated. Both irradiated and non-irradiated samples were stored in the special storage boxes in which temperature, humidity and sterile air circulation were controlled. After 44 days, the percentage of spoiled oranges in irradiated and non-irradiated samples stored at 8 0 C were 57.5% and 64% respectively, on the other hand when stored at 3 0 C the percentage were 26% and 51% respectively. Rate of spoilage was significantly lower in the irradiated samples than non-irradiated ones. Irradiated effect on the shelf life extension was more conspicuous when the storage temperature was kept at 3 0 C. By the sensory examination, any difference for taste and flavor between irradiated and non-irradiated samples was not detected. The taste and flavor of the oranges stored at 8 0 C changed worse after long time storage but when stored at 3 0 C, such tendency was not observed. Undesirable odor and flavor were not detected by the panel with the irradiated samples in this experiment. The results showed that shelf life of the ''Citrus Unshiu'' could be extended by the combination of irradiation with 150 Krad cathode ray and storage at 3 0 C. (auth.)

  16. Recovery from inhibition of transcription in γ-irradiated Euglena cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsushimoto, G.; Kikuchi, T.; Ishida, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Transcriptional activity was inhibited with low doses of γ-irradiation which did not cause the death of cells, but induced the delay of cell division in the unicellular alga Euglena. The incorporation of [ 14 C]uracil into cells was inhibited to about 50% of non-irradiated cells immediately after 3 krad irradiation. The suppressed transcriptional activity was gradually recovered after irradiation. At about 12 h post-irradiation, the rate of incorporation of [ 14 C]uracil recovered to that of non-irradiated cells. The synthesis of ribosomal RNA was inhibited immediately after 3 krad irradiation, but it recovered within 12 h after irradiation. The synthesis of cytosol ribosomal RNA precursor was more strongly inhibited than that of other cytosol ribosomal RNAs. The synthesis of cytoplasmic organelle ribosomal RNA was also inhibited and recovered after 3 krad irradiation. (Auth.)

  17. Economics of gamma irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Toshio

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-ray irradiation business started at the Takasaki Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The irradiation facilities were constructed thereafter at various sites. The facilities must accept various types of irradiation, and must be constructed as multi-purpose facilities. The cost of irradiation consists of the cost of gamma sources, construction expense, personnel expense, management expense, and bank interest. Most of the expenses are considered to be fixed expense, and the amount of irradiation treatment decides the original costs of work. The relation between the irradiation dose and the construction expense shows the larger facility is more economical. The increase of amount of treatment reduces the original cost. The utilization efficiency becomes important when the amount of treatment and the source intensity exceed some values. The principal subjects of gamma-ray irradiation business are the sterilization of medical tools and foods for aseptic animals, the improvement of quality of plastic goods, and the irradiation of foods. Among them, the most important subject is the sterilization of medical tools. The cost of gamma irradiation per m 3 in still more expensive than that by ethylene oxide gas sterilization. However, the demand of gamma-ray irradiation is increasing. For the improvement of quality of plastic goods, electron irradiation is more favourable than the gamma irradiation. In near future, the economical balance of gamma irradiation can be achieved. (Kato, T.)

  18. Hypopituitarism as a delayed result of irradiation of the facial skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boers, G.H.J.; Jong, M. de

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a man aged 63 with complaints and deficiencies caused by hypopituitarism. Examination of the endocrine functions showed that the deficiency was generally of hypothalamic origin. The most plausible cause of this hypothalamic dysfunction proved to be damage due to an overdose of skin irradiation of both cheeks and the nose, in the treatment of a cutaneous form of lupus erythematosus. (Auth.)

  19. A low temperature cryostat with a refrigerator for studying electron-irradiation effects on solids, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Takashi; Yoshida, Toshio; Shono, Yoshihiko

    1978-01-01

    A convenient cryostat with a small cryogenic refrigerator for studying electron-irradiation effects on solids is reported. The lowest temperature at the sample room is about 10 K or less. In a temperature region below 80 K, the sample temperature can be controlled within 0.05 K. (auth.)

  20. After irradiation of the throat or nose area: pay attention to the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balen, A.Th.M. van

    1984-01-01

    Radiotherapy of carcinomas in the nose can give delayed side effects on the visual system. In this article four cases are described, in which a neuropathy of the optical nerve, caused by vascular damaging, developed one to three years after radiotherapy of nose-neoplasms, with total irradiation doses of 7000 rad. (Auth.)

  1. Storage and irradiation of Cucumis pollen and their influence on pollen vitality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oost, E.H.; Nijs, A.P.M. den

    1979-01-01

    In connection with an interspecific hybridization programme and a mentor pollen experiment in Cucumis, the optimal storage conditions and in vitro germination medium for both fresh and irradiated pollen of the cultivated cucumber and two wild African Cucumis species have been searched for. (Auth.)

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  3. The proposed cold neutron irradiation facility at the Breazeale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimeo, R. M.; Sokol, P. E.; Carpenter, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the design considerations of a Cold Neutron Irradiation Facility (CNIF) originally to have been installed at the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). The goal of this project was to study the effects of radiation-induced damage to cryogenic moderators and, in particular, solid methane. This work evolved through the design stage undergoing a full safety analysis and received tentative approval from the PSBR Safeguards Committee but was discontinued due to budgetary constraints. (auth)

  4. Food irradiation technology and some implications for New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.; Sutton, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of irradiation in the food industry overseas is growing steadily, but it is likely to be several years before New Zealand industry makes extensive use of the process. The design, operation, and likely costs of facilities to provide controlled doses of radiation to foods are reviewed. Different sources of radiation 60 Co, 137 Cs, accelerators, and mobile units) and a variety of package handling methods are discussed. (auths)

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  6. Effects of X-irradiation on some aspects of protein metabolism in the frog, Rana hexadactyla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajarami Reddy, G.; Sasira Babu, K.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in the level of total proteins and protease in brain, muscle and liver tissues of normal and X-irradiated frogs were determined. Low doses of radiation produced an increment in protein level while high doses produced decrement. However, protease activity at all doses exhibited an elevatory trend. Exposure of frogs to lethal doses resulted in increased protease activity and decreased protein content during post-irradiation periods. The results are discussed on the basis of protein destruction and lysosomal damage. (auth.)

  7. Irradiation combined with Bleomycin treatment of synchronized cells in culture under oxic and hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midander, J.; Littbrand, B.; Edsmyr, F.

    1980-01-01

    Bleomycin-treated cells are sensitized to radiation delivered under oxic conditions both in the early S and G 2 phases of the cycle, irradiated under hypoxic conditions, sensitization occurs only in the early S phase. This difference in the sensitizing effect of the drug is discussed in regard to the possible clinical advantages of a combined treatment of tumours with irradiation and Bleomycin. (Auth.)

  8. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  9. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  10. A low temperature cryostat with a refrigerator for studying electron irradiation effects on solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Takashi; Yoshida, Toshio; Kitagawa, Michiharu; Yanai, Masayoshi

    1976-01-01

    A low temperature cryostat with a small cryogenic refrigerator is described which is convenient for studying irradiation effects of the energetic electrons on solids. It allows a sample to be kept about 12 K without irradiation and 15 K under the irradiation at a heating rate of 1.5 w. The sample temperature can be changed up to room temperature by adjusting the power of an attached heater and the pressure of a compressor for the refrigerator. The optical and electrical properties of the sample can be measured under and after irradiation. (auth.)

  11. VHTR-fuel irradiation capsules for VT-1 hole of JRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Teruo; Kikuchi, Akira; Tobita, Tsutomu; Kashimura, Satoru; Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    1977-02-01

    Irradiations of VHTR fuels were made in the VT-1 irradiation hole of JRR-2. Three capsules, VP-1, VP-2 and VP-4, which contained fuel compacts, were irradiated for 300 hr at temperatures of 950 0 , 1370 0 and 1500 0 C up to the estimated burn-ups of 0.74, 0.87 and 0.80%FIMA, respectively. And, to study the amoeba effect of fuel particles, two capsules, VP-3 and VP-5, were irradiated for 300 hr at temperatures of 1650 0 and 1670 0 C up to the estimated burn-ups of 0.38 and 0.33%FIMA, respectively. (auth.)

  12. The relationship between survival and mutagenesis in Escherichia coli after fractionated ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzidic, S.; Salaj-Smic, E.; Trgovcevic, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between survival and mutagenesis in Escherichia coli after fractionated ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was studied. The cells were incubated either in buffer or nutrient media. Regardless of incubation conditions, greater survival is observed after fractionated irradiation than after acute irradiation. When the cells are incubated in buffer, UV mutagenesis decreases with an increase in the number of dose fractions. However, when the cells are cultivated in nutrient media, the increased survival is coupled with the enhanced capacity for UV mutagenesis. The authors, therefore, assume that during incubation in nutrient media, fractionated irradiation leads to full and prolonged expression of all UV inducible (SOS) genes, including those required for mutagenesis. (Auth.)

  13. Status of IVO-FR2-Vg7 experiment for irradiation of fast reactor fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbel, H.; Kummerer, K.; Bojarsky, K.; Lopez Jimenez, J.; Otero de la Gandara, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Report on the Seminar celebrated in Madrid between KfK (Karlsruhe) and JEN (Madrid) concerning a Joint Irradiation Program of Fast Reactor Fuel Rods. The design of fuel rods in general is defined, and, in particular of those with a density 94% DT and diameter 7.6 mm up to a burn-up of 7% FIMA, to be irradiated in the FR2 Reactor (Karlsruhe). Together with the design of NaK and single-wall capsules used in this irradiation, other possibilities of irradiation in the reactor will also be described. (auth.)

  14. Studies on the flavour and aroma of peel oil from citrus unshu irradiated with cathode ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshio; Asari, Takayasu; Obara, Tetsujiro

    1975-01-01

    The flavor of peel oil from citrus unshu irradiated with 150 krad cathode ray were investigated by gas chromatography. The sample irradiated and stored for 30 days showed browning and unfavorable odor although the degree of the browning was not same as the report of Ojima et al. The yield of essential oil showed only a slight difference in all samples. Some changes were found in the carbohydrate components immediately after irradiation, whereas some changes were detected in hydrocarbon components, especially d-linonen and pinene after storage of irradiated samples. Unfavorable odor might be caused by the changes of quantitative ratio of the components. (auth.)

  15. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  16. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  17. Contribution to the study of the radioprotective effect of serotonin on brain spontaneous and evoked electrical activities in the adult rabbit following whole-body lethal $gamma$-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatome, M; Court, L

    1973-11-01

    Thesis. Submitted to Paris Univ., (France). A 1 to 12 mg/kg serotonin- creatine-sulfate intravenous injection seems to act only slightly on the chronic implanted rabbit CNS except for an increase in latencies and delays of the fast components of evoked potentials and a generalized decrease in the total energy of the signal occurring 20 to 60 min after the injection. The CNS is given a real protection by a 10 mg/kg serotonin injec, tion 20 min before a 650 R whole-body exposure, the spontaneous or induced electrical activity being slightly disturbed. In the hours following irradiation the total energy increase is less important than in the unprotected animal, and there is no clear variation towards the low frequencies. Serotonin could act on the brain structures and the total energy of the signal through its depressing effect. Its radioprotective effect could act, at least partly, through the CNS. (auth)

  18. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  19. Irradiation's promise: fewer foodborne illnesses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.

    1986-01-01

    Food irradiation offers a variety of potential benefits to the food supply. It can delay ripening and sprouting of fruits and vegetables, and substitute for chemical fumigants to kill insects. However, one of the most important benefits of food irradiation is its potential use for destroying microbial pathogens that enter the food supply, including the two most common disease causing bacteria: salmonella and campylobacter. Animal products are one of the primary carriers of pathogens. Food borne illnesses are on the rise, and irradiation of red meats and poultry could significantly reduce their occurrence. Food irradiation should be examined more closely to determine its possible benefits in curtailing microbial diseases

  20. Irradiation enhanced diffusion and irradiation creep tests in stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loelgen, R.H.; Cundy, M.R.; Schuele, W.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of investigations on the rate of phase changes during neutron and electron irradiation in many different fcc alloys showing either precipitation or ordering. The diffusion rate was determined as a function of the irradiation flux, the irradiation temperature and the irradiation dose. It was found that the radiation enhanced diffusion in all the investigated alloys is nearly temperature independent and linearly dependent on the flux. From these results conclusions were drawn concerning the properties of point defects and diffusion mechanisms rate determining during irradiation, which appears to be of a common nature for fcc alloys having a similar structure to those investigated. It has been recognized that the same dependencies which are found for the diffusion rate were also observed for the irradiation creep rate in stainless steels, as reported in literature. On the basis of this obervation a combination of measurements is suggested, of radiation enhanced diffusion and radiation enhanced creep in stainless steel alloys. Measurements of radiation enhanced diffusion are less time consuming and expensive than irradiation creep tests and information on this property can be obtained rather quickly, prior to the selection of stainless steel alloys for creep tests. In order to investigate irradiation creep on many samples at a time two special rigs were developed which are distinguished only by the mode of stress applied to the steel specimens. Finally, a few uniaxial tensile creep tests will be performed in fully instrumented rigs. (Auth.)

  1. Review of irradiation experiments for water reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobioka, Toshiaki

    1977-02-01

    A review is made of irradiation experiments for water reactor safety research under way in both commercial power plants and test reactors. Such experiments are grouped in two; first, LWR fuel performance under normal and abnormal operating conditions, and second, irradiation effects on fracture toughness in LWR vessels. In the former are fuel densification, swelling, and the influence of power ramp and cycling on fuel rod, and also fuel rod behavior under accident conditions in in-reactor experiment. In the latter are the effects of neutron exposure level on the ferritic steel of pressure vessels, etc.. (auth.)

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  3. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  6. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    During the course of external radiation exposures of burros to establish a dose-response curve for acute mortality after total irradiation, some of the animals at the three lowest exposures to gamma photons survived. These groups of 10, 9, and 10 burros were exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively. There were 10 unirradiated controls. In 1953, 20 burros were exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/week increments without acute mortality and were added to the life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros were exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons, and 14 controls were added. The total number of irradiated burros in the study was increased to 88 by the addition of 6 animals irradiated with 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a Godiva-type reactor in 1959. In this experiment two acute deaths occurred which were not included in the analysis. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures, there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia, obviously related to radiation-induced bone-marrow damage. After that period, however, deaths were from common equine diseases; no death has resulted from a malignant neoplasm. Of the original 112 burros, 15 survive (10 irradiated and 5 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma- and gamma-irradiated burros showed significant differences. The mean survival times were: controls, 28 years; gamma irradiation only, 26 years; and neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 years. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Use of radiation and radioisotopes for investigating metabolic diseases of animals in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    In the last one decade, radioisotopes are being used to investigate certain metabolic diseases of animals and radiations are being utilized to produce parasitic vaccines to vaccinate animals. Some studies in which radioisotopes have been used to investigate certain metabolic disorders are reviewed. In experiments, where radioimmunoassay technique for the estimation of hormones, has been utilized, the results reveal that the animals on low plane of nutrition show greater oestrous cycle lengths or even long anoestrous periods. On the other hand, irradiation has been used as a tool to produce vaccines as well as degradation of certain dietary molecules for increased utilization. A number of studies wherein 35 S and 15 N isotopes have been used, reveal that sulphur supplementation is essential for optimum utilization of nitrogen in the ratio of 1:10. There are certain antimetabolites in feed ingredients which affect endocrine function. Evidence indicates that high nitrate forages disturb thyroid function when sup(131)I is used to elucidate its secretion rate. Similarly certain toxic substances such as tannins have been shown to affect protein metabolism and phosphorus utilization when sup(32)P isotope is used in such studies. The use of radioisotopes have also been helpful to investigate the cause of ''Degnala'' disease prevalent in village cattle in certain states of India. With the help of sup(75)Se it has been possible to trace out the metabolic disturbances which lead to the onset of this disease. Another deficiency disease, hyperkeratosis, has been shown to be caused not only because of Vitamin A deficiency, but also because of zinc deficiency. The latter helps in the mobilization of normal quantity of vitamin A from the liver into the blood vitamin A pool. There is wide scope to use radioisotopes to investigate other metabolic diseases prevalent in livestock in this country. (auth.)

  8. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Tryggestad, Erik, E-mail: frank.verhaegen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2011-06-21

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  9. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  10. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  13. Irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrington, Hugh

    1988-06-01

    This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

  14. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  15. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  16. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  17. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  18. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  19. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...... bodies. By using animation as a learning tool we can explore the world of emotions and question beliefs, feelings and actions in order to express our voices and enhance our communication, and well-being, both, internally and with others. Animation can be the visual expression of the emotions in movement...

  20. Irradiation effects in magnesium and aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on microstructure, mechanical properties and swelling of several magnesium and aluminium alloys were studied. The neutron fluences of 2-3 X 10 22 n/cm 2 , >0.2 MeV produced displacement doses of 20 to 45 displacements per atom (dpa). Ductility of the magnesium alloys was severely reduced by irradiation induced recrystallization and precipitation of various forms. Precipitation of transmuted silicon occurred in the aluminium alloys. However, the effect on ductility was much less than for the magnesium alloys. The magnesium and aluminium alloys had excellent resistance to swelling: The best magnesium alloy was Mg/3.0 wt% Al/0.19 wt% Ca; its density decreased by only 0.13%. The best aluminium alloy was 6063, with a density decrease of 0.22%. (Auth.)

  1. A standard fission neutron irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahasrabudhe, S.G.; Chakraborty, P.P.; Iyer, M.R.; Kirthi, K.N.; Soman, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    A fission neutron irradiation facility (FISNIF) has been set up at the thermal column of the CIRUS reactor at BARC. The spectrum and the flux have been measured using threshold detectors. The paper describes the setting up of the facility, measurement and application. A concentric cylinder containing UO 2 powder sealed inside surrounds the irradiation point of a pneumatic sample transfer system located in the thermal column of the reactor. Samples are loaded in a standard aluminium capsule with cadmium lining and transported pneumatically. A sample transfer time of 1 s can be achieved in the facility. Typical applications of the facility for studying activation of iron and sodium in fission neutrons are also discussed. (Auth.)

  2. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  3. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  4. Present status of radiation treatment of animal feeds in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Iizuka, H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the studies in Japan on the irradiation of laboratory animal diets and farm animal feedstuffs. From the microbiological inactivation curve of laboratory animal diets, the irradiation doses of 2.5 approximately 3.5 Mrad seem to be suitable for sterilization of animal diets. The absence of toxic effects on animals can be demonstrated by feeding studies. The elimination of salmonellae and other species of Enterobacteriaceae in feedstuffs could be achieved by irradiation with 0.5 approximately 0.6 Mrad. The growth of moulds in feeds would not occur at this dose level. However, an adverse effect is observed on chicks fed with fatty diet irradiated at 3 and 6 Mrad. It is suggested that a promising application of radiation treatment to the feeding of farm animals is irradiation at low dose levels of 0.5 approximately 0.6 Mrad. (author)

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on morphology of leaf and shoot apex of ginger, turmeric and mango-ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, E.C.; Patel, J.D.; Shah, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    Effect of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kR gamma irradiation on morphology and growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Valet) and mango-ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb), and shoot apical organisation in ginger was studied. Higher doses (20 and 30 kR) of radiation proved to be lethal. Morphological aberrations in foliage leaves are reported. Irradiated shoot apices appear histologically inert. (auth.)

  6. A note on the effect of gamma-irradiation on the seed germination of Linum usitatissimum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghouse, A.K.M.; Abidi, S.H.; Kazmi, Reshma

    1979-01-01

    A study on the effect of different acute doses of gamma-irradiation on the seeds of Linum usitatissimum L. varieties Heera, Mukta and T 397 revealed that the process of germination has been retarded, particularly, at its initial stage, under the influence of this ionizing agency, although the overall germination percentage does not vary to any considerable extent under the different intensities of irradiation tested. (auth.)

  7. Induction and repair of strand breaks and 3'-hydroxy terminals in the DNA of mouse brain following gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, K.; Furuno, I.; Yada, T.; Matsudaira, H.

    1978-01-01

    DNA was isolated from mouse brain after in vivo γ-ray irradiation, treated with endonuclease S 1 from Aspergillus oryzae if necessary, and analysed further by alkaline and neutral sucrose gradient centrifugation. In parallel, its template activity was determined by DNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.7, enzyme A of Klenow from Escherichia coli) assay as described previously. Similar experiments were performed with cultured mouse leukaemia cells (L5178Y) irradiated in vitro at 0 0 C. (Auth.)

  8. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  9. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  10. Foodstuff irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Report written on behalf of the Danish Food Institute summarizes national and international rules and developments within food irradiation technology, chemical changes in irradiated foodstuffs, microbiological and health-related aspects of irradiation and finally technological prospects of this conservation form. Food irradiatin has not been hitherto applied in Denmark. Radiation sources and secondary radiation doses in processed food are characterized. Chemical changes due to irradiation are compared to those due to p.ex. food heating. Toxicological and microbiological tests and their results give no unequivocal answer to the problem whether a foodstuff has been irradiated. The most likely application fields in Denmark are for low radiation dosis inhibition of germination, riping delay and insecticide. Medium dosis (1-10 kGy) can reduce bacteria number while high dosis (10-50 kGy) will enable total elimination of microorganisms and viruses. Food irradiation can be acceptable as technological possibility with reservation, that further studies follow. (EG)

  11. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The unique radioresistance of burros has resulted in a large-animal life-span study that began in 1951. During the course of radiation exposures, some animals at three low exposures to gamma photons survived (10, 10, and 9 exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively). In 1953, 20 burros exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/wk increments were added to this life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons were added. Six burros exposed to 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a ''Godiva-type'' reactor were added in 1959 along with 22 controls. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures (320-545 R), there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia). Afterward, however, all deaths have been attributable to common equine diseases; none from malignancies. Today, 20 of the original 112 burros in these studies survive (13 irradiated and 7 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma and gamma-only irradiated burros show significant differences. Median survival time: controls, 28 yrs; gamma irradiation, 26 yrs; neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 yrs. A Weibull probability analysis predicts maximum life-span to be 42 yrs

  12. Anti-aggregation action of ultraviolet irradiation on platelet-rich plasma in the presence of antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshchupkin, D.I.; Anosov, A.K.; Potapenko, A.Ya.

    1983-01-01

    UV irradiation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) results in the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This is accounted for by the long-living photoproducts formed in plasma. Platelets destruct these photoproducts in the dark after irradiation. Lipid antioxidants α-tocopherol and BHT administered in PRP before irradiation reduce the anti-aggregation effect of UV light. Lipid photo-peroxidation is supposed to be responsible for the anti-aggregation effect of UV irradiation on platelet-rich plasma. (Auth.)

  13. Anti-aggregation action of ultraviolet irradiation on platelet-rich plasma in the presence of antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshchupkin, D.I.; Anosov, A.K.; Potapenko, A.Ya.

    1983-01-01

    UV irradiation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) results in the inhibition of ADP-induced platelets aggregation. This is accounted for by the long-living photoproducts formed in plasma. Platelets destruct these photoproducts in the dark after irradiation. Lipid antioxidants α-tocopherol and BHT administered in PRP before irradiation reduce the anti-aggregation effect of UV light. Lipid photo-peroxidation is supposed to be responsible for the anti-aggregation effect of UV irradiation on platelet-rich plasma. (Auth.)

  14. Hemibody irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schen, B.C.; Mella, O.; Dahl, O.

    1992-01-01

    In a large number of cancer patients, extensive skeletal metastases or myelomatosis induce vast suffering, such as intolerable pain and local complications of neoplastic bone destruction. Analgetic drugs frequently do not yield sufficient palliation. Irradiation of local fields often has to be repeated, because of tumour growth outside previously irradiated volumes. Wide field irradiation of the lower or upper half of the body causes significant relief of pain in most patients. Adequate pretreatment handling of patients, method of irradiation, and follow-up are of importance to reduce side effects, and are described as they are carried out at the Department of Oncology, Haukeland Hospital, Norway. 16 refs., 2 figs

  15. Studies on the supposition of liquid source for irradiation and its dose distribution, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiji; Nishida, Tsuneo

    1977-01-01

    Recently radio isotope has been used and applied in the respective spheres. The application of the effects by irradiation will be specially paid attention to in the future. Today the source for irradiation has been considered to be the thing sealed in the solid state into various capsules. So we suppose that we use liquid radio isotope as the source for irradiation. This is because there are some advantages compared with the solid source in its freedom of the shape or additional easiness at attenuation. In these experiments we measured the dose distribution by the columnar liquid source. We expect that these will be put to practical use. (auth.)

  16. Influence of adjuvant irradiation on shoulder joint function after mastectomy for breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryttov, N.; Blichert-Toft, M.; Madsen, E.L.; Weber, J.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of postoperative radiation therapy on ipsilateral shoulder function following mastectomy was evaluated from a series of 52 women with primarily operable carcinoma of the breast. Mastectomy and partial axillary dissection were carried out in all patients. In addition, 29 of the patients received postoperative irradiation with 36.6 Gy applied mid-axillarily in 12 fractions with irradiation twice a week. A significant impairment of the active shoulder mobility was found in the irradiated group (p<0.01). The passive mobility did not differ significantly between the two groups. The impairment of active shoulder mobility is suggested to be caused by radiation induced subcutaneous fibrosis. (Auth.)

  17. A computer program (FUGI) for design and operation of a conveyor type irradiator with multi-tier and multi-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Tatsuo; Aggarwal, K.S.

    1976-10-01

    A computer program (FUGI) was established to facilitate the determination of factors related to design and operation of a conveyor type irradiator with multi-tier and multi-layer. The factors determined by this program are as follows: (1) maximum dose, minimum dose and dose uniformity in irradiated material; (2) dose rate distribution on the path of irradiated material; (3) mass flow rate of irradiated material; (4) requisite activity of source; (5) requisite speed of conveyor; (6) utilization efficiency. This program partly uses the program FUDGE 4A for determination of dose rate in irradiated material in static state by Galanter and Krishnamurthy. (auth.)

  18. Radiation stability of animate nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, G.N.; Spirin, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The main principles of radiation safety for animate nature including provisions for biological species protection and main requirement for animate nature radiation protection, which is the guarantee of any ecosystem integrity, are discussed. Ecosystem should be taken as the objective unit for animate nature radiation protection. The maximum dose of biot irradiation may amount to 0.5 Gy/year, which is 20-fold lower than the main dose limit for animate nature and 40-fold lower than ecological dose limits for conifers as the weakest radiostable member in ecosystem, at environment radioactive contamination determined by radiation safety standards. The radiation protection of animate nature is guaranteed at such levels of environment radioactive contamination

  19. Animated Reconstruction of Forensic Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Hala, Albert; Unver, Ertu

    1998-01-01

    An animated accident display in court can be significant evidentiary tool. Computer graphics animation reconstructions which can be shown in court are cost effective, save valuable time and illustrate complex and technical issues, are realistic and can prove or disprove arguments or theories with reference to the perplexing newtonian physics involved in many accidents: this technology may well revolutionise accident reconstruction, thus enabling prosecution and defence to be more effective in...

  20. Bone cell viability after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.; Kaelebo, P.; Tjellstroem, A.; Turesson, I.; Goeteborg Univ.; Goeteborg Univ.; Goeteborg Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Adult rabbits were irradiated to one proximal tibial metaphysis while the contralateral tibia served as a control. Each animal was thus its own control. Single doses of 15, 25 and 40 Gy 60 Co were used. The follow-up time was 11 to 22 weeks after irradiation. A histochemical method, recording diaphorase (NADH 2 and NADPH 2 ) activity in osteocytes, was employed. This method is regarded as superior to conventional histology. No evidence of osteocyte death was found even after 22 weeks following 40 Gy irradiation. This is interpreted as an indication that the osteocytes, which are end stage cells, are relatively radioresistant. (orig.)

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  3. Irradiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira

    1977-01-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures. (Kanao, N.)

  4. Irradiation proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, A [Osaka Kita Tsishin Hospital (Japan)

    1977-06-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures.

  5. Is food irradiation an alternative to chemical preservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1987-01-01

    The history is presented of food irradiation. The foods irradiated and the doses used are reported. The industrial use of food irradiation is restricted to a single industrial irradiation plant in Japan and several small facilities for irradiating herbs and feeds for special laboratory animal breeds. The limited application of the method is caused by high prices of radiation sources and adverse side effects (potato rotting, bad smell of meat, etc.). (M.D.). 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  7. Dose Distribution of Gamma Irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Woo; Shin, Sang Hun; Son, Ki Hong; Lee, Chang Yeol; Kim, Kum Bae; Jung, Hai Jo; Ji, Young Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Gamma irradiator using Cs-137 have been widely utilized to the irradiation of cell, blood, and animal, and the dose measurement and education. The Gamma cell 3000 Elan (Nordion International, Kanata, Ontario, Canada) irradiator was installed in 2003 with Cs-137 and dose rate of 3.2 Gy/min. And the BioBeam 8000 (Gamma-Service Medical GmbH, Leipzig, Germany) irradiator was installed in 2008 with Cs-137 and dose rate of 3.5 Gy/min. Our purpose was to evaluate the practical dosimetric problems associated with inhomogeneous dose distribution within the irradiated volume in open air state using glass dosimeter and Gafchromic EBT film dosimeter for routine Gamma irradiator dosimetry applications at the KIRAMS and the measurements were compared with each other. In addition, an user guideline for useful utilization of the device based on practical dosimetry will be prepared. The measurement results of uniformity of delivered dose within the device showed variation more than 14% between middle point and the lowest position at central axis. Therefore, to maintain dose variation within 10%, the criteria of useful dose distribution, for research radiation effects, the irradiated specimen located at central axis of the container should be placed within 30 mm from top and bottom surface, respectively. In addition, for measurements using the film, the variations of dose distribution were more then 50% for the case of less than 10 second irradiation, mostly within 20% for the case of more than 20 second irradiation, respectively. Therefore, the irradiation experiments using the BioBeam 8000 irradiator are recommended to be used for specimen required at least more than 20 second irradiation time.

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  9. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  10. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  11. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  12. Effect of head-irradiation upon epidermal mitotic activity during wound healing in the adrenalectomized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Koshi

    1977-01-01

    Epidermal mitotic activity during wound healing was estimated both in the adrenalectomized, head-irradiated mice and in the adrenalectomized, non-irradiated mice, and was compared with those obtained previously from the unoperated, head-irradiated mice. It was found that head-irradiation caused a mitotic depression to a much smaller extent in the adrenalectomized mice than it did in the unoperated mice, though adrenalectomy itself had exerted a great inhibitory effect upon the mitosis induced by an injury. Whether this abscopal effect of head-irradiation upon the mitotic activity was mediated via the adrenals, and whether in the adrenalectomized mice the head-irradiation acted to increase epidermal response to injury, making the mitotic pattern of adrenalectomized mice to come near that of control mice were discussed. (auth.)

  13. Animal Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  14. Animal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter presents historical x rays of a wide variety of animals taken within 5 years of the discovery of x radiation. Such photos were used as tests or as illustrations for radiographic publications. Numerous historical photographs are included. 10 refs

  15. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  16. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  17. New multipurpose gamma-irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, G

    1985-01-01

    In the past 3 years much work has been done in the G.D.R. on food irradiation. The experiments have shown that this treatment gives favourable results in many products such as spices, onions, potatoes, chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. Economic aspects of food irradiation require the effective use of an irradiation plant and cobalt-60. Therefore, a new multipurpose irradiation facility was developed, applicable as an onion irradiator with a capacity of about 15 ton/h and for the simultaneous irradiation of different products (spices, animal feed, chicken, etc.) in closed product boxes with a size of 1.2 m x 1.0 m x 1.2 m. A microcomputer controls the transport of product boxes around the gamma sources.

  18. Pyrolysis of γ-ray irradiated poly(tetrafluorethylene) powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiya, Tsutomu; Yokoyama, Norio; Ueno, Toru

    1974-01-01

    Pyrolysis of γ-ray irradiated poly(tetrafluoroethylene) powder (PTFE) has been studied at temperatures from 200 0 C to 390 0 C in the presence of air. By heating, the weight decrease of the powder and the formation of gaseous CO 2 and CO were observed. The weight decrease of the powder increased with total dose of irradiation. γ-ray irradiated PTFE decomposed partly by heating above 250 0 C. By heating at 300 0 C, the degree of weight decrease increased with heating time and reached a constant value. While at 390 0 C, successive decomposition was observed. The melting point of PTFE was depressed by irradiation, while it did not change by heating. No change of IR spectrum of PTFE by irradiation and/or heating was observed. In the irradiated PTFE, stable peroxy radical was observed by ESR measurement at room temperature, but decreased by heating at 150 0 C and disappeared at 250 0 C. Upon pre-heating the irradiated PTFE above 200 0 C, the weight decrease of the powder at 390 0 C decreased remarkably. On the basis of these results, mechanisms of the pyrolysis and thermo-stabilization of the irradiated PTFE were discussed. (auth.)

  19. Effect of irradiation of lipid peroxidation in serum, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisa, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    With blood obtained from patients irradiated for cervical uterine cancer (consisting of 4 cases of Stage I, 5 cases of Stage II and 4 cases of Stage III), changes of blood picture, serum lipid weight and serum lipid peroxide accompanying irradiation were studied on 3 occasions, before, during and after the irradiation. The following results were obtained. Serum lipid and serum lipid peroxide were found to increase along with the advance of uterine cancer from Stage I to II and III. At the termination of irradiation the serum lipid and serum lipid peroxide in the cases of cervical uterine cancer at Stage III were found to have recovered to close to the levels before irradiation, but in the other cases these values tended to increase with irradiation. Except the termination of irradiation treatment of cervical uterine cancer of Stage III, the decrease of leucocyte count has a mutual relationship with the increase of serum thiobarbituric acid (TBA), so that change in the serum TBA level can be assumed to be a criterion for irradiation injury. (auth.)

  20. Biochemical and Tissue Studies on Post Irradiation Recovery in Mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.M.

    2004-01-01

    three main studies were performed in this thesis, namely, mortality and survival study, biochemical studies, and studies on tissue alterations cobalt-60 gamma irradiation for low let was used for the external whole body irradiation of the irradiated animal groups. a total number of animals of 722 virgin female adult wister rats of approximately the same age and weight were used for the three studies that were performed, including the control and irradiated animal groups. the animals were housed and kept with special care at fixed temperature, humidity and diet. the study on mortality and survival included 370 animals divided into control and groups irradiated with 4,5,6,7,8 and 9 Gy. this study was followed up for one year to record the number and date of animal deaths for the different irradiated groups. for the 8 and 9 Gy irradiated groups the follow up ended after 12 weeks and 11 days respectively when animal mortality reached 100%. the maximum percent mortality was noted at the second week (3.3,8,14 and 29%) for the 4,5,6 and 7 Gy irradiated groups respectively. for the 8 and 9 Gy irradiated groups, the maximum percent mortality was noted at the first week (42.9 and 90% respectively). regression equations were applied for the percent of mortality of the 5-8 Gy irradiated groups to estimate the LD 50/30, which was found to be 6.4 Gy

  1. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecher, O.

    1979-01-01

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  4. Nutritional aspects of irradiated shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1989-11-01

    Data available in the literature on the nutritional aspects of irradiated shrimp are reviewed and the indication is that irradiation of shrimp at doses up to about 3.2 kGy does not significantly affect the levels of its protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash. There are no reports on the effect of irradiation of shrimp above 3.2 kGy on these components. Limited information available indicates that there are some minor changes in the fatty acid composition of shrimp as a result of irradiation. Irradiation also causes some changes in the amino acid composition of shrimp; similar changes occur due to canning and hot-air drying. Some of the vitamins in shrimp, such as thiamine, are lost as a result of irradiation but the loss is less extensive than in thermally processed shrimp. Protein quality of shrimp, based on the growth of rats as well as that of Tetrahymena pyriformis, is not affected by irradiation. No adverse effects attributed to irradiation were found either in short-term or long-term animal feeding tests

  5. Current state of waste and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1979-01-01

    Research and industrial applications are briefly described of irradiation technology in Czechoslovakia and in other countries. Intensive research into the irradiation of meat, grain, fruit and vegetables is going on; it has not, however, been widely applied in practice. The objective of the research into industrial and agricultural waste irradiation is to make the wastes usable as fertilizers or feed additives for farm animals. (M.S.)

  6. Irradiation growth in zirconium alloys: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidleris, V.

    1980-09-01

    The change in shape during irradiation without external stress, irradiation growth, was first discovered in uranium and later in graphite, zirconium and other core materials which exhibit anisotropic physical properties. The direction of maximum growth of metals invariably corresponds with the direction of minimum thermal expansion. In polycrystalline zirconium alloys growth is positive in the direction of maximum deformation during fabrication and in other directions it can be either positive or negative depending on the preferred orientation of grains (crystallographic texture). Growth increases gradually with temperature between 300 K and 620 K and rapidly with fluence up to about 1 x 10 25 n.m. -2 (Eμ1 MeV). At higher fluences the growth appears to saturate in annealed materials and reach a steady rate approximately proportional to dislocation density in cold-worked materials. Above 600 K both annealed and cold-worked materials have similar steady growth rates. Irradiation growth is caused by the segregation to different sinks of the vacancies and interstitials generated by irradiation, but the dominant types of sinks for each type of point defect and the mode of transport of the point defects to sinks cannot therefore be predicted theoretically. For the purpose of designing reactor core components empirical equations have been derived that can satisfactorily predict the steady state growth behaviour from texture and microstructure. (auth)

  7. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  10. Irradiation deformation due to SIPA induced dislocation anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, CH.

    1980-02-01

    A contribution to irradiation deformation resulting from the stress-induced preferred adsorption (SIPA) effect is considered. SIPA causes a variation of the growth rates of irradiation-generated dislocation loops, according to the alignment of their Burgers vectors with respect to the applied stress. A prolinged period under an applied stress then creates an anisotropic dislocation structure in which the majority of dislocations have their Burgers vectors in alignment with the stress. In the presence of 'neutral' sinks, the resulting anisotropic dislocation structure causes plastic deformation similar to the way in which irradiation growth occurs in zirconium. This mechanism is called SIPA-induced growth (SIG). We have shown that SIG is very significant in comparison to SIPA, except when little or no loop growth has occurred during the period the stress is applied. This report contains the detailed formulation and derivation of the formulae for the evaluation of the contribution due to SIG. (auth)

  11. Mechanisms and kinetics of precipitate restructuring during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, D.I.; Wiedersich, H.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiations were performed at temperatures from 400 to 700 0 C using 3.0-MeV 58 Ni + ions in order to investigate γ'-precipitate restructuring in two model alloys: Ni-12.8 at% Al and Ni-12.7 at% Si. The precipitates coarsened, with the third power of the average diameter proportional to the damage dose. The temperature dependence of the rate constants for irradiated specimens is described in terms of a modified Lifschitz-Slyozov-Wagner coarsening model that includes radiation-enhanced diffusion. Redistribution of precipitate by enhanced precipitation (Ni-Si) or precipitate dissolution (Ni-Al) at point-defect sinks caused maxima in γ' size with dose. Precipitate redistribution at the free surfaces of irradiated thin foils and at γ/γ' particle interfaces is described. (Auth.)

  12. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  13. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  14. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  17. Irradiated vaccines against bovine babesiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weilgama, D.J.; Weerasinghe, H.M.C.; Perera, P.S.G.; Perera, J.M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on non-splenectomized Bos taurus calves to determine the immunogenicity of blood vaccines containing either Babesia bigemina or Babesia bovis parasites irradiated in a 60 Co source. Groups of calves between 6 and 10 months of age, found to be free of previous babesial infections by serodiagnosis, were inoculated with B. bigemina ('G' isolate) irradiated at rates ranging from 350 to 500 Gy. These vaccines caused low to moderate reactions on primary inoculation which subsided without treatment. Parasites irradiated at 350 Gy produced a strong immunity against virulent homologous challenge. Vaccinated calves also withstood virulent heterologous B. bigemina ('H' isolate) and B. bovis ('A' isolate) challenges made 85 and 129 days later. It also became evident that the use of babesicides to control reactions should be avoided since early treatment of 'reactor' animals caused breakdown of immunity among vaccinates. B. bovis ('A' isolate) parasites irradiated at dose rates of either 300 Gy or 350 Gy caused mild to moderate reactions in immunized calves, with the reactions in the 300 Gy group being slightly more severe. On challenge with homologous parasites, animals that had previously been inoculated with organisms irradiated at 300 Gy showed better protection than those that had received parasites irradiated at 350 Gy. (author). 28 refs, 5 tabs

  18. Progress in food irradiation: Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Hungarian contribution describes the radiation-chemical behaviour of tomatopulp and bio-chemical alterations connected with this. The radiation microbiology concerns phytophtora infestans. Results of irradiation of several vegetable sorts and of animal food, as well as tolerance studies with rats are described. Higher attention is paid to legal and economical aspects and consumers' questions. (AJ) [de

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  1. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  2. Hormonal protection of spermatogenic stem cells during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroonenburgh, M.J.P.G. van.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis it is examined if by hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis the disadvantageous side-effects of radiation therapy on the gonads can be reduced. Therefore a rat model was investigated, where hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis during irradiation was achieved and stem cell survival was measured. Attention was focussed on the stem cell, because this cell is primarily responsible for the late effects of radiation on fertility. Flow cytometrical and histological techniques were used as parameters for measuring stem cell survival. Serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone were measured to evaluate the hormonal suppression. (Auth.)

  3. Preparation by irradiation of a solid support for enzyme immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1984-01-01

    Reagents (immobilized anti-α-fetoprotein discs) having a porous structure were prepared for enzyme immunoassay of α-fetoprotein by radiation polymerization at low temperatures. Discs were attached to sticks for easy handling. The activity (determined by absorbance at 492 nm) of the discs varied with the hydrophilic properties and size of the discs. The discs are sufficiently sensitive and precise for enzyme immunoassay of α-fetoprotein. Anti-AFP dissolved in PBS solution was mixed with a monomer solution of hydroxyethyl methacrylate and hydroxypropyl methacrylate. The mixture was frozen to -78 0 C and gamma irradiated. (Auth.)

  4. Basal cell carcinoma treated with MTDQ and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, Z.; Fodor, J.; Erdelyi, V.; Bihari, O.; Eckhardt, S.

    1979-01-01

    Patients with basal cell carcinoma of the skin were treated with combined MTDQ (6,6'-methylene-bis-(2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline)) adminstration and irradiation. Significantly better results were obtained with a skin exposure of 2000 R combined with MTDQ than with the same dose alone. The results were comparable to those obtained with an exposure of 4000 R. MTDQ adminstration induced disease of tissular malonaldehyde concentration and suggested the peroxide-decomposing action of the radiation sensitizer. (Auth.)

  5. Immunization with irradiated larvae against Dictyocaulus filaria in young lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the lungworm-endemic areas of Kashmir, 6-10 week old lambs of Karnah and Kashmir Merino breeds were vaccinated with two doses of 50 kR gamma-irradiated larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria, given a month apart. Assessed on the basis of reduced prevalence and significantly lower faecal larval output over an eight-month observation period, vaccinated lambs showed a high degree of resistance to naturally acquired D. filaria infection. The results also show that vaccination against D. filaria provided some degree of protection against infection with other lungworm species. (Auth.)

  6. Shrubs of the Field Irradiator - Gamma area in eastern Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugle, J.R.; Mayoh, K.R.; Barclay, P.J.

    1979-11-01

    Detailed descriptions and line drawings are given of over 100 shrub taxa (including semi-woody shrubs and vines) which are common in Manitoba; most of them are found within the Field Irradiator - Gamma (FIG) area or its immediate surroundings. Ecological and morphological notes are included along with a few general remarks on the effects of exposure to long-term gamma radiation. Keys are given for certain genera, small family groups or other critical species groups. This document is intended to facilitate identification of shrubs for experimental purposes in the FIG projects, and it should also be useful to those who are generally interested in the shrubs of Manitoba. (auth)

  7. Appearance of thymic nurse cells after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, A.H.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    1983-01-01

    Since prothymocytes home from the bone marrow to the thymus, it was tested in the mouse whether prothymocytes could be recaptured from thymic nurse cells (TNC). Bone marrow cells were labelled with the red fluorescing anthracycline daunomycin and varying numbers (up to 25 x 10 6 nucleated bone marrow cells) were injected into lethally irradiated recipients. At several time intervals after transplantation (up to 24 hours), thymuses were removed and the TNCs were isolated. No specific red fluorescence was found within the TNCs. These experiments were repeated with supravital compounds at concentrations which have been shown not to affect viability, homing pattern and function. Again, no specific fluoresence was found in the TNC after transplantation of labelled bone marrow into irradiated mice. The relationship between the dose of total body gamma irradiation and the time after irradiation was investigated. Maximal numbers of TNCs were found at 6 hours after irradiation with 4 Gy. Eight to 12 hours after irradiation, the number of TNCs isolated decreased and had returned to preirradiation levels at 24 hours. The relation between TBI dose and the number of TNCs per thymus is shown. The number determined at 3 hours increased with the dose to reach a maximum at 4 Gy. The authors later studied the morphology of the TNCs isolated at 4 to 6 hours after irradiation. On electron microscopic examination, signs of degeneration and death of the enclosed thymocytes was detected. (Auth.)

  8. Polymerization of vinyl stearate multilayers by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishii, Masanobu; Hatada, Motoyoshi

    1975-01-01

    Studies on the radiation-induced polymerization of vinyl stearate (VST) multilayers were carried out. The VST multilayers built-up on an aluminum plated glass plate by Langmuir-Blodgett technique were irradiated with electron beams from a Van de Graaff electron accelerator in nitrogen atmosphere. The structure of the multilayers and the effects of irradiation were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, contact angle measurement, multireflection infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The VST multilayers became insoluble to methanol by the irradiation, and the multi-reflection infrared spectrum of the VST multilayers turned into that of poly (VST) with increasing dosage. The polymerization proceeded during the irradiation at the temperature range between -10 0 and 10 0 C, and the conversion attained to 90% within 2.5 minutes (total dose, 5.6 Mrads). The multilayers irradiated above 13 Mrads turned into the polymer film insoluble to benzene, indicating that the polymer chains were cross-linked by the irradiation. Stearic acid which was formed by the irradiation of VST at nitrogen-water interface as a hydrolysis product was not detected in this system. (auth.)

  9. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    An outline review is presented of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research. Techniques covered are the qualitative localization of a radioisotope (static and dynamic measurements, detection procedures involving locating concentration sites of labelled toxins, parasites, abnormal blood cells, etc.), quantitative measurement of isotopes (absorption and excretion, transfer across membranes) comparator studies (determination of mass, volume or flow), isotope dilution and related studies (in vivo and in vitro applications, determination of total body red cell or plasma volume), dynamic systems (single compartmental systems such as rumen studies and the suckling lamb or calf, multiple exits from a compartment and multiple doses), stable isotopes and mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the use of internal irradiation (sterile male technique, control of insects and parasites, production of attenuated vaccines etc.). (U.K.)

  10. Animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ellen A

    2010-01-01

    As clinical studies reveal that chemotherapeutic agents may impair several different cognitive domains in humans, the development of preclinical animal models is critical to assess the degree of chemotherapy-induced learning and memory deficits and to understand the underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, the effects of various cancer chemotherapeutic agents in rodents on sensory processing, conditioned taste aversion, conditioned emotional response, passive avoidance, spatial learning, cued memory, discrimination learning, delayed-matching-to-sample, novel-object recognition, electrophysiological recordings and autoshaping is reviewed. It appears at first glance that the effects of the cancer chemotherapy agents in these many different models are inconsistent. However, a literature is emerging that reveals subtle or unique changes in sensory processing, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval that are dose- and time-dependent. As more studies examine cancer chemotherapeutic agents alone and in combination during repeated treatment regimens, the animal models will become more predictive tools for the assessment of these impairments and the underlying neural mechanisms. The eventual goal is to collect enough data to enable physicians to make informed choices about therapeutic regimens for their patients and discover new avenues of alternative or complementary therapies that reduce or eliminate chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits.

  11. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu.

    1989-01-01

    In an irradiation device for irradiating radiation rays such as electron beams to pharmaceuticals, etc., since the distribution of scanned electron rays was not monitored, the electron beam intensity could be determined only indirectly and irradiation reliability was not satisfactory. In view of the above, a plurality of monitor wires emitting secondary electrons are disposed in the scanning direction near a beam take-out window of a scanning duct, signals from the monitor wires are inputted into a display device such as a cathode ray tube, as well as signals from the monitor wires at the central portion are inputted into counting rate meters to measure the radiation dose as well. Since secondary electrons are emitted when electron beams pass through the monitor wires and the intensity thereof is in proportion with the intensity of incident electron beams, the distribution of the radiation dose can be monitored by measuring the intensity of the emitted secondary electrons. Further, uneven irradiation, etc. can also be monitored to make the radiation of irradiation rays reliable. (N.H.)

  12. Conceptual design of a conveyor system for the Philippine multipurpose cobalt-60 gamma irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Multipurpose Cobalt-60 Gamma Irradiation Facility at the PNRI presently utilizes the batch irradiation method using turntables to rotate the product boxes. The target materials or products are being carried manually or with the use of pushcart through the personnel maze. This paper presents a conceptual design for the best suitable product-handling or conveyor system for the Philippine Multipurpose Cobalt-60 Gamma Irradiation Facility. The main irradiation conveyor line shall be a 55 cm x 200 cm slat-type conveyor made of SUS 304 material that could be operated in a semi-batch continuous flow and/or shuffle-dwell method with a tact-time range of 10 min to 7 h. The products can be irradiated in a single direction, two-pass, two-sided method. (auth.). 11 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Fractionated total body irradiation; the gastrointestinal toxicity versus the conditioning effect for bone marrow transplantation with different fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walma, E.P.; Klapwijk, W.M.; Miller, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    In most cases, bone marrow transplantation is preceded by a conditioning regimen employing irradiation and/or cytotoxic drugs. The authors are searching for better fractionation schedules in order to optimize the conditioning regimen prior to transplantation of stem-cell-enriched bone marrow. They have determined damage to the gastrointestinal tract in dogs and mice after total body irradiation in mice and dogs following a number of fractionation schedules, and these results are presented. The schedules were chosen such as to minimize the interval between irradiation and the bone marrow transplantation and to maximize clinical feasibility. (Auth./C.F.)

  14. Perspectives of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.K.

    1974-01-01

    Food preservation by means of ionizing radiation has been technically feasible for more than a decade. Its utilization could increase food safety, extend the transport and shell life of foods, cut food losses, and reduce dependence upon chemical additives. The prime obstacles have been the strict safety requirements set by health authorities to this preservation method and the high costs of the long-term animal tests necessary to fulfil these requirements. An International Food Irradiation Project, expected to establish the toxicological safety of 10 foods by about 1976, is described in some detail. (author)

  15. Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.; Murata, K.

    1975-01-01

    Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose are prepared from chlorine-combined polyester, 5 to 30 percent by weight of a reductive discoloring substance or a mixture of said substances, and/or 0.005 to 2.0 percent by weight of a reducing dyestuff or a mixture of said dyestuffs, in which said chlorine-combined polyester is obtained by a chlorinated dibasic acid or its anhydride as an acid component or a part of an acid component selected from a group consisting of 3-chlorophthalic acid, 4-chlorophthalic acid, dichlorinated phthalic acid, tetrachlorophthalic acid, 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachlorobicyclo-(2,2,1)-5-heptene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, 4-chloro-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid and the anhydrides corresponding to said acids. (auth)

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  17. Vinca irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymery, R.

    1976-10-01

    The development programme of the VINCA radiosterilisation centre involves plans for an irradiator capable of working in several ways. Discontinuous operation. The irradiator is loaded for a certain period then runs automatically until the moment of unloading. This method is suitable as long as the treatment capacity is relatively small. Continuous operation with permanent batch loading and unloading carried out either manually or automatically (by means of equipment to be installed later). Otherwise the design of the apparatus is highly conventional. The source is a vertical panel submersible in a pool. The conveyor is of the 'bucket' type, with 4 tiers to each bucket. The batches pass successively through all possible irradiation positions. Transfert into and out of the cell take place through a maze, which also provides access to the cell when the sources are in storage at the bottom of the pool [fr

  18. Immune reactivity after high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, W.; Wottge, H.U.; von Kolzynski, M.; Mueller-Ruchholtz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Immune reactivity after total-body irradiation was investigated in rats using skin graft rejection as the indicator system. After sublethal irradiation with 10.5 Gy (approximately 50% lethality/6 weeks) the rejection of major histocompatibility complex allogeneic skin grafts was delayed significantly compared with nonirradiated control animals (28 versus 6.5 days). In contrast, skin grafts were rejected after 7.5 days in sublethally irradiated animals and 7 days in lethally irradiated animals if additional skin donor type alloantigens--namely, irradiated bone marrow cells--were given i.v. either simultaneously or with a delay of not more than 24 hr after the above conditioning regimen. These reactions were alloantigen-specific. They were observed in six different strain combinations with varying donors and recipients. Starting on day 2 after irradiation, i.v. injection of bone marrow gradually lost its effectivity and skin grafts were no longer rejected with uniform rapidity; skin donor marrow given on days 4 or 8 did not accelerate skin graft rejection at all. These data show that for approximately 1-2 days after high-dose total-body irradiation rats are still capable of starting a vigorous immune reaction against i.v.-injected alloantigens. The phenomenon of impaired rejection of skin grafted immediately after high-dose irradiation appears to result from the poor accessibility of skin graft alloantigens during the early postirradiation phase when vascularization of the grafted skin is insufficient

  19. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  20. The radiopharmacological behaviour of Ida-derivatives in normal experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    Whilst Technetium-Ida derivatives all show basically similar patterns of biodistribution and as such are suited for cholescintigraphy they nevertheless differ significantly enough from each other to have warranted more detailed comparisons to select the reagent most suited for cholescintigraphy in humans. A review of the basic biological behaviour in animals immediately demonstrates that not only are there observable differences between derivatives but there are also differences in the biological behaviour of any one derivative in different species of animal. Animal data does not therefore directly relate to human biodistribution although many qualitative resemblances can be found. (Auth.)

  1. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  2. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, H.G.; Miller, T.J.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of mice (Fsub(2b) generation of Part I study) were fed for 90 days, either stock ration or diets containing 45% fish, either non-irradiated or irradiated with 1.75 kGy. Equal amounts of cod and redfish (ocean perch) constituted the fish portion of the diet. Haematological and clinical chemical examinations revealed no treatment-related effects. There were no untoward terminal gross or histopathological changes. An initial lag in weight gain of males fed fish diets was attibuted to reduced food consumption, due to the difference in texture of the fish diets compared with the stock ration. (Auth.)

  3. Alloys of nickel-iron and nickel-silicon do not swell under fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, G.; Silvent, A.; Regnard, C.; Sainfort, G.

    1975-01-01

    This research is concerned with the effect of fast-neutron irradiation on the swelling of nickel and nickel alloys. Ni-Fe (0-60at%Fe) and Ni-Si (0-8at%Si) were studied, and the fluences were in the range 10 20 -4.3x10 22 n/cm 2 . In dilute alloys, the added elements are dissolved and reduce swelling, silicon being particularly effective. In more concentrated alloys, irradiation of Ni-Fe and Ni-Si alloys brings about the formation of plate-shaped precipitates of Ni 3 X and these alloys do not swell. (Auth.)

  4. Heat-shock-induced enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated Herpesvirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yager, J.D.; Zurlo, J.; Penn, A.L.

    1985-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the ability of heat shock (HS) with that of another type of cellular stress, UV irradiation, to cause the induction of enhanced viral reactivation, a process that may represent an SOS-type repair process in mammalian cells. These results indicate that, like UV irradiation, HS at levels inhibitory to cell growth induced enhanced viral reactivation in Vero cells. The results also suggest that at least two proteins in the HS protein family are not necessary for this response to occur. (Auth.). 27 refs.; 5 figs.

  5. Use of radiations and radioisotopes for investigating problems connected with parasitic diseases of animals in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, H.C.; Singh, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    The status of the present knowledge regarding the use of isotopes and radiations for studies of animal parasitic diseases in India is reviewed. The concepts in immunology of metazoan parasites with relevance to vaccination have been discussed. A brief review of radiation attenuated vaccines against certain economically important species of helminth parasites and the use of radioisotopes for pathophysiological investigations and for the study of anthelmintic activity is given. (auth.)

  6. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  7. Chromosome aberrations of the peripheral lymphocytes in rabbits exposed to single and fractionated whole-body x-irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Masaharu; Sugahara, Tsutomu.

    1978-01-01

    The changes in the frequency of peripheral lymphocytes with chromosome aberrations were observed during or after irradiation of rabbits exposed to fractionated or single whole-body irradiations. In rabbits given daily fractionated whole-body irradiations the incidence of the aberrations showed a linear increase in the first week; however, the incidence decreased thereafter though exposures were repeated. The lymphocyte count tended to decrease as the number of irradiations increased. In rabbits exposed to a single dose of 250 R or 500 R the incidence of aberrations rapidly decreased over a period of 10 days following irradiation, and then showed a little change thereafter. The lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood reached a nadir 2 - 5 days after irradiation, and then started to increase gradually. It was speculated that there are two types of lymphocytes, long-lived and short-lived, in the peripheral blood of rabbits, both of which are PHA-committed. (auth.)

  8. Transformation of ultraviolet-irradiated human fibroblasts by simian virus 40 is enhanced by cellular DNA repair functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Human fibroblasts irradiated with ultraviolet light were either tested for survival (colony formation) or infected with simian virus 40 and examined for transformation (foci formation). For normal cell cultures, the fractions of surviving colonies which were also transformed increased with increasing irradiation dose. In contrast, little increase in the transformation of ultraviolet-irradiated repair-deficient (xeroderma pigmentosum and xeroderma pigmentosum variant) cells was observed. Similar experiments with xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells treated with caffeine following irradiation indicated that, under these conditions, the deficient cells produced more transformants among the survivors of ultraviolet irradiation than did unirradiated cells. These results suggest (1) that DNA repair functions, not DNA damage per se, are required for enhanced viral transformation in normal cells; (2) that functions involved in excision repair and functions needed for replication of ultraviolet-damaged DNA appear necessary for this stimulation; and (3) that blocking DNA replication in ultraviolet-irradiated xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells by caffeine enhances viral transformation. (Auth.)

  9. Irradiation effects on the adrenal gland of rats undergoing inanition stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Chaturvedi, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of total body x-irradiation was studied on rats under inanition stress. In response to irradiation an increase in the activity of cortex and medulla was noted in inanition stress administered rats rather than in the normally fed animals. Similarly, rising levels of urinary catecholamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine were observed in the starved animals after irradiation. (author)

  10. Tissue glycogen and blood glucose in irradiated rats. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1980-01-01

    Male rats of the Wistar strain were continuously irradiated with 0.57 Gy (60 R) of gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Irradiation lasted from 1 to 50 days in an experimental field where also control animals shielded from radiation were placed. After a 16 h starvation, the concentration of glucose in the blood and of glycogen in the liver and the heart was determined 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 25, 32, 39 and 50 days after the beginning of irradiation. The concentration of blood glucose in irradiated rats did not practically differ from that of control animals during the whole period of investigation. The concentration of liver glycogen in irradiated animals was higher than that in the controls during all time intervals, except for day 1. The values of glycogen in the heart muscle were approximately identical in the irradiated and control rats, except for day 21 when they sharply increased in the irradiated animals. In addition to the investigation of blood glucose and tissue glycogen during continuous irradiation, these parameters were studied immediately, and 1, 6 and 12 months after continuous irradiation with a daily exposure of 0.57 Gy (60 R) up to a total exposure of 14.35 Gy (1500 R) of gamma rays. Considerably higher values of liver glycogen were detected in the irradiated rats immediately, and 1 and 6 months after the end of irradiation. (author)

  11. Study on the cytogenetic activity of freshly irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, A.N.; Osipova, I.N.

    1978-01-01

    Cytogenetic activity of potatoes, subjected to gamma irradiation in the dose of 10 Krad, feeding the animals in a day after irradiation, has been investigated. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice, who obtained newly irradiated raw or baked potatoes, has no substantial difference from the analogous mutageneity index of mice from the control group. The data obtained are of practical importance when considering the problem of using gamma-irradiated potatoes in the people nourishment

  12. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  13. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  15. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  16. Low temperature irradiation facility at Kyoto University Reactor (KUR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atobe, Kozo; Okada, Moritami; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kodaka, Hisao; Miyata, Kiyomi.

    1977-01-01

    A new refrigeration system has been substituted to the low temperature irradiation facility at KUR instead of the previous one, since April in 1975. The model 1204 CTi He liquifier was designed to be modified for the refrigerator with the capacity of 30 watts at 10 K. The refrigeration capacity of 38 watts at 10 K was defined using a special cryostat and transfer-tubes, and the lowest temperature of about 18 K was measured using the irradiation loop without reactor operation. The reconstructed facility enables us to hold the many specimens simultaneously in the sample chamber of the irradiation loop at about 25 K during reactor operation of 5 MW. The irradiation dose has been reached about 6.6 x 10 16 n sub(f)/cm 2 and 6.1 x 10 17 n sub(th)/cm 2 with the normal reactor operation cycle of up to 77 hours. The stable operation condition of the machine and the special safety system for the refrigeration system enable us to maintain easily the facility with a constant operation condition for such a long time irradiation. Many kinds of low temperature neutron irradiation experiments are carried out using the facility, which techniques are partially reported. (auth.)

  17. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Rosanna M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  18. Industrial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Production lines for rubber gloves would not appear to have much in common with particle physics laboratories, but they both use accelerators. Electron beam irradiation is often used in industry to improve the quality of manufactured goods or to reduce production cost. Products range from computer disks, shrink packaging, tyres, cables, and plastics to hot water pipes. Some products, such as medical goods, cosmetics and certain foodstuffs, are sterilized in this way. In electron beam irradiation, electrons penetrate materials creating showers of low energy electrons. After many collisions these electrons have the correct energy to create chemically active sites. They may either break molecular bonds or activate a site which promotes a new chemical linkage. This industrial irradiation can be exploited in three ways: breaking down a biological molecule usually renders it useless and kills the organism; breaking an organic molecule can change its toxicity or function; and crosslinking a polymer can strengthen it. In addition to traditional gamma irradiation using isotopes, industrial irradiation uses three accelerator configurations, each type defining an energy range, and consequently the electron penetration depth. For energies up to 750 kV, the accelerator consists of a DC potential applied to a simple wire anode and the electrons extracted through a slot in a coaxially mounted cylindrical cathode. In the 1-5 MeV range, the Cockcroft-Walton or Dynamitron( R ) accelerators are normally used. To achieve the high potentials in these DC accelerators, insulating SF6 gas and large dimension vessels separate the anode and cathode; proprietary techniques distinguish the various commercial models available. Above 5 MeV, the size of DC accelerators render them impractical, and more compact radiofrequency-driven linear accelerators are used. Irradiation electron beams are actually 'sprayed' over the product using a magnetic deflection system. Lower energy beams of

  19. Effects of fast neutron irradiation on the development of the mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Hisao

    1977-01-01

    Mice on the 4th to 11th day of pregnancy were irradiated with 14.1 MeV fast neutron at a dose of 100 rad and their fetuses were examined macroscopically and histologically on the 9th to the 19th day of gestation. Sixty-one cases out of 73 malformed fetuses (20.3%) were arbitrarily chosen and examined. Two cases of exencephaly were observed by irradiation on the 7th day of pregnancy, 2 cases of microcephaly by irradiation on the 9th day, 2 cases of hydrocephaly by irradiation on the 6th day and 3 cases of hydrocephaly by irradiation on the 11th day. Three cases of tumor were observed by irradiation on the 7th day of pregnancy and one case of tumor by irradiation on the 10th day. One case each of abnormal folding of the pallium was detected by irradiation on the 7th day and 10th day of pregnancy. After irradiation, penetration of blood vessels into the developing brain resembles to that of the control group. In some cases, invasion of fibroblast-like cells was observed. In cases with tumor formation, the tumors consisted of homogeneous ventricular cells without any sign of malignancy. Three to four days after irradiation on the 10th or 11th day of pregnancy, rosette formation was observed in the pallium which later disappeared. It appears that slight damages of brain tissue could be repaired without resulting in any external morphological abnormalities. (auth.)

  20. Establishment and Study of Dose Fields for the Irradiation of Experimental Animals with High-Energy Protons; Creation et Etude de Champs de Rayonnements pour l'Irradiation d'Animaux de Grande Taille par des Protons de Haute Energie; Sozdanie i issledovanie doznykh polej dlya oblucheniya ehksperimental'nykh zhivotnykh protonami bol'shoj ehnergii; Produccion y Estudio de Campos Radia Torios para la Exposicion de Animales de Laboratorio a Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanas' ev, V. P.; Keirim-Markus, I. B.; Kuznecova, S. S.; Litvinova, Je. G.; Sokolova, I. K.; Stukina, L. E.

    1964-03-15

    Present-day accelerators make it possible to obtain beams of protons which have adequate intensity but are not suitable for the general irradiation of large experimental animals. Using the synchrotron of the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research it has been shown that with the aid of absorbers it is possible to expand a proton beam to the dimensions required, without introducing the accompanying radiations. Dose fields, uniform within {+-} 10%, in which primary protons constitute between 99 and 88% of the tissue dose, were obtained for irradiation of dogs with protons of energy 510, 250 and 120 MeV. The tissue doses and the radiation composition were studied in a dog phantom. Irradiation conditions for ensuring uniform radiation of the dog's body are proposed. Various questions of high-energy proton dosimetry are discussed, and the use of different types of dosimeter are considered in this connection. The paper also describes a method of determining the contribution of cascade neutrons to the proton flux, using activation detectors. (author) [French] Les accelerateurs actuels permettent d'obtenir des faisceaux de protons d'une intensite suffisante mais impropres a l'irradiation generale de grands animaux d'experience. A l'aide du synchrocyclotron OIAI, on a montre que le recours aux absorbants permet d'elargir le faisceau de protons jusqu'aux dimensions voulues sans y introduire de rayonnements secondaires. Pour irradier des chiens par des protons de 510, 250 et 120 MeV, on a pu ainsi realiser des champs de rayonnements uniformes a {+-}10% pres, dans lesquels les protons primaires constituaient 99 a 88% de la dose tissulaire. Les auteurs ont etudie des doses tissulaires et la composition du rayonnement a l'interieur d'un fantome de chien. Ils indiquent dans quelles conditions on assure une irradiation uniforme du corps de l'animal. Les auteurs examinent plusieurs questions relatives a la dosimetrie des neutrons de grande energie. Ils justifient l'emploide divers

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  2. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerens, H [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Saint-Lebe, L

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment.

  3. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransohoff, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Carriers, after being loaded with product to be irradiated, are transported by an input-output conveyor system into an irradiation chamber where they are received in a horizontal arrangement on racks which may support different sizes and numbers of carriers. The racks are moved by a chamber conveyor system in an endless rectangular path about a radiation source. Packers shift the carriers on the racks to maintain nearest proximity to the radiation source. The carriers are shifted in position on each rack during successive rack cycles to produce even radiation exposure. The carriers may be loaded singly onto successive racks during a first cycle of movement thereof about the source, with loading of additional carriers, and/or unloading of carriers, onto each rack occurring on subsequent rack cycles of movement

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  6. Endolymphatic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, M.M.; Ianhez, L.E.; Sabbaga, E.

    1982-01-01

    The authors analysed the clinical evolution and the result of renal transplantation some years after irradiation in 24 patients (group I) who received endolymphatic 131 I as a pre-transplantation immunesuppresive measure. The control group (group II) consisted of 24 non-irradiated patients comparable to group I in age, sex, primary disease, type of donor and immunesuppressive therapy. Significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding such factors a incidence and reversibility of rejection crises in the first 60 post-transplantation days, loss of kidney due to rejection, and dosage of azathioprine. The authors conclude that this method, besides being harmless, has prolonged immunesuppressive action, its administration being advised for receptores of cadaver kidneys, mainly those who show positive cross-match against HLA antigens for painel. (Author) [pt

  7. Neuropharmacologic responses of animals to extreme effects: exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlichenko, P.P.; Tikhonchuk, V.S.; Ushakov, I.B.

    1990-01-01

    The functional state of neurochemical structures of male mice was investigated after their gamma-irradiation with 137 Cs (1.9 Gy/min) at a dose of 100 Gy. The animals were treated with the following drugs that produce selective effects on specific receptors: galanthamine, amizyl, arpenal, phenamine, phentolamine and obsidan, haloperidol, apomorphine, phenazepam, phenibut and strychnin. The results point to the development of heterologous desensibilization of receptors at early post-irradiation periods. The high effectiveness of agonists and antagonists of CNS transmitters in the nonirradiated animals and their low effectiveness in the irradiated animals and their low effectiveness in the irradiated animals may be considered as an indicator of post-radiation injury of specific receptors. These neuropharmacological interactions may obviously be modified in response to the combined effects of space flight factors

  8. Calculations on neutron irradiation damage in reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, Kazuho; Shiraishi, Kensuke

    1976-01-01

    Neutron irradiation damage calculations were made for Mo, Nb, V, Fe, Ni and Cr. Firstly, damage functions were calculated as a function of neutron energy with neutron cross sections of elastic and inelastic scatterings, and (n,2n) and (n,γ) reactions filed in ENDF/B-III. Secondly, displacement damage expressed in displacements per atom (DPA) was estimated for neutron environments such as fission spectrum, thermal neutron reactor (JMTR), fast breeder reactor (MONJU) and two fusion reactors (The Conceptual Design of Fusion Reactor in JAERI and ORNL-Benchmark). then, damage cross section in units of dpa. barn was defined as a factor to convert a given neutron fluence to the DPA value, and was calculated for the materials in the above neutron environments. Finally, production rates of helium and hydrogen atoms were calculated with (n,α) and (n,p) cross sections in ENDF/B-III for the materials irradiated in the above reactors. (auth.)

  9. Pyrimidine dimers in Drosophila chromatin become increasingly accessible after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, P.V.; Boyd, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    A prokaryotic DNA-repair enzyme has been utilized as a probe for changes in the accessibility of pyrimidine dimers in Drosophila chromatin following UV irradiation. The results demonstrate a rapid cellular response to physiologically relevant doses of radiation which results in at least a 40% increase in accessible dimers. This increase occurs in two incision-deficient mutants which indicates that the excision-repair process, at or beyond the incision step, is not required or responsible for the increase. In the absence of excision the increase in accessibility persists for a least 2 days following irradiation. The observed increase in accessibility is inhibited by both novobiocin and coumermycin. These inhibitors do not inhibit the initial rate of incision, but do reduce dimer excision measured over more extended periods. A pre-incision process is proposed which actively exposes DNA lesions to excision repair. A fraction of the genome is postulated to be accessible without the intervention of that process. (Auth.)

  10. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  11. The work of the 'Irradiation Damage' sub-group of the EURATOM Working Group on Research Reactor Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genthon, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The EURATOM Working Group on Reactor Dosimetry is investigating the problems of the dosimetry of radiation damage experiments. Papers have been published on the dosimetry of graphite and irradiation of metals: the model chosen, the quantities employed to express the fluences, numerical values, measurements, and measurement techniques. The ensuing work of the EURATOM Working Group of Reactor Dosimetry in these areas will deal with the measurement methods required for the dosimetry of radiation damage. (Auth.)

  12. Decrease of H1 histone and changes in chromatin structure and transcription in pea seedlings after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagi, G.; Hidvegi, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    Seeds and seedlings of pea have been irradiated between zero to 300 Gy doses of 60 Co gamma-irradiation and examinations were carried out on the chromatin of shoots of 1-week-old etiolated seedlings. There was only a slight change in the gross composition of chromatin after irradiation (in the mass ratios of DNA:RNA:histone:non-histone proteins). Separation of histones, however, showed that after 300 Gy irradiation the quantity of H1 histones decreased by 33% after seed irradiation and 43% after seedling irradiation. The ratio of H1 subfractions also changed. Enzymes DNAase II and micrococcal nuclease digested the chromatin of the irradiated sample 30% faster than the unirradiated one. Transcription kinetics of chromatin showed a gradual decrease of Ksub(m) value on increasing doses of irradiation. There was, however, no difference in the rate of transcription of DNAs, isolated from the chromatin of the control and irradiated samples. Protease and RNAase activity of whole shoots showed enhancement after irradiation. These data suggest that irradiation of either seeds or seedlings results in loosening of the seedling chromatin structure, while there is no change in basic nucleosomal structure. The specific degradation or dissociation of histone H1, localized in the internucleosomal region may be responsible for these changes in the higher order structure of chromatin. This may explain the easier accessibility of chromatin to DNAase II after irradiation and the more tightly bound RNA polymerase, exhibited in decreasing Ksub(m) values. (Auth.)

  13. Irradiation techniques for the release of bound heavy metals in natural waters and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batley, G.E.; Farrar, Y.J.

    1978-01-01

    Irradiation techniques are compared with conventional acid digestion procedures for the release of bound heavy metals in natural waters and in blood, before their determination by anodic stripping voltammetry. Ultra-violet irradiation of acidified water with a 550-W mercury vapour lamp releases bound zinc, cadmium, lead and copper after 4 h. The same results can be achieved with a 30 Mrad dose of high-energy γ-irradiation. These techniques are also effective for the release of metals in whole blood and blood plasma, where sample volumes as small as 200 μl are adequate in analyses for zinc, copper and lead. By comparison with acid digestion and solvent extraction methods, irradiation treatments offer the advantages of minimum sample manipulation and negligible reagent blanks. (Auth.)

  14. Selective irradiation for fast switching thyristor with low forward voltage drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The switching speed of a thyristor is increased without correspondingly increasing the forward voltage drop by selectively irradiating at least portions of the PN junction between the conducting and gating portions, and 5 to 30 percent of the adjacent surface area of the conducting portions of the device. 50 to 100 percent of the surface area of the gating portions, and the peripheral portions can also be irradiated at the same time to decrease gate sensitivity and increase blocking voltage of the thyristor, respectively. Preferably, the thyristor is irradiated with electron radiation which preferably is of an intensity greater than 1 MeV and most desirably about 2 MeV. The electron irradiation is preferably to a dosage of between about 1 x 10 13 electrons/cm 2 and 1 x 10 15 electrons/cm 2 . (auth)

  15. Functional recovery in the irradiated kidney following removal of the contralateral unirradiated kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.E.C.; Hopewell, J.W.; Golding, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced damage to one kidney in the pig causes a fall in total renal function; this would be recognised and lead to a compensatory response in the unirradiated kidney. The presence of the unirradiated contralateral kidney may effectively prevent the irradiated kidney from expressing any potential for repair and/or recovery of function. If this were true then the question would obviously arise, does the irradiated kidney retain some capacity for recovery? In order to answer this question, the contralateral unirradiated kidney was removed from pigs 26 weeks after the irradiation of the other kidney. The subsequent response of the irradiated kidney to nephrectomy was assessed in terms of the changes in renal size and haemodynamics, i.e. GFR and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). (Auth.)

  16. The paradoxes in patterns and mechanism of bone marrow regeneration after irradiation. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarantino, C.W.; Rubin, P.; Constine, L.S. III

    1984-01-01

    Bone marrow regeneration following irradiation has been largely studied as a dose-effect phenomenon, however, a large literature has simultaneously developed utilizing a wide variety of volumes, both in clinical studies and in experimental studies. Volume factors, more than dose, determine patterns of suppression and regeneration which have been documented by a variety of assay systems. Experimental evidence is presented which indicates that high dose irradiation to large volumes of bone marrow does not completely suppress bone marrow regeneration but results in a rapid compensatory response. Comparisons are made between the small and larger volumes at similar doses and indicate a greater overall compensatory response after the larger field irradiation, being more rapid in onset particularly after the 1000 rad dose. Although in-field regeneration of bone marrow occurs after single dose radiation to different volumes of bone marrow, experimental and clinical evidence from protracted conventional doses of irradiation to different volumes of bone marrow indicate significantly different response mechanisms. (Auth.)

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  19. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  20. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions

  1. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.

    1968-01-01

    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  2. Progress in food irradiation: Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, D.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the nutritional properties of a number of foodstuffs including potatoes, onions, tomatoes, grapes, dried fruits, carrots, and animal feed is under investigation. The main components investigated are: reducing sugars, total sugars, saccharose, vitamins C and A, niacin, carotenes, free amino acids, total and soluble nitrogen. This research has been the subject of a collaborative work programm. (orig./AJ) [de

  3. Effect of x-irradiation on cell kinetics of esophageal membrane cells in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koichi; Tsunemoto, Hiroshi; Urano, Muneyasu; Koike, Sachiko

    1977-01-01

    Effect of x-irradiation on the cell kinetics of esophageal membrane cells was studied in C3Hf/He male mice. Experimental methods include; counting the number of basal and superficial cells, and pulse or continuous labelling by tritiated thymidine. Esophageal area was irradiated with 1000 rad of 200 kVp x-rays and cell kinetics were studied on the 5th post-irradiation day. Autoradiography revealed the shortening of the cell cycle time, specifically in G- and G- phases. Numbers of basal cells and of superficial cells were found to increase for 5 days after irradiation. Continuous labelling experiments using infusion technique demonstrated than growth fraction of irradiated basal cells was 1.0 as well as that of non-irradiated cells. It was of interest that the migration time, i.e., the time required for labelled cells to migrate from basal cell layer to superficial cell layer, was shortened approximately 1/3 of that of non-irradiated control after irradiation. Diurnal variation was observed not only in normal basal cells but also in irradiated ones, and the rate of increase of labelling index after continuous labelling was independent of the time when the labelling was started. (auth.)

  4. Color changes of vienna sausage by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Aoki, Shohei; Sato, Tomotaro

    1978-01-01

    Color change of vienna sausage induced by gamma irradiation was investigated. Discoloration of irradiated vienna sausage was evaluated by use of the color difference meter and sensory test. The discoloration by irradiation was influenced by oxygen contents in packing pouches. In the case of commercial vienna sausage, significant difference from unirradiated control by 99% of probability was recognized at the doses of 1.0 Mrad in nitrogen, 0.5 Mrad in air and 0.3 Mrad in oxygen, respectively. The color change of the specially prepared vienna sausage (40% pork, 40% mutton, 20% beef, and no additional preservatives) was less than that of the commercial one. The absorbance at 540 nm of extracts from vienna sausages with 80% acetone decreased with increasing irradiation dose and oxygen content. While, change in absorbance at 340 nm was practically unaffected by the oxygen concentration. These results suggest that the degradation of nitroso-heme complex by irradiation causes mainly the discoloration of vienna sausage. (auth.)

  5. The effect of embryonal thymic calf extracts on neonatally thymectomized mice and on mice lethally irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaplicki, J.; Blonska, B.; Stec, L.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of embryonal thymic calf extracts (ETCE) on mice thymectomized at birth was investigated. ETCE was found to induce an increase in leukopenia and decrease in the level of serum gamma globulins; it also reduced survival time in mice. The effect of ETCE on lethally irradiated mice was also examined. Only long-term administration of ETCE prior to gamma irradiation at 750 rad prolonged the survival time of mice (40% permanent survival) as compared with irradiated controls; the leukocytes from mice retained mitotic capability. Neither long-term treatment with ETCE prior to irradiation at 1000 rad, nor short-term administration prior to 750 rad affected survival time. ETCE administered after irradiation of mice with 750 rad caused a rapid decrease in blood leukocytes and a significantly lowered survival time. (Auth.)

  6. Damage of lymphocytes by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.; Moldenhauer, H.; Kehrberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    After a short review, how lymphocytes of the peripheral blood are influenced by radiotherapy, the damage of lymphocytes by whole-body irradiation is pointed out in animal experiments and after in vitro irradiation. The special sensibility of B-cells and their homogeneity in fields of radiobiology are opposed to the heterogeneity of T-cells. The radiosensibility of cytotoxic lymphocytes, suppressor cells, and helper cells are discussed. It appears, that within these functional criteria, there is a different radiosensibility, too. (author)

  7. Polysaccharide prodigiosan therapy of irradiated guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.; Mosina, Z.M.; Khramchenkova, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the experiments with irradiated guinea-pigs, a therapeutic action of prodigiosan has been detected. A parenteral administration of the preparation (125 to 500 μg/kg) within the interval from 15 min to 6 hours after a short-term exposure increased the survival of animals to 50%. Prodigiosan administered to guinea-pigs given prolonged irradiation failed to affect the survival rate

  8. Wholesomeness and safety of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation with gamma-rays, X-rays or fast electrons can be used to change foodstuffs in beneficial ways or to destroy harmful organisms. Gamma rays do not induce radioactivity in foods, but X-rays and fast electrons can induce short lived radioactivity if sufficiently energetic. This imposes limitations on the energies which can be used, and a short wait between irradiation and consumption may be advisable. Irradiation produces chemical changes in foodstuffs, and some foods are unsuitable for irradiation. With appropriate foods, trials with animals and human volunteers generally show that the product is safe. Some loss in nutritional quality can take place, which could be significant for some individuals, but are unlikely to be important for those on a balanced diet. Irradiation does not eliminate all risk from microbial contamination. Foods to be irradiated should be good quality, and need to be kept under proper conditions after irradiation. Irradiated foods should be appropriately labelled. Tests for radiation would help to enforce necessary controls. If the process is properly carried out on appropriate foods, and all due precautions are taken, irradiated foods are wholesome and safe. 52 references

  9. Stem cell migration after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothdurft, W.; Fliedner, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The survival rate of irradiated rodents could be significantly improved by shielding only the small parts of hemopoietic tissues during the course of irradiation. The populations of circulating stem cells in adult organisms are considered to be of some importance for the homeostasis between the many sites of blood cell formation and for the necessary flexibility of hemopoietic response in the face of fluctuating demands. Pluripotent stem cells are migrating through peripheral blood as has been shown for several mammalian species. Under steady state conditions, the exchange of stem cells between the different sites of blood cell formation appears to be restricted. Their presence in blood and the fact that they are in balance with the extravascular stem cell pool may well be of significance for the surveilance of the integrity of local stem cell populations. Any decrease of stem cell population in blood below a critical size results in the rapid immigration of circulating stem cells in order to restore local stem cell pool size. Blood stem cells are involved in the regeneration after whole-body irradiation if the stem cell population in bone marrows is reduced to less than 10% of the normal state. In the animals subjected to partial-body irradiation, the circulating stem cells appear to be the only source for the repopulation of the heavily irradiated, aplastic sites of hemopoietic organs. (Yamashita, S.)

  10. X-irradiation-induced emesis in Suncus murinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Yoshifumi; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuki, Norio; Shikita, Mikio.

    1993-01-01

    X-irradiation-induced emesis was investigated in Suncus murinus, a house musk shrew. Whole body X-irradiation caused emesis, and the calculated ED 50 value that induced emesis in 50% of animals was 429 cGy. At the irradiation dose of 800 cGy all the animals vomited 10.0±2.4 times with a latency of 20.0±2.9 min. The emetogenic effect of X-irradiation was dependent on the part of the body exposed. Abdominal X-irradiation at 1000 cGy caused emesis in all animals studied, whereas the same dose to the head had no emetogenic effect. We investigated several prophylactic methods against X-irradiation-induced emesis. Surgical vagotomy completely inhibited the emesis induced by 800 cGy X-irradiation. Emesis was also prevented by the subcutaneous administration of tropisetron (ICS 205-930, a selective serotonergic 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist) with an ID 50 value of 29 μg/kg. These results suggest that (1) suncus is a useful experimental animal for the study of radiation-induced emesis and the development of prophylactic drugs, (2) serotonin plays an important role in X-irradiation-induced emesis, and (3) X-irradiation-induced emesis is very similar to that caused by cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (author)

  11. Pathogenesis of irradiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abayomi, O.K.

    1996-01-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a common sequela of cranial irradiation that is especially severe in young children. The underlying mechanisms of this disorder have not been described. The present review describes the role of the hippocampus and the anatomically related cortex in memory function and its marked susceptibility to ischemic and hypoxic injury. Based on studies of animal models of human amnesia and histopathological findings in the irradiated brain, the neurocognitive sequela of cranial irradiation can be seen to be mediated through vascular injury, resulting in ischemia and hypoxia in the hippocampal region. Recognition of the site and mechanisms of this injury may lead to the development of techniques to minimize the risks. (orig.)

  12. Startup of the Whiteshell irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.W.; Stanley, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, a 10-MeV, 1-kW electron linear accelerator was installed in a specially designed irradiation facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment. The facility was designed for radiation applications research in the development of new radiation processes up to the pilot scale level. The accelerator is of advanced design. Automatic startup via computer control makes it compatible with industrial processing. It has been operated successfully as a fully integrated electron irradiator for a number of applications including curing of plastics and composites, sterilization of medical disposables and animal feed irradiation. We report here on our experience during the first six months of operation. (orig.)

  13. Food irradiation and Hungarian experiences with it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Jozsef; Kiss, Istvan

    1988-01-01

    Among the different types of food irradiation techniques using ionizing radiations the methods serving - in a direct or indirect way - the purposes of health protection are reviewed. Based on foreign and Hungarian examples radurization of vegetables (potatoes, onions, garlics) by low irradiation doses, radiosterilization of corn, tropic and subtropic fruits, radicidation of dry additivies (spice, medicinal herb) and foodstuffs of animal origin (meat, poultry, egg, fish, shrimp, etc.) are discussed. The general situation of food irradiation in Hungary inlcuding licensing procedures is evaluated. (V.N.) 32 refs.; 3 figs.

  14. Pathogenesis of irradiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abayomi, O.K. [Howard Univ. Hospital, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1996-12-31

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a common sequela of cranial irradiation that is especially severe in young children. The underlying mechanisms of this disorder have not been described. The present review describes the role of the hippocampus and the anatomically related cortex in memory function and its marked susceptibility to ischemic and hypoxic injury. Based on studies of animal models of human amnesia and histopathological findings in the irradiated brain, the neurocognitive sequela of cranial irradiation can be seen to be mediated through vascular injury, resulting in ischemia and hypoxia in the hippocampal region. Recognition of the site and mechanisms of this injury may lead to the development of techniques to minimize the risks. (orig.).

  15. Startup of the whiteshell irradiation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, J. W.; Stanley, F. W.

    1989-04-01

    Recently, a 10-MeV, 1-kW electron linear accelerator was installed in a specially designed irradiation facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment. The facility was designed for radiation applications research in the development of new radiation processes up to the pilot scale level. The accelerator is of advanced design. Automatic startup via computer control makes it compatible with industrial processing. It has been operated successfully as a fully integrated electron irradiator for a number of applications including curing of plastics and composites, sterilization of medical disposables and animal feed irradiation. We report here on our experience during the first six months of operation.

  16. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on appearance of osteoclasts during wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Likinobu; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Yajima, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing. (author)

  17. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on appearance of osteoclasts during wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Likinobu; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Yajima, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Masayuki

    2007-07-01

    We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing.

  18. Renal effects of renal x irradiation and induced autoallergic glomerulonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, D.S.; Casarett, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine what influence a single large x-ray exposure of kidney has on the development and course of an experimental autoallergic glomerulonephritis (EAG) in rats. EAG was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by immunization with Bordetella pertussis vaccine and homogenate of homologous kidney tissue and Freund's complete adjuvant. Progressive arteriolonephrosclerosis (ANS) was observed in right (irradiated) kidneys following unilateral renal irradiation (1500 rad). Rats were either immunized, sham-immunized, irradiated, sham-irradiated, or both immunized and irradiated. Light and immunofluorescent microscopic observation, urine protein content, and kidney weights were evaluated. In immunized-irradiated animals the effects of irradiation and immunization were largely additive. Immunization did not considerably influence the development and course of ANS and irradiation did not considerably influence the development and course of EAG

  19. Cooperative study of clinical benefits from use of the fully portable blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.

    1994-10-01

    This report looks at the clinical benefits from use of a fully portable blood irradiator, techniques developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Significant accomplishments included the following: blood irradiators were successfully fabricated by PNL; irradiators were activated at the University of Missouri and quality tested at PNL; A-V shunts for irradiators were successfully fabricated in the PNL plastics shop; all activities necessary for experimental work on animals using the blood irradiators were completed

  20. Cooperative study of clinical benefits from use of the fully portable blood irradiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungate, F.P.

    1994-10-01

    This report looks at the clinical benefits from use of a fully portable blood irradiator, techniques developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Significant accomplishments included the following: blood irradiators were successfully fabricated by PNL; irradiators were activated at the University of Missouri and quality tested at PNL; A-V shunts for irradiators were successfully fabricated in the PNL plastics shop; all activities necessary for experimental work on animals using the blood irradiators were completed.

  1. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  2. Renal effects of renal x irradiation and induced autoallergic glomerulonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine what, if any, influence a single large x-ray exposure of kidney has on the development and course of an experimental autoallergic glomerulonephritis (EAG) in rats. The EAG was induced by immunization with B. pertussis vaccine and homogenate of homologous kidney tissue and Freund's complete adjuvant. Rats were either immunized, sham-immunized, irradiated (1500 R to right kidney temporarily exteriorized), sham-irradiated, or both immunized and irradiated. Immunized-irradiated animals were irradiated either 4 or 2 weeks prior to, concurrently with, or 1 or 2 weeks after immunization, and were sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, 10, or 14 weeks post-immunization. Immunized-only and sham-immunized-only animals were sacrificed at corresponding post-immunization times, and irradiated-only and sham-irradiated-only animals were sacrificed at corresponding post-irradiation times. Progressive arteriolonephrosclerosis (ANA) was observed in right (irradiated) kidneys following x irradiation. The experimental autoallergic glomerulonephritis (EAG) was observed in both kidneys following immunization. The histopathological changes associated with EAG were distinct from those associated with ANS

  3. Defense of cutaneous cells against uv irradiation. II. Restricted photomediated binding of trimethyl psoralen to pigmented skin in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.M.; Jegasothy, B.V.; Condit, E.S.

    1973-01-01

    Distinct differences in grain distribution were seen in autoradiographs of pigmented and nonpigmented skin from spotted guinea-pig ears subjected to photosensitizing conditions by the topical application of tritiated trimethyl psoralen ( 3 H TMP) and exposure to uv irradiation at 365 nm. Grains were localized over cells throughout the epidermis in nonpigmented skin, but they were not seen beneath the stratum corneum in pigmented skin. Since TMP covalently binds to epidermal nucleic acids only after irradiation, these experiments demonstrate that the compacted melanized cells of the outer epidermis shield the DNA of underlying cells by severely restricting the penetration of uv light into the skin. (auth)

  4. Biology of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents his arguments for food scientists and biologists that the hazards of food irradiation outweigh the benefits. The subject is discussed in the following sections: introduction (units, mutagenesis, seed viability), history of food irradiation, effects of irradiation on organoleptic qualities of staple foods, radiolytic products and selective destruction of nutrients, production of microbial toxins in stored irradiated foods and loss of quality in wheat, deleterious consequences of eating irradiated foods, misrepresentation of the facts about food irradiation. (author)

  5. Use of the information from experiment by animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Jiro

    1976-01-01

    In order to calculate the radiation dose to various parts of human body tissue from internally deposited radionuclides, we need to know their pattern of uptake and retention within the human body. In the case that appropriate data for man are not available it is commonly necessary to use data collected from experimental animals. Since animal experiment can offer analytical approaches to the subject, the information from the experiment is considered to be rather essential for biologically logical description of the metabolism of the radionuclides. The animal experiment can be divided into three categories by the purpose; i.e., construction of a quantitative metabolic model, evaluation of the factors affecting the parameters used in the model and understanding the mechanisms of the metabolism. Extrapolation of animal data to man are subject to considerable criticism, and probably justifiably so because of the variations among species. An example of species variability is the difference of the whole-body retention rate of radiocesium between newborn of rat and human. Until adequate experimental data are collected from human subjects, we have no choice to rely mainly on information from experimental animals. As our knowledge is insufficient to provide a strong theoretical basis for the extraporation from animal to human, we should be very careful at the practice of the extrapolation, moreover, we should promote the study to establish a good interspecies correlation which will provide a better basis for the extrapolation. (auth.)

  6. Acute and chronic radiation syndrome in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuessel, M.

    1974-11-01

    The paper reports on the incidence and the clinical picture of the radiation syndrome in domestic animals, especially in pigs which are often used in animal experiments. The following parameters which influence the radiation reaction are discussed: type of irradiation (whole-body, partial-body and local irradiation), mean lethal radiation dose, radiation quality and RBE, age and individual radiosensitivity. The auther then describes the various symptoms of the radiation syndrome and the lesions which lead to death (death due to intestinal lesions, death following changes in the central nervous system). The next few chapters treat the symptoms manifested after chronic and internal irradiation. The paper closes with some remarks on the usability of irradiated animals for human consumption. (MG/AK) [de

  7. Some behavioral aspects of adult rats irradiated prenatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vekovishcheva, O.Yu.; Blagova, O.E.; Borovitskaya, A.E.; Evtushenko, V.I.; Khanson, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This is a study of the effects of prenatal irradiation on the behavior of rats. The experiments were performed on 42 eighteen month old rats of both sexes. Eight of the males and thirteen females had been irradiated prenatally. The results of this experiment indicated that in general, the activation of behavior, the appearance of aggression and the increase in chaos along with the presence of behavior poses were typical of the suppressed condition of the prenatal irradiated animal. Also, among prenatally irradiated animals, there was a greater degree of anxiety, a slow rate of adjustment to unfamiliar situations and unfriendly relationships between animals of the same sex. These results were compared with the results of behavioral experiments on irradiated adult rats

  8. Hematological reaction of farm animals to total ionizing radiation (survey of literature)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglikov, B.P.

    1984-06-01

    Hematological changes in the peripheral blood of farm animals after x-ray or gamma-irradiation are described and discussed on the basis of material from the literature. Aplastic anemia was found in all animals studied 2-3 weeks after irradiation. Complete restoration of erythrocyte concentration did not occur for a very long time after irradiation. The leukocyte count dropped markedly after irradiation. Maximum thrombocytopenia correlated with the height of the hemorrhagic syndrome. All formed elements of the blood changed quantitatively after irradiation and all changes were directly related to the irradiation dose. Thrombocytopenia followed leukocytopenia in the animals and the lowest concentration of platelets in the blood was noted before animals died. Data presented in the literature are unsuitable for quantification of results by mathematical processing. 61 references.

  9. Comparative studies in the cellular immunostimulation by whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, R.; Schwarze, G.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the cellular immune response by total body irradiation was investigated. The transplant survival (skin grafts) was determined as immune parameter. Donors were colony bred Wistar rats and recipients were colony bred Sprague Dawley rats. The investigations were carried out with irradiated rats and with rats irradiated after thymectomy and/or adrenalectomy as well as with animals without irradiation. A single total-body irradiation (1 and 2 Gy) was administered. The skin graft survival in irradiated rats was significant shorter (radiogenic immunostimulation) than in unirradiated rats; there were no significant differences between the operated (thymectomy and/or adrenalectomy) and not operated animals. Including precedent examinations this radiogenic immunostimulation is caused by relativly selective inactivation of T-suppressor cells. (orig.) [de

  10. The effect of deformation twinning on irradiation embrittlement in iron single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayano, Hideo; Tokutomi, Shoichiro; Yajima, Seishi; Takaku, Hiroshi.

    1978-01-01

    Single crystals of iron with the [100] crystal orientation were irradiated in JMTR with fast neutrons to a fluence of 8 x 10 18 n/cm 2 (E > 1 MeV). All samples were deformed in tension at temperatures from liquid nitrogen temperature to 200 0 C at different strain rates using an Instron-type tensile testing machine. Scanning electron microscopy of the fractured surfaces revealed that deformation twinning is difficult to occur in irradiated samples, and also that twins formed in both irradiated and unirradiated samples inhibit fracture nucleation and growth. From the results of tensile deformation of the irradiated samples deformed in tension a different strain rates at 159 0 K, it is conceived that twinning suppression is greater in the irradiated than in the unirradiated samples, and that the nucleation and growth of twins are not necessarily related to those of cracks. It is suggested that the irradiation-induced defects impede plastic deformation of the crystals and deformation twinning is suppressed by irradiation, thus causing the irradiation embrittlement. (auth.)

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  15. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  16. Liver tissue tolerance for irradiation : Experimental and clinical investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromheecke, M; Konings, AWT; Szabo, BG; Hoekstra, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Radiation treatment of the liver for malignant disease has gained renewed interest due to newly developed treatment modalities. Still limited specific knowledge is available concerning liver damage following irradiation. Inconsistencies between reported animal experimental studies are largely due to

  17. Soybean diet breast tumor incidence in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troll, W.; Wiesner, R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between feeding a diet rich in protease inhibitors and the reduction of mammary cancer induced by x-irradiation in Sprague-Dawley rats was examined. Of a total of 145 irradiated animals, 44% of the 45 rats fed a raw soybean diet containing a high concentration of protease inhibitor developed mammary tumors as compared to 74% of 50 rats fed a casein diet containing no protease inhibitor. Animals fed Purina rat chow which contained low levels of protease inhibitor exhibited a 70% mammary tumor incidence. No spontaneous neoplasms were found in any of the non-irradiated animals on the raw soybean diet whereas about 10% of the animals on the protease-free diet developed tumors. Thus, soybeans which are rich in protease inhibitors reduced the induction of mammary cancer in x-irradiated rats. This suggested that diets rich in protease inhibitors may contribute to reducing cancer incidence in man. (author)

  18. Effects of feeding lactobacillus GG on lethal irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, M.Y.; Chang, T.W.; Gorbach, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Mice exposed to 1400 rads of total body irradiation experienced 80%-100% mortality in 2 wk. Bacteremia was demonstrated in all dead animals. Feeding Lactobacillus GG strain reduced Pseudomonas bacteremia and prolonged survival time in animals colonized with this organism. In animals not colonized with Pseudomonas, feeding Lactobacillus GG also produced some reduction in early deaths, and there was less Gram-negative bacteremia in these animals compared with controls

  19. Research on food irradiation in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Maha, M.; Chosdu, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on various aspects of food irradiation have been done in Indonesia since 1968, mainly at the Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation, National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia. Three irradiation facilities available at the Centre are gamma cell-220, panoramic batch irradiator, and latex irradiator with the present source capacities of about 1.1, 40, and 163.8 kCi Co-60, respectively. In this paper, the present status of research and development on irradiation is presented, covering (1) spices and medicinal plants, (2) rice, wheat flour and coffee bean, (3) fish and fishery products, (4) animal feed, and (5) ongoing projects including fresh fruits, cacao beans, and cashew nut. The Sub-Committee for the Control of Irradiation of Food and Medical Products, set up in August 1984, has prepared the draft of recommendations regarding the regulation for application of food irradiation in Indonedia and the draft of Regulation for the Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food and Traditional Drug to be issued by the government. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Influence of thorax irradiation on lactic dehydrogenase isoenzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, C.; Munnich, A.; Pasquier, C.

    The right hemi-thorax of rats was irradiated with 1200 and 3000 rads ( 60 Co) and blood samples were taken sequentially. The five lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes which have proved to be useful as biochemical indicators of acute pulmonary injury in other experimental animals (dogs), were assayed, after irradiation, as a function of time and as a functon of dose. There was no significant change in LDH isoenzyme activities after lung irradiation in rats [fr

  1. Synergism of X irradiation and radiographic contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D; Walker, A; Tannahill, A J; White, R G [Glasgow Western Infirmary (UK)

    1981-10-01

    The results indicate that rabbits which had received abdominal x irradiation (750 rad) two hours before RCM (/sup 125/I-labelled meglumine ioglycamate) administration retained a significantly larger amount of RCM in the kidney, liver, spleen and plasma compared with animals which had received RCM with no prior x irradiation. There was no significant difference between the group receiving RCM alone and the group receiving RCM 24 h post-irradiation. With two insignificant exceptions, endotoxin assays were negative.

  2. Economic aspects of food irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Osetskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the irradiated foods world market quantitative and economic volume' estimating in 29 countries. The irradiation exposure technology development is presented in order to prospects in Russia. The main irradiated foods categories such as spices, herbs, dry vegetables, fruits, frozen and chilled meat, including frog legs, seafood, grains and others are identified. It is shown the quantitative dividing irradiated foods world market is between China (37,60%, USA (19,36%, Ukraine (14,74%, Vietnam (12,41%, Brazil (5,62%, South Africa (4,10%, Indonesia (1.30 percent, Japan (1,17%, Belgium (1,10%. The remaining 20 States took a share of 2.6%. The irradiated products world market’ economic volume amounting to 17,136.56 million rubles, is divided between the USA (48,64%, China (16,26%, Brazil (14,53%, South Africa (of 10.18%, Vietnam (of 5.88%, Indonesia (1,04%. The remaining 24 countries took a share of 3.48% while share each of them amounting less than 1%. It is revealed that the most expensive irradiated foods’ category is "spices and herbs", least – "vegetables", "cereals". The research results are shown the Russian potential irradiated foods volume consisting of meat products, the main vegetable crops, food ingredients, spices and food is about 10 million tons, more than 12 million tons, about 200 thousand tons per year respectively. The meat and poultry total production was 9,899.2 thousand tons in carcass weight, yield of grain and leguminous was 120,671.79 thousand tons; spices raw was 97.5 thousand tons, potatoes was 31,107.80 thousand tones, vegetables (excluding melons was 16,283.34 thousand tons, forage crops (except grasses was 27,674.15 thousand tons in 2016 in Russia. Therefore 100% of meat, 74% of vegetables and about 1% of spices and animal feeds may be subjected to radiation in Russia. Despite the advanced technology and status as a leader in the agricultural radiology and radioecology field commercial

  3. Peculiarities of the acute lung edema prophylaxis in the irradiated organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurygin, G V; Kopylov, V N [Yaroslavskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR)

    1977-09-01

    During experiments with rats it has been established that preparations with a pronounced prophylactic effect on lung edema development in nonirradiated animals in some cases do not effect in such a way (or even aggravate the edema development) the irradiated animals (at 650 R dose). On the contrary ineffective or negatively effecting preparations in nonirradiated animals may exhibit a noticeable prophylactic effect on irradiated animals.

  4. Replicative intermediates in UV-irradiated Simian virus 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.M.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have used Simian virus 40 (SV40) as a probe to study the replication of UV-damaged DNA in mammalian cells. Viral DNA replication in infected monkey kidney cells was synchronized by incubating a mutant of SV40 (tsA58) temperature-sensitive for the initiation of DNA synthesis at the restrictive temperature and then adding aphidicolin to temporarily inhibit DNA synthesis at the permissive temperature while permitting pre-replicative events to occur. After removal of the drug, the infected cells were irradiated at 100 J/m 2 (254 nm) to produce 6-7 pyrimidine dimers per SV40 genome, and returned to the restrictive temperature to prevent reinitiation of replication from the SV40 origin. Replicative intermediates (RI) were labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine. The size distribution of daughter DNA strands in RI isolated shortly after irradiation was skewed towards lengths less than the interdimer spacing in parental DNA; this bias persisted for at least 1 h after irradiation, but disappeared within 3 h by which time the size of the newly-synthesized DNA exceeded the interdimer distance. Evidence was obtained for the generation at late times after irradiation, of Form I molecules in which the daughter DNA strand contain dimers. Thus DNA strand exchange as well as trans-dimer synthesis may be involved in the generation of supercoiled Form I DNA from 0V-damaged SV40 replicative intermediates. (Auth.)

  5. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  6. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  7. Structural and functional changes in the intenstine of irradiated and hypothermic irradiated rats : a scanning and transmission electron microscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Chaudhuri, Swapna; Roy, Bijon

    1982-01-01

    Severe destructive changes in the intestine of rats following whole body exposure to gamma rays (832 rads) were observed by light microscope, scanning and transmission electron microscope studies. Hypothermia (15deg C rectal temperature) induced prior to irradiation protected the intestinal mucosa from destruction. A simultaneous study showed that glucose absorption decreased significantly in irradiated rats, whereas it was increased in hypothermic irradiated animals. (author)

  8. Allograft tolerance in pigs after fractionated lymphoid irradiation. I. Skin grafts after partial lateral irradiation and bone marrow cell grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaiman, M.; Daburon, F.; Remy, J.; Villiers, P.A.; de Riberolles, C.; Lecompte, Y.; Mahouy, G.; Fradelizi, D.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments with pigs have been performed to establish bone marrow chimerism and skin graft tolerance between SLA genotyped animals. Recipients were conditioned by means of fractionated partial irradiation from lateral cobalt sources (partial lateral irradiation (PLI)). The head, neck, and lungs were protected with lead, the rest of the body being irradiated including the thymus, the majority of lymphoid organs with spleen, and most of the bone marrow sites

  9. Effect of endotoxin preparations (LPS) with irradiation decreased toxicity on the immune response of normal and irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elekes, E; Bertok, L [Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszsegugyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1979-03-01

    A comparison of the immunostimulating effect of parent and radiodetoxified with 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy (5, 10, 15 and 20 Mrad) /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays endotoxin preparations in normal and irradiated rats is given. By increasing the dose of irradiation the immunostimulating effect decreased. The preparations detoxified even with the highest (200 kGy) dose is characterized by a pronounced adjuvant effect in irradiated animals.

  10. The development of the cholinergic system in rat hippocampus following postnatal X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Barak, J.

    1981-01-01

    Postnatal X-irradiation of the rat hippocampus results in a marked reduction in the number of the postnatally developing granular neurons in the dentate gyrus and also caused a marked increase in the specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (CAT) and a slight but consistent increase in the activity per whole hippocampus of AChE. The effect of irradiation on the granular neurons and on the cholinergic enzymes was found to be dose and age dependent. Drastic increase in specific enzymatic activities is also observed in the irradiated cerebellum whose granular neurons differentiate postnatally and to a lesser extent in the cerebral cortex in which cell formation is accomplished prior to birth. (Auth.)

  11. Long-term effect of postoperative irradiation on the immune functions in patients with mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivanen, A.; Nordman, E.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of postoperative irradiation on the immune functions of 13 patients with breast carcinoma is reported, using as parameters the peipheral blood lymphocyte count, percentages of E and EAC rosette forming cells, and lymphocyte proliferative responses to PHA, Con A and PPD. After irradiation the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes was reduced during 8 months. The percentages of E and EAC rosette forming cells were not altered during the observation time of 7 to 36 months. In the proliferative responses of lymphocytes to PHA, Con A and PPD, the postoperative irradiation caused a decrease which, regarding PHA and Con A, lasted up to 8 months and then recovered. The decrease in the proliferative responses to PPD was stronger and lasted during the whole observation time. In the mitogenic responses of patients with recurrent or disseminating disease no difference could be demonstrated as compared with the patients living recurrence-free. (Auth.)

  12. Effect of 60Co-γ ray irradiation on green coffee beans, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoda, Goro; Matsuyama, Jun; Hiramoto, Keiko; Izu, Kumie

    1977-01-01

    Green coffee beans were irradiated with 60 Co-γ rays at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.5, 5.0 and 10.0 Mrad and the changes of general components in green and roast coffee beans were investigated together with those of the organoleptic properties of roast beans during storage according to the cup testing. In case of Brazil santos beans, irradiation of some 0.05 Mrad 60 Co-γ ray gave rather favourable mild flavour and no harmful influence on the quality of coffee, and moreover, would tend to extend the shelf life of roast beans. But influence of irradiation on the quality of coffee differed somewhat between two cultivars, Brazil santos and Colombia. (auth.)

  13. Effect of whole-body X-irradiation on lysosomal enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' souza, D W; Vakil, U K; Srinivasan, A [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1974-06-01

    Effects of whole-body x irradiation with sublethal dose (400 rad) on three intestinal lysosomal enzymes, namely, arylsulphatase, cathepsin and acid phosphatases, have been studied. They are almost equally distributed throughout the entire small intestine region. X irradiation adversely affects the integrity of lysosomal membranes. ''Free'' and ''total'' lysosomal enzyme activities exhibit maxima on 6th day. These activities return to normal level on 14th day when there is rapid generation of villi, indicating that lysosomal activities correlate with the progression of injury and of repair mechanism after sublethal dose of x irradiation. The increase in total lysosomal activity may be due to its decreased breakdown, since the rate of protein synthesis in intestinal mucosa is reduced. This is evidenced by reduced incorporation of orally fed /sup 14/C leucine into acid insoluble proteins. (auth)

  14. Calculation of flux density distribution on irradiation field of electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi

    1977-03-01

    The simple equation of flux density distribution in the irradiation field of an ordinary electron accelerator is a function of the physical parameters concerning electron irradiation. Calculation is based on the mean square scattering angle derived from a simple multiple scattering theory, with the correction factors of air scattering, beam scanning and number transmission coefficient. The flux density distribution was measured by charge absorption in a graphite target set in the air. For the calculated mean square scattering angles of 0.089-0.29, the values of calculation agree with those by experiment within about 10% except at large scattering angles. The method is applicable to dose evaluation of ordinary electron accelerators and design of various irradiators for radiation chemical reaction. Applicability of the simple multiple scattering theory in calculation of the scattered flux density and periodical variation of the flux density of scanning beam are also described. (auth.)

  15. Thymic nurse cells and thymic repopulation after whole body sublethal irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houben-Defresne, M.P.; Varlet, A.; Boniver, J.

    1984-01-01

    Thymic Nurse Cells (TNCs) are lymphoepithelial complexes which are thought to play a role in the early stages of the intrathymic differentiation pathway. Their repopulation kinetics were analyzed in mice after sublethal whole-body irradiation. Changes of the number of TNCs per thymus were parallel with the evolution of the whole thymocyte population. Particularly, a first wave of TNCs restoration was followed by a secondary depletion and a final recovery. This suggests that TNCs restoration is related to the proliferating progeny of intrathymic radioresistant thymocytes. When normal bone marrow cells were grafted intravenously after irradiation, no secondary depletion was found. This pattern of restoration was obviously related to thymic repopulation by cells which were derived from the inoculated bone marrow. Homing studies with FITC labelled bone marrow cells showed that inoculated bone marrow cells did not penetrate TNCs early after irradiation. Later on, when immigrant cells started to proliferate, they were found preferentially within TNCs before spreading in the whole thymus. (Auth.)

  16. The feasibility of a study of the late effects of head and neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daal, W.A.J. van; Goslings, B.M.; Hermans, J.; Ruiter, D.J.; Sepmeijer, C.F.; Vink, M.; Vloten, W.A. van

    1981-01-01

    With the ultimate goal of examining high-risk patients for radiation-induced tumours, and in order to gain more insight into the dose-effect correlations and the latency periods of induced tumours in various organs, a random sample of 2.5% (98 patients) was studied to determine the feasibility of examining all patients irradiated on the cervico-cephalic region for a benign lesion between 1932 and 1963. Thirty of the 98 patients were examined in the out-patient department. Nodular lesions in the thyroid were found in 7 cases. This prevalence is 6 times that to be expected in a non-irradiated population. Useful information was obtained in 82 of the 98 patients (84%). Further examination of the group that had been irradiated for cervical arthrosis was not considered indicated. (Auth.)

  17. Studies on the formation of volatile amines from trimethylamine oxide by gamma-irradiation, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Sadao; Kondo, Tatsuo; Uchiyama, Mitsuru

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental investigation concerning the formation of volatile amines from trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) by gamma-irradiation was carried out as a model of the irradiation of fish-meat products like Kamaboko. By the irradiation of 5.8 Mrad, 5 x 10 -6 mol of dimethylamine (DMA) was produced from 1 x 10 -4 mol of TMAO in a phosphate buffer (pH 6.5). Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , Zn 2+ and Al 3+ promoted the formation of amines but Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Na + scarcely affected it. On the other hand, cysteine, which is known as a protecting agent against gamma-ray, promoted the formation of DMA. However, protain worked repressibly for amine formation even when Fe 3+ was contained. (auth.)

  18. Elective brain irradiation in patients with small-cell carcinoma of the lung: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsenis, A.T.; Karpasitis, N.; Giannakakis, D.; Maragoudakis, N.; Kiparissiadis, P.

    1982-01-01

    The brain is a common site of metastases in small-cell carcinoma of the lung. Prophylactic brain irradiation with doses of 4000-4500 rads in 3-4 weeks appears to decrease the occurrence of brain metastases although it does not prevent this completely. In a group of patients with small-cell carcinoma of the lung and without evidence of brain metastases, the authors review the site and extent of the primary, the methods of treatment, the techniques of brain irradiation, and the relapses rate in relation to the status of the primary and the rate of brain metastases in another group without prophylactic brain irradiation. They further attempt to investigate combined modalities of treatment which would prolong life and prevent neurological complications in the small number of long survivors with small-cell carcinoma of the lung. (Auth.)

  19. Irradiation Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Fabich, Adrian; Garcia, Alia, Ruben; Glaser, Maurice; Gorine, Georgi; Jaekel, Martin, Richard; Mateu,Suau, Isidre; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Fabio; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-01-01

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in many scientific fields. This paper summarizes the facilities currently operating for proton, gamma, mixed-field and electron irradiations, including their main usage, characteristics and information about their operation. The new CERN irradiation facilities database is also presented. This includes not only CERN facilities but also irradiation facilities available worldwide.

  20. Peculiarities of hemodynamic pulmonary oedema formation in the irradiated body. [Lung oedema, whole-body irradiation, time dependence, survival curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurygin, G V; Kopylov, V N; Girs, E F; Chizhov, P A [Yaroslavskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR)

    1978-09-01

    233 white rats have been tested to establish that large doses of ionizing radiation, which cause pronounced leukopenia, increase resistance of animals to lung oedema under the effect of adrenaline. It is most pronounced on the fourth day after irradiation. Relatively small doses (lower than 100r), as well as separate irradiation of the head, chest and abdomen, in reverse, contribute to lung oedema.

  1. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  2. General Principles Involved in the Use of Irradiated Larval Vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.A.

    1967-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiations on helminth parasites has been under investigation now for about half a century, but only in the last 15 years has extensive and intensive work been conducted. The results have shown that in numerous host-parasite systems, ionizing radiation has attenuated or partially inactivated the parasite and that infection of host animals with irradiated larvae has stimulated immunity without accompanying disease. The immunity of vaccinated animals has subsequently been challenged by infection with normal larvae and, while unvaccinated control animals have suffered severely from the resultant disease and have often died, vaccinated animals survived the challenge of immunity usually without significant signs of disease. Comparison of the worm burdens from challenge infections in vaccinated and in control animals have further confirmed the protective effect of prior vaccination with irradiated larvae. In addition to economically important helminth diseases, various host-parasite relationships in laboratory animals have been investigated and the immunogenic efficacy of X-irradiated vaccines has been further demonstrated. There are at present two irradiated vaccines in commercial use in veterinary practice and their value has been unequivocally proven. It is probable that within the next few years at least one additional irradiated vaccine will be in use in veterinary practice. Some of die concepts and principles involved in the preparation, use and possible method of action of irradiated vaccines, with particular reference to a vaccine for hookworm disease of dogs, are described. (author)

  3. General Principles Involved in the Use of Irradiated Larval Vaccines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, T. A. [Wellcome Laboratories for Experimental Parasitology, University of Glasgow Veterinary Hospital Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1967-09-15

    The effect of ionizing radiations on helminth parasites has been under investigation now for about half a century, but only in the last 15 years has extensive and intensive work been conducted. The results have shown that in numerous host-parasite systems, ionizing radiation has attenuated or partially inactivated the parasite and that infection of host animals with irradiated larvae has stimulated immunity without accompanying disease. The immunity of vaccinated animals has subsequently been challenged by infection with normal larvae and, while unvaccinated control animals have suffered severely from the resultant disease and have often died, vaccinated animals survived the challenge of immunity usually without significant signs of disease. Comparison of the worm burdens from challenge infections in vaccinated and in control animals have further confirmed the protective effect of prior vaccination with irradiated larvae. In addition to economically important helminth diseases, various host-parasite relationships in laboratory animals have been investigated and the immunogenic efficacy of X-irradiated vaccines has been further demonstrated. There are at present two irradiated vaccines in commercial use in veterinary practice and their value has been unequivocally proven. It is probable that within the next few years at least one additional irradiated vaccine will be in use in veterinary practice. Some of die concepts and principles involved in the preparation, use and possible method of action of irradiated vaccines, with particular reference to a vaccine for hookworm disease of dogs, are described. (author)

  4. 1971 Animal Investigation Program. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Giles, K.R.

    1975-07-01

    Data are presented that were obtained from the radioanalysis of tissues collected from cattle, deer, desert bighorn sheep, and other wildlife that reside on or near the Nevada Test Site. Cesium-137 and 106 Ru were the only gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the soft tissues of range cattle. Ruthenium-106 was detected only in the lungs of animals sampled in May. Strontium-90 levels in the cattle femurs ranged from 2 to 37 pCi/g of ash. The latter value was found in the bones of a 14-year-old cow that had lived on the Nevada Test Site her entire life. The bones of the same animal also had the highest level of 239 Pu (46 pCi/g of ash) that was reported. Analysis of her 8-month-old fetus revealed the presence of detectable levels of 239 Pu which indicates placental transfer of this radionuclide. The average 90 Sr levels in the bones from deer and desert bighorn sheep were 3.2 and 4.7 pCi/g of ash, respectively. Elevated levels of 106 Ru and 3 H were found in the tissues of two mule deer collected near the drainage ponds that collect runoff waters from mines used for nuclear testing activities. Other animals sampled included Golden eagles, feral horses, coyotes, and chukar. The 137 Cs levels in an eagle collected during 1964 varied only slightly from one collected during 1971. No gross or microscopic lesions were detected that could be attributable to the effects of ionizing radiation. (auth)

  5. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  6. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  7. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  9. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... last rabies vaccination, if known any recent unusual behavior by the animal the animal's location, if known if the animal ... Scratches First Aid: Cuts First Aid: Skin Infections Cat Scratch ... Safe Around Animals Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions Rabies Cuts, Scratches, and ...

  10. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  11. Response of irradiated diet fed rats to whole body X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Kushwaha, A.K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The response to whole body X irradiation has been studied in the brain of rats fed both on a normal diet (consisting of equal parts of wheat and gram flour) and on a low protein irradiated diet (consisting of a part of normal diet and three parts of wheat). The activity of enzymes related to the glucose metabolism (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose diphosphate aldolase) is reduced, while that of peroxidant enzymes (catalase and lipid peroxidase) increased in the brain of rats that received a diet poor in proteins and irradiated diets (normal or hypoproteic). DNA and RNA levels and protein content show a significant reduction in the brain of rats with hypoproteic and irradiated diets. The total body irradiation causes serious alterations in the brain in animals with a hypoproteic malnutritions due both to a low protein and an irradiated diet. The brain of rats fed on a low protein and irradiated diet exhibits after whole body irradiation damages more severe than those in rats fed on a normal irradiated diet

  12. Recovery of the spermatogenetic epithelium in the mouse after irradiation with 1-MeV fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aardweg, G.J.M.J. van den.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the recovery of the spermatogenetic epithelium in the mouse is studied after damage with 1-MeV fission neutrons. A severe depletion of A-spermatogonia and radiosensitive stem cells occurs after neutron irradiation. Recovery of the epithelium is initiated by surviving radioresistant stem cells giving rise to colonies, which grow into the empty seminiferous tubules. After discussing properties of normal and irradiated spermatogenetic epithelium, the growth and the differentiation of spermatogenetic colonies in the mouse testis after irradiation, as well as response and kinetics of colony-forming spermatogonial stem cells in CBA mice up to 30 weeks after a first neutron dose and recovery of the epithelium after a second irradiation are investigated. These four subjects are dealt with in separate papers. Finally, a discussion and a summary of these studies is presented. (Auth.)

  13. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  14. Genotoxicity test of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Noriho

    2004-01-01

    Safety tests of radiation irradiated foods started as early as from 1967 in Japan and genotoxicity tests in the Hatano Res. Inst., from 1977. The latter is unique in the world and is reviewed in this paper. Tests included those for the initial injury of DNA, mutagenicity, chromosomal aberration and transformation with use of bacteria, cultured mammalian cells and animals (for chromosomal aberration, micronucleus formation and dominant lethality). Foods tested hitherto were onion, rice, wheat and flour, Vienna sausage, fish sausage (kamaboko), mandarian orange, potato, black pepper and red capsicum, of which extract or powder was subjected to the test. Irradiation doses and its purposes were 0.15-6 kGy γ-ray ( 60 Co) or electron beam by the accelerator (only for the orange), and suppression of germination, pesticide action or sterilization, respectively. Genotoxicity of all foods under tested conditions is shown negative. (N.I.)

  15. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  16. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  17. Tolerance of bile duct to intraoperative irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, W.F.; Tepper, J.; Travis, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of intraoperative radiation therapy of the bile duct and surrounding tissues, seven adult dogs were subjected to laparotomy and intraoperative irradiation with 11 MeV electrons. Two animals were treated at each dose level of 2000, 3000, and 4500 rads. A single dog which received a laparotomy and sham irradiation served as a control. The irradiation field consisted of a 5 cm diameter circle encompassing the extrahepatic bile duct, portal vein, hepatic artery, and lateral duodenal wall. The animals were followed clinically for mor than 18 months after treatment, and autopsies were performed on dogs that died to assess radiation-induced complications or tissue damage. All dogs developed fibrosis and mural thickening of the common duct, which appeared by 6 weeks following irradiation and which was dose-related, being mild at low doses and more severe at high doses. Hepatic changes were seen as early as 6 weeks after irradiation, consisting of periportal inflammation and fibrosis. The hepatic changes appeared earliest at the highest doses. Frank biliary cirrhosis eventually developed at all dose levels. Duodenal fibrosis appeared in the irradiation portal, being most severe at the highest doses and in some animals resulting in duodenal obstruction. No changes were observed in irradiated portions of portal vein and hepatic artery at any dose level. It was concluded that intraoperative radiation therapy delivered to the region of the common duct leads to ductal fibrosis, partial biliary obstruction with secondary hepatic changes, and duodenal fibrosis if bowel wall is included in the field. Clinical use of intraoperative radiation therapy to the bile duct in humans may require routine use of biliary and duodenal bypass to prevent obstructive complications

  18. Ecology of people and animals: postradiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozkina, T.S.; Rutkovskaya, Zh.A.

    2008-01-01

    A significant weakening of the antioxidant defense system along with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product were noted in the organism of animals and people after long staying in contaminated zone as well as of rats which Cs-137. The most reduced content of non-enzyme antioxidants: vitamins A, E, C and carotenes. The correction of antioxidant status was used of 'Resiston' (inclusive vitamins A, E, C and β-carotenes). It was established in the experiments that new antioxidant complex has expressive antioxidant properties. The application of 'Resiston' strengthens the antioxidant protection of organism animals and people after the external and internal irradiation. (authors)

  19. Unscheduled DNA synthesis after β-irradiation of mouse skin in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuyama, Akira; Tanooka, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    The skin of ICR mouse was irradiated with β-rays from 90 Sr- 90 Y with surface doses up to 30 krad. Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was measured by autoradiography after labeling the skin with radioactive thymidine using the forceps-clamping method. The level of UDS in epithelial cells of the skin was detected as an increasing function of radiation dose. Fibroblastic cells, compared with epithelial cells and hair follicle cells at the same depth of the skin, showed a lower level of UDS, indicating a lower DNA repair activity in fibroblasts. Cancer risk of the skin was discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Effect of temperature during UV and gamma irradiations of TL phosphor CaSO4:Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, J.S.; Pendurkar, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    Temperature is an important parameter in thermoluminescence studies. Irradiation at enhanced temperatures reduces the γ response of TL phosphor CaSO 4 :Dy. However, in the presence of fluorescent lights, the γ response of the phosphor is enhanced by approximately 20% for temperatures around 60-100 0 C. If the phosphor temperature during UV exposure is kept high, the integrated TL output continues to increase until it reaches 18 times at 160 0 C as compared to that produced by UV exposure at room temperature. (Auth.)

  1. Radiation cancer in man, especially on the cases developed after irradiation for malignant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira

    1975-01-01

    Twelve cases in which radiation cancer was observed at the Tohoku University are reported. Half of them had been treated for tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis, one for lupus vulgaris and five for various malignant conditions. The average latent period was 27 years in 7 cases which were treated for benign conditions and 13 years in 5 cases treated for malignant conditions. In Japan, 12 cases of radiation cancer after irradiation for malignant conditions, excluding leukemia, have been reported. The clinical features of these 17 cases in addition to 5 cases are reviewed. (auth.)

  2. Two reactions method for accurate analysis by irradiation with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Sastri, C.S.; Valladon, M.; Borderie, B.; Debrun, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    In the average stopping power method the formula error itself was negligible but systematic errors could be introduced by the stopping power data used in this formula. A method directly derived from the average stopping power method, but based on the use of two nuclear reactions, is described here. This method has a negligible formula error and does not require the use of any stopping power or range data: accurate and 'self-consistent' analysis by irradiation with charged particles is then possible. (Auth.)

  3. Natural β-carotene and whole body irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Amotz, A.; Rachmilevich, B.; Greenberg, S.; Sela, M.; Weshler, Z.

    1996-01-01

    β-Carotene and other carotenoids are reported to be potent free radical quenchers, singlet oxygen scavengers, and lipid antioxidants. Whole-body irradiation is known to cause an immunosuppression effect in mammals through the possible initiation and production of reactive oxygen species. We decided to test the possible antioxidative effect against whole-body irradiation of a natural β-carotene, composed of equal amounts of the all-trans and 9-cis isomers, obtained from the unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil. Rats were fed on ground commercial food enriched with natural β-carotene (50 mg/kg diet). On completion of 1 week with β-carotene, the rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 Gy whole-body irradiation, after which their livers and blood were removed for β-carotene and retinol analysis in comparison with control livers of animals irradiated or not, or supplemented with β-carotene after irradiation. A normal increase in body weight with no ill effects was noted in the groups of rats whose diet was supplemented by β-carotene before and after irradiation, compared with the reduction in the specific growth rate in the group of rats irradiated without β-carotene. Liver β-carotene and retinol decreased significantly after irradiation compared with the rats which were not irradiated. This decrease was not shown in rats fed β-carotene prior to irradiation, and the effect of irradiation was partially cured by supplementation with β-carotene after irradiation. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the irradiated animals showed a selective decline in 9-cis β-carotene and in retinol over all-trans β-carotene and retinyl esters. These results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene and retinol protect in vivo against the cellular damage by free radicals induced after whole-body irradiation. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. A summary of recent developments in the sludge irradiation program at Sandia laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.E.; Sivinski, J.S.; Brandon, J.R.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Ward, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories has shifted the emphasis of its Sewage Sludge Irradiation Program toward treating dried sewage sludges rather than liquid sludges for the following reasons: (1) cities' interests in composting sewage sludge before final disposal; (2) need for disinfection of the product before sale to the public; and (3) low cost of disinfection by radiation processing. As a result of this shift, the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS), was designed and is near completion. The irradiator will treat up to 8 tons/day of solids with a 1 megarad absorbed dose. A bucket conveyor will transport the sewage sludge past a 1 megacurie cesium-137 γ-ray source. If a lower dose than 1 megarad is acceptable for disinfection, the daily throughput of the irradiator will be correspondingly increased. The irradiator is designed so that the cesium-137 γ-ray sources used to charge the facility can be manipulated underwater. After source unloading is complete, the water will be drained and the irradiator will be operated dry. Either bagged or bulk solids can be irradiated with the system. (Auth.)

  5. Antioxidant tolerance of kidney after irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukan, Neslihan; Güney, Yildiz; Hiçsönmez, Ayşe; Bilgihan, Ayşe

    2003-03-01

    Different doses of irradiation were performed in which group 1 (non-irradiated), group 2 (8 Gy/single dose/whole body) and group 3 (15 Gy/single dose/whole body) were formed of guinea pigs. After 24 hr of radiation exposure the levels of lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured in the whole kidney. The MDA content increased in animals irradiated with 8 and 15 Gy. And group 3 showed an increase the level of MDA. GSH contents of kidney in group 2 and 3 increased. The activity of SOD decreased markedly in group 3 when compared with control group. The activity of GSH-Px decreased significantly in group 2 and group 3 in comparison to controls. It may be concluded that a high dose of ionizing irradiation cause excessive oxidative stress in kidney.

  6. Argon laser irradiation of the otolithic organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, T.; Nomura, Y.; Young, Y.H.; Hara, M. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    An argon laser was used to irradiate the otolithic organs of guinea pigs and cynomolgus monkeys. After stapedectomy, the argon laser (1.5 W x 0.5 sec/shot) irradiated the utricle or saccule without touching the sensory organs. The stapes was replaced over the oval window after irradiation. The animals used for acute observation were killed immediately for morphologic studies; those used for long-term observation were kept alive for 2, 4, or 10 weeks. Acute observation revealed that sensory and supporting cells were elevated from the basement membrane only in the irradiated area. No rupture of the membranous labyrinth was observed. Long-term observation revealed that the otolith of the macula utriculi had disappeared in 2-week specimens. The entire macula utricili had disappeared in 10-week specimens. No morphologic changes were observed in cochlea, semicircular canals, or membranous labyrinth. The saccule showed similar changes.

  7. Modifications of animal response to Partial Body Hyperthermia (PBH) as a potent radioprotector: Relationships with animal age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alya, G.

    2002-04-01

    Currently available radio protectors are poorly tolerated in man. Thus, the use of the most promising agent, WR 2721 [S-2 (3-aminoprophylamino) ethylphosphoro thioic acid] has been limited due to its poor clinical tolerance. In a search for less toxic and/or without side effects agents, radioprotective effects of partial body hyperthermia (PBH) have been tested on Wistar rats of both sexes at different ages. Groups of male and female rats were irradiated [Total Body Irradiation (TBI)] in a perforated plexi-glass boxes using a 60 Co source. The irradiation dose was 9 Gy which is considered as a lethal dose of 100% of animals (LD 1 00) (the dose rate was = 80-85 rad.min -1 ). Irradiated animals were monitored for 2 weeks at least, and percentage of survival was calculated on the control groups. Partial Body Hyperthermia was carried out 20 hours prior to irradiation of 200-250 gr rats (by immersion of lower parts and legs of rats, in water bath at 43 centigrade for 1 h). Irradiated PBH treated animals were monitored for 30 days after irradiation and the survival percentage was calculated. Our results showed that PBH treatment, can be considered as a radioprotector. Moreover, the results of the undertaken study showed that this response changes as a function of animal age and sex. Thus, PBH was more effective on young rats (males and females), However, after 30 days of irradiation, PBH was more effective on males than females. The conclusion reached by this study is that animal response to PBH decreases with aging. Despite that the precise mechanism by which PBH induces retardation of death and enhance survival of rats is still obscure, Hyperthermia is known to enhance the immune response. Literature reveals that the productions of cytokines such as interferons and interleukins as well as natural killer cell activity are enhanced after hyperthermia. (author)

  8. X-irradiation in the prevention of experimental post-traumatic vitreous proliferations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkin, M.; Avni, I.; Kessler, E.; Hercberg, A.; Spierer, A.; Treister, G.

    1983-01-01

    The authors created double perforating injuries in both eyes of 22 rabbits. One eye of each animal was given a dose of 600 Rad x-irradiation 24 hours after the injury. The irradiated eyes developed significantly less intraocular proliferation than the non-irradiated eyes. (author)

  9. Immune-deficient animals in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rygaard, J.; Brunner, N.; Groem, N.; Spang-Thomsen, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents paper given at a workshop on immune-dificient animals in biomedical research. Topics presented included the following: differential recovery of antibody production potential after sublethal whole-body irradiation of mice; increased levels of plasma DNA in nude mice transplanted with human tumors; and transplantation of exocrine pancreatic carcinomas to nude mice: A model to investigate immunoscintigraphy, radioimmunotherapy and drug sensitivity

  10. Reproductive function of monkeys subjected to chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'eva, N.S.; Kosichenko, L.P.; Andreeva, A.V.; Zvereva, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Marked functional disorders have been detected in reproductive glands of eight female monkeys (as compared to twelve control animals) subjected to protracted (up to eight years) irradiation (cumulative doses 826-3282 R). Irradiated monkeys exhibited a drastically decreased reproductive capacity, early menopause and sterility. Irradiation of preadolescent animals inhibited, in most cases, the puberty processes and disturbed sex cycles. Structural disorders in sex glands, inhibition of the processes of maturation and ovulation of folloculi, death of the mass of germ cells, atypical vegetations of the integmentary epithelium, sclerosing and cystic degeneration of the glandular tissue have been revealed

  11. Neutron irradiation effects on magnetic properties of some Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Hideya; Shinohara, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hisao; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The neutron irradiation effects were studied with measurements of temperature dependence of magnetization in ordered and disordered Heusler alloys. The irradiation was carried out in JMTR with a total flux of fast neutrons of 10 20 nvt. Fully ordered Cu 2 MnIn, partially ordered Cu 2 MnAl and completely disordered Cu 2 MnSn were prepared with various temperature treatments. The magnetization-temperature curves of each specimen were measured before and after irradiation. In the irradiated Cu 2 MnIn, the disordering by the irradiation gave rise to a decrease of magnetization, and the temperature dependence of magnetization showed that the disordered region contained various regions with different degrees of disorder. For the distribution of the disordered region, the calculation based on the theory of temperature spike by Seitz and Koekler gave a feasible result that a disordered region comprised a central core with a radius of 5.4 A which was completely disordered and a periphery of 3.3 A thickness which was partially disordered. From the magnetization-temperature curves of Cu 2 MnAl, it was considered that the disordered regions induced by the irradiation had different properties from those induced by the heat treatment. The former were the localized and comprised regions corresponding to various degrees of disorder, while the latter spread spatially in a wide range with a certain degree of disorder. The ordering by enhanced diffusion occurred simultaneously to an extent comparable to the disordering, and so it played an important role in the magnetization in the partially disordered Cu 2 MnAl. In the disordered Cu 2 MnSn, however, the ordering effect was very small. It is supposed to be difficult for the A2 structure to transform into the L2 1 structure by the enhanced diffusion. (auth.)

  12. Influence of second phase dispersion on void formation during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararaman, M.; Banerjee, S.; Krishnan, R.

    Irradiation-induced void formation in alloys has been found to be strongly influenced by the microstructure, the important microstructural parameters being the dislocation density and the nature, density and distribution of second-phase precipitates. The effects of various types of precipitates on void swelling have been examined using the generally-accepted model of void formation : void embryos are assumed to grow in a situation where equal numbers of vacancies and interstitials are continuously generated by the incident irradiation, the interstitials being somewhat perferentially absorbed in some sinks present in the material. The mechanism of the trapping of defects by a distribution of precipitates has been discussed and the available experimental results on the suppression of void formation in materials containing coherent precipitates have been reviewed. Experimental results on the microstructure developed in a nickel-base alloys, Inconel-718 (considered to be a candidate material for structural applications in fast reactors), have been presented. The method of determination of the coherency strain associated with the precipitates has been illustrated with the help of certain observations made on this alloy. The major difficulty in using a two-phase alloy in an irradiation environment is associated with the irradiation-induced instability of the precipitates. Several processes such as precipitate dislocation (in which the incident radiation removes the outer layer of precipitates by recoil), enhanced diffusion disordering, fragmentation of precipitates, etc. are responsible for bringinq about a significant change in the structure of a two-phase material during irradiation. The effect of these processes on the continued performance of a two-phase alloy subjected to irradiation at an elevated temperature has been discussed. (auth.)

  13. Electron beam irradiating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, K

    1969-12-20

    The efficiency of an electron beam irradiating device is heightened by improving the irradiation atmosphere and the method of cooling the irradiation window. An irradiation chamber one side of which incorporates the irradiation windows provided at the lower end of the scanner is surrounded by a suitable cooling system such as a coolant piping network so as to cool the interior of the chamber which is provided with circulating means at each corner to circulate and thus cool an inert gas charged therewithin. The inert gas, chosen from a group of such gases which will not deleteriously react with the irradiating equipment, forms a flowing stream across the irradiation window to effect its cooling and does not contaminate the vacuum exhaust system or oxidize the filament when penetrating the equipment through any holes which the foil at the irradiation window may incur during the irradiating procedure.

  14. On the analogy between thermally and irradiation induced creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzarelli, F.A.; Huang, S.

    1977-01-01

    Employing an analogy between thermally induced and irradiation induced creep, physical arguments are used first to deduce a one-dimensional constitutive relation for metals under stress in a high temperature and high neutron flux field. This constitutive relation contains modified superposition integrals in which the temperature and flux dependence of the material parameters is included via the use of two reduced time scales; linear elastic, thermal expansion and swelling terms are also included. A systematic development based on thermodynamics, with the stress, temperature increment and defect density increment as independent variables in the Gibbs free energy, is then employed to obtain general three-dimensional memory integrals for strain; the entropy and coupled energy equation are also obtained. Modified superposition integrals similar to those previously obtained by physical argument are then obtained by substituting special functions into the results of the thermodynamic analysis, and the special case of an isotropic stress power law is examined in detail. (Auth.)

  15. Combined radiosensitizer infusion and irradiation of osteogenic sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffinet, D.R.; Kaplan, H.S.; Donaldson, S.S.; Bagshaw, M.A.; Wilbur, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Three children with osteogenic sarcomas which were either unresectable or whose parents refused permission to amputate were treated with combined intra-arterial 5'bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) infusion and high-dose-per-fraction megavoltage irradiation to the primary site. Pulsed, 48-hour BUdR infusions were performed prior to each 600-rad radiation therapy fraction, with a total radiation dose to the primary site of 4,200 to 4,800 rads in five weeks. Local control was obtained in all 3 children. One child is alive two years after treatment, another died with metastatic disease, and the third patient who received radiotherapy to the lungs for pulmonary metastases is without evidence of disease one year later. (auth)

  16. Meiosis in untreated and irradiated cyperus eragrostis vahl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    A cytological investigation of meiosis is seed irradiated Cyperus eragrostis has shown that the diffuse centromeric type of chromosome organisation leads to the formation of inviable chromosome complements, in which complex configurations resulting from stickiness as well as pairing of homologous regions, and numerous fragments, persist to the formation of pollen grains. At the higher doses, however, there is complete sterility, and low fertility even at the lower doses. The small numbers of M 2 and M 3 plants produced at lower doses show much reduced chromosomal abnormalities, indicating severe selection among the gametes and zygotes formed. There is little advantage in terms of survival from radiation damage, resulting from the possession of the diffuse centromere. (auth.)

  17. S1-sensitive sites in DNA after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Bertram, H.

    1981-01-01

    DNA from γ-irradiated T 1 bacteriophages was analyzed for 'single-stranded' sites by cleavage with S1 nuclease from Aspergillus oryzae as lesion probe. The ratio of 'S1-sensitive sites' to the amount of radiation-induced single-strand breaks was about one. Presumably these 'denatured' sites were associated with single-strand breaks. The subsequent check for the persistence of 'single-stranded' sites within the DNA molecule by thermokinetics demonstrated a strong affinity of the nuclease to its substrate, the single-stranded lesion, and a perfect excision. It is assumed that the direct absorption of radiation energy in the DNA gives rise to the formation of such bulky lesions. (Auth.)

  18. Defect creation rates in CdTe irradiated by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillot, M.

    1978-01-01

    Up to now, the defect creation rates in CdTe irradiated by electrons were unknown. They have been calculated for different electron kinetic energies. As the samples studied are thick, the energy loss when the electrons penetrate the material has been taken into account. The cross-sections of Cd and Te displacements vs the depth of electron penetration were determined for different electron kinetic energies, and the defect creation rates obtained for each sublattice. These creation rates have been compared with those deduced from experiments and it was found that the experimental creation rates were lower than the calculated ones. This discrepancy can be explained in terms of creation of neutral Frenkel pairs. (Auth.)

  19. Functional State of Haemopoietic Stem Cells in the Irradiated Mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silini, G.; Pozzi, Laura V. [Laboratorio di Radiobiologica Animale, Centro Studi Nucleari, Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    1968-08-15

    The repopulation kinetics of bone marrow in irradiated (C3H x C57BL) F{sub 1} hybrid mice were followed at different time intervals after a single whole-body dose of 150 rad X -rays. The changes in the number of total nucleated cells and of colony-forming cells were estimated and expressed as number of cells per femur shaft of fixed length. For the evaluation of the progenitor cell compartment an exogenous test of transplantation into heavily irradiated hosts followed by spleen colony counts was employed. In an attempt to distinguish between cycling and dormant cells in the progenitor pool, vinblastine was also administered under various schedules of treatment with respect to time and dosage to follow the changes induced by this drug in the irradiated recovering marrow. The depopulation of total bone-m arrow cells caused by vinblastine proceeded at a comparable rate in both the irradiated and the normal mouse. On the other hand, depopulation of the colony-formers is faster in animals irradiated 1 -2 days previously as compared with normal animals or mice irradiated 1 week or 2 weeks earlier. The data were interpreted to show that in the marrow of a newly-irradiated animal more cells are in a fast cycle than in a normal or a recovering animal. Data are finally presented and discussed concerning the use of vinblastine for studies of stem cell kinetics in haemopoietic tissues. (author)

  20. Irradiation of goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.

    1992-01-01

    The necessary dose and the dosage limits to be observed depend on the kind of product and the purpose of irradiation. Product density and density distribution, product dimensions, but also packaging, transport and storage conditions are specific parameters influencing the conditions of irradiation. The kind of irradiation plant - electron accelerator or gamma plant - , its capacity, transport system and geometric arrangement of the radiation field are factors influencing the irradiation conditions as well. This is exemplified by the irradiation of 3 different products, onions, deep-frozen chicken and high-protein feed. Feasibilities and limits of the irradiation technology are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  1. A multipurpose irradiation plant for simultaneous treatment of different foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carassiti, F.; Tata, A.

    1982-01-01

    An industrial multipurpose irradiation plant with a particularly high effectiveness of radiation utilization is presented. The originality of this conceptual design consists of the simultaneous treatment of two products, which are separately irradiated to either high or low absorbed doses. A pneumatical transport system into appropriate channels with air mixing during irradiation has been proposed for the radappertization of granular animal feed, meanwhile a conventional truck-conveyor system has been suggested for the sprout inhibition treatment of potatoes. Moreover, potatoes pass through the irradiation cell twice at high and low level respectively. (author)

  2. Effect of preoperative irradiation on healing of low colorectal anastomoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, L.; Sanders, G.; Wahlstrom, E.; Yadegar, J.; Amodeo, P.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of preoperative irradiation on the healing of low colorectal anastomoses was studied experimentally. In 12 dogs in whom preoperative irradiation of 4,000 rads was given before low colorectal stapled anastomosis was performed, anastomotic leakage occurred in 66 percent. More than half of the anastomotic leaks were associated with either severe sepsis or death. In a matched group of control animals that underwent stapled anastomoses without irradiation, no anastomotic complications occurred. The clinical implications of this study are that stapled anastomoses in irradiated colon are at serious risk of anastomotic dehiscence and, therefore, should be protected with a proximal colostomy

  3. Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.; Noell, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available

  4. Brain anomalies induced by gamma irradiation in prenatal period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma irradiation has been utilized in order to produce cortical and callosal abnormalities. We have also checked for the presence of the aberrant longitudinal bundle in the brains of mice born acallosal due to prenatal irradiation is also checked. Pregnant mice were exposed to gamma irradiation from a 6 0 Co source at 16, 17 and 19 days of gestational age (E 16, E 17 and E 19) with total doses of 2 Gy and 3 Gy. At 60 days postnatal the offspring of irradiated animals were intra cardiac perfused, the brains were removed from the cranio and cut into coronal or para sagittal sections. (author)

  5. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  8. Occupational Animal Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stave, Gregg M

    2018-02-16

    This review explores animal allergen exposure in research laboratories and other work settings, focusing on causes and prevention. (1) Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, there is new evidence that early childhood exposure to pets produces changes in the gut microbiome that likely lead to a lower risk of allergy. (2) Anaphylaxis from laboratory animal bites occurs more frequently than suggested by prior literature. (3) Animal allergens represent an occupational hazard in a wide variety of work settings ranging from fields that work with animals to public settings like schools and public transportation where allergens are brought into or are present in the workplace. Exposure to animal allergens can result in allergy, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Animal allergy has been most studied in the research laboratory setting, where exposure reduction can prevent the development of allergy. Similar prevention approaches need to be considered for other animal work environments and in all settings where animal allergens are present.

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance ( ...

  10. Animal Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Researches carried out in the 'Animal Science Project' of the Agricultural Nuclear Energy Center, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, are described. Such researches comprise : immunology and animal nutrition. Tracer techniques are employed in this study. (M.A.) [pt

  11. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  12. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yours Today » Give the Gift of Health to Animals This Holiday Season. Until December 31, your gift ... bizarre molecules. Learn More » A Tireless Advocate for Animals and Science. “If it has a heartbeat, I ...

  13. Immunological effects of irradiation: waiting for a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, G.

    1979-01-01

    Decreased resistance to pathogens, is an effect of ionizing radiations, is largely mediated by impairment of the specific immune response. It has been established that the antibody response is depressed when the antigen is injected shortly before or immediately after irradiation. Recovery of the response in animals immunized after sublethal irradiation starts after about 1 week and may be complete 2 months after irradiation. If animals are immunized a few or several days before radiation exposure, some parameters of the antibody response are unaffected while others may display lower or higher values than normal, depending on the nature and physical form of the antigen. Recent studies have described the effects of whole-body irradiation on antibody ability. Since this antibody property affects the stability of immune complexes and, therefore, the antibody's ability to neutralize viruses and toxins, affinity was felt to be of importance to counteract infections in irradiated animals. Antibody affinity was found up to 20 times greater in irradiated than in control mice when antigen was injected 1 to 5 days before or 2 hr to 8 weeks after a sublethal dose of x-rays. Recovery profiles of mitotic responses of spleen cells to PHA, ConA, or LPS suggest that the enhancement of antibody affinity in irradiated mice could result from a relative lack of suppressor T cells. Dysfunctions of the immune system of irradiated animals can be attributed to alterations of the populations of immunologically competent cells. Unlike auxiliary cells, lymphocytes are extremely sensitive to ionizing radiations. Subpopulations of T and B lymphocytes appear to have different radiosensitivities and to develop with different efficiencies in irradiated animals. B cells seem to be more radiosensitive and to recover faster than T cells

  14. Large animal normal tissue tolerance with boron neutron capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, P R; Kraft, S L; DeHaan, C E; Swartz, C D; Griebenow, M L

    1994-03-30

    Normal tissue tolerance of boron neutron capture irradiation using borocaptate sodium (NA2B12H11SH) in an epithermal neutron beam was studied. Large retriever-type dogs were used and the irradiations were performed by single dose, 5 x 10 dorsal portal. Fourteen dogs were irradiated with the epithermal neutron beam alone and 35 dogs were irradiated following intravenous administration of borocaptate sodium. Total body irradiation effect could be seen from the decreased leukocytes and platelets following irradiation. Most values returned to normal within 40 days postirradiation. Severe dermal necrosis occurred in animals given 15 Gy epithermal neutrons alone and in animals irradiated to a total peak physical dose greater than 64 Gy in animals following borocaptate sodium infusion. Lethal brain necrosis was seen in animals receiving between 27 and 39 Gy. Lethal brain necrosis occurred at 22-36 weeks postirradiation. A total peak physical dose of approximately 27 Gy and blood-boron concentrations of 25-50 ppm resulted in abnormal magnetic resonance imaging results in 6 months postexamination. Seven of eight of these animals remained normal and the lesions were not detected at the 12-month postirradiation examination. The bimodal therapy presents a complex challenge in attempting to achieve dose response assays. The resultant total radiation dose is a composite of low and high LET components. The short track length of the boron fission fragments and the geometric effect of the vessels causes much of the intravascular dose to miss the presumed critical target of the endothelial cells. The results indicate a large dose-sparing effect from the boron capture reactions within the blood.

  15. Large animal normal tissue tolerance with boron neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Swartz, C.D.; Kraft, S.L.; Briebenow, M.L.; DeHaan, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Normal tissue tolerance of boron neutron capture irradiation using borocaptate sodium (NA 2 B 12 H 11 SH) in an epithermal neutron beam was studied. Large retriever-type dogs were used and the irradiations were performed by single dose, 5 x 10 dorsal portal. Fourteen dogs were irradiated with the epithermal neutron beam alone and 35 dogs were irradiated following intravenous administration of borocaptate sodium. Total body irradiation effect could be seen from the decreased leukocytes and platelets following irradiation. Most values returned to normal within 40 days postirradiation. Severe dermal necrosis occurred in animals given 15 Gy epithermal neutrons alone and in animals irradiated to a total peak physical dose greater than 64 Gy in animals following borocaptate sodium infusion. Lethal brain necrosis was seen in animals receiving between 27 and 39 Gy. Lethal brain necrosis occurred at 22-36 weeks postirradiation. A total peak physical dose of approximately 27 Gy and blood-boron concentrations of 25-50 ppm resulted in abnormal magnetic resonance imaging results in 6 months postexamination. Seven of eight of these animals remained normal and the lesions were not detected at the 12-month postirradiation examination. The bimodal therapy presents a complex challenge in attempting to achieve dose response assays. The resultant total radiation dose is a composite of low and high LET components. The short track length of the boron fission fragments and the geometric effect of the vessels causes much of the intravascular dose to miss the presumed critical target of the endothelial cells. The results indicate a large dose-sparing effect from the boron capture reactions within the blood. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Facts about food irradiation: Food irradiation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food irradiation facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food irradiation process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments also bring consumer benefits in terms of availability, storage life and improved hygiene. 2 refs

  17. Late effects of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, A.; Gibson, B.

    1987-01-01

    Late effects of chemo-radiotherapy conditioning before bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are being increasingly recognised in long-term survivors, particularly children. They can be divided into two categories: those affecting hormonal status and those affecting specific organ function. All women treated develop ovarian failure with low levels of β-oestradiol and raised values of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutinizing hormone (LH). In males, raised FSH and LH values are found with normal testosterone levels but most patients have azoospermia. In children, puberty is usually but not invariably delayed by treatment but can be induced by appropriate hormone replacement. Compensated hypothyroidism was found in 6/30 children. Growth hormone secretion may be impaired especially if previous cranial irradiation has been given. In children, a reduction in sitting height has been observed. Cataract has occurred in 20% of children between 3 and 6 years after treatment. Two second tumours have been observed. No other major organ toxicities have been encountered. (Auth.)

  18. PROTECTIVE COLORATION IN ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Leena Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Animals have range of defensive markings which helps to the risk of predator detection (camouflage), warn predators of the prey’s unpalatability (aposematism) or fool a predator into mimicry, masquerade. Animals also use colors in advertising, signalling services such as cleaning to animals of other species, to signal sexual status to other members of the same species. Some animals use color to divert attacks by startle (dalmatic behaviour), surprising a predator e.g. with eyespots or other f...

  19. A review of the chemical aspects of irradiated shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1989-09-01

    The literature was reviewed for information on the chemical aspects of irradiated shrimp. Low-dose irradiation can effectively control spoilage and pathogenic organisms and extend the refrigerated shelf life of shrimp. Radiation-induced increases in black discoloration occur in some species during storage, but can be minimized by proper blanching. Some loss of the characteristic pink color occurs at doses above 2.5 kGy, and irradiation off-odors occur above 1.5 kGy. These changes can be minimized by irradiating the shrimp when they are frozen. No significant change in protein, fat, carbohydrate, and ash content occurs as a result of low-dose irradiation. Low-dose irradiation does not produce any detectable change in the levels of volatile carbonyl compounds; irradiation at 8 kGy results in a transient increase in the total volatile compounds during subsequent storage in ice, but the increase is higher in the unirradiated shrimp. Radiation-induced changes in the fatty acid composition of shrimp are small. Some minor changes in the amino acid composition occur in irradiated shrimp; similar changes occur due to other processes such as canning and drying in hot air. Some vitamins in shrimp such as thiamine are affected by irradiation. But the loss is less extensive than in thermally processed shrimp. The protein efficiency ratio is not affected by irradiation of shrimp, and no adverse effects attributed to irradiation were found in animal feeding studies

  20. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M.

    1984-01-01

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation. (Auth.)

  1. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  4. Who likes circus animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Zanola, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample based on 268 questionnaires submitted to people attending the Acquatico Bellucci circus, Italy, this paper analyzes the circusgoers's preferences for circus animals. Results show that higher preferences for circus animals are related to frequency of consumption. However, differently from what commonly expected, more educated and younger people seem to be less sensitive to the claims of animal welfare organizations.

  5. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior

  6. Glucidic and lipidic metabolic changes in rats induced by irradiation and the effect of adrenalectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groza, P; Ghizari, E; Butculescu, I; Ciontescu, L; Ciuntu, L

    1975-01-01

    In experiments on X-irradiated rats (1000 R) the hepatic glycogen, total lipids, phospholipids content, and plasma glucose, cholesterol and beta-lipoprotein concentration were determined in intact and adrenalectomized animals. It was confirmed that irradiation produces a hepatic glycogen and blood glucose increased concentration. The glucidic metabolic response on irradiation is diminished by adrenalectomy. The adrenalectomy-induced modifications in the lipid metabolism of irradiated rats are more inconstant, which corresponds with its relative independence from glucocorticoid hormones.

  7. Hemostimulating efficiency of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs under modified irradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhvoronkov, L.P.; Sklobovskaya, I.Eh.

    1988-01-01

    Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were found to have hemostimulating effect in mice after irradiation. This effect was rather definite under irradiation conditions modified by dose fractioning or radioprotective chemicals. NSAID application during fractionated irradiation with midlethal integral dose leads to almost complete recovery of bone marrow hemopoiesis by the 9th day of radiation illness. NSAID usage combined with chemical radioprotectors provides effective hemopoiesis stimulation leading to survival increase in animals, irradiated with absolutely lethal doses. (author)

  8. Economic feasibility of food irradiation in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singson, C.C.; De Guzman, Z.M.; Pasion, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation is not a new technology and is accepted in many countries. Market acceptance of irradiated foods is established and the importance of radiation to reduce post-harvest food losses, increase shelf-life and improve hygienic quality of foods has been recognized in Asia and the Pacific. Countries with strict quarantine restrictions, such as the United States and Japan, require treatment of fresh fruits and produce for insect pests disinfestation. Several studies have established the technical feasibility of using radiation to preserve some food items in the country such as mangoes, onions, garlic, black pepper, coffee, prawns and desiccated coconut. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of setting up an irradiation facility in the Philippines, to undertake the processing of selected food items especially those with good export potentials, to identify areas of concern vital to the success or failure of this type of undertaking and to make recommendations to enhance the viability of this project. (auth.). 13 refs.; appendices; 6 tabs

  9. Unirradiated UO2 in irradiated zirconium alloy sheathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.D.; Hardy, D.G.; Hunt, C.E.L.; Scoberg, J.A.

    1979-07-01

    Zircaloy-clad UO 2 fuel elements have defected in power reactors when element power outputs were raised significantly after a long irradiation at low power. We have irradiated fuel elements fabricated from fresh UO 2 pellets and zirconium alloy sheaths previously irradiated without fuel. This gave a fuel element with radiation-damaged low-ductility sheathing but with no fission products in the fuel. The elements were power boosted in-reactor to linear power outputs up to 84 kW/m for two five-day periods. No elements defected despite sheath strains of 0.82 percent at circumferential ridge postions. Half of these elements were subsequently soaked at low power to build up the fission product inventory in the fuel and then power boosted to 63 kW/m for a third time. Two elements defected on this final boost. We conclude that these defects were caused by fission product induced stress-corrosion cracking and that this mechanism plays an importent role in power reactor fuel defects. (auth)

  10. Polymerization of impregnated monomer in wood by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Kaoru; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi

    1976-01-01

    The manufacturing of a wood-plastic combination (WPC) by irradiation of microwave (2,450 and 915 +- 50 MHz) or gamma-ray was carried out. After the impregnation of dry woods (Hinoki: Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl., Buna: Acer mono Maxim., and Kaede: Fagus crenata Blume) with the mixture of the vinyl monomers and chemical reagents, the monomer in wood was polymerized by irradiation. In case of polymerization with microwave (2,450 MHz) the effect of oxygen was not recognized, but in the case of gamma-ray the rate of polymerization remarkably decreased in the presence of oxygen. The polymerization of various monomers was carried out also in the air, and the conversions of styrene, methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, and n-butyl-methacrylate were 51.8 -- 89.1%, but that of vinyl acetate was lower (4.3 -- 8.2%). The conversion of monomers with irradiation of 915 MHz microwave was very low (2.6 -- 33.5%). The conversion of monomers increased when toluylene diisocyanate was added in the monomers. The percentage of extraction with hot benzene of WPC (chip) decreased by the addition of toluylene diisocyanate. It was concluded from C.H.N. analyses that the reaction took place among the wood, toluylene diisocyanate and methyl methacrylate. (auth.)

  11. Failure of the capsule for coated particles irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, Jikei; Nomura, Yasushi; Nagamatsuya, Takaaki; Yamahara, Takeshi; Sakai, Haruyuki

    1975-10-01

    During operation cycle No. 27 of the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) on May 20, 1974, leakage of the fission product gas occurred from the capsule 72F-7A, which contained coated particles for the irradiation; the coated particles are for the development of a multi-purpose high temperature gas cooled reactor. The capsule was designed for heat 1600 0 C. Three nickel plates as the heat reflector were sandwiched in between the plates of titanium and zirconium, which were adsorbents for the impurity gases in the cladding tube (Nb-1%Zr). Temperatures of the plates were about 1000 0 C under the irradiation, so one metal diffused into the other metal through interfaces, resulting in the formation of an alloy. Its melting point was lower than those of metals in the capsule. The cladding material Nb-1%Zr was melted by the alloy and finally a pin hole developed through the cladding. The process of failure, design of the capsule, post-irradiation test of the capsule and the failure-reproducing experiment with a mock-up capsule are described. (auth.)

  12. Effects of X-irradiation on membranes of tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, K.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to gain more insight into the effect of ionizing radiation on biomembranes, especially the membrane phospholipids. A general outline of the experimental approach is given in the first chapter. The influence of membrane-active agents and hyperthermia on cell survival after irradiation was studied. Phospholipid turnover was followed by measuring the incorporation of radioactive precursors. The second chapter is an introduction to general radiobiology and to phospholipid metabolism. After the presentation of some physico-chemical properties of ionizing radiation, the effects on cells and cellular components are described. In chapters 3 to 6 the experimental part is described. Chapter 3 starts with the determination of the cellular survival of L5178Y lymphoma cells after X-irradiation. In chapter 4 the lipid composition of lymphosarcoma cell nuclei is presented and in chapter 5 studies on the effect of X-irradiation on the incorporation of palmitate and arachidonate into the phospholipids of lymphosarcoma cells are described. Chapter 6 describes experiments in which lymphosarcoma cells isolated from the spleens of tumor-bearing mice were used to study the effect of a low dose of X-rays (5 Gy) on the incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate and [ 14 C]arachidonate into the lipids of the tumor cells. These fatty acids were rapidly incorporated especially into the phospholipids of the cells. Chapter 7 contains a general discussion on the experimental results. (Auth.)

  13. Repopulation in irradiated pig skin: late versus early effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, J.L.; Peel, D.M.; Dodd, P.; Simmonds, R.H.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    In the first 16 weeks after irradiation, two distinct waves of reaction can be observed in pig skin, the first wave (3-9 weeks) represents the expression of damage to the epithelium while the second is indicative of primary damage to the dermis, mediated through vascular injury. Comparison of single doses with two equal doses separated by 28 days produced a D 2 -D 1 value of 14.0 Gy at the doses which produced moist desquamation in 50% of fields (ED 50 ) after strontium-90 irradiation. After X-irradiation, comparison of ED 50 doses for the later dermal reaction suggested a D 2 -D 1 value of 4.2 Gy. These values of D 2 -D 1 for epithelial and dermal reactions in pig skin were compared with earlier data from this laboratory for similar split-dose experiments with a one-day interval. Such a comparison allowed for the estimation of the component of recovery in the present 28-day interval experiments due to repopulation. This component was found to be 6.5 Gy for the early epithelial damage, but was zero for the later dermal damage. (Auth.)

  14. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  15. Irradiation and flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineccius, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Flavor will not be a significant factor in determining the success of irradiated foods entering the U.S. market. The initial applications will use low levels of irradiation that may well result in products with flavor superior to that of products from alternative processing techniques (thermal treatment or chemical fumigation). The success of shelf-stable foods produced via irradiation may be much more dependent upon our ability to deal with the flavor aspects of high levels of irradiation

  16. Food irradiation makes progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1984-01-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses

  17. Containers in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolumen, S.; Espinosa, R.

    1997-01-01

    The preservation of food by irradiation is promising technology which increases industrial application. Packaging of irradiated foods is an integral part of the process. Judicious selection of the package material for successful trade is essential. In this paper is presented a brief review of important aspects of packaging in food irradiation [es

  18. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  19. Estimating the transfer of radionuclides from foodstuff into animals (meat)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, B.; Hopfner, U.

    1978-10-01

    Eating contaminated animal food represents a considerable contribution to human irradiation loading from radioactive emission. When estimating the irradiation loading, a precondition is a knowledge of the radio-nuclide transfer from the feedstuff into the meat of the domestic animal. The radio-ecology importance of this exposure path requires a precise examination of the origin of the values given by SSK with the data in the international literature. The transfer of radio-cesium, radio-strontium, radio-iodine and plutonium from feedstuff into meat/milk are especially considered. (DG) [de

  20. D-penicillamine exhibits a higher radioprotective effect in suckling mice than in grown-up animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oroszlan, Gy.; Lakatos, L.; Dezsi, Z.; Hatvani, I.; Pintye, E.; Karmazsin, L.; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Debrecen; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Debrecen

    1982-01-01

    Grown-up and suckling mice were exposed to whole-body 60 Co-irradiation of 6-10 Gy. The survival time was significantly increased in suckling animals by 3000 mg per kg body weight D-penicillamine applied intraperitoneally 60 min before irradiation, whereas the same treatment had no significant effect in grown-up animals. (L.E.)